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DRAFT SOUTH AFRICAN STANDARD (DSS): PUBLIC ENQUIRY STAGE Document number

SANS 10160-3

Reference

7114/10160-3/DL

Date of circulation

2009-10-13

Closing date

2009-12-15

Number and title:

SANS 10160-3: BASIS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND ACTIONS FOR BUILDINGS AND INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURES PART 3 : WIND ACTIONS
Remarks:

PLEASE NOTE: The technical committee, SABS SC 59I responsible for the preparation of this standard has reached consensus that the attached document should become a South African standard. It is now made available by way of public enquiry to all interested and affected parties for public comment, and to the technical committee members for record purposes. Any comments should be sent by the indicated closing date, either by mail, or by fax, or by e-mail to SABS Standards Division Attention: Compliance and Development department Private Bag X191 Pretoria 0001 Fax No.: (012) 344-1568 (for attention: dsscomments) E-mail: dsscomments@sabs.co.za Any comment on the draft must contain in its heading the number of the clause/subclause to which it refers. A comment shall be well motivated and, where applicable, contain the proposed amended text. The public enquiry stage will be repeated if the technical committee agrees to significant technical changes to the document as a result of public comment. Less urgent technical comments will be considered at the time of the next amendment.

THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED FOR PUBLIC COMMENT. IT MAY NOT BE REFERRED TO AS A SOUTH AFRICAN STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.

IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES, DRAFT SOUTH AFRICAN STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN LAW.

AZ96.10 2008/08/08 sabs pta

ISBN 978-0-626-

SANS 10160-3:2009
Edition 1

SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Basis of structural design and actions for buildings and industrial structures Part 3 : Wind actions

Published by SABS Standards Division 1 Dr Lategan Road Groenkloof Private Bag X191 Pretoria 0001 Tel: +27 12 428 7911 Fax: +27 12 344 1568 www.sabs.co.za SABS

SANS 10160-3:2009 Edition 1


Table of changes Change No. Date Scope

Foreword
This South African standard was approved by National Committee SABS SC 59I, Construction standards - basis for the design of structures in accordance with procedures of the SABS Standards Division, in compliance with annex 3 of the WTO/TBT agreement. The SANS 10160 Series consisting of SANS 10160-1 to SANS 10160-8 supersedes SABS 0160:1989 (edition 2). This document was published in XXXX 2009. The SANS 10160 Series consists of the following eight parts, under the general title Basis of structural design and actions for buildings and industrial structures: Part-1: Basis of structural design. Part-2: Self-weight and imposed loads. Part-3: Wind actions. Part-4: Seismic actions and general requirements for buildings. Part-5: Basis of geotechnical design and actions. Part-6: Actions induced by cranes and machinery. Part-7: Thermal actions. Part-8: Actions during execution.

Contents
Foreword 1 2 3 Scope..................................................................................................................................... Normative references ............................................................................................................ Definitions and symbols........................................................................................................ 3.1 Definitions.................................................................................................................... 3.2 Symbols....................................................................................................................... Design situations................................................................................................................... Modelling of wind action........................................................................................................ 5.1 Nature of wind actions.................................................................................................. 5.2 Representation of wind actions..................................................................................... 5.3 Classification of wind actions........................................................................................ 5.4 Characteristic values..................................................................................................... 5.5 Models........................................................................................................................... Wind speed and wind pressure.............................................................................................. 6.1 Basis for calculation....................................................................................................... 6.2 Basic values................................................................................................................... 6.3 Peak wind speed............................................................................................................ 6.4 Peak wind pressure........................................................................................................ 6.5 Wind actions................................................................................................................... Pressure and force coefficients................................................................................................ 7.1 Aerodynamic coefficient.................................................................................................. 7.2 Asymmetric and counteracting pressures and forces..................................................... 7.3 Pressure coefficients for buildings.................................................................................. 7.4 Canopy roofs.................................................................................................................. 7.5 Free-standing walls, parapets, fences and signboards.................................................. 7.6 Friction forces................................................................................................................. 7.7 Structural elements with rectangular sections................................................................ 7.8 Structural elements with sharp edged section................................................................ 7.9 Structural elements with regular polygonal section........................................................ 7.10 Circular cylinders............................................................................................................ 7.11 Spheres.......................................................................................................................... 7.12 Lattice structures and scaffoldings................................................................................. 7.13 Effective slenderness and end-effect factor...................................................................

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Annex A Effects of the terrain on wind speed............................................................................... Annex B Design of buildings and structures which fall outside the scope of the code.................. Annex C Wind tunnel as a design tool...........................................................................................

Basis of structural design and actions for buildings and industrial structures
Part 3: Wind actions

1 Scope
NOTE See also clause 1 of SANS 10160-1.

1.1 This part of SANS 10160 gives guidance on determination of natural wind actions for structural design of buildings and industrial structures including the entire structure, part of the structure or elements attached to the structure. 1.2 This part of SANS 10160 is intended to predict characteristic wind actions on land-based structures and covers the following : a) buildings and structures with an overall height of up to 100 metres b) elements of building and structures having a natural frequency greater than 5 Hz c) chimneys with circular cross-section, with heights less than 60 m and a height to diameter ratio of less than 6,5. 1.3 This part of SANS 10160 does not cover the following structures: a) structures and buildings higher than 100 metres; b) dynamic effects and design of dynamically sensitive structures (for example slender ; chimneys); c) off-shore structures; d) bridge structures; e) structures and buildings of unusual shapes; f) structures or their components, which are not fixed permanently but are designed to accommodate movement (for example, revolving antennas, telescope dishes or movable roofs); g) high-risk structures (for example those containing nuclear or biological material); and h) transmission lines. 1.4 It does not cover wind loads and wind effects due to high intensity winds, for example tornadoes or micro-bursts.

NOTE The high intensity winds are particularly rare and localised events, therefore, having a very small probability of occurrence at specific geographical location. However, wind forces generated by short duration gusts can be significantly greater than those considered in the international standard design practice.

1.5 It does not cover designs assisted by testing and measurements where wind tunnel tests or properly validated numerical methods (or both) are used to obtain the load and response information, based on appropriate models of the structure, topography and the boundary-layer wind conditions. 1.6 It does not cover designs where the wind parameters appropriate to the specific site (for example a site which is significantly influenced by topography) as well as load response data has to be obtained from appropriate full-scale measurements.
NOTE 1 Design standards are not able to consider the infinite permutations and combinations of building forms used in the modern design. The degree of applicability of the generic information included in the loading code to specific cases of structures to be designed, needs to be assessed. In cases in which the agreement between the loading code information and the structure to be designed is poor, it is advisable to seek expert advice or design by testing (or both). NOTE 2 In these cases the designer could consult appropriate standards such as EN 1991-4 or specialist literature.

2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. Information on currently valid national and international standards can be obtained from the SABS Standards Division. SANS 10160-1 , Basis of structural design and actions for buildings and industrial structures Part 1: Basis of structural design

3 Definitions and symbols


3.1 Definitions
For the purpose of this document the definitions and symbols given in SANS 10160-1 and the following apply . 3.1.1 fundamental value of the basic wind speed mean wind speed of 10 minute with an annual risk of being exceeded of 0,02, irrespective of wind direction, at a height of 10 m above flat open country terrain and accounting for altitude effects (if required) 3.1.2 basic wind speed fundamental value of the basic wind speed modified to account for the return period of the wind being considered 3.1.3 net pressure coefficients resulting effect of the wind on a structure, structural element or component per unit area 3.1.4 peak wind speed

basic wind speed modified to account for the effect of terrain roughness, topography and the conversion factor of 1,4 3.1.5 pressure coefficient external pressure coefficients give the effect of the wind on the external surfaces of buildings; internal pressure coefficients give the effect of the wind on the internal surfaces of buildings.
NOTE The external pressure coefficients are divided into overall coefficients and local coefficients. Local coefficients give the pressure coefficients for loaded areas of 1 m2 or less, for example for the design of small elements and fixings; overall coefficients give the pressure coefficients for loaded areas larger than 10 m2.

3.1.6 force coefficient overall effect of the wind on a structure, structural element or component as a whole, including friction, if not specifically excluded.

3.2 Symbols
NOTE The notation used is based on ISO 3898.

3.2.1 Latin upper case letters AC Agk Afr Aref Ffr Fw Fw,e Fw,j K L Re is the area enclosed by the boundaries of the face projected normal to the face is the area of the gusset plate is the area of external surface parallel to wind direction is the reference area of the structure or structural element is the frictional force is the wind force calculated from pressure or force coefficient is the external force is the internal force is the shape parameter depending on the coefficient of variation of the extreme value distribution is the length of wall is the Reynolds number

3.2.2 Latin lower case letters b cf cfr cpe is the breadth of the building is the force coefficient for a structure or structural element is the friction coefficient is the external pressure coefficient

cfi cprob cr cscd co d h hstrip k p qp vb vb,0 vp(z)

is the internal pressure coefficient is the probability factor is the roughness factor is the structural factor is the topography (orography) factor is the along-wind dimension of building is the height of a building is the height of horizontal strip is the equivalent surface roughness is the probability of annual exceedance is the peak wind pressure is the basic wind speed defined at 10 m above ground in terrain category B is the fundamental value of the basic wind speed corresponding to the specific geographical location is the peak wind speed at height, z is determined by the basic wind speed vb , terrain roughness and topography is the external wind pressure is the internal wind pressure is the height above ground level is the height below which no further reduction in wind speed is allowed is the gradient height is the height of the reference plane

we wi z zc zg z0

3.2.3 Greek lower case letters

is the pitch angle of a roof is the air density is the effective slenderness is the wind direction is the blockage ratio

mc r

is the opening ratio or permeability is the reduction factor is the reduction factor for square sections with rounded corners is the end-effect factor for elements with free-end flow is the kinematic viscosity of the air ( = 1510-6 m2/s)

4 Design situations
4.1 The relevant wind actions shall be determined for each design situation. 4.2 Other actions or elements (foe example the presence of traffic or the addition of large screens) which will modify the effects of wind, shall be taken into account. 4.3 The changes to the structure during various stages of execution (such as different stages of the form of the structure, which may modify the effects of wind) shall be taken into account. 4.4 If in a design the external skin of a building is assumed to be sealed under storm conditions, a situation of unforeseen or accidental openings shall also be considered.

5 Modelling of wind action


5.1 Nature of wind actions
Wind actions fluctuate with time and act directly as pressures on the external surfaces of enclosed structures and because of porosity of the external surfaces also act indirectly on the internal surfaces. In the case of open structures, they act both on external and internal surfaces. Pressures, which act over surfaces, result in forces normal to the surfaces of the structure or individual cladding elements. Additionally, when large surfaces of structures are subject to wind flow directed along the surfaces, substantial friction forces develop.

