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Studies on Impact of Ageing on Vacuumized Yarn Quality

Studies on Impact of Ageing on Vacuumized Yarn Quality

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Studies on Impact of Ageing on Vacuumized Yarn Quality

Studies on Impact of Ageing on Vacuumized Yarn Quality

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STUDIES ON IMPACT OF AGEING ON VACUUMIZED STEAMED YARN QUALITY

A PROJECT REPORT Submitted by

KARTHIK PRABHU.M Register No: 0920201006
in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree

of

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
in

TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY

KUMARAGURU COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY COIMBATORE – 641 049
(An Autonomous Institution Affiliated to Anna University: Coimbatore)

APRIL 2011

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report “ STUDIES ON IMPACT OF AGEING ON VACUUMIZED STEAMED YARN QUALITY

is the bonafide work of

KARTHIK PRABHU.M (Reg. No. 0920201006) who carried out this project (Phase-I) work under my supervision during the year 2010-2011.

SIGNATURE DR.K.THANGAMANI PROFESSOR AND HEAD

SIGNATURE MR R.SENTHIL KUMAR SUPERVISOR Assistant Professor

Department of Textile Technology Kumaraguru College of Technology Coimbatore - 641 049

Department of Textile Technology Kumaraguru College of Technology Coimbatore - 641 049

Submitted for the Project Viva-Voce examination held on _____________

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I express my sincere gratitude to our beloved Co-Chairman, Dr.B.K. Krishnaraj Vanavarayar, Dr.J.Shanmugam, Director and Dr. S. Ramachandran, Principal for their support and allowing me to use the facilities of the institution.

I express my whole hearted thanks to Dr. K.Thangamani, Head of Department, Kumaraguru College of Technology, for having been a source of encouragement and for instilling the vigor to do the project.

It gives me great pleasure to express my deep sense of gratitude for my supervisor, Mr.R.SenthilKumar, Assistant Professor, Department of Textile

Technology, Kumaraguru College of Technology, for his innovative guidance, expert suggestions and constant encouragement throughout the project. I thank all the teaching and non-teaching staff of the Textile Technology department for their help during this project.

I express my sincere gratitude to the management of Sangeeth Textiles Ltd. Mr. Muruganantham, Quality Control Manager, Sangeeth Textiles Ltd, Coimbatore for his continuous help in doing the field work of the project. I express my thanks to all the

staffs of quality control department of the mill for their invaluable help in carrying out the various quality control tests.

I express my thanks to my beloved parents, better half, my son, brother and friends for their continuous support throughout the course of project.

3.1 2. ABSTRACT LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 1 INTRODUCTION 1.2.3. 1 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.2.2 Machine Type Operation of YCM 6 5 6 TITLE PAGE NO.TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER NO.3 YARN CONDITIONING PROCESS 2.1 2.4 BENEFITS ACHIEVED OUT OF CONDITIONING .1 2.2 Principle of Working of YCP Advantages of Yarn Conditioning 8 8 9 10 2.2 YARN CONDITIONING 4 YARN CONDITIONING MACHINE 2. vi vii viii 1 3 4 2.

5.1 2.2 Machinery 3. TITLE PAGE NO.5.5.3 TESTING METHODOLOGY 4.4 Knitting Weaving Twisting Dyeing 11 11 12 12 13 14 14 14 14 15 19 3. MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.1.1 Yarn Particulars 3.1.1 MATERIALS 3. 2.5 PROPERTIES ACHIEVED OUT OF CONDITIONING 2.2 2.3 2. METHODS 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 20 REFERENCE .CHAPTER NO.5.2.

It will give weight gain of 1% to 1.Time and Storage periods resulting optimum quality evaluations of the final product to the market selling values . Therefore most of the spinning mills are now going for YCP. the hygroscopic nature of cotton fibers is used. In the present study. Also these modern YCP gives us even penetration of steam into all the layers of yarns on cone & ensures even conditioning effect throughout the package. .ABSTRACT Textile market is becoming sensitive buyer‟s market. Higher the humidity more is the absorbency of fibers. Moisture content & strength of yarn is increased. knitting. improved working at post spinning processes like warping. Though its initial cost of investment is high. etc. Weaver is demanding dimensioned quality with consistency from spinners. report on Analyzing single . Therefore in order to satisfy these demands without altering the raw material. The concept of yarn conditioning plant came into picture to supply the yarn with increased strength & elongations. reduced snarling of yarn. weaving.5%. doubled yarn ( warp and hosiery ) by varying conditioning parameters like Temperature . but its payback period is very less. .

PAGE NO.4 DESCRIPTION Yarn conditioning machine (YCM) Properties on weaving.2 2.LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO. 5 12 13 .2 2.5.5. Properties on dyeing. 2.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS YCM YCP RKM AATCC ASTM Yarn Conditioning Machine Yarn Conditioning Process ReissKiloMeter .

polyester etc. if not addressed properly would reflect badly on the final quality of yarn or fabric. The amount of moisture in a sample of textile material may be expressed in terms of moisture regain or moisture content.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. For example polyamide.1 INTRODUCTION Moisture in atmosphere has great effect on physical properties of textile fibers and yarns. Similarly the strength of any fiber depends up on how close the present moisture content is to the original natural value. Viscose/Lycra require conditioning to make the width the fabric stable.So all the above said factors. making a lengthwise elongation. Some blends like Cotton/Lycra. carding. During these phases the original moisture content on the fiber would have been lost and some static electricity would be carried by the fiber. Some fibers would tend to shrink when exposed to hot atmosphere or any treatment that involves heat and hence higher temperature. . A process that addresses all the above parameters is called CONDITIONING. Conditioning process differs from fiber to fiber. Similarly some high twist yarn would tend to loose its twist as and when it is allowed freely. drawing and spinning to become a yarn. For example cotton fiber passes through opening.The amount of static current carried by yarn changes from fiber to fiber. Textile fibers are subjected to various physical operations to make in to a yarn.

