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Definition Of Advertising:
The American Marketing Association defines advertising as “Advertising is defined as any paid form of non-personal communication about an organization, product, service, or idea by an identified sponsor.”
The Five M’s Of Advertising:
The organizations handle their advertising in different ways. In small companies, advertising is handled by someone in the sales or marketing department, who works with an ad agency. A large company will often set up its own advertising department or else hire an ad agency to Message do the job of preparing advertising programmes. In developing a program, marketing managers must always start by identifying the target Message market and the buyer’s motives. Then they can make the five major decisions in developing generatio n an advertising program, known as the five M’s, viz, Message The above mentioned can be explained by the diagram given below evaluatio n& selection The 5Ms of Advertising Message execution Money a marketing or advertising campaign. Checklist for planning of Social responsibi What are the objectives? review lity Factors to Mission Measurement Mission consider: What is the key objective? Stage in Sales PLC How much is it worth to reach my objectives? Money Communic goals Market How much can be spent? ation Advt. share and impact What objectiv consumer message should be sent? Sales Message es base Is the message clear and easily understood? Media impact Competition What and clutter media vehicles are available? Media Advertising Reach, What media vehicles should be used? frequency frequency Product How should the results,be measured? impact Measurement substitutabi Major be evaluated and followed up? lity How should the resultsmedia types Specific 5 Ms OF ADVERTISING media vehicles Media timing Geographi cal media allocation
After the Target Market, market positioning and marketing mix decisions have been taken the First step in developing an Advertising Program is
1. MISSION OR SETTING THE ADVERTISING OBJECTIVES
Advertising Objectives can be classified as to whether their aim is: To inform: This aim of Advertising is generally true during the pioneering stage of a product category, where the objective is building a primary demand. This may include: • • • • • Telling the market about a new product Informing the market of a price change Informing how the product works Correcting false impressions Reducing buyers’ fears
To persuade: Most advertisements are made with the aim of persuasion. Such advertisements aim at building selective brand. To remind: Such advertisements are highly effective in the maturity stage of the product. The aim is to keep the consumer thinking about the product.
This M deals with deciding on the Advertising Budget The advertising budget can be allocated based on: • • • • Departments or product groups The calendar Media used Specific geographic market areas
There are five specific factors to be considered when setting the Advertising budget. • Stage in PLC: New products typically receive large advertising budgets to build awareness and to gain consumer trial. Established brands are usually supported with lower advertising budgets as a ratio to sales.
MESSAGE GENERATION Message generation can be done in the following ways: Inductive: By talking to consumers. on a cost-per-impressions basis. a brand must advertise more heavily to be heard above the noise in the market. Additionally. • • Advertising frequency: the number of repetitions needed to put across the brands message to consumers has an important impact on the advertising budget. Results-of-use Experience Product-in-use Experience Incidental-to-use Experience Buyers might visualize these rewards from: . a buyer expects four types of rewards from a product: Rational Sensory Social Ego Satisfaction. it is less expensive to reach consumers of a widely used brand them to reach consumers of low-share brands. Product substitutability: brands in the commodity class (example cigarettes. Their feeling about the product. Even simple clutter from advertisements not directly competitive to the brand creates the need for heavier advertising.• Market Share and Consumer base: high-market-share brands usually require less advertising expenditure as a percentage of sales to maintain their share. experts and competitors. Meloney proposed a framework for generating Advertising Messages. Advertising is also important when a brand can offer unique physical benefits or features. soft drinks) require heavy advertising to establish a different image. • Competition and clutter: In a market with a large number of competitors and high advertising spending. its strengths. Consumers are the major source of good ideas. beer. 3. dealers. and weaknesses gives enough information that could aid the Message generation process. According to him. To build share by increasing market size requires larger advertising expenditures. Deductive: John C.
The store for young executive 12.The Matrix formed by the intersection of these four types of rewards and the three types of experiences is given below. Stereo for the man with discriminating taste Result-of-Use Experience Product-inUse Experience Incidental-toUse Experience Rational 1. The flour that needs no sifting 9. Style. Potential Type of Reward (Sample Messages) Sensory Social Ego Satisfaction 2. Messages can be rated on desirability. and format for executing the message should be kept in mind. For the skin you upset completely 6. Some ads aim for rational positioning and others for emotional positioning. The message’s impact depends not only upon what is said but also on how it is said. The message must first say something desirable or interesting about the product. The furniture that identifies the home of modern people deserve to have 8. tone. or a combination of them: enough to serve the best 7. Gets Clothes Cleaner 5. While executing a message the style. A deodorant to guarantee social acceptance 11. The portable television that’s lighter in weight. Above all. The plastic pack keeps the cigarette fresh . When you care 4. Settles Stomach 3. words. Message execution. Real gusto in a great light beer 10. the message must be believable or provable. Any message can be presented in any of the following different execution styles. The message must also say something exclusive or distinct that does not apply to every brand in the product category. A good ad normally focuses on one core selling proposition. exclusiveness and believability. easier to lift Message evaluation and selection The advertiser needs to evaluate the alternative messages.
