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Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices

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Digital Electronics Introduction Introduction Number System Code Conversions Weighted & Unweighted Codes Error Detection & Correction in Codes Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices

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Digital Electronics Introduction Introduction Number System Code Conversions Weighted & Unweighted Codes Error Detection & Correction in Codes Binary Number System Octal Number System Hexa Decimal Number System Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices

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Digital Electronics Introduction Introduction Number System Code Conversions Weighted & Unweighted Codes Error Detection & Correction in Codes Octal To Binary Binary To Octal Hex To Binary Binary To Hex Hex To Octal Octal To Hex Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices

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Digital Electronics Introduction Introduction Number System Code Conversions Weighted & Unweighted Codes Error Detection & Correction in Codes BCD Code Excess ± 3 Code Gray Code Character Codes Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Introduction Number System Code Conversions Weighted & Unweighted Codes Error Detection & Correction in Codes Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Introduction Types De-Morgan¶s Theorems Interconversion Of Gates Boolean Algebra Karnaugh¶s Map Logic Gate Applications Introduction to Logic Families Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Introduction Types De-Morgan¶s Theorems Interconversion Of Gates Boolean Algebra Karnaugh¶s Map Logic Gate Applications Introduction to Logic Families OR Gate AND Gate NOT Gate NOR Gate NAND Gate EX .OR Gate EX .NOR Gate Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Introduction Types De-Morgan¶s Theorems Interconversion Of Gates Boolean Algebra Karnaugh¶s Map Logic Gate Applications Introduction to Logic Families De-Morgan¶s 1st Theorem De-Morgan¶s 2nd Theorem Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Introduction Types De-Morgan¶s Theorems Interconversion Of Gates Boolean Algebra Karnaugh¶s Map Logic Gate Applications Introduction to Logic Families Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Introduction Types De-Morgan¶s Theorems Interconversion Of Gates Boolean Algebra Karnaugh¶s Map Logic Gate Applications Introduction to Logic Families Boolean Identities Some Proofs Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Introduction Types De-Morgan¶s Theorems Interconversion Of Gates Boolean Algebra Karnaugh¶s Map Logic Gate Applications Introduction to Logic Families Introduction K-Map expression Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Introduction Types De-Morgan¶s Theorems Interconversion Of Gates Boolean Algebra Karnaugh¶s Map Logic Gate Applications Introduction to Logic Families Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Introduction Types De-Morgan¶s Theorems Interconversion Of Gates Boolean Algebra Karnaugh¶s Map Logic Gate Applications Introduction to Logic Families A look into logic family Features of logic family Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Introduction Examples Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuits Circuit Introduction Examples Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Introduction Examples Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Introduction Memory Classification .

in terms of ones and zeros. Computers help in speeding up the process. It works on digital signals. Some of the number systems: Binary Octal Hexadecimal BCD . Moreover computers control the process.e. by performing complex calculations in a very short span and also initiates immediate follow up action to be taken. Thus the entire data that has to be fed to the computer must be digital I. the analog signals are of no use to the computer. There are various number systems available to represent any data. However.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Digital Electronics ² Introduction All of us are familiar and aware that now a days most the processes are automated.

If the decimal # is both int & fraction then above steps are combined. 2-1.75)10 Decimal to binary conversion: The given # is successively divided by 2 considering the reminders.5 + 0. The 1st remainder is LSB. Consider weight associated with each bit position.011)2 . 20. 2-2. If the decimal # is a fraction. its continuously multiplied by 2.g.: (101 110. e. Continue division until the quotient becomes 0. The 1st carry generated is the MSB.g.110110)2 (63. 21.375)10 = (111111.: (125)10 = (1111101)2 (0.: (1001)2: 23 X 1 + 22 X 0 + 21 X 0 + 20 X 1 = 8 + 0 + 0 + 1 = (9)10 e.g. considering carry generated. multiply each bit with the weight associated.25 = (46. add all of them to get a decimal equivalent. e. Write the remainders in the order from MSB to LSB to get the binary equivalent. 2-3« The number of bits µn¶ required to successfully represent µm¶ decimal numbers in binary system is given by: m = 2n Binary to decimal conversion: We can represent any decimal # as sum of product of weight associated with each bit & value of the bit itself. The last remainder is MSB. Any number is represented only in terms of 1 and 0. Weights assigned to a binary number are as follows.11)2: 25 X 1 + 24 X 0 + 23 X 1 + 22 X 1 + 21 X 1 + 20 X 0 + 2-1 X 1 + 2-2 X 1 = 32 + 0 + 8 + 4 + 20 + 0. Only fractional part is multiplied.85)10 = (0. «23.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Binary Number System Binary number system has base two. 22. The process is stopped when the fractional part becomes 0 or the required accuracy is reached.

