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as a management function refers to the act of keeping a close eye on the work of workers and employees in the performance of the jobs assigned to them. Thus, the individual who is in charge with this function and responsibility is generally called a supervisor.
Problems faced by a fresh supervisor
are not adjusted properly Dimensions of the product are not accurate Wrong tools are used for the job Wrong materials have been used Accidents are happening Products are not finished in time The quality of the product is not good Jobs take too long to be finished
Organizational Structure .
It is very important that he is able to communicate with the workers so that they do understand their work assignments. The supervisor has to be able to train and select employees for specific jobs. so you have to report problems to the management regarding the supply of parts from the machining section). They want to be able to rely on him when it comes to the planning of the work in the section and the coordination of work with other sections (Example: You are the supervisor in the assembly. The management is expecting from a supervisor to do a lot of things in the department or section. Responsibilities of a Responsibility tosupervisor the Middle and Top Management .
If necessary he has to instruct and train workers for special jobs. A good working morale is a very important factor. deadline. To achieve a high quality and In Time production the supervisor has to rely on his workers. the supervisor has to get to know the special skills of his workers in order to assign them to the right jobs and explain all the matters connected to this assignments (special jigs. . tools to use).Responsibility to the Workers of the Department The workers in the section are the ones who will do the actual jobs like machining. assembly and so on.
Skills required by Supervisors for effective management .
Analysis Skills Planning a process Improving a process Reducing costs Learning Daily Routine Activities .
.Technical Skills If a supervisor is not able to understand the working process and has no knowledge which is required in his specific area of the production. The workforce will not respect him because of his lack of experience and knowledge. he will not be able to make the right decisions and to plan properly.
Leadership skills After all a supervisor with out leadership quality is incomplete. he must lead from front. .
.What is a Leader? A Leader is someone in authority to lead others to accomplish a goal(s). A leader needs to be able to motivate others to accomplish a goal(s) while at the same time encourage others to work toward their own professional goals.
. this style is not a good way to get the best performance from a team.3 Styles of Leadership Autocratic Authoritarian Tells employees/students what they want to do and how to do it (without getting the advice from others). Generally. Works well if you don’t have much time to accomplish goals or if employees are well motivated.
Leadership Styles Con’t. . Leader maintains the final decision making authority. delegates wisely. Democratic Participative style The leader involves one or more employees/students in the decision making process (to determine what to do and how to do it). values group discussion. Motivates by empowering members to direct themselves and guides w/a loose reign. Encourages participation. Allows everyone to be part of a team—everyone feels that they have participated and contributed. Negative—everything is a matter of group discussion and decision—doesn’t really lead.
Team has little direction or motivation. Employees/students analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. . Leader sets priorities and delegates. Leader has little control.Leadership Styles Con’t Delegative Laissez-faire or free rein style Leader allows employees/students to make the decisions. Leader is still responsible for the decisions.
Leaders “Managers are people who do things right.Managers vs. while leaders are people who do the right thing.” Warren Bennis .
Leaders Managers Focus on things Do things right Plan Organize Direct Control Follows the rules Leaders Focus on people Do the right things Inspire Influence Motivate Build Shape entities .Managers vs.
Positive Leaders use rewards (independence. These leaders act domineering and superior w/people. one style. Leaders vary their styles. however. education) to motivate employees. Negative Leaders use penalties with employees. assigning unpleasant job tasks. Negative penalties include: days off without pay.Leadership Goals Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction. and motivating people. implementing plans. becomes the dominate one. A leader is not strictly one or another style. . Most leaders use all three styles. reprimanding in front of others.
Qualities of a leader Challenging the process Inspiring a shared vision Enabling others to act Modeling the way Encourage the heart .
so no desire to the only ones capable do anything new of innovation. and threatened Avoid it. controlled.Theory X and Theory Y Employer belief about employees’ View of work Theory X Dislike and avoid it Theory Y As natural as rest or play Exercise self direction and self-control Accept it and even seek it Ability to control Attitude toward responsibility Attitude toward innovation Must be coerced. seek formal direction Security valued over Management are not ambition. .
Managerial Grid: by Blake & Mouton Five types of L on concern for production (task) & concern for people (relationship) are located in High Managerial Grid 1-9 (Country Club) 9-9 (Team) Concern for people 5-5 (Middle Road) Low 1-1 (Impoverished) Concern for Production 9-1 (Task) High .
