KOHLER

SINGLE CYLINDER SERVICE MANUAL
THIS 1v1ANUAL COVERS MODELS: K241 K301 K321

j.

'r

K9I
K14I KI6I KI8I

REVISION

NO. 4-72

This is a complete revision.

ENS-S75 4-72 Z

Class I

LITHO I'N U.S.A.

CONTENTS
SUBJECT

PAGE

SUBJECT ELEfTRIC STARTING -CHARGING (CONT D. )
I

PAGE
SECTION 7
7.13 7.16

l!
I

OPERATING r NSTRUCTIONS - GENERAL SEen ON 1 Pre-start Checks .•...............•.....••.. 1.1 Starting Procedure ··· 1.1 Stoppi I1g PrOcedure .•........ , ...•.••• ; •••••.. 1.1 Eng; ne Number Expla.nati on ; 1.2 General Specifications ...••......•......•.. 1.2 Service Schedule ., ·•······· 1.3 Trouble Shooting Guide r •••••••••• 1.4
0

Starting Motdis ••..•.....••....•..•....... Ring Gear Replacement .•.•.................

RETRACTABLE STARTERS
Fa~rbanks-horse Eaton Starters

Sta rters , - Al ignment ; ,

SECTION 8
8.1 8.3 8.4 9.1 9.1

Rope Replacem.ent

LUB~ICATION

O'il Level ..•.......................•.... Oi 1 Type 0; 1 Change ,............. Run-f n Recommendations ......•......••...••. Reduction Gear Oil Instructions ., ....•..... Dry Type Ai r Cl eaners Bath Air Cleaners .......•..............

SECT[ON 2
, .. 2.1 2.1 2.·1

ENGINE - GENERAL

2.2

Cooling System Engine Tests

•. ,

SECTION 9

2,2

INSPECTION - DrSASSEMBlY
Inspect ion Repair - Replacement Di S as sembly Procedure

AIR INTAKE

SECTION 3
3.1 3.1

on

, ..•...•..••.•.... Methods ........•.... ..•..•..............

SECTIDN 10
10.1 10.2 10.4

FUEL, FUEL SYSTEM Fue lSpeci fi cat ions
Carburetor Fuel

Carburetor Fue1 Pump GOVERNOR

Adjustment

(Gasoline)' RecQndition"ing{Gasoline}
;

"

SECTION 4 , 4.1 .....•.
4.1

RECONDITIONING

4.2
4.4 4.4

Filter

Adjustment IGNITION

Oper.ation

..•.................•...

.. ,

;

"

SECTION' 5
' 5.1 5.2

Piston ................•.•.•...•..•......... Va1 ve s ....•............ " ...•... Cylinder Head Ring G·ear . ,., .......•...•.................... DynamicBal ance

Cy11 nder Bore .........•..... Cranks haft "'.... Connect i n9 Rod

;............ 11. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11 ..2 " 11.2
; o·
•• ••• •• ••

SECTION]1

l1.2 11.3 11.4 11.4 11.5

REASSEMBLY

Reassembly Gas Fuel

Procedure
Systems

SECTION 12
12.1.-12.6

Magneto Igriition , .....•............... 6.1 Battery Ignition · · .. · 6.2 8reakerless Ignition ....•.................. 6.3 Operat i ana ~ Tests , ......•... 6.4 SparkPl uqs ..........•..•..................... 6.4 Breaker Points ., 6.5 Condenser ............• 0'" •.••• " •••••••••••• 6·.5 Trigger Modul e ' 5.6 Ignition Coils · .. · 6.6 Permanent Magnets 6.7 Ignition Timing .•..••.....•................ 5.7
0

SECTION 6

SPECIAL FUEL SYSTEMS
Combination
Ker.osene rue 1 Sys terns Clutches Reduction Automatic Winterized

SECTION 13 •....•...........
13.1 13.12 13.12

Gas-Gasoline

MODIFICATIONS - A.CCESSORfES

Tool List Torque

..........•...................•... Gear , " Chokes Engines ......•........

.•......•..............••.••....

SECTION 14 14.1 14.3 14.4 ; •...... 14.5 14.5

ELECTRIC STARTING - CHARGING Motor - Genera tor

Systel1l Types 7.1 Sa ttery ... ,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7. 1 Voltage Regul,ator Alternator Systems,

SECTION 7 7.2

SPECIFICATIONS - TOLERANCES
Valve Details

~

Sped fi cat i ons Fits. and Clearances ...•.................. Near Tolerances Piston Wear Neasurements Oil Seal Installation Details

SECTION 15
15.1 15.2 15.4 15.4 15.5 15.5

.. ,

,

7.5 7.7

SAFETY

PRECAUTIONS
unintentional

e Always disconnect
adjustments • • • Make sure all and secure,

[Q not add fuel while. engine is running. Stop engine and, if poss ib l e , allow cooling period to prevent spilled fue I from igniting on contact with hot engine parts.

spark plug cable to prevent on equipment powered by engine, safety guards on engine and clothing

starting
.

before

making any

and driven equipment ate ata safe distance

are in proper

position

Make sure hands , feet, prior to starting.

from any movable parts operat ing 1 inti ts .

Do not. tanper with governor se t t ings . These limits must not be exceeded,

The ,governor

es tahl ishes safe

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
PRE-START CHECK LIST
• 10IL LEVEL :1 Add oil
S~e Page 4 fof oil as needed to keep 1 eve 1 in safe recommendations. range between Land

F marks on the di, ps ti ck ,

_IFUEL:I Fill fuel tank with clean, fresh but make sure octane rating is at least filter. clean sediment bowl if needed • • ICOOLING:I Check air intake screens

90.

REGULARgrade of gasoline. Use leaded or non-leaded type Don't mix oil with gasoline. If engine has a fuel f'i ns=-keep are tight them clean and properly and unrestricted. installed to prevent Check electrolyte terminal. gear unit before

and cool ing

_ IAI R CLEANER:I Make sure cl eaner and intake unfiltered air from entering the engine. _IBATTERY Jevel.

parts

(ELECTRIC START):I Keep battery surface clean to prevent self-discharge. Connections must be tight and negative (-) terminal must be the ground oil is at proper level

_IREDUCTION GEAR (R MODELS}:I Ma~e sure lubricating operating--see page 4 for detalls.

in reduction

STARTI.NG PROCEDURE
TURN FUEL ON CLOSE CHOKE
MOVE CHOKE TO CLOSED POSITION TURN FUEL VALVE TO ON POSITION PULL IN. DIRECTION SHOWN- USE STEADY NOTION

MANUAL

START MODELS

ELECTRIC SI ART
2. DEPRESSAND HOLD
START BUTTON UNTIL

OPEN CHOKE
KEYSTART - MOVE KEY TO START POSITION, *RELEASE WHENENGINE STARTS (SWITCH AUTO•• MATICALLY RETURNS TO RUN)
,

r;;[jINE
~

STARTS

• •

/
LGRADUALLY RETURN CHOKE TO OPEN POS ITION AfTER ENGINE STARTS

1. PULL IGNITION KNOB OUT*

*OR MOVE TOGGLE SWITCH TO "ON" POSInON

:0'"'' (/)
I I RUN

STOPPING
EMERGENCY

PROCEDURE
DRIVE • TURN IGNITION OFF • TURN FUEL OFF:
STOP: IF ENGINE CONTINUES RUNNING WHENIGNITION IS TURNEIDOFF, CLOSE CHOKE AND OPEN THROTTLE TO STALL ENGINE--DON'T PULL IGNITION LEADS TO STOP.

DISENGAGE

1.1

27. S ELECTRIC START - RETRACTABLE START T SPECIFICATION NUMBER: The specification number ind i cat es model va r ia t i on. The code since 1965 is as follows: YEAR OF MANUFACTURE CODE DESlGNATION 1965 A SERIAL NUMBER CODE EXPLANATION ~/ LETTER PRE FIX po 1966 1967 1968 1969 1969 B E C 0 1 FIRST D1GIT (NUMBER) 1970 1972 1971 2 3 4 1973 5 GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS ENGINE MODEL K91 LUBE OIL SPARK BREAKER STROKE DISPLACEMENT WEIGHT BORE CAPACITY PLUG POINT (APPROX.: for example.07 29.9 16. 2-1/2" 2=1/2" 2-1/2" 2-1/2" 2-3/4" 2-7/8" 2-7/8" 3-1/4" 3-1/4" 3-1/4" 3-1/4" 2" 8.020" "Capacity varies 1. ) GAP 2-3/8° 2-7/8" 2-15/16" 2-7/8" 2-15/16'i 2-15/16" ·3-1/4" 3-1/4" 3-3/8" 3-3/8" 3. If a change occurs to. The s ig nrfi c an c e xif these numbers is explained as' follows.025" .88 4t'o~ \ -6F'~ No This rrianua l covers the Kohler single cy l. It also. In 1969.9 18.020" . always report the MODEL.025" .27 31.22 16. SERIAL and SPECIFICATION numbers as found on the nameplate which is mounted on the carburetor side of the engine blower hous ing .o r.9 23.020" . In serial number 212779~.025" .020". These are 4-stroke cycle air-cooled engines..025" . It is used to indicate a combination of various groups used to build an engine.025" .025" .4"'t. 'Se<.tion is as follows: SPECIFICATION NUMBER MODEL CODE EXPLANATION MODEL CODE DESIGNATION (FIRST 2 DIGITS) K91 26. The first digit in the serial number is now used as the code i ndi cat. The first two digits of the specification number is the code designating engine model--the remaining numbers are i s sued in numerical sequence as each new specification is released-for example 2899.31 K141 29 K161 28 Kl81 30 IK301 47 K321 60 K241 46 SERIAL NUMBER: The serial nurnb e r lists the order in which the engine was built.025" .020" .86 16. The current model code des ig na.te» -indicabee basic rope stw. the serial number is used to 'i nd.6 23. LBS.025" .inde r .025" . b e low. IN.07 31.t version.l nurnb e r was d r opped . 1<321 A 29355 & Earlier) 29356 & Later) 281161 & Earlier) 281162 & Later) 3-1/2" from 1 to 1-3/4 ouartie . The model K241 for example indicates a 24 cubic inch displacement. the 2 indicates that the engine was built in 1970--the nurne r ica l code is also shown below. Note that in 1969 some engines had the letter pre£ixdesignatioT!! while others had the numerical iudi cat or-.020" . It may have a s uf'fi x letter which is sometimes important in determining supersession of parts. ~o 1) ~ Z~s 3.025" .020" .9 29.27 - 116 41 63 63 63 63 63 116- .025" . The letter prefix was the code designation for year of manufacture as shown in the cha r t below.020" . l8IOI.020" .1/2!' K141 (Spec K141 (Spec K161 (Spec K161 (Spec K181 K241 K241A K301 K301A K32:1. .22 16. the letter prefix to the engine s e r ia.5 1 1 1 1 116 116 119 119 * 2 * 2 * 2 1 - . a model or s pec ifrcat. is a code indicating (a) the cubic inch displacement and (b) number of cylinders. l8100.025" .020" .2 . Letter suffixes following the rn od e l number indicate a specific version--the letter suffix code is as follows: GENERAL r/iODE L Model number without suffix SUFFIX LETTER DESIGNATES C CLUTCH MODEL SUFFIX LETTER EXPLANATION H G P R HOUSED WITH i HOUSED (LESS PUMP REDUCTION FUEL TANK FUEL TANK) MODEL GEAR let. 1 cylinder engine.c e the point at which this change was at made.) (US-QUARTS) GAP (NOMINAL) (NOMINAL) (CU.i on.020" . MODEL NUMBER: This number indicates the model series wi th in which the engine is built.i.020" .G l. 'When ordering replacement parts and in any communication involving an engine. horizontal crankshaft engine models listed in the chart.

