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Basic Mathematics, 10th Edition - Chapter 1 - Whole Numbers

Basic Mathematics, 10th Edition - Chapter 1 - Whole Numbers

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Sections

  • 1 Whole Numbers
  • 1.1 STANDARD NOTATION
  • Place Value
  • Three Most Populous Countries in the World
  • EXAMPLES
  • EXAMPLE 7
  • Converting from Standard Notation to Expanded Notation
  • Fewer Computer Majors
  • EXAMPLE 13
  • EXAMPLE 14
  • 1.1 EXERCISE SET
  • Step-Climbing Races
  • OVERSEAS TRAVELERS TO U.S., 2003
  • 1.2 ADDITION
  • Addition of Whole Numbers
  • Finding Perimeter
  • PERIMETER
  • CALCULATOR CORNER
  • 1.2 EXERCISE SET
  • SKILL MAINTENANCE
  • 1.3 SUBTRACTION
  • Subtraction and Related Sentences
  • TAKE AWAY
  • SUBTRACTION
  • RELATED SENTENCES
  • HOW MANY MORE
  • Subtraction of Whole Numbers
  • 1.3 EXERCISE SET
  • 1.4 ROUNDING AND ESTIMATING; ORDER
  • Rounding
  • ROUNDING WHOLE NUMBERS
  • CAUTION
  • Estimating
  • EXAMPLE 8
  • EXAMPLE 9
  • EXAMPLE 10
  • Order
  • ORDER OF WHOLE NUMBERS
  • EXAMPLE 11
  • 1.4 EXERCISE SET
  • Pedestrian Fatalities on the Decline
  • Life Expectancy
  • 1.5 MULTIPLICATION
  • Multiplication of Whole Numbers
  • REPEATED ADDITION
  • RECTANGULAR ARRAYS
  • Estimating Products by Rounding
  • EXAMPLE 6
  • Finding Area
  • 1.5 EXERCISE SET
  • 1.6 DIVISION
  • Division and Related Sentences
  • REPEATED SUBTRACTION
  • DIVISION
  • Division of Whole Numbers
  • DIVIDING BY 1
  • DIVIDING A NUMBER BY ITSELF
  • DIVIDENDS OF 0
  • EXCLUDING DIVISION BY 0
  • Caution!
  • ZEROS IN QUOTIENTS
  • 1.6 EXERCISE SET
  • VOCABULARY REINFORCEMENT
  • 1.7 SOLVING EQUATIONS
  • Solutions by Trial
  • Solving Equations
  • SOLVING x + a = b
  • 1.7 EXERCISE SET
  • SYNTHESIS
  • 1.8 APPLICATIONS AND PROBLEM SOLVING
  • A Problem-Solving Strategy
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • INTERNATIONAL ADOPTIONS
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • EXAMPLE 3
  • EXAMPLE 4
  • EXAMPLE 5
  • Multistep Problems
  • KEY WORDS, PHRASES, AND CONCEPTS
  • Translating for success
  • 1.8 EXERCISE SET
  • 1.9 EXPONENTIAL NOTATION AND ORDER OF OPERATIONS
  • Writing Exponential Notation
  • Evaluating Exponential Notation
  • Cavtion!
  • Simplifying Expressions
  • RULES FOR ORDER OF OPERATIONS
  • AVERAGES
  • AVERAGE
  • EXAMPLE 12
  • Career Hits
  • Removing Parentheses within Parentheses
  • World's Tallest Buildings
  • 1.9 EXERCISE SET
  • 1 Summary and Review
  • CONCEPT REINFORCEMENT
  • Review Exercises
  • 1 Chapter Test

Basic Mathematics, 10th Edition

1

1 Whole Numbers

1.1 Standard Notation 1.2 Addition 1.3 Subtraction 1.4 Rounding and Estimating; Order 1.5 Multiplication 1.6 Division 1.7 Solving Equations 1.8 Applications and Problem Solving 1.9 Exponential Notation and Order of Operations

Real-World Application

1 Whole Numbers

Page 1 of 139

Basic Mathematics, 10th Edition
Races in which runners climb the steps inside a building are called “run-up” races. There are 2058 steps in the International Towerthon, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Write expanded notation for the number of steps. This problem appears as Exercise 13 in Section 1.1
1 2

1.1 STANDARD NOTATION Objectives
Give the meaning of digits in standard notation. Convert from standard notation to expanded notation. Convert between standard notation and word names. We study mathematics in order to be able to solve problems. In this section, we study how numbers are named. We begin with the concept of place value.

Place Value
Consider the numbers in the following table.

Three Most Populous Countries in the World

Source: The World Factbook, July 2005 estimates

A digit is a number 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 that names a place-value location. For large numbers, digits are separated by commas into groups of three, called periods. Each period has a name: ones, thousands, millions, billions, trillions, and so on. To understand the population of China in the table above, we can use a place-value chart, as shown below.

1 Whole Numbers

Page 2 of 139

Basic Mathematics, 10th Edition

EXAMPLES
What does the digit 8 mean in each number?
1. 278,342 2. 872,342 3. 28,343,399,223 4. 1,023,850 5. 98,413,099 6. 6328 8 thousands 8 hundred thousands 8 billions 8 hundreds 8 millions 8 ones

Do Margin Exercises 1–6.

2 3

EXAMPLE 7
American Red Cross. In 2003, private donations to the American Red Cross totaled about $587,492,000. What does each digit name?

1 Whole Numbers

Page 3 of 139

The set goes on indefinitely. Standard notation for the number of computer majors is 17. 8. Fewer Computer Majors Source: Computing Research Association Taulbee Survey The number of computer majors in 2003 was 17. The set 1. 5. 10. 9. Each whole number can be named using various notations.2. 10th Edition Source: The Chronicle of Philanthropy Do Exercise 7. 4.706. 6.3. Converting from Standard Notation to Expanded Notation To answer questions such as “How many?”. 1. There is no largest whole number. 2. The set. is called the set of natural numbers. “How much?”. 12.5. 3 4 EXAMPLE 8 Write expanded notation for 4218 mi. of whole numbers is 0. we use whole numbers. We write expanded notation for 17.706. without 0. Let's look at the data from the bar graph shown here. and the smallest whole number is 0.…. 11. or collection.706 = 1 ten thousand + 7 thousands + 7 hundreds + 0 tens + 6 ones. 7.…. 4218 = 4 thousands + 2 hundreds + 1 ten + 8 ones EXAMPLE 9 1 Whole Numbers Page 4 of 139 . and “How tall?”. the diameter of Mars.706 as follows: 17.4.Basic Mathematics. 3.

Others like 17 use only one word. 39.384. and 92 use hyphens. 10th Edition Write expanded notation for 3400. the population of Washington.” Source: 2004 Olympics. “seventeen. Greece.384 = 5 hundred thousands + 6 ten thousands + 3 thousands + 3 hundreds + 8 tens + 4 ones Do Exercises 8–12 (8–10 are on the preceding page). we are speaking its word name. 563. When we pronounce a number.C.Basic Mathematics. D. Athens. A word name for 92 is “ninety-two. Greece 4 1 Whole Numbers Page 5 of 139 . 3400 = 3 thousands + 4 hundreds + 0 tens + 0 ones. or 3 thousands + 4 hundreds EXAMPLE 10 Write expanded notation for 563. Russia won 92 medals in the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens. Converting Between Standard Notation and Word Names We often use word names for numbers.” Word names for some two-digit numbers like 27.

” Do Exercises 16–19. For decimal notation. 11. strictly speaking. it is appropriate to use “and” for the decimal point. 35. The number named in the period is followed by the name of the period. then a comma is written and the next period is named. 317. 10th Edition EXAMPLES Write a word name. Although we commonly hear such expressions as “two hundred and one. correct in word names for whole numbers.Basic Mathematics. the number of silver medals won by the People's Republic of China Seventeen Do Exercises 13–15 on the preceding page. 1 Whole Numbers Page 6 of 139 . the total number of gold medals won by the United States Thirty-five 12.” the use of “and” is not. we begin at the left with the largest period. 17. 4 5 EXAMPLE 13 The word “and” should not appear in word names for whole numbers. For example.4 is read as “three hundred seventeen and four tenths. EXAMPLE 14 Write standard notation. For word names for larger numbers.

the number of computer majors in 2000 10. National Archives & Records Administration. 7. you will provide yourself the best possible opportunity to be successful in this course. the length of the Nile River. In the first year of operation. 280. California.416. work. By managing your time wisely. This pullout card will help you keep track of important dates and useful contact information. 4180 mi. What does each digit name? Source: USA Today research by Bruce Rosenstein. you will find a Student Organizer card.789. 1895 9. 3031 mi (miles). You can also use it to plan time for class. 265. 23. and relaxation. 10th Edition Do Exercise 20.654 5. 8924 6. the number of Labrador retrievers registered in 2002 Source: The American Kennel Club Write a word name. 24.555 2.) 13. 16. 5 6 What does the digit 2 mean in each number? 1. 8.789 3.643. 526. (Refer to the figure below right.201 To the student: In the preface. study. Associated Press Write expanded notation. 154. the diameter of Mercury 11.Basic Mathematics. 49.616. at the front of the text. 5. Presidential Library. the number of silver medals won by Germany 1 Whole Numbers Page 7 of 139 . the longest river in the world 12.654 4.219 people visited the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley. 42.789. the total number of medals won by Australia 14.

Basic Mathematics, 10th Edition
15. 38, the number of bronze medals won by Russia Write a word name. 16. 204 17. $44,155, the average salary in 2001 for those who have a bachelor's degree or more
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census

18. 1,879,204 19. 6,449,000,000, the world population in 2005
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census

20. Write standard notation. Two hundred thirteen million, one hundred five thousand, three hundred twenty-nine

1.1 EXERCISE SET
For Extra Help

What does the digit 5 mean in each case? 1. 235,888 2. 253,777 3. 1,488,526 4. 500,736 Used Cars. 1,582,370 certified used cars were sold in 2004 in the United States. Source: Motor Trend, April 2005, p. 26 In the number 1,582,370, what digit names the number of:

1 Whole Numbers

Page 8 of 139

Basic Mathematics, 10th Edition
5. thousands? 6. ones? 7. millions? 8. hundred thousands? Write expanded notation. 9. 5702 10. 3097 11. 93,986 12. 38,453 Step-Climbing Races. Races in which runners climb the steps inside a building are called “run-up” races. The graph below shows the number of steps in four buildings. In Exercises 13–16, write expanded notation for the number of steps in each race. 13. 2058 steps in the International Towerthon, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 14. 1776 steps in the CN Tower Run-Up, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 15. 1268 steps in the World Financial Center, New York City, New York 16. 1081 steps in the Skytower Run-Up, Auckland, New Zealand

Step-Climbing Races

1 Whole Numbers

Page 9 of 139

Basic Mathematics, 10th Edition
Source: New York Road Runners Club
6 7

Overseas Travelers. The chart below shows the residence and number of overseas travelers to the United States in 2003. In Exercises 17–22, write expanded notation for the number of travelers from each country. 17. 405,698 from Australia 18. 3,169,682 from Japan 19. 272,161 from India 20. 284,031 from Spain 21. 1,180,212 from Germany 22. 348,945 from Brazil

OVERSEAS TRAVELERS TO U.S., 2003
Australia Brazil Germany India Japan Spain 405,698 348,945 1,180,212 272,161 3,169,682 284,031

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, ITA, Office of Travel and Tourism Industries, 2004

Write a word name. 23. 85 24. 48 25. 88,000 26. 45,987 27. 123,765 28. 111,013 29. 7,754,211,577 30. 43,550,651,808 Write standard notation. 31. Two million, two hundred thirty-three thousand, eight hundred twelve 32. Three hundred fifty-four thousand, seven hundred two

1 Whole Numbers

Page 10 of 139

Geneva.Basic Mathematics. The area of the base of the Great Pyramid in Egypt is 566. Great Pyramid. Eight billion 34.792 passengers. In 2003. 36. the world's busiest airport.134.086. Hartsfield in Atlanta. had 76. Population of the United States. Busiest Airport.734. Seven hundred million Write a word name for the number in each sentence. 10th Edition 33.280 square feet. Source: The World Factbook 7 8 37. 35. The population of the United States in July 2005 was estimated to be 295. Source: Airports Council International World Headquarters. Switzerland 1 Whole Numbers Page 11 of 139 .

How many whole numbers between 100 and 400 contain the digit 2 in their standard notation? 1 Whole Numbers Page 12 of 139 . In a recent year. They can be discussed and answered collaboratively by the entire class or by small groups. 40. To the student and the instructor: The Discussion and Writing exercises are meant to be answered with one or more sentences. federal.Basic Mathematics. 41. DW Explain why we use commas when writing large numbers. in the United States in 2003. There were 2. six hundred sixty-four million miles. Light travels nine trillion.570 total prisoners. 42. Internet Users. Pacific Ocean. U. four hundred sixty billion kilometers in one year.000 is used.078. The distance from the sun to Pluto is three billion. Bureau of Justice Statistics Write standard notation for the number in each sentence. They are denoted by the symbol DW. Exercises marked with a symbol are meant to be solved using a calculator. five hundred thousand Internet users in China. SYNTHESIS To the student and the instructor: The Synthesis exercises found at the end of every exercise set challenge students to combine concepts or skills studied in that section or in preceding parts of the text. there were fifty-four million. Source: Computer Industry Almanac. Because of their open-ended nature. 45. one hundred eighty-six thousand square miles. 44. DW Write an English sentence in which the number 370. the answers to these exercises do not appear at the back of the book. state. Inc.S. 39. The area of the Pacific Ocean is sixty-four million. Source: Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2003.000. 10th Edition 38. 43. and local. Prisoners.

2 ADDITION Addition of Whole Numbers Objectives Add whole numbers. The addition that corresponds to the figure above is 3 ↓ Addend + 4 ↓ Addend = 7. and end up at 7. Addition also corresponds to moving distances on a number line.Basic Mathematics. Addition of whole numbers corresponds to combining or putting things together. What is the largest number that you can name on your calculator? How many digits does that number have? How many periods? 8 9 1. The addition that corresponds to the situation is 3 + 4 =7. We first move 3 units from 0. The numbers added are called addends. The sum 3 + 4 is shown. Use addition in finding perimeter. and then 4 more units. 1 Whole Numbers Page 13 of 139 . 10th Edition 46. The number line below is marked with tick marks at equal distances of 1 unit. ↓ Sum We say that the sum of 3 and 4 is 7.

we add the ones digits first. and so on. a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c. 9 10 EXAMPLE 1 Add: 6878 + 4995. 6 + 0 = 0 + 6 = 6. We can show this with parentheses: 2 + (3 + 6) = 2 + 9 = 11. We say that 0 is the additive identity. That is. 10th Edition How do we do an addition of three numbers. We can also add whole numbers in any order. a + b = b + a. or 198 + 0 = 0 + 198 = 198. It does not matter how we group the numbers. To add whole numbers. then the thousands.Basic Mathematics. like 2 + 3 + 6? We do it by adding 3 and 6. We could also add 2 and 3. Place values are lined up in columns 1 Whole Numbers Page 14 of 139 . Either way we get 11. then the tens. Together. the commutative and associative laws tell us that to add more than two numbers. This illustrates the associative law of addition. then the hundreds. we can use any order and grouping we wish.    Parentheses tell what to do first. Adding 0 to a number does not change the number: a + 0 = 0 + a = a. 2 + 3 = 3 + 2. and then 2. This illustrates the commutative law of addition. and then 6: (2 + 3) + 6 = 5 + 6 = 11. That is.

PERIMETER The distance around an object is its perimeter. 10 11 Finding Perimeter Addition can be used when finding perimeter.Basic Mathematics. 10th Edition EXAMPLE 2 Add: 391 + 276 + 789 + 498. EXAMPLE 3 1 Whole Numbers Page 15 of 139 . Do Exercises 1–4.