5.2 Representation of wind actions


Wind action is represented by a simplified set of pressures or forces whose effects are equivalent to the extreme effects of turbulent wind.

5.3 Classification of wind actions


Wind actions shall be classified as variable and fixed actions.

5.4 Characteristic values


The wind actions are determined from the basic values of wind speed and wind pressure. The basic values are characteristic values having annual probability exceeding 0,02, which is equivalent to a mean return period of 50 years.
NOTE All coefficients and procedures used to derive wind actions from basic values are chosen so that the probability of the calculated wind action does not exceed the probability of these basic values.

5.5 Models
The response of structures shall be calculated according to the procedure outlined in 6.5, from the peak speed pressure qp, at the reference height in an undisturbed wind flow, the pressure and force coefficients, adopting a structural factor, cscd = 1,0 (see 6.5.3.2). The peak wind speed pressure qp depends on the wind climate, terrain roughness and topography.
NOTE: The effect of wind on a structure depends on the size, shape and dynamic properties of the structure. This part of SANS 10160 is based on a static representation of wind action in which the dynamic properties of structures and the dynamic response are not considered. The effects of non-simultaneous occurrence of peak wind pressures are also ignored. This assumption may lead to a certain degree of over estimation of loads for low-rise but large structures. Tall and dynamically sensitive structures are not covered in this part of SANS 10160.

6 Wind speed and wind pressure


6.1 Basis for calculation
6.1.1 The basic wind speed b depends on the fundamental value of basic wind speed b,0 adjusted for return period probability factor directional and shall be determined in accordance with 6.2.2. 6.1.2 The peak wind speed p(z) is determined by the basic wind speed b, terrain roughness and topography and shall be determined in accordance with 6.3. 6.1.3 The peak wind pressure q p ( z ) is a function of peak wind speed b(z) and air density and
shall be determined in accordance with 6.4.

6.2 Basic values


6.2.1 The fundamental value of the basic wind speed b,0 is the characteristic 10 min mean wind speed, irrespective of wind direction and time of the year, measured at 10 m above ground level in open country terrain with low vegetation, such as grass and isolated obstacles, with separation of at least 20 obstacle heights.
NOTE This terrain corresponds to category B in table 2.

6.2.2 The basic wind speed shall be calculated from equation (1).

vb = cprob vb,0
where b b,0 is the basic wind speed defined at 10 m above ground in terrain category B;

(1)

is the fundamental value of the basic wind speed corresponding to the specific geographical location, which shall be taken from figure 1;

cprob (see 6.2.3)

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Figure 1 Map of the fundamental value of the basic wind speed b,0
NOTE For most areas of the country a basic fundamental wind speed of 28 m/s is stipulated (see figure 1). The South African climate (i.e. also the wind climate) is complex, in particular in regard to the dominance of frontal winds in coastal areas and intense thunderstorms inland. These two types of strong wind events cannot be fairly represented by a single value of mean wind speed in terms of 10 min averaging time. In order to overcome this problem an actual magnitude of wind speed of 28 m/s was obtained for coastal areas, based on a conversion factor between hourly and 10 min mean wind speeds. For inland areas of the country an effective speed of 28 m/s was adopted.

6.2.3 The basic values are characteristic values having annual probability of exceedance of 0,02,
which is equivalent to a mean return period of 50 years. For the 10 minute mean wind speed having probability p of annual exceedance, the mean wind speed is determined by multiplying the basic wind speed b in equation (1) by the probability factor cprob given in equation (2).

1 K ln( ( ln( 1 p )) cprob = 1 K ln( ln( 0 ,98 ))


where
K n

(2)

is the shape parameter depending on the coefficient of variation of the extreme value distribution with a value of 0,2. is the exponent with a value of 0,5.

NOTE The return period may be taken as the design working life of the structure, refer to SANS 10160-1.

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6.3 Peak wind speed


6.3.1 Variation with height
6.3.1.1 The peak wind speed p(x) at a height z above the terrain depends on the terrain roughness and topography as well as on the basic speed band should be determined using equation (3)

vp ( z ) = cr ( z ) c0 ( z ) vb.peak
where b,peak=1,4b cr(z) is the roughness factor, given in 6.3.2

(3)

(4)

c0(z) is the topography (orography) factor, taken as 1,0 unless specified otherwise in 6.3.3
NOTE: In equation (4) a conversion takes place from the 10 minutes mean wind speed, in terms of which the basic wind velocities b,0 and b bare defined, to 3 sec gust wind speed.

6.3.1.2 The influence of neighbouring structures on the wind speed at a specific site should be considered as described in Clause 6.3.4 and Clause 6.3.5.

6.3.2 Terrain roughness


6.3.2.1 The terrain roughness factor cr(z) accounts for the variability of the mean wind speed at the site of the structure due to: a) the height above ground level b) the ground roughness of the terrain upwind of the structure in the wind direction under consideration. The factor cr(z) shall be determined as follows:

z z0 cr ( z ) = 1,36 zg z0
where

(5)

z is the height above the ground level z0 is the height of the reference plane, as defined in table 1. zg is the gradient height, as defined in table 1. zc is the height below which no further reduction in wind speed is allowed (table 1) is the exponent defined in table 1

Table 1Parameters of wind profile

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1 Terrain category A B C D

2 zg 250 300 350 400

3 Z0 0 0 3 5

4 zc 1 2 5 10

0,070 0,095 0,120 0,150

6.3.2.2 Various terrain categories are specified in table 2.

Table 2Terrain categories


1 Category 2 Description 3 Illustration

Flat horizontal terrain with negligible vegetation and without any obstacles (for example coastal areas exposed to open sea or large lakes)

Area with low vegetation such as grass and isolated obstacles (trees, buildings) with separations of at least 20 obstacle heights

Area with regular cover of vegetation or buildings or with isolated obstacles with separations of maximum 20 obstacle heights (such as villages, suburban terrain, permanent forest)

Area in which at least 15 % of the surface is covered with buildings and their average height exceeds 15 m

NOTE 1 A certain amount of a reduction in loading for category D can be obtained (see 6.3.5) by using a procedure described in annex A.5 which takes into account the vertical displacement of the peak wind pressure profile, within an environment with closely spaced obstructions.

6.3.2.3 At low elevations above the ground level, the wind profile (i.e. magnitude of the cr(z) factor) is strongly influenced by local surroundings, which are site specific and which may introduce acceleration of the wind flow. This is especially relevant within developed areas i.e.

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rough terrain categories. No further reduction in the wind speed below cut-off heights zc which are stipulated in table 2, are permitted. 6.3.2.4 The variation of the roughness factor, cr(z), with height is given in table 3 and in figure 2 Table 3Variation of the cr(z) factor with height above ground level 1 Elevation m 0 2 4 6 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 2 A 0,92 0,97 1,02 1,05 1,09 1,12 1,14 1,17 1,20 1,22 1,23 1,24 1,26 1,27 1,28 3 Category B 0,85 0,85 0,90 0,94 0,98 1,02 1,05 1,09 1,12 1,15 1,17 1,18 1,20 1,21 1,23 C 0,73 0,73 0,73 0,77 0,85 0,91 0,95 1,00 1,04 1,07 1,10 1,12 1,14 1,15 1,17 D 0,71 0,71 0,71 0,71 0,71 0,78 0,83 0,90 0,95 0,98 1,01 1,04 1,06 1,08 1,10 4 5

Figure 2Variation of the cr(z) factor with height above ground level 6.3.2.5 The terrain roughness to be used for a given wind direction depends on the distance of the terrain covered with a uniform roughness within an angular 15 sector of this direction. Small areas, with a deviation in the roughness, which constitute less than 10 % of the overall area, can be ignored.

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6.3.2.6 When there is a choice between adopting two or more terrain categories for a given area then the terrain category with a lower roughness should be used. 6.3.2.7 The smoother terrain category in the upwind direction shall be adopted if a structure is situated near a change of terrain roughness at distances and categories as follows: a) less than 2 km from the smoother category A; or b) less than 1 km from smoother categories B and C In other cases the procedure described in annex A.2 may be used.

6.3.3 Terrain topography


6.3.3.1 Where the terrain topography (for example hills, cliffs) increases wind speeds by more than 5%, these effects should be taken into account by using the topography factor, c0(z).
NOTE The recommended procedure is given in annex A.3.

6.3.3.2 The effects of topography may be neglected when the average slope of the upwind terrain is less than 3. The upwind terrain may be considered up to a distance of 10 times the height of the isolated topographical feature.

6.3.4 Large and considerably higher neighbouring structures


If a structure under consideration is to be located within a close proximity of another, which protrudes at least twice as high as the average heights of neighbouring structures, then the structure under consideration could be subject to accelerated wind speeds. Such cases should be taken into account in the design process.
NOTE: A recommended conservative approximation, which takes this effect into account, is given in annex A.4, alternatively wind-tunnel modelling can be used.

6.3.5 Closely spaced buildings and obstacles The effect of closely spaced buildings and other obstacles should be taken into account.
NOTE: In a rough terrain with closely spaced buildings the mean wind flow near the ground is modified as if the ground level was raised to a height called a displacement height hdis. A recommended approximate procedure in this respect is given in annex A.5.

6.4 Peak wind speed pressure


The peak wind speed pressure qp(z) at height z, which includes the mean and short duration wind speed fluctuations, should be determined from equation (6).

qp ( z ) =
where

1 v2 ( z ) 2

(6)

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is the air density (in kg/m3), which depends on the altitude, temperature and barometric
pressure to be expected in the region, under strong wind conditions. The recommended values of density as a function of altitude above sea level are given in table 4. Table 4 Air density as a function of site altitude
1 Site altitude above sea level m 0 500 1 000 1 500 2 000 2 Air density kg/m3 1,20 1,12 1,06 1,00 0,94

NOTE 1 : A temperature of 20 has been selected as appropriate for South Africa and the variation of mean atmospheric pressure with altitude is allowed for in the above table. NOTE 2 : intermediate values of may be obtained from linear interpolation.