CHANGE -. . Install new qasket. ·ser~ite (at replac~) as n~ce5sary. IGNiTION TIMldc . refill DAY EACH 25 HOURS EVERY EVHd 100 HOURS EVERY ----X ----X \~ith oil of proper grade and \·/eight. adju~t as needed.Check and ret.--~- -~-------- ----ox SYSTEM . check ----------~-------------oX co~diti6n of . screen. tighten lDDse terminal! or ~onnection5.Remove and clean b. CYUNDER Reins tall HEIiD - j carbon deposits \1ith piece of NOod. SURfACES - Cl esn a ir intake ----X ----------------------------------- -----x -----X ~. swi s h i n . STARTING MOWR . FfREAi<ER POINTS .---------. -------------------------------- ------------------- .servh:e as requi red. check condition and contact point gap.---------. VALVE CLEARANCE: .-Check and add 0. Reinstall and check forol1d cor~ect ~eokage~ . FUEL SYSTEM FUEL SEDIMBIlT BOilL .Drain 011. VO[/J'ACE REGDLATOR .020" fully open or' use t imi ng 1 ight method. hours under normal operating conditions.----oX ------. reinstall head and ti ghten bolts in proper' sequence and to specified torqUe value. If fi l ter element used. check condition of brus. Thoroughly dra i n ..Adjustment).GSNfi:RA'TOR .check condtt jon of leads.Remove plug.------.Cl ean element.Remove cover.Check and correct bs l t tens l or if needed.1 area. 1 as needed.--~- oX !:!Qk: See appropr ia te Se rv ice Secti on for s peeif ic de ta i 1s .---~-----.----ox g~p. 1.------------------necessary . add new oil to level rrRlrk-.ow] .1 ean sequence. SYSTEM -------------X ----X AIR INTAKE DRY TYPE: AIR CLE/iJ¥EfI .Remove . sarvic e or re place if needed -----x ------.Remove check reed va 1ve andqaskats.on per for-mi n 9 the var-tous ser vic e funct ion s . MAGNETO ~A~T£FJIATOR . (use liew plug if needed.STARTING) SYSTEMS ------------X MOTOR .------------------------~-----. Remove head.Remove end cap.---------. CRANKCASE fJ!iEA.----------.Remove cover. Check brushes and conmutator . lyin coaling fins and block especialoi 1 fi 1.-----.) OIL BATH AIR CLEANSR .-.Regular' serv i ce not required .----oX ENGI NE . . --. c Iean ------·bowl. 1bs • torque.cover .-----------------.-.c lean fuel. scrape out nproper components. check cl earance bHween valve stems and tappets (See Valve Cl earaIlce.point contacts. Set breaker point gap tc .. me as ~---. Rei ns ta 11 plug and tighten to 324. filter.~. -------(Replaceelernentevery 20'0. I GNITlON SPARK PWG -------~. in.~-~.GENERAL eXTERNAl. OI[.--X ELECTRICAL (CHARGING . Service as requi red.SERVICE SCHEDULE PERFORt1 SERVICE AT INTERVAL 50 HOURS J NOICATEO EVERY (xl 50UHOURS S E RV ICE FUN CT ION LUBRICATION SYSTEM OIL U:VEL .hes andcnmmutator.3 . clean and re.) . wash el~meni.'l'IIE'R ..

Engi ne overheated. EnCline overloaded. d. BACK!'lRING 3. Spark pluq faulty or improperly gapped. c.or improperly qapped .rty or improperly adjusted . ".-manifold) f. c. Fuel). d. b. Carburetor improper 1y adj u 5 ted. c. 2. TROUBLE SHOOTING HARD STARTI GUIDE OVERKEATI NG a. OCCASIONAL a. Cloqqed fue l line.a nkv-ocb e ck for the simplest causes f'i rs t . Idle fuel improperly adjus ted . The following isofIered a s -a guide for correcting some of the problems that are possible with a 4 s tr ok. c l cqqed .s6 or gasketledk- NG OR LOSS OF POWER OPERATING ERRATICALLY a. . lcn i t i on t imi nq wronq c. 4" Coil or condenser defective.keep this in mind when trying to pinpoint the cause of aproblem. Carbon build. Air intakE screen or fins IDLES . Gasket leakina (carb. GGv. Water in fuel. g. GAL. lappet clearance too close. Valves stickinq or leakthq. Spark plua gap too close. f.TYPICAL SINGLE CYLINDER ENGINE (ROPE START SHOWN) TROUBLE SHOOTING If t r oubLe occurs. lng.de red such as an 'ernpty fue lf. Fuel l irie c l oqqed (dirt-gum) 2. SHOWN GASOLINE CAR8URETOR STOP BIJTTON ~BLOWER HOUSING FIJEL PUMP OR COVER FIGURE 1-4 -. To operate. ~.a rbure tor set to 0 lean (r~ai n gappEd 1. e. Qi(j"evel too hiqh (or low). Kead 100. 1. Leads Qrounded or loose. a. c. I or qap a. Breaker poi nts f au lty .4 . an engine must have fuel.sKIP" AT HIGHSPHD Spa rk pluq fouled. b. Piston rinqs worn. Poor compression. Faulty fuel pump. 1. Fau lty carbur et ion . I Tahitian timing wrong Carburetor improperly adjusted.1 POORLY b . KNOCK! NG a. 2. Veht in g~s cap pluqged. D.etnor improperly set. I qrri t ion t lmi ngwronq e. a good ignition spark and.(KEEP VENT OPEN) ~1-1/2 FIJEL TANK (OPTXPN) TOP r~OUNTED . 3. of course. Fuel mixtur e too' 1 ean d.e cycle engine. . c. Faulty iqnition. sesket 1 eaf{in-q (carbo -manifold) d. 1.. Carburetor di. good compression. b. faulty too wide. Valve s t i ckj nq . b. Fuel octane too low. d1e Speed too 101-1. c. Fuel pump faulty.~p in t~mbu5tion chamber. b. don [t ove z-leokca us e s that 9 eem too obvious to be corrsi.a . Breaker points jmpro~er]y (timinq). 3.

mbient temperatures.D (MIL-2104B) and SD class oils OIL TYPE API Servi ce SC* API Service SC* API Service SC* may aZso be used.321 A* 2 add 2 quart of oil. I " / ..Level . QUARTS) K301 K301A* 1 K321 K. Engine must be level for accurate reading. . If po s s ib Ie. OIL REFILL QUANTITIES K9l .. S.5 K14l 1 K161 1 K181 1 K241 2 K241A* 1 (U.1 .LUBR'ICATIO'N OIL LEVEL: With the splash system. I I I I I I. SAE lOW-3D SAE 5W-Z.mendations are: se AIR TEMPERATURE Above 30 F. push dipstick a ll the way down on tube then take reading. DO NOT OVERFILL--oil level must not exceed F rna. 1 check level "A type oil pan oapaeity varies from 1 to 1-3/4 quarts--on these" add oil as neaessa1'y to bring up to full. I J i .. I f' ADAPTER (THRfADED TYPE) " i I \BAYONET DIPSTICK (USED WITH OIL FILL TUBE) TYPE FI GURE 2. range at and add On engines with the threaded type plug-dipstick. 0 OIL VISCOSITY SAE 30..scOSIty (weight) is selected according to the anticipated a. the oil level must be rnaintained on the "Safe" operating all times--this is between the F (fuU) and L (low) mark on the dipstick. After checking oi l...1 . OIL LEVEL~-"'----l I I I . OIL TYPE: Oils meeting th e requirements of the American Petroleum Institute's (API) Service classiHe at ion SC are suitable for use in Kohler Air-Cooled Engines. 1 then I SHOULDER TYPE DIPSTICK DIPSTICK FLANGE I .m. Below 0° F. The temperatureviscosity reco. STD. wipe oil off dipstick then re-insert--do not turn plug in to check oil--shoulder plug on top '0£ hcl e then re.e .move to observe level. With the o i l fill tube and dipstick arrangement. turn plug all the way into c r-ankca s. Service oils are detergent type oils. "'se standard recommendatrion-r-Cc OIL CHANGE: On new engines. . Oil vi. the oil should be changed after the' first five hours of operation--thereafter each 25 hours of operation under normal conditions.r k. If ext rerne l y dusty or dirty conditions prevail..nd rca r-r-y away a greater amount of contarrrina ti onwhe n it is hot. run engine just prior to changing oil--the oil will flow more freely a. 30° to 0° F. . change <lit more frequently.01 PSTI CKS AND 01 l F1 LL TUBE ARRANGE~IENTS 2. turn the plug all the way out of c r a nk cas e . I I I I I J . Che ck the level daily oil as ne:eded.