It reduces snarling in the yarn. (The dwell time 24 to 60 hours) 2 It failed to ensure even distribution of moisture. weaving and knitting stage. 4. Strength and elongation of yarn gets increased. 3. Conventionally steaming treatment for yarn was used for twist setting and to avoid snarling tendency. This method does not succeed because. 1. There were chances that steam gets condensed on surface of package and moisture droplets gets clinged on to surface which may lead to fungus generation. This affects frictional properties as well as strength & extensibility. 1. It was done using moistening box or steam treatment for damping. 5. It helps to attain standard moisture regain value of the fiber. It was time consuming method. 3. Strength and elasticity increases proportionately with increase in humidity because higher humidity allows more moisture absorption.Moisture improves physical properties of yarn. It gives better working due to increased strength at warping. . 2. especially cross-wound packages with medium to high compactness. It adds to the profit of spinner due to increase in weight of the yarn sold.

no attempt was made to assess the effect ageing on the processing of yarn in Conditioned form.15. . The effects of ageing as a result of field weathering and warehouse storage on cotton fiber properties have been addressed in a number of studies .Fig 1.7. The ageing of Conditioned and unconditioned yarn quality evaluation will explore many in-depth results.Many studies have revealed that warehouse ageing may have a small effect on fiber tenacity and yarn strength. This system is named as a Yarn Conditioning Plant (YCP) for the steaming of yarn. In this YCP thermal Conditioning is done with low temperature saturated steam in vacuum.30 days ) . This project reveals the effect of quality of the yarn in packed form of cones of ageing with the specified periods (1.1 Yarn Conditioning Machine Process Then invention had been done to overcome the drawbacks of conventional systems of yarn steaming and vacuumisation principle has been developed.

30 days) . 2 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT  To analyze the property of yarn quality after yarn conditioning and after the storage periods ( 1. with the storage periods ( 1. 15.  To analyze the quality parameters of Coarse and Fine yarns during the specified storage periods. 30 days). 7.1.  To analyze the property of yarn quality in conditioned yarn and conditioned yarn. 15.  To analyze the quality parameters of Single & Doubled yarns during the specified storage periods. .  To analyze the quality parameters of yarns for different conditioning variables like Temperature & Time (for all the above samples).  To analyze the quality parameters of Hosiery & Warp yarns during the specified storage periods. 7.

Standard bleaching methods did not fully compensate for the +b changes. Further studies have concluded that this increase in friction may in large part be caused by the loss of surface electrolytes. Changes in the friction characteristics of the constituent fibers may have some effect on the hand of fabrics produced from them. frictional characteristics are associated with hand properties. As fibers are opened during carding and subsequent processes. Warehouse storage of cotton for extended periods of time is another aspect of ageing. This color change.1 AGEING OF TEXTILE MATERIALS The effects of ageing as a result of field weathering and warehouse storage on cotton fiber properties have been addressed in a number of studies Of the fiber properties measured (i.CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. strength. The affect of these electrolytes on cotton fiber processing performance appeared to be due primarily to their anti-electrostatic properties. The color changes were further determined to have a substantial impact on the ability to dye the resultant fabrics made from the aged cotton fiber. length.e. including soluble surface materials such as sugars and organic acids. The presence of moisture in conjunction with associated electrolytes serves to conduct this electrostatic charge away from the fiber. A recent surge of interest in friction has produced results demonstrating that in the case of cotton fabrics. . as measured by +b or yellowness. and yellowness). micronaire . uniformity. electrostatic charges may accumulate on the surface of the fibers. Further processing of these fibers is affected by this charge accumulation. most of these studies found that the most significant changes involved color. appeared to be due in large part to the presence of fungi. These fungi use the chemical components of the fiber. leading to potential influence on the hue and depth of dye shade. reflectance. because of the tendency of the fibers to simultaneously repel each other and adhere to metal and other surfaces of the processing equipment. as a growth substrate.

such as by altering the chemical structure of the polymer or by the addition of soil. Textile fibers are physically complex materials. whereas many other natural fibers such as silk and wool are composed mostly of high molecular weight protein polymers. such as only in non crystalline regions of a fiber.Nearly all textile fibers are organic. cellulose. The major structural changes expected to occur during ageing can be ascertained from a structural view of fibers. such as beginning at the fiber surface and subsequently proceeding inward. In addition. to be semi crystalline (partially crystalline and partially non crystalline). cotton. flax and many other natural fibers are composed mostly of a common high molecular weight carbohydrate polymer. An ageing reaction may alter the molecular weight. the chemical composition of fibers may be altered. An ageing reaction may occur homogeneously throughout a fiber or may proceed heterogeneously. The gross size or shape of fibers may change during ageing. 2. they may be either rather simple or quite complex when not aged. Chemically. For example. high molecular weight polymeric materials. Most man-made fibers also are composed of high molecular weight organic polymers. Finally. but all fibers can be expected to become chemically complex when aged.2 TYPES OF AGEING 1 Physical Ageing 2 Photochemical Degradation 3 Thermal Degradation 4 Chemical Attack 5 Mechanical Stress . ageing may occur with morphological specificity. Textile fibers can be considered to be three-dimensional rod shaped materials having enormous surface-to-volume ratios compared to most materials. crystalline or orientation of fibers. and to poses some amount of net polymer orientation (the alignment of polymer molecules is not random).

