DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

EE 1404 – POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LABORATORY

LAB MANUAL/ OBSERVATION

2009 – 2010 ODD SEMESTER

NAME

:

REG

:

BRANCH

:

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, M.Tech, (Ph.D)
Asst.Professor /EEE

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, M.Tech, (Ph.D) Asst.Professor /EEE

Page 1

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. COMPUTATION OF PARAMETERS AND MODELLINGOF TRANSMISSION LINES.

2.

FORMATION OF ADMITTANCE MATRICES.

3.

FORMATION OF IMPEDANCE MATRICES.

4.

SOLUTION OF POWER FLOW USING GAUSS-SEIDEL METHOD.

5.

SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS.

6.

SOLUTION OF POWER FLOW USING NEWTON-RAPHSON METHOD.

7.

LOAD – FREQUENCY DYNAMICS OF SINGLE AREA POWER SYSTEMS.

8.

LOAD – FREQUENCY DYNAMICS OF TWO AREA POWER SYSTEMS.

9.

TRANSIENT AND SMALL SIGNAL STABILITY ANALYSIS – SINGLE MACHINE INFINITE BUS SYSTEM.

10.

ECONOMIC DISPATCH IN POWER SYSTEMS

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, M.Tech, (Ph.D) Asst.Professor /EEE

Page 2

I CYCLE

1.

COMPUTATION OF PARAMETERS AND MODELLINGOF TRANSMISSION LINES.

2.

FORMATION OF ADMITTANCE MATRICES.

3.

FORMATION OF IMPEDANCE MATRICES.

4.

SOLUTION OF POWER FLOW USING GAUSS-SEIDEL METHOD.

5.

SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS.

II CYCLE

6.

SOLUTION OF POWER FLOW USING NEWTON-RAPHSON METHOD.

7.

LOAD – FREQUENCY DYNAMICS OF SINGLE AREA POWER SYSTEMS.

8.

LOAD – FREQUENCY DYNAMICS OF TWO AREA POWER SYSTEMS.

9.

TRANSIENT AND SMALL SIGNAL STABILITY ANALYSIS – SINGLE MACHINE INFINITE BUS SYSTEM.

10.

ECONOMIC DISPATCH IN POWER SYSTEMS

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, M.Tech, (Ph.D) Asst.Professor /EEE

Page 3

M.D) Asst.NO Date Name of the Experiment Page NO Marks Remarks out of 10 /Signature PREPARED BY V.CONTENTS S.Tech.BALAJI.Professor /EEE Page 4 . (Ph.

D) Asst.Tech.BALAJI. (Ph. M.Professor /EEE Page 5 .NO Date Name of the Experiment Page NO Marks Remarks out of 10 /Signature PREPARED BY V.S.

inductance.Professor /EEE Page 6 . r = radius of conductor II.3 THEORY : Transmission line has four parameters – resistance. Inductance: The general formula: L = 0. The resistance of the conductor is best determined from the manufactures data.D) Asst. (ii) To understand modeling and performance of medium lines. SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 5. Dm = geometric mean distance (GMD) Ds = geometric mean radius (GMR) I.COMPUTATION OF PARAMETERS AND MODELLING OF TRANSMISSION LINES Expt. Single phase 2 wire system GMD = D GMR = re-1/4 = r′ Where.No : Date : AIM : (i) To determine the positive sequence line parameters L and C per phase per kilometre of a three phase single and double circuit transmission lines for different conductor arrangements. The inductance and capacitance are due to the effect of magnetic and electric fields around the conductor. (Ph. r = radius of conductor III. Three phase – Asymmetrical Transposed GMD = geometric mean of the three distance of the symmetrically place conductors = 3√DABDBCDCA PREPARED BY V. M.Tech. capacitance and conductance. the inductances and capacitances can be evaluated using the formula.BALAJI.2 ln (Dm / Ds) Where. Three phase – symmetrical spacing GMD = D GMR = re-1/4 = r′ Where.

(Dna′……. r = radius of conductors Composite conductor lines The inductance of composite conductor X. Dsb = ra1’= rb1= ra’2 = rb’2 = rc’2 if a1..Dnm′) GMR = n2√ (Daa Dab…….(DnaDnb……. Ds is the GMR of each subconductor and d is bundle spacing Three phase – Double circuit transposed: The inductance per phase in milli henries per km is L = 0.Dnn) where. M.2 ln (GMD/GMR) where.Professor /EEE Page 7 . GMD = mn √ (Daa′ Dab′)…….GMR = re-1/4 = r′ Where. are bundle conductor. are bundle conductor PREPARED BY V.Tech.BALAJI.09 (Ds * d3)1/4 where. DSADSB and DSC are GMR of each phase group and given by DSA = 4√(Dsb Da1a2)2 = [Dsb Da1a2]1/2 DSB = 4√(Dsb Db1b2)2 = [Dsb Db1b2]1/2 DSC = 4√(Dsb Dc1c2)2 = [Dsb Dc1c2]1/2 where. a2……. GMRL is equivalent geometric mean radius and is given by GMRL = (DSADSBDSC)1/3 where. Dsb =GMR of bundle conductor if conductor a1.D) Asst..Dan )……. a2….2 ln (GMD / GMRL) mH/km where. r′a = ra e(-1/ 4) Bundle Conductors: The GMR of bundle conductor is normally calculated GMR for two sub conductor c = (Ds * d)1/2 GMR for three sub conductor Dsb =(Ds * d2)1/3 GMR for four sub conductor Dsb = 1. (Ph. is given by Lx = 0.