Use detergent type API Service SC.REDUCTION GEAR OIL FILL AND DRAIN LOCATIONS Run-In Oil: A special "break-in" oil is used in the factory on new Kohler .Engines. Each new engine is test run on this oil fo r a specific period of time to allow proper ·5 e a t i ng of -the rings. drain oiL if unit has been out of service for considerable length . get contaminated. Oil change is not required at any specific intervals with these reduction gears--the uni ts are sealed (except for 'vented filler plug) and oil does not. Use the same. the use of non-detergent oil is recommended on ly d ur ing the first 5 hou r s of ope ration. LUBRICATION . we i ghr and grade of oil as used in engine. On overhauled engines or on those having new blocks. fresh oil before restarting. However. A ft er factory '! t'1. T'h i aIi e Ips s eat piston rings.RED oil plug on lower part bottom of the oil plug the vented plug at the UCTION GEAR UNITS: On engines equipped with reduction gear urii t s . remove the of cover about every 50 hours to check oil revel.of time then add new. Use API Service SC (detergent type) oil after th'e initial run-in period. Oil level should 'be up to the hole.111in". Further use of break-in or non-detergent type oil is not required or recommended for new Kohler Engines. remove top of the unit. us e should be' dis continued after the run-in period. 2. therefore.0] 6) L LEVEL ----~_7_-------. the break-in oil is drained. however.2 . (USE SAME f"EIGHT GRADE OF OIL ---DRAIN AS USED IN ENGINE) PLUG (OIL LEVEL CHECK) FIGURE 2-2 -. To add oil.

Always cover ca rbu r etc r or air horn wh@mair cleaner is r e moved.serv'icecleaner more frequently--even every 8 -hour s or twice daily if conditions warrant this. allowing it to air dry (whenever possible). Also. it may be advantageous to install an oil bath air c l e arie r' in place of the s ta nda rd dry type deaner.. then reinstall it over element. remove wing nut and remove air cleaner components as a unit.ur Iac e s bent or twi ste d.AIR INTAKE \ Dirt induc. 1. The oil bath cleaner should be serviced after eve. Even a small amount of dirt will wear out a set of piston rings in a few hours. OIL BATH AIR CLEANERS OIL BATH AIR CLEANER. "'-- PRECLEANER (OPTION) FIGURE 3-1 -. Check the following when: installing new or serviced element: 1. if extremely dusty or dirty conditions exist. after rinsing and squeezing out excess water. 2. Replace element if dirt does not drop off easily. The prec1eaner traps much of the dirt. DO NOT oil this type prec1eaner. Wing nut must be finger tight--don't overtighten. preventing it from entering the dry element thereby extending its life. No modification is needed--the precleaner slips right over the dory element. use only genuine Kohler elements.ilable for use with dry type air cleaners.RE_PLACEMENT: Dry type elements should be replaced after 100 to 200 hours if engine is operated under good' clean air cnnditions--service and replace element more frequently under e xt rern e ly dusty or dirty conditions. however.type cleaner involves removal of the dry type cleaner and installation of an elbow and the oil bath unit in its place.normal capacity type oil bath air cleaners. Use the following procedure for cleaning.1 .c ur ely tightened to carburetor. lift ele-rnent out of bowl. When replacing element. Ca reful. Dry elements should be cleaned after about each 50 hours of operation-remove element and tap lightly on a flat surface to remove loose surface dirt.r y 25 hours of operation.DRY TYPE AIR CLEANER WITH OPTIONAL PRECLEANER 3.e air cl e arier elements wears out rn or e engines than does long hour s of operation.ly handle new element--do not use if g_asket s. If operating under extremely dusty conditions. Back plate must be s e.ed through iITlproperly installed. To service. This will eliminate the need for frequent replacement of the dry element. Replace back plate if bent or cracked. poorly serviced or i nad e quat. Do not wash dry elements in any liquid or attempt to blow dirt off with air hose as this will puncture filter element. drain dirty oil from bowl. Normally converting to an oil bath . 3. Servicing of the precleaner is accomplished by wa s h'irig it in soap and water then. a clogged element causes a richer fuel mixture which may l ead to formation of ha r mful sludge deposits. Ga s ket surfaces of el ern erit must be flat against back plate and cover to seal effectively. PRECLEANERS: Precleaners are ava. DRY AIR CLEANERS SERVICE . Remove cover.

Swish element in solvent.ope rly in s ta. Inspect air horn. Reinstall element in bowl. 6.OIL LEVEL FIGURE 3-2 -- CUTAWAY VIEW OF A TYPICAL 011 BATH AIR CLEANER 2.y tighten with fingers only.n place cleaned filter bowl on air horn. 5. position cover. 3.of cleaner.. Install gasketthe. place copper washer (when used) then secure with wing nut. allowelefl1ent to drip dry. Replace gaskets if badly grooved or cracked. filter bowl and cover gaskets. 4. Add oil (same grade and weight as engine oil) to OIL LEVEL mark stamped on filter bowl. 3. Thoroughly wash cover and b owl in clean solvent.fi r ml. Check to rna ke sure deane r is p r.ll e d s a that no unfiltered air can enter c a i-bu retor . Lightly re-oil element after cleaning with same type of oil as used in engine . . DO NOT dry with air hose as this can ruin filtering material in this type .2 .

misses and backfires at high speed.-dOn!t force them closed as this will damage the -needle valves. under D. however. The IDLE Iuel setting can then be adjusted in the same manner. rich.r ts . is noted. ~C. overheating. sputters cold weather starting. clogged air cleaner element. fresh REGULAR grade of gasoline. . Engine r-uns r ough or stalls at idle speed. IDLE SPEED: Idle no-load speed on most engines iss et at 1200 RPM. idle s. If.pe e d may have to. turn M IN fuel screw out (counterclockwise) 2 full turns and the IDLE 1-1/4 turns. 1----------------------------------. Turn MAIN fuel in until engine slows down (lean side) then out until it slows down again from ov e r r ic h s e ttj ng-o-riote positions of screw at both settings. CONDITION A.er .r ea s ed as much as 1700 RPM for best no-load idle. sooty exhaust smOke. howev. if possible. engine and allow it to warm up then operate at full throttle and under load. e-ngine POSSIBLE CAUSE/PROBABLE REMEDY fuel fuel needle. filler cap and ke-ep the vent open to prevent stoppage or starvation of fuel. check the a i r cc Ie a ne r first--an "ove r r ic h': mixture is usually caus ed by a poorly serviced.readjust main ~ B. drain the fuel. stop the engine. For final adjustments.aded type gasollne not only lowers ami s s ion of air pollutants but results in a considerable reduction of deposits in t'he combustion chamber. CA UTIQN: Some stabilizers are not suitable for use in nonmetallic tanks .FUEL SYSTEMS This section.. system.SIDE DRAFT GASOLINE CARBURETOR F! GURE 4-2 -- UPDRAFT GASOLI NE CARBURETOR 4. then turn the MAIN and IDLE fuel adjusting screws all the way in until they bottom li~tly-. hot an improperly adjusted ca rbur e tor . Leaded or nanle-aded type gasoline may be used provided the octane rating is 90 or higher. D. readjust carburetor immediately as continued operation with i. Always CARBURETOR Carburetors are adjusted in the factory and should not have to be reset. fuel adjustment Idle speed too low or imp rope r idle adjus tment . Mixtur-e too. For preliminary setting. Mixture Mixture too.check this before using. Always'use a clean. Engines using us e a vented a gravity fuel tank feed fuel system s uch as top mounted fuel tank may not have a fuel pump. needle. Black.r e adju st main too lean .1 . Rough idle is ofte n due to the idle speed being set too low--check this also. start. one of the following conditions is noted.readjust speed then idle fuel needle if needed. lean . Engine sea. Engine A. with parasitic loads such as presented by hydrastal:ic drives. IDLE FUEL ----' ADJUSTMHIT FIGURE 4-1 -. Purchase b r a nd name fuels from popular service stations to eliminate chances of using s ta Ie gasoline as this results in for'mation of gum deposits which can quickly clog carburetor passages. then set it about halfway between the two.turn main 1/4 turn counterclockwise.for smoothest id I e. ~ s lugg is h. If black exhaust smoke.. Use of the non-Ie. be inc. a nd' dies c. If readjustment becomes necessary.n c or r e c t setting can lead to fouled spark plugs. covers gas oI irie fuels y st erns .refe r to Section. 13 for informa ti on pertaining to gas or kerosene· fuel systems. --------------------------------~B. exc e s s ive valve wear or other p r cbl e m s . gasoline stabilizer to the tank. the. If the engine is to be stored during an off season. run the tank dry or add a.