• Musical: Uses background music or shows one or more persons or cartoon characters singing a song involving the product. which stress human connections and milestones. Words: Memorable and attention-getting words must be found. • Scientific evidence: Presents survey or scientific evidence that the brand is preferred over or outperforms other brands. experience. A minor rearrangement of mechanical elements within the ad can improve its attention-getting power. • Personality symbol: Creates a character that personifies the product. and illustration will make a difference in an ad’s impact as well as its cost. Example: HLL is consistently positive in its tone—its ads say something superlatively positive about the product. By planning the relative dominance of different elements of the ad. though not necessarily by as much as their difference in cost. No claim is made about the product except through suggestion. Tone: The communicator must also choose an appropriate tone for the ad.• Lifestyle: Emphasizes how a product fits in with a lifestyle. •Mood or image: Evokes a mood or image around the product. Other companies use emotions to set the tone—particularly film. Four-colour illustrations instead of black and white increase ad effectiveness and ad cost. optimal delivery can be achieved. This style is common in the over-the-counter drug category. and humor is almost always avoided so as not to take mention away from the message. MEDIA . Larger-size ads gain more attention. love. 4. and insurance companies. The character might be animated • Technical expertise: Shows the company’s expertise. or serenity. such as beauty. and pride in making the product. telephone. color. Format: Format elements such as ad size.
Research can be in the form of: • • Communication-Effect Research Sales-Effect Research There are two ways of measuring advertising effectives.test trial of the advertisement to the sample of people . MEASUREMENT Evaluating the effectiveness of the Advertisement Program is very important as it helps prevent further wastage of money and helps make corrections that are important for further advertisement campaigns. This is be done by taking expert opinion on the concept of the ad. It is done through • • Concept testing – how well the concept of the advertisement is. frequency and impact Step I 5. Test commercials .The next ‘M’ to be considered while making an Advertisement Program is the Media through which to communicate the Message generated during the previous stage. They are: Pre-testing It is the assessment of an advertisement for its effectiveness before it is actually used. Researching the effectiveness of the advertisement is the most used method of evaluating the effectiveness of the Advertisement Program. The steps to be considered are: Deciding on Geographic media allocation Step V Deciding on media timing Step IV Selecting specific media vehicles Step III Choosing among major media types Step II Deciding reach.
Most detergent ads – Surf. persuade or remind.a research technique that asks how much of an ad a person remembers during a specific period of time Aided recall . It is done in two ways • • Unaided recall . which makes an explicit comparison of the attributes of two or more brands. etc. Persuasive advertising Becomes important in the competitive stage.• Finished testing Post-testing It is the assessment of an advertisement’s effectiveness after it has been used. where a company’s objective is to build selective demand for a particular brand. use persuasive advertising wherein one brand is shown as being superior to the others on various counts such as “more whiteness”. Some persuasive ads use comparative advertising. Advertising objectives can be classified according to whether their aim is to inform. Informative advertising figures heavily in the pioneering stage of a product category.a research technique that uses clues to prompt answers from people about ads they might have seen. “your clothes wont stink after you use brand X”. “your clothes wont shrink…”. where the objective is to build primary demand. Reminder advertising is important with mature products Types of advertisements: The types of advertisements can broadly be classified into three types: . etc.
employees. Consumer advertising 2. Advertising to business and profession 3. financial institutions. political leaders and government. stockholders. These are ads which are not directed towards the final consumers. Non. . Corporate ads are also a part of these types of ads.product Advertising Consumer Advertising: These are basically nothing but product or service advertisements directed towards the consumer or the customer as such. industry or to promote and relate the company to some worthwhile social public interest cause. Such kind of advertisements uses emotional or rational appeal in their advertisement. The media used here is direct mail or professional magazines.product advertisements.product advertising: In this type of advertising advertisements depicting an idea. counter negative attitudes towards a company. a social cause etc are included.product advertising Types of advertisements Consumer Advertising Advertising to Business and profession Non. The objectives of the corporate or the institutional ads may be to establish or boost corporate identity and image. Surrogate advertisements are also a part of such non. Such advertisements can be in the form of national or local advertisements also. Advertising to business or profession: This type of advertising is aimed at resellers and professionals. Non.1. The target groups of corporate advertising are most often customers.
or decrease spending? What’s the best message I can put in my advertising? There are no easy answers to these questions. has the more inclusive job of moving products and services from the seller to the buyer. Advertising is only one part of the marketing process. These are too broad and general. Those who pay the bills want to know the return on their investment. ad agencies. maintain. Advertising cannot achieve marketing goals all by itself. packaging. there is a fundamental difference between the two. and the media have helped quantify the results of advertising. If a company wants to measure the results of its advertising. not advertising goals. If they have a formal marketing plan. While marketing. . or expand market share by 5% aren’t much better because they are marketing goals. Research efforts on the part of advertisers. making it almost impossible to measure success. More specific objectives such as increase sales by 15%. Marketing versus Advertising Failure sometimes occurs even before the process starts because companies are confused by the apparent similarity between the purpose of advertising and marketing. and pricing. it has to be more specific in the definition of what it expects to accomplish through the use of advertising. you can satisfy both those who are investing in the advertising and those who are creating it. the advertising objectives are typically statements like: to increase sales. Solutions are a mixture of science and art.” Almost every person involved with advertising wants to measure their advertising’s results. Companies when asked about advertising objectives almost always reply with marketing objectives. and those creating the advertising want to demonstrate that their work is effective. which also includes functions such as public relations. promotion. however. sales. or to expand market share. But most continue to face basic questions such as: Does your Advertising work? How hard does it work? What specifically does it do for your business? Should I increase.ADVERTISING OBJECTIVES “With realistic goals for advertising. Both are meant to encourage consumers to purchase products and services. and its job is to deliver messages that have a psychological effect on the consumer.
independent of other marketing efforts. we must assign it a communications task. you can measure your advertising’s success. Keep in mind that at this stage you are defining what needs to be said. Its job is to deliver a message that is designed to stimulate specific consumer behavior.The Job of Advertising What part of the total marketing goal can we expect advertising to achieve? Since advertising is a communications tool. . not how to say it—you’re not trying to write a headline. The message you want advertising to deliver must be specific. With a specific communications task that can be performed by advertising.