8839 cm. View the results. GMD is the “Geometric mean distance” which is same as that defined for inductance under various cases.000-cmil. The conductors have a diameter of 3.GMD is the equivalent GMD per phase” & is given by GMD = [DAB * DBC * DCA]1/3 where.000 cmil. DBC&DCA are GMD between each phase group A-B. Create a new M – file by selecting File .BALAJI.D) Asst. 1. (Ph. 4. PROCEDURE: 1. The line is to be replaced by a three-conductor bundle of ACSR 477. Execute the program by either pressing Tools – Run. The new line will also have a flat horizontal configuration.439 cm. DAB. M. 2.0556/ ln (GMD/GMR) µF/km Where.43. 26/7 Hawk conductors having the same cross sectional area of aluminum as the single-conductor line. The conductors have a diameter of 2.Professor /EEE Page 8 . Type and save the program in the editor window. The spacing between the conductors in the bundle is 45 cm.New – M – File 3. PREPARED BY V. EXERCISES: 1 A three-phase transposed line composed of one ACSR.625 cm and a GMR of 1. (a) Determine the inductance and capacitance per phase per kilometer of the above two lines.Tech. C-A which are given by DAB = [Da1b1 * Da1b2 * Da2b1 * Da2b2]1/4 DBC = [Db1c1 * Db1c2 * Db2c1 * Db2c2]1/4 DCA = [Dc1a1 * Dc2a1 * Dc2a1 * Dc2a2]1/4 Capacitance A general formula for evaluating capacitance per phase in micro farad per km of a transmission line is given by C = 0. 47/7 Bobolink conductor per phase with flat horizontal spacing of 11m between phases a and b and between phases b and c. but it is to be operated at a higher voltage and therefore the phase spacing is increased to 14m as measured from the center of the bundles. 5. B-C. Enter the command window of the MATLAB. (b) Verify the results using the MATLAB program.1793 cm and a GMR of 0.

GMRL.BALAJI.PROGRAM : [GMD.2*log(GMD/GMRL) C = 0.0556/log(GMD/GMRC) MANUAL CALCULATIONS : PREPARED BY V. (Ph. GMRC] = gmd.Professor /EEE Page 9 . M. L = 0.Tech.D) Asst.

BALAJI.D) Asst. (Ph. M.Professor /EEE Page 10 .Tech.PREPARED BY V.

u=angle(is). vs=((A*vrph)+(B*ir)).sending end voltage. L=2*10^(-7)*log(deq/newrad). bc=input('value of bc'). k=sin(acos(pfr)). r=input('resistance/ph/km'). angle(is). pr=input('receving end power in mw'). vr=input('receving end voltage in kv').current .8 pf lagging . B=Z. PROGRAM : ab=input('value of ab').7788*rad). ca=input('value of ca'). PFS=cos(f-u).8).Tech.6m transposed.C. Z=rnew+i*(XL). rnew=r*l.B. XL=2*pi*f*L*l*1000.732*vr*10^3*.732.D) Asst. rad=D/2.5.0. C=(2*pi*8.16 ohm/km and Conductor diameter of 2cm with spacing 4. Y=i*(2*pi*f*C*l*1000). irold=(pr*10^6)/(1.D constants . A=1+((Y*Z)/2).Find A. f=angle(vs).854*10^-12)/log(deq/rad). deq=(ab*bc*ca)^(1/3).Professor /EEE Page 11 . M. transmission efficiency . vrph=(vr*10^3)/1. f=input('frequency'). eff=((pr*10^6)/(3*abs(vs)*abs(is)*PFS))*100. angle(vs). reg=(((abs(vs)/abs(A))-abs(vrph))/abs(vrph))*100. pfr=input('receving end powerfactor').2. (Ph. C=Y*(1+(Y*Z)/4).BALAJI. A three phase overhead line 200km long R = 0. newrad=(0. D=A. D=input('diameter in m'). ir=irold*(pfr-(j*k)).power factor and power when the line is delivering full load of 50MW at 132kV . receiving end voltage and regulation. l=input('length of the line in km'). is=((C*vrph)+(D*ir)). L C rnew A B C abs(vs) abs(is) angle(vs)*180/pi angle(is)*180/pi PFS eff reg PREPARED BY V.

D) Asst.Tech.BALAJI.MANUAL CALCULATIONS: PREPARED BY V.Professor /EEE Page 12 . M. (Ph.

RESULT : PREPARED BY V.Professor /EEE Page 13 .Tech.D) Asst. (Ph. M.BALAJI.

4. Yii = Self admittance Ydi = Transfer admittance PROCEDURE: 1. 2. Execute the program by either pressing Tools – Run. View the results. 5. EXERCISE: (i) Determine the Y bus matrix and Z bus matrix for the power system network shown in fig.Professor /EEE Page 14 . Create a new M – file by selecting File . (Ph.bus matrix of the system by considering certain power system parameters depending upon the type of analysis. Y-bus may be formed by inspection method only if there is no mutual coupling between the lines. Shunt impedances are added to diagonal element corresponding to the buses at which these are connected. (ii) Check the results obtained in using MATLAB.FORMATION OF BUS ADMITTANCE MATRICES Expt. SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB THEORY: Bus admittance is often used in power system studies. Every transmission line should be represented by π.New – M – File Type and save the program in the editor window.BALAJI.. 3.Tech. In most of the power system studies it is required to form y.equivalent. FORMATION OF Y-BUS MATRIX Generalised Y-bus = yii ………. PREPARED BY V. The equivalent circuit of Tap changing transformers is included while forming Y-bus matrix. Enter the command window of the MATLAB.D) Asst. yid ydi ……… ydd where. The off diagonal elements are unaffected.No : Date : AIM: To determine the admittance matrices for the given power system network. I. M.