nd damaged parts. float.!s u r e a l l deposits are removed from Qore. replace ca rbu r e to r assembly.IN FUEL ADJUSTING NEEDLE i ~ II & . With carburetor casting i nve r ted and Hoat resting lightly a ga. 6.djuatrne nt s or -di r t . how e ve r . It will be necessary to completely disassemble ca rb u r eto r to clean thoroughly. Back out approximately 1. needle seats in nozzle and back Out t\VO turns. IDLE FUEL w· ® ~--'" FUEL INLET NEEDLE LI AND SEAT-----~ _.-::::::: '~.. the frequency of cleaning will depe nd upon use and operating c ond i t ion s . Remove p in holes. especially where throttle pla. Install ne w bowl ring gasket. CAUTIOH: DO NOT USE FORCE ON ADJUSTMENT NEEDLES... fuel adjusting ne e d l e . Rerrrc vevoa rbu r e to r from Remove bowl n u t . AU parts should be cleaned in a solvent. Remove Remove bowl idle ring gasket.. Disassembly I. Turn in until S. pa r t s a H! worn. Tighten securely after making 3.. of Carburetor . 5. BE.Side Draft e "gine.of Carbure~or and throttle DraJt pla te.s a nd shafts.. main fue l adjusting needle Ii these and springs. Gum is easily r e rrio v ed with a n alcohol or acetone s olv e nt .. AS5embiv . 2. n ew b owl nut gasket sure bowl is ce nte red on gaske t... BOI~L /BAFFLE -~... gum or va rni s h in-ccrnporre n ts . Set float l e ve I.--- /~------FlOAT 8 ~ ~. Do not re move ·choke ..t /4 tu rn s aft e r sea ting l ight lv aga iris t jet. 3. IOLE SPEED ADJUSTING SCHUl BOWL GASI(ET USE REPAIR KIT FOR RECONDITIONING _. has howl drain. Ins tall idle Iuc l adjustment ueed le . there should be )1/64" plus or minus 1/32 of an inch clearance b e twe e n machined surface oIcasting and free end of float (side opposite needle seat). Install ne e dl e s ea t . float and float pi"... .Side 1. bowl baffle gasket ana fuel inlet needle and seat.p. Blowout all pa s s ag e. bowl ring gasket. ue e dl e and needle seat.te Seats ill ca..-GASI(ET. They include the bowl nut gasket (U required).-. Replace all worn a. (whe n r equi r ed ) and bowl n u i . spa ce r (when used). When carburetor plug and gasket from inside of bowl . 2. Adjus r by bending lip of float with small screwdriver.ins t needle in i ts seat. leaks and wear on float lip o r in float 4.floai p in . 4.s ttng . Install main fue l adjustment needle. Check float Io r dentes. float pin. Always use new gaskets. FUEL BOWL FI GURE 4'-3 Carburetor Heconditioning SlOE DRAFT CARBURETOR Service d ifficultie s wi th Iue I s yste rn s usually originate [rom imp rope" ca rbu r e tor a.2 .. Carburetor r epa i r kits are available for most carburetors. gasket and bowl.ADJ USlIl'fG ~EEDLE . r'ern ov e drain. 4. o. No r rna ll y only pre-season cleaning will be required.s with compressed air.HA. needle. sp r ing ..

and float pin.sket.e ws .Di 1. 4. S. sa s:sepo bl y 'ofCa r btl r8 tor . Remove carburetor from 3. TORQUE TO Z5 TO 30 IN. float .jI d . Remove Boat pin. With howl cover ea s ti ng lnve r te d and float resting should be 7/16" plus 'Or minus 1/32" c Iea r a n c e between machined opposite needle. there a nd hee end of float (side 4..Up -D ra'it erigin:e. Adjust .et float levd. LBS. Install needle. replacement of these pa rts is ne c e ss a r y . Turn Back s c r. NEEDLE/ Q.ghtly against (see jet.dle~eat. of' C'iarburelor Ittstall'throttle Install s haft . in nozzle. A:s s. Adjust Install Install Ins tall by bending lip of' float with small screwdriver. 7. neadl e . 3.Up Draft Elongat'ed s oc ke t should s i de of valve be used. Install idle speed ment proeedu~e). screw 6. Ilee. float CAUTION: DO NOT OVERTIGHTEN. s c r ew and spring. lightly surface against casting needle in its seat. af te r seating running idle fuel adjus trne nt needle.a rid plate.n s . A 5/16" z. new carburetor main bowl g(l. main fuel a dju sume rrt n e ed le tand springs.URETDR 4. Check Dqat pin for wear. out app r oxirnate ly 1-1/ Z turns desired idli ng speed li.ernbly 1.ove idle s. s ea t}.haf t unless fuel adjustment rie'ed le . 5. fuel adjustment in until seats a nd b ac k out Z tu r. a nd bowl cove'. must be toward top'. Tighten securely. bowl cove. Do not re move c hoke plate and Rem.3 . 8. needle and needle seat. .withengine c a rbur e tor adjust- ~COVER' FLOAT 801~L ~ Q . CHOKE FR I ell 011 SPRING s PLUG ~ MATIN FUEL /'/ ADJ.® FI [lURE 4-4 UP DRAFT CARB.

A diaphragm in the vacuum pump toperate s off the pul sa ti ng ' negaHve pres s u r e s ".lghly With sol. place new v a l v e gas.i lab Ie for reconditioning other fuel pumps.n ct have the pump lever.ol verit and to c ornp r e s.ove as s e rnbl v screws and remove T'u r n cover ove r'-and re move valve valve ·ga·sket.Lever to the limit ofj ts is important to prevent stretching the t ind ica ti 11.ur n bracket 90° 6. of fiite. Moun! the fuel pump 011 ID.ting mar kac r-os s a. O'n K91 engines requiring a. This diaphragm. spril1gs and '4. 9.ac e the pump c eve r. valves.· noting their position. Following applies cover on vac. remove and clean bowl. s. urrd er. Repair kits are ava. brush.ide son the cam and transmits this.t . then pl.sket s .de r Engine~. an adapter is placed between the c a r-bo reto r and engine block. the s a. va l ve. use primer (if so equipped) on fuel pump to pump iuel back into bowl..uurn purnp. 1{0Jd m.Iv e re ta i ne.y for both tihe mechanical and the va cuum l.a ti ons 'with gravity feed systems. fuel pump. Glean fuel head 3·. by i ns e rting and tightening fuel purnpva.ori to a diaphragm within the pump body. cover . ip:to the threaded fuel i nle ton the carburetor anda rubber hose ccnnects the purrip to the adapter.r e se r vrc mg . This is a p o si- With a file.iue r ga ske r. 'wrings. valve r e ta. Remove va. tu r n fueloH at valve located otl top.4 . plate "CT·"W an. valve Dis ca r-d valve. p ae s s down On the dj aph r agrn to unhook d iaph r a grn so itic'a n be re m ove d .secure push the pum p. 2.Oi1 those without Ie ve r..e the va lv'e 'spl:ing arrd valve 5 into the ca vity and reas s em hie valve re ta i ner and lock in position. have" m cunt ing pad and p r ov is ion o n crankca se for e i. ma. 7.s and.(thin' 'the . then loosen retaining bail a. Connect the Iue Ll i ne s .ype fuel Differences are pointed out wherever arpp.r assembly. FUEL FILTER A sediment b cwl filter may be u. position d iaph r a g m and p re ss down on Replace the diapb r ag mop era ting spring. stand new sp r ing in casting. 4.it.s ) With the hand On the mountin'g bra cke t only. Clean mounting bracket with a.c'a hl.ven t and a Ti rie wire Ho ldirrg pump cover with diaphragm s u rfa c e up. The fuel pump l e ver r. m o s.lve reta ine t: screw. diaphragm to compress spring and tur-n 9()' to reconnect diaphragm.s spring a Hrie wino brush.ldure.FUEl PUMp All Kohler Single Cy Itn. Not a l l pumps have: p'riming levers . in the FIGURE 4-5 FUEL PU~lP (HECHANI CAL TYPE) Ree and i tion 1ng . Hol. rotate engine by hand to pump fuel ba-ck into sedimetlt bowl. then t.du r e: 1. travel and hold in ~his p o sit ion while ti. ··S. The va cuurn pump isaltno s t ide n tic a I to the me chan ic a l pump except that it does . The procedure is e s se nti a ll.i tioning proc>. On SOfTIe app Ii c.e w s holding pump to engine. a nd cover. Lhcirm.c r-arakc a s e .d wa she r . ng 'narks are in line) and only to mechanical pumps -.rrie pu irips . using the new mounttug ga.c ti. Place pump c over a s s e m b ly in a clear"! place and rebuild the lower diaphragm sec ti on. tt1.gine.r .ke t into the cavity. an external leve t: [or prim ing .Li. 'The vacuum pump t-s tu r ned.on it (make sur e tha i n s er t the (our screws: DO NOT TIGHTEN. me c hantca l a. Now a s s ernbl.e followll1g rec ond. After reinstalling and opening fuel valve. 5. Sorne mechanical pumps have.ding mounting bracket. 'except the model K91. the pad is covered and the fuel pump is not used. Remove fuel l iries and rn o un t i ng s c r. (Note. Re m.ke an ind ica. This type va cuum pump is u orrse r vic eable and m ust be r epl ace d if faufty.ghtenirig the Iour+s.c r e w s .ouubirig b ra cke t .se d to trap solid impurities in the fueL Be Io.potnt at the union of fuel pump body live m a r king to assure pr9per rea s se rnbl y.tbottom of fuel bowl.the r ia mechanical or vacuum operated fuel pump. The me cha m c a l pump -ope r a'te s oU a cam on the earns haf't .p r (]c e.

a fixed poi nt a s on cons ta nt speed type. When . is applied and engine (and governor) speed tends to decrease. the action of the cross shaft is transmitted to the throttle (or butterfly) valve in the carburetor.eve r on variable speed type gave r no r settings. K301 and K3. in. they fo. this action takes place s o rapidly that a reduction in speed is hardly noticed. outwa r d .-flyweight mechanism and driven off a gear on. governed s e tt ing .nwa r d with decrease in engine speed. While the internal mechanism is basically the sarne on all engines. As the flywe ights m oveoutwar d . NUT FIGURE 5-1 K9l.crankcase OPERATION: In operation. As speed again reaches.settings by the thr ottle l. admits more fuel and r e sto r e s engine speed. K181 FIGURE 5-2 -. The governor gear. t!he external arrangement.portion of the assembly to push. the tension of the governor spring should hold the throttle valve in ope n p os i t i on . the resulting r. One end of the cross shaft protrudes through the side of the crankcase.the engine is at rest.r ce the rod. in turn. Tension of the governor spring pulls the flyweights back i. The rod. 'c onta c ts ia tab on the governor cross shaft causing it to rotate with changing speed.ota ti on of the cross s ha ft acts against the governor spring to open the throttle valve wider which.INITIAL ADJUSTMENT K241. mined Gove rned speed maybe at. INITIAL ADJUSTMENT KH1. or variable as dete r- ADJUSTMENT: Governors are adjusted at the factory and further adjustment should not be necessary unless governor arm or linkage works loose and becomes disconnected. the shaft rotates to either open or close the throttle valve to maintain speed ata relatively constant Ie ve 1. is different on the Model KZ41. . K321 5. When a normal load. Throughexte. K161.1 . turn.21.GOVERNOR SYSTEMS All Kohler Single Cylinder Engines are equipped with centrifugal mechanical type governors. Governor readjustment may be indicated if engine speed surges or hunts with changing load or if speed drops considerably when normal load is applied. the camshaft. Be sure'to follow adjustment p rcce dur e for the model and for the type of governor setting used. With governor properly adjusted. K301.rnal linkage. flyweight (or flyball on K91) is mounted within the. centrifugal force causes the flyweights to move outward with increase in s pe e d and inward with ·de c r e a s-ing speed.

