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S. A. AHSAN RAJON
COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING DISCIPLINE KHULNA UNIVERSITY, BANGLADESH. E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Storage (hierarchy and terminology) Magnetic disks
The technology or product type that holds the data
The time to get to the data Specified as an average in seconds (e.g., s, ms, µs, ns, etc.)
The rate of transfer for consecutive bytes of data Specified in bytes/s (e.g., Kbytes/s, Mbytes/s)
Medium CPU registers Cache memory Conventional memory Expanded memory Hard disk Floppy disk CD-ROM Tape
Access Time 15-30 ns 50-100 ns 75-500 ns 10-50 ms 95 ms 100-600 ms 0.5+ s
Throughput 600-6000 Kbytes/s 100-200 Kbytes/s 150-1000 Kbytes/s 5-20 Kbytes/s (cartridge) 200-3000 Kbytes/s (reel-to-reel)
Online storage Memory that is accessible to programs without human intervention Primary storage and secondary storage are “online” Primary storage Semiconductor technology (e.g., RAM) Volatile (contents are loss when powered off) Secondary storage Magnetic technology (e.g., disk drives) Non-volatile (contents are retained in the absence of power)
Offline storage Memory that requires human intervention in order for it to be accessed by a program (e..g. loading a tape) Sometimes called “archival storage” Direct Access Storage Device (DASD) Pronounced “dazz-dee” Term coined by IBM Distinguishes disks (disk head moves “directly” to the data) from tapes (see below) Sequential access storage devices Tape drives Tape reel must wind forward or backward to the data 6 .
Storage (hierarchy and terminology) Magnetic disks 7 .
A magnetic substance is coated on a round surface The magnetic substance can be polarized in one of two directions with an electromagnet (“writing data”) The electromagnet can also sense the direction of magnetic polarization (“reading data”) Similar to a read/write head on a tape recorder (except the information is digital rather than analogue) 8 .
360 Capacities: 700 KB to 1. or flexible (e.g.4 MB (& up to 100 MB “zip” disks) 9 . mylar) Most floppy disk drives can hold one diskette (two surfaces) The diskette is removable Typical RPM: 300. Also called “flexible disks” or “diskettes” The platter is “floppy”..
Access window Shutter Cutaway showing disk Case Spindle Write protect tab 10 .
.e. the disks are “fixed” (i. 7200 rpm (rpm = “revolutions per minute”) Capacities: 500 MB to 1+ TB (terabyte = 240 bytes) 11 . not removable) On some hard disk drives. 5400.. the disks are in a removable pack (hence.g. “disk pack”) Typical speed of rotation: 3600. The platter is “hard” (e. aluminum) Most hard disk drives contain more than one platter On most hard disk drives.
the aerodynamics of the head and enclosure create a cushion of air between the head and the disk surface The head floats above the surface (very close!) and does not touch the surface Thus. the head is “parked” at the outer edge of the platter and rests on the platter surface When powered on. Invented by IBM A type of hard disk drive The disk is contained within a sealed unit No dust particles When powered off. “head crash” (the head touches the surface. with damage resulting) 14 .
Head Platter Track Block Head motor Sector Cylinder Track Drive motor Head. on moving arm Head assembly 15 .
Platter A round surface – the disk – containing a magnetic coating Track A circle on the disk surface on which data are contained A transducer attached to an arm for writing/reading data to/from the disk surface A mechanical unit holding the heads and arms All the head/arm units move together. via the head assembly A set of tracks simultaneously accessible from the heads on the head assembly 16 Head Head assembly Cylinder .
revolutions per minute) Head motion A mechanism is required to move the head assembly in/out Two possibilities: A stepper motor (digital. no feedback) A servo motor (analogue. but requires feedback) 17 .g. 3600 rpm. Drive motor The motor that rotates the platters Typically a DC motor (DC = direct current) The disk rotates at a fixed speed (e. very precision positioning.. head moves in steps.