But on the other hand. hardness and visco elastic relaxation times as well as less polymer chain scission. Therefore the aim of CONDITIONING is to provide an economical device for supplying the necessary moisture in a short time. Conservators should take these considerations into account and vary treatments considerably for different textiles. wet cleaning erases physical ageing and removes soil from fibers. For example. The structure and properties of historic textiles would be expected to vary considerably since exposure to each of the types of ageing would be expected to vary substantially among the population of naturally aged textiles. . By being conscious of the general effects of ageing on textiles. Yarns sold with lower moisture content than the standard value will result in monetary loss. This would result in decreases in stiffness. Many trade-offs are encountered with conservation treatments.3 YARN CONDITIONING Moisture in atmosphere has a great impact on the physical properties of textile fibers and yarns. High relative humidity in different departments of spinning is not desirable. one is alerted to potential benefits and dangers that accompany various conservation treatments. 2. It will result in major problems. in order to achieve a lasting improvement in quality. In addition. potential for loss of dye or finish from fibers. crystallization. Relative humidity and temperature will decide the amount of moisture in the atmosphere. one is more able to become aware of the general chemical and physical nature of the object being dealt with. Moreover it helps the yarn to attain the standard moisture regain value of the fiber. a high degree of moisture improves the physical properties of yarn. fiber deformation and fracture during handling.The above five types of ageing affect textiles in different ways. and diffusion into fibers of surfactants or soil removed from the textile increases. However.

it was decided to make use of the physical properties inherent in the cotton fibers. In order to satisfy these demands without altering the raw material. Yarn quality required to run on these machines is extremely high. It is quite evident that the hygroscopic property of cotton fibers depends on the relative humidity.4 YARN CONDITIONING MACHINE (YCM) Fig 2.In these days there is a dramatic change in the production level of weaving and knitting machines. more the moisture absorption. Cotton fiber is hygroscopic material and has the ability to absorb water in the form of steam. because of the sophisticated manufacturing techniques. 2. The increase in the relative atmospheric humidity causes a rise in the moisture content of the cotton fiber. The higher the humidity. following an S-shaped curve.4 Yarn Conditioning Machine .

P.2 Operation of YCM Function Description Step No. the B.1 Machine Type YCM is basically closed vessel capable of producing saturated steam at very low pressure. therefore less chances of condensation of moist droplets onto yarn body. then water boils at 1000C and for each mbar drop in pressure. fresh cool Created vacuum by operating vacuum pump Vacuum position Heating starts by temperature value electrical Heaters 06 numbers. of water drops by certain degree Celsius. 9) Holding time As programmed by user countdown of set time starts End of Ist cycle.2. Low pressure water boils at very low temperature. . When pressure acting on water is approximately 1028 mbar.4. 1) Loading Loading yarn inside the vessel (manually or Automatically) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Door Close Start Seal pressure „ON‟ Water supply Vacuumization Vacuum reached Heating to set Done by operator manually Done by operator manually Door gets sealed by rubber seal automatically If required.4. The machine produces vacuum allows even penetration of steam into the layers of yarn due to vacuumisation. 2.

15) Water evacuation from vessel is pumped out to eco tank to save energy 16) Safety time 17) Door opens automatically.10) Vacuuming 11) Vacuum reached 12) Heating to IInd cycle set temperature 13) Holding time 14) Aeration _ Aeration valve opens & seal loses its pressure. . Air enters the vessel & outside – inside pressure becomes equal.

the yarn is treated very gently in an absolutely saturated steam atmosphere. The great advantage of this process is that the moisture in the form of gas is very finely distributed throughout the yarn package and does not cling to the yarn in the form of drops. With the vacuum principle and indirect steam. This is achieved in any cross-wound bobbins. The conditioning process makes use of the physical properties of saturated steam or wet steam (100% moisture in gas-state). Ensures accelerated saturated steam or wet steam (100%moisture in gaseous state) penetration and even conditioning in all the layers of package.5 Yarn Conditioning Machine 2.2. 2. 1. Vacuumisation removes air pockets from package.5 YARN CONDITIONING PROCESS (YCP) Fig 2. . The vacuum first removes the air pockets from the yarn package to ensure accelerated steam penetration and also removes the atmospheric oxygen in order to prevent oxidation.5. The yarn is uniformly moistened by the gas. whether the yarn packages are packed on open pallets or in cardboard boxes. 3.1 Principle of Working of YCP Thermal conditioning uses low-temperature saturated steam in vacuum. Also removes oxygen in order to avoid oxidation.

1 Fields of Application  Conditioning Systems are designed for humidification in the temperature range between 50 and 70° C. The deep vacuum makes steam to penetrate deeply into the yarn packages.5. 2. Prior to wrapping the yarn needs to be cooled down after the cycle.2 Conditioning With Saturated Steam Vacuum generated by high-performance pumps initiates the conditioning cycle inside the autoclave before the INJECTOR is feeding in the required quantity of saturated steam. We recommend to use waxes with melting points not higher than 65° C.   Pressure Range -1 bar to 0 bar Temperature Range 45° to 95°C 2.2. Moisture is absorbed by the yarn and the package is heated up. . thus providing better market position against competitors with dried out yarns.2 For spinning mills:   Increase of the moisture content of the yarn. The temperature difference between steam and yarn causes steam to condense inside the yarn package. Increase of yarn quality. Inside the autoclave chamber an atmosphere of low temperature saturated steam is immediately formed in equilibrium with vacuum.5.5.  Conditioning Systems allow heat setting at temperatures up to 95° C (105°C) thus offering an excellent price/ performance ratio. Saturated steam in high vacuum cares for optimal moisture regain in any application  Systems are ideal for conditioning waxed yarns.2.2.