K141. K141. d. K161. K141. With updraft type carburetor. K161.-1(---~. Install cable clamp and bolt to throttle c. GOVERNOR SPRING SPEED CONTROL DISC CROSS SHAFT DRIVE FIGURE 5-4 -- PIN FIGURE 5-5 -. bracket. Bend end of throttle wire for initial of thr. as far as possible Pull governor arm all the way away from carburetor then retighten nut holding governor arm to shaft. procedure stopped. WIRE INSTALLATION -K91.Ila tion procedure dis connected. a. lift arm as far as it will go then retighten arm nut. See speed.. K161. K141.\ FIGURE 5-3 Initial Adjustment: setting with engine STEP 1: Loosen \ - -- INSTALLING THROTTLE . Make this The f cl l cwing. rotating disc from Remove drive pin from speed idle to full speed. nearest throttle bracket.Iow ing ins ta. KI81 hook-up THROTTLE Use the Iol.K91. in an open position. throttle wire into speed control disc hole With control handle. for K181 the initial setting. (do not remove) nut which can be used on all models holds governor arm to the governor cross shaft. K161. control disc and operate sensitivity adjustments. control handle. K181 GOVERNOR COMPONENl"S K9l.SPEED ADJUSTMENT K91.ottle control Or if wire has to be as shown in Figure insert 5-3 .2 . b. STEP Z: STEP 3: Grasp end of cross (tab on cross shaft shaft with pliers will stop against and turn in counterclockwise direction rod on g ove r no e gear assembly). Kl 81 5.

SPEED ADJUSTMENT -- K91. K321 STEP 3: With speed in proper ra.. WIRE INSTALLATION procedure -K241.VARIABLE SPEED GOVERNOR . Maximum permissible speed for K91 is 4000 RPM.3 . KIb}.l e 3600 RPM is maximum for most K141. and connecting throttle wire speed with hand tachometer. decrease engine speed. GOVERNOR ARM GOVERNOR SPRING THROTTLE CONTROL 1 HIGH SPEED STOP F I GUIRE 5-6 . K3Z1 hookup housing of throttle as shown control in Figure or if wire 5-6. has been disconnected. Use the following STEP STEP 1: 2: Mount throttle for initial c on tr ol on blower handle to OPEN Move control or F position then irrs.d s .K241. KI8l on variable speed a pp l i ca t i on s . or THROTTLE 1\301. use the fol l owi ng procedure STEP 2: Move throttle bracket in counterclockwise direction to increase engine speed or move throtHe bracket in clockwise direction to. Caution: Do not allow engine to operate at speeds above maximum. wh. into hole in handle (inside cover).nge. retighten bushing nut to lock throttle bracket in position. K301.irig range. start If adjustment is necessary to bring for both· Constant and Variable Speed After rnaki ng initial adjustment engine and check maximum operating speed within correct op e r a t. settings (se_e Figure 5-5). K161. STEP 1: Loosen bushing nut slightly. Kl81 m ode Ls-c--a slightly higher speed maybe allowed in certain applicatiOUS:-:check this before exceeding 3600 RPM.i. K141. Caution: Do not apply excessive pressure on bushing nut as this could cause binding coUapsed th r ea.e r-t wire 5.

' increase tension on spring by moving spring into. Maximum a l l owab l e speed for most K241. K301 and K321 models is 3600 RPM.ond hole from top on speed control bracket. governor sensitivity can be adjusted by repositioning the governor spring in the holes on the governor arm and speed control brackets. Variable Speed: Loosen then retighten capscrew.SPEED ADJUSTMENT -. holes spa c ed further apart. speed surging will occur with change of load.K241. the governor spring is placed in the third hole from bottom on the' governor arm bracket and in. start engine and che ck operating speed with hand tachometer. K301. SENSITIVITY cap sc rew and move high speed (See Figure 5-6) -. K321 5. K301. 'To.K241 . K32l adjuSting screw until correct speed is stop 9racket until correct speed i aatta iued ADJUSTMENT On the K24t. tighten governor atta i ne d . Do not exceed this speed. loosen adjusting s CTew. No rrna. decreasing spring tension allows broader governor control but less sensitivity. .l. K301 and K3? 1.4 . the governor should be set for greater sensitivity.TH ROTTLE LI NKAGE REFERENCE LENGTHS (I NITIAL strn NG} .. K301. 2-7/8" 2-7/8" FI GURE 5-7 .de crea 5e speed.K241. K321 After making initial adjustment and hooking up throttle wire on variable speed applications.when normal load is applied. If adjustment is necessary use procedure for type of 'governor used" Constant Speed: To increase engine speed. the sec. To make governor control more sensitive. Conversely. If set to-a sensitiv:e. If a big drop in speed occurs .l y .

TIle ignition coil has a low tension primary winding and a high tension secondary winding.nte'rchangeab~e with parts from another s ys te rrr. 15 amp a lt.e r na. 2.inde r ieng ines v-Ehe s e are: the flywh e e l rriag ne to types. Current flows in t11e primary only while the breaker points are FIGURE 6-1 MAGNETO CYCLE SHO'~1lNG FL UX REIfERSAL 6. is of ignition ignition While most of the components of the va r-i ou s systems differ in appea r a n c e . As can be seen in the chart b el ow. MAGNETO IGNITION SYSTEMS On all magneto ignition -systems. high strength pe r rna ne nt magnets provide the source energy for ignition. flywheel type with 10 amp a lt e r na. Service recommendations the individual components are given later in this section. a permanent magnet ring on the inside of the flywheel revolves around the stator (coil-core) assembly. 3. Ignition 2. 4. 4. TYPES Systems rotor type . On the other systems.ignition only . Mo s t parts are not i. flywhe e l type with 3 amp lighting toils.-make sure repla cement parts -a r e correct for the particular system involved. the battery ignition types and the b r ea ke r le s s ignition types. The seco-ndary winding has up to 100 rn o.gneto cycle illustration. 3. the ma~net is press ed onto the c ranks ha ft and is rotated inside the coil-core assembly on the b aar i ng plate.ie f description of the basic systems follows.r k. the voltage. Systems with with with with motor-generator. The magnets are placed with alternate North and South poles so that the direction of magnetic flux changes direction which induces an alternating current in the coil windings--this effect i s shown in the ma. 15 amp alternator.1. Movement of the magnets past 'tbe stator magnetically induces current flow in the ignition coil windings and the alternator or lighting coils when furnished.. Flvwhe e l (magnet ring) type--ignition only. Magneto Magneto Magneto Magneto Ignition Battery Battery Battery BaUery 2. ignition ignition ignition ignition B reake r1e s s Ignition 1.ghes t for the best s pa. Breakerless Breakerless Systems with with 10 amp alternator.to r . With rotor type s y s t ern s.rec t iorr-o-fhe ignition must be timed to occur when this energy is h i.to r-. 10 amp alternator. IGNITION Magneto 1. Battery . their function generally the same.1 .IGNITION SYSTEMS Three basic types of ignition systems are used on the s ing l e cy l. there are several different versions within each basic group--identification of the various systems may be made through the components shown in the accompanying illustration. 30 amp alternator. Current flow reaches maximum :in the ignition coil at the instant the magnetic flux reverses di.re turns than the p r irna r y and is of relatively thin wire to step up. A b r.

MAGNETO IGNlTION COIL {)_~ HIGH TENSION LEAD W---TO ~ CONDENSER ~TO BREAKER POINTS STATORFIGURE 6-2 -. 000 tei 20. plate. 000 volts (250 volts x 100 turns = 25. the breaker poirrt s open to break the primary c i r c utt .id e a cha rging rather tha n ig n ition function.s established by setting of the spark gap--if the gap i... 000 volts)...------TO TRIGGER & SlliITCH FIGURE 6-1 -. With the a l t e r na t o r' systems. The collapsing magnetic field also induces energy in the primary.· except that the energy source for the ignition coil is the battery. 15 or 30 amp flywhee 1a l t e r na t o r.. in turn.reg u. the secondary energy increases only to a high enough value to bridge the spark gap which is usuaIl y jsorn ewh e r-e between 6.2 .TYPICAL FLYWHEEL MAGNETO IGNIT10N GOIl AND STATOR closed. When ignition is r e qui r e d. On these systems.TYPICAL BATTERY IGNITION COIL FIGURE 6-4 -. induces s. battery eha rge is rn a i nta. Timing of the ignition spark i. compression. This produces Alternating Current but is chang eel to Di.s s'et wider this causes ignition to occur earlier while reducing the gap caus e s it to occur later.. a difference in electrical potential between it and the secondary winding. Energy in the primary can go as high as 250 volts while in the secondary this could reach 25.this r e s u l ts Tn a sudden co l la p s e of the magnetic field which.co n d ens e r which prevents the energy from arcing across the air gap between the breaker points.in ed by a be It drive n rn oto r=ge ne r at or or by a 10. BATT'ERY IGNITION SYSTEMS The battery ignition systems function in the same way as the magneto ignition systems described in the foregOing. magnetically.uffident energy in the . a permanent magnet ring on an inside rim of the flywheel revolves around the alternator stat o r ion the bearing.the s e units a r e des crib ed in the next section s i n ce they p r ov.lat o r unit to charge th e battery .se c onda r y to bridge the spark gap and ignite the fuel-air mixture in the cornbus ti on chamber.000 volts . however. spark gap and condition of the spark plug. Current flowing in the primary creates. this energy is qui ckl y absorbed by the .-the a c tua l value is determined by such variables' as engine speed.TYPICAL BREAKERLESS IGNITION COIL 6.r e ct Current in the r e ctifier./TERt~INAL TO CONDENSER & POINTS MOUNTING BRACKET o/. NEGATI Vt: . however.