Marketing Plan Marketing Objectives Sales Objectives Advertising Objectives Advertising Strategy Advertising Tactics Promotions Creative Strategy Media Strategy . Promotion objectives specify what is to be accomplished and where advertising fits in.Where does advertising objectives fall in the marketing plan Market Analysis Consumer Analysis Competitive Analysis Bran d Organizational Realities Advertising in the Marketing Plan: The Company’s overall marketing plan determines promotional objectives and from these objectives. advertising objectives are derived. The next step is to set specific ad objectives and goals.
Evolution of Advertising Freelance Activity NEED FOR ADVERTISING OBJECTIVES One of the reasons many companies fail to set specific objectives for their advertising and promotional programs are that they fail to recognize the value of doing so. People began to expect tangible results from Objective driven Activity advertising. The commercial world will not blindly accept costs that cannot yield measurable results. the role of objectives and goals in advertising became crucial.Evolution Of Advertising ‘From a freelance activity to an integral component of the Marketing Plan’ As a business task. The advertiser started asking: "Am I getting my money’s worth?" Advertising was slowly becoming a management task. advertising often operated within organizations almost like a freelance activity. advertising has to meet certain clear-cut objectives. There are several important reasons for setting advertising and promotional objectives: Direction: Advertisement objectives are essential because it helps the marketer to know in advance what they want to achieve and to ensure that they are preceding in the right direction. and when such evaluation came. Pin pointing the ad objectives also helps in making one’s goals real and not . has been undergoing changes over the years. Since advertising involves heavy costs to the advertiser. however. well within the rules of the management process. it is only natural that advertising slowly got included in those management activities that are expected to yield results proportional to the effort and cost involved. In the past. The creative nature of the job often gave it the image of an activity that could not be subjected to established management norms and controls. This position. It came to be accepted that advertising had to operate with certain well-defined objectives against which the results of the programme can be later measured.
media. budgeting and sales promotion. or goals intended to shape the awareness and attitudes of consumers . When specific objectives are set it becomes easier for management to measure what has been accomplished by the campaign Two Distinct Schools Of Thought What should be or what could be the objectives for advertising? A controversy around this question is still running hot in the ad world. the advertising agency account executive help coordinate the creative team members and the efforts of copywriters. The second and diametrically opposite view is that ad is essentially a communication task and it should have only communication goals.imaginary. media buyers and professionals involved advertising research. Advertising and promotion planners are often faced with a number of strategic and tactical options in areas such as creative. Choices among these options should be made on the basis of how well a strategy or tactic matches the promotional objective. media specialists. The advertising programme must also be coordinated with other promotion mix elements within the company.it also guides and controls decision-making in each area and at each stage Communication: Objectives provide a communication platform for the client. so that effective ad programmes can be developed for meeting the objectives . Measurement and Evaluation of Results—A very important reason for setting specific objectives is that they provide a benchmark or standard against which success or failure of the campaign can be measured. In fact many problems may be avoided if all the concerned parties have written objectives to guide their actions and serve as a common base for discussing related issues Planning and Decision Making—Specific objectives can be useful as a guide or criterion for decision-making. One school holds that ad has to necessarily bring in more sales and therefore ad objectives should certainly include sales growth.
a far more powerful way to look at advertising is by understanding that advertising is a communication task. We tend to judge ads by these simple criteria. someone interested in purchasing a new computer would talk to others. and therefore we need to understand how communication works. COMMUNICATION OBJECTIVES Often when we think of advertising. The marketer needs to assess which experiences and impressions will have the most influence at each stage of the buying process. and observe computers in a store.Advertising Objectives Sales Oriented Objectives Communicatio n Oriented Objectives SALES AS AN ADVERTISING OBJECTIVE Many marketing managers view their advertising and promotional programs from a sales perspective and argue that sales or some related measure such as market share is the only meaningful goal for advertising and thus should be the basis for setting objectives. read articles. see television ads. However. there were eminent personalities who made the communication models. we just think of great ads that make us laugh or engage us in some manner. This understanding will help marketers allocate their communication budget more efficiently. To communicate effectively. They take the position that the basic reason a firm spends money on advertising and promotion is to sell its products or services. The starting point is an audit of all the potential interactions target customers may have with the product and the company. . which help a marketer to understand. For example. with specific communication objectives. look for information on the intranet. On the basis of the communication importance. marketers need to understand the fundamental elements underlying effective communication. Thus they argue that any money spent on advertising should produce measurable sales results. how he should go about communicating his product to the target audience.
MODELS BASED ON THE THREE STAGES OF BUYING BEHAVIOUR AIDA Stages Cognitive Stage Model Hierarchy of effects Model Awareness Innovation – Adoption Model Communications Model Exposure Attention Knowledge Affective Stage Interest Preference Liking Awareness Reception Cognitive response Interest Attitude Desire Behaviour stage Action Conviction Evaluation Intention Trial Purchase Behaviour .