depending on the insert system.5. up to 15%      Increase of efficiency up to 2% Improvement of feel and volume of the goods Improvement of friction values Improvement of uniformity of the goods Further improvement of efficiency.2. if conditioned yarn is used in warping room .2.3 For knitting mills:          Reduction of fly and dust up to 50% Decrease of needle breaks up to 25-35% Increase of efficiency up to 10% Decrease of thread tension and machine downtimes Support of dimensional stability of knitted goods Improvement of feel and volume of the goods Improvement of friction values Improvement of uniformity and improved appearance Reduction of electrostatic effects 2.4 For weaving mills:   Reduction of fly and dust up to 30-40% Decrease of thread breaks during the weft insertion.2.5.

Temperature deviation of 1°C 5. synthetics and microfiber yarns. no additional boiler required. No contamination of the treated packages 7. 25 KWh for 1000 kgs of yarn)No tube buckling in Case of man-made yarns treatment of all natural yarns. . Length up to 20 meters (66 feet) and max. the steam is generated in the system . No special location required. minimum energy consumption(approx. Standardize sizes 4. Various loading and unloading facilities 6. Low installation and maintenance cost 2. 1. blends.2. the systems can be operated next to the production machines.3 Advantages of Yarn Conditioning Saturated steam throughout the process even penetration of steam and distribution of moister lowest energy consumption with ECO-SYSTEM short process time absolute saturated steam atmosphere of 50 degree C to 150 degrees C.5. Pre-heating for trolleys and plastic tubes to avoid drops (Wool) 3. Energy recovery option offered by indirect heating system using steam or hot water 8.

5%. 6. The residual moisture content of the yarn on cross wound package is 5% to 6%. 4. 5. 3. Vacuumised conditioning of yarn with saturated steam improves it to 8% to 8. It also reduces spirality problem in knitted fabric. Reduces the visible loss to the spinner by increasing yarn weight. Increases softness of cloth. Reduces the wear and tear of needle at knitting machine.2. 2. Reduces fly and fluff generation during weaving. . Reduces end breaks during weaving due to improvements in physical properties of yarn. 7.6 Benefits Achieved Out Of Conditioning: 1.

The treatment temperature for knitting yarn is held below the melting point of the wax. 7. 4. No extra dampening required. Temperatures for unwaxed yarn are coordinated to the compatibility for each individual type of yarn. 8.7. 5. Free from electrostatic. Uniform moisture content and friction values.7 PROPERTIES ACHIEVED OUT OF CONDITIONING 2. No change in size of finished articles. 3. 2.1 KNITTING: 1. Less fly hence less problems. Up to 20% greater efficiency due to a reduction in the unwinding tension Fewer needle breaks. 6. Regular stitch formation.2. .

2.7. Increased take-up of size. Upto 15% fewer yarn breaks due to greater elongation. resulting in a better weaving quality. 5. 3. 2.7.2 WEAVING INCREASED STRENGTH INCREASED ELONGATION Fig 2. 4. Less fly. . Increased strength. enhanced level of efficiency in the weaving plant.2 Comparison of conditioned and unconditioned yarn quality 1. Softer fabrics.

7. No streaks 2.3 TWISTING Conditioning and fixing of the twist at the same time in a single process.2.3 DYEING: Fig 2. 2.7. Better dye affinity .7.3 dye pick up of conditioned and unconditoned yarn 1.

ROTOR SPINNING 20 S OE YARN. 40 S COMBED (COMPACT WARP). OPEN END SPINNING : 1. SINGLE YARN 5. 3. . 2.1 Yarn Particulars RING SPINNING : 1. 4. 6. SINGLE YARN 40S COMBED (HOSIERY).1. DOUBLED YARN 80 S CARDED (WARP).CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS 3. SINGLE YARN 80 S CARDED (WARP). SINGLE YARN 30 S CARDED (WARP).1 MATERIALS 3. SINGLE YARN 40 S COMBED (WARP).

2 YARN CONSTITUTION SI NO 01 COUNT (Ne) 20 S VARIETY NOMINAL COUNT RAW MATERIAL SPINNING TYPE OPEN-END TPI PROCESSING TYPE ROTOR CARDED WARP 02 30 S 40 S CARDED WARP RING CARDED 03 COMBED WARP RING COMBED 04 40 S COMBED WARP RING COMPACT 05 40 S COMBEDHOSIERY RING COMBED 06 80 S 80 S CARDED WARP RING CARDED 07 CARDED WARP RING DOUBLING Fig 3.3.1.2 Yarn Constitution Details .1.

4400 V / 50 Hz Fig 3.1.1.1. SARA – ELGI PROFIX 750 VERSION 1.1.3 Yarn conditioning machine.4 Machinery Specifications SI NO 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 PARAMETER Volume Transport weight Operating width Heating flange Feed water connection Total hardness Max pressure Max temperature Compressed air pressure Heating capacity 6 VALUE 1395 liters 900 kgs 2265 kgs 120 kgs Max 95 0 C Less than 20 PPM -1/1 bar 120 0 c 6 bar X 36 KW.4 Machinery Specifications .3.2 MACHINE 3. Fig 3.3 Machinery The following machinery will be used for this study.