63757) 8 (52. Weights assigned to an octal number are: «83. 8-1. The process is stopped when the fractional part becomes 0 or the required accuracy is reached.g. If the decimal # is a fraction. The 1st remainder is LSB. 8-3« In an octal number system. Only fractional part is multiplied. 8-2. The division is terminated when the quotient is 0. its continuously multiplied by 8. (596)10 = (1124) 8 (0. The last remainder is MSB.: (0. The 1st carry generated is the MSB.125)10 = (64.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Octal Number System Octal number system has a base of 8. 0 to 7 represents first 8 decimal number then a 2nd digit as 1 is considered so we have 10 representing 8.3125)10 Decimal to octal conversion: The given # is successively divided by 8.24)8 = 6 X 81 + 2 X 80 + 2 X 8-1 + 4 X 8-2 = (50.4199)10 e.: (62.327)8: 8-1 X 3 + 8-2 X 2 + 8-3 X 7 = (0. Any number is represented only in terms of number 0 to 7.: (502)8: 82 X 5 + 81 X 0 + 80 X 2 = 5 X 64 + 0 X 8 + 2 X 1 = (322)10 e. considering carry generated.1)8 . Multiply each symbol with its associated weight and finally take the sum. 82. 81.812)10 = (0.g. Octal to decimal conversion: First get the weight associated with each symbol of octal number. 80. e. 11 as 9 and so on.g. considering the reminders in each division. If the decimal # is both int & fraction then above steps are combined.

considering carry generated. The process is stopped when the fractional part becomes 0 or the required accuracy is reached. 161. its continuously multiplied by 16.: (AB. 4.C1)16 = 10 X 161 + 11 X 160 + 12 X 16-1 + 1 X 16-2 = (171. 7. 16-2.5)10 = (2F)16 . A.: (0. 5. B. E and F.754)10 Decimal to hex conversion: The given # is successively divided by 16. Also hexadecimal numbers can easily be converted into binary and octal number. If the decimal # is a fraction. The last remainder is MSB. 1. considering the reminders in each division. Multiply each symbol with its associated weight and finally take the sum. (1712)10 = (6B0)16 (0. 6. Only fractional part is multiplied. The division is terminated when the quotient is 0.238)10 e. C. Any number is represented with symbols 0.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Hexa Decimal Number System The hexadecimal system has a base of 16.3D)16: 16-1 X 3 + 16-2 X 13 = (0.g. The 1st remainder is LSB.g.g. 160. 16-1. e. This number system is widely used in data representation for microprocessors as it becomes simpler as compared to binary. 9. 2. 162. The weights assigned to hexadecimal number is « 163.: (1A2)16: 162 X 1 + 161 X 10 + 160 X 2 = 256 + 160 + 2 = (418)10 e. D. 16-3 « Hex to decimal conversion: First get the weight associated with each symbol. The 1st carry generated is the MSB.350)10 = (0.5999)16 (47. If the decimal # is both int & fraction then above steps are combined. 8. 3.