D) Asst.2 2 3 0 0.Professor /EEE Page 15 . M.2 3 4 0 0. (Ph. Y = ybus(z) MANUAL CALCULATIONS: PREPARED BY V.PROGRAM : z = [0 1 0 1.08].8 1 2 0 0.0 0 2 0 0.4 1 3 0 0.Tech.BALAJI.

PREPARED BY V. M.Professor /EEE Page 16 .BALAJI.D) Asst.Tech. (Ph.

Tech.D) Asst. M.BALAJI. (Ph.RESULT: PREPARED BY V.Professor /EEE Page 17 .

In one method we can form the bus admittance matrix and than taking its inverse to get the bus impedance matrix. PROCEDURE: 1.BALAJI. Enter the command window of the MATLAB. 2. (Ph. Type and save the program in the editor Window 4. The bus impedance matrix can be determined by two methods. In another method the bus impedance matrix can be directly formed from the reactance diagram and this method requires the knowledge of the modifications of existing bus impedance matrix due to addition of new bus or addition of a new line (or impedance) between existing buses. 5.No: Date : AIM : To determine the bus impedance matrices for the given power system network. View the results.New – M – File 3.3 THEORY: FORMATION OF Z-BUS MATRIX In bus impedance matrix the elements on the main diagonal are called driving point impedance and the off-diagonal elements are called the transfer impedance of the buses or nodes.D) Asst.FORMATION OF BUS IMPEDANCE MATRICES Expt. Create a new M – file by selecting File .Tech. The bus impedance matrix are very useful in fault analysis.Professor /EEE Page 18 . SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 5. M. EXERCISE: (i) Determine the and Z bus matrix for the power system network shown in fig. (ii) Check the results obtained in using MATLAB. Execute the program by either pressing Tools – Run. PREPARED BY V.

Zbus = inv(Y) Vbus = Zbus*Ibus MANUAL CALCULATIONS: PREPARED BY V.PROGRAM : z = [0 1 0 1.2 3 4 0 0. Y = ybus(z) Ibus = [-j*1.1.BALAJI.08]. 0].D) Asst.2 2 3 0 0. M.4 1 3 0 0.0 0 2 0 0.Tech.8 1 2 0 0. 0. -j*1. (Ph.25.Professor /EEE Page 19 .

D) Asst.Professor /EEE Page 20 . M. (Ph.BALAJI.PREPARED BY V.Tech.

RESULT: PREPARED BY V. (Ph.BALAJI.Tech.Professor /EEE Page 21 .D) Asst. M.

∑ Vq k q=p+1 The reactive power of bus-p is given by p-1 n q=p QPk+1 =(-1) x Im (Vpk)* ∑ Ypq Vqk+1 + ∑ Ypq Vqk q=1 PROCEDURE: 1. in particular. M.Tech.No : Date : AIM : To understand. Execute the program by either pressing Tools – Run. The non-linear load flow equation is given by 1 Vp k+1 Pp – j Qp (Vp ) k * p-1 n k+1 = Ypp .D) Asst.Professor /EEE Page 22 . (Ph. 2. 5. Enter the command window of the MATLAB.3 THEORY: The GAUSS – SEIDEL method is an iterative algorithm for solving a set of non-linear load flow equations.BALAJI. View the results. PREPARED BY V.SOLUTION OF POWER FLOW USING GAUSS-SEIDEL METHOD Expt.∑ Ypq Vq q=1 . Type and save the program in the editor Window 4. Create a new M – file by selecting File . the mathematical formulation of power flow model in complex form and a simple method of solving power flow problems of small sized system using GaussSeidel iterative algorithm SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 5.New – M – File 3.

3)==p) y(p.4). Find the slack bus real and reactive power. for q=1:elements. The base value is 100kVA. bus=max(max(data(:. (Ph.05pu. y=zeros(bus.3))).bus).1)).max(data(:.The magnitude at bus 1 is adjusted to 1. if(data(q.EXERCISE : The figure shows the single line diagram of a simple 3 buses power system with generator at bus 1. Line impedance are marked in pu.2)). The line charging susceptances are neglected.Tech.D) Asst. data=[1 1 2 10-j*20 2 1 3 10-j*30 3 2 3 16-j*32] elements=max(data(:. Determine the phasor values of the voltage at the load buses 2 and 3.2)==p|data(q.p)+data(q.Professor /EEE Page 23 .p)=y(p. Verify the result using MATLAB. The scheduled loads at buses 2 and 3 are marked on the diagram. end end end PREPARED BY V.BALAJI. for p=1:bus. M. Program %Gauss Sedial clc.

a2=input('enter p3 in MW:').BALAJI. g1=(((p2-j*q2)/conj(v2))+(-y(1.3). if (p~=q) for r=1:elements if((data(r. v2=1+j*0.Professor /EEE Page 24 . iter=0.v3]). fprintf ('%g'. while(abs(dx1)&abs(dx2)>=0. g2=(((p3-j*q3)/conj(v3))+(-y(1. q3=(b2/pu). v3=v3+dx2.3)==p)) y(p.3)*g1))/y(3.iter). dx2=g2-v3.3)*v1)+(-y(2. disp('iter v2 v3'). v3=1+j*0.4)). dx1=1+j*0. dx1=g1-v2.2)==p&data(r. dx2=1+j*0. b1=input('enter q2 in MVAR:').2)*v1)+(-y(2.D) Asst. p2=(a1/pu).3)*v3))/y(2.q)=-(data(r.for p=1:bus. v2=v2+dx1.3)==q)|(data(r.Tech. M. iter=iter+1.2).disp([v2. for q=1:bus.05. p3=(a2/pu).2)==q&data(r. pu=input('enter the base value in MVA'). v1=1. b2=input('enter q3 in MVAR').00001)&iter<7. end MANUAL CALCULATION PREPARED BY V. (Ph. q2=(b1/pu). end end end end end a1=input('enter p2 in MW:').