Sector That portion of a track falling along a predefined pie-shaped portion of the disk surface The number of bytes stored in a sector is the same.. constant angular velocity Thus. thus. i. the density of bits is greater for sectors near the centre of the disk The rotational speed is constant. the transfer rate is the same for inner sectors and outer sectors Block The smallest unit of data that can be written or read to/from the disk (typically 512 bytes) 18 . regardless of where the sector is located.e.
9 sectors/track 16 sectors/ track Tracks Sector 19 .
Seek Time Latency Time Latency Head Transfer Rate Transfer Seek Desired track Note: Access time = seek time + latency 20 .
½ the period of rotation Also called “rotational delay” 21 . in other words. Seek time The time for the head to move to the correct track Specified as an average for all tracks on the disk surface Latency time The time for the correct block to arrive at the head once the head is positioned at the correct track Specified as an average.
Access time is the time “to get to” the data (remember!) Access time = seek time + latency Transfer rate Same as throughput AVERAGE LATENCY: period of (unit) rotation / 2 22 .
67 / 2 ms = 8.67 ms Average latency = 16.01667 s = 16.33 ms 23 . A hard disk rotates at 3600 rpm What is the average latency? Period of rotation = (1 / 3600) minutes = (1 / 3600) 60 seconds = 0.
Transfer rate can be determined. given… Rotational speed of the disk platters Number of sectors per track Number of bytes per sector 24 .
for a hard disk drive. given Rotational speed = 7200 rpm Sectors per track = 30 Data per sector = 512 bytes = 0.000 x 0.000 / 60 = 1.76 Mbytes/s 25 .5 Kbytes A: Transfer rate = 7200 x 30 = 216.000 sectors/min = 216. in Mbytes/s. Q: Determine the transfer rate.000 Kbytes/min = 108.5 = 108.800 / 210 = 1.800 Kbytes/s = 1.
000 Kbytes/min = 108.000 sectors contain (216.000 Kbytes of Data are visited in 60 seconds = 216.000 Kbytes of Data are visited in one minute. Again. 216.5 Kbytes of Data.000 / 60 = 1. for 7200 rotations. Thus. for each rotation.Clarifying the example Transfer rate = 7200 x 30 = 216.000 x 0.76 Mbytes/s [1024 KB = 1MB] 26 .5 = 108.000 sectors/min In each minute. So.800 / 210 = 1. That is. Each sector contains 0. This 108.000) sectors will be visited. there will be 7200 rotations.800 Kbytes/s [per minute to per second conversion] = 1.000 x 0.5 = 108. 30 sectors are visited. there are 30 sectors per track. = 108.000) Kbytes of Data. ( 7200 x 30 = 216.
733 Kbytes/s 3.000 x 1 = 224.000 / 60 = 3.65 Mbytes/s 27 . given Rotational speed = 7000 rpm Sectors per track = 32 Data per sector = 1024 bytes A: Transfer rate = = Kbytes/min = = = 7000 x 32 = 224.733 / 210 3.000 sectors/min 224. for a hard disk drive. Q: Determine the transfer rate.000 224. in Mbytes/s.
It’s the “footer” at the end of each sector. Format of each track: Previous sector Sector Next sector gap Inter-block gap Note: header data CRC Inter-block gap gap CRC stands for “cyclic redundancy code”. CRC is a sophisticated form of parity for checking that the data read are accurate. 28 .
headers. blocks. uniquely identifies the sector. by track number and sector number 29 . and gaps must be established before a disk can be used The process for doing this is called “formatting” The header.g. The track positions. at the beginning of each sector. e..
Interface between the disk drive and the system is known as a “disk controller” A primary function is to ensure data read/write operations are from/to the correct sector Since data rate to/from the disk is different than data rate to/from system memory. “buffering” is needed 30 .
Example: Reading data from a disk System Disk controller RAM Buffer (RAM) Disk 2. Transfer data from buffer to system RAM (Note: this is a DMA operation) 1. Read data from disk into a buffer in the disk controller 31 .
often multi-block transfers are required The inter-block gap provides “time” for the controller electronics to adjust from the end of one sector to the beginning of the next 33 .g.. The smallest transfer is one block (e. 512 bytes) However.