It shows a set of stair-step stages. Desire. would come as a natural result of movement through the first three stages. First the lower level objectives such as awareness. which describe the process leading a potential customer to purchase. The stages. Interest. form a linear hierarchy. the fourth stage.Adoption AIDA MODEL The AIDA model was presented by Elmo Lewis to explain how personal selling works. knowledge or comprehension are accomplished. or regular use etc. Subsequent objectives may focus on moving prospects to higher levels in the pyramid to elicit desired behavioral responses such as associating feelings with the brand. . and have a desire to benefit from the product’s offerings. HIERARCHY OF EFFECTS MODEL Hierarchy of effects Model can be explained with the help of a pyramid. it is easier to accomplish ad objectives located at the base of the pyramid than the ones towards the top. such as regular brand use. and Action. trial. Action. Attention. The percentage of prospective customers will decline as they move up the pyramid toward more action oriented objectives. It demonstrates that consumers must be aware of a product’s existence. Although this idea was rudimentary. it led to the later emerging field of consumer behavior research. be interested enough to pay attention to the product’s features/benefits.
performance and other features. Capturing someone’s attention doesn’t mean they will notice the brand name. with simple messages repeating the product name. hence this stage involves creating brand knowledge. In this case. Knowledge: The target audience might have product awareness but not know much more. This isn’t as straightforward as it seems. how do they feel about it? If the audience looks unfavourably towards the product to communicator has to find out why. value. a communication campaigns alone cannot do the job. Magazines are full of ads that will capture our attention. If the unfavourable view is based on real problems. but we have trouble seeing the brand name. its benefits? In what way is it different than competitor’s brands? Who is the target market? These are the types of questions that must be answered if consumers are to achieve the step of brand knowledge. The communicator can check the campaigns success by measuring audience preference before and after the campaign. . the communicator must try to build consumer preference by promoting quality. perhaps just name recognition. the brand name needs to be made focal to get consumers to become aware. Consumers must become aware of the brand.Awareness: If most of the target audience is unaware of the object. Preference: The target audience might like the product but not prefer it to others. This is where comprehension of the brand name and what it stands for become important. What are the brand’s specific appeals. Liking: If target members know the product. the communicator’s task is to build awareness. For product problem it is necessary to first fix the problem and only then can you communicate its renewed quality. Thus.
It is dealing with the basic information that a consumer needs to know. Behaviour Stage This is the stage when the consumer. It is at this stage that the consumer will either have preference or liking towards the product or he will develop a dislike. whether he is for or against the product. For example. after having the knowledge and developing the liking or disliking towards the product. STRENGTHENING OBJECTIVE ATTITUDE AS AN ADVERTISING All these communication models are centered on the three stages of the buying behaviour of consumers. feelings of likes or dislike towards objects are dealt on the effective plane. it is the power of knowing. perceiving or conceiving ideas about the product. Affective Stage The effective component deals with the affections/emotions. This stage shows his attitude towards the product. The communicator’s job is to build conviction among the target audience. some members of the target audience might have conviction but not quite get around to making the purchase. Purchase: finally. or letting consumers tried out. will ultimately lead into a purchase of the product or rejection . The communicator must need these consumers to take the final step. offering a premium. The three stages are: Cognitive Stage The cognitive component deals with cognition. or knowledge. They may wait for more information or plan to act later. perhaps by offering the product at a low price.Conviction: a target audience might prefer a particular product but not develop a conviction about buying it. A customer needs to be exposed to the product and understand its usage before he actually purchases it. This is where consumers make a move to actually search out information or purchase.
because attitudes are not static.e. Each individual’s attitude is different from others. spread probably over several campaigns. person. When a product is introduced. the company needs to understand its target audience. Ads stimulate or direct desires. i. The company needs to understand the attitude of the target audience towards its brand. He does not venture to bluntly attack the strong held attitudes of its target audience. The advertising communicators know that attitudes are permeable and maneuverable through appropriate means. But the fact remains that his job is audience persuasion. Still. People normally resist change and dislike someone trying to influence the attitudes. Since attitudes often relate in some way to interaction with others. . object. They encompass. Attitude is the central theme in advertising management What is attitude? Attitudes are usually defined as a disposition or tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain thing (idea. And the advertising message is his tool. and situation). they represent an important link between cognitive and social psychology. Behaviour Realm of motives. Instead his attempts are a persuasive process of communication. our opinions and beliefs and are based upon our experiences. Ads provide information and facts. Attitude changed. the company first needs to build a positive attitude towards its brand. If this attitude is negative. Ads change attitudes and feelings The Three Stages Cognitive Realm of thoughts. especially when those attitudes are strongly held and cherished by them. He would first try the product and develop loyalty towards it or he is completely convinced that the product is good and would purchase the product. main concern of communicators Attitude changed on the part of the target audience is the main concern of marketing communicators.of the product. How is attitude linked to advertising? Attitude is a very personal issue. Once the Affective Realm of emotions. or are closely related to. shaping the attitude of the audience in his favour. the process sometimes lasting for years. attitude changes do take place perennially.
the company needs to strengthen it and make its audience brand loyal.attitude is favourable toward the product. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS IN ADVERTISING .
DESIGNING THE AD Art refers to a system of principles that guides us in creating beauty. verbal and aural. product Build among awareness in the mass market. copy. A layout is an overall orderly arrangement of all the format elements of an ad. visual.of the ad. subheads. MATURITY Maximise profit defending ADVERTISING STRATEGY Build awareness dealers. market share. Stress brand Reduce differences level interest and benefits. slogans and signature. So art refers to the whole presentation. It helps the creative team to DECLINE Reduce and milk the to needed MARKETING OBJECTIVES while expenditure market share. The term design refers to how the art director and graphic artist conceptually choose and structure the artistic elements that make up an ad’s appearance or set its tone. captions. In advertising. art shapes the message into a complete communication that appeal to the senses as well as the mind. INTRODUCTION GROWTH Create product Maximise awareness and trial.for ads for different products will vary according to the position of the product category in the product life cycle. brand. A layout gives a physical presentation (look and feel) of what the ad will look like. trademarks. .visual. early adopters and and to retain hardcore loyals.headline.