111 110)2 Binary to octal conversion: Form a group of 3 bits starting from the octal decimal point.010 001 011)2 (24.1011)2 = 011 011. Add suitable zeros to get groups of exact 3 bits whenever necessary. for fractional part move towards right.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Other Code Conversions Octal to Binary ² Binary to Octal conversion Octal to binary conversion: Consider the octal number.101 100 = (33.213)8 = (0. Then write the octal equivalent of each 3-bit group.101 100 = (0. Write the binary equivalent for each octal symbol. (563)8 = (101 110 011)2 (0. (1101110)2 = 001 101 110 = (156)8 (0.76)8 = (010 100.54)8 . The resultant number is the binary equivalent of the octal number. For integer part move towards left.54)8 (11011.10110)2 = 0.

for fractional part move towards right. Write the binary equivalent for each hex symbol.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Other Code Conversions Hex to Binary ² Binary to Hex conversion Hex to binary conversion: Consider the hex number.BD)16 = (0. Then write the octal equivalent of each 4-bit group. (101101)2 = 0010 1101 = (2D)16 (0.1011 1101)2 (C1. Add suitable zeros to get groups of exact 4 bits whenever necessary.A)16 (110010101)2 = 0001 1001 0101. For integer part move towards left.1010 = (0.1011 1000 = (195. (A5)16 = (1010 0101)2 (0.B8)16 .101)2 = 0. The resultant number is the binary equivalent of the hex number.A)16 = (1100 0001)2 Binary to hex conversion: Form a group of 4 bits starting from the hexadecimal point.

: (48)16 To be converted in Binary equivalent first: (01001000)2 Octal equivalent of Binary: = 001 001 000 = (110)8 Octal to Hex conversion: e. Hex to octal conversion: e.g.g.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Other Code Conversions Hex to Octal ² Octal to Hex conversion This conversion is not possible directly. So first the Hex or Octal number is converted in binary. From binary it can be reconverted back to Octal or Hex as required.: (523)8 To be converted in Binary equivalent first: (101010011)2 Octal equivalent of Binary: = 0001 0101 0011 = (153)16 .

Excess ± 3 and gray codes.e. each bit position has a weight in increasing powers of 2 i. They may or may not be used. In case of decimal numbers. BCD Code: Binary Coded Decimal Code Code in which the decimal numbers 0 to 9 are represented by a string of binary digits. 84¯21 are few weighted codes. Code can be classified as weighted codes and unweighted codes.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Weighted and Unwighted Codes BCD Code Code is a way to represent data. 4. BCD code will be 4-bit BCD of individual digits taken together. Weight associated with MSB 23 & LSB 20. 2. 0 = 0000. 3321. In weighted code. 1. 1 = 0001. also called 8421 code. In case of binary numbers. µn¶ digit decimal #. weights are 1. 1. 4 = 0100. 5421. Thus there is no systematic way of representing the number. 10. natural BCD. 8 so on. 9 = 1001 .e. 1. a weight is assigned to each symbol position of the code. no fixed weight is assigned to each symbol position of the code. 8. 7 = 0111. 4221. in arithmetic operations. 2 = 0010. In unweighted code. In hex. 256 so on. In octal. Apart from them. EBCDIC. These codes may further be self complementing or otherwise. Examples of unweighted codes: ASCII. 3 = 0011. 64 so on. each bit position has a weight in increasing power of 10 i. 100 so on. 16. 6 = 0110. 5 = 0101. 8 = 1110.

9¶s complement of 6 is 9 ± 6 = 3. 11 = 0100 1011 For 138: 3 + 1. corresponding to the Excess ± 3 code X. 3 + 8 = 4. one¶s complement of any Excess ± 3 code X. Excess ± 3 code of 3 is 0110. 11 = 0100 0110 1011 Excess ± 3 code is a self-complementing code i. 3 + 3. is the Excess ± 3 code for the 9¶s complement of the decimal #.g.e. One¶s complement of 1001 is 0110.: Decimal Number = 6 Its Excess ± 3 code = 1001. 3 + 8 = 4. e. 6.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Weighted and Unwighted Codes EXCESS ² 3 code Excess ± 3 Code: Unweighted code: This code is obtained by adding 3 to each digit and converting that digit to a binary code: For 7: 3 + 7 = 10 = 1010 For 18: 3 + 1. .