BALAJI.Tech.Professor /EEE Page 25 .PREPARED BY V.D) Asst. M. (Ph.

M.Professor /EEE Page 26 . (Ph.RESULT PREPARED BY V.BALAJI.Tech.D) Asst.

Bpq = Conductance and Susceptance of admittance Ypq respectively. PP = Σ n q=1 n ep(eq Gpq + fq Bpq) + fp (fq Gpq .eq Bpq) QP = Σ q=1 fp (eq Gpq + fq Bpq) .eq Bpq) Vp2 = ep2 + fp2 where.No : Date : AIM : To determine the power flow analysis using Newton – Raphson method SOFTWARE REQUIRED : MATLAB THEORY : The Newton Raphson method of load flow analysis is an iterative method which approximates the set of non-linear simultaneous equations to a set of linear simultaneous equations using Taylor’s series expansion and the terms are limited to first order approximation. The load flow equations for Newton Raphson method are non-linear equations in terms of real and imaginary part of bus voltages.ep (fq Gpq .BALAJI.D) Asst. EXERCISE PREPARED BY V. (Ph. M.Tech. ep = Real part of Vp fp = Imaginary part of Vp Gpq.SOLUTION OF POWER FLOW USING NEWTON-RAPHSON METHOD Expt.Professor /EEE Page 27 .

0].941+j*11. del2=angle(v2).1)))+del1-del2))abs(v2)*abs(v2)*abs(ybus(2.5 1.3))*cos((angle(ybus(2.3))*sin((angle(ybus(2.3))*sin((angle(ybus(2.04 Unspecified V3 = 1.1)))+del1del3))+abs(v3)*abs(v3)*abs(ybus(3. t= 0. delq20=gbus(2.0 0. v3=1.1)))+del1- PREPARED BY V.0 0.3))))+(abs(v2)*abs(v3)* abs(ybus(3. %abs(ybus(2. PD 1 2 3 2 0 1.PG Generation.04 demand. QD 1 0 0. QG 0.882-j*23.941+j*11.3)-q2.1))*cos((angle(ybus(2.0 0.2)=-(abs(v2)*abs(v3)*abs(ybus(2.1)) %abs(v2) for i=1:10 p2=(abs(v2)*abs(v1)*abs(ybus(2.528 -2. ybus = [5. J(1.4)-gbus(3.882-j*23. Verify the result using MATLAB PROGRAM : %NEWTON RAPHSON METHOD clc.08 p.3)))+del3-del2)).1))*cos((angle(ybus(3.1.02 + j0.941+j*11. delp20=gbus(2.2))*cos((angle(ybus(3.528].04+j*0.3))*cos((angle(ybus(3.BALAJI. J(1.3)))+del3del2)). del1=angle(v1). (Ph.3))+del3-del2)).764 -2. M.764 -2.941+j*11. delp30=gbus(3.2)-p2.02 pu.1)))+del1del2))+abs(v2)* abs(v2)*abs(ybus(2.5 0 1 QG3 = ? 2.1))*cos((angle(ybus(2. The specified quantities at the buses are given below : Bus Real load Reactive demand.764 -2.1))*sin((angle(ybus(2.04+j*0.941+j*11.3)))+del3del2)).2)-p3. del3=angle(v3).5 0.528 -2. q2=-(abs(v2)*abs(v1)*abs(ybus(2. Consider the 3 bus system each of the 3 line bus a series impedance of 0.6 Load Real power Reactive Power Voltage Specified V1=1.5)-gbus(2.Professor /EEE Page 28 .Tech.3))*sin((angle(ybus(2.3)=(abs(v1)*abs(ybus(2.0 0.001 v1=1.1)=(abs(v2)*abs(v1)*abs(ybus(2.2))))+(abs(v2)*abs(v3)* abs(ybus(2.941+j*11. v2=1+j*0. J(1.2)))+del2-del3)).2))*cos((angle(ybus(2.764 5. gbus = [1 2.0 3 1.0 2 0.0 0.0 1.6 0.5 generation.1)))+del1del2))+(abs(v2)*abs(v3)*abs(ybus(2.764 -2.1))*sin((angle(ybus(2.764 5.2))))-(abs(v2)*abs(v3)* abs(ybus(2. p3=(abs(v3)*abs(v1)*abs(ybus(3.4)-gbus(2.D) Asst.u and a total shunt admittance of j0.2))*sin((angle(ybus(2.882-j*23.

