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Purpose and Form
detailed understanding of the ways in which writers' choices of form, structure and language shape meanings A Grade: AO3 exploration and analysis of key aspects of form, structure and language with perceptive evaluation of how they shape meanings
respond with knowledge & understanding to literary texts of different types and periods. AO5i: Show understanding of the contexts in which the texts are written and understood. AO5ii: Evaluate the significance of cultural, historical and other contextual influences upon literary texts and study.
‘Why I Write’
as a writer has been to make political writing into an art I write because there is some lie that I want to expose, some face to which I want to draw attention, and my initial concern is to get a hearing’
to tell the truth, as he saw it, to show up the lies and contradictions in public attitudes role as moral conscience
of the way political systems can suppress individual thought and emotion and of man’s inhumanity to man with the lie- ‘there is no such thing as objective truth’
wishes to expose the inhumanity of political oppression and the kind of lie on which that inhumanity can rest to set ideas out in literary formmore convincing these ideas in living formtesting them against character
What type of novel is 1984? Why do you think this?
Combining political purpose with artistic instinctAnimal Farm - Animal Fable 1984 - Dystopian Novel / Scientific Romance
A place, state, or condition that is ideally perfect in respect of politics, laws, customs, and conditions. A futuristic, imagined universe in which oppressive societal control and the illusion of a perfect society are maintained through corporate, bureaucratic, technological, moral, or totalitarian control. Dystopias, through an exaggerated worst-case scenario, make a criticism about a current trend, societal norm, or political system.
Genre : Dystopia
Dystopia = a perfect society gone wrong Orwell warns against what could happen in the future based on the atrocities and dictators that gained power in WWII
The rise of totalitarian governments The use of science and technology to regulate or brainwash society
The distortion off truth through rhetoric
What Orwell Saw .. .. ..
depression in the 1930s High unemployment Shortages of money, housing, and food Restrictions on daily life and rations The beginning of the Cold War Countries east of “iron curtain” were communist Countries west of it were protected by US
Types of Dystopian Controls
Most dystopian works present a world in which oppressive societal control and the illusion of a perfect society are maintained through one or more of the following types of controls: • Corporate control: One or more large corporations control society through products, advertising, and/or the media. Examples include Minority Report and Running Man. • Bureaucratic control: Society is controlled by a mindless bureaucracy through a tangle of red tape, relentless regulations, and incompetent government officials. Examples in film include Brazil. • Technological control: Society is controlled by technology—through computers, robots, and/or scientific means. Examples include The Matrix, The Terminator, and I, Robot. • Philosophical/religious control: Society is controlled by philosophical or religious ideology often enforced through a dictatorship or theocratic government.
The Dystopian Protagonist
feels trapped and is struggling to escape. questions the existing social and political systems. or feels that something is terribly wrong with the society in which he or she lives. the audience recognize the negative aspects of the dystopian world through his or her perspective.
How does this novel connect with our own society? What is Orwell’s ultimate message about Societal apathy? The use of fear? Mass manipulation? Isolation and individualism?
within it a set of conventions which allow him to put forward his political convictions and explore the psychological developments of a central character
ideas are humanised Therefore in 1984 : Form and structure depend upon one another
Work in pairs- compare/explain the ways in which the novel fits into each genre
Comparing the Texts
does the purpose, structure and form of Nineteen Eighty Four’ compare to that of ‘The Handmaid’s Tale?’
E.g. Novel-dystopian Novel-written transcript.
within the novel form/genre present in the narrative include:
diary entry 2. dialogue/conversation 3. reported speech 4. letter 5. description 6. interior monologue