It is also used extensively while simplifying Boolean expressions using Karnaugh¶s map.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Weighted and Unwighted Codes Gray code Gray Code: Unweighted code: This is a code in terms of 1 and 0and every new code differs from the previous code only in one bit position. It avoids problems which arise when several digits are supposed to change at a time. Gray code is not used for performing arithmetic operations. Binary Code 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Gray Code 0000 0001 0011 0010 0110 0111 0101 0100 Binary Code 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Gray Code 1100 1101 1111 1110 1010 1011 1001 1000 . Instead it is used in encoding the position of shafts or wheels.

These codes are used in computers. The two popularly used character codes are: ASCII code (American Standard Code For Information Interchange) EBCDIC code (Executed Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) ASCII: This is a 7-bit code without parity. It also includes special characters like $.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Weighted and Unwighted Codes Character Code Character Codes: These are also called alphanumeric codes. It allows coding of both upper & lower case alphabets. These codes contain both letters & digits. A 1000001 65 B 1000010 66 C 1000011 67 Z 1011010 90 a 1100001 97 b 1100010 98 z 1111010 112 0 0110000 48 1 0110000 49 9 0111001 57 . * and so on. capable of coding 128 alphanumeric characters including special characters. It allows manufacturers to standardize computer hardware.

Error Detection using Single Parity Bit: It¶s the additional bit added to the existing data which is decided depending upon whether parity is to be odd or even. . there is always a possibility of data getting lost or partially damaged due to change in the bit status. The only limitation is: there must be only one bit error I.e data changes at only one bit position. One of the popular means to do it is by introducing additional bit/bits to maintain correct parity for the data being transmitted. So there must be some means to detect error in data & identify it.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Error Detection And Correction in Codes During data transmission between computer & various I/o devices. Thus 100010 could change to 10011 or 100000 during transmission. It can be added either as MSB or LSB. Hamming Code: It uses multiple parity bits for handling successful data transfer. This is an erroneous data. This code is basically an error detecting as well as correcting code.

fan in and fan out. Negative logic: High voltage represents a logic 0 and a low voltage represents a 1. This logic is usually followed. Logic gates accept inputs & give outputs only in two states 0 and 1. AND. . propagation delay. However. NOR and NAND Each gate has a symbol associated with it. voltage levels for operations. Two types of logics are possible: Positive logic: High voltage represents a logic 1 and a low voltage represents a 0. EX-OR. The voltage level magnitudes are decided by their respective logic families. NOT.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Logic Gates ² Introduction Logic gates are electronic circuits that implement a basic logic operation. it does not give any indications regarding the electronic circuit constructing the gate. power dissapation. Each logic family is characterized by its switching speed. Operations possible are: OR.

Example of OR gate: IC 7432 Quad ± 2 input OR gate.It is an electronic gate whose output is 1 if any one or both its inputs are 1 Boolean expression: . This means output is Zero. . Hence do not conduct. When either A or B or both are high corresponding to Vcc. This is the only IC available. Quad ± 4 gates. So no current flows through the LED. each having two inputs.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X OR Gate Function: . Current flows through the LED and it glows. LED both diodes D1 D2 are reverse biased. either D1 & D2 or both are forward biased & conduct.Y = A + B µ+¶ indicates logic OR Truth Table: Symbol of 2 ± i/p OR gate: Using Diodes: A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 O/P 0 1 1 1 A A D1 R Y B B D2 O/P Working of two input OR gate using diodes: When A and B both are 0 corresponding to ground. This means the output is high.

It is an electronic gate whose output is 1 only when both its inputs are 1 Boolean expression: . B or both are 0. So all the current from source Vcc flows through the diodes & nothing through LED. LED Hence they conduct.Y = A .¶ indicates logic AND Truth Table: Symbol of 2 ± i/p AND gate: Using Diodes: A B O/P A A D1 0 0 0 0 1 0 R 1 0 0 Y 1 1 1 B B D2 O/P Working of two input AND gate using diodes: When A.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X AND Gate Function: . . D1. the diodes are reverse biased. D2 or both are forward biased. When both A & B are 1. So output is Zero. All the current from the source Vcc flows through the LED & it glows. IC 7421 Dual ± 4 input AND gate. IC 7411 Triple ± 3 input AND gate. Example of AND gate: IC 7408 Quad ± 2 input AND gate. The output is 1. So no current flows through diodes. B µ.