and body copy is simulated with lines. these elements must have balance. illustrations and photographs are sketched in. • Comprehensive: It is generally quite elaborated with colored photos. It is the focal point for the arrangement of art and copy elements in an ad. The artist uses it to visualize a number of layout approaches without wasting time on details. groups. products. the artist draws to the actual size of the ad.particularly cost conscious ones. • Dummy It is a form of rough design used to present the hand held feel of brochures. Headlines and subheads suggest the final type style. the best sketches are then developed further. must be well composed. very rough. the artist prepares a mechanical – the final artwork with the actual type in place along with all the visuals the publisher or printer will need to reproduce or print the ad. sub visuals. roughs. In the pre press or production art phase. Thumbnails / Rough Layouts The elements. and gaze motion. the designer uses thumbnails. Various terms The optical center of a layout is the balance point always vertically centered and slightly above horizontal center of the layout around which element “weights” are placed. . Roughs are presented to clients. non final art . multi page materials.develop the ad’s psychological elements. and places. contrast. • Rough layout Here.the nonverbal and symbolic components. television). and comprehensives. a glossy spray coat etc. In the conceptual phase. rapidly produced drawing used to try out ideas. It serves as a blueprint once the best design is chosen. • Thumbnail sketches It is a small. proportion. Thus. or point of purchase displays.in other words. perspective.to establish the ad’s look and feel. There are two phases in the design process for advertising (print. dummies. faces. figures.
There are several basic formats and compositions of layout that can get you started. A layout can be formally or informally balanced. certain colours have more weight than others. Informal balance places the elements in balance around the optical center asymmetrically but “equally” by considering their size. 1. Shapes can be made to look three-dimensional by the use of overlapping lines and converging lines. Contrast is the factor that provides emphasis and attention to various elements of the layout by rearranging and comparing their different intensities. The big copy layout may have visuals. Large elements of copy and art weigh more than small units. An alternative use of the big copy layout is to make the type and typographical style so dramatic and appealing that they function as the visuals. leading the eye differently and at a rate different from the more static and organized layout.Balance in visualization is concerned with visual weight. but they are supplemental to the body copy. and perspective. . 2. Perspective deals with relationships that involve distance. asymmetrical outweigh symmetrical ones. The idea visualizer should experiment with different divisions of white space as well as the proportional relationships of the elements to the white space. proportions. shape and “visual weight”. Certain motions are more dynamic and rapid. black is heavier than gray. Gaze motion considers the layout arrangement of copy and art elements designed to lead the eye through the message of any advertisement. The big picture uses a dominant visual in a formal balance with headline and body copy below. It is simple and direct and can be used for almost any kind of verbal/visual concept. Proportion deals with size relationships. The idea visualiser should decide which suits the message best. Contrast enables you to provide a unit of dominant interest – an optical focal point which needs attention. even white space has weight. Certain unequal proportions of size to size are more exciting to the eye than are regular and predictable ones. Formal balance is placing of the elements symmetrically with the left side the same as the right side. It is a way o creating the illusion of moving into the distance. The visual illusion of distance is created by making objects smaller as they move away.
5. demonstrations of a process. The scatter layout abounds with many different movements. 7. 4. 6. It resembles a film or comic strip and is utilized for narrative messages. The continuity strip uses many more elements of headline.3. around the other. This provides dynamic movements and gaze motion through the elements of the advertisement. The mortise layout either uses copy or visuals to form a border or frame. or assortments of merchandise. Implications for Marketing Strategy The following table shows how the components of attitude are focused on by marketers using various models to bring about a favourable change in customer attitude towards a brand/product. and while it may seem undisciplined and brash. The individual spaces are separated by a variety of visual and graphic devices. it is produced from an organized plan designed to present a readable message. text. The free-form layout combines copy and visuals into irregularly aligned or superimposed relationships using combinations of each to cause perspectives and interesting divisions of white space. MODELS . and visuals than the average type of layout. It is formal in nature but the verbal visual content can create the dynamics. The omnibus layout uses many visuals in spatially divided sections each with its own headline and copy.
rebates) McGUIRES’ PERSUASION MATRIX Advertising is persuasive communication designed to create behavioral or attitudinal changes. . In this time of measuring advertising not just by sales but through brand preference and loyalty. One must choose a source that is attractive to the target audience. Advertisers keep the persuasion matrix in mind to persuade the customers to purchase products they advertise. • At the affective level with emotionally toned messages At the behavioral level with incentives (samples. This matrix brings together multiple elements to be considered in the construction and evaluation of persuasive messages. there are many factors to consider. they use the various components as follows: • • At the cognitive level with information. and a channel that will maximize comprehension.STAGES AIDA MODEL HIERARCHY OF MODEL INNOVATION PERSUAION MATRIX PRESENTATION ATTENTION COMPREHENSION YIELDING RETENTION EFFECTS ADOPTION COGNITIVE ATTENTION AWARENESS KNOWLEDGE LIKING PREFERENCE CONVICTION PURCHASE AWARENESS INTEREST AFFECTIVE INTEREST DESIRE ACTION EVALUATION TRIAL ADOPTION BEHAVIORAL BEHAVIOUR When marketers use the traditional models to create or change attitudes. When changing attitudes through advertising. is crucial. a message that will break through the clutter. a method of connecting with customers on many levels. McGuire has provided a complete howto guide for the creation of persuasive messages aimed at inducing an attitude change and/or a purchase action. such as this. coupons. usually culminating in the form of a purchase.
receiver (audience). Destination has to do with the type of target behavior desired. These elements are addressed using the independent variables (communication components) as shown in the figure above. 2. channel (medium). Message presentation This includes deciding what information to give the audience.The matrix consists of dependent and independent variables. Attention . The five classes include source. The dependent variables are the elements that finally lead to persuasion. message. how to give it and through what medium. and destination (response target). What is extent of the behavior desired? What is it that we really want people to do? How can we get them to do it? What messages (verbal and visual) will resonate with the intended audience and help them to perform the desired behavior? The dependent variables can be explained as: 1.