2))*cos((angle(ybus(3.1)))+del1del2))-2*(abs(v2)*abs(ybus(2.3))* sin((angle(ybus(2.2)))+del2del3)).delp30. delA1=inv(J)*delA0. A=[del2.2)=(abs(v2)*abs(v3)*abs(ybus(2.abs(v2)].1)=-(abs(v3)*abs(v2)*abs(ybus(3.3)=-(abs(v2)*abs(ybus(2. delA0=[delp20.3)=(abs(v3)*abs(ybus(3. J(2.3))*cos((angle(ybus(2.1).2)))+del2del3)). end A1 MANUAL CALCULATIONS : PREPARED BY V.1))*cos((angle(ybus(2.b0]+delA1.2))*sin((angle(ybus(2. del2=A1(1.delq20].2))))(abs(v3)*abs(ybus(2.3)))+del3-del2)). abs(v2)=A1(3. J(3. J(3.Tech.del3. M. delA1.del3. A1=[del2.3)))+del2del3)).3)))+del3-del2)).3)))+del2del3)). end J inv(J). J(3. if((A1-delA0)<=t) break.1)))+del1del3))+(abs(v3)*abs(v2)*abs(ybus(3.2))*cos((angle(ybus(2.1))*sin((angle(ybus(2.2)=(abs(v3)*abs(v1)*abs(ybus(3.1))*sin((angle(ybus(3.1). J(2. b0=abs(v2).2))*sin((angle(ybus(3.del2))+2*(abs(v2)*abs(ybus(2.Professor /EEE Page 29 . J(2. del3=A1(2. A1-delA0.1)))+del1del2))-(abs(v2)*abs(v3)*abs(ybus(2.1)=(abs(v2)*abs(v1)*abs(ybus(2.2)))+del2-del3)).2))))+(abs(v3)*abs(ybus(2. (Ph.BALAJI.3) )* cos((angle(ybus(2.1).D) Asst.2))*sin((angle(ybus(3.3))*cos((angle(ybus(2.

BALAJI. (Ph.D) Asst.PREPARED BY V.Tech.Professor /EEE Page 30 . M.

Tech.BALAJI. M.Professor /EEE Page 31 . (Ph.PREPARED BY V.D) Asst.

Tech.Professor /EEE Page 32 . M.D) Asst. (Ph.RESULT: PREPARED BY V.BALAJI.

BALAJI. PROGRAM REQUIRED: MATLAB 5.SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS Expt. post-fault voltages and currents for different types of faults.Tech. M.3 THEORY : Symmetrical Fault : II.D) Asst. (Ph. Three phase fault : From the thevenin’s equivalent circuit Vth ′′ Fault current If = Z th Where Vth = Thevenin’s Voltage Z th = Thevenin’s Impedance Unsymmetrical Fault : Single line to ground fault : Fault current If = Ia = 3Ia1 Ia1 = Ea Z1+Z2+Z0 Line to line fault: Fault current If = Ia1(a2 – a ) Ea Ia1 = Z1+Z2 Double Line to ground fault : Fault current If = 2 Ia0 +( Ia1+ Ia2) (a2 + a ) Ea Ia1 = Z1 + Z0Z2 Page 33 PREPARED BY V. both symmetric and unsymmetric.Professor /EEE .No : Date : AIM : To become familiar with modelling and analysis of power systems under faulted condition and to compute the fault level.

Ia2 and Ia0 are positive.Professor /EEE Page 34 . EXERCISE : PREPARED BY V.New – M – File 3. 2.Z0 + Z2 Ia2 = (. negative and zero phase sequence currents Z1 . Execute the program by either pressing Tools – Run. Create a new M – file by selecting File . Enter the command window of the MATLAB. (Ph.BALAJI. 4. Ia1. M. Type and save the program.Ia1) * Z0 Z0 + Z2 Ia0 = − ( Ia1 − Ia2) Fault MVA = √3 * If * Vpu where.D) Asst.Tech. View the results. negative and zero phase sequence impedances PROCEDURE: 1.Z2 and Zo are positive.

15 0.25/3 per unit on a 100MVA base.125 0.25 2 0 0.Professor /EEE Page 35 .1 per unit.35 0. The neutral of each generator is grounded through a current limiting reactor of 0. The generators are running on no load at their rated voltage and rated frequency with their emfs in phase. (a) A balanced three phase fault at bus 3 through a fault impedance Zf = j0. Zbus0.1 per unit. Determine the fault current for the following faults.10 0.05 0. symfault(zdata1. (Ph.15 0.D) Asst.05 0.BALAJI. Zbus2) PREPARED BY V.1 per unit.25 2 0 0. Zbus1. zdata2 = zdata1.10 0. PROGRAM : zdata1 = [0 0 1 1 2 1 0 0. (d) A double line to ground fault at bus3 through a fault impedance Zf = j0. zdata1.15 0. M.7125].10 0.25].Tech.10 0.10 0.30 0. Zbus1.15 0.35 2 3 0 0.30 1 3 0 0.125 0. zdata1. Zbus2) llfault(zdata1.10 0. (c) A line to line fault at bus3 through a fault impedance Zf = j0.15 3 0 0.25 X0 0. The system data expressed in per unit on a common 100 MVA base is tabulated below. Zbus0.1 per unit. Zbus2) dlgfault(zdata0.25 X2 0. Zbus1 = zbuild(zdata1) Zbus0 = zbuild(zdata0) Zbus2 = Zbus1. Item G1 G2 T1 T2 L12 L13 L23 Base MVA 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Voltage Rating kV 20 20 20/220 20/220 220 220 220 X1 0. zdata2.40 0 2 0 0. zdata0 = [0 1 0 0.15 0.7125 Verify the result using MATLAB program.15 0.10 1 2 0 0. zdata2.Zbus1) lgfault(zdata0.125 3 0 0. Zbus1.The one line diagram of a simple power system is shown in figure. zdata2. (b) A single line to ground fault at bus3 through a fault impedance Zf = j0.