A NOT gate has only one input & the output of the NOT gate is complement of its input. Boolean expression: Y = A¯ Truth Table: A 0 1 O/P 1 0 Symbol of NOT gate: A Y or A Y Example of NOT gate: IC 7404 Hex inverters. There are 6 inverter gates.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X NOT Gate (Inverter Gate) Function: . .

Boolean expression: Y = A + B ¯¯¯ Truth Table: A B 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Symbol of NOR gate: A Y O/P 1 0 0 0 B A Y B Example of NOR gate: IC 7402 ± Quad 2 Input NOR gate IC 7427 ± Triple3 Input NOR gate IC 74260 ± Dual 5 Input NOR gate .It is an electronic circuit whose output is 0 when anyone or both its inputs is 1.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X NOR Gate Function: . When both inputs are 0 that output is high.

IC 7410 Triple ± 3 input NAND gate. .It is an electronic gate whose output is 1 when any one of its inputs or both are 0 Boolean expression: Y = A . B ¯¯¯ Truth Table: A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 O/P 1 1 1 0 Symbol of 2 ± i/p NAND gate: A A Y B or B Y Example of NAND gate: IC 7400 Quad ± 2 input NAND gate.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X NAND Gate Function: . IC 7420 Dual ± 4 input NAND gate.

the number of ones are odd. . B Truth Table: A B 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Symbol of Ex ± OR gate: - O/P 0 1 1 0 A Y B Example of Ex ± OR gate: IC 7486 ± Quad 2 Input Ex ± OR gate Ex. the output of the gate is 1. B¯ + A¯ . which gives a high output only if odd number of ones is present at the input. For even number of ones. the output of Ex ± OR gate is 0. When this 4 bit data is entered as input to an Ex.OR gate. Suppose there is 4-bit number. Boolean expression: Y=A B = A .It is an electronic circuit.OR gates are generally used to check parity of data.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X EX ² OR Gate Function: . It is also used in construction of half adders and full adders. If it has odd parity.

If the number of ones is odd.It is an electronic circuit. the output is 0. If both the bits are same. the output is 0. . if they are different. Boolean expression: Y=A Symbol of Ex ± NOR gate: - B ¯¯¯ = (A . (A + B ¯) Truth Table: A B 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 O/P 1 0 0 1 A Y B Example of Ex ± NOR gate: Two input Ex ± NOR gates can be used for checking 2 data bits. which gives a high output only when both its inputs are same or there are even number of ones. B¯ + A¯ . output is 1.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X EX ² NOR Gate Function: . B) ¯¯¯ = (A ¯ + B) .

e. These theorems are used for interchanging one gate by another proper gate. B¯ 1 0 0 0 A Y . i. De Morgan¶s 1st Theorem: It states the complement of the sum of 2 bits A and B is equal to the product of the complements of A and B. It also helps us in simplifying complicated Boolean expressions and minimizes the number of gates in the simplified expression. A + B ¯¯¯ = A ¯ . It means a NOR gate is same as a bubbled AND gate. B ¯ Logically: A Y B A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 A+B 0 1 1 1 A¯ 1 1 0 0 B¯ 1 0 1 0 A+B¯¯¯ 1 0 0 = 0 = B A¯ .Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X De ² Morgan·s Theorems There are two De-Morgan¶s theorems.

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X De ² Morgan·s Theorems De Morgan¶s 2nd Theorem: It states that the complement of the product of 2 numbers A and B is the sum of the complement of A and B It means a NAND gate is equivalent to a bubbled OR gate.B¯¯¯ 1 1 1 0 = A¯ + B¯ 1 1 1 0 .e. i. A . B ¯¯¯ = A¯ + B¯ Logically: A Y B = B A Y A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 A.B 0 0 0 1 A¯ 1 1 0 0 B¯ 1 0 1 0 A.