“time” may be needed for a few reasons: Compute and/or verify the CRC bytes Switch circuits from read mode to write mode During a write operation the header is “read” but the data are “written” (Remember. the header is only “written” during formatting.) Perform a DMA operation 34 .
sectors simply cannot be read or written consecutively There is not enough time (see preceding slide) The result is lost performance because the disk must undergo a full revolution to read the next sector The solution: interleaving 35 . Sometimes.
the system skips one or more blocks in its numbering This allows multi-block transfers to occur as fast as possible Interleaving minimizes lost time due to latency Interleaving “factor” is established when the disk is formatted Can have a major impact on system performance 36 . Rather than numbering blocks consecutively.
37 . 2:1 1 2 3 4 5 etc.Factor 1:1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 etc. 3:1 1 2 3 etc.
2 7 6 1 5 3 8 9 4 38 .
tape drives. optical drives. CD-ROMs and disk arrays. Pronounced Scuzzy Small Computer Systems Interface For wide range of peripheral devices. including hard disks. 8 devices can connect to a daisy chain This chain must be terminated at both ends Each device on chain is assigned unique device ID number that is determined by jumpers or DIP switches 39 .
is assigned SCSI ID 0 If you have both IDE and SCSI hard drive. SCSI bus supports 8 devices There are eight SCSI IDs numbered 0 through 7 ID 7 is always reserved for the SCSI host adapter SCSI hard disk. IDE drive should be boot drive 40 . if used as a boot drive.
Wide Ultra SCSI. includes 16 bit bus . 16 bit bus with up to 80 MBps transfer rate 41 .Includes Ultra SCSI. Centronics 50 pin or DB 25. and Ultra 2 SCSI. SCSI 1. called Wide SCSI. has 8 bit bus SCSI 2 -also SCSI Fast Wide.5 MB transfer rate. and twice as fast transfer rate SCSI 3.
There is no direct relationship between the size and physical layout of blocks on a disk drive and the size and organization of files on a system File system Determines the organization of information on a computer Performs logical-to-physical mapping of information A file system is part of each and every operating system Logical mapping The way information is perceived to be stored Physical mapping The way information is actually stored 42 .
To determine the capacity of the C: hard disk on Windows From the Desktop. double click on My Computer Right click on C: and select Properties 43 .
like hard disk drives Portable. Removable hard disks Also called “disk packs” A stack of hard disks enclosed in a metal or plastic removable cartridge Advantages High capacity and fast. like floppy disks Expensive Disadvantage 44 .
Fixed heads Fewer tracks but eliminates seek time Disk Spindle Moving head Fixed heads 45 .
A.D.I. = Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks A category of disk drive that employs two or more drives in combination for fault tolerance and performance Frequently used on servers. “levels” (next slide) 46 .D.I.A. R. but not generally used on PCs There are a number of different R.
Level 0 Provides “data striping” (spreading out blocks of each file across multiple disks) No redundancy Improves performance. the system can switch to the other without loss of data or service Delivers fault tolerance 47 . but does not deliver “fault tolerance” Level 1 Provides “data mirroring” Data are written to two duplicate disks simultaneously If one drive fails.
Other Levels Same as level 0. good fault tolerance 48 . but also reserves one dedicated disk for error correction data Good performance. and some level of fault tolerance Data striping at the byte level and stripe error correction information Excellent performance.
so if one fails.. Fault tolerance The ability of a computer system to respond gracefully to unexpected hardware or software failure Many levels of fault tolerance E. another can take over 49 .g. the ability to continue operating in the event of a power failure Some systems “mirror” all operations Every operation is performed on two or more duplicate systems.
Data mirroring A technique in which data are written to two duplicate disks simultaneously If one disk fails. the system can instantly switch to the other disk without loss of data or service Used commonly in on-line database systems where it is critical that data are accessible at all times 50 .
Data striping A technique for spreading data over multiple disks Speeds operations that retrieve data from disk storage Data are broken into units (blocks) and these are spread across the available disks Implementations allow selection of data units size. or stripe width 51 .
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