EXAMPLE 4 Find the perimeter of the octagonal (eight-sided) resort swimming pool. + 37 in. + 44 in. 10th Edition Find the perimeter of the figure. Do Exercises 5 and 6. We add the lengths of the sides: Perimeter = 29 in. The perimeter of the figure is 129 in. + 19 in.Basic Mathematics. 11 1 Whole Numbers Page 16 of 139 . Do Exercise 7. Perimeter = 13 yd + 6 yd + 6 yd + 12 yd + 8 yd + 12 yd + 13 yd + 16 yd The perimeter of the pool is 86 yd. We carry out the addition as follows.

276 + 458 5.Basic Mathematics. so 314 + 259 + 478 = 1051. . Exercises: Use a calculator to find each sum. The calculator displays . 1. We have included instructions here for a minimum-cost calculator. 73 + 48 3. 925 + 677 4. check with your instructor about whether you are allowed to use a calculator in the course. The display reads and keys. 10th Edition CALCULATOR CORNER Adding Whole Numbers To the student and the instructor: This is the first of a series of optional discussions on using a calculator. To find 314 + 259 + 478. 6. Be sure to consult your user's manual as well. to add 57 and 11 12 . A calculator is not a requirement for this textbook. 19 + 36 2. we press we press . we use the 34. There are many kinds of calculators and different instructions for their usage. To add whole numbers on a calculator. For example. 1 Whole Numbers Page 17 of 139 . so 57 + 34 = 91. Also.

Add. 6203 + 3542 3.Basic Mathematics. the second time is in the subheadings of each section. . 1. The first time you see them is in the margin at the beginning of the section. You will also find symbols like [1. . as well as in the answers to the chapter tests and the cumulative reviews. Don't deprive yourself of this benefit! Note the icons listed at the top of each exercise set. you will find a feature called “Study Tips. Here we highlight a few points that we consider most helpful. Stop and do the margin exercises as you study a section. that correspond to the objectives you are to master in each section. Find the perimeter of each figure. 4. This gives you immediate reinforcement of each concept as it is introduced and is one of the most effective ways to master the mathematical skills in this text. Read and study each step of each example. These examples and annotations have been carefully chosen so that you will be fully prepared to do the exercises. and the third time is in the exercise set for the section. 2. These objective symbols allow you to refer to the appropriate place in the text when you need to review a topic. 1 Whole Numbers Page 18 of 139 . These refer to the many distinctive multimedia study aids that accompany the book.” One of the most important ways in which to improve your math study skills is to learn the proper use of the textbook. and so on.2c] next to the skill maintenance exercises in each exercise set and the review exercises at the end of the chapter. 5. The examples include important side comments that explain each step.1a] or [1. THIS TEXTBOOK Be sure to note the symbols . 10th Edition Study Tips USING Throughout this textbook.

Find the perimeter of each card. 2. by 8 in. 12 1. 1 Whole Numbers Page 19 of 139 .Basic Mathematics. Index Cards. 6. 4. (inches) by 5 in. Solve. 3. 7. 10th Edition 6. 5. Two standard sizes for index cards are 3 in.2 EXERCISE SET For Extra Help 13 Add. 1. and 5 in.

18.120 + 12.989 + 5738 15. 23. 17. 24. 8113 + 390 10. 21. 8. 10. 1 Whole Numbers Page 20 of 139 . 22. 356 + 4910 12. 3870 + 92 + 7 + 497 14. 20. 280 + 34.Basic Mathematics. 19. 10th Edition 7. 271 + 3338 11. 9. 25. 16.702 13.

1 Whole Numbers Page 21 of 139 . how far does a batter travel in circling the bases when a home run has been hit? 31. DW Explain in your own words what the associative law of addition means. 10th Edition 26. You will see them in virtually every exercise set. In Major League Baseball. Find the perimeter of a standard hockey rink.Basic Mathematics. 30. DW Describe a situation that corresponds to this mathematical expression: 80 mi + 245 mi + 336 mi. 13 14 Find the perimeter of each figure. SKILL MAINTENANCE The exercises that follow begin an important feature called Skill Maintenance exercises. It has been found that this kind of continuing review can significantly improve your performance on a final examination. 28. 27. These exercises provide an ongoing review of topics previously covered in the book. 29. 32.

The subtraction is 10 − 8 = 2. Write a word name for the number in the following sentence:   [1.247. A fast way to add all the numbers from 1 to 10 inclusive is to pair 1 with 9.3 SUBTRACTION Objectives Convert between addition sentences and subtraction sentences. Subtraction and Related Sentences TAKE AWAY Subtraction of whole numbers applies to two kinds of situations. 10th Edition 33. the bowler “takes away” 8 pins. Source: Starbucks Corporation SYNTHESIS 35. Use a similar approach to add all numbers from 1 to 100 inclusive. Subtract whole numbers. 1 Whole Numbers Page 22 of 139 . and so on. A bowler starts with 10 pins and knocks down 8 of them.Basic Mathematics. There are 2 pins left. From 10 pins. 14 15 1. The first is called “take away. Starbucks Corporation had total net revenues of $5.” Consider the following example.1c] In fiscal year 2004.205?   [1.000. What does the digit 8 mean in 486.294.1a] 34. 2 with 8.

and end up at 2. Study Tips LEARNING RESOURCES Are you aware of all the learning resources that exist for this textbook? Many details are given in the Preface. These are available on CD-ROM by calling 1-800-282-0693. The number line below is marked with tick marks at equal distances of 1 unit. 1 Whole Numbers Page 23 of 139 . The difference is the result of subtracting the subtrahend from the minuend. The subtrahend is the number being subtracted. you can order it by calling 1-800-282-0693. The difference 10 − 8 is shown. 13 − 4 is the number 9 since 13 = 9 + 4. The subtraction that corresponds to the situation is 10 − 8 = 2. ↓ Difference The minuend is the number from which another number is being subtracted. The Student's Solutions Manual contains workedout solutions to the oddnumbered exercises in the exercise sets.Basic Mathematics. An extensive set of videotapes supplements this text. Tutorial software called Math XL Tutorials on CD is available with this text. For example. This leads us to the following definition of subtraction. and then left 8 units. If it is not available in the campus learning center. We first move from 0 right 10 units. 10th Edition We use the following terminology with subtraction: 10 ↓ Minuend − 8 ↓ Subtrahend = 2. SUBTRACTION The difference a − b is that unique whole number c for which a = c + b. Subtraction also corresponds to moving distances on a number line.

there is a related addition sentence 5 = 3 + 2. we know that answers we find to subtractions are correct only because of the related addition. 16 EXAMPLE 1 Write a related addition sentence: 8 − 5 =3. which provides a handy way to check a subtraction. when added to 2. Do Exercises 1 and 2. 5 − 2 is that number which.com and MathXL.   Taking away 2 from 5 gives 3. EXAMPLE 2 Write two related subtraction sentences: 4 + 3 = 7. 15 RELATED SENTENCES Subtraction is defined in terms of addition. 10th Edition The Addison-Wesley Math Tutor Center has experienced instructors available to help with the odd-numbered exercises.   Putting back the 2 gives 5 again. Ask your instructor for information about these or visit MyMathLab. You can order this service by calling 1-800-824-7799.com. Thus for the subtraction sentence 5 − 2 = 3. 1 Whole Numbers Page 24 of 139 . Extensive help is available online via MyMathLab and/or MathXL.Basic Mathematics. For example. In fact. gives 5.

She needs $79. What must be added to 2 to get 7? The answer is 5. we think of the related subtraction sentence: Subtraction of Whole Numbers To subtract numbers. You can think of this as “how many do I need to add to 2 to get 7?” Finding the answer can be thought of as finding a missing addend. Do Exercises 3 and 4. then the tens digits. and can be found by subtracting 2 from 7. and so on. 1 Whole Numbers Page 25 of 139 .” You have 2 notebooks. we subtract the ones digits first. 16 Let's look at the following example in which a missing addend occurs: Jillian wants to buy the roll-on luggage shown in this ad. then the hundreds. then the thousands. How much more does she need in order to buy the luggage? Thinking of this situation in terms of a missing addend. She has $30. we have: 17 To find the answer. 10th Edition The related subtraction sentences are 4 = 7 − 3 and 3 = 7 − 4. but you need 7.Basic Mathematics. HOW MANY MORE The second kind of situation to which subtraction can apply is called “how many more.

the answer should be 9768. If 5448 is indeed the missing addend. 1 Whole Numbers Page 26 of 139 . That is. 10th Edition EXAMPLE 3 Subtract: 9768 − 4320. 17 18 We have considered the subtraction 9768 − 4320 = in the sentence 9768 = 4320 + . The related addition sentence is the basis for adding as a check.Basic Mathematics. we have found the missing addend . then if we add it to 4320.

EXAMPLE 4 Subtract: 348 − 165. Then we can do the subtraction 14 tens − 6 tens = 8 tens. There is no whole number that when added to 6 gives 4. To see why. because 4 − 6 is not a whole number. although we can subtract the ones (8 − 5 = 3). consider 4−6= and the related addition sentence 4 = + 6. 18 1 Whole Numbers Page 27 of 139 . To complete the subtraction. 10th Edition Do Exercise 5 on the preceding page. we must borrow 1 hundred from 3 hundreds and regroup it with 4 tens. we cannot do so with the tens. We have Note that in this case.Basic Mathematics. Below we consider a shortened form.

EXAMPLE 7 1 Whole Numbers Page 28 of 139 . Do Exercises 8 and 9. 18 19 Do Exercises 6 and 7. EXAMPLE 6 Subtract: 902 − 477.Basic Mathematics. 10th Edition EXAMPLE 5 Subtract: 6246 − 1879.

Do Exercises 10–12. Subtract: 6024 − 2968. 1. Subtract: 6000 − 3762. Write a related addition sentence. 17 − 8 = 9 Write two related subtraction sentences. 5 + 8 =13 4. 3. EXAMPLES 8.Basic Mathematics. 7 − 5 = 2 2. 10th Edition Subtract: 8003 − 3667. 11 + 3 =14 1 Whole Numbers Page 29 of 139 . 9.

so the subtraction is correct. 9. 612 − 493 5. Subract 10. Subtract. The sum is the minuend. Exercises: Use a calculator to perform each subtraction. 7. 63. Check by adding. To do this. Check by adding. we press . we press . to find 63 − 47. 81 − 34 3. Subract 8. Subtract. so 63 − 47 = 16. 57 − 29 2. 1 Whole Numbers Page 30 of 139 .Basic Mathematics. We can check this result by adding the subtrahend. 6. CALCULATOR CORNER Subtracting Whole Numbers To subtract whole numbers on a calculator. The calculator displays and . 6. 145 − 78 4. 47. For example. and the difference. 16. 10th Edition 5. we use the keys. 1.

42 + 10 = 52 Subtract. 7 + 9 = 16 11.3 EXERCISE SET For Extra Help 20 Write a related addition sentence. 1.Basic Mathematics. 8 + 0 = 8 13. 51 − 18 = 33 Write two related subtraction sentences. 13 − 8 = 5 4. 23 + 9 = 32 16. 12 − 5 = 7 3. 1 Whole Numbers Page 31 of 139 . 12. 11 + 8 = 19 15. 23 − 9 = 14 6. 7 − 4 = 3 2. 17 + 6 = 23 14. 10th Edition 11. 9 − 9 = 0 5. 19 1. 43 − 16 = 27 8. 20 − 8 = 12 7. 8 + 7 = 15 12. 6 + 9 = 15 10. 9.

20 21 36. 26. 30. 28. 887 − 698 25. 19.Basic Mathematics. 31. 20. 1 Whole Numbers Page 32 of 139 . 10th Edition 17. 34. 84. 981 − 747 24.703 − 298 33. 90. 86 − 47 22. 73 − 28 23. 27. 35. 21.209 32.237 − 47. 29. 18.

41. 101.043 − 8909 45. 48. 49. DW Is subtraction commutative (is there a commutative law of subtraction)? Why or why not? SKILL MAINTENANCE Add.   [1. 1 Whole Numbers Page 33 of 139 . 21. 15. 10. 39. 53. 40.017 − 7809 43. 52.734 − 5760 42. 54.2a] 51.” 50. 46. DW Describe two situations that correspond to the subtraction $20 − $17. 38.008 − 19 44. one “take away” and one “how many more. 10th Edition 37.Basic Mathematics. 47.

375. 62. We might also round to check if an answer to a problem is reasonable or to check a calculation done by hand or on a calculator. Subtract: 3.928.098.251. hundred.1a] SYNTHESIS 61.Basic Mathematics. 567 + 778 56. For example.   [1.140.124 − 1. Use < or > for to write a true sentence in a situation like 6 10. Fill in the missing digits to make the subtraction true: 9. To understand how to round. 1 Whole Numbers Page 34 of 139 . 10th Edition 55.947. What does the digit 7 mean in 6. 47 is between 40 and 50.4 ROUNDING AND ESTIMATING. EXAMPLE 1 Round 47 to the nearest ten. 9909 + 1011 59. Here is a part of a number line. 81 = 7.1c] 60. 901 + 23 57. we first look at some examples using number lines. we might round to see if we are being charged the correct amount in a store. Estimate sums and differences by rounding. or thousand. 48. 12. even though this is not the way we generally do rounding. we round up to 50.097. 21 22 1. Write a word name for 6.621 − 2. ORDER Rounding Objectives Round to the nearest ten.602?   [1.602. Since 47 is closer to 50. We round numbers in various situations when we do not need an exact answer.885 + 9807 58.375.

EXAMPLE 3 Round 45 to the nearest ten. b) Consider the next digit to the right. round down. If the digit to the right is 4 or lower. c) If the digit to the right is 5 or higher. round up. Do Exercises 5–7. We agree to round up to 50. 45 is halfway between 40 and 50. round up. 22 23 EXAMPLE 4 1 Whole Numbers Page 35 of 139 . Here is a rule for rounding.Basic Mathematics. we round down to 40. When a number is halfway between rounding numbers. ROUNDING WHOLE NUMBERS To round to a certain place: a) Locate the digit in that place. Since 42 is closer to 40. 42 is between 40 and 50. d) Change all digits to the right of the rounding location to zeros. Do Exercises 1–4. We could round 45 down to 40 or up to 50. 10th Edition EXAMPLE 2 Round 42 to the nearest ten.

round 8 tens up to 9 tens. 10th Edition Round 6485 to the nearest ten. 6 4 8 ↑ b) Consider the next digit to the right. is 5 or higher. 8. 6 4 ↑ b) Consider the next digit to the right. 6 4 ↑ c) Since that digit. 8. 6 5 0 0 ←This is the answer. 1 Whole Numbers Page 36 of 139 . 6. 8 5 8 5 EXAMPLE 6 Round 6485 to the nearest thousand. 8. 4. 5.Basic Mathematics. 6 4 ↑ c) Since that digit. d) Change all digits to the right of the tens digit to zeros. d) Change all digits to the right of hundreds to zeros. 6 4 9 0 ←This is the answer. is 5 or higher. a) Locate the digit in the hundreds place. 8. 8 5 5 EXAMPLE 5 Round 6485 to the nearest hundred. a) Locate the digit in the thousands place. a) Locate the digit in the tens place. round 4 hundreds up to 5 hundreds.