Building all basic gates using NAND gates 1. We make use of DeMorgan¶s theorems for this purpose. AND gate 3. OR gate 3.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Interconversion Of Gates NAND and NOR gates are also called Universal gates We can build all basic gates just by using only NAND or NOR gates. OR gate . NOT gate 2. NOT gate Building all basic gates using NOR gates 1. AND gate 2.

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Boolean Algebra Like Mathematical operations being performed on decimal numbers. Binary data exists only in two forms 1 or 0. C = (A + B) (A + C) A (BC) = (AB) . A¯ = 0 A . Boolean Identities 1. 8. (A¯ + B) = AB A . 18. 10. 6. B. A¯ . C . The algebra associated with Binary number is also called as Boolean Algebra. 17. 0= 0 A . 5. AB = BA 13. 1 19. it is also possible to perform operations on binary data. 2. high or low. 16. full or empty. 9. 1 = A¯ A. 15.A=A A. 12. 11. It is also possible to translate mathematical operations into equivalent logic circuits which are based on Boolean Algebra. The binary arithmetic follows certain rules proposed by George Boole in 1854. 4. 3. ON or OFF. A + A¯ B = A + B A+ B= B+A A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C A (B + C) = AB + AC A. A+A=A A+ 1=1 A¯ + 1 = 1 0+A=A A + A¯ = 1 (A¯)¯ = A 7. (A + B) = A A . 20. 14.

A¯ + A . (B + C) = AB + AC) (Since A . A¯ = 0) RHS . A + AB = B LHS: = = = 2. A + A¯B = A + B LHS: = = = = 3.B A (1 + B) A = (Since A.1 = A) RHS A (1 + B) + A¯B A + AB + A¯B A + B (A + A¯) A+ B = (Since 1+B = 1) (Since A+A¯ = 1) RHS A. (A + B) = A LHS: = = = = A (1 + B) A (1) A = (Since 1+B = 1) (Since A.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Boolean Algebra Some Proofs 1. (A¯ + B) = AB LHS: = A . (B + C) = AB + AC) (Since 1+B = 1) RHS 4.A+A.B A + A. B = 0 + A.B = AB = (Since A. A . A.

the variables & all possible values of the variables are indicated. (A¯ + C) (A + B + C¯) . (A + B¯) . This technique can be effectively used up to six variables beyond which the technique becomes cumbersome. we can not be sure that all the expressions can be simplified. In each map. Gray code is used here for identifying each cell. The Truth table can be the expressions which are in the form of Sum of Products (SOP) or Product of Sum (POS). POS = (A + B) . another technique is used which is a graphical method. Moreover to remember all Boolean identities is also a problem. Ex. SOP = A + AB + ABC A¯BC + AB¯C + ABC¯ Ex. Hence. In a µn¶ variable K-Map. Each cell corresponds to one of the combinations of µn¶ variables. This technique is called Karnaugh¶s map.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Karnaugh·s Map We saw that the Boolean expression can be simplified. Provides a method for simplifying & manipulating Boolean expression. However. In this technique information contained in a truth table is represented in a Karnaugh¶s map. there are 2n cells.

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Karnaugh·s Map A logical equation in SOP form can be represented on a K-map by entering 1¶s in the cells of k-map corresponding to each term of the expression. in case of POS. On the other hand. K-Map in 2 Variables A¯ A B¯ B 0 1 0 1 K-Map in 3 Variables A¯B¯ A¯B C¯ C AB AB¯ 0 1 00 01 11 10 K-Map in 4 Variables A¯B¯ AB¯ C¯D¯ CD¯ CD C¯D AB A¯B 00 10 11 01 00 10 11 01 . Each term in a SOP is called as minterm & in a POS its called as maxterm. a µ0¶ is entered in the cells of a K-map corresponding to each term of the POS expression.