Diode 3 functions to block reverse current from reaching and dama. it travels th r cugh diode 2 (b e ing Only alter1 and blocked AC WINDING (ON STATOR) OroDE 2 CAPACITOR DIODE 1 FIGURE 6-5 -. the winding. This instantaneous discharge of energy induces a very high density magnetic field around the primary winding which cuts the s e. The ignition coil assembly includes the capacitor and a pulse transformer arrangement s imi la r to the c onventi'ona l high t e n. When the current reverses direction.in switches off ready for the next ignition cycle. The resistor prevents transient voltage from entering the gate circuit which could turn the SCR On a. ignition coil assembly and flywheel with a trigger projection. conventional spark plug and lead.BREAKERLESS IGNITION SYSTEMS The breakerless systems function in the sarne general way as the previously discussed magneto ignition systems except that the breakerless systems do not have breaker p'oirits or a co~ventional condenser. plus an ignition switch. The small current induced in the coil is applied to the gate which switches the SCR on to c ornp le t e the circuit from the charged side of the 'capacitor through the high tension coil to the negative side of the capacitor. The trigger module includes three diodes.si ori coil wi.ll e d an SCR.energy produced ill the ignition winding is used for charging the capacitor. sp sc ia l projection for triggering the ignition. The flywheel has a. . The system also includes a. trigger rn cdul e . a small current must be a pp l ied to. it interrupts the magnetic field of the permanent magnet located inside this coil. When the projection of the flywheel is' adjacent to the se ns rng coil •.) 12 of the . Unlike the conventional system. it takes the shortest path (least resistance) through diode returns to.3 . The capacitor thus builds up charge and cannot discharge since diode Z blacks the return of the current. To turn the SCR on. a s ens irrg coil and magnet. it is turned off. The b r eake r Ie s s ignition system includes four major components which are: ignition winding (on alternator stator).SCHEMATIC OF TYPICAL BREAKERLESS IGNITION SYSTEM by di od e 1) and flows into the capacitor.k. 0feration. a resistor. the gate terminal of the SCR. When the nat ing current flows in one direction.tor-t. Operation is briefly described in the following.h e other windings are used for battery charging. plus an electronic switch ca. the SCI( aga.rg e s completely and current through the SCR drops toO value'. The only circuit available far discharge is through the SCR but at this point.t the wrong moment. other AC windings On the alternatorsta. there is no build-up time nor does the sudden collapse of the magnetic field.ging the gate of the SCR.th primary and sec'ondary windings. create the s par.conda r v winding and thus creates sufficient energy to fire the spark plug. (Refer to the a c c orrrpa ny i. 6. When the capacitor di scha.ining solid state electronic devices serves the same function as the breaker points. The ignition winding' is separate from the. A trigger module conta.ng wiring diagram for location of c ornp on erit s described.

Often the porcelain insulator cracks. carbon. or ·other deposits. scrape or otherwise service plug in poor condition.e co me s coated with oil. 8. SPARK PLUG SERVICE Engine misfire or g ene rally poor operation is often caused by spark plugs in poor condition or with i. 4. . with a torque w r e rrch.ca r-bu r eto i-a dju s t. the electrodes a r e gradually b u r n ed or wo r n away . low power and erratic operation are often a ttr ib ut e d to faulty ignition.ob ta ine d w ith new plug.gap and the engine rrri s se s ..018" for gas fuels. 6. 4.. 5. b l is t er ed coating could indicate overheating. 6. 5:.IGNITION SYSTEM OPERATIONAL TEST When checking out an ignition system.POOR OR NO IGNITION POOR 1. wire brush.) 6. This can cause the high voltage ignition impulse to pass from the center e lect r-od e to ground without jumping the spark gap. Spark Ptug Service: Every 100 hours remove plug. 7. SPARK Switch 'tur-ned off Leads disconnected or broken Bad plug Ignition switch faulty Breaker paints ox id i zed B reaker points stuck Condenser faulty Ignition coil fauLty CAUSES . All componen:ts must be in top c ond i t i ori and the ignition spark must be properly t.e s the ignition components as the fault--wrong timing cou Id however be causlng problems. the gap becomes so wide that the available ignition voltage cannot jump the . Z.020") Ti ghtening Torque -_ All pl uqs 18 to 22 foot 1bs. SPARK ENGINE M. If performance indicates that ignition is faulty. 7. STlE 13/16" 13/16" PLUG REACH 3/8" 3/. Gas Fuels .0181J(Champion plugs listed--use Champion or equivalent plugs. DQ not sandblast. Plugs fail for various reasons. 020" Oil shielded plugs.-best results are .shielded . A black (carbon) coating may indicate an "overrich" fuel rnl xtu r e caused by clogged air cl ea ne r o'r irnp r ope r . Always c l e a n-a r ea around spa r k plug before removing to prevent dirt from falling into engine. the first thing to do is to determine if this system is actually at Iault . IGNITION Plug wet Plug gap incorrect Plug carbon fouled Wrong plug B rea ke r.025" [or gasoline. this e Iirn ina t. COMMON NO IGNITION 1.ne at speed sufficient to produce a good spark--if a sharp snappy spark is noted between the electrodes. Tighten plug to 18 to 22 foot lbs. 2. Good operating conditions are i nd i ca t e d if plug has light coating of gray or tan deposit. In time. Set spark QE. .imed to ma inte iri good perfoTmanc. 8. Hard s tart ing .merrt . 3. at .8" 3/B" 3/8" 7/16" 7/16'" STANDARD PLUGS KNURLED NUl SOLID POST J-8 270321-5 270321-5 270321-5 270321-5 235040-5 235040~5 235040-5 J-8 J-S J-8 J-S 220040-$ 220040-5 220040-$ 220040-5 232604-5 2326Q4-S 232604-5 232604-$ XEJ-8 XEJ-8 XEJ-8 XEJ-8 220258-5 220258-5 220258-5 2:2. The first thing to do after removing a spark plug is to carefully note its condition as this is often an indicator of the ignition trouble. roughness. A dead white. or b. place plug with side electrode against cylinder head then crank engi.mp r op e r gap setting. check condition and r e s et gap.e.4 . 9.QDEL K9l PLUG SPECIFICA liONS RESISTOR PLUGS NON~SHIELDED SHIELDED XJ-8 XJ-8 XJ-8 PLUG SIZE 14mm 14mm 14mm 14mm 14mm 14mm 14mm HEX.025" (. an engine operates.p o irit s di r ty 0 r had c ond i t i ori Point gap wrong Condenser weak Push rod sticking or worn Cam lobe worn 3.. start with the components that require rn os t f r e qu e rit service or adjustment. set gap to specifications. A:. SPARK PLUG TEST: Remove plug.0258-$ 235259-5 235259-$ 235259-5 K141 K161 K181 K241 K301 K32l J-8 J-8 13/16" 13/16" 13/16" 13/16" J-S H-10 H-10 H-l0 XJ-8 XH-1O XH-lO Not Available Not Available Not Available 235041-5 XEH-10 235041-5 XEH-l0 235041-5 XEH-1O 13/16" 7/16" XH-l0 Gap Setti ng Gap Setting --- Ga501 ine .

re-mQve the condens. Ifpohits are Ei'-et too wide. rn et a l will tra-nsfer fro'm the stationary contact to the movable contact.BREAKER POINT GAP ADJUSTMENT 6.'''BUILD-UP'' ON ~lOVABLE ~1OVABLE CONTACT CONTACT COULD INDICATE UNDER CAPACITANCE FIGURE 6-6 -METAL TRANSFER STATIONARY CONTACT OVER CAPAC HANCE COULD I N OleATE INDICATORS ON BREAKER. if it opens or de c rea s es in capacitance. If points are bu.ffecled by b r ea ke r tpoi nt ccnd it ion and adjustment of the gap. . BREAKER POINT SERVI-CE If the condenser shorts out.01' badly oxidized.A def'in it. The condenser can be tested with an oh mrn et-e'r ora c crrrme r c ia l condenser tester.ion coil to build upit o s ufff ci. miss particularly at full throttle. If its capac-itance is too lar ge .i onary contact. they will open after the prima ry current has pa s-sed its maximum va. To check with the ohnTmeter.ng breaker po irit gap affects the time that the contacts are opened and closed. If badly burned breaker paints occur too frequently.l us .r ne d . If condenser has toe smaU ca pe c itarice .ge will be greatly reduced and the ignition paints will burn excessively. a weak spark will be produced by the coi l.5 . later in terms of cam movement. the coil will be un ab l e-t o produce output voltage. On the othe r hand. the metal w il l build up o_nthe s tat. the condition of the condenser should be suspected.ent value.er then connect lea'ds between the condenser lead and a good ground CONDENSER FIGURE ~-7 -. If the points are adjusted toa wide.POINTS Engi-ne operation is greatIY<J. cu r re'nt will pass and as a result the engine may not operate at all. If the contact po irits are dosed for too short a time. little or no. the output volta. Adjust i. they will open before the primary current reaches the maximum value and on the other hand if set too close. gap. they will open earlier and close. or if it does run it is likely to.e time is required for the magrietic field within the ignit.