7. Figure 3.3.30 DAYS) QUALITY EVALUATION TESTS & ANALYSIS. METHODS 3.15.2.1 Yarn conditioning of single Ring spinning yarn SINGLE RING SPINNING YARN 30 S CARDED WARP 40 S COMBED WARP 40 S COMBED HOSIERY 40 S COMBED WARP (COMPACT) 80 S CARDED WARP STANDARD CONDITIONING PARAMETERS ( 580C & 25 MINS) STORAGE PERIOD VARIABLES (1.1 Flow Chart on Yarn conditioning of single Ring spinning yarn .2.2.

2.7.2 Flow Chart on Yarn Conditioning of Ring Doubled yarn .30 DAYS) QUALITY EVALUATION TESTS & ANALYSIS.3.2.2 Yarn conditioning of single Ring Doubled yarn RING DOUBLE YARN 80 S CARDED WARP STANDARD CONDITIONING PARAMETERS ( 580C & 25 MINS) STORAGE PERIOD VARIABLES (1.15. Figure 3.

3.2.30 DAYS) QUALITY EVALUATION TESTS & ANALYSIS. Figure 3.2.3 Yarn Conditioning of Open End Spinning yarn OPEN END SPINNING YARN 20 S ROTOR SPINNING YARN STANDARD CONDITIONING PARAMETERS ( 580C & 25 MINS) STORAGE PERIOD VARIABLES (1.3 Flow Chart on Yarn Conditioning of Open End Spinning yarn .15.7.

2.4 Yarn conditioning of single Ring spinning unconditioned yarn SINGLE RING SPINNING YARN 40 S COMBED HOSIERY UNCONDITION STORAGE PERIOD VARIABLES (1.4 Flow Chart on Yarn conditioning of single Ring spinning unconditioned yarn .15.7.30 DAYS) QUALITY EVALUATION TESTS & ANALYSIS.3. Figure 3.2.

30 DAYS) QUALITY EVALUATION TESTS & ANALYSIS.15. FABRIC FORMING ( SOCKS KNITTING) COLD BRAND DYEING COLOR ASSESSMENT TEST Figure 3.5 Flow Chart on Yarn Conditioning of Ring Spinning yarn Interaction effect .5 Yarn Conditioning of Ring Spinning yarn Interaction effect .2. .7.3.2. SINGLE RING SPINNING YARN 40 S COMBED HOSIERY INTRACTION OF TIME AND TEMPERATURE 500 C & 40 MINS 580 C & 25 MINS 700 C & 20 MINS STORAGE PERIOD VARIABLES (1.

50 % Total imperfections ZWEIGLE USTER Hairiness SPECTROPHOTOMETER Color assessment Fig 3.V % of yarn STATEX CSP TESTER Strength C.2 Testing Machine Specifications .V % of yarn Moisture content of the yarn CSP RKM Unevenness % Neps + 200% Thick + 50 % Thin .3 TESTING METHODOLOGY 3.3.3.50 % Total imperfections Hairiness Color assessment Fig 3.3.V % of yarn Strength C.3.3.2 TESTING MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS SI NO 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 TYPE OF TESTING PARAMETER TESTING MACHINE Count C.1 TYPE OF TESTING APPLIED SI .V % of yarn CSP TENSORAPID RKM CHECK LINE (TEM-1) METER Moisture content of the yarn Unevenness % Neps + 200% USTER UT 4 Thick + 50 % Thin .1 Type Of Testing Applied 3.No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 TYPE OF TESTING PARAMETER Count C.

93(2006)e1 ) 4.( ASTM D1425 / D1425M – 09 ) 2. Visual Assessment (AATCC 178:2004). Moisture Content % of yarn before & after conditioning is tested with moisture meter with 1.1%. . Imperfections on “USTER” UT4 tester at testing speed of 400 mpm. Unevenness % (U%). 5. 8. 7.00(2006) 3. Count & CSP on “statex” CSP tester -ASTM D6612 .3 Standardization testing parameters of yarn quality evaluation The following tests will be carried out for testing parameters before & after conditioning of yarn..3. Hairiness Testing ( Zweigle) (as per ASTM D-5467-07) 6. Weight gain % is calculated by actual weighting the cones before & after conditioning. 1.05 to 0. Color assessment using Spectrophotometer instrument (AATCC 173:2004) (CMC). ( ASTM D1578 .3.5cm long pin type prongs which we have to Forcefully penetrate inside the yarn layers & moisture content is shown on dial in the range of 3 to 26% Accuracy of meter is 0. RKM at 5000mm/min with specimen length 500mm on “tensorapid”.

5 6 5.5 5 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY MOISTURE CONTENT % 20 S KWP 30 S KWP 40 S CHY 40 S CWP 40 S CWP© 80 S KWP 2/80 S KWP AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4. Influence of Ageing on Moisture content % in the Yarn 8.1 Influence of Ageing on Moisture content % in the Yarn .5 7 6.CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 4.5 8 7. . RESULTS 4.1 Influence of Ageing on Moisture content % in the Yarn .

2 Comparison of Coarser yarn with Finer yarn.1.1.5 SINGLE RING YARN WITH RING DOUBLED YARN MOISTURE CONTENT % 8 7.1 Comparison of Single ring yarn with ring Doubled yarn.2 Comparison of Coarser yarn with Finer yarn .5 5 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 20 S KWP 80 S KWP AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4. Influence of Ageing on Moisture content % in the Yarn 8.4. Influence of Ageing on Moisture content % in the Yarn 8.5 6 5.1.5 5 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 80 S KWP 2/80 S KWP AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4.1.5 7 6.1 Comparison of Single ring yarn with ring Doubled yarn 4.5 7 6.5 COARSER YARN WITH FINER YARN MOISTURE CONTENT % 8 7.5 6 5.