Ex-OR gives an output only when there is an odd number of ones at its input. Give all the inputs to an Ex-OR gate to get a sum. Combine outputs of all AND gates using a OR gate to get a carry. Universal Adder-Subtractor: Since subtraction of 2 bits also involves addition (when 2¶s complements are used). Full Adder: Any addition is said to be complete only when 2 bits with carry generated are added. Half Subtractor: Subtracts 2 bits. Use two half adders and an OR gate for final carry. 2. 1. . Thus a full adder circuit is required. It is not a complete subtractor as it is not able to consider borrows generated from the previous subtraction. It is not a complete adder as it is not able to add carries generated from the previous addition. The full adder circuit can be possible in two ways. Use a set of 3 AND gates. Parallel Adder: Accepts 2 strings of binary digits & performs additions.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Logic Gate Applications Half Adder: A half adder is used to implement addition of 2 binary digits. the same circuit can be used for adding & subtracting 2 binary numbers.

DTL Diode Transistor Logic TTL Transistor Transistor Logic ECL Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL has a highest speed of operation) .Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Introduction to Logic Families ² A look into Logic Family Logic Gate Bipolar Logic Family MOS Logic Family Saturated Unsaturated PMOS NMOS CMOS Usually NMOS and CMOS are used.

5.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Features of Logic Family 1. 6. 4. 2. Current Specification Voltage Specification Noise Immunity Switched Speed Power Dissipition Fan Out 7. 3. Availability Of Various Gates in a family Parameter Basic Gate Fan Out Power Dissipition Noise Immunity Propagation Delay Clock Frequency Available Functions Supply Voltage Cost TTL NAND 10 10mW Very Good 10ns 35MHz Vary High 5V Moderate ECL OR-NOR 25 40-55mW Poor 2ns >60MHz High 5V High MOS Inverter (NOT) 20 0mW Nominal 300ns 2MHz Low 3 to 15V Low . Figure Of Merit 10. Operating Temperature 9. Operating Frequency 11. Fan In 8.

Ex. Logic circuits are broadly classified as: Combinations circuits Sequential circuits In a combinational circuit the response of the circuit is decided by a set of inputs existing at a instant of time. First set of statements which describe a logic function is formalized.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Combinational Circuits ² Introduction A logic circuit is a set of gates. By changing the inputs. These expressions are finally simplified either by using Laws of Boolean algebra or by employing K-map. full adder. A Combinational is designed as follows: 1. Half adder. . 2. which perform certain logic functions. These statements are then converted to Boolean expressions. parity checkers etc. 3. are logic circuits. the output of a combinational circuit can be changed.

which converts active input signals (alphabets. it¶s difficult to understand data in 1¶s & 0¶s. Demultiplexers: These are the circuits that allow a common input to be directed to any one of the µn¶ available outputs depending on the control lines. Encoders: Most of the equipments work on digital signals. decimal #) into a coded output signal. An encoder is needed in this case. Decoders: Decoder is exactly opposite of encoders. select any one signal as decided by control lines & allow that signal to appear at the output. µm¶ control lines & only one output. their outputs will also be in terms of 1 & 0. decimal & alphabets. which a user can understand easily.e. decimal & alphabet. The input to these equipments must be in terms of 1 & 0.e. . It converts coded input into a familiar codes i. However. µm¶ control lines & µn¶ available output lines. It has µn¶ input lines. It¶s easy to work with a data we are familiar with i.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Combinational Circuits ² Examples Multiplexers: These are the circuits which accept inputs from µn¶ devices. It has one input line.

The flip-flop is a basic cell for any sequential circuit and work as a memory. It maintains its output as it is. Counters & registers. T flipflops. A sequential circuit may also include combinational circuit as a subsystem. Thus they require elements. It can be constructed using NOR or NAND gates. Flipflop Types: R-S flipflop. It¶s the logic circuit whose output depends on the current input apart from the previous inputs/outputs. the response of the circuit is decided by the current set of inputs as well as the past inputs or outputs. The flip-flop has two stable output states 0 and 1. which can store past information. Ex. Edge & level triggered flipflops. Thus it behaves as memory.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Sequential Circuits ² Introduction In a sequential circuit. J-K master slave flipflops. It¶s a bistable electronic circuit. until something done to change its output. These circuits are used in computers and data acquisition system in form of counters and registers. J-K flipflops. They make extensive use of flip-flops. D flipflops. .