An advertising medium is any means by which an advertiser may decide to spend the money he has allocated to advertising. Retention Remembering the accepted information is the fifth step in the process. The placement of this information into memory does not mean that it is not susceptible to decay. people often don't know why they do the things they do That is why further investigation into attitude change is necessary. Agreement with the message can be influenced by a number of factors. an opinion must arise about the believability and validity of the persuasive message.e. but also understood and contemplated. Comprehension The step in the attitude change process requires the receiver to grasp the full meaning and implications of the message. It must not only be heard. 4. for examples). . Delayed processing also affects the storage and reprocessing of information.Even with exposure to message. as in the grocery or department store. Agreement/ yielding After comprehension. This involves attracting the attention of the target audience i. 3. In this world of sensory overload. 5. attention is not guaranteed. In other words. the source and message elements come into play. it is necessary for the human mind to accept only a small portion of the deluge of information it receives. Selective perception helps the mind bring information into manageable portions. THE CONCEPT OF ADVERTISING MEDIA The range of advertising media is so wide that it is not possible to attempt a definition other than in the broadest terms. both internal (such as previously held beliefs) and external (the perception of the source as being credible or the type of appeal used. Behaviour This step is especially important to those measuring advertising's effectiveness through increased sales. research has shown that actions do not necessarily follow attitudes. A substantial amount of time may pass between the conveyance of the message and the actual moment a purchase decision is made. Behaviour here means the actual process of purchase. Despite the fact that an individual alone can experience the entire process as he or she goes through it.
The effectiveness of a well-designed advertising message depends upon “when” &”where” it is realized. Examples are direct mail. There are “time” &”place” decisions. The target market for this is man in the age group of 25-60 years. outdoor. For e. cigarette advertising. Advertising in magazines having a predominantly female readership would be mostly wasteful for this product.IMPORTANCE OF MEDIA IN ADVERTISING Effective advertising refers to informing the public about the right product at the right time through the right medium. TYPES OF MEDIA The media are classified into two categories: Above-the-line media : press. TV.g. The print media has two sources of income: Circulation and subscription and Advertising revenue. Newspapers There are several types of newspapers: - Daily . Below the line media: those who do not give commission to the ad agency. Therefore. Conveying a right message through a wrong medium at the wrong time would definitely a waste of resources. its frequency and continuity. the timely release of the advertisement message. The advertiser would consider placing ads in magazine having a predominantly male readership. The recognized agencies get commission from these media. and the place of its release. the right media selection is the crux of the success of the entire advertising campaign. MEDIA CLASSES/VEHICLES PRINT MEDIA Advertising in the print media is the oldest and largest in terms of advertising billing. It may be true that rarely does any magazine have a 100 % male readership. posters. exhibitions and sales literature. More than 50% of the space is devoted to the print ads. cinema and radio. In short we may say that the success of advertising depends upon the right selection of media.
The major difference being the class of people catered to. Newspapers can also be classified as regional. national. It is because of television that the MNCs have been successful. INDIAN EXPRESS targets people who want quality news. local. etc. etc. while a magazine like BUSINESS WORLD has an audience that has interest in knowing about the current business happenings. etc. For example ECONOMIC TIMES targets businessmen and the student community.- Weekly Special interest Evening. Radio . Each newspaper has its target audience. The rural people have also started using the new tech products and this has really led to the growth in the GDP. Previously only Delhi had TV transmission center but later the centers spread across India. While newspapers cater to the mass. ELECTRONIC MEDIA Television: Television was introduced in India on September 15. MID-DAY targets people with funky attitude. A newspaper is read daily or on the day it appears while the magazine is read over a long period of time. After LPG the reach of television has increased tremendously. magazines have a niche audience. They are in many ways different from newspapers. Magazines Most magazines are weekly or fortnightly or monthly. For example TOINS is circulated to 10 lakh people daily. It has changed the way the rural people perceive things.The marketers need to identify various target audiences and then use it as a medium of communication. Now a days more and more companies prefer to advertise on television because it creates a visual appeal and also television enables demonstrative effect. 1959.
Advantages of outdoor media: • • The outdoor offers long life. national and even international. billboards. • • The advertiser can incorporate the names and addresses of his local dealers or agents at the bottom of the poster. . bus and air terminals. It is the “real” mass medium. 90% of the rural India has access to Radio. hoarding. product name and logo properly which are an integral part of the product. Outdoor ad allows displaying the slogan. Shoppers are exposed to last minute reminder by the stores when they drive down the lane where the store is located.Till recently. highway advertising. The outdoor ads offer impact. The marketer can vary the ad message according to the particular segment of the market. It is the least cost form of communication. The ads can be local. It offers geographic selectivity. • • Disadvantages of outdoor media: • Outdoor advertising when employed on a national basis proves to be expensive. Radio is very easy to use and does not require technical abilities. These dealer imprint strips are called snipes. The modern outdoor media include outdoor advertising in several form such as posters. the importance of radio was not realized in a country like India. In fact Radio as a medium has far greater importance than TV. Radio was the medium that helped in spreading the messages of various freedom fighters during independence. OUTDOOR AND TRANSIT MEDIA Outdoor advertising is the oldest form of advertising. Since the display is huge it creates an impact on the prospective consumer. and transit advertising placed on vehicles and rail. regional. roadside signs. SHOPPERS STOP generally follows this type of advertising.