4.1.3 Comparison of Combed Hosiery with Combed Warp. Influence of Ageing on Moisture content % in the Yarn
6.8

COMBED HOSEIRY WITH COMBED WARP

MOISTURE CONTENT %

6.6 6.4 6.2 6 5.8 5.6 5.4 5.2 5 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 40 S CHY 40 S CWP

AGEING FREQUENCY

Fig 4.1.3 Comparison of Combed Hosiery with Combed Warp

4.1.4 Comparison of Combed warp yarn with Combed Compact warp yarn.

Influence of Ageing on Moisture content % in the Yarn
COMBED WARP YARN WITH COMBED COMPACT WARP YARN
6.8 6.6

MOISTURE CONTENT %

6.4 6.2 6 5.8 5.6 5.4 5.2 5 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 40 S CWP 40 S CWP©

AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4.1.4 Comparison of Combed warp yarn with Combed Compact warp yarn

4.1.5 Comparison of Carded Warp yarn with Combed Warp yarn.

Influence of Ageing on Moisture content % in the Yarn
8 7.5

CARDED WARP YARN WITH COMBED WARP YARN

MOISTURE CONTENT %

7 6.5 6 5.5 5 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 30 S KWP 40 S CWP

AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4.1.5 Comparison of Carded Warp yarn with Combed Warp yarn.

4.2 Influence of Ageing on Count c.v % in the Yarn.
12 10

Influence of Ageing on count c .v % in the Yarn

COUNT C.V %

8 6 4 2 0 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY

20 S KWP 30 S KWP 40 S CHY 40 S CWP 40 S CWP© 80 S KWP 2/80 S KWP

AGEING FREQUENCY

Fig 4.2 Influence of Ageing on Count c.v % in the Yarn.

4.3 Influence of Ageing on strength properties in the Yarn. 4.3.1. Influence of Ageing on strength c.v % in the Yarn.
18 16

Influence of Ageing on stength c .v % in the Yarn

STRENGTH C.V %

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY

20 S KWP 30 S KWP 40 S CHY 40 S CWP 40 S CWP© 80 S KWP 2/80 S KWP

AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4.3.1. Influence of Ageing on strength c.v % in the Yarn

4.3.2 Influence of Ageing on CSP value in the Yarn.

Influence of Ageing on CSP value in the Yarn
3000

2500

20 S KWP 30 S KWP

CSP

2000

40 S CHY 40 S CWP

1500

40 S CWP© 80 S KWP 2/80 S KWP

1000 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY

AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4.3.2 Influence of Ageing on CSP value in the Yarn.

3.3.3.5 15 RKM gf/Tex 14.4. 4.1 Comparison of Single ring yarn with ring Doubled yarn.3.5 12 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 80 S KWP 2/80 S KWP AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4. 20 18 16 Influence of Ageing on RKM value in the Yarn RKM gf/Tex 20 S KWP 30 S KWP 40 S CHY 40 S CWP 40 S CWP© 80 S KWP 14 12 10 8 6 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 2/80 S KWP AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4.1 Comparison of Single ring yarn with ring Doubled yarn.3 Influence of Ageing on RKM value in the Yarn. Influence of Ageing on RKM value in the Yarn SINGLE RING YARN WITH RING DOUBLED YARN 16 15.3 Influence of Ageing on RKM value in the Yarn.3.5 13 12. .5 14 13.3.

4.3.3.3 Comparison of Combed Hosiery with Combed Warp.3. Influence of Ageing on RKM value in the Yarn 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 20 S KWP 80 S KWP 20 S KWP 80 S KWP COARSER YARN WITH FINER YARN RKM gf/Tex AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4.4.5 15 14.3.3 Comparison of Combed Hosiery with Combed Warp.2 Comparison of Coarser yarn with Finer yarn.2 Comparison of Coarser yarn with Finer yarn.3.5 17 COMBED HOSEIRY WITH COMBED WARP RKM gf/Tex 16.3. Influence of Ageing on RKM value in the Yarn 18 17. .5 14 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 40 S CHY 40 S CWP AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4.3.3.5 16 15.

5 Comparison of Carded Warp yarn with Combed Warp yarn . 4.3.3.4.3.3.5 16 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 40 S CWP© AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4. Influence of Ageing on RKM value in the Yarn 18 17 CARDED WARP YARN WITH COMBED WARP YARN RKM gf/Tex 16 15 30 S KWP 14 13 12 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 40 S CWP AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4.5 COMBED WARP YARN WITH COMBED COMPACT WARP YARN RKM gf/Tex 18 17.3.3.4 Comparison of Combed warp yarn with Combed Compact warp yarn.3.5 Comparison of Carded Warp yarn with Combed Warp yarn. Influence of Ageing on RKM value in the Yarn 19 18.4 Comparison of Combed warp yarn with Combed Compact warp yarn.5 40 S CWP 17 16.3.

4.4 Influence of Ageing on Unevenness properties in the Yarn.4.4.4. .1 Influence of Ageing on unevenness % in the Yarn 4.2 Influence of Ageing on neps +200 % in the Yarn.1 Influence of Ageing on unevenness % in the Yarn 19 18 17 16 20 S KWP 30 S KWP 40 S CHY 40 S CWP 40 S CWP© 80 S KWP 2/80 S KWP Influence of Ageing on unevenness % in the Yarn unevenness % 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4.4. 4.2 Influence of Ageing on neps +200 % in the Yarn. 4000 3500 3000 20 S KWP 30 S KWP 40 S CHY 40 S CWP 40 S CWP© 80 S KWP 500 0 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 2/80 S KWP Influence of Ageing on neps +200 % in the Yarn NEPS +200 % 2500 2000 1500 1000 AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4.