id state devices. 005"--make sure flat surfaces on trigger and p r oje ct.cated c.TRIGGER MODULE LEAD CONNECTIONS GAP.nc. The negative (-) coil terminat is connected directly to the breaker points. (B) . Replace ignition coil assembly if wrong results ate obta. Although the actual gap setting is not critical to operation at normal speeds. they should be kept in clean c ondit ionand the terminals a. sensing coil and magnet p l us a n electronic switch called an SCR. adjacent .. The a i r tg a p between t:t'igger a s s e rnb l y and pr.£. r ev e r s e the leads as the light must be off initially fo. If a closer gap is desired. When using a commercial condenser tester.Remove high tension l-ead from terminal on coil. If a' faulty trigger m. BREAKERLESS TYPE IGNITION COIL: Use an ohmmeter to test b r eake r-Ies s type coil as sembly. Theterminal marked A must be connected to the alternator wh il e terminal! ITlUSt be connected to the ignition switch or ignition coil. Continuity should not be' indicated here.ight sh ould come On with leads one way but not .s us pe ct e d.r this test..m the engine a. a low r-es i s ta. The trigger rn od ul e has two clip-on type terminals.nd connections must be ti ght to provide good electrical contact. Lighttytap magnet with a meta! object--when this is done. Do not set closer than.i on are parallel to each other.the other way. adjust..ua llv set at about. this indicates . however. this should very' quickly rise to a high value.oj e ct i ori on the flywheel is us.6 . The rubber nipple on the high tension terminal must be in good condition to prevent leakage of current across expos ed surfaces. At first. The terminal marked!l must be connected. The coil must be hooked lip properly. the a1ternator while the I terminal is connected to the ignition coil--ilnpropei b cok -up will cause damage.on the engi. the condenser is definitely faulty. Retighten ca ps c rews after gap is readjusted.t e device which includes diodes. A resistance of about 11.e' should be indicated. 005 to.ignition systems is avs ol id cs ta. and must be replaced. howeve r. fol l cw ins t r uct ion s given by the tester manufacturer. Insert one ohmmeter lead in coil terminal and the other to the c o il mounting bracket. With the battery type ignition coil. 500 ohms should be indicated here. BATTERY TYPE IGNITION COILS.t e flywheel until projection is. tester light should come on and stay on until leads are disconnected.o nt inuous ly. If light does not come on. r ota. (A} -.-replace trigger module. di s conne ct and remove thett'igger fro.!. de c r ea s ing the gap to .ro the trigger as sembly. FROM ALTERNATOR TO IGNITION S\·JITCHOR COIL ASSEMBLY I__ -----TRIGGER ~10DLJLE FIGURE 5-8 -. 010". this indicates SCR is not switching properly in which case trigger module shoul d be replaced. resistor. If light stays on or off both ways. If low resistance is. DIODE TEST: Turn tester switch ON and connect one lead to the I terminal and the other to the A terminal then r-everse these leads--l. SCR TEST: Turn tester on then connect one lead to the 1terminal and the other to the trigg-er mounting b r a ck et-c--riot e: if light comes On. 6. laos en ca ps c r ews on trigger bracket and rrtov e t r ig g e r closer to projection until proper gap is measured on feeler gauge. Operating with these leads reversed wiH cause damage to the 501. the positive (+) coil primary ter rn iria l must be connected to the pos iti ve battery te r rninal .nd perform the following tests with a flashlight tester.i ne d from 'either of these t est s .diodes are taulty. To. indi.ne. IGNITION COILS Ignition coils danot require se r v ic irig OJi a regular basis. 005" may promote faster starting under cold <conditions. TRIGGER MODULE (BREAKERLESS) The trigger module used on b r eake r l e s s. Reset a i r gap when r-einstalling trigger.Connect one tester lead to the c orl mcunt ing bracket and the other to the ignition switch wire.odule is .

rn. To test for an open primary winding. With the H ywhee 1 removed. If the field s t r e ng th i s s uffi dent. PR!MARY CIRCUlT CIRCUIT . A snap button rria y cover the hole on sorrie= the button is easily pried loose with a screw driver so that the tirning rn a r k s can ibe observed. A coit can be checked for opens with a simple test lamp._/ BATTERY J t IGr~!T10il GOIL-~~ J GROUNO~ = = FIGURE 6-9 -- SCHEMATIC OF A TYPICAL BATTERY IGNITION SYSTEM MAGNETO TYPE IGNITION COILS: Special test instruments are r e qu.qu ippe d with a t irrrirrg sight hole In either the bearing plate or in the blower h ou s ing .i r ed to accuratety test magneto ignition coils. When using such 'equipment..ll'i LEAD----. carefully follow instructions stated by the te. the blade will be quickly pulled to the magnet. a si. p Lac e the b lade of a screwdriver (non-magnetized) within one inch of the permanent Jnagnet.pl e rough t es t will ind ica te if Its fie ld strength is sufficient. I \ . IGNITION TIMING PROCEDURE c Timing is permanently set on b r ea ke r l e s s ignitiot:l systems--the following adjustment procedure does not pertain to these engines. Engines are e.ster manufac't ur e r .-the la mp will not light if th e circuit is g r aunded./11===='1/ ~{ I HIGH TEfoISH. c onne ct the two test points to the p r irna r y t e r rn iria 15 . PERMANENT MAGNETS « If the strength Qf a permanent magnet i.s suspected as the ca us e of magneto trouble.. /I SECONDARY \ SPARK PLUG~ I . Two timing m a rk s are s t a rn pe d on (ON BEARING TIMI NG SIGHT HOLE PLATe OR BLOrlER HOUSING) FIGURE 6-10 -- USING TII1lNG LIGHT FOR CI'lECKING IGNITION TIMING 6.7 .

ern. D.free end of wi re mus t protrude from under boot.hten adjusting gap adjusting' screw.eith e S or SP mark is 20°' be fo re top d ea d center.e s t rr-un ni ng . loosen Retig.c a n vary a few th ous andths (.TIMINCLICHT: Several different types of timing lights are available--follow manufacturer's instructionsfottype used. Rep:10V'e htgh.ls) appears in the center of the timing sight hole. METHOD 2 . c. Securely tighten adjusting screw aft er timing. METHOD 1 . however. Connect second. The timing tig'ht can be used with magneto ig'nition s'ystems. If t.wr a pped-a r ound spark of b'attery--see plug terminal. E.st. The following timing p r oc e d u r e tan be used with~ timing lights.the flywheet--the T mark o'r Spa rk Run point which Ind ica te. centered in sight hole or even with center mark on bearing plate or blower housing. 6. B. aim timing light into sight hole .s . Two methods can be used for timing~~the timing light method is the.-gap should be . Sta rt engine. G. loosen point gapa~justiT.020'1 fuUy open.fe e. Points should just begin to break as theS 01' SF mark (T mark on K91 and pre-ACRrhode.imin. (by hand) engine tirn ing light ins'tructions snap button.18 a 0 RPM. Meas uregap with . more precise way of achieving exact ti"ry::IiIlg:.-light should f la. point cover.r gauge.-Conned Remove ~ timing light rotate lead to ground. etc-. If necessary.STATIC TIMING: Remove br ea ke I' po int cover and r ern ov e s pa\'k p lug lead topreverit unirrte nt iona l s ta r-ti ng.l ~. until S rna rk v isib levvcha lk S line.) Connect ~ timing light ~ to the wire that has just be e n.tent strew and readjust gap to . a storage battery wi II have to be us ed per timing light rna nufadure r ' s in.s Top Dead Center (TDC) whi l.022") to achieve s rn ooth.t'e ns ion lead at spark plug--wrap one end oJ a sh o. 'shift breaker plate screw before replacing breaker point cover. wiring. for easy reading. as F. timing light lead to hot (ungrounded) side for battery size. A. with alligatorclips--some lights ha:ve sharp prongs on spark lead -~on these simply push prong th ru boot until it contac·tsmetal connector.g is off--remove until S mark is exactly breaker centered.le. Rotate engine by ha nd in direction of 'n or rn a l r-ota t i on (clockwise when viewed f rorri front or flywheel end). (Note: Step A for t irrring lights.8 . Re corme ct lead to t er'rn ina. run at l200 .s h just Smark is. Continue rctati ng e ngine unt il points reach rna xirnurn opening. procedure is used for both the rriag neto ignition and batt e r y ignition s y s t. 020n full open.018-.euct ions . indicates the Spark The same timing. Maximum gap setting .r t piece of fine wire around spark plug tenninal.

The ignition s v s t erri s are de_scribed in the fo r eg o ing s e c ti on-o-th i s section deals only with components of t.h e charging' and starting circuits.A. The motor-generator type i s used in conjunction with conventional battery ignition aysterns. 240. sulfuric acid is chemically withdrawn from.rmanerit Magnet Circuit Motor Since Ring Cranking 1.) A regulator may be blamed for an undercharged or repeatedly discharged is actually self-discharge ca use d by a build-up of corrosive acid across the top light coating of this grayish-white s ub's ta nc e can complete a circuit to drain and the baUery--this can be especially bad when.ving a high rate of charge but can linger for s e v e ra i hours afterward In a poorly ventilated area. 4.1 . To maintain tion. 2. moisture is present. 3. order 1. open f la m es . cold wea t e r v-Jc e ep the charge up or CAUTION. Starting The systems both systems. Keep terminals and top o£ battery water. This results in a diminishing specific gravity of the electrolyte" If the specific gravity drops below 1. the electrolyte and lead :sulfate deposits continue to build up On the prates. The main components of the two basic c i r c uit a are: MOTOR-GENERATOR Charging Circuit SYSTEMS ALTERNATOR Charging.e avoided since hydrogen gas is p rcd uce d which. In fully charged condition. on the following pages. smoking should also b. 225. firmly into position--do not pound. ' When r e i n sta l l irig clamps 4. BATTERY NEGATIVE TERMINAL (-) GROUNDED As a battery di. 4. 1. vibration wi l l cans e p r erna tu r e failure. lternator Stator P e. Battery (12 Volt) Rectifier-Regulator . 2. an electrolyt. 'Tbe alternator types are used with flywheel-magneto.nal ground) with amp hour rating of at least 32 for best results. the battery should be recharged. if ignited. Regula rly check level of e lectrol yte . Wash with baking soda and rinse with clear to enter cells as this. battery and b r ea ke r le s s ignition systems. Circuit SYSTEMS 1.1. the battery is co rnrnon to BATTERY Use 1·2 vol t (negative . 280 range. check and pe dorm the following s e r v ic es at frequent int s rvals. Even a exhaust the energy in a battery in top condi- as n e c e s'sary to rnainta in performance or early failure 2.s cha rges. (~: In tropical areas where the temperature stays well above freezing. Battery (12 Volt) Voltage (& current) Motor-Generator V-Belt Circuit Regulator 3. the specific gravity will be in the 1. 260 . will destroy the electrolyte. Sparks. could cause an internal exp lce i on which could s ha tt e r the case of the battery. not to damage battery ca-se by overtightening hold-downs.if loo s e .attery may freeze store battery in wa r rn a rea . I. 3.e with lower specific gr a vi t. battery ho lel-downs are s e cu re..ELECTRICAL STARTING-CHARGING SYSTEM'S Motor-generator and alternator type charging systems are used on the electric start single cylinder engines. when unu s e d during 5. clean. 7. Cranking Motor-Generator are discussed in th e above it is described separately. An undercharged b. cable clamps and terminals o c ca s i ona l ly with a wi r e brush. Do not allow soda solution Make sure Be careful Clean press battery when the fault of the battery.y may be used--full charge specific gravity on these is 1.-add water (distilled) level above plates--do not overfill as this can cause poor . Adequate ventilation must be provided when batteries a r e being recharged.due to loss of electrolyte.termi. This gas is produced in quantity only while the battery is recei.