5. we think of 10 tens as 1 hundred + 0 tens. To carry this out.595 to the nearest ten. It is incorrect to round from the ones digit over. d) Change all digits to the right of thousands to zeros. Note that 6485 is closer to 6000 than it is to 7000. 6 0 0 0 ←This is the answer. We then write 6 in the hundreds place and 0 in the tens place. 7 8. 4. round down. 9. 23 Sometimes rounding involves changing more than one digit in a number. 5 9 ↑ b) Consider the next digit to the right. is 4 or lower. 5 5 1 Whole Numbers Page 37 of 139 . 5. 24 EXAMPLE 7 Round 78. as follows: 6485. and increase the hundreds digit by 1. 10th Edition 6 ↑ b) Consider the next digit to the right. 7 8. 5 9 ↑ c) Since that digit. 4. 6 ↑ c) Since that digit. round 9 tens to 10 tens. → 6500. → 7000. a) Locate the digit in the tens place. Do Exercises 8–19. is 5 or higher. 4 8 5 4 8 5 CAUTION 7000 is not a correct answer to Example 6. → 6490. to get 6 hundreds + 0 tens. meaning that 6 thousands stays as 6 thousands.Basic Mathematics.

we get the same answer. There are three basic models of this car. 24 1 Whole Numbers Page 38 of 139 . Do Exercises 20 and 21. Ethan and Olivia have allowed themselves a budget of $16. Ethan and Olivia Benson are shopping for a new car. They look at the list of options and want to make a quick estimate of the cost of model ION-2 with all the options. an estimate made by rounding to the nearest ten is more accurate than one rounded to the nearest hundred. 7 8. as shown in the chart on the following page. 10th Edition d) Change the digit to the right of the tens digit to zero. In the following example. and an estimate rounded to the nearest hundred is more accurate than one rounded to the nearest thousand. and each has options beyond the basic price.500. and so on. Estimate by rounding to the nearest hundred the cost of the ION-2 with all the options and decide whether it will fit into their budget. EXAMPLE 8 Estimating the Cost of an Automobile Purchase. In general. They are considering a Saturn ION. Estimating Estimating can be done in many ways. Note that if we round this number to the nearest hundred. 6 0 0 ←This is the answer. we see how estimation can be used in making a purchase.Basic Mathematics.

and Cruise Control (Not available for ION · 1 and Standard for ION · 3): Source: Saturn First. Air conditioning is standard on the ION-2. Others are not available for all models. EXAMPLE 9 Estimate this sum by first rounding to the nearest ten: 78 + 49 + 31 + 85.975 Base Price: $14. 10th Edition MODEL ION-2 SEDAN (4 MODEL ION-3 SEDAN (4 DOOR) DOOR) 2.945 Base Price: $16.2-LITER ENGINE.2-LITER ENGINE. Do Exercises 22 and 23 on the preceding page. 4-SPEED AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION 24 25 ION · 2—$220 Power Package: Power Windows. so we do not include that cost. 2. they will need to forgo some options.Basic Mathematics. Note that some of the options are standard on certain models. Power Exterior Mirrors. We then round each number to the nearest hundred and add.700.470 Each of these vehicles comes with several options. we list the base price of the ION-2 and then the cost of each of the options. The estimated cost is $17.2-LITER ENGINE. 1 Whole Numbers Page 39 of 139 .500 for the car. 5-SPEED 5-SPEED MANUAL MANUAL TRANSMISSION TRANSMISSION Base Price: $12. Antilock Braking System with Traction Control: $400 Head Curtain Side Air Bags: Power Sunroof (Not available for ION · 1): Rear Spoiler (Not available for ION · 1): Air Conditioning with Dust and Pollen Filtration (Standard on ION · 2 and ION · 3): CD/MP3 Player with AM/FM Stereo and 4 Coaxial Speakers (Standard on ION · 3): $395 $725 $250 $960 ION · 1—$510 MODEL ION-1 SEDAN (4 DOOR) 2. Remote Keyless $825 Entry. Since Ethan and Olivia have allowed themselves a budget of $16.

We also know that 2 is less than 5. 2. We can see this order on the number line: 2 is to the left of 5. We call < and > inequality symbols. when 687 is rounded to the nearest ten. a < b (read “a is less than b”) is true when a is to the left of b on the number line. We symbolize this by the expression 2 < 5. the result is rarely the same as the number we started with. Thus we use the symbol ≈ when rounding. Order We know that 2 is not the same as 5. 25 26 EXAMPLE 10 Estimate the difference by first rounding to the nearest thousand: 9324 − 2849. The sentence 7 − 5 = 2 says that 7 − 5 is the same as 2. 1 Whole Numbers Page 40 of 139 . When we round.” For example. ORDER OF WHOLE NUMBERS For any whole numbers a and b: 1. Do Exercises 24 and 25. The number 0 is the smallest whole number. 10th Edition We round each number to the nearest ten. we can write 687 ≈ 690. a > b (read “a is greater than b”) is true when a is to the right of b on the number line. We have Do Exercises 26 and 27. This symbol means “is approximately equal to.Basic Mathematics. Then we add. We express this by the sentence 2 ≠ 5.

Since 7 is to the left of 11 on the number line. 5. 98 Round to the nearest ten. 7 < 11. 37 2. Round to the nearest ten. 75 7. A sentence like 7 < 11 is called an inequality. The sentence 7 < 11 is a true inequality. 1. 1 Whole Numbers Page 41 of 139 . The sentence 23 >69 is a false inequality. Since 92 is to the right of 87 on the number line. Do Exercises 28–33. 52 3. It is a true equation. 92 > 87. A sentence like 8 + 5 = 13 is called an equation. 35 6. 73 4. 10th Edition EXAMPLE 11 Use < or > for to write a true sentence: 7 11.Basic Mathematics. The equation 4 + 8 = 11 is a false equation. EXAMPLE 12 Use < or > for to write a true sentence: 92 87. 85 Round to the nearest ten.

10th Edition 8. and thousand. 1 Whole Numbers Page 42 of 139 .Basic Mathematics. Estimate the sum by first rounding to the nearest ten. hundred. hundred. Refer to the chart on the next page to answer Margin Exercises 22 and 23. 759 14. Tara and Alex are shopping for a new car. 12. 25. b) Can they afford this car with a budget of $19.582 to the nearest ten. a) Estimate by first rounding to the nearest hundred the cost of an ION-3 with all the options.000? 24. 473 10. 641 13.500 20.968 to the nearest ten. 22. 285 Round to the nearest hundred. 8459 18. Show your work.343 19. Round 269. 7896 17. They are considering a Saturn ION-3 and have allowed a budget of $19. 19. By eliminating options. Round 48.000. and thousand.500 budget. find a way that Ethan and Olivia can buy the ION-2 and stay within their $16. 68. 16. Show your work. 235 11. Estimate the sum by first rounding to the nearest hundred. 21. 9325 Round to the nearest thousand. 23. 137 9. 750 15.

12 30. 8945 5. 17 1 Whole Numbers Page 43 of 139 . 76 31. 10th Edition 26. 8 29. Draw a number line if necessary. Estimate the difference by first rounding to the nearest hundred. 731 6. 217 33. Show your work. 48 2. 467 4. Estimate the difference by first rounding to the nearest thousand. 64 76 345 217 26 27 1. 64 32. Show your work.Basic Mathematics. 532 3. 27. Use < or > for 28. 345 12 8 to write a true sentence. 1.4 EXERCISE SET For Extra Help Round to the nearest ten.

735. Show your work. 1 Whole Numbers Page 44 of 139 .713.340 22. 27. 9079 14. 4500 19. 26. 874 11. 25. 4645 15.562 23.Basic Mathematics. 798 Round to the nearest hundred. 957 12.850 16. 146 10.402 Round to the nearest thousand. 5876 18. 45. 6. 650 13. 32. 2001 21.855 Estimate the sum or difference by first rounding to the nearest ten. 9. 7500 20. 17.405 24. 895 8. 198. 10th Edition 7. 373.

Perfect Kitchens lets you customize your kitchen with one choice from each of the following four features: 28 1 Whole Numbers Page 45 of 139 . appliances. 31. 10th Edition 28. Perfect Kitchens offers custom kitchen packages with three choices for each of four items: cabinets. Do any of the given sums seem to be incorrect when compared to the estimate? Which ones? 29. Estimate the sum or difference by first rounding to the nearest hundred. 33. 32. countertops. Estimate the sum by first rounding to the nearest ten. 30. The chart below lists the price for each choice. Show your work.Basic Mathematics. and flooring. 34. 36. 27 Planning a Kitchen. 35.

Does your budget support your choices? Estimate the sum by first rounding to the nearest hundred. Sara and Ben are planning to remodel their kitchen and have a budget of $17. and (l) by rounding to the nearest hundred dollars. Estimate the cost of remodeling a kitchen with choices (a). (h). 39. and (l).500. (i). Can they afford their choices? 40.Basic Mathematics. 10th Edition CABINETS (a) (b) (c) COUNTERTOPS (d) (e) (f) APPLIANCES (g) (h) (i) FLOORING (j) (k) (l) TYPE Oak Cherry Painted TYPE Laminate Solid surface Granite PRICE RANGE Low Medium High TYPE Vinyl Ceramic tile Hardwood PRICE $ 625 985 1160 PRICE $1540 3575 6245 PRICE $1595 2870 3528 PRICE $7450 8820 9630 37. Does their budget allotment cover the cost? 41. The allotted kitchen budget is $16. Decide on the options you would like and estimate the cost by rounding to the nearest hundred dollars. The Davidsons must make a final decision on the kitchen choices for their new home. 38. Estimate the cost of a kitchen with choices (c). Suppose you are planning a new kitchen and must stay within a budget of $14. (e). (f). and (j) by rounding to the nearest hundred dollars. Decide on the options you would like and estimate the cost by rounding to the nearest hundred dollars.700. and (k).000.500. (g). (f). (d). Suppose you are planning a new kitchen and must stay within a budget of $18. Do any of the given sums seem to be incorrect when compared to the estimate? Which ones? 28 29 1 Whole Numbers Page 46 of 139 . Estimate by rounding to the nearest hundred dollars the cost of their kitchen remodeling project if they choose options (b). Does your budget support your choices? 42. Estimate by rounding to the nearest hundred dollars the kitchen cost if they choose options (a). (i).

Basic Mathematics. 10th Edition 43. 1 Whole Numbers Page 47 of 139 . 45. 46. 133 17 0 12 18 1001 117 132 to write a true sentence. 77 57. 32 53. 48. Use < or > for 51. Draw a number line if necessary. 44. 34 54. 28 55. 47. Show your work. Estimate the sum or difference by first rounding to the nearest thousand. 0 52. 1000 56. 50. 49.

Use an inequality to compare the daily circulation of the Wall Street Journal and USA Today. Use an inequality to compare the daily circulation of USA Today and the New York Times. 2002. 64. the Wall Street Journal. Use an inequality to compare these annual totals of pedestrian fatalities. 65. The annual number of pedestrians killed when hit by a motor vehicle has declined from 6482 in 1990 to 4827 in 2003. 12 997 17 456 11 32 Daily Newspapers. 37 62.Basic Mathematics. The daily circulation of each as of September 30. Source: Editor and Publisher International Year Book 2003 63. Use this table when answering Exercises 63 and 64. is listed in the table below. The top three daily newspapers in the United States are USA Today. 10th Edition 58. 999 59. 29 30 Pedestrian Fatalities on the Decline 1 Whole Numbers Page 48 of 139 . Pedestrian Fatalities. 460 60. 345 61. and the New York Times.

Basic Mathematics.000   [1. Write a word name for 1.1c] 72.1b] 70. The life expectancy of a female in 2010 is predicted to be about 82 yr and of a male about 76 yr. Write a word name for 246. Subtract. 7992   [1. a student rounds to 750 and then to 800. Use an inequality to compare these life expectancies.2a] 73.   [1.100. DW Explain how estimating and rounding can be useful when shopping for groceries.3b] 1 Whole Numbers Page 49 of 139 .004.1c] Add.   [1. 10th Edition Source: National Center for Statistics and Analysis 66.605.S. Life Expectancy Source: U.   [1.032. What mistake is he making? SKILL MAINTENANCE Write expanded notation. 69.1b] 71.000.005. 23. Bureau of the Census 67. 68.   [1. DW When rounding 748 to the nearest hundred. 74. Life Expectancy.

-80 Use a calculator to find the sums and differences in each of Exercises 47–50.5 MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Whole Numbers REPEATED ADDITION Objectives Multiply whole numbers. SYNTHESIS 77. so it is a good idea to check by estimating.Basic Mathematics. Then compare your answers with those found using estimation. Estimate products by rounding. Even when using a calculator it is possible to make an error if you press the wrong buttons. 30 31 1. 10th Edition 75. 76. The multiplication 3 × 5 corresponds to this repeated addition: 1 Whole Numbers Page 50 of 139 . Use multiplication in finding area.

you should think of either a rectangular array or repeated addition. 10th Edition The numbers that we multiply are called factors. 0 · 3 = 3 · 0 = 0 and 1 · 3 = 3 · 1 = 3. 31 32 EXAMPLE 1 Multiply: 5 × 734. it may help to think both ways. We say that 1 is the multiplicative identity. For example. We have 1 Whole Numbers Page 51 of 139 . In some cases. For example. The product of 0 and any whole number is 0: 0 · a = a · 0 = 0. Each of the following corresponds to the multiplication 3 × 5.Basic Mathematics. When you write a multiplication sentence corresponding to a real-world situation. 3 × 5 = 3 · 5 = (3) (5) = 3(5) = 15. 3 ↓ Factor × 5 ↓ Factor = 15 ↓ Product RECTANGULAR ARRAYS Multiplications can also be thought of as rectangular arrays.) Parentheses are also used to denote multiplication. Multiplying a number by 1 does not change the number: 1 · a = a · 1 = a. The result of the multiplication is called a product. We have used an “X” to denote multiplication. A dot “·” is also commonly used. (Use of the dot is attributed to the German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz in 1698.

10th Edition Instead of writing each product on a separate line. 32 1 Whole Numbers Page 52 of 139 . Since we are going to add the results. we can use a shorter form. and then add. Let's find the product To do this.Basic Mathematics. then 54 by 30. Do Exercises 1–4. let's write the work this way. we multiply 54 by 2.

32 33 EXAMPLE 2 Multiply: 43 × 57.Basic Mathematics. 1 Whole Numbers Page 53 of 139 . Do Exercises 5 and 6. a · (b + c). 10th Edition The fact that we can do this is based on a property called the distributive law. It says that to multiply a number by a sum. Thus. Applied to the example above. the distributive law gives us 54 · 32 = 54 · (30 + 2) = (54 · 30) + (54 · 2). we can multiply each addend by a and then add like this: (a · b) + (a · c). EXAMPLE 3 Multiply: 457 × 683. a · (b + c) = (a · b) + (a · c).