4 Influence of Ageing on Thin -50 % in the Yarn. 1800 1600 1400 Influence of Ageing on Thick +50 % in the Yarn THICK +50 % 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 20 S KWP 30 S KWP 40 S CHY 40 S CWP 40 S CWP© 80 S KWP 2/80 S KWP AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4.4. .4.4.4.4 Influence of Ageing on Thin -50 % in the Yarn. 1000 900 800 700 Influence of Ageing on Thin -50 % in the Yarn 20 S KWP 30 S KWP 40 S CHY 40 S CWP 40 S CWP© 80 S KWP 2/80 S KWP THIN -50 % 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4. 4.3 Influence of Ageing on Thick +50 % in the Yarn.3 Influence of Ageing on Thick +50 % in the Yarn.4.

1 Comparison of Single ring yarn with ring Doubled yarn. Influence of Ageing on Total Imperfections in the Yarn 6000 5500 SINGLE RING YARN WITH RING DOUBLED YARN TOTAL IMPERFECTIONS 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 80 S KWP 2/80 S KWP AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4.4.5 Influence of Ageing on Total Imperfections in the Yarn .4.4. Influence of Ageing on Total Imperfections in the Yarn 6000 TOTAL IMPERFECTIONS 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 20 S KWP 30 S KWP 40 S CHY 40 S CWP 40 S CWP© 80 S KWP 2/80 S KWP AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4. . 4.5.1 Comparison of Single ring yarn with ring Doubled yarn.5.4.4.5 Influence of Ageing on Total Imperfections in the Yarn .

5. 4. Influence of Ageing on Total Imperfections in the Yarn 6000 COARSER YARN WITH FINER YARN TOTAL IMPERFECTIONS 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 20 S KWP 80 S KWP AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4.3 Comparison of Combed Hosiery with Combed Warp.3 Comparison of Combed Hosiery with Combed Warp.5.4.2 Comparison of Coarser yarn with Finer yarn.4.5.4.5. Influence of Ageing on Total Imperfections in the Yarn 280 260 COMBED HOSEIRY WITH COMBED WARP TOTAL IMPERFECTIONS 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 40 S CHY 40 S CWP AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4. .4.4.2 Comparison of Coarser yarn with Finer yarn.

5 Comparison of Carded Warp yarn with Combed Warp yarn.4.5 Comparison of Carded Warp yarn with Combed Warp yarn.5. Influence of Ageing on Total Imperfections in the Yarn 4000 3500 CARDED WARP YARN WITH COMBED WARP YARN TOTAL IMPERFECTIONS 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 30 S KWP 40 S CWP AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4. .4.4.5 Comparison of Carded Warp yarn with Combed Warp yarn.5.5. Influence of Ageing on Total Imperfections in the Yarn 280 260 COMBED WARP YARN WITH COMBED COMPACT WARP YARN TOTAL IMPERFECTIONS 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 UNCOND COND 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 40 S CWP 40 S CWP© AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 4.4. 4.4 Comparison of Combed warp yarn with Combed Compact warp yarn.5.4.

3 1.v % in the Yarn Influence of Ageing on Count c. 5.1.1. Influence of Ageing on Moisture content % in the Yarn (Interaction Effect of Time & Temperature) 7.6 1.1.4 1.5.7 1.1 1 0.1 Influence of Ageing on Moisture content % in the Yarn.1.2 Influence of Ageing on Count c.v % in the Yarn (Interaction Effect of Time & Temperature) 1.5 1.5 6 5.V % 40 S CHY UNCOND 40 S CHY 50° c 40 S CHY 58° c 40 S CHY 70° c 4 HOURS 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 5.5 7 MOISTURE CONTENT % 6.1 INTERACTION EFFECT OF TIME & TEMPERATURE AND AGEING PERIOD ON YARN QUALITY 5.2 Influence of Ageing on Count c.v % in the Yarn .9 0.1 Influence of Ageing on Moisture content % in the Yarn.8 1.8 COUNT C.5 4 4 HOURS 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 40 S CHY UNCOND 40 S CHY 50° c 40 S CHY 58° c 40 S CHY 70° c AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 5.2 1.5 5 4.

1 Influence of Ageing on RKM value in the Yarn 5.2 Influence of Ageing on Strength c.5.1.3.3. 5.1 Influence of Ageing on RKM value in the Yarn 15.2 Influence of Ageing on Strength c.1 15 14.9 14.8 14.V % 4 3 2 1 0 4 HOURS 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 40 S CHY UNCOND 40 S CHY 50° c 40 S CHY 58° c 40 S CHY 70° c AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 5.3 Influence of Ageing on RKM value in the Yarn (Interaction Effect of Time & Temperature) RKM gf/Tex 15.v % in the Yarn (Interaction Effect of Time & Temperature) 6 5 STRENGTH C.1.3.3 Influence of Ageing on strength properties in the Yarn.7 14.v % in the Yarn .3.1.1.4 15.v % in the Yarn Influence of Ageing on Strength c.6 4 HOURS 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 40 S CHY UNCOND 40 S CHY 50° c 40 S CHY 58° c 40 S CHY 70° c AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 5.2 15.1.