6.5 Wind actions


6.5.1 Calculation procedure
A summary of calculation procedures for determination of wind actions is given in table 5.

Table 5Calculation procedure 1 Description Fundamental basic wind speed Basic wind speed Terrain category Reference height Topography coefficient Roughness / height coefficient Peak wind speed Peak wind speed pressure Internal pressure coefficient External pressure coefficient Internal wind pressure External wind pressure Wind force calculated from force coefficient Internal forces External forces Frictional forces 2 Symbol b,0 b A, B, C, D ze c0(z) cr(z) p(z) qp(z) cpl cpe wi we Fw Fw,i Fw,e Ffr 3 Reference Figure 1 Equation (1) Table 2 Section 7 Clause 6.3.3 Clause 6.3.2 Equations (3) and (4) Equation (6) Clause 7.3.9 Section 7 Equation (7) Equation (8) Equations (9) and (10) Equation (11) Equation (12) Equation (13)

6.5.2 Wind pressure on surfaces


6.5.2.1 Wind action on structures and structural elements shall be determined taking into account simultaneous action of external and internal wind pressures.
NOTE The fluctuating internal pressures are generated by wind penetrating the outer skin of a structure via passages, which may include:

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a) permanent openings (vents, louvers); b) temporary openings (windows and doors); c) leakages (via. windows and cladding); and d) accidental openings (broken windows, displaced sheeting).

6.5.2.2 The wind pressure wi acting on internal surfaces of a structure, shall be obtained from equation (7)

wi = qp ( ze ) cpi
where qp(ze) ze cpi is the peak wind speed pressure is the reference height relevant to the internal pressure is the pressure coefficient for the internal pressure

(7)

6.5.2.3 The wind pressure acting on the external surfaces, we, shall be obtained from equation (8)

we = qp ( ze ) cpe
where qp(ze) ze cpe is the peak wind speed pressure is the reference height relevant to the external pressure is the pressure coefficient for the external pressure

(8)

6.5.2.4 The net pressure acting on a wall, roof or other element is the difference between the pressures on the opposite surfaces taking due account of their signs. Pressure directed towards the surface is taken as positive, and suction, directed away from the surface as negative. In figure 3 various cases of build-up of positive and negative pressures are demonstrated.

Figure 3 Pressure on surfaces

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6.5.3 Wind forces


6.5.3.1 Wind force for the whole structure or a structural component should be determined: a) by using force coefficients in the equations as described in 6.5.3.2; or b) by integrating surface pressures as described in 6.5.3.3 6.5.3.2 The wind force Fw acting on a structure or a structural component may be determined from equation (9).

Fw = cs cd cf qp ( ze ) Aref
or by vector summation over individual structural elements by using equation (10).

(9)

Fw = cs cd cf qp ( ze ) Aref
where cscd cf qp(ze) Aref is the structural factor equal to 1,0 (see 6.5.3.4 and 6.5.3.5) is the force coefficient for a structure or structural element (see clause 7)

(10)

is the peak wind speed pressure (see 6.4) at a reference height ze (see clause 7) is the reference area of the structure or structural element (see clause 7)

NOTE : Clause 7 gives values of force coefficients, cf, for structures or structural elements such as prisms, cylinders, roofs, signboards, plates, lattice structures etc. The values, which are given, include the effects of friction.

6.5.3.3 The wind force Fw, acting on a structure or a structural element may be determined by vectorial summation of the forces (Fw,e, Fw,i and Ffr) calculated from the external and internal pressures (equations (11) and (12)) and the frictional forces resulting from the friction of the wind generated along the surfaces which are parallel to the flow, calculated by equation (13). Internal forces:
F w ,i =

surfaces

wi Aref

(11)

External forces:

F w ,e = cs cd
Friction forces:

surfaces

we Aref

(12)

Ffr = cfr qp ( ze ) Afr


where
cscd

(13)

is the structural factor equal to 1,0 (see clauses 6.5.3.4 and 6.5.3.5)

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wi we Aref cfr Afr

is the internal pressure on the individual surface at height ze given in equation (7) is the external pressure on the individual surface at height ze given in equation (8) is the reference area of an individual surface is the friction coefficient derived from clause 7 is the area of external surface parallel to wind direction

6.5.3.4 The structural factor cscd takes into account and combines the effects of: a) the disorganized distribution, i.e. non-simultaneous occurrence of peak pressures over the external surfaces of buildings and structures, and b) the dynamic effects due to resonance between the turbulence of the flow and vibrations of the structure. 6.5.3.5 For structures falling within the scope of this Standard the factor cscd shall be taken as 1,0.
NOTE 1 : Structures falling outside the scope of this standard can be designed in accordance with EN 1991-1-4.6, considering the guidelines included in annex B. NOTE 2 : Alternatively, wind tunnel modelling may be used (see annex C).

6.5.3.6 The effects of the wind friction can be ignored when the total area of all surfaces parallel (or at a small angle) to the wind direction is equal to or less than 4 times the total area of all external surfaces perpendicular to the wind (including windward and leeward surfaces). 6.5.3.7 In the summation of wind forces acting on building structures, the lack of correlation of wind pressures between the windward and leeward sides may be taken into account.

7 Pressure and force coefficients


7.1 Aerodynamic coefficient
7.1.1 Pressure coefficients
7.1.1.1 Buildings The internal and external pressures for buildings are determined in accordance with 7.3. 7.1.1.2 Circular cylinders The internal pressure circular cylinders are determined in accordance with 7.3.9. The external pressure circular cylinders are determined in accordance with 7.10.
NOTE 1: External pressure coefficients give the effect of the wind on the external surfaces of buildings; internal pressure coefficients give the effect of the wind on the internal surfaces of buildings. NOTE 2: The external pressure coefficients are divided into overall coefficients and local coefficients. Local coefficients give the pressure coefficients for loaded areas of 1 m2 .They may be used for the design of small elements and fixings. Overall coefficients give the pressure coefficients for loaded areas of 10 m2. They may be used for loaded areas larger than 10 m2.

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7.1.2 Net pressure coefficients


7.1.2.1 The net pressure coefficient for canopy roofs is determines in accordance with 7.4. 7.1.2.2 The net pressure coefficient for free-standing walls, parapets and fences is determines in accordance with 7.5.
NOTE Net pressure coefficients give the resulting effect of the wind on a structure, structural element or component per unit area.

7.1.3 Friction coefficients


The friction coefficients for walls and surfaces are determined in accordance with different 7.6.

7.1.4 Force coefficients


The force coefficients the applicable structures are determined in accordance with: a) for signboards - see 7.5.2; b) for structural elements with rectangular cross section see 7.7; c) for structural element with sharp edged section see 7.8; d) structural elements with polygonal section see 7.9; e) for circular cylinders - see 7.10.2 and 7.10.3; f) for spheres see 7.11; and g) for lattice structures and scaffoldings see 7.12.

7.1.5 Reduction Factor


Depending on effective slenderness of the structure, the reduction factor is determined in accordance with 7.13.

7.2 Asymmetric and counteracting pressures and forces


7.2.1 If instantaneous fluctuations of wind over surfaces can give rise to significant asymmetry of
loading and the structural form is likely to be sensitive to such loading, then their effect shall be taken into account.
NOTE An example of a asymmetric loading is the torsion in nominally symmetric single core buildings

7.2.2 For free-standing canopies and signboards, clauses 7.4 and 7.5 shall be applied.
NOTE 1 It is recommended that for rectangular structures that are susceptible to torsional effects the pressure distribution given in Figure 4 should be applied to represent the torsional effects due to an inclined wind or due to lack of correlation between wind forces acting at different places on the structure and NOTE 2 It is recommended that for other cases an allowance for asymmetry of loading should be made by completely removing the design wind action from those parts of the structure where its action will produce a beneficial effect.

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Figure 4 Pressure distribution used to take torsional effects into account. The zones and values for cpe are given in table 6 and figure 8.

7.3 Pressure coefficients for buildings


7.3.1 General
7.3.1.1 The external pressure coefficients cpe for buildings and parts of buildings depend on the size of the loaded area A , which is the area of the structure that produces the wind action in the section to be calculated. The external pressure coefficients are given for loaded areas A of 1 m2 and 10 m2 in the tables for the appropriate building configurations as cpe,1, for local coefficients, and cpe,10, for overall coefficients, respectively.
NOTE 1 Values for cpe,1 are intended for the design of small elements and fixings with an area per element of 1 m2 or less such as cladding elements and roofing elements. Values for cpe,10 may be used for the design of the overall load bearing structure of buildings. NOTE 2 For loaded areas between 1 m2 and 10 m2 the recommended procedure is given in figure 5

The figure is based on the following: for 1 m2 < A < 10 m2

c pe = c pe,1 ( c pe,1 c pe,10 ) log10 A


Figure 5 Recommended procedure for determining the external pressure coefficient cpe for buildings with a loaded area A between 1 m2 and 10 m2

21

7.3.1.2 The values cpe.10and cpe.1in tables 6 to 12 should be used for the orthogonal wind directions 0, 90, 180. These values represent the most unfavourable values obtained in a range of wind direction = 45 either side of the relevant orthogonal direction. 7.3.1.3 For protruding roof overhangs the pressure on the underside of the overhang is equal to the pressure for the zone of the vertical wall directly connected to the protruding roof; the pressure at the top side of the roof overhang is equal to the pressure of the zone, defined for the roof.

Figure 6 Illustration of relevant pressures for protruding roofs 7.3.2 Vertical walls of rectangular plan buildings 7.3.2.1 The reference heights ze, for the determination of loading zones on windward walls of rectangular plan buildings (i.e. walls facing the wind) depend on the aspect ratio h/b and are always the upper heights of the different parts of the walls. They are given in figure 7 for the following three cases: a) a building, whose height h is less than the breadth b should be considered to be loaded with one zone; b) a building, whose height h is greater than breadth b, but less than 2b, may be considered to have two zones : a lower zone extending upwards from the ground by a height equal to b and an upper zone consisting of the remainder and c) a building, whose height h is greater than 2b may be considered to have multiple zones : a lower zone extending upwards from the ground by a height equal to b; an upper zone extending downwards from the top by a height equal to b and a middle region, between the upper and lower zones, which may be divided into horizontal strips with a height hstrip as shown in figure 7.

22

NOTE : The wind speed pressure shall be assumed to be uniform over each horizontal strip considered.

Figure 7 Reference height ze, depending on h and b, and corresponding wind pressure profiles 7.3.2.2 For leeward wall and sidewalls (zones A, B, C and E, see figure 8) the reference height shall be taken as the height of the building. 7.3.2.3 The external pressure coefficients cpe,10 and cpe.1for zone A, B, C, D and E are defined in table 6.
NOTE : The recommended values of cpe,10 and cpe,1 are given in table 6, depending on the ratio h/d. For intermediate values of h/d, linear interpolation may be applied. The values from table 6 also apply to walls of buildings with inclined roofs, such as mono- and duopitch.

23

Figure 8 Key for interpretation of zones for vertical walls

24

h/ d
5 1 0,25

Table 6 Values of external pressure coefficients for vertical walls of rectangular plan buildings 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Zone A B C D External pressure coefficients cpe,10 cpe,1 cpe,10 cpe,1 cpe,10 cpe,1 cpe,10 cpe,1 1,2 1,4 0,8 1,1 0,5 +0,8 +1,0 1,2 1,4 0,8 1,1 0,5 +0,8 +1,0 1,2 1,4 0,8 1,1 0,5 +0,7 +1,0

10 E

11

cpe,10 cpe,1 0,7 0,5 0,3

NOTE: For buildings with h / d > 5 with rectangular, polygonal or circular cross-section, the total wind loading may be based on the provisions given in 7.7 to 7.9 and 7.10.2.

7.3.2.4 In cases where the wind force on building structures is determined by application of the pressure coefficients c pe on windward and leeward side (zones D and E) of the building simultaneously, the lack of correlation of wind pressures between the windward and leeward side may be taken into account.
NOTE : The lack of correlation of wind pressures between the windward and leeward side may be considered as follows. For buildings with h / d 5 the resulting force is to be multiplied by 1. For buildings with h / d 1 , the resulting force is to be multiplied by 0,85. For intermediate values of h / d , linear interpolation may be applied.

7.3.3 Flat roofs 7.3.3.1 Flat roofs are defined as having a slope ( ) of 5< < 5. 7.3.3.2 The roof should be divided into zones as shown in Figure 9. 7.3.3.3 The reference height for flat roof and roofs with curved or mansard eaves shall be taken as h , and for flat roofs with parapets as h + hp , see figure 9. 7.3.3.4 Pressure coefficients for each zone are given in table 7. 7.3.3.5 The resulting pressure coefficient on the parapet shall be determined in accordance with 7.5.

25

Figure 9 Key for interpretation of zones for flat roofs

26

Table 7 External pressure coefficients for flat roofs 1 Roof type


cpe,10

3 F

6 Zone

9 I
cpe,10

10

cpe,1

G H External pressure coefficients cpe,10 cpe,1 cpe,10 cpe,1 1,2 1,1 0,9 0,8 1,2 0,8 0,5 1,0 1,3 1,3 2,0 1,8 1,6 1,4 1,8 1,4 0,8 1,5 1,9 1,9 0,7 0,7 0,7 0,7 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2 0,4 0,3 0,3 0,3 0,4 0,5

cpe,1

Sharp eaves
hp/h =0,025

1,8 1,6 1,4 1,2 1,0 0,7 0,5 1,0 1,2 1,3

2,5 2,2 2,0 1,8 1,5 1,2 0,8 1,5 1,8 1,9

0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2

With parapets

hp/h =0,05 hp/h =0,10 r/h = 0,05

Curved eaves

r/h = 0,10 r/h = 0,20

= 30
Mansard eaves

= 45 = 60

NOTE 1 For roofs with parapets or curved eaves, linear interpolation may be used for intermediate values of hp/h and r/h. NOTE 2 For roofs with mansard eaves, linear interpolation between = 30, 45 and = 60 may be used. For > 60 linear interpolation between the values for = 60 and the values for flat roofs with sharp eaves may be used. NOTE 3 In zone I, where positive and negative values are given, both values shall be considered. NOTE 4 For the mansard eave itself, the external pressure coefficients are given in table 10: External pressure coefficients for duo-pitch roofs; wind direction 0, zone F and G, depending on the pitch angle of the mansard eave. NOTE 5 For the curved eave itself, the external pressure coefficients are given by linear interpolation along the curve, between values on the wall and on the roof.

27

7.3.4 Monopitch roofs


7.3.4.1 The roof, including protruding parts (figure 6), shall be divided into zones as shown in figure 10. 7.3.4.2 The reference height ze shall be taken equal to h. 7.3.4.3 The pressure coefficients for each zone that shall be used are given in tables 8 and 9.

Figure 10 Key for interpretation of zones for mono-pitch roofs

28

Table 8 External pressure coefficients for mono-pitch roofs 1 Pitch angle 2 3 4 Zone F G Wind direction = 0 External pressure coefficients
cpe,10 cpe,1 cpe,10 cpe,1 cpe,10 cpe,1 cpe,10

10 Zone

11

12

13

G Wind direction = 180

degrees 1,7 0,0 0,9

External pressure coefficients


cpe,1 cpe,10 cpe,1 cpe,10 cpe,1

2,5

1,2 0,0

2,0

0,6 0,0

1,2

2,3

2,5

1,3

2,0

0,8

1,2

15

2,0

0,8

1,5

0,3 + 0,2 0,2 +0,4 0,0 +0,6 +0,7 +0,8

+0,2 0,5 1,5

+0,2 0,5 1,5

2,5

2,8

1,3

2,0

0,9

1,2

30

+0,7 0,0 +0,7 +0,7 +0,8

+0,7 0,0 +0,7 +0,7 +0,8

1,1

2,3

0,8

1,5

0,8

45 60 75

0,6 0,5 0,5

1,3 1,0 1,0

0,7 0,5 0,5

0,5 0,5 0,5

NOTE At wind direction of = 0 the pressure changes rapidly between positive and negative values around a pitch angle of = +5 to +45, so both positive and negative values are given. For such roofs, two cases should be considered: one with all positive values, and one with all negative values. Positive and negative values cannot act in combination on the same face.

29

Table 9 External pressure coefficients for mono-pitch roofs and with wind direction = 90 1 Pitch angle 2 3 4 5 6 Zone Fup Flow G External pressure coefficients
cpe,10 cpe,1 cpe,10 cpe,1 cpe,10 cpe,1 cpe,10 cpe,1 cpe,10 cpe,1

10

11

degrees 5 15 30 45 60 75

2,1 2,4 2,1 1,5 1,2 1,2

2,6 2,9 2,9 2,4 2,0 2,0

2,1 1,6 1,3 1,3 1,2 1,2

2,4 2,4 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0

1,8 1,9 1,5 1,4 1,2 1,2

2,0 2,5 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0

0,6 0,8 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0

1,2 1,2 1,3 1,3 1,3 1,3

0,5 0,7 0,8 0,9 0,7 0,5 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2

NOTE For intermediate pitch angles linear interpolation may be used between values with the same sign. The values equal to 0.0 are given for interpolation purposes.

7.3.5 Duo-pitch roofs


7.3.5.1 The roof, including protruding parts, shall be divided in zones as shown in figure 11. 7.3.5.2 The reference height ze shall be taken as h.. 7.3.5.3 The pressure coefficients for each zone that shall be used are given in tables 10 and 11.

30

Figure 11 Key for interpretation of loading zones for duo-pitch roofs

31

Table 10 External pressure coefficients for duo-pitch roofs with the wind direction = 0
1 Pitch angle 2 F cpe,10 cpe,1 cpe,10 3 4 G cpe,1 cpe,10 5 6 Zone H External pressure coefficients cpe,1 cpe,10 cpe,1 cpe,10 cpe,1 I J 7 8 9 10 11

degrees

45 30 15 5
5 15 30 45 60 75

0,6 1,1 2,5 2,3 1,7


0,0

0,6 2,0 2,8 2,5 2,5 2,0 0,8 1,3 1,2 1,2
0,0

0,8 1,5 2,0 2,0 2,0 1,5 0,9 0,8


-0,6 0,0

0,7 0,6 1,2 1,2 1,2 0,5


+0,2

1,0 0,8 0,7


+0,2

1,5 1,4 1,2 0,6


+0,2 -0,6

0,8

0,6
-0,6 -0,4 0,0 -1,0 0,0

0,9
+0,2

0,8
+0,2

0,3
+0,2

-1,5 0,0

0,5
+0,7 0,0 +0,7 +0,7 +0,8

1,5

0,5
+0,7 0,0 +0,7 +0,7 +0,8

1,5

0,2
+0,4 0,0 +0,6 +0,7 +0,8

0,4
0,0

0,5
0,0

0,2
0,0

0,3
0,0

0,2 0,2

0,3 0,3

NOTE 1 : For = 0 pressure changes rapidly between positive and negative values on the windward roof section between angles of = 5and = +45, so both positive and negative values are given. For such roofs, four loading cases shall be considered, where the largest or smallest values of all areas F, G and H are combined with the largest or smallest values in areas I and J. Positive and negative values cannot act in combination on the same face. NOTE 2 : For intermediate pitch angles of the same sign, linear interpolation may be used between values of the same sign. (Do not interpolate between = +5 and = 5, but use the data for flat roofs in 7.3.3). The values equal to 0,0 are given for interpolation purposes.

32

Table 11 External pressure coefficients for duo-pitch roofs with the wind direction = 90
1 Pitch angle 2 F cpe,10 cpe,1 cpe,10 3 4 G cpe,1 cpe,10 5 Zone H cpe,1 cpe,10 I cpe,1 External pressure coefficients 6 7 8 9

degrees

45 30 15 5
5 15 30 45 60 75

1,4 1,5 1,9 1,8 1,6 1,3 1,1 1,1 1,1 1,1

2,0 2,1 2,5 2,5 2,2 2,0 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5

1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,3 1,3 1,4 1,4 1,2 1,2

2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0

1,0 1,0 0,8 0,7 0,7 0,6 0,8 0,9 0,8 0,8

1,3 1,3 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,0 1,0

0,9 0,9 0,8 0,6 0,6 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5

1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2

33

7.3.6 External pressure coefficients for hipped roofs


7.3.6.1 The roof, including its protrusions, shall be divided into zones as shown in figure 12. 7.3.6.2 The reference height ze should be taken as h. 7.3.6.3 The pressure coefficients that shall be used are given in table 12.

Figure 12 Key for interpretation of loading zones for hipped roofs

34

Table 12 External pressure coefficients for hipped roofs of buildings for wind direction = 0 and = 90
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Zone for wind direction = 0 and = 90 Pitch angle 0 for = 0 F G H I J K L M N

90
for =90 cpe,10 cpe,1

External pressure coefficients cpe,10 cpe,1 cpe,10 cpe,1 cpe,10 cpe,1 cpe,10 cpe,1 cpe,10 cpe,1 cpe,10 cpe,1 cpe,10 cpe,1 cpe,10 cpe,1

1,7
0,0

2,5 1,2 2,0 0,6 1,2


0,0 0,0

0,3 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,3 0,3

0,6

0,6

1,2 2,0 0,6 1,2

0,4 0,3 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2

15

0,9 0,5
0,0

2,0 0,8 1,5


+0,2

0,3
+0,2

+0,2

1,0 1,5 1,2 2,0 1,4 2,0 0,6 1,2 0,7 1,2 0,6 0,6 0,6 0,5 0,3 0,3 0,3 1,4 2,0 0,8 1,2 1,3 2,0 0,8 1,2 1,2 2,0 1,2 2,0 0,4 0,4

30

1,5 0,5 1,5


+0,7 0,0 +0,7 +0,7 +0,8

0,2
+0,4 0,0 +0,6 +0,7 +0,8

+0,5

45 60 75

+0,7 +0,7 +0,8

NOTE 1 : For = 0 the pressure changes rapidly between positive and negative values on the windward roof section between angles of = +5 and = +45 = +45 , so both positive and negative values are given. For such roofs, two cases shall be considered: one with all positive values, and one with all negative values. Positive and negative values cannot be combined in one loading case. NOTE 2 : For intermediate pitch angles, linear interpolation may be used between values of the same sign. The values equal to 0,0 are given for interpolation purposes. NOTE 3 : The pitch angle of the windward section will always govern the pressure coefficients.

7.3.7 Multi-span roofs


7.3.7.1 Pressure coefficients for wind directions 0, 90 and 180 for each span of a multi-pan roof may be derived from the pressure coefficient for each individual span. Modifying factors for the pressures (local and global) for wind directions 0 and 180 on each span shall be derived: a) from 7.3.4 for mono-pitch roofs, modified for their position according to figure 13a and 13b. b) from 7.3.5 for duo-pitch roofs for < 0 modified for their position according to figures 13c and 13d. 7.3.7.2 Zones F, G and J shall be considered for the upwind face only and zones H and I for each span of multi-span roof.

35

7.3.7.3 The reference height ze shall be taken as the height of the structure, h , see Figure 13.

NOTE 1 In configuration b two cases should be considered depending on the sign of pressure coefficient cpe on the first roof. NOTE 2 In configuration c the first cpe is the cpe of the mono-pitch roof, the second and all following cpe are the cpe of the troughed duo-pitch roof.

Figure 13 Key to multi-span roofs

36

7.3.8 Vaulted roofs and domes


7.3.8.1 This section applies to circular cylindrical roofs and domes. 7.3.8.2 Pressure coefficients for the walls of rectangular buildings with vaulted roofs should be taken from 7.3.2.
NOTE The recommended values of cpe,10 are given in figures 14 and 15 for different zones. The reference height should be taken as ze = h + f. (The information on cpe,1 is not given and if relevant the designer is encouraged to seek specialist advice or literature.)

NOTE 1 : for 0 < h/d < 0,5, cpe,10 is obtained by linear interpolation. NOTE 2 : for 0,2 f/d 0,3 and h/d 0,5, , two values of cpe,10 have to be considered. NOTE 3 : the diagram is not applicable to flat roofs.

Figure 14 Recommended values of external pressure coefficients cpe,10 for vaulted roofs with rectangular base

37

NOTE: cpe,10 is constant along arcs of circles, intersections of the sphere and of planes perpendicular to the wind direction; it can be determined as a first approximation by linear interpolation between the values in A, B and C along the arcs of circles parallel to the wind. In the same way the values of cpe,10 in A if 0 < h/d < 1 and in B or C if 0 < h/d < 0,5 can be obtained by linear interpolation in the figure above.

Figure 15 Recommended values of external pressure coefficients cpe,10 for domes with circular base

7.3.9 Internal pressure


7.3.9.1 Internal and external pressures shall be considered to act simultaneously. The worst combination of external and internal pressures shall be considered for every combination of possible openings and other leakage paths. 7.3.9.2 The internal pressure coefficient, cpi , depends on the size and distribution of openings in building envelope. If in at least two sides of the buildings (walls or roof) the total area of openings in each side is more than 30 % of the area of that side, the actions on the structure shall not be calculated from the rules given in this section but the rules of 7.4 and 7.5 shall be used.
NOTE: The openings of a building include small openings such as: open windows, ventilators, chimneys, etc. as well as background permeability such as air leakage around doors, windows, service ducts and walls. The background permeability is typically within the range 0,01 % to 0,1 % of the wall area.

38

7.3.9.3 If an external opening, such as a door or a window, would be dominant while open, but is assumed to be closed in the ultimate limit state, during severe windstorms, the situation in which the door or window is open shall be considered as an accidental design situation in accordance with SANS 10160-1.
NOTE: A design check of accidental situation is important for high internal walls when a wall has to carry the full external wind action due to openings in the building envelope.

7.3.9.4 A building wall shall be regarded as dominant if the area of its openings is at least twice the area of openings and leakages in the remaining surfaces of the building under consideration.
NOTE: This can also be applied to individual internal volumes within the building.

7.3.9.5 In a building with a dominant wall the internal pressure shall be taken as a fraction of the external pressure at the openings of the dominant wall. The values given by equations (14) and (15) shall be used. If the area of openings in the dominant wall is twice the area of the openings in the remaining facades,

cpi = 0 ,75 cpe

(14)

If the area of openings in the dominant wall is at least three times the area of the openings in the remaining facades,

cpi = 0 ,90 cpe

(15)

where cpe is the value of the external pressure coefficient at the openings in the dominant face. If these openings are located in zones with different values of external pressures, an area weighted average value of cpe should be used. If the area of openings in the dominant face is between 2 and 3 times the area of the openings in the remaining walls linear interpolation may be used for calculating cpi. 7.3.9.6 For buildings without a dominant wall, the internal pressure coefficient cpi shall be determined from figure 16, as a function of the ratio of the height and depth of the building h/d, and the opening ratio , which shall be determined from equation (16), for each wind direction, .

NOTE: For values between h

= 0,25 and h

= 1,0 linear interpolation may be used.

Figure 16 Internal pressure coefficients for uniformly distributed openings

39

area of openings where c is negative or 0,0 area of all openings


pe

(16)

NOTE 1 This calculation applies to walls and roofs of buildings with and without internal partitions. NOTE 2 Where it is not possible, or not deemed to be justified, to estimate for a particular case then cpishould be taken as the more onerous of: + 0,2 and 0,3.

7.3.9.7 The reference height zi for the internal pressures shall be equal to the reference height ze for the external pressures (see 6.5.2) on the facades in which the openings, which contribute to the generation of internal pressure, are positioned. If there are several openings the largest value of ze shall be used to determine zi. 7.3.9.8 The internal pressure coefficient of open silos and chimneys shall be based on equation (17):

c pi = 0 ,60

(17)

The internal pressure coefficient of vented tanks with small openings shall be based on equation (18):
c pi = 0 , 40 The reference height zi is equal to the height of the structure. (18)

7.3.10 Pressure on walls and roofs with more than one skin 7.3.10.1 The wind force is to be calculated separately for each skin. 7.3.10.2 The permeability of a skin is defined as the ratio of the total area of the opening divided by the total area of the skin. A skin is defined as impermeable if the value is less than 0,1 %. 7.3.10.3 If only one skin is permeable, then the wind force on the impermeable skin should be determined from the difference between the internal and the external wind pressure as described in 6.5.2.4. If more than one skin is permeable then the wind force on each skin depends on:
a) The relative rigidity of the skins; b) The external and internal pressures; c) The distance between the skins; d) The permeability of the skins and e) The openings at the extremities of the layer between the skins.
NOTE 1 As a first approximation, the wind pressure on the most rigid skin may be taken as the difference between the internal and external pressures. NOTE 2 In cases where the extremities of the layer between the skins are air tight (Figure 17(a)) and where the free distance between the skins is less than 100 mm (the thermal insulation material being included in one skin, with no airflow within the insulation), the following rules may be applied: For walls and roofs with an impermeable internal skin and a permeable external skin and uniformly distributed openings, the wind force on the external skin may be calculated from cp,net = 0,67 cpe for over-

40

. For walls and roofs with an impermeable internal skin and an impermeable more rigid, external skin, the wind force on the external skin may be calculated from cp,net = cpe cpi

pressure and cp,net = 0,33 cpe for under-pressure. The wind force on the internal skin may be calculated from cp,net = cpe cpi

For walls and roofs with a permeable internal skin with approximately uniformly distributed openings and an impermeable external skin, the wind force on the external skin may be calculated from cp,net = cpe cpi, and the wind force on the internal skin from cp,net = 0,33cpi . For walls and roofs with an impermeable external skin and an impermeable, more rigid internal skin, the wind force on the outside skin may be calculated from cp,net = cpe and the wind force on the internal skin from cp,net = cpe cpi.

If openings in the skin enable the air exchange with other walls or with the external air flow (figure 17(b)), the above rules are not applicable.

Figure 17 Corner details for external walls with more than one skin.

7.4 Canopy roofs


7.4.1 A canopy roof is defined as the roof of a structure that does not have permanent walls, such as petrol stations, dutch barns, etc. 7.4.2 The degree of blockage under a canopy roof (as shown in figure 18) is defined in terms of the blockage , which is a ratio of the area of actual obstructions under the canopy divided by the cross sectional area under the canopy, both areas being normal to the wind direction.

41

NOTE = 0 represents an empty canopy, and = 1 represents the canopy fully blocked with contents up to the down wind eaves only (note that this situation does not correspond to a closed building).

7.4.3 The overall force coefficients, cf, and net pressure coefficients cp,net, given in tables 13 to 15 for = 0 and = 1 take account of the combined effect of wind acting on both the upper and lower surfaces of the canopies for all wind directions. Intermediate values may be found by linear interpolation. 7.4.4 Downwind of the position of maximum blockage, = 0 values for = 0 shall be used. 7.4.5 The overall force coefficient represents the resultant force and shall be used in the design of the structure. The net pressure coefficient represents the maximum local pressure for all wind directions and shall be used in the design of roofing elements and fixings only. 7.4.6 The loads shall be applied as follows:
a) for a mono-pitch canopy (Table 13) the centre of pressure shall be taken at d/4 from the windward edge (d = along-wind dimension, figure 19); b) for a duo-pitch canopy (table 14) the centre of pressure shall be taken at the centre of each slope (figure 20). In addition, a duo-pitch canopy should be able to support one pitch with the maximum or minimum load, the other pitch being unloaded; c) for a multi-bay duo-pitch canopy each load on a bay may be calculated by applying the reduction factors mc given in table 15 to the cp,net values given in table 14 and d) for canopies with double skin, the impermeable skin and its fixings should be calculated with cp,net and the permeable skin and its fixings with 0,33 cp,net.

7.4.7 Friction forces shall be considered (see 7.6). 7.4.8 The reference height zc shall be taken as h as shown in figures 19 and 20.

Figure 18 Airflow over canopy roofs

42

Table 13 cp,net and cf values for monopitch canopies


1 2 3 4 5 6

Section Plan Roof angle degrees 0 Blockage a Max all Min = 0 Min = 1 Max all Min = 0 Min = 1 Max all Min = 0 Min = 1 Max all Min = 0 Min = 1 Max all Min = 0 Min = 1 Max all Min = 0 Min = 1 Max all Min = 0 Min = 1 Overall force Coefficients A Zone B Net pressure coefficients C

cf
+ 0,2 0,5 1,3 + 0,4 0,7 1,4 + 0,5 0,9 1,4 + 0,7 1,1 1,4 + 0,8 1,3 1,4 + 1,0 1,6 1,4 + 1,2 1,8 1,4

cp,net
+ 0,5 0,6 1,5 + 0,8 1,1 1,6 + 1,2 1,5 2,1 + 1,4 1,8 1,6 + 1,7 2,2 1,6 + 2,0 2,6 1,5 + 2,2 3,0 1,5

cp,net
+ 1,8 1,3 1,8 + 2,1 1,7 2,2 + 2,4 2,0 2,6 + 2,7 2,4 2,9 + 2,9 2,8 2,9 + 3,1 3,2 2,5 + 3,2 3,8 2,2

cp,net
+ 1,1 1,4 2,2 + 1,3 1,8 2,5 + 1,6 2,1 2,7 + 1,8 2,5 3,0 + 2,1 2,9 3,0 + 2,3 3,2 2,8 + 2,4 3,6 2,7

10

15

20

25

30
NOTE
a

+ values indicate a net downward wind action values represent a net upward wind action

Max all implies Maximum positive value for all Min = 0 implies Minimum = 0 Min = 1 implies Minimum = 1

43

Figure 19 Location of the centre of force for mono-pitch canopies

44

Table 14 c p , n e t and cf values for duo-pitch canopies


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Section

Plan Roof angle Blockage Overall force coefficient cf 0,7 0,7 1,3 + 0,5 0,6 1,4 + 0,4 0,6 1,4 + 0,3 0,5 1,3 + 0,3 0,6 1,3 + 0,4 0,7 1,3 + 0,4 0,8 1,3 + 0,6 0,9 1,3 + 0,7 1,0 1,3 + 0,9 1,0 1,3 Net pressure coefficients cp,net for zones A + 0,8 0,9 1,5 + 0,6 0,8 1,6 + 0,6 0,8 1,6 + 0,5 0,7 1,5 + 0,6 0,6 1,3 + 0,7 0,7 1,3 + 0,9 0,9 1,3 + 1,1 1,2 1,4 + 1,2 1,4 1,4 + 1,3 1,4 1,4 B + 1,6 1,3 2,4 + 1,5 1,3 2,7 + 1,4 1,3 2,7 + 1,5 1,3 2,4 + 1,8 1,4 2,0 + 1,8 1,5 2,0 + 1,9 1,7 2,2 + 1,9 1,8 2,2 + 1,9 1,9 2,0 + 1,9 1,9 1,8 C + 0,6 1,6 2,4 + 0,7 1,6 2,6 + 0,8 1,5 2,6 + 0,8 1,6 2,4 + 1,3 1,4 1,8 + 1,4 1,4 1,8 + 1,4 - 1,4 - 1,6 + 1,5 1,4 1,6 + 1,6 1,4 1,5 + 1,6 1,4 1,4 D + 1,7 0,6 0,6 + 1,4 0,6 0,6 + 1,1 0,6 0,6 + 0,8 0,6 0,6 + 0,4 1,1 1,5 + 0,4 1,4 1,8 + 0,4 1,8 2,1 + 0,4 2,0 2,1 + 0,5 2,0 2,0 + 0,7 2,0 2,0

degrees -20 - 15 - 10 -5 +5 + 10 + 15 + 20 + 25 + 30
NOTE
a

Max all Min = 0 Min = 1 Max all Min = 0 Min = 1 Max all Min = 0 Min = 1 Max all Min = 0 Min = 1 Max all Min = 0 Min = 1 Max all Min = 0 Min = 1 Max all Min = 0 Min = 1 Max all Min = 0 Min = 1 Max all Min = 0 Min = 1 Max all Min = 0 Min = 1

+ values indicate a net downward wind action values represent a net upward wind action

Max all implies Maximum positive value for all Min = 0 implies Minimum = 0 Min = 1 implies Minimum = 1

45

a) Pitch angle positive

b) Pitch angle negative Figure 20 Arrangements of loads obtained from force coefficients for duopitch canopies 7.4.9 Loads on each slope of multi-bay canopies, as shown in figure 21, are determined by applying the reduction factors mc given in table 15 to the overall force, and net pressure coefficients for isolated duo-pitch canopies. Table 15 Reduction factors mc for multi-bay canopies
1 Bay 1 2 3 2 Location End bay Second bay Third and subsequent bays 3 4

mc factors for all is


For maximum (downward) force and pressure coefficients 1,0 0,9 0,7 For minimum (upward) force and pressure coefficients 0,8 0,7 0,7

46

a) Reduction factors for maximum downward force and pressure coefficients

b) Reduction factors for largest upward force and pressure coefficients

Figure 21 Multi-bay canopies

7.5 Free-standing walls, parapets, fences and signboards


7.5.1 General
The values of the resulting pressure coefficients cp,net for free-standing walls and parapets depend on the solidity ratio . For solid walls the solidity shall be taken as 1, and for walls which are 80 % solid (i.e. have 20 % openings) = 0,8. Porous walls and fences with a solidity ratio 0,8 shall be treated as plane lattices in accordance with 7.12.

7.5.2 Free-standing walls and parapets


7.5.2.1 For free-standing walls and parapets the resulting pressure coefficients cp,net shall be specified for the zones A, B, C and D as shown in Figure 22.
NOTE: Recommended values of the resulting pressure coefficients cp,net are given in Table 16 for two different solidity ratios. The wind actions should be applied to either side of wall and perpendicular to the wall. The reference area in both cases is the gross area. Linear interpolation may be used for solidity ratio between 0,8 and 1.

Table 16 Recommended net pressure coefficients cp,net for free-standing walls and parapets
1 Solidity ratio 2 Return corners Without length h 1 3 Aspect ratio L/h 3 4 A 2,3 2,9 3,4 2,1 1,2 5 Zone B 1,4 1,8 2,1 1,8 1,2 C 1,2 1,4 1,7 1,4 1,2 D 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2 6 7

=1

L/h = 5 L/h 10

= 0,8
1

Linear interpolation may be used for return corner lengths between 0 and h

7.5.2.2 The reference height for free standing walls should be taken as ze = h, see figure 22. The reference height for parapets in buildings should be taken as ze = (h + hp), see figure 9.

47

Figure 22 Key for interpretation of zones for free-standing walls and parapets

48

7.5.3 Signboards
7.5.3.1 For signboards separated from the ground by a height zg > h/4 (see figure 23), the force coefficients are given by equation (19):

c f = 1,80
Equation (19) is also applicable where zg < h/4 and b/h < 1.

(19)

7.5.3.2 The resultant force normal to the signboard shall be taken as acting at a height of the centre of the signboard with a horizontal eccentricity e as given in equation (20).

e = 0, 25b

(20)

7.5.3.3 Signboards separated from the ground by a height zg < h/4 and with b/h > 1 shall be treated as boundary walls, see 7.5.1.
NOTE Possibilities for development of flutter and divergence instabilities should be considered.

NOTE 1

reference height: ze = zg + h/2. reference area: Aref = bh.

NOTE 2

Figure 23 Key interpretation of signboards

7.6 Friction forces


7.6.1 Friction shall be considered for the cases defined in 6.5.3. 7.6.2 The friction coefficients, cfr for walls and roof surfaces as given in table 17, shall be used. 7.6.3 The reference area Afris given in figure 24. For buildings, friction forces should be applied on the part of the external surfaces parallel to the wind, located beyond a distance from the upwind eaves or corners, equal to the smallest value of 2b or 4h. 7.6.4 The reference height ze shall be taken as equal to the structure height above ground or building height h, see figure 24.

49

Table 17 Frictional coefficients cfr for walls, parapets and roof surfaces
1 Surface Smooth (i.e. steel, smooth concrete) Rough (i.e. rough concrete, tar-boards) very rough (i.e. ripples, ribs, folds) 2 Friction coefficient cfr 0,01 0,02 0,04

Figure 24 Reference area for friction

7.7 Structural elements with rectangular sections


7.7.1 The force coefficient cf of structural elements of rectangular section with the wind blowing
normally to a face shall be determined by equation (21):

cf = cf ,0 r
where

(21)

50

cf,0

is the force coefficient of rectangular sections with sharp corners and without freeend flow as given by figure 25. is the reduction factor for square sections with rounded corners. r depends on Reynolds number, (see Note 1). is the end-effect factor for elements with free-end flow as defined in 7.13.

Figure 25 Force coefficients cf,0 of rectangular sections with sharp corners and without free end flow
NOTE 1 The recommended approximate upper bound values of r are given in figure 26. These values are based on measurements in low-turbulence conditions, which are assumed to be conservative. NOTE 2 Figure 26 may also be used for buildings with h/d > 5,0.

Figure 26 Reduction factor r for a square cross-section with rounded corners

7.7.2 The reference area Aref should be determined by equation (22) 51

Aref = L b
Where

(22)

L is the length of the structural element being considered.


The reference height ze is equal to the maximum height above ground of the section being considered.

7.7.3 For plate-like sections (d/b < 0,2) and at certain wind angles of attack, lift forces may give rise to an increase of 25 % in values of cf.

7.8 Structural elements with sharp edged section


7.8.1 The force coefficient cf of structural elements with sharp edged section (for example elements with cross- sections such as those shown in figure 27) should be determined using equation (23).
cf = cf,0
where is the end-effect factor (see 7.13) (23)

Figure 27 Structural sections with sharp edges


NOTE For all elements without free (i.e. unrestricted) end, the recommended value of cf,0 = 2,0. This value is based on measurements in low-turbulence conditions, which is assumed to be conservative.

7.8.2 The reference areas (see figure 27), shall be taken as follows:
in x -direction: Aref,x = Lb in y -direction: Aref,y = Ld where
L

(24)

is the length of the structural element being considered.

7.8.3 In all cases the reference height ze shall be taken as equal to the maximum height above
ground of the section being considered.

7.9 Structural elements with regular polygonal section


7.9.1 The force coefficient cf of structural elements with regular polygonal section with 5 or more sides shall be determined using equation (25).

52

cf = cf,0
where cf,0 is the end-effect factor as defined in 7.13.

(25)

is the force coefficient of structural elements without free-end flow.

NOTE The recommended conservative values of cf,0 based on measurements under low-turbulent conditions are given in table 18.

53

Table 18 Force coefficient cf,0 for regular polygonal sections


1 Number of sides 5 6 2 Sections Pentagon Hexagon 3 Finish of surface and of corners All All surface smooth r/b < 0,075b 8 Octagon surface smooth r/b 0,075b 10 Decagon All surface smooth (3) corners rounded all others surface smoothc corners rounded 4 Reynolds number Rea All All 5

cf,0
1,80 1,60 1,45 1,30 1,30 1,10 1,30
6

Re 2,4105 Re 310 Re 210


All 210 < Re < 1,210
5 5 5

Re 7105

0,90 1,30 1,10 treat as a circular cylinder, see (7.10) 0,70

12

Dodecagon

Re < 4105

Re > 4105
Re < 2x105
2105 Re < 1,2106

16-18
a

Hexagon

Reynolds number with = p(z) is defined in 7.10. r is the corner radius, b is the diameter of circumscribed circumference, see figure 28 Derived from wind tunnel tests on sectional models with galvanised steel surface and a section with b = 0,3 m and corner radius of 0,06 b

b c

7.9.2 For buildings where h / d > 5 , cf,0 may be determined from equation (25) and the information
contained in table 18.

Figure 28 Regular polygonal section 7.9.3 The reference area Aref is should be obtained from equation (26).

Aref = L b
where
L

(26)

is the length of the structural element being considered.

54

is the diameter of circumscribed circumference, see figure 28.

7.9.4 The reference height ze is equal to the maximum height above ground of the section being considered.

7.10 Circular cylinders


7.10.1 External pressure coefficients 7.10.1.1 Pressure coefficients of sections depend upon the Reynolds numbers Re , defined by equation (27).

Re =
where b (ze)

b v ( ze )

(27)

is the diameter is the kinematic viscosity of the air ( = 1510-6 m2/s) is the peak wind speed defined in Note 2 of figure 31 at height ze

7.10.1.2 The external pressure coefficients cpe of circular cylinders shall be determined from equation (28).

cpe = cp,0
where cp,0 is the external pressure coefficient without free-end flow (see 7.10.1.3) is the end-effect factor (see 7.10.1.4)

(28)

7.10.1.3 The external pressure coefficient cp,0 is given in figure 29 for various Reynolds numbers as a function of angle . 7.10.1.4 The end-effect factor is given by equation (29).

= 1

for

0 min

= + (1 ) cos =
where

min 2 A min

for for

min < < A


A 180

(29)

is the position of the flow separation (see figure 29) is the end-effect factor (see 7.13)

55

Figure 29 Pressure distribution for circular cylinders for different Reynolds number ranges and without end-effects
NOTE 1 Intermediate values may be obtained from linear interpolation

NOTE 2 Typical values in the above Figure are shown in table 19. Figure and table are based on the Reynolds 2qp number with vp ( z ) = and qp given in 6.4 NOTE 3 The above figure is based on an equivalent roughness k/b less than 510-4. Typical values of roughness height k are given in table 20.

Table 19 Typical values for the pressure distribution around circular cylinders for different Reynolds number ranges and without end-effects
1 Re 5105 2106 10
a
7

2 mina 85 80 75

3 cp0,minb 2,2 1,9 1,5

4 Ac 135 120 105

5 cp0,hd 0,4 0,7 0,8

min

is the position of the minimum pressure in degrees

b c

cp0,min is the value of the minimum pressure coefficient A is the position of the flow separation in degrees

cp0,h is the base pressure coefficient

7.10.1.5 The reference area Aref for the calculation of resultant forces according to 6.5.3, should be determined from equation (30):

Aref = L b
where L is the length of the structural element, and

(30)

56

is the breadth of the cylinder (see figure 29).

7.10.1.6 The reference height ze is equal to the maximum height above ground of the section being considered.

7.10.2 Force coefficients


7.10.2.1 The force coefficient cf for a finite circular cylinder should be determined from equation (31).

cf = cf,0
where cf,0 is the force coefficient of cylinders without free-end flow (see figure 30) is the end-effect factor (see 7.13)

(31)

Figure 30 Force coefficient cf,0 for circular cylinders without free-end flow and for different equivalent roughness k/b
NOTE 1 : Figure 30 may also be used for building with h / d > 5,0 NOTE 2 : Figure 30 is based on the Reynolds number with vp ( z ) =
2qp

(m/s) and qp given in 6.4.

7.10.2.2 Values of equivalent surface roughness k are given in table 20. 7.10.2.3 For stranded cables cf,0 is equal to 1,2 for all values of the Reynolds number Re .

57

Table 20 Equivalent surface roughness k


1 2 Equivalent roughness k mm 0,0015 0,002 0,006 0,02 0,05 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,5 1,0 2,0 2,0 3,0

Type of surface
glass polished metal fine paint spray paint bright steel cast iron galvanised steel smooth concrete planed wood rough concrete rough sawn wood rust brickwork

7.10.2.4 The reference area Aref for the calculation of resultant forces according to 6.5.3, should be
obtained by equation (32).

Aref = L b
where L is the length of the structural element being considered.

(32)

7.10.2.5 The reference height ze is equal to the maximum height above ground of the section being considered. 7.10.2.6 For cylinders within a proximity of a plane surface with a distance ratio zg / b < 1,5 (see figure 31) expert advice is necessary.

Figure 31 Cylinder near a plane surface

58

7.10.3 Force coefficients for vertical cylinders in a row arrangement


For vertical circular cylinders in a row arrangement, the force coefficient cf,0 depends on the wind direction in relation to the row axis and the ratio of distance a and the diameter b as defined in table 21. The force coefficient, cf for each cylinder may be obtained from equation (33):

cf = cf,0 k
where cf,0 k is the force coefficient of cylinders without free-end flow, (see 7.10.2) is the end-effect factor (see 7.13) is the factor given in table 21(for most unfavourable wind direction)

(33)

59

Table 21 Factor k for vertical cylinders in a row arrangement


1 2

a/b a / b < 3,5 3,5 < a / b < 30 a / b > 30


where

k 1,15 210 a / b 180 1,0

is the distance between the vertical cylinders is the diameter

7.11 Spheres
7.11.1 The along-wind force coefficient cf,x of spheres shall be determined as a function of the
Reynolds number Re (see 7.10.1) and the equivalent roughness k/b (see table 20).
NOTE 1 Recommended values of cf,x based on measurements in low turbulent flow given in Figure 32 are based on the Reynolds number with vp ( z ) = NOTE 2
2qp

and qp given in 6.4

The values in figure 32 are limited to values zg > b / 2 , where zg is the distance of the sphere from a plain

surface,b is the diameter (see figure 33). For zg < b / 2 the force coefficient cf,x to be multiplied by a factor 1,6.

60

Figure 32 Along wind force coefficient for a sphere 7.11.2 The vertical force coefficient cf,z for spheres is given by equation (34).

cf,z = 0 cf,z = +0,60

for for

zg > b / 2 zg < b / 2
(34)

7.11.3 In both cases the reference area Aref shall be obtained by Equation (35).
Aref = b2 4

(35)

7.11.4 The reference height shall be taken as:


ze = zg + b 2

(36)

61

Figure 33 Sphere near a plain surface

7.12 Lattice structures and scaffoldings


7.12.1 The force coefficient, cf of lattice structures and scaffoldings with parallel chords shall be
obtained by equation (37).

cf = cf,0
where

(37)

cf,0 is the force coefficient of lattice structures and scaffoldings without end-effects. It is given by figures 35 and 36 as a function of solidity ratio (7.12.2) and Reynolds number Re (figure 37).

Re Note.

is the Reynolds number (see 7.10.1) using the average member diameter bi, see

is the end-effect factor (see 7.13) as a function of the slenderness of the structure, , calculated with L and width b = d , see figure 34.
NOTE: Figure is based on the Reynolds number with vp ( z ) =
2qp

and qp given in 6.4.

Figure 34 Lattice structure or scaffolding

62

Figure 35 Force coefficient cf,0 for a plane lattice structure with members of non-circular cross-section as a function of solidity ratio

Figure 36 Force coefficient cf,0 for a spatial lattice structure with members of non-circular cross-section as a function of solidity ratio

63

Figure 37 Force coefficient cf,0 for plane and spatial lattice structure with members of circular cross-section

7.12.2 The solidity ratio, , is defined by equation (38).


=
where A is the sum of the projected areas of the members and gusset plates normal to the plane : A = bi Li + Agk
i k

A Ac

(38)

Ac

is the area enclosed by the boundaries of the face projected normal to the plane with

Ac = d L
is the length of the lattice is the width of the lattice is the width and length of the individual member i (see Figure 34), projected normal to the face is the area of the gusset plate k

L d bi,Li

Agk

7.12.3 The reference height ze is equal to the maximum height of the element above ground.

64

7.13 Effective slenderness and end-effect factor


7.13.1 Where relevant, the end-effect factor should be determined as a function of slenderness
.
NOTE The force coefficients, cf,0, given in 7.7 to 7.12 are based on measurements of structures without free-end flow, away from the ground. The end-effect factor takes into account the reduced resistance of the structure due to the wind flow around the end (end-effect). Figure 38 and table 22 are based on measurements in low turbulent flow.

7.13.2 The effective slenderness should be defined depending on the dimensions of the structure
and its position.
NOTE Recommended values for are given in table 22 and indicative values for are given in figure 38 for different

solidity ratio .

65

Table 22 Recommended values of for cylinders, polygonal sections, rectangular sections, sharp edged structural sections and lattice structures
1 2 Position of the structure, wind normal to the plane of the page 3 Effective slenderness For polygonal, rectangular and sharp edged sections and lattice structures: for L 50 m, = 1,4 L / b or = 70 , whichever is smaller for L < 15 m, = 2L / b or = 70 , whichever is smaller

No.

For circular cylinders: for L 50 m, = 0,7 L / b or = 70 , whichever is smaller for L < 15 m, = L / b or = 70 , whichever is smaller

For intermediate values of L, linear interpolation shall be used for L 50 m, = 0,7 L / b or = 70 , whichever is larger for L < 15 , = L / b or = 70 , whichever is larger For intermediate values of L , linear interpolation shall be used

66

Figure 38 Indicative values of the end-effect factor as a function of solidity ratio versus slenderness

7.13.3 The solidity ratio (see figure 39) is given by equation (40).
=
where
A

A Ac

(40)

is the sum of the projected areas of the members is the overall envelope area, with Ac = l b

Ac

Figure 39 Definition of solidity ratio

67

Annex A
(informative)

Effects of the terrain on wind speed


A.1 Roughness of each terrain category
Illustrations of the upper roughness of each terrain category is given in table A.1.

Table A.1 Illustrations of the upper roughness of each terrain category

Terrain category A Flat horizontal terrain with negligible vegetation and without any obstacles (e.g. coastal areas exposed to open sea or large lakes)

Terrain category B Area with low vegetation such as grass and isolated obstacles (trees, buildings) with separations of at least 20 obstacle heights

Terrain category C Area with regular cover of vegetation or buildings or with isolated obstacles with separations of maximum 20 obstacle heights (such as villages, suburban terrain, permanent forest)

Terrain category D Area in which at least 15 % of the surface is covered with buildings and their average height exceeds 15 m

A.2 Transition between roughness categories


The transition between different roughness categories has to be considered when calculating q p .
NOTE: Recommended procedures are:. Procedure 1

68

If the structure is situated near a change of terrain roughness at a distance: a) less than 2 km from the smoother category A and b) less than 1 km from the smoother categories B to D the smoother terrain category in the upwind direction should be used. Small areas (less than 10 % of the area under consideration) with deviating roughness may be ignored. Procedure 2 a) Determine the roughness categories for the upstream terrain. b) Determine the distance x from the building to the upstream roughness changes. If the distance, x , from the structure to a smoother terrain is smaller than the values given in table A.2, then this terrain profile should be used for the angular sector considered. If this distance x is larger than the value in table A.1, the rougher terrain should be used. Small areas (less than 10 % of the area under consideration) with deviating roughness may be ignored. Where no distance x is given in table A.2 or for heights exceeding 50 m, the lower roughness length should be used. For intermediate values of height z , linear interpolation may be used.

69

Table A.2 Distance from structure

1
Height z m

2
Influencing terrain category

5 7 10 15 20 30 50 5 7 10 15 20 30 50 5 7 10 15 20 30 50

3 4 5 Distance from structure to the influencing terrain category x km Upstream terrain category B C D 0,5 5 1 10 2 20 5 12 20 50 0,3 2 0,5 4 1 7 3 20 7 10 30 0,2 0,4 0,7 2 5 7 20

70

A.3 Numerical calculation of topography coefficients


A.3.1 The distribution of wind speeds over isolated hills, ridges, cliffs and escarpments depends on the upstream slope = H / Lu in the wind direction, where the height H and the length Lu
Lu is defined in figure A. 1.

m mf

is the mean wind speed at height above terrain is the mean wind speed above flat terrain

Figure A.1 Illustration of increase of wind speed over topography

A.3.2 A largest increase in the wind speed occurs near the top of the slope (see figure A.1) and is
determined from the topography factor c0. The slope has no significant effect on the standard deviation of the turbulence.
NOTE: The turbulence intensity will decrease with increasing wind speed and also the value of the standard deviation.

A.3.3 The topography factor, co ( z ) = vm / vmf accounts for the increase of mean wind speed over
isolated hills and escarpments only (not undulating and mountainous regions). It is related to the wind speed at the base of the hill or escarpment. The effects of topography should be taken into account in the following situations: a) For sites on upwind slopes of hills and ridges where:
0,05 < 0,3 and x Lu / 2 (for definition of x see figures A.2 and A.3)

b) For sites on downwind slopes of hills and ridges where: i) < 0,3 and x < Ld / 2 or ii) 0,3 and x < 1,6 H c) For sites on upwind slopes of cliffs and escarpments where: 0, 05 < 0,3 and x Lu / 2 d) For sites on downwind slopes of cliffs and escarpments where: i) < 0,3 and x < 1,5Le or

71

ii) 0,3 and x < 5H The topography factor is defined by:

co = 1

for 0, 05 for 0, 05 < 0,3 for > 0,3

(A.1) (A.2) (A.3)

co = 1 + 2s
co = 1 + 0,6s
where

is the orographic location factor, to be obtained from figure A.2 or figure A.3 scaled to the length of the effective upwind slope length, Le is the upwind slope H / Lu in the wind direction (see figure A.2 and figure A.3) is the effective length of the upwind slope, defined in table A.3 is the actual length of the upwind slope in the wind direction is the actual length of the downwind slope in the wind direction is the effective height of the feature is the horizontal distance of the site from the top of the crest is the vertical distance from the ground level of the site

Le

Lu
Ld
H

x
z

Table A.3 Effective length Le


1 Slope H / Lu Shallow 0,05 < 0,3 Steep > 0,3 2 Effective length Le

Le = Lu Le = H / 0,3

NOTE The graphs in figures A.2 and A.3 exceed the area of application as defined above. The consideration of orographic effects beyond these boundaries is optional.

A.3.4 In valleys, co ( z ) may be set to 1,0 if no increase in wind speed due to funnelling effects is to be expected. For structures situated within steep-sided valleys the increase of wind speed caused by funnelling should be accounted for. A.3.5 The procedure described in A.3 covers only the idealized cases of isolated topographical features. Icase of structures being designed in a topographically complex terrain, expert advice should be obtained or relevant full-scale or wind tunnel measurements could be undertaken (see annex C).

72

Figure A.2 Factor s for cliffs and escarpments

Figure A.3 Factor s for hills and ridges

73

A.4 Neighbouring structures


A.4.1 Tall buildings positioned within clusters of low-rise buildings can introduce an increase in wind loading on the low-rise buildings, and this should be taken into account A.4.2 If a building is more than twice as high as the average height have of the neighbouring structures then, as a first approximation, the design of any of those nearby structures may be based on the peak wind pressure at height zn ( ze = zn ) above ground (equation A. 4), see figure A.4.
xr

r < x < 2r x 2r
in which the radius r is:
r = hhigh r = 2d large

r 2 1 2h if zn = r 1 low ( x r ) r 2 if zn = hlow

if zn =

(A. 4)

if if

hhigh 2d large hhigh > 2 d large

The structural height hlow , the radius r , the distance x and the dimensions d small and d large are illustrated in figure A.4.

A.4.3 The increase in wind speed can be disregarded when hlow is more than half the height hhigh of
the high building, i.e. zn = hlow .

Figure A.4 Influence of a high rise building, on two different nearby structures (1 and 2)

A.5 Displacement height


Buildings in terrain category D, closely spaced buildings and other obstructions cause the wind to behave as if the ground level was raised to a displacement height, hdis . The displacement height hdis may be determined by equation (A.5), see Figure A.5. The profile of peak wind speed over height (see figure 2) may be lifted by a height hdis .

74

6have x 2have z=0 have hdis

Figure A.5 Obstruction height and upwind spacing

x 2have
2have < x 6have

where hdis is the lesser of 0,8have or 0 ,6h where hdis is the lesser of 1,2have 0,2 x or 0 ,6h where hdis = 0
(A.5)

x > 6have

In the absence of accurate information the average obstruction height might be taken as have = 15 m for terrain category D. The values of have and x should be established for each 30 sector, since these effects are directionally dependent.

75

Annex B
(informative)

Design of buildings and structures which fall outside the scope of the code
B.1 Dynamic effects
B.1.1 Buildings and structures falling outside the specifications of 1.2 can be designed in
accordance with a recognised analytical method, in which due consideration is given to dynamic effects.
NOTE 1 The trend towards designing and constructing higher and more economic (i.e. lighter) buildings and structures has contributed to a new generation of structures, which are sensitive to wind induced vibrations. Under natural winds, such structures can develop significant dynamic response, which will magnify the static loading. NOTE 2 For buildings and structures of such a nature, wind loading becomes typically the most significant type of loading and it is assumed that the design process will involve a comprehensive investigation (including the influence of local effects) and access to specialist literature / inputs.

B.1.2 Wind induced vibrations depend to a large extent on the characteristics of structures, with three most relevant being: shape, stiffness (flexibility) and damping. B.1.3 There are several mechanisms of aerodynamic excitations of structures, mainly the alongand across wind vibrations, but also buffeting, galloping, torsional divergence etc.

B.1.4 The along-wind response of buildings and structures is caused by resonance between the
atmospheric wind turbulence and their structural vibrations. The relevant analytical methods are typically referred to as Gust Factor or Gust Energy methods.

B.1.5 The across-wind excitations are due to shedding of vortices into the wake behind the
structure, which tends to develop into periodic lateral forces. Although vortex shedding is most noticeable for circular cylinders, it can also develop behind cylinders of other geometries. The frequency of vortex shedding is governed by a dimensionless parameter referred to as Strouhal number.

B.2 Design in accordance to EN 1991-1-4.6


B.2.1 Buildings and structures falling outside the specifications of Clause 1.2 can be designed in
accordance to EN 1991-1-4.6.

B.2.2 In such a design process, the climatic information relevant to South Africa has to be used in
combination with the procedures specified in EN 1991-1.4.6.

B.2.3 In this process the complexity of the South African wind climate regarding the dominance of
frontal winds in coastal areas and southern portion of the country and intense thunderstorms in northern inland need to be taken into account.

76

Annex C
(informative)

Wind tunnel as a design tool


C.1 Recommendations
Wind-tunnel tests are recommended for building and structures: a) of unusual geometric form, not covered in the code of practice b) of unusual dynamic response characteristics, c) placed in a terrain / environment with significant up-wind obstructions influencing the wind flow, and d) having severe consequence of failure.
NOTE: Large buildings and structures, especially those placed within the built-up environment, are also known to produce profound negative effects on the pedestrian level wind environment within their vicinity. Wind-tunnel environmental impact studies can be undertaken prior to the construction of such developments in order to identify the possible problematic areas and investigate the optimal ways of reducing the negative effects and risks.
Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

C.2 Minimum wind-tunnel testing requirements


C.2.1 Tests for the determination of mean and fluctuating forces and pressures shall be considered
to be properly conducted, only if all the following conditions are satisfied: a) the natural atmospheric boundary-layer has been modelled to account for the variation of wind speed with height, b) the atmospheric intensity of turbulence and its length scales of longitudinal component are modelled to approximately the same scale as that used to model the buildings and other structures, c) the modelled structure, surrounding structures and dominant topography are geometrically similar to the full-scale situation, d) due considerations are given to the effects of blockage and the response characteristics of the wind-tunnel instrumentation, e) for curved surfaces, due consideration is given to the effects of Reynolds numbers.

C.2.2 Tests for determining the dynamic response of structure may be considered properly
conducted only if the above listed requirements are met and if, in addition, the model is scaled with due regard to mass, length, stiffness and damping.

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