The audience gets bored seeing at the same hoardings. It offers a sure exposure and repetitiveness Reaches a large population Cannot reach the rich urbanites who move about in their own automobiles. This is possible largely due to DM. interval and at the end. Advertising can initiate a sale but it is only through DM that the sale is finally made. The following are the merits of cinema advertising: • Cinema ensures captive audience: The people coming into cinema halls come with their own wish and their enthusiasm to see a movie is very high. They are very engrossed into the screen as soon as they arrive. Advantages of transit advertising: • • • • Low cost medium. TV. Disadvantages: Direct marketing. DM also helps in maintaining customer relationships. One time communication does not built a relationship. . • Cinema is ideal media for niche marketing: The advertiser reaches the audience of his choice.• Outdoor advertising is not selective in the sense that once the outdoor ad is put it is seen even by people who are not the target audience. DM may exploit new technologies like E-mail. For DM to be successful the customer database has to be really good. The term is used to refer to a campaign that is sustained for a long time. DM helps in long term. We have to get married to our customers. There is a huge opportunity for DM in India. etc. Cinema advertising is when the ads are shown in the movie theatres before the start of the movie. DM is affordable only when the margins in the business can afford the cost of sustained contact. Blind spot is the most dangerous thing marketer’s fear. cinema and miscellaneous media Direct marketing is defined as any activity whereby you reach your prospect or customer directly as an individual – or they respond to you directly. The pharmaceutical industry is most acquainted with this type of marketing.
which can be accessed by calling a local number in Delhi. in effect. this enormously valuable service is drawing users across all ages. Miscellaneous media: Video and cable TV. How it works is as follows.• Economical: the cost is very negligible. etc. It is cheaper than long distance calling. . not only have an ever-growing user base to target. INNOVATIVE MEDIA Innovative media focuses on alternative platforms of advertising which open up new avenues for advertisers. relative or business associate in Mumbai and Delhi. socio economic classes and geographical areas of India. trade shows. The result is new advertising vehicles which are wider in reach. To hear/access the messages posted in their inbox. the emergence of new media have enhanced reach on several levels. they also have the advantage of reaching out to their specific target group. all the technology required to use this service is a telephone. As expected. Point of Purchase advertising. The idea behind this service is simple and powerful. more convenient than e-mail and requires no knowledge of the Internet or PC. As technological breakthroughs facilitate better modes of communication. All these factors promise to make the Voice Reach service immensely popular. A person in Mumbai can call up a local number and leave a message for his friend. Voice Reach : Voice Reach advertising is an exciting new medium for advertisers which enables them to broadcast audio messages to a precisely defined target audience. It allows people to communicate with each other within and across cities. but also completely free. Advertising & Promotions Voice Reach is undoubtedly an advertising platform with massive potential. specific in targeting and most of all lower in cost. Advertisers. window display. occupations. These announcements are targeted according to the profile submitted by users at the time of registration. users have to hear a commercial announcement. which otherwise is a rare occasion and expensive. Thus. exhibitions and fairs. at the cost of a local telephone call. it provides the convenience of listening to a familiar voice. This service is not just convenient. The system will deliver the message to the recipient's mailbox or voice box. Moreover.
your audience can now be an active part of your contests just by dialing a local number. Make your television programs more interactive.very few do. Your viewers. . A very valuable service for any broadcaster on television or radio. banners. can call a local number and leave a message for you. Geography is no longer a limiting factor. logos & slides of stunning size.Voice Reach advertising promises: o o Better one-to-one marketing capabilities than the Internet Guaranteed ad consumption : The advertisement comes before a user hears or sends messages Target-based advertising Interactive Advertising o o Commercial announcements are just the beginning of a strong line-up of services which Voice Reach offers. or send a fax (if they can). is the perfect medium to carry messages from the viewer to the broadcaster. Making TV shows more interactive Messages transferred over a local telephone could be • • • • Requests Feedback Queries Opinion polls The Vidiwall: The Vidiwall is an intensely captivating advertising medium which truly represents the best of today's technology. Highlights o o o Customised contests . The Vidiwall is essentially a mega screen capable of broadcasting high quality audio-visuals. But are these contests really effective? How many people do they reach? How many people respond? How many people actually remember to fill up a postcard. resolution and picture quality. thus. Customized Promotions & Contests Everybody runs contests.National Participation through local calls. let your viewers talk to you. Voice Reach. The fact is . These messages in turn will be delivered at your doorstep. enabling your audience to enter your contests with a simple phone call. or remember to send an e-mail. anywhere in India.