3.1 Influence of Ageing on Unevenness % in the Yarn Influence of Ageing on Unevenness % in the Yarn (Interaction Effect of Time & Temperature) 10.3 10.1 Influence of Ageing on Unevenness % in the Yarn .9 9.2 10.5 Unevenness % 10.3 Influence of Ageing on CSP value in the Yarn Influence of Ageing on CSP value in the Yarn (Interaction Effect of Time & Temperature) 2440 2420 2400 CSP 2380 2360 2340 2320 2300 4 HOURS 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 40 S CHY UNCOND 40 S CHY 50° c 40 S CHY 58° c 40 S CHY 70° c AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 5.8 4 HOURS 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 40 S CHY UNCOND 40 S CHY 50° c 40 S CHY 58° c 40 S CHY 70° c AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 5.4.5.3.1.4 Influence of Ageing on Unevenness properties in the Yarn.4.1.1. 5.1.1 10 9.1.4 10.3 Influence of Ageing on CSP value in the Yarn 5.6 10.

4.4.2 Influence of Ageing on Neps +200% in the Yarn Influence of Ageing on Neps +200% in the Yarn (Interaction Effect of Time & Temperature) 160 150 NEPS +200 % 140 130 120 110 100 4 HOURS 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 40 S CHY UNCOND 40 S CHY 50° c 40 S CHY 58° c 40 S CHY 70° c AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 5.4.3 Influence of Ageing on Thick +50% in the Yarn Influence of Ageing on Thick +50% in the Yarn (Interaction Effect of Time & Temperature) 50 45 THICK +50 % 40 35 30 25 4 HOURS 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 40 S CHY UNCOND 40 S CHY 50° c 40 S CHY 58° c 40 S CHY 70° c AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 5.2 Influence of Ageing on Neps +200% in the Yarn 5.4.3 Influence of Ageing on Thick +50% in the Yarn .1.1.1.5.1.

4.5 2 THIN -50% 1.4.5 Influence of Ageing on Total Imperfections in the Yarn 240 Influence of Ageing on Total Imperfections in the Yarn (Interaction Effect of Time & Temperature) TOTAL IMPERFECTIONS 220 200 180 160 140 120 4 HOURS 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 40 S CHY UNCOND 40 S CHY 50° c 40 S CHY 58° c 40 S CHY 70° c AGEING FREQUENCY 5.1.4.5 0 4 HOURS 1 DAY 7 DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 30 DAY 40 S CHY UNCOND 40 S CHY 50° c 40 S CHY 58° c 40 S CHY 70° c AGEING FREQUENCY Fig 5.5 Influence of Ageing on Total Imperfections in the Yarn .5.5 1 0.1.1.4.1.4 Influence of Ageing on Thin -50% in the Yarn Influence of Ageing on Thin -50% in the Yarn (Interaction Effect of Time & Temperature) 2.4 Influence of Ageing on Thin -50% in the Yarn 5.

1. report no :215 . 5.1.V % 211 8. report no :5342 .1.5 Influence of Ageing on Hairiness in the Yarn.Dated 08-03-2011) Fig 5.Dated 01-04-2011) Fig 5. PARAMETER 40 s CHY UNCONDITIONED 40 s CHY CONDITIONED (15 DAYS AGED) 40 s CHY CONDITIONED (30 DAYS AGED) HAIRINESS ( Zweigle) (as per ASTM D5467-07) 1907 2249 1723 Hairiness Index (HI) Hairiness C.5.1.81 249 24.5 Influence of Ageing on Hairiness in the Yarn.6 Influence of Ageing on Color in the Yarn (Tested in TIFAC-CORE KCT .95 (Tested in SITRA .6 Influence of Ageing on Color in the Yarn .57 160 25.

1 CONCLUSION .CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSIONS 6.

2 DISCUSSIONS .6.

3 FURTHER SCOPE .6.

(1996). West Conshohocken.115. 3.CHAPTER 7 REFERENCE 1. F wranger. F.G. Ch 5430 Wttingen. 9. wanger. ASTM International.01. Institute Ichalkaranji.01. Xorella AG Pvt. on “Latest Textile Machinery used globally”. In Annual Book of Standards. ASTM International. West Conshohocken. F.A Quarter of a century of steaming”-(2). 7. 28 (2). Simon Gleich. Xorella in NCUTE pilot Training program) at Textile & Engg. 6. 2001b. F. Ltd. ITB Yarns and Fabric Forming “ Xorella:. Textiles. Preservation of Textile Cultural Heritage. France F. Switzerland 5.Booth Book-Principles of Textile Testing. 8. 2. Pg 97.Steiner Melliand-”Improved quality with the contexxor condition cotton yarn”_ . (3) Pg 2426.213. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).Freddy Wanger.(2001) 4. Peter Toggweiler. In Annual Book of Standards. .M Reagan. literature booklet.E154. Section 7.E & B. steiner. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation. 1989. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Standard test method for tensile properties of yarn by single strand method (D-2256).(1995) . 2004. PA.. Standard test method for unevenness of textile strands using capacitance testing equipment (D-6197).E.(9). Section 7. 1994. Degradation in Weighted and Unweighted Historic Silks.(9). PA.57. Miller J. J. Textiles Magazine. Textiles.

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Manchester. 25. ASTM D5035-95: Standard Test Method for Breaking Force and Elongation of Textile Fabrics. III.. 24.. The arrangement of fibres in single yarns. VA. W. Physical properties of textile fibers. D. Textile Topics 6:1-3. Textile Research J. 1993.D. 26. M.. and Text. International Textile Center (ITC). thesis. U. p325. 1989.21.K. Institute of Textile Technology. The effect of cotton ageing on the color variation of dyed fabric.. Effects of ageing on cotton quality. 23. Morton. J. Hearle. C. 1994. . The Textile Institute.S.E. McAlister. (1956) 22. W. Morton. Charlottesville.

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