it [unctions to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy to crank an engine for starting.units :eatu~e both series (cranking) and shunt (generating) win. When cranking.BELT TENSION CHECK AND ADJUSTMENT 1. may seriously damage motor .functions.ng for rrio r e than 30 seconds at a time without pausing to allow it to cool for at least: 2 minutes. Overheating. the armature.MOTOR GENERATOR A motor-generator is a single unit combining characteristics of both a motor and a generator. low r e s i stant wi r e to carr)' as high a currentas possible. DRIVE END---'-___.into electrical ene.dings.xc e ss iv e dus t or dirt. and 15 amp charging capacities . the unit functions as a conventional generator with the shunt field producing energy for recharging. FRAME. Motor ·generators mounted at f r'o nt [fl y. it. COMMUTATOR END FIGURE 7-1 -. Tension should be adjusted so that belt can be dep r e ssed 1/211 below tops of both pulleys.r . To adjust. Excessive be lt tension will also cause rapid belt wear. wiring and c onnec t iona-Lafl should be tight and in good condition.rgy. Ser-vice: At periodic intervals. to c onve rt mec ha nical e ne rgy. Units with la.CUTAWAY VIEW OF MOTOR-GENERATOR FIGURE 7-2 -. V belt should be checked to be sure it is in good condition and has co r r e ct te ns i on. commutator and brush wea. at the approximate center of the upper span as shown in the accompanying illustration. the current from the battery is allowed to flow through this circuit thus creating a hi. excessively long cranking p'e r iod s caused by hard-starting engine conditions. 12. units should be inspected to determine condition. 10 and 12 amp units are most c orn mon . excessively dirty or moist operating conditions or heavy vibration makes servicing necessary at frequent intervals.ge ne rator. Low be lt tensio~ permit belt slippag-e and result in rapid belt weal. Retighten cap sc re w after adjustment. at high temperatures or continuously at full output are factors which increase bearing. CAUTION: Never operate the m o to r=ge ne r-ato r during c r a nk i. After the engine starts and the starting switch opens to break the cranking circuit. As a motor.ar e used depending on the: engine model and application. Service should include checking motor operation. which IS i n s e r re s wi tb. A sage ne r a to r . c o ns i st s of heavy gauge. check ef the mounting. caused by excessively long cranking periods.whe e l ) end of engine r ot ate in clockwise directLon--units mounted at rear (PTO) e nd rotate i n-t he reverse or . 0eeration: _The~e . and either low or erratic generator output. POLE SHOE BALL BEARING FIELD COIL BELT SHOULD DEFLECT ABOUT 1/2" AT CENTER OF TOP SPAN LOOSEN TIGHTEN COMMUTATOR FRAME. The cr a nking wmdtng.gh density magnetic field which interacts with the a r rria tu r e wj ndi ngs and forces the armature to rotate. The shunt field also contributes during starting. loosen ca p s c r e w holding motor-generator unit to upper bracket then shift position of unit until proper tension is obtained. Frequent cranking due to numerous starts and stops.to r e c ha r ge the ba tte ry. Operating the unit in e.2 .countercLockwise direction when viewed from pulley end.

Exces s iv e spring tens ion will ca use rapid brush and commutator weal'. the felt pad should be resaturated with light grade engine oil..(COMMUTATOR '" Q@ ~.jJ h' 1. The hinged cap oilers on earlier un it s should be fined with 8 to 10 drops of light engine o il. a new spring should be installed. Donat pack this type ball bearing with grease.UNDERCUTTING MICA ON MOTOR-GENERATOR COMMUTATOR Lubrication.. or ~ ARHATURE (DE) BRUSH HOLDER " DETAIL I' BRUSH - ~)8~ %. BALL BEARING .) FI GURE 7-4 -. FIGURE 7-3 -." ~@ . / / '. Brushes s houl d be checked about every 200 hours--inspection can be made by removing the two thr u bolts and CE frame. All other ball bearings (without feltpad) should be cleaned and repacked with ball·bearing g r.e.ir e d .----- LBS. 1iNIffiN''''"'''t- I @0 COIL (RH) MOTOR-GENERATOR \~ITH REGULATOR I ® ~ ®\ '\ \ - END) POLE SHOE (LH) ~~' ~ \'./ / FIELD <.a s e upon disassembly of the motor-generator.EDGES MUST BE FREE OF MICA COMMUTAT~ SEGMENTS ~ ~ / ~ ~/'W MICA UNDERCUT TO DEPTH OF ABOUT 1/32"-------->. ~FRAME '" 'y / ---.TYPI CAL ~~OTOR-GENERATOR--E XPLODED VIE I·! 7.3 . -. ---I (TIGHTEN FIELD --~ AND ARMA'l'URE TERMINAL ---------.. Brushes must be at the proper angle and in good firm contact ori the commutator.. Ins uffi ci.1'~""" ~~'i'l}• / IIY~ "- C!-. If brush spring shows evidence of overheating (blued or burned). they should be replaced. The armature shaft should be wiped clean and coated with a light grade engine oil. every 100 hours of motor-generator operation.. Correction in tension can be made by bending the brush spring as r e qu. Some ball bearings are greaseless and are lubricated by an oil-saturated felt pad.START UNDERCUT WITH 3-CORNERED FILE --------{ FINISH WITH STRAIGHT· EDGE FILE r. 1 GROUND II HOLDER BRUSH } DETAIL Ii / I I (l. If brushes are worn down to 1/2 their original length.. Upon disassembly of the unit. FIELD ~ /~ \ --------~ ---- / COIL (LH) NUTS INSULATOR 15 '1'0 25 IN.ent tension will result in arcing and burning of the brushes and commutator.

should be made with rosin Dux.. 3.S FI GORE 2. Any defective part should be repaired or replaced.ro urid . .r ep la c e d without disturbing any electrical connecti-ons. Such a brush holder should be replaced.'etaining nut is ti.ghtened to the cor reet torque value (600. ) a s this prope r1y pre -Load s the bearings.-5 MJTOR-GENERA TOR SYSTEMS --~JIRI NG DIAGRAMS pulley and the drive end -f r a rne. When reassembling unit.) KEEP SHORT AS POSSIBLE.72 0 inc b Ibs. On r'e a. Place armature 7. moving sandpaper back and forth. out of . securing them to frame with rie w rivets o r screws. Start undercut with 3 cornered file and finish with straightedge file (or hacksaw blade)--mak. by drilling out the rivets holding t. Blow' out a Ll dust after sanding. VOLTAGE [REGULATOR WITHOUT SOLENOID MOTOR GENERATOR _________________ .ca us ed bya loose mounti ng xrr drive p ul Iey .. Other parts should be cleaned and carefully inspected for wear or other damage. nuts and washers. Install new holders. While a r mature is rotating. The brush holder assemblies a r e vmo unte d individually on the walls of the field frame. all soldered electric connections. Disassembly: Noise emanating from a generator may be . make sure pulley J. The end frames. Ball bearings should be thoroughly cleaned and repacked with high melting point ball bear irrg g r e a se .lazed or dirty. 4.4 . LOW TENSION _ 4 OR 6 GAUGE WIRE. worn or dirty bearings or improperly seated brushes.If' cornmuta'tor is g. in a vise with soft jaws and r e. use the foHowing procedure: c 1. To di s as se mbl e moto r ge ne r-ato r . but w or n bearings should be replaced. Dirty bearings may sometimes be saved by cleaning and r e l. Acid flux must not be used on electrical connections.e sure no mica remains on the inside edges of the c orn rnuta to r segments.rnov e s haft nut. Unscrew thru bolts and remove commutator end frame from the field f r a rn e . Excessive noise may result H the b r u s h holder is bent resulting in improper seating of the brush. ~iiioiiiii BREAKER POINTS IiIiiiii 14 GA..hem to the field frame.s s ernb ly . hold a strip of #00 sandpaper lightly against commutator.ub r i c a t i on . (WHEN TOTAL LENGTH AND STARTER EXCEEDS 4 FT. it can be cleaned by placing armature in a lathe. WITH ALL UNSPECIFIED SOLENOID WIRE u hAU(. The armature or field coils must rlOt be cleaned in degreasing tank or with degreasing compounds since insulation damage might occur. Remove brush holders if new ones are to be installed. It can also be caused b). bearings and armature can be removed or . If commutator is rough. 7. BETWEEN BATIERY USE 4 GAUGE. has high mica or is extremely dirty" it should be turned down on a lathe and the mica 'should also be undercut between the bars.

nd wiring. If unit fails crank. close.as sembled. Sti. n. brushes a.or se tti ng 5·.c essa. the unit should be disassembled a nd tested according to rn. for at least to stabilize. Often this leads to an open circ-uit and burned. Ex ces s ive hiction in the engine from tight -bearings or pistons or from too heavy oil causes hard cranking.c tly flat surface on this point. commutator bars and.cking brushes. does not turn freely. first check to make sureg. Run engine ture of regulat. Whe n battery issatlsfacto. a dirty or gummy commutator or poor connections may p r everit th.Spe. If unit fails to operate. the motor. The flat point is in the a r mature -. It is not ne.gene ra to r should! be removed Io r further checking.cial test equipment will usually be. needed for further analysis.5 . starting switch. the armature should be c he cke.corne greas.y and should not be used on -other m eta Is. to have ape r fe.- to With tbe rnobo r genr. A ground i ng s trap is us e.f'or freedom of ope ration by turning the shaft.i n good operating con-ditionand the r'e s to! the cranking circuit is found to be satisfactory.cond it.ob e. MOUNTTNG SHOCK FIGURE 7-6 -. If armature.Motor 'I'es t s r If unit fa iIs to crank properly.nerator operates" the switch i-sdefective and should be replaced.nufa c. wipe points with Lint l e 13 s doth. Tight. Many c a's e s of r-egu lato r trouble can be el irn ina ted by a simple' cleaning of the contact p o irit s plus possible r e a dju s trne nt .e generator from producing -any output. If unit fails to c r a nk ip r op'er Iy when engine is known rob e . inspect entire c r a nk ing circuit for loose or badly corroded connections and damaged w i r i ng . a bent armatu-re shaft