D) Asst.BALAJI.MANUAL CALCULATIONS: PREPARED BY V.Professor /EEE Page 36 . (Ph. M.Tech.

BALAJI.PREPARED BY V.Professor /EEE Page 37 .D) Asst. (Ph.Tech. M.

Tech. M.BALAJI.PREPARED BY V.Professor /EEE Page 38 . (Ph.D) Asst.

M.D) Asst. (Ph.Tech.RESULT PREPARED BY V.Professor /EEE Page 39 .BALAJI.

No : Date AIM : To become familiar with modelling and analysis of the frequency and tie-line flow dynamics of a power system without and with load frequency controllers (LFC) and to design better controllers for getting better responses. stabilizing system frequency.Tech. 4. Double click the scope and view the result. After forming the block diagram .D) Asst. : PROCEDURE : 1.reference set points of selected ( regulating) generator – turbine units. This is one of the foremost requirements in proving quality power supply. THEORY : Active power control is one of the important control actions to be perform to be normal operation of the system to match the system generation with the continuously changing system load in order to maintain the constancy of system frequency to a fine tolerance level. PREPARED BY V. save the block diagram.LOAD – FREQUENCY DYNAMICS OF SINGLE AREA POWER SYSTEMS Expt . A change in system load cases a change in the speed of all rotating masses ( Turbine – generator rotor systems) of the system leading to change in system frequency. Create a new Model by selecting File . Enter the command window of the MATLAB. The primary objectives of automatic generation control (AGC) are to regulate system frequency to the set nominal value and also to regulate the net interchange of each areas to the scheduled value by adjusting the outputs of the regulating units. 5.BALAJI.New – Model 3. This function is referred to as load – frequency control(LFC). (Ph. 2. M.Professor /EEE Page 40 . Pick up the blocks from the simulink library browser and form a block diagram. The speed change form synchronous speed initiates the governor control (primary control) action result in all the participating generator – turbine units taking up the change in load. Restoration of frequency to nominal value requires secondary control action which adjust the load .

D = 0. Use MATLAB to obtain the time domain performance specifications and the frequency deviation step response.e.05 per unit.Tech.An isolated power station has the following parameters Turbine time constant τT = 0. M.5sec Governor time constant τg = 0.2 per unit) occurs.8 (a) Use the Routh – Hurwitz array to find the range of R for control system stability. (c) The governor speed regulation is set to R = 0.8 percent for a 1 percent change in frequency . (b) Use MATLAB to obtain the root locus plot.2sec Generator inertia constant H = 5sec Governor speed regulation = R per unit The load varies by 0. (i) (ii) Find the steady state frequency deviation in Hz.BALAJI. PREPARED BY V.Professor /EEE Page 41 .The turbine rated output is 250MW at nominal frequency of 60Hz.D) Asst. i.EXERCISE: 1. A sudden load change of 50MW( PL = 0. (Ph.

Professor /EEE Page 42 . (Ph.MANUAL CALCULATIONS: PREPARED BY V.Tech. M.D) Asst.BALAJI.

PREPARED BY V. (Ph.Tech.BALAJI.D) Asst. M.Professor /EEE Page 43 .

(Ph.Tech.BALAJI. M.D) Asst.RESULT: PREPARED BY V.Professor /EEE Page 44 .

The speed change form synchronous speed initiates the governor control (primary control) action result in all the participating generator – turbine units taking up the change in load. 2. A change in system load cases a change in the speed of all rotating masses ( Turbine – generator rotor systems) of the system leading to change in system frequency.LOAD – FREQUENCY DYNAMICS OF TWO AREA POWER SYSTEMS Expt . After forming the block diagram .Professor /EEE Page 45 . Create a new Model by selecting File . Restoration of frequency to nominal value requires secondary control action which adjust the load . stabilizing system frequency. The primary objectives of automatic generation control (AGC) are to regulate system frequency to the set nominal value and also to regulate the net interchange of each areas to the scheduled value by adjusting the outputs of the regulating units. THEORY: Active power control is one of the important control actions to be perform to be normal operation of the system to match the system generation with the continuously changing system load in order to maintain the constancy of system frequency to a fine tolerance level. 5.BALAJI.reference set points of selected ( regulating) generator – turbine units.New – Model 3. PREPARED BY V. save the block diagram.D) Asst. Pick up the blocks from the simulink library browser and form a block diagram. : PROCEDURE: 1. This is one of the foremost requirements in proving quality power supply.Tech. (Ph. 4. Enter the command window of the MATLAB. Double click the scope and view the result. This function is referred to as load – frequency control(LFC). M. No : Date AIM : To become familiar with modelling and analysis of the frequency and tie-line flow dynamics of a two area power system without and with load frequency controllers (LFC) and to design better controllers for getting better responses.

EXERCISE : 1.0625 D2=0.u.Tech. A load change of 187.3sec τT1 =0. The synchronizing power coefficient is computed from the initial operating condition and is given to be Ps = 2 p.D) Asst.Professor /EEE Page 46 .05 D1=0. SIMULINK BLOCK DIAGRAM : PREPARED BY V. A two area system connected by a tie line has the following parameters on a 1000MVA common base Area Speed Regulation Frequency –sens. (a) Dertermine the new steady state frequency and the change in the tie-line flow. (Ph.load coeff.9 H2=4 1000MVA τg1 = 0.5 MW occurs in area1. Inertia Constant Base Power Governor Time Constant Turbine Time Constant 1 R1=0.6 H1=5 1000MVA τg1 = 0.6sec The units are operating in parallel at the nominal frequency of 60Hz.BALAJI. (b) Construct the SIMULINK block diagram and obtain the frequency deviation response for the condition in part(a).5sec 2 R2=0. M.2sec τT1 =0.