33 34 EXAMPLE 4 Multiply: 306 × 274. 10th Edition Do Exercises 7 and 8. Note that 306 = 3 hundreds + 6 ones. EXAMPLE 5 1 Whole Numbers Page 54 of 139 . Do Exercises 9–11 on the preceding page.Basic Mathematics.

estimate the cost of purchasing 18 tractors. then 4: (2 · 3) · 4 = (6) · 4 = 24. This illustrates the associative law of multiplication: a · (b · c) = (a · b) · c.   We multiply 3 and 4. Either way we get 24. 1 Whole Numbers Page 55 of 139 . It does not matter how we group the numbers. This illustrates the commutative law of multiplication. By rounding to the nearest ten. To multiply three or more numbers. It says that we can multiply two numbers in any order. The lawn tractors will cost about $30. We can also multiply 2 and 3. Leisure Lawn Care is buying new lawn tractors that cost $1534 each. 10th Edition Multiply: 360 × 274. Note that 360 = 3 hundreds + 6 tens. Consider 2 · (3 · 4) and (2 · 3) · 4. a · b = b · a. Check on your own that 17 · 37 = 629 and that 37 · 17 = 629.Basic Mathematics.600. Do Exercise 16. The parentheses tell what to do first: 2 · (3 · 4) = 2 · (12) = 24. then 2. 34 35 Estimating Products by Rounding EXAMPLE 6 Lawn Tractors. Do Exercises 17 and 18. we generally group them so that we multiply two at a time. and get the same answer. Do Exercises 12–15.

each of which contains 4 squares. The playing area of a standard pool table has dimensions of 50 in. wide on the outside that are not included in the playing area. 10th Edition Do Exercise 19. Here is a rectangle 4 cm (centimeters) long and 3 cm wide. or 12.Basic Mathematics. (There are rails 6 in. EXAMPLE 7 Estimate the following product by first rounding to the nearest ten and to the nearest hundred: 683 × 457. A = l · w = 3 cm · 4 cm = 12 sq cm. by 100 in. Finding Area The area of a rectangular region can be considered to be the number of square units needed to fill it. 1 Whole Numbers Page 56 of 139 . It takes 12 square centimeters (sq cm) to fill it. In this case. The number of square units is given by 3 · 4. 35 36 EXAMPLE 8 Professional Pool Table. we have a rectangular array of 3 rows.) Find the playing area. Do Exercise 20. That is.

sleep. 4. we have a rectangular array. Choose a setting that will enable you to focus and concentrate. Working 40 hours per week and taking 12 credit hours is equivalent to working two full-time jobs. Do Exercise 21. and leisure times. 1 Whole Numbers Page 57 of 139 . and the width w = 50 in. 10th Edition If we think of filling the rectangle with square inches. Study Tips Time is the most critical factor in your success in learning mathematics. Scheduling your time. 3. TIME MANAGEMENT (PART 1) Juggling time. 30/6. Plan for success and it will happen! “You cannot increase the quality or quantity of your achievement or performance except to the degree in which you increase your ability to use time effectively. 10/12. Budget about 2-3 hours for homework and study for every hour you spend in class each week. home.” Brian Tracy. Can you handle such a load? Your ratio of number of work hours to number of credit hours should be about 40/3. study. Thus the area A is given by the formula A = l · w = 100 · 50 = 5000 sq in. Have reasonable expectations about the time you need to study math. or 5/14. motivational/inspirational speaker Multiply. 1. Try to schedule time for study when you are most alert. 2.Basic Mathematics. A rule of thumb on study time. school. 20/9. The length l = 100 in. Include work. Use the Student Organizer card to make an hour-by-hour schedule of your typical week.

245 × 837 Multiply. 13.Basic Mathematics. a) Find 23 · 47. 10. 48 × 63 Multiply. 1000 × 562 16. 5. c) Compare your answers to parts (a) and (b). 408 × 704 11. 9. 14. 5 · 1 · 3 1 Whole Numbers Page 58 of 139 . 5 · 2 · 4 18. Multiply. 100 × 562 15. 12. 17. 10th Edition Multiply. 8. 7. 6. b) Find 47 · 23. Multiply.

1. The calculator displays 611. 56 × 8 2.Basic Mathematics. Find the area of a standard table tennis table that has dimensions of 9 ft by 5 ft. and . By rounding to the nearest ten. 10th Edition CALCULATOR CORNER Multiplying Whole Numbers To multiply whole numbers on a calculator. Lawn Tractors. we press × 47 = 611. to find 13 × 47. we use the keys. so 13 21. 20. 19. Table Tennis. Estimate the product by first rounding to the nearest ten and to the nearest hundred. 845 × 26 3. 36 1 Whole Numbers Page 59 of 139 . 5 · 1276 4. 6. Exercises: Use a calculator to find each product. For example. Show your work. estimate the cost to Leisure Lawn Care of 12 lawn tractors. 126(314) 5.

5. 4(7867) 13. 7(9229) 12. (47)(85) 16.5 EXERCISE SET For Extra Help 36 37 Multiply. 6. 8. 7 · 806 11. 10th Edition 1. 3. 7. (34)(87) 17. 1.Basic Mathematics. 3. 90(53) 14. 3 · 509 10. 9. 1 Whole Numbers Page 60 of 139 . 4. 60(78) 15.

32. 23. 31. 21. 27. 33. 24. 20.Basic Mathematics. 25. 19. 10th Edition 18. 34. 37 38 29. 26. 30. 22. 28. 35. 1 Whole Numbers Page 61 of 139 .

and the number of sales representatives to the nearest hundred. 10th Edition 36 Estimate the product by first rounding to the nearest ten. 41. 39. Show your work. 38. 45. Show your work.Basic Mathematics. 40. 37. 44. Estimate the product by first rounding to the nearest hundred. Each car costs $27. a) Estimate the total cost of the purchase by rounding the cost of each car. Toyota Sienna. Source: Toyota 1 Whole Numbers Page 62 of 139 . 43.896 plus an additional $540 per car in destination charges. b) Estimate the total cost of the purchase by rounding the cost of each car to the nearest thousand and the destination charge and the number of reps to the nearest hundred. A pharmaceutical company buys a Toyota Sienna for each of its 112 sales representatives. the destination charge. 42.

Basic Mathematics. Find the area of the region formed by the base lines on a Major League Baseball diamond. 1 Whole Numbers Page 63 of 139 . The cost of a round-trip ticket is $643. 48. Find the area of a standard-sized hockey rink. b) Estimate the total cost of the trip by rounding the cost of the airfare and the number of travelers to the nearest hundred. 49. 50. A travel club of 176 people decides to fly from Los Angeles to Tokyo. 38 39 Find the area of the region. 47. 10th Edition 46. a) Estimate the total cost of the trip by rounding the cost of the airfare and the number of travelers to the nearest ten.

  [1.375. 56.375. 58. 60. 55.2a] 53. DW Explain the multiplication illustrated in the diagram below. Round 6.   [1. $4 · 150.4a] 1 Whole Numbers Page 64 of 139 .602 to the nearest thousand.3b] 57. 52. 54. 10th Edition 51. SKILL MAINTENANCE Add. 59.   [1.Basic Mathematics.   [1. Round 6. DW Describe a situation that corresponds to each multiplication: 4 · $150.4a] 62.602 to the nearest ten. Subtract. 61.

we have 20 ↓ Dividend ÷ 5 ↓ Divisor = 4. Suppose we have 20 notebooks in a pile. One way to do this is to repeatedly subtract sets of 5 as follows.6 DIVISION Division and Related Sentences REPEATED SUBTRACTION Objectives Convert between division sentences and multiplication sentences.Basic Mathematics. Divide whole numbers. ↓ Quotient 1 Whole Numbers Page 65 of 139 . An 18-story office building is box-shaped. Since there are 4 sets of 5 notebooks each. The first is repeated subtraction. 10th Edition SYNTHESIS 63. and we want to find out how many sets of 5 there are. Division of whole numbers applies to two kinds of situations. How much area is available as office space? 39 40 1. Each floor measures 172 ft by 84 ft with a 20-ft by 35-ft rectangular area lost to an elevator and a stairwell.

RECTANGULAR ARRAYS We can also think of division in terms of rectangular arrays. We say that the dividend is 20. there is a related multiplication sentence. Thus. for every division sentence. is that unique number c for which a = b · c. In each case. 10th Edition The division 20 ÷ 5. Consider again the pile of 20 notebooks and division by 5. The array also shows the following: 20 ÷ 5 = 4    and    20 ÷ 4 = 5. read “20 divided by 5. The array of notebooks on the preceding page shows that 5 · 4 = 20. “How many columns are there?” The answer is still 4. The division 20 ÷ 5 is defined to be the number that when multiplied by 5 gives 20. RELATED SENTENCES By looking at rectangular arrays. 41 DIVISION The quotient a ÷ b. and the quotient is 4. “What do we multiply 5 by in order to get 20?” 40 This leads us to the following definition of division. We can also express the division 20 ÷ 5 = 4 as 20 =4 5 4 5 20 or Do Exercise 1. we are asking. We can arrange the notebooks in a rectangular array with 5 rows and ask. We divide the dividend by the divisor to get the quotient. 1 Whole Numbers Page 66 of 139 . where b ≠ 0. the divisor is 5. we can see how multiplication and division are related.Basic Mathematics.” corresponds to the figure above. “How many are in each row?” We can also consider a rectangular array with 5 notebooks in each column and ask.

Do Exercises 4 and 5.Basic Mathematics. 41 42 Division of Whole Numbers Before we consider division with remainders. We have Do Exercises 2 and 3 For every multiplication sentence. 1 Whole Numbers Page 67 of 139 . 10th Edition EXAMPLE 1 Write a related multiplication sentence: 12 ÷ 6 = 2. let's recall four basic facts about division. We have The related division sentences are 7 = 56 ÷ 8 and 8 = 56 ÷ 7. we can write related division sentences. EXAMPLE 2 Write two related division sentences: 7 · 8 = 56.

) a is not defined. a ≠ 0. But such a division would give us any number we wish.Basic Mathematics.  False! such that a = · 0 = 0. Thus. 1 a÷1= DIVIDING A NUMBER BY ITSELF Any nonzero number divided by itself is 1: a = 1. So the only possible number that were the answer. we would have 4= · 0 = 0. Then if 4÷0= and since 0 times any number is 0. a DIVIDENDS OF 0 Zero divided by any nonzero number is 0: 0 = 0. 10th Edition DIVIDING BY 1 Any number divided by 1 is that same number: a = a. a ≠ 0. for 1 Whole Numbers Page 68 of 139 . (We agree not to divide by 0. a EXCLUDING DIVISION BY 0 Division by 0 is not defined. 0 Why can't we divide by 0? Suppose the number 4 could be divided by 0. a ÷ 0 would be some number could be divided by 0 would be 0 itself.

10th Edition 0 ÷ 0 = 8 because 0 ÷ 0 = 3 because 0 ÷ 0 = 7 because 0 = 8 · 0. 42 43 EXAMPLE 3 Divide by repeated subtraction: 18 ÷ 6. Thus. } Alltrue ! We avoid the preceding difficulties by agreeing to exclude division by 0. Suppose we have 22 cans of soda and want to pack them in cartons of 6 cans each. 0 = 3 · 0. is smaller than the divisor. We stop when the number of objects remaining. Suppose we have 18 cans of soda and want to pack them in cartons of 6 cans each. We keep track of the number of times we subtract. 0 = 7 ·0 .Basic Mathematics. 1 Whole Numbers Page 69 of 139 . We end up with 3 cartons with 4 cans left over. the remainder. 18 ÷ 6 = 3. How many cartons will we fill? We can determine this by repeated subtraction.

Basic Mathematics. 1 Whole Numbers Page 70 of 139 . 3 6 22 18 _ 4 Note that Quotient · Divisor + Remainder = Dividend. EXAMPLE 5 Divide and check: 3642 ÷ 5. We can write this division as follows. 43 44 Do Exercises 6–9 on the preceding page. 10th Edition EXAMPLE 4 Divide by repeated subtraction: 22 ÷ 6. We write answers to a division sentence as follows.

Basic Mathematics. 10th Edition 1 Whole Numbers Page 71 of 139 .

10th Edition Do Exercises 10–12.Basic Mathematics. Sometimes rounding the divisor helps us find estimates. 1 Whole Numbers Page 72 of 139 . c) Subtract. EXAMPLE 6 Divide: 8904 ÷ 42. We mentally round 42 to 40. 44 45 To do division of whole numbers: a) Estimate. We can summarize our division procedure as follows. b) Multiply.

Remember: If after estimating and multiplying you get a number that is larger than the number from which it is being subtracted. 10th Edition Caution! Be careful to keep the digits lined up correctly. Do Exercises 13 and 14. The answer is 905 R 6. 45 46 ZEROS IN QUOTIENTS EXAMPLE 7 Divide: 6341 ÷ 7. Do Exercises 15 and 16 on the preceding page. EXAMPLE 8 1 Whole Numbers Page 73 of 139 . lower your estimate.Basic Mathematics. The answer is 212.

46 47 CALCULATOR CORNER Dividing Whole Numbers: Finding Remainders To divide whole numbers on a calculator.” is called a decimal point. Do Exercises 17 and 18. we press . The number 30. We round 37 to 40. the display reads . is the quotient. This tells us that there is a remainder. When we enter 453 ÷ 15. For example. (Decimal notation will be studied in Chapter 4. 10th Edition Divide: 8889 ÷ 37. Note that the result is not a whole number.Basic Mathematics. The symbol “.2 is expressed in decimal notation. We can use the remaining part of the result to find the 1 Whole Numbers Page 74 of 139 .) The number to the left of the decimal point. The display reads . we use the and keys. 30. so 711 ÷ 9 = 79. to divide 711 by 9.

it will be necessary to round the remainder to the nearest one. 1. 92 ÷ 27 2. 15.2. we press and write the number that appears to the . We get 3. Check the results with a calculator also. first subtract 30 from 30.Basic Mathematics.2. 19 532 3. 0. To follow these steps on a calculator. Then we continue by pressing number that appears is the remainder. 30. This is the remainder. The steps that we performed to find this result can be summarized as follows: 453 ÷ 15 = 30. we multiply the quotient by the divisor and then add the remainder.2. 1 Whole Numbers Page 75 of 139 . To check this result.2 × 15 = 3. 308 259. Then multiply the difference by the divisor. 6 746 4.715 6. 30 × 15 = 450 450 + 3 = 453 Exercises: Use a calculator to perform each division. This is the quotient. 453 ÷ 15 = 30 R 3. 126 35. To do this. Thus. 10th Edition remainder.831 1. In some cases. Express this division in two other ways. The last left of the decimal point.2 − 30 = . Consider 54 ÷ 6 = 9. 3817 ÷ 29 5.

2. 6. 1 Whole Numbers Page 76 of 139 .Basic Mathematics. 5 5075 Divide. 15 ÷ 3 = 5 3. If that works for you. 10. 157 ÷ 24 Divide and check. Highlight points that you do not understand. 72 ÷ 8 = 9 Write two related division sentences. 53 ÷ 12 9. 61 ÷ 9 8. Use a unique mark to indicate trouble spots that can lead to questions to be asked during class. Thus you may not need to highlight as much as you generally do. 54 ÷ 9 7. 6 8855 12. Then check. You are probably used to highlighting key points as you study. 45 6030 14. Divide by repeated subtraction. 4. 13. 4 239 11. 6 · 2 = 12 5. continue to do so. 10th Edition Write a related multiplication sentence. 52 3288 Divide. 7 · 6 = 42 STUDY TIPS HIGHLIGHTING Highlight important points. in a tutoring session. But you will notice many design features throughout this book that already highlight important points. or when calling or contacting the AW Math Tutor Center.

you can check your answers at the back of the book. If you miss any. 90 ÷ 10 = 9 7. there are no answers given for the chapter tests. 5 6 44. 72 ÷ 9 = 8 3. 10th Edition 15. 28 ÷ 28 = 1 1 Whole Numbers Page 77 of 139 . 54 ÷ 6 = 9 6. Remember. 6 4846 16.6 EXERCISE SET For Extra Help 48 Write a related multiplication sentence. 17.Basic Mathematics. Usually an instructor assigns some odd-numbered exercises as homework. always do some on your own. 18 ÷ 3 = 6 2. Whether or not your instructor assigns the even-numbered exercises. 22 ÷ 22 = 1 4.847 Study Tips EXERCISES Odd-numbered exercises. 32 ÷ 1 = 32 5. 37 ÷ 1 = 37 8. so you need to practice doing exercises without answers. 2 7 9724 18. Check your answers later with a friend or your instructor. When you complete these. Even-numbered exercises. 47 1. check your work in the Student's Solutions Manual or ask your instructor for guidance. 7 7616 Divide. 1.

If not possible. 9 × 5 = 45 10. 699 ÷ 3 27. write “not defined. 8 × 8 = 64 14. 9 · 7 = 63 15.Basic Mathematics.” 17. 72 ÷ 6 18. 37 · 1 = 37 12. 22 ÷ 1 22. 25. 11 · 6 = 66 16. 864 ÷ 8 28. 9. 21. if possible. 277 ÷ 5 26. 23 23 37 37 20. 10th Edition Write two related division sentences. 2 · 7 = 14 11. 74 ÷ 0 Divide. 1 · 43 = 43 Divide. 54 ÷ 9 19. 24. 869 ÷ 8 1 Whole Numbers Page 78 of 139 . 4 · 12 = 48 13. 56 1 16 0 23.

102 5612 49 50 48 49 1 Whole Numbers Page 79 of 139 . 20 5798 47. 9 9110 33. 4 1228 30. 3 6027 39. 5 8515 38. 85 7672 52.000 ÷ 1000 44. 8 4139 41. 389 ÷ 2 35. 127.000 ÷ 100 43. 738 ÷ 8 36. 54 2729 53. 111 3219 54. 10th Edition 29. 4260 ÷ 10 45. 881 ÷ 6 37.Basic Mathematics. 297 ÷ 4 34. 3 2124 31. 852 ÷ 21 50. 6 4521 32. 127. 70 3692 46. 9 8888 40. 30 875 48. 127.000 ÷ 10 42. 40 987 49. 942 ÷ 23 51.

DW Is division associative? Why or why not? Give an example.067 68.” Devise an explanation to persuade the student that the assertion is false. 803 5. 28 17. 5 8047 58. 3425 ÷ 32 64.560 71. 36 7563 67.888 73.606 75.929 69.679. 76. 1058 ÷ 46 62. 80 24.Basic Mathematics.999 72. DW Suppose a student asserts that “0 ÷ 0 = 0 because nothing divided by nothing is nothing.320 70. 48 4899 65. 36 28. 9 7273 59. 24 8880 66. 306 888. 90 88. 8 843 56. 50 51 1 Whole Numbers Page 80 of 139 . 285 999. 10th Edition 55. 7 749 57. 7242 ÷ 24 63. 456 3.622. 7 7074 61.920 74. 5 5036 60.

10th Edition SKILL MAINTENANCE VOCABULARY REINFORCEMENT In each of Exercises 77–84.2a] 81. Some of the choices may not be used and some may be used more than once. The number 0 is called the _____________ identity.Basic Mathematics.   [1.5a] perimeter dividend quotient product 83. fill in the blank with the correct term from the given list. 1 Whole Numbers Page 81 of 139 . _____________are separated by commas into factors groups of three.4c] addends 79.   [1.6a] 82.   [1. The sentence 3 × (6 × 2) = (3 × 6) × 2 illustrates the _____________ law of multiplication.2b] associative 78. The _____________ is the number from which another number is being minuend subtracted. 77.   [1. a sentence like commutative 31 < 33 is called a(n) _____________.5a] subtrahend digits periods additive multiplicative equation inequality SYNTHESIS 85. a   84   b 68     a·b 3672   32 a+b   117 12 86. The distance around an object is its _____________. Find a pair of factors whose product is 36 and: a) whose sum is 13.000. 10 and 1000 are called _____________ and 10. called _____________.   [1. In the sentence 10 × 1000 = 10.   [1. the _____________ is 28.000 is called the _____________. Complete the following table.   [1. b) whose difference is 0. For large numbers. In the sentence 28 ÷ 7 = 4.3a] 84. A sentence like 10 − 3 = 7 is called a(n) _____________.   [1.1a] 80.

1 Whole Numbers Page 82 of 139 .584. and 98 · 2 = y. A group of 1231 college students is going to take buses for a field trip. 28 · x = 168. 9=3+6 Do Exercises 1 and 2.386. 7 is not a solution of 9=3+ because 9 = 3 + 7 is false. A solution of an equation is a number that makes the sentence true. Thus. A sentence with = is called an equation. We are asking “9 is 3 plus what number?” The answer is 6. 10th Edition c) whose sum is 20. However. Solve equations like x + 28 = 54.Basic Mathematics. 87. 6 is a solution of 9=3+ because 9 = 3 + 6 is true. Do Exercises 3 and 4. Fill in the missing digits to make the equation true: 34. How many buses are needed? 88. d) whose difference is 9.7 SOLVING EQUATIONS Objectives Solve simple equations by trial. 51 52 1.132 ÷ 76 =4 . Each bus can hold only 42 students. Solutions by Trial Let's find a number that we can put in the blank to make this sentence true: 9=3+ .

SOLUTIONS OF AN EQUATION A solution is a replacement for the variable that makes the equation true. we say that we have solved the equation. we can find the solution by carrying out the calculation.Basic Mathematics. For example. If we replace y with 15. 9 = 3 + n. We replace y with several numbers. 2. 1 Whole Numbers Page 83 of 139 . we get a false equation: 13 + 12 = 27. 63 = 3 · x (63 is 3 times what number?) The solution is 21. we get a false equation: 14 + 12 = 27. We call n a variable because it can represent any number. EXAMPLE 1 Solve y + 12 = 27 by trial. If we replace y with 14. 3. 7 + n = 22 (7 plus what number is 22?) The solution is 15. 52 53 Solving Equations We now begin to develop more efficient ways to solve certain equations. EXAMPLES Solve. When a calculation is on one side and the variable is alone on the other. When we find all the solutions. When an equation has a variable alone on one side. Do Exercises 5–8 on the following page. we get a true equation: 15 + 12 = 27. No other replacement makes the equation true. it is easy to see the solution or to compute it. If we replace y with 13. 10th Edition We can use a letter instead of a blank. If a replacement for a variable makes an equation true. so the solution is 15. it is a solution of the equation.

Basic Mathematics, 10th Edition EXAMPLE 4
Solve: x = 245 × 34. To solve the equation, we carry out the calculation.

The solution is 8330. Do Exercises 9–12. Look at the equation x + 12 = 27. We can get x alone by writing a related subtraction sentence:
x = 27 − 12 x = 15. 12 gets subtracted to find the related subtraction sentence. Doing the subtraction

It is useful in our later study of algebra to think of this as “subtracting 12 on both sides.” Thus, x +12 − 12 = 27 − 12 Subtracting 12 on both sides x +0 = 15 x = 15. Carrying out the subtraction

SOLVING x + a = b
To solve x + a = b, subtract a on both sides. If we can get an equation in a form with the variable alone on one side, we can “see” the solution.

EXAMPLE 5
Solve: t + 28 = 54. We have

1 Whole Numbers

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Basic Mathematics, 10th Edition
t +28 = 54 t +28 − 28 = 54 − 28 Subtracting 28 on both sides t +0 = 26 t = 26.
53 54

To check the answer, we substitute 26 for t in the original equation.

The solution is 26. Do Exercises 13 and 14.

EXAMPLE 6
Solve: 182 = 65 + n. We have 182 = 65 + n 182 − 65 = 65 + n − 65 Subtracting 65 on both sides 117 = 0 + n 117 = n . 65 plus n minus 65 is 0 + n .

The solution is 117. Do Exercise 15.

EXAMPLE 7
Solve: 7381 + x = 8067. We have 7381 + x = 8067

7381 + x − 7381 = 8067 − 7381 Subtracting 7381 on both sides x = 686.

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Basic Mathematics, 10th Edition
The check is left to the student. The solution is 686. Do Exercises 16 and 17. We now learn to solve equations like 8 · n = 96. Look at 8 · n = 96. We can get n alone by writing a related division sentence: n = 96 ÷ 8 = n = 12. 96 96 is divided by 8. 8 Doing the division

It is useful in our later study of algebra to think of the preceding as “dividing by 8 on both sides.” Thus, 8·n 8 n = 96 8 Dividing by 8 on both sides

= 12. 8 times n divided by 8 is n .

54 55

SOLVING a · x = b
To solve a · x = b, divide by a on both sides.

EXAMPLE 8
Solve: 10 · x = 240. We have 10 · x 10 · x 10 x = 240 = 240 10 Dividing by 10 on both sides

= 24.

The solution is 24.

EXAMPLE 9
Solve: 5202 = 9 · t.

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Do Exercises 21 and 22. EXAMPLE 11 Solve: n · 56 = 4648. The solution is 83. The solution is 78. The check is left to the student. The solution is 578. We have n · 56 = 4648 n · 56 4648 = 56 56 n = 83. The check is left to the student.Basic Mathematics. We have 14 · y 14 · y 14 y = 1092 = 1092 14 Dividing by 14 on both sides = 78. 10th Edition We have 5202 = 9 · t 5202 9·t = 9 9 578 = t . Dividing by 9 on both sides EXAMPLE 10 Solve: 14 · y = 1092. 1 Whole Numbers Page 87 of 139 . Do Exercises 18–20. Dividing by 56 on both sides The check is left to the student. Find a number that makes the sentence true.

8 · x = 64 19. Be sure to check. 5152 = 8 · t 1 Whole Numbers Page 88 of 139 . Be sure to check. Solve: 155 = t + 78. Solve. 144 = 9 · n 20. x = 2347 + 6675 11. 77 = m + 32 15. n + 3 = 8 6. x = 6007 – 2346 Solve. 18. 4566 + x = 7877 17. 5. 10 + t = 32 Solve. + 5 = 9. 16.Basic Mathematics. Determine whether 7 is a solution of 4. Determine whether 4 is a solution of Solve by trial. Be sure to check. 13. 45 ÷ 9 = y 8. x − 2 = 8 7. 4560 ÷ 8 = t 12. 8172 = h + 2058 Solve. 3. Be sure to check. 8 = 1 + 2. +2=7 + 5 = 9. 9. 346 × 65 = y 10. x + 9 = 17 14. 10th Edition 1.

p = 908 − 458 1 Whole Numbers Page 89 of 139 . t = 125 ÷ 5 16. 13 + x = 42 6. x − 7 = 18 3.Basic Mathematics. Be sure to check. Be sure to check. 23 · 78 = y 15. 16 = t + 16 9. n · 48 = 4512 55 1. 3 · x = 24 10. 56 ÷ m = 7 Solve. 18 · y = 1728 22. 45 · 23 = x 14. 112 = n · 8 12. 21. w = 256 ÷ 16 17. x + 0 = 14 2. 1. y · 17 = 0 4.7 EXERCISE SET For Extra Help 56 Solve by trial. 5. 15 + t = 22 7. 10th Edition Solve. 12 = 12 + m 8. 162 = 9 · m 13. 6 · x = 42 11.

x + 78 = 144 36. x + 214 = 389 42. x =12. 4 · w = 3404 31. 3 · m = 96 22. 10th Edition 18. 5678 + 9034 = t 21. 741 = 3 · t 25. 438 + x = 807 56 57 1 Whole Numbers Page 90 of 139 . 56 + p = 92 35. 624 = t · 13 40.Basic Mathematics.345 + 78. 53 = 17 + w 29. z + 67 = 133 37. 61 = 16 + y 28. 20 + x = 57 27. 9 · x = 1269 33. 784 = y · 16 41. 567 + x = 902 44. 165 = 11 · n 38. 6 · p = 1944 30. 47 + n = 84 34. x + 221 = 333 43. 10 + x = 89 26. 660 = 12 · n 39. 715 = 5 · z 24. 9007 – 5667 = m 19. 4 · y = 96 23.555 20. 5 · x = 3715 32.

18 · x = 1872 46. DW Describe a procedure that can be used to convert any equation of the form a + b = c to a related subtraction equation.   [1. 342 63. 233 · x = 22. 9281 − 8322 = y 53. 58 · m = 11. 123 62.3a] 60. 0 Divide. 20 · x = 1500 49.6b] 11 to write a true sentence. 19 · x = 6080 47. Write two related subtraction sentences: 7 + 8 = 15. 10. 8322 + 9281 = x 52.4c] 789 339 0 1 Whole Numbers Page 91 of 139 .890 56.6a] Use > or < for 61. 2344 + y = 6400 50. 40 · x = 1800 48.   [1. 9281 = 8322 + t 51. 688 64. 234 · 78 = y 54.135 57. 58. DW Describe a procedure that can be used to convert any equation of the form a · b = c to a related division equation. 10th Edition 45.534 ÷ 458 = q 55.   [1.   [1. SKILL MAINTENANCE 59.Basic Mathematics. Write two related division sentences: 6 · 8 = 48.

or variable.916 · x = 14. A Problem-Solving Strategy Applications and problem solving are the most important uses of mathematics. or division of whole numbers. Then we solve the equation.142. We try to translate the problem to an equation.388 57 58 1. To solve a problem using the operations on the whole numbers. FIVE STEPS FOR PROBLEM SOLVING 1. we first look at the situation. multiplication. Solve the equation. Check the answer in the original wording of the problem. 3. 1278 ÷ 9 67. 4. to the unknown. 1 Whole Numbers Page 92 of 139 .355 48. 17 5678 68. We are using the following five-step strategy. 23. b) Draw a diagram or see if there is a formula that applies to the situation. We check to see if the solution of the equation is a solution of the original problem. subtraction. Familiarize yourself with the situation. 10th Edition 65. 70. 17 5689 SYNTHESIS Solve.8 APPLICATIONS AND PROBLEM SOLVING Objective Solve applied problems involving addition. a) Carefully read and reread until you understand what you are being asked to find. 69.332. Translate the problem to an equation using the letter or variable. 2. c) Assign a letter.465 · x = 8. 1283 ÷ 9 66.Basic Mathematics.

India. We translate to an equation: 6859 + 1790 + 472 + 382 = n. Translate. South Korea. First. State the answer to the problem clearly with appropriate units. 2. 3. Solve. 10th Edition 5. INTERNATIONAL ADOPTIONS Source: U. Familiarize.S. The top ten countries of origin for United States international adoptions in 2003 and 2002 are listed in the table below. South Korea. Department of State 58 59 1. addition can be used. and Vietnam in 2003.Basic Mathematics. Since we are combining numbers of adoptions. we define the unknown. We can make a drawing or at least visualize the situation. 1 Whole Numbers Page 93 of 139 . We let n = the total number of adoptions from China. Find the total number of adoptions from China. EXAMPLE 1 International Adoptions. India. and Vietnam. We solve the equation by carrying out the addition.

59 60 EXAMPLE 2 Checking Account Balance. and Vietnam in 2003 is 9503. 6859 + 1790 + 472 + 382 ≈ 6900 + 1800 + 500 + 400 = 9600 Since 9600 ≈ 9503. we have a partial check. 10th Edition 4. we might be suspicious that our calculated answer is incorrect. which it is. For example. South Korea. Find the new balance in his checking account. Here we round to the nearest hundred. Source: Reproduced with permission from the copyright owner (©2004 by Robert Bosch Tool Corporation). In this case. We first make a drawing or at least visualize the situation.) Another way is to check whether the answer is reasonable. Since our estimated answer is close to our calculation. Do Exercises 1–3. Check. India. 5. We can also estimate by rounding. State. we are further convinced that our answer checks. If we had an estimate like 4800 or 7500. we can repeat the calculation. 1. We check 9503 in the original problem. Familiarize. The total number of adoptions from China. There are many ways in which this can be done.Basic Mathematics. He uses his debit card to buy the Roto Zip Spiral Saw Combo shown in this ad. We let M = the new balance in his account. (We leave this to the student. Further reproductions strictly prohibited. The balance in Tyler's checking account is $528. we would expect the total to be greater than the number of adoptions from any of the individual countries. This gives us the following: 1 Whole Numbers Page 94 of 139 .

10th Edition 2. 129: 129 + 399 − 528. She travels 1154 mi to Denver. You must still become familiar with the situation before you can solve the problem. We subtract. In the real world. Do Exercise 4. problems may not be stated in written words. Abigail is driving from Indianapolis to Salt Lake City to interview for a news anchor position. 399. Check. We let x = the remaining distance to Salt Lake City. Translate. Solve. Tyler has a new balance of $399 in his checking account. we can repeat the calculation. To check our answer of $399. This sentence tells us what to do. We note that the answer should be less than the original amount. which it is. 5.Basic Mathematics. Familiarize. to the subtrahend. State. 60 61 EXAMPLE 3 Travel Distance. We can think of this as a “take-away” situation. Money in the ↓ 528 Money minus ↓ − spent New is ↓ = balance account 3. How much farther must she travel? 1. 4. We can add the difference. We translate to an equation. The distance from Indianapolis to Salt Lake City is 1634 mi. $528. We can also estimate: 528 − 129 ≈ 530 − 130 = 400 ≈ 399. 1 Whole Numbers } } ↓ 129 } ↓ M Page 95 of 139 . We first make a drawing or at least visualize the situation.