They are basically electronic counting systems. Registers do not count. Microprocessors. Data can also be moved from one flipflop to other. Hence they are also known as shift registers. (J & K. R & S inverted).Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Sequential Circuits ² Examples Counters: These are logic circuits which are used to count clock pulses. Apart from counting they can also be used for frequency division & sequencing. Modulus of a counter tells us the states the counter can count. Sequencing is required where events need to follow a specific order. Ex. Data can be put into or shifted out of register serially or parallely. sequencing of instructions is very important. They use only D flipflop. They are very useful when the format of data needs to be changed (from serial to parallel or vice versa). A high frequency clock pulse can be divided to get smaller frequency with a counter. Types of Registers: SISO (serial in serial out) PIPO (parallel in parallel out) SIPO (serial in parallel out) PISO (parallel in serial out) . Counters are classified as: Asynchronous Counters Asynchronous UP counter Asynchronous Down counter Synchronous Counters Synchronous UP counter Synchronous Down counter Registers: Registers are group of flipflops cascaded to store strings of data bits.

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Data Converters ² Introduction Now a days there is an intensive use of digital. various communication equipments. like pressure. They have to be converted into a suitable form like current & voltage. temperature. . The control information again needs to be converted back to analog form which will finally control the physical change. All of them involve conversion of data. electricity etc. Thus there is a need to change the data from Digital to Analog and Analog to Digital. liquid level. In a digital control. Digital control is widely employed in washing machine. liquid flow. The devices which help in such conversion are called as data converters. PH of material. these variations must first be converted into a digital form to be sensed & then suitable control action performed. force. various measurement equipments. digital TV. They are analog signals. These signals are very weak & moreover continuous. Many physical parameters have to be sensed. humidity level.

By using R-2R ladder network ADC (Analog to Digital Converters) These are the devices used in the input path of digital control systems. Flash ADC (Simultaneous or parallel ADC) Counter Type ADC Tracking ADC Successive Approximation ADC Single Slope ADC Dual Slop ADC .Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Data Converters ² Examples DACs (Digital to Analog Converters) This converter accepts digital inputs & gives an analog output. Two different ways of doing this: 1. They convert analog changes (caused due to change in physical parameters we want to control) into a digital form for correct monitoring and control. The basic problem in this conversion is µn¶ digital voltage levels have to be converted into a single analog voltage. By using binary weighted resistor network 2. There are various methods to convert analog variations into digital form.

MOS memories are slow but very easy to construct. cost. Memories are based upon their size. thus increases the cell density of the chip. consume ideally zero power. Bipolar memories are very fast but consume more power.e. A bistable flip-flop is the basic memory cell. flip-flops or capacitors. occupy more space and involve more technology in their fabrication. The capacity of memory chip is the total memory cells in that chip. power consumption and speed. occupy very little space. The cell density of the chip using bipolar memories are small. µn¶ number of cells are packed in the form of rectangular array. Bipolar memories use BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistors) while Unipolar memories use MOS or CMOS Transistors. . They can also be classified as static and dynamic memories based upon the storage element used i. They have replaced older devices like bubble memories and magnetic cores. Memory cells can be either bipolar or unipolar. Memories can further be classified as volatile and non-volatile memories depending upon their ability to store information in presence or absence of power supply.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Memory Devices ²Introduction Semiconductor memories are widely used now a days for storing digital information.

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Memory Classification Memory Volatile Non ± Volatile RAM Random Access Memory ROM Read Only Memory Static Memory SRAM Dynamic RAM DRAM ROM Read Only Memory PROM EPROM EEPROM Electrically Erasable PROM Programmable Erasable Read Only Programmable Memory ROM .

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