D) Asst.Tech. M.BALAJI.MANUAL CALCULATION: PREPARED BY V.Professor /EEE Page 47 . (Ph.

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, M.Tech, (Ph.D) Asst.Professor /EEE

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PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, M.Tech, (Ph.D) Asst.Professor /EEE

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RESULT:

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, M.Tech, (Ph.D) Asst.Professor /EEE

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Small signal stability: When a power system is under steady state. the load plus transmission loss equals to the generation in the system.f)) S* Stator Current It = = Et* Voltage behind transient condition E1 = Et + j Xd1It Et* Pe .BALAJI. The generating units run a synchronous speed and system frequency. Transient stability: When a power system is under steady state. The nature of system response to small disturbance depends on the operating conditions.jQe PREPARED BY V. change in field voltage. loss of load. normal operating condition.Tech. M.. FORMULA : Reactive power Qe = sin(cos-1(p.No : Date : AIM : To become familiar with various aspects of the transient and small signal stability analysis of Single-Machine-Infinite Bus (SMIB) system PROGRAM REQUIRED : MATLAB 5.3 THEORY : Stability : Stability problem is concerned with the behaviour of power system when it is subjected to disturbance and is classified into small signal stability problem if the disturbances are small and transient stability problem when the disturbances are large. When a large disturbance such as three phase fault. (ii) Rotor oscillations of increasing magnitude due to lack of sufficient damping torque. change in mechanical toque etc. voltage. loss of generation etc. types of controllers etc. Instability that may result from small disturbance may be of two forms.. The system may come back to a steady state condition maintaining synchronism or it may break into subsystems or one or more machines may pull out of synchronism.Professor /EEE Page 51 . occurs the power balance is upset and the generating units rotors experience either acceleration or deceleration.D) Asst. In the former case the system is said to be stable and in the later case it is said to be unstable. (i) Steady increase in rotor angle due to lack of synchronising torque.TRANSIENT AND SMALL SIGNAL STABILITY ANALYSIS – SINGLE MACHINE INFINITE BUS SYSTEM Expt. the transmission system strength. (Ph. current and power flows are steady. the system may be subjected to small disturbances such as variation in load and generation.

M.P2maxcosδo δ δ δ Cosδcr = P3max . (Ph.Professor /EEE Page 52 .D) Asst.BALAJI.j( X3 + Xtr )It X1 X2 where.∠ EB Prefault Operation: X = j Xd1+ jXtr + X1 X2 X1 + X2 E1 x EB Power Pe = X δo = sin Pe * X -1 sinδo E1 * EB During Fault Condition: Pe = PEii = 0 Find out X from the equivalent circuit during fault condition Post fault Condition: Find out X from the equivalent circuit during post fault condition E1 x EB Power Pe = X δmax = π .δo ) + P3maxcosδmax .Voltage of infinite bus EB = Et . X3 = X1 + X2 Angular separation between E1 and EB δo = ∠ E1 .P2max sinδo PREPARED BY V.Tech.δo Pm Pe = sinδmax Critical Clearing Angle: Pm(δmax .

17.New – M – File 3. A 60Hz synchronous generator having inertia constant H = 5 MJ/MVA and a direct axis transient reactance Xd1 = 0.0. X2. X1 = 0. 2. The generator is delivering real power Pe = 0.8. Reactances are marked on the diagram on a common system base. EXERCISE : 1. X1 = 0.δo) tcr = √ πfo Pm Sec PROCEDURE : 1. E. M.8. E. V = 1.Professor /EEE Page 53 . V.0.65.65. . X3) For b) Pm = 0. Execute the program by either pressing Tools – Run 5. eacfault(Pm. PROGRAM : Pm = 0.When the fault is cleared. V = 1. X1. X2 = inf. E = 1.3 per unit is connected to an infinite bus through a purely reactive circuit as shown in figure. View the results. Enter the command window of the MATLAB.8 per unit and Q = 0. X2 = 1.Critical Clearing Time: 2H (δcr .8. a) A temporary three-phase fault occurs at the sending end of the line at point F. X2.8.074 per unit to the infinite bus at a voltage of V = 1 per unit. (Ph. X3 = 0.17. eacfault(Pm.BALAJI. X3 = 0. b) Verify the result using MATLAB program.D) Asst.Tech. Type and save the program. X1. 4. E = 1. Create a new M – file by selecting File . both lines are intact. Determine the critical clearing angle and the critical fault clearing time. X3) PREPARED BY V.65. V.

D) Asst. (Ph.MANUAL CALCULATION: PREPARED BY V.Tech.BALAJI.Professor /EEE Page 54 . M.

Tech.Professor /EEE Page 55 . M.RESULT: PREPARED BY V.D) Asst.BALAJI. (Ph.