We see that this is a “how much more” situation. 1634 mi. checks. Solve. Check. We translate to an equation. 1 Whole Numbers } ↓ 1154 } ↓ x } ↓ 1634 Page 96 of 139 . This number should be less than the total distance. We can also estimate: 1634 − 1154 ≈ 1600 − 1200 = 400 ≈ 480. to the subtrahend. 480. State. Familiarize. Do Exercise 5. 61 62 EXAMPLE 4 Total Cost of Chairs.Basic Mathematics. which it is. What is the total cost of 6 Logan side chairs from Restoration Hardware if each one costs $210? 1. we subtract 1154 on both sides: 4. 1154: 1154 + 480 = 1634. Repeated addition works well in this case. We first make a drawing or at least visualize the situation. 5. 480 mi. Abigail must travel 480 mi farther to Salt Lake City. We let T = the cost of 6 chairs. Translate. 10th Edition 2. The answer. To solve the equation. We check our answer of 480 mi in the original problem. We can add the difference. Distance Total already traveled Distance plus ↓ + to go distance is ↓ = of trip 3.

We translate to an equation. that is much greater than the cost of any individual chair. EXAMPLE 5 Truck Bed Cover. The answer checks. We can repeat our calculation. What is the area of the cover? 1 Whole Numbers } ↓ 6 } ↓ $ 210 } ↓ T 62 Page 97 of 139 . We multiply. which is reasonable. 10th Edition 2. Number Cost of Total of chair times ↓ × each chair is ↓ = Cost 3. Solve. The dimensions of a fiberglass truck bed cover for a pickup truck are 79 in. We have an answer. Do Exercise 6. The total cost of 6 chairs is $1260. Check. by 68 in. 1260. Translate.Basic Mathematics. This sentence tells us what to do. 5. 4. We can also check by estimating: 6 × 210 ≈ 6 × 200 = 1200 ≈ 1260. State.

The problem can be considered as repeated subtraction. We also note that the answer is greater than either the length or the width. 4.Basic Mathematics. taking successive sets of 12 cans and putting them into n cartons. EXAMPLE 6 Cartons of Soda. (This might not be the case if we were using fractions or decimals. We let n = the number of 12-can cartons that can be filled. How many 12-can cartons can be filled? How many cans will be left over? 1. which it should be. We repeat our calculation. 3. Solve. We carry out the multiplication. Familiarize. Familiarize. We first make a drawing.l · w = 79 · 68. by 68 in. 2. Do Exercise 7. 5. The truck bed cover is a rectangle that measures 79 in. we have A = length · width .) The answer checks. 1 Whole Numbers Page 98 of 139 . We let A = the area and use the area formula A = l · w. A bottling company produces 3304 cans of soda. Translate. Using this formula. 10th Edition 63 1. The area of the truck bed cover is 5372 sq in. Check. State.

Translate. Solve. 4: 12 · 275 = 3300. We first make a drawing. 2. Check. 3300 + 4 = 3304. We can check by multiplying the number of cartons by 12 and adding the remainder. 64 4. We solve the equation by carrying out the division. Thus. In this case. There will be 4 cans left over. 63 3. State. Translate. 275 twelve-can cartons can be filled. It is often helpful to be descriptive about how we define a variable. Repeated addition applies here. EXAMPLE 7 Automobile Mileage. we let g = the number of gallons (“g” comes from “gallons”). Do Exercise 8. We translate to an equation. How many gallons will it use in 3843 mi of city driving? Source: General Motors 1. 5. Familiarize. The Pontiac G6 GT gets 21 miles to the gallon (mpg) in city driving. 1 Whole Numbers Page 99 of 139 .Basic Mathematics. 10th Edition 2. Thus the following multiplication applies to the situation.

Basic Mathematics. Check. Boeing Corporation builds commercial aircraft. as in the following example. State. The Pontiac G6 GT will use 183 gal. Do Exercise 9. 65 Multistep Problems Sometimes we must use more than one operation to solve a problem. Familiarize. EXAMPLE 8 Aircraft Seating. To solve the equation. A Boeing 767 has a seating configuration with 4 rows of 6 seats across in first class and 35 rows of 7 seats across in economy class. 5. Find the total seating capacity of the plane. we divide by 21 on both sides. 64 4. 10th Edition 3. 1 Whole Numbers Page 100 of 139 . we multiply 183 by 21: 21 × 183 = 3843. Delta Airlines 1. We first make a drawing. To check. Solve. Sources: The Boeing Company.

Thus the following multiplication corresponds to the situation. Solve. We let T = the total number of seats in both classes. First-class: Repeated addition applies here. we repeat our calculations. and adding. State. To check. 5. There are 269 seats in a Boeing 767. We first find the number of seats in each class. As you consider the following exercises.) We could also check by rounding. Translate. Do Exercise 10. Check. here are some words and phrases that may be helpful to look for when you are translating problems to equations. We let F = the number of seats in first class. We solve each equation and add the solutions. Economy class: Repeated addition applies here. 10th Edition 2. Then we add. 4 ·6 = F 24 = F 35 · 7 = E 245 = E F +E =T 66 24 + 245 = T 269 = T 4. 65 3. multiplying. (We leave this to the student.Basic Mathematics. There are three parts to the problem. 1 Whole Numbers Page 101 of 139 . Thus the following multiplication corresponds to the situation. We let E = the number of seats in economy class.

10th Edition KEY WORDS. Jackson Auto Care charges $60 per hour. Heights. The brick-mason expense for each building is $10. 69 in. How much more does she need to buy the camcorder? 5. How many members are in each row? 1 Whole Numbers Page 102 of 139 . and 76 in. If she pays $52 for each coffee maker. Miller Auto Repair charges $52 an hour for labor. Jenny has only $69. How much taller is the tallest son than the shortest son? 3. Account Balance. Dean's sons are on the high school basketball team. Sara purchases 8 coffee makers for the newly remodeled bed-and-breakfast hotel that she manages. PHRASES..860. what is the total cost of her purchase? 6. What is the total cost of bricking the buildings? 2. AND CONCEPTS ADDITION (+) add added to sum total plus more than increased by     MULTIPLICATION (·) multiply multiplied by product times of repeated addition rectangular arrays SUBTRACTION (−) subtract subtracted from difference minus less than decreased by take away how much more missing addend DIVISION (÷) divide divided by quotient repeated subtraction missing factor finding equal quantities   66 67 Translating for success 1. You have $423 in your checking account. Purchasing Coffee Makers.. A camcorder is on sale for $423. A college band with 195 members marches in a 15-row formation in the homecoming halftime performance. How much is left in your account? 4. A commercial contractor is building 30 two-unit condominiums in a retirement community. Hourly Rate. Purchasing Camcorder. Brick-mason Expense. How much more does Jackson charge than Miller? 7.Basic Mathematics. Their heights are 73 in. Then you deposit $73 and use your debit card for purchases of $76 and $69. College Band.

At the beginning of the fall term. 15 · n = 195 G. 69 + n = 76 N.860.860 for a new boat. 52 + n = 60 Answers on page A-3 Refer to the table on the preceding page to answer Margin Exercises 1–3. 69 · n = 76 C. What is the total cost of this purchase? 9. 15 · 195 = n L. College Enrollment. A professional football team purchases 15 pairs of shoes at $195 a pair. The loan is to be paid off in 30 payments. 860 − 300 I. Kendra borrows $10. A. How much is each payment? 10.860 = n F. 15 ÷ 195 = n O. 10th Edition 8. 423 + 73 − 76 − 69 = n E. How many students were then enrolled? The goal of these matching questions is to practice step (2). 30 · n = 10. By the end of the first two weeks. n = 423 ÷ 69 J. Translate. of the five-step problem-solving process. the total enrollment in Lakeview Community College was 10. 1 Whole Numbers Page 103 of 139 . 73 − 76 − 69 = n D. Loan Payment. 30 · 10.Basic Mathematics. n = 10. n = 52 − 8 M.860 K. Shoe Purchase. Translate each word problem to an equation and select a correct translation from equations A-O. 8 · 52 = n B. 69 + n = 423 H. 300 students withdrew.

What is the area of the sheet? 8. 2. He wants to purchase the home vacuum shown in the ad below. Colombia. each with 520 sq in. How much more does he need? 6. Home Vacuum. Find the new balance in her checking account. Find the total number of adoptions from the top ten countries in 2003. William has $228. She uses her debit card to buy the same Roto Zip Spiral Saw Combo. Total Cost of Gas Grills. 4. that Tyler did. Aircraft Seating. Find the total number of adoptions from China. Vietnam. Kazakhstan. The Pontiac G6 GT gets 29 miles to the gallon (mpg) in highway driving. The dimensions of a flat sheet for a queen-size bed are 90 in.Basic Mathematics. Find the total number of adoptions from Russia. Automobile Mileage. if each one costs $398? 7. of total cooking surface and porcelain cast-iron cooking grates. How many 6-can cartons can be filled with 2269 cans of cola? How many will be left over? 9. and India in 2002. 10th Edition 1. How many gallons will it take to drive 2291 mi of highway driving? Source: General Motors 10. Bed Sheets. Checking Account Balance. Cartons of Soda. Russia. business class has 6 rows with 6 seats across and 1 row 1 Whole Numbers Page 104 of 139 . Guatemala. by 102 in. First class has 3 rows of 5 seats across. and Haiti in 2003. The bottling company in Example 6 also uses 6-can cartons. 5. A Boeing 767 used for foreign travel has three classes of seats. What is the total cost of 14 gas grills. 3. The balance in Heidi's checking account is $2003. featured in Example 2.

Source: League of American Theatres and Producers. Inc. What was the total number of performances of the top three shows? 1 Whole Numbers Page 105 of 139 . Longest Broadway Run. The bar graph below lists the five broadway shows with the greatest number of performances as of May 3. Economy class has 18 rows with 7 seats across. 1. Delta Airlines 67 1.Basic Mathematics. Find the total seating capacity of the plane. What was the total number of performances of all five shows? 2. 2004. 10th Edition with 2 seats on each of the outside aisles.8 EXERCISE SET For Extra Help 68 Solve. Sources: The Boeing Company.

Department of Education 9. 10th Edition 3. Caffeine. January 2005 7. A carpenter drills 216 holes in a rectangular array in a pegboard. How many more performances of Les Misérables were there than performances of Oh! Calcutta!? 5. He arranges 504 entries on a spreadsheet in a rectangular array that has 36 rows. Use this graph when answering Exercises 9–12.” by T. 1 Whole Numbers Page 106 of 139 . The boundary between mainland United States and Canada including the Great Lakes is 3987 miles long. A 20-oz bottle of Coca-Cola has 32 more milligrams of caffeine than the Hershey bar.Basic Mathematics. How much longer is the Canadian border? Source: U. The line graph below illustrates data about bachelor's degrees awarded to men and women from 1970 to 2002. Boundaries Between Countries. Lou works as a CPA. How many entries are in each row? Bachelor's Degree. How many milligrams of caffeine does the 20-oz bottle of Coca-Cola have? Source: National Geographic. R. 68 69 Source: U.S. Hershey's 6-oz milk chocolate almond bar contains 25 milligrams of caffeine. There are 12 holes in each row.S. Find the total number of bachelor's degrees awarded in 1970 and the total number awarded in 2002. The length of the boundary between the United States and Mexico is 1933 miles. Geological Survey 6. Reid.“Caffeine. How many rows are there? 8. How many more performances of Cats were there than performances of The Phantom of the Opera? 4.

802. How many more bachelor's degrees were awarded to women than to men in 2002? 12. There are 60 min in an hour and 24 hr in a day. Freddie Mac 14. Greece. Determine how many more bachelor's degrees were awarded in 2002 than in 1970. How many squares does the puzzle have altogether? 69 70 1 Whole Numbers Page 107 of 139 . In 2004. The longest river in the United States is the Missouri-Mississippi at 3860 mi. How many events were there in 2004? Source: USA Today research. The USA Today crossword puzzle is a rectangle containing 15 rows with 15 squares in each row. The longest river in the world is the Nile in Egypt at 4100 mi. The debt in 1989 was $39. Consumer Bank Association 2003 Home Equity Study.475 more than the median mortgage debt in 1989. Speeds on Interstates. By how many miles per hour were they raised? 17. Longest Rivers. in 1896. The median mortgage debt in 2001 was $29. Olympics in Athens. there were 258 more events in the Summer Olympics in Athens. What was the median mortgage debt in 2001? Source: Federal Reserve Board Survey of Consumer Finances. 11. speed limits on interstate highways in many Western states were raised from 65 mph to 75 mph. How many minutes are there in a day? 19. Median Mortgage Debt. In the first modern Olympics in Athens.Basic Mathematics. Crossword. Recently. How many hours are there in a week? 18. How many more bachelor's degrees were awarded to men than to women in 1970? 13. The Olympic Games: Athens 1896-Athens 2004 15. there were 43 events. How much longer is the Nile? 16. 10th Edition 10. There are 24 hours (hr) in a day and 7 days in a week.

How many pixels are there on a screen that has 600 rows with 800 pixels in each row? 21. “Seinfeld” Episodes. how many full weeks will pass before it must start over with past episodes? How many episodes will be left for the last week? 24. A local station picks up the syndicated reruns. Find the total cost of the purchase. A lab technician separates a vial containing 70 cubic centimeters (cc) of blood into test tubes. The 2005 Hyundai Tucson GLS gets 26 miles to the gallon (mpg) in highway driving. Automobile Mileage. How many gallons will it use in 6136 mi of highway driving? Source: Hyundai 26. Automobile Mileage. Find the total cost of the purchase. 10th Edition 20. How many gallons will it use in 3960 mi of city driving? 1 Whole Numbers Page 108 of 139 . Pixels. Bridgeway College is constructing new dorms. A computer screen consists of small rectangular dots called pixels. Gourmet Deli has a chain of 24 restaurants. Microwave Purchase. It buys a commercial refrigerator for each store at a cost of $1019 each. How many test tubes can be filled? How much blood is left over? 25. The 2005 Volkswagen Jetta (5 cylinder) gets 24 miles to the gallon (mpg) in city driving. 23. Refrigerator Purchase. If the station runs 5 episodes per week. 22. It buys 96 microwave ovens at $88 each.Basic Mathematics. each of which contains 3 cc of blood. “Seinfeld” was a long-running television comedy with 177 episodes. in which each room has a small kitchen.

How much is each payment (excluding interest)? 34. How many gallons of fuel are needed for a 4-hour flight of the Boeing 747? 30. The loan is to be paid off in 24 equal monthly payments. How much longer is the Boeing 747 than the Boeing 777? 31. Boeing 27. Use the chart below in Exercises 27–32 to compare the Boeing 747 jet with its main competitor. Inc. 10th Edition Source: Volkswagen of America. The loan is to be paid off in equal monthly payments of $163 (excluding interest).Basic Mathematics. a) What is its area. Dana borrows $5928 for a used car. How much larger is the passenger capacity of the Boeing 747 jet than the passenger capacity of the Boeing 777 jet? 29. What is the total cost for the crew and fuel for a 2-hour flight of the Boeing 777 jet? 33. How many months will it take to pay off the loan? 35. the Boeing 777 jet. High School Court. 70 71 Boeing Jets. What is the total cost for the crew and fuel for a 3-hour flight of the Boeing 747 jet? 32. Source: Éclat Consulting. A family borrows $7824 to build a sunroom on the back of their home. The nonstop flight distance of the Boeing 747 jet is how much greater than the nonstop flight distance of the Boeing 777 jet? 28. 1 Whole Numbers Page 109 of 139 . The standard basketball court used by high school players has dimensions of 50 ft by 84 ft.

000. How much more were the imports than the exports? Source: U. In the United States.000.000. Census Bureau. The standard basketball court used by college and NBA players has dimensions of 50 ft by 94 ft.000 while the imports totaled $31. Corn Imports and Exports. Foreign Trade Division 1 Whole Numbers Page 110 of 139 . b) What is its perimeter. Census Bureau.264. a) What is its area. the exports of corn in 2003 totaled $2. NBA Court. 71 37.S. 36. Clothing Imports and Exports.000. the exports of clothing in 2003 totaled $2. c) How much greater is the area of an NBA court than a high school court? (See Exercise 35.000 while the imports totaled $130. In the United States.S.000.701.000.596.Basic Mathematics. How much more were the exports than the imports? Source: U. Foreign Trade Division 72 38. 10th Edition b) What is its perimeter.

This was an increase of 2. Colonial Population. Deaths by Firearms. Map Drawing.267 bars? How many bars will be left over? 42. Hershey Bars. vol 52. apart on the map? How far apart on the map are two cities that. no. makes small.579 cups and fills 1025 packages. Reese's Peanut Butter Cups. How many cups are in a package? How many cups will be left over? 43. 2005 40. The company manufactures 23. fun-size peanut butter cups.Basic Mathematics.400. H.S. in reality. How many 20-bar packages can be filled with 11.573 in 2001. 10th Edition 39. Before the establishment of the U. Reese Candy Co. What was the Colonial population in 1680? Source: Time Almanac.900 from the population in 1680.780. How far apart in reality are two cities that are 6 in.628. How many deaths by firearms were there in 1993? Source: Center for Disease Control and Prevention. September 18. A map has a scale of 64 mi to the inch. it was estimated that the Colonial population in 1780 was 2. 3. are 1728 mi apart? 1 Whole Numbers Page 111 of 139 . Census in 1790. fun-size chocolate bars.022 from the deaths by firearms in 1993. Hershey Chocolate USA makes small. 2003 41. Deaths by firearms totaled 29. This was a decrease of 10. National Vital Statistics Reports. B.

You have $568 in your bank account. It is known that one must burn off about 3500 calories in order to lose one pound. are 2400 mi apart? How far apart in reality are two cities that are 13 in. How much is left in your account? 52. you must: 73 1 Whole Numbers Page 112 of 139 . and $129. Map Drawing. The Los Angeles Times crossword puzzle is a rectangle containing 441 squares arranged in 21 rows. Then you deposit $94 back in the account after the return of some books. You use your debit card for $46. Heinz Company.Basic Mathematics. To burn off 100 calories. Elena buys 5 video games at $64 each and pays for them with $10 bills. $87. How many cartons are needed to ship 528 bottles of catsup? 49. Many Americans exercise for weight control. Sheet of Stamps. A sheet of 100 stamps typically has 10 rows of stamps. 16-oz bottles of catsup are generally shipped in cartons containing 12 bottles each. How many $20 bills does it take? 51. You use your debit card for $34 and $65. Crossword. How many columns does the puzzle have? 46. The chart shown here details how much of certain types of exercise is required to burn 100 calories. The balance in your bank account is $749. How far apart on the map are two cities that. Use this chart for Exercises 53–56. 10th Edition 44. J. apart on the map? 72 45. According to the H. Copies of this book are generally shipped from the warehouse in cartons containing 24 books each. How many cartons are needed to ship 1355 books? 48. How many $10 bills does it take? 50. Then you make a deposit of $123 from your paycheck. How many stamps are in each row? 47. Pedro buys 5 video games at $64 each and pays for them with $20 bills. A map has a scale of 150 mi to the inch. in reality. What is your new balance? Weight Loss.

or Do aerobic exercises for 15 minutes. 53. or Swim for 2 minutes at a brisk pace. How long must you swim in order to lose one pound? 55. How many bones are there in all in the hands and feet? 73 74 1 Whole Numbers Page 113 of 139 . 10th Edition • • • • Run for 8 minutes at a brisk pace. Bones in the Hands and Feet. How long must you run at a brisk pace in order to lose one pound? 54. How long must you do aerobic exercises in order to lose one pound? 56. How long must you bicycle at 9 mph in order to lose one pound? 57. or Bicycle for 15 minutes at 9 mph.Basic Mathematics. There are 27 bones in each human hand and 26 bones in each human foot.

Index cards of dimension 3 in.4a] 63.” SKILL MAINTENANCE Round 234. What was the total distance traveled on subways? Source: American Public Transportation Association.000 miles. What information would be needed if you were to write a math problem based on the article? What might the problem be? Source: The Arizona Republic. each of which is 3 ft wide. Ten. Hundred. DW In the newspaper article “When Girls Play. Estimate the computation by rounding to the nearest thousand.   [1. How much writing area is available if one uses the front and back sides of a package of these cards? 60. Index Cards. C1 62. Design the problem so that the solution is “The driver still has 329 mi to travel. p. The distance to Mars is about 303. Knees Fail. Subway Travel. are normally shipped in packages containing 100 cards each. NASA 59. 2/9/00.Basic Mathematics. An office for adjunct instructors at a community college has 6 bookshelves. Is it possible for the bookshelves to be put side by side on the 16-ft wall? 61.000. The office is moved to a new location that has dimensions of 16 ft by 21 ft.562 to the nearest:   [1. 10th Edition 58. Thousand. 64. DW Write a problem for a classmate to solve. The number of miles that people in the United States traveled on subways in 2003 approximately equaled 22 round trips to Mars. 65.4b] 1 Whole Numbers Page 114 of 139 . by 5 in.” the author discusses the fact that female athletes have six times the number of knee injuries that male athletes have.

10th Edition 66. Simplify expressions using the rules for order of operations. for them.   [1. 1 Whole Numbers Page 115 of 139 . Remove parentheses within parentheses. Writing Exponential Notation Consider the product 3 · 3 · 3 · 3. There are 30 students and 1 teacher in each classroom.430 − 11. 28. and in glass it travels about 109. Light travels about 186. called exponential notation. 787 · 363 71. how many more miles will light travel in a vacuum than in ice? than in glass? 74. 887 · 799 72. Each professor teaches 4 classes and each student takes 5 classes. Such products occur often enough that mathematicians have found it convenient to create a shorter notation.000 mi/sec. Carney Community College has 1200 students.9 EXPONENTIAL NOTATION AND ORDER OF OPERATIONS Objectives Write exponential notation for products such as 4 · 4 · 4. 5800 − 2100 Estimate the product by rounding to the nearest hundred. Speed of Light.000 miles per second (mi/sec) in a vacuum as in outer space. Evaluate exponential notation. In 18 sec. How many professors are there at Carney Community College? 74 75 1. 2783 + 4602 + 5797 + 8111 67.977 68. 10.362 · 4531 SYNTHESIS 73.000 mi/sec. For example. In ice it travels about 142. 2100 + 5800 69.5b] 70.Basic Mathematics.

” or “seven to the second power.Basic Mathematics. NOTATION 3 4 WORD DESCRIPTION “three to the fourth power. 75 3 1 Whole Numbers Page 116 of 139 .” or “three times the square of five.” or “the third power of five” “seven squared.” or “the square of seven. 10th Edition We read exponential notation as follows. Do Exercises 1–4. Exponential notation is 2 .” or “the cube of five.” 2 EXAMPLE 1 Write exponential notation for 10 · 10 · 10 · 10 · 10. EXAMPLE 2 Write exponential notation for 2 · 2 · 2.” or “the second power of seven” 5 3 7 2 The wording “seven squared” for 7 comes from the fact that a square with side s has area A given by A = s.” or “the fourth power of three” “five-cubed. 2 2 An expression like 3 · 5 is read “three times five squared.” or “five to the third power.

Consider the calculation 7 · 14 − (12 + 18). The rules are as follows. In the second. the answer is 56. We agree to compute as in the second case. 2. brackets [ ]. 3 EXAMPLE 4 Evaluate: 5 . 4 4 Simplifying Expressions Suppose we have a calculation like the following: 3 + 4 · 8. 10 = 10 · 10 · 10 = 1000 3 3 Cavtion! 10 does not mean 10 · 3. the answer is 35. we must make some agreement regarding the order in which we perform operations. 75 76 EXAMPLE 3 Evaluate: 10 . or braces { } before operations outside. What do the parentheses mean? To deal with these questions.Basic Mathematics. How do we find the answer? Do we add 3 to 4 and then multiply by 8. 5 = 5 · 5 · 5 · 5 = 625 Do Exercises 5–8 on the preceding page. Evaluate all exponential expressions. 10th Edition Evaluating Exponential Notation We evaluate exponential notation by rewriting it as a product and computing the product. 1 Whole Numbers Page 117 of 139 . or do we multiply 4 by 8 and then add 3? In the first case. RULES FOR ORDER OF OPERATIONS 1. Do all calculations within parentheses ( ).

Do all additions and subtractions in order from left to right. 4. EXAMPLE 7 Simplify and compare: 23 − (10 − 9) and (23 − 10) − 9. EXAMPLE 8 Simplify: 7 · 2 − (12 + 0) ÷ 3 − (5 − 2). EXAMPLE 5 Simplify: 16 ÷ 8 · 2. We have 23 − (10 − 9) = 23 − 1 = 22. so we start with the third step. It is worth noting that these are the rules that computers and most scientific calculators use to do computations. We can see that 23 − (10 − 9) and (23 − 10) − 9 represent different numbers.Basic Mathematics. 76 77 EXAMPLE 6 Simplify: 7 · 14 − (12 + 18). Do all multiplications and divisions in order from left to right. There are no parentheses or exponents. 7 · 14(12 + 18) = 7 · 14 − 30 Carrying out operations inside parentheses = 98 − 30 = 68 Doing all multiplications and divisions Doing all additions and subtractions Do Exercises 9–12 on the preceding page. 1 Whole Numbers Page 118 of 139 . Do Exercises 13 and 14. Thus subtraction is not associative. (23 − 10) − 9 = 13 − 9 = 4. 10th Edition 3.

1 Whole Numbers Page 119 of 139 . Do Exercises 16–18. 10th Edition 7 · 2 − (12 + 0) ÷ 3 − (5 − 2) = 7 · 2 − 12 ÷ 3 − 3 Carrying out operations inside parentheses = 14 − 4 − 3 Doing all multiplications and divisions in order from left to right 7 Doing all additions and subtractions in order from left to right Do Exercise 15. EXAMPLE 11 Simplify: 2 ÷ 2 · 2 . 9 6 3 Do Exercise 22. 2 3 Do Exercises 19–21.Basic Mathematics. EXAMPLE 9 Simplify: 15 ÷ 3 · 2 ÷ (10 − 8). 77 78 EXAMPLE 10 Simplify: 4 ÷ (10 − 9 + 1) · 3 − 5.

Basic Mathematics, 10th Edition CALCULATOR CORNER
Order of Operations To determine whether a calculator is programmed to follow the rules for order of operations, we can enter a simple calculation that requires using those rules. For example, we enter . If the result is 11, we know that the rules for order of operations have been followed. That is, the multiplication 4X2 = 8 was performed first and then 3 was added to produce a result of 11. If the result is 14, we know that the calculator performs operations as they are entered rather than following the rules for order of operations. That means, in this case, that 3 and 4 were added first to get 7 and then that sum was multiplied by 2 to produce the result of 14. For such calculators, we would have to enter the operations in the order in which we want them performed. In this case, we would press .

Many calculators have parenthesis keys that can be used to enter an expression containing parentheses. To enter 5(4 + 3), for example, we press Exercises: Simplify. 1. 84 − 5 · 7 2. 80 + 50 ÷ 10 3. 3 + 9 + 3 4. 4 + 64 − 4 5. 15 · 7 − (23 + 9) 6. (4 + 3)
2
78 79

. The result is 35.

2 4

2

AVERAGES
In order to find the average of a set of numbers, we use addition and then division. For example, the average of 2, 3, 6, and 9 is found as follows.

The fraction bar acts as a pair of grouping symbols so

1 Whole Numbers

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Basic Mathematics, 10th Edition
2 +3 +6 +9 is equivalent to (2 + 3 + 6 + 9) ÷ 4. 4 Thus we are using order of operations when we compute an average.

AVERAGE
The average of a set of numbers is the sum of the numbers divided by the number of addends.

EXAMPLE 12
Average Number of Career Hits. The number of career hits of five Hall of Fame baseball players are given in the bar graph below. Find the average number of career hits of all five.

Career Hits

Sources: Associated Press; Major League Baseball

The average is given by 3419 + 3255 + 3110 + 2930 + 2876 15,590 = = 3118. 5 5 Thus the average number of career hits of these five Hall of Fame players is 3118.

Removing Parentheses within Parentheses
When parentheses occur within parentheses, we can make them different shapes, such as [ ] (also called “brackets”) and {} (also called “braces”). All of these have the same meaning. When parentheses occur within parentheses, computations in the innermost ones are to be done first.

79 80

EXAMPLE 13
Simplify: [25 − (4 + 3) · 3] − (11 − 7).

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Basic Mathematics, 10th Edition
[25 − (4 + 3) · 3] ÷ (11 − 7) = [25 − 7 · 3] ÷ (11 − 7) Doing the calculations in the innermost parentheses first = [25 − 21] ÷ (11 − 7) =4 ÷4 =1 Doing the multiplication in the brackets Subtracting Dividing

EXAMPLE 14
Simplify: 16 ÷ 2 + {40 − [13 − (4 + 2)]}. 16 ÷ 2 + {40 − [13 − (4 + 2)]} = 16 ÷ 2 + {40 − [13 − 6]} = 16 ÷ 2 + {40 − 7} = 16 ÷ 2 + 33 Doing the calculations in the innermost parenthese first Again, doing the calculations in the innermost parentheses Subtracting inside the braces

= 8 + 33 = 41

Doing all multiplications and divisions in order from left to right Adding

Do Exercises 24 and 25.

1 Whole Numbers

Page 122 of 139

Working such exams can be very helpful and allows you to see what various professors think is important. When taking a test. After you have done are some test-taking study tips. 5 · 5 · 5 · 5 2. Very often.Basic Mathematics. your homework over a particular objective. Write exponential notation. Check your answers at the back of the book. Doing your work neatly can ease such a task for the instructor. 5 · 5 · 5 · 5 · 5 3. If you have trouble with an exercise. focusing on the objectives and the examples. 10 4 1 Whole Numbers Page 123 of 139 . This should be accompanied by a study of any class notes you may have taken. You will be amazed at the insight this will provide. your first hunch will be correct. 10th Edition Study Tips TEST PREPARATION You are probably ready to begin preparing for your first test. Ask former students for old exams. Try to write your test in a neat and orderly manner. Answer all the questions. but pace yourself. write one or two questions on your own that you think might be on a test. If your test paper is sloppy and disorderly. and mark those to recheck if you have time at the end. Very often. Here Make up your own test questions as you study. 10 · 10 4. Call the AW Math Tutor Center at 1-888-777-0463 if you need extra help. 10 · 10 · 10 · 10 Evaluate. Take the chapter test at the end of the chapter. Do the review exercises at the end of the chapter. read each question carefully and try to do all the questions the first time through. it is difficult to verify the partial credit. 5. Check the answers and use the objective symbols at the back of the book as a reference for where to review. 1. Do an overall review of the chapter. your instructor tries to give you partial credit when grading an exam. use the objective symbol as a guide to go back and do further study of that objective.

5 5 6 4 3. 75 ÷ 5 + (83 − 14) Simplify and compare. (28 + 13) + 11 and 28 + (13 + 11) 15. we press or or key for raising a base to a power. 8 8. Simplify. Simplify: 9 × 4 − (20 + 4) ÷ 8 − (6 − 2). 11 9. 10th Edition 6. 93 − 14 · 3 10. 3 2. 2 Simplify. 13. 25 · 26 − (56 + 10) 12. To find 16 . 1. 64 ÷ (32 ÷ 2) and (64 ÷ 32) ÷ 2 14. 12 4. 10 7. 16. 5 · 5 · 5 + 26 · 71 − (16 + 25 · 3) 1 Whole Numbers Page 124 of 139 . The result is 4096. 3 Exercises: Use a calculator to find each of the following. for .Basic Mathematics. 2 3 5 2 CALCULATOR CORNER Exponential Notation Many calculators have a example. 104 ÷ 4 + 4 11.

10th Edition 17. 24. in feet. 3 8 9 2 3 2 3 World's Tallest Buildings Source: Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. 30 ÷ 5 · 2 + 10 · 20 + 8 · 8 − 23 18. 81 − 3 · 2 ÷ (12 − 9) 22. 5 + 26 · 71 − (16 + 25 · 3) 20. [18 − (2 + 7) ÷ 3] − (31 − 10 × 2) 80 1 Whole Numbers Page 125 of 139 . Find the average height of these buildings. (1 + 3) + 10 · 20 + 8 − 23 21. Simplify: 2 · 2 ÷ 2 . 95 − 2 · 2 · 2 · 5 ÷ (24 − 4) Simplify 19. 9 × 5 + {6 ÷ [14 − (5 + 3)]} 25. World's Tallest Buildings. of the four tallest buildings in the world are given in the bar graph below. Lehigh University.Basic Mathematics. 23. The heights. 2004 Simplify.

3 · 3 · 3 · 3 2. 5 · 5 4. 7 10. 9 2 3 3 2 4 5 2 12.9 EXERCISE SET For Extra Help 80 81 Write exponential notation. 13 · 13 · 13 5. 10 · 10 · 10 8. 11 16. 10 15. 7 · 7 · 7 · 7 · 7 6. 6 3 Simplify. 1 · 1 · 1 · 1 Evaluate. 1. 10 · 10 7. 10th Edition 1. (12 + 6) + 18 1 Whole Numbers Page 126 of 139 . 5 11. 12 + (6 + 4) 18. 12 14.Basic Mathematics. 9. 10 13. 2 · 2 · 2 · 2 · 2 3. 17.

17 · 20 − (17 + 20) 38. 90 − 5 · 5 · 2 35. (11 − 8) − (18 − 16) 28. 144 ÷ 4 − 2 2 3 3 3 81 82 43. (2 + 5) 26. 52 − (40 − 8) 20. (1000 ÷ 100) ÷ 10 23. 83 − 7 · 6 32. 1000 ÷ (100 ÷ 10) 22. (256 ÷ 64) ÷ 4 24. 16 · 24 + 50 30. (32 − 27) + (19 + 1) 29. 6 · 10 − 4 · 10 40. 4 ÷ 8 − 4 36. (52 − 40) − 8 21. 300 ÷ 5 + 10 42. 1000 ÷ 25 − (15 + 5) 39.Basic Mathematics. 10th Edition 19. 10 · 10 − 3 · 4 34. 23 + 18 · 20 31. 3 · (2 + 8) − 5 · (4 − 3) 2 2 1 Whole Numbers Page 127 of 139 . 10 · 7 − 4 33. 3 · 8 + 5 · 8 41. 8 − 8 · 2 37. 2 + 5 2 2 2 2 2 27. 256 ÷ (64 ÷ 4) 25.

57.(6 · 6 − 5 · 5)] 64. 6 − 3 ÷ 3 3 47. 128. 15(23 − 4 · 2) ÷ (3 · 25) 67. 92. Simplify.[40 ÷ (17 − 9)]} + {48 − 13 × 3 + [(50 − 7 · 5) + 2]} 3 82 83 1 Whole Numbers Page 128 of 139 . Find the average of $64. 120 − 3 · 4 ÷ (5 · 6 − 6 · 4) 52. and 78. $775. Find the average of four test grades of 86. and $121. 10 − 10 · 6 − (4 + 5 · 6) 48. and 880. 59. 58. 7 · (10 − 3) − 2 · (3 + 1) 45. $97. 7 + 20 · 4 − (28 + 9 · 2) 49. {[18 − 2 · 6] . (82 − 14) × [(10 + 45 ÷ 5) . 8 × 9 − (12 − 8) ÷ 4 − (10 − 7) 51. 276. $2062. and $3721. 6 · 11 − (7 + 3) ÷ 5 − (6 − 4) 50. (18 ÷ 2) · {[(9 · 9 − 1) ÷ 2] − [5 · 20 − (7 · 9 − 2)]} 65. 2 · 2 ÷ 2 7 5 3 8 6 4 2 4 3 2 54. 56. Find the average of $1025. 10th Edition 44. [14 − (3 + 5) ÷ 2] . Find the average of 320. [92 × (6 − 4) ÷ 8] + [7 × (8 − 3)] 63. 80. 4 × {(200 − 50 ÷ 5) − [(35 ÷ 7) · (35 + 7) − 4 × 3]} 66.Basic Mathematics. 4 + 8 ÷ 2 2 4 2 2 2 3 2 2 46.[18 ÷ (8 − 2)] 62. 72 ÷ 6 − {2 × [9 − (4 × 2)]} 61. $942. 8 × 13 + {42 ÷ [18 − (6 + 5)]} 60. 80 − 2 · 15 ÷ (7 · 5 − 45 ÷ 3) 53. 2 ÷ 2 · 2 ÷ 2 55.

How much gasoline did they buy in all? SYNTHESIS Each of the answers in Exercises 81–83 is incorrect. 1 + 5 · 4 + 3 = 36 1 Whole Numbers Page 129 of 139 . x + 341 = 793 72. 81.8. Colorado. How can you translate the problem to a single equation involving what you have learned about order of operations? How does the single equation relate to how we solved the problem? 70.    25 gallons. 10. (19 − 2 ) − (141 ÷ 47) 4 5 2 69.000 = 100 · t Solve.8a] 79.   [1. DW Consider the problem in Example 8 of Section 1. 4197 + x = 5032 73. Are the parentheses necessary in each case? Explain. 1554 = 42 · y 75.7b] 71. On a long four-day trip. DW Consider the expressions 9 − (4 · 2) and (3 · 4) . 26 gallons. a family bought the following amounts of gasoline for their motor home: 23 gallons. 2 SKILL MAINTENANCE Solve. 7 · x = 91 74. 6000 = 1102 + t 77. The state of Colorado is roughly the shape of a rectangle that is 273 mi by 382 mi.   [1. Then place as many parentheses as needed in the expression in order to make the incorrect answer correct. 3240 = y + 898 76.Basic Mathematics. What is its area? 80. 25 · t = 625 78. 10th Edition 68.    24 gallons. First find the correct answer.

In 13. ______ 6.   [1. The sum of two natural numbers is always greater than either of the addends. 56. Concept Reinforcement. 6. is designed to increase understanding of the concepts through true/false exercises.078 5. ______ 2. and () to represent 100. ______ 1. ______ 3.101 1 Whole Numbers Page 130 of 139 . 12-4 + 2 · 3 − 2 = 2 83. What does the digit 8 mean in 4. What skills in mathematics do you have now that you did not have before studying this chapter? CONCEPT REINFORCEMENT Determine whether the statement is true or false.678.940. 2. 4. 3. 7. The product of two natural numbers is always greater than either of the factors. Any number divided by 1 is the number 1. Before beginning. and 9 and any of the symbols +. 5. The first part. 1.007. If you miss an exercise. 12-4 + 2 · 3 − 2 = 4 84. stop and look back over the skills you have obtained.1a] 2. Use one occurrence each of 1. together with references to section objectives so you can go back and review. Answers are given at the back of the book.Basic Mathematics. 2793 4. Answers are given at the back of the book. 10th Edition 82. These provide practice exercises for the exam. what digit tells the number of millions?   [1. restudy the objective indicated in red next to the exercise or direction line that precedes it. The number 0 is the smallest natural number. ÷.952?   [1. 83 84 1 Summary and Review The review that follows is meant to prepare you for a chapter exam. The second part is the Review Exercises. Review Exercises The review exercises that follow are for practice. −. It consists of two parts.768. ×.1b] 3. ______ 5. 4. Each member of the set of natural numbers is a member of the set of whole numbers ______ 4. Zero divided by any nonzero number is 0.1a] Write expanded notation. 8.

7304 + 6968 12.   [1.3a] 85 1 Whole Numbers Page 131 of 139 . four hundred thousand by 2005.2a] 11. Source: U. 67. e-books. 1.819 7.609 + 38. 2.427 8.S.607. 15. five hundred eighty-eight 10. Census Bureau. 27.070. International Database Write standard notation.   [1. Write a related addition sentence:   [1.1c] 6.Basic Mathematics.   [1.065. Four hundred seventy-six thousand.1c] 9.415 13. 2703 + 4125 + 6004 + 8956 14. The publishing industry predicts that sales of digital books will reach two billion. Source: Andersen Consulting 84 Add. the population of India in 2004. 10th Edition Write a word name.781.

9001 − 7312 19.759 to the nearest:   [1.3a] 8 + 3 = 11. 41. 1 to write a true sentence. 22.4a] 21.5b] 25. 38. 396 · 748 Use < or > for 28. 17.   [1. [1.4b].348 + 19.652 − 24. 23. Show your work. 24. 7846 · 800 32. Ten. 67 29. 587 · 47 1 Whole Numbers Page 132 of 139 . difference. Hundred.5a] 30. Write two related subtraction sentences:   [1. 6003 − 3729 20. 16. Subtract. Thousand. or product by first rounding to the nearest hundred.000 · 300 31. Estimate the sum.749 26.Basic Mathematics.3b] 17.   [1. 10th Edition 10 − 6 = 4. 726 · 698 33.   [1.4c] 56 23 Multiply. 8045 − 2897 18. Round 345. Hundred thousand.549 27.   [1.

668 ÷ 12 Solve. 60 286 42. d] 53. 52. 7 6394 40. 38 17.9a] Evaluate.176 44.   [1. 10 52. Write exponential notation: 4 · 4 · 4. 6 2 4 Simplify. 36. Divide.   [1.9c. 8 · 6 + 17 1 Whole Numbers Page 133 of 139 .6a] 13 · 4 = 52. 80 ÷ 16 39.   [1.   [1. 3073 ÷ 8 41.6a] 56 ÷ 8 = 7.7b] 46. Write two related division sentences:   [1.9b] 51.Basic Mathematics. 10th Edition 34. 14 70.6b] 37.112 45. 46 · n = 368 47. 1 · y = 58 49. 4266 ÷ 79 43.   [1. 35. 63 ÷ 5 38. 24 = x + 24 50. Write a related multiplication sentence:   [1. 47 + x = 92 48.

Lincoln-Head Pennies. the first Lincoln-head pennies were minted.   [1. (80 ÷ 16) × [(20 − 56 ÷ 8) + (8 · 8 − 5 · 5)] 58. The bees from an average beehive can pollinate 30 surrounding trees during one growing season. How much more does she need? 85 86 60. Toni has $406 in her checking account. 7 + 4 + 3 2 2 (9 − 7) 2 57. A farmer has 420 trees. these pennies were first minted with a decreased copper content. 10 · 24 − (18 + 2) ÷ 4 55. In what year was the copper content reduced? 62. Find the average of 157. In 1909. Solve. Computer Workstation. Seventy-three years later. How many cartons did they fill? 63.8a] 59. She is paid $78 for a part-time job and deposits that in her checking account. 10th Edition 54. PA 1 Whole Numbers Page 134 of 139 . An apple farmer keeps bees in her orchard to help pollinate the apple blossoms so more apples will be produced. 170. 7 + (4 + 3) 56. How much is then in her account? 61. Westminster. A beverage company packed 228 cans of soda into 12-can cartons. Natasha has $196 and wants to buy a computer workstation for $698. and 168. How many beehives does she need to pollinate them all? Source: Jordan Orchards.Basic Mathematics.

”   [1. A family budgets $7825 for food and clothing and $2860 for entertainment.283.6b] 1 Whole Numbers Page 135 of 139 . Find the area and the perimeter of the trampoline. DW Is subtraction associative? Why or why not?   [1.5a] 71. 10th Edition 64.2b]. ESI Determine the missing digit d. A chemist has 2753 mL of alcohol.   [1. Determine the missing digits a and b. An apartment builder bought 13 gas stoves at $425 each and 13 refrigerators at $620 each.   [1.   [1. Inc. 68.Basic Mathematics. How much of this income remained after these two allotments? 66. Design the problem so that the solution is “Each of the 144 bottles will contain 8 oz of hot sauce. Shown below is an Olympic trampoline. The yearly income of the family was $38. What was the total cost? 65.5c] Source: International Trampoline Industry Association. How many 20-mL beakers can be filled? How much will be left over? 67. DW Write a problem for a classmate to solve.8a] 69.3b] SYNTHESIS 70. [1. Olympic Trampoline.

403. 6. Each day the crew tunnels about 500 ft. 10th Edition 9 a1 2 b 1 236.8a] 86 87 1 Chapter Test For Extra Help 1. Add. 3. which digit tells the number of hundred thousands? 2.Basic Mathematics.277. A mining company estimates that a crew must tunnel 2000 ft into a mountain to reach a deposit of copper ore. In the number 546. Each night about 200 ft of loose rocks roll back into the tunnel. Write a word name: 38. 5. Write expanded notation: 8843. Multiply.789. 8. Subtract. 1 Whole Numbers Page 136 of 139 . 9. 10. 11. How many days will it take the mining company to reach the copper deposit?   [1.421 72. 4. 7.

13. 16. The following table lists the five largest states in terms of their land area.959 145. Hostess packages its Ding Dong® snack products in 12-packs. Largest States.797 155. 15. How many 12-packs can it fill? How many will be left over? 21. Find the total land area of these states. 15 ÷ 4 17. STATE Alaska Texas California Montana New Mexico AREA(In Square Miles) 571. 10th Edition 12. 44 35. Divide.428 Solve.552 121. 14.951 261.Basic Mathematics. It manufactures 22. 20.356 Source: Department of Commerce. 89 8633 19. 420 ÷ 6 18. Hostess Ding Dongs®.231 cakes. Bureau of the Census 1 Whole Numbers Page 137 of 139 .

Pool Tables. 10th Edition 22. How many voted early in 2000? Source: National Association of Secretaries of State 87 88 24. 1 Whole Numbers Page 138 of 139 . This was 139. Find the total weight of 16 bags of oranges and 43 bags of apples. A sack of apples weighs 32 lb. 38 · y = 532 29. The Hartford pool table made by Brunswick Billiards comes in three sizes of playing area. 25. Hundred. 50 in. 35. and 38 in. by 88 in. b) By how much area does the large table exceed the small table. Thousand. a) Find the perimeter and the area of the playing area of each table. Voting Early. 34. 31.359 more than in the 2000 election. A sack of oranges weighs 27 lb. 26. A box contains 5000 staples. 381 = 0 + a Round 34. In the 2004 Presidential Election. 32. or product by first rounding to the nearest hundred. Ten. by 76 in. by 100 in.Basic Mathematics. Use < or > for to write a true sentence.578 to the nearest: 30. Show your work. Source: Brunswick Billiards TM 23. 28 + x = 74 27.689 Nevada voters voted early. 169 ÷ 13 = n 28. Estimate the sum. 33. difference.. 44 in.. 345. How many staplers can be filled from the box if each stapler holds 250 staples? Solve.

Write exponential notation: 12 · 12 · 12 · 12. 12 in. 42. 10th Edition 36. 35 − 1 · 28 ÷ 4 + 3 43. high. 98. Evaluate. long. 50. and 86.Basic Mathematics. 4 2 2 SYNTHESIS 48. 10 41. Cara spends $229 a month to repay her student loan. 7 3 5 2 40. How many square inches of cardboard are used? 49. An open cardboard container is 8 in. and 6 in. 10 − 2 ÷ 2 44. 34 37. how many payments remain? 2 1 Whole Numbers Page 139 of 139 . 25 Simplify. wide. If she has already paid $9160 on the 10-yr loan. Find the average of 97. 117 17 157 38. (25 − 15) ÷ 5 45. 39. 8 × {(20 − 11) · [(12 + 48) ÷ 6 − (9 − 2)]} 46. Use trials to find the single-digit number a for which 359 − 46 + a ÷ 3 × 25 − 7 = 339. 87. 2 + 24 ÷ 12 47.

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