. Mouton by The Managerial Grid graphic below is a very simple framework that elegantly defines FIVE basic styles that characterize workplace behaviour and the resulting relationships. The FIVE managerial Grid styles are based on how two fundamental concerns (concern for people and concern for results) are manifested at varying levels whenever people interact. Blake and Jane S.The Managerial Grid Robert R.
Characteristics: The manager shows a low concern for both people and production. Produce or Perish style OR Authoritarian style(High Production / Low People)(9:1) Description: Authoritarian or compliance leader. This inability results from fear that using such powers could jeopardize relationships with the other team members. Characteristics: The relationship-oriented manager has a high concern for people. coercive and legitimate powers. They are intolerant of what they see as dissent (it may just be someone's creativity). but not necessarily very productive. He is almost incapable of employing the more punitive. . He finds employee needs unimportant and simply a means to an end. dissatisfaction and disharmony due to lack of effective leadership. He (or she) avoids to get into trouble. He hopes that this will increase performance. but a low concern for production. He pays much attention to the security and comfort of the employees. thoughtful attention to the needs of employees. Country Club style (Low Production / High People)(1:9) Description: One-sided. Results in: A usually friendly atmosphere.The concept distinguishes 5 different leadership styles. Characteristics: The task-oriented manager is autocratic. Heavily task-oriented people are very strong on schedules. He provides his employees with money and expects performance back. He pressures his employees through rules and punishments to achieve the company goals. and a low concern for people. His main concern is not to be held responsible for any mistakes. has a high concern for production. There is little or no allowance for cooperation or collaboration. A basically lazy approach. Results in: Disorganization. based on the concern for people and the concern for production: Impoverished style (Low Production / Low People) (1:1) Description: A delegate-and-disappear management style.
He believes this is the most anyone can do. This style emphasizes making employees feel part of the company-family. as a result. Results in: Whilst high output is achievable in the short term.(9:9) Description: The ultimate. Characteristics: The manager gives some concern to both people and production. (5:5) Description: The manager tries to balance between the competing goals of the company and the needs of the workers. hoping to achieve acceptable performance. The manager pays high concern to both people and production. Middle-of-the-road style (Medium Production / Medium People). Results in: Team environment based on trust and respect. and involving them in understanding organizational purpose and determining production needs. which leads to high satisfaction and motivation and. Team Management style (High Production / High People). high production. much will be lost through an inevitable high labour turnover. Results in: Compromises in which neither the production nor the people needs are fully met. Characteristics: The manager encourages teamwork and commitment among employees. Motivation is high. .
Fiedler's model assumes that group performance depends on: Leadership style. it also required favourable conditions. described in terms of task motivation and relationship motivation. He emphasised the fact that differing roles. differentiated situation from contingency. Fiedler’s Contingency Theory The Fiedler contingency model is a leadership theory of industrial and organizational psychology developed by Fred Fiedler organizational psychology developed by Fred Fiedler Fiedler (1967). . traits and behaviours of leaders did not just require an specific understanding of interactions with subordinate.
Effective Leader Level 3 -.Competent Manager Level 2 -.Contributing Team Member .Executive Level 4 -.Leadership Levels Level 5 -.
How to Improve Your Leadership Skills Skill 1: Think Like a Leader Identify what is happening Explain why it is happening Decide what you are going to do about it. Different leadership styles are appropriate to different situations. Skill 2: Use an Appropriate Leadership Style Leaders usually fit their style to the situation. .
Encourage questions.Continue… Skill 3: Pick the Right Leadership Situation Gravitate toward leadership situations that fit your favored leadership style. . Skill 4: Good communication skills Listen carefully Ask questions and paraphrase to confirm Speak slowly and clearly Have listeners repeat the understanding of what was said.
Display honesty and integrity. Increase your knowledge of the business.Continue… Skill 5: Exercise Better Judgment Decisiveness and good judgment (“cognitive ability”) are important leadership traits. Skill 6: Improve Leadership Traits and Skills Exhibit self-confidence. .
5. 4. 2. Take the initiative. Target energy on success opportunities. 6. 8. Support creativity. 10. Look beyond the obvious. Assist evaluation and change for the group. 9. Project energy. Maintain perspective. . Persuade and persevere. 7. Ignore the negative. Be involved and involve others. 3.Leadership—Practical Tips 1. Influence cooperative action. 11.
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