ECONOMIC DISPATCH IN POWER SYSTEMS Expt.. M.Professor /EEE Page 56 . : PROGRAM REQUIRED : MATLAB 5. ………………PGN(K) }.2. Given : The number of available generating units N.2………N Which minimize the total production cost. which is essentially the sum of the production cost of all the generating units.D) Asst.……. the system operator has to choose the set of schedules. i = 1. This economic dispatch problem is mathematically stated as an optimization problem. FT = Σ Fi (PGi ) i=1 N (1) (2) and satisfies the power balance constraint φ= Σ PGi –PD = 0 i=1 N (3) and the operating limits PREPARED BY V.3 THEORY : Mathematical Model for Economic Dispatch of Thermal Units Without Transmission Loss: Statement of Economic Dispatch Problem In a power system.NS Out of these NS set of generation schedules. with negligible transmission loss and with N number of spinning thermal generating units the total system load PD at a particular interval can be met by different sets of generation schedules {PG1(k) . PGi . Min . their production cost functions. (Ph. To determine : The set of generation schedules.BALAJI.Tech. their operating limits and the system load PD.No : Date AIM : To understand the fundamentals of economic dispatch and solve the problem using classical method with and without line losses. k = 1. PG2(k) . which minimize the system operating cost.

λ .Professor /EEE Page 57 .PGN ..N PREPARED BY V. bi and ci are constants Necessary conditions for the existence of solution to ED problem (4) (5) The ED problem given by the equations (1) to (4).mi ≥λ for Economic Schedule PGi = (λ -bi)/ 2ai . By omitting the inequality constraints (4) tentatively.2. . . i = 1. (Ph.……. M. L as Min : L (PG1 ……..Tech.……. λ to obtained the LaGrange function.(2) and (3) may be restated as an unconstrained optimization problem by augmenting the objective function (1) with the constraint φ multiplied by LaGrange multiplier.2……………. .λ [Σ PGi – PD] i=1 i=1 N N (6) The necessary conditions for the existence of solution to (6) are given by ∂L / ∂PGi = 0 = dFi (PGi) / dPGi .PGi. λ) = Σ Fi(PGi) . i=1.N where ai . the reduce ED problem (1).D) Asst. 2.BALAJI. i = 1.max ` PGi = PGi.min ≤ PGi ≤ PGi. When the inequality constraints(4) are included in the ED problem the necessary condition (7) gets modified as dFi (PGi) / dPGi = λ PGi.max ____(9) (10) for ≤ λ for PGi = PGi. .min ≤ PGi ≤ PGi.max The units production cost function is usually approximated by quadratic function Fi (PGi) = ai PG2i + bi PGi + ci .N ∂L / ∂λ = 0 = Σ PGi – PD i=1 N (7) (8) The solution to ED problem can be obtained by solving simultaneously the necessary conditions (7) and (8) which state that the economic generation schedules not only satisfy the system power balance equation (8) but also demand that the incremental cost rates of all the units be equal be equal to λ which can be interpreted as “incremental cost of received power”.

while abs(DelP) >= 0. 4. 0.Tech. fprintf(' ') disp(['Lamda P1 P2 P3 DP'. Execute the program by either pressing Tools – Run. Type and save the program. PROGRAM : alpha = [500. 200]. DelP = 10. C3 = 200 +5.5 P2 + 0. 2 P1 in MW P2 in MW P3 in MW The total load .006 P22 .004 P12 .BALAJI. (Ph.009 P3 . Create a new M – file by selecting File . beta = [5.3.Professor /EEE Page 58 .8].009].Incremental fuel cost λ= PD + Σ( bi/2ai ) / Σ (1/2ai) i=1 i=1 N N (11) PROCEDURE : 1. 400..3 P1 + 0.. 5. 0.New – M – File 3.Neglecting line losses and generator limits. PD is 800MW.001 PREPARED BY V.The fuel cost functions for three thermal plants in $/h are given by C1 = 500 + 5. Verify the result using MATLAB program. find the optimal dispatch and the total cost in $/h by analytical method. PD = 800. ' grad Delamda']) iter = 0. 5.8 P3 + 0. EXERCISE : 1.5.D) Asst. 5.004. M.006. lamda = input('Enter estimated value of Lamda = '). gamma = [0. 2. Enter the command window of the MATLAB. View the results. C2 = 400 + 5.

P(3).Professor /EEE Page 59 . end totalcost = sum(alpha + beta.1).J. disp([lamda.beta). M.P(2). Delamda = DelP/J.*P + gamma.*P./(2*gamma).P(1).Tech.DelP.sum(P).D) Asst.Delamda]) lamda = lamda + Delamda. J = sum(ones(length(gamma). (Ph.iter = iter + 1.^2) MANUAL CALCULATION: PREPARED BY V. DelP = PD .BALAJI. P = (lamda ./(2*gamma)).

5 0.8 P3 + 0.BALAJI. The fuel cost functions for three thermal plants in $/h are given by C1 = 500 + 5. (Ph.004 P12 .006 P22 .009 P32 .009].8 0. C2 = 400 + 5.D) Asst. Pdt = 975. The total load . dispatch gencost P1 in MW P2 in MW P3 in MW MANUAL CALCULATION: PREPARED BY V. C3 = 200 +5.3 0. PD is 975MW.Tech. M.004 400 5. mwlimits = [200 450 150 350 100 225].5 P2 + 0. Verify the result using MATLAB program.Professor /EEE Page 60 . Generation limits: 200 ≤ P1 ≤ 450 MW 150 ≤ P2 ≤ 350 MW 100 ≤ P3 ≤ 225 MW Find the optimal dispatch and the total cost in $/h by analytical method. PROGRAM : cost = [500 5.3 P1 + 0.2.006 200 5.

(Ph.PREPARED BY V.BALAJI. M.Tech.D) Asst.Professor /EEE Page 61 .

Tech. M.BALAJI. (Ph.D) Asst.PREPARED BY V.Professor /EEE Page 62 .

Professor /EEE Page 63 .BALAJI.RESULT : PREPARED BY V.D) Asst. (Ph.Tech. M.

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