From time immortal it has been the most popular form and well-appreciated form of entertainment available to the village people. the Vidiwall is fast being recognized as a medium that grabs attention like nothing else. Government has used this media for popularizing improved variety of seeds.Wheat Cultivation.Placed at Mumbai's premier shopping plaza. enlisting the help of the literacy house in Luck now. have been adapted for dedicated Point-Of-Sale and Point-Of-Information usage. & MP. The field staff of the corporation also reported a definite impact on the business. Some of the most striking ones are: Puppetry Puppetry is the indigenous theatre of India. Known to have a tremendous impact on people. agricultural implements. Vidiwalls. Both were well received by farmers. These plays were shown to the audience in villages in UP. a lot of innovative mediums are used in rural advertising and marketing. The manipulator uses the puppets as a medium to express and communicate ideas. BBLIL used Magician quite effectively for launch of Kadak Chhap Tea in Etawah. The number of inquires at local Life Insurance Companies during the period immediately following the performance was compared with normal frequency and found to be considerable higher. Bihar. It has been used as an effective medium for social protest against injustice. Folk Theater Folk theaters are mainly short and rhythmic in form. A) Balliye Kanak Biye . It is an inexpensive activity. the Vidwall is a highly effective tool to maximise brand recall. values and social messages. fertilizer etc. INNOVATIVE RURAL MEDIA In addition to the conventional media vehicles. Crossroads. Life Insurance Corporation of India used puppets to educate rural masses about Life Insurance. The simple tunes help in informing and educating the people in informal and interesting manner. a trademarked Philips solution. Punjab Agricultural University produced Two Audio Cassettes. B) Khiran Kepah Narme . Demonstration: .Cotton Cultivation. exploitation and oppression.
Result demonstration ii. They are silent unlike traditional theatre ."Direct Contact" is a face-to-face relationship with people individually and with groups such as the Panchayats and other village groups. which must use general image to cater to greatest number of viewers. Method demonstration i. Their shops look alluring and stand out among other outlets. i. help of audio -visual media can add value. for their wall to be painted with product messages.A speech or film comes to an end. Such contact helps in arousing the villager's interest in their own problem and motivating them towards self-development. The greatest advantage of the medium is the power of the picture completed with its local touch. To get one's wall painted with the product messages is seemed as a status symbol. Asian Paints launched Utsav range by painting Mukhiya's house or Post office to demonstrate that paint does not peel off. walls. B. The images used have a strong emotional association with the surrounding. a feet impossible for even a moving visual medium like television. Retailer normally welcomes paintings of their shops. Besides rural households shopkeepers and panchayats do not except any payment. Wall Paintings Wall Paintings are an effective and economical medium for advertising in rural areas. Demonstration may be A. Simple Demonstration ii. but wall painting stays as long as the weather allows it to. and name boards. Since it makes the shop look cleaner and better. Advertising agency: . Composite Demonstration In result demonstration.
Therefore. In case of doubt concerning the decision of whether to advertise or not. in formulating the advertising plans and translating them into advertising campaigns. If the decision is in favour of advertising. An advertising agency will have regular contacts with various support systems required for the production of advertising material. The type of training and talent that is required for conceiving and executing advertising is likely to be available with an advertising agency. the advertiser. It can performance is specially relevant to those advertisers who may not have the necessary expertise in the use of advertising. it becomes rather essential for the potential advertiser to have ready access to the agency and preferably one. Its acts as a consultant to its client. preparing and executing their advertising and other promotional programmes. It is the media. An advertising agency will be in a position to take an objective view of the advertiser’s plans and proposals and thus venture to put forward its opinions and comments. which has an . particularly in a country like India. an agency may be asked to render advice. including personal meetings. the services of an advertising agency will be required. There are a number of reasons for having an advertising agency. which provides basic sustenance to the advertising agency by allowing 15% commission (as in India) on the billing of advertisers. A potential advertiser will need to formulate and analyse his marketing plans in order to examine the potential contribution of advertising from amongst the relevant marketing inputs.An advertising agency is an independent organization that provides one or more specialized advertising and promotion related services to assist companies in developing. A major advantage of the agency is its regular dealing with the media and the expertise it develops in the process. Location of Agency Office A major consideration in the choice of an advertising agency. is the location of the office of the agency. The system obviously has its origin in free-market operations arising from competition within the media. A considerable amount of communication. which has resulted in the growth of the advertising profession and business. is required at various stages of decision making in the development of advertising plans and material.
office in the same town or city.an agency in Andheri . O R G A N I S A T I O N C H A R T B M C L I E N T S E R FV I I NC AE NS O A A N R A D G O I N F G D D E C S R I R I R E E E A C C T T T I V O O ES R R S C D E I R/ A E C C B C T R O O A U R N N C T H S E D C I RR EE CT AT OR RI A L / L E G M G R E D O I A RU EP S E A R C H G R O AU UP DS I OL A V N I S G U SU A TA LU G DP E IR O O D U C T I O N Levers . Some agencies allow a certain periodicity of visits to their clients as a part of their normal service. This arrangement is convenient and also economical in terms of time and expenses for the agency. as long as it is in the same location as that of the client.Lintas (previously) RAMMS INDIA Pvt. Ltd.
Graph classifying the relation of profits to advertising expenditures: The following graph speaks about the expenses incurred .
The company logo: A symbolic device whose function is to give immediate identity to the company 8. The greater proportion of all sales comes about because advertising has influenced the buyers. The basic standard ad contains the following elements: 1. The illustration: This demonstrates the product in relation to the headline benefit 3. Tag line: A phrase designed to leave the reader with a comfortable impression of the company . Final paragraph as a call to action. To communicate a message in the smallest space. So advertising plays a very important part in shifting of product. The body copy: An opening paragraph enlarging on this benefit. A lesser proportion of sales come about via word of mouth or because the product happens to be in the same place as the buyer at the point of sale . via the least number of words. 6. The product is made . (Get in touch right away) 7.when he feels the impulse to buy.CONCLUSION "Advertising is a splendid device for helping to keep the money going round in a free enterprise society. The headline: This features the main product benefit. 2. 4. in the shortest possible time.then advertise and then people buy it. Penultimate paragraph warning the reader of what he will miss if he doesn't buy the product. Further paragraphs of facts to support the benefit claim 5.
Manendra Mohan Business Today .Bibliography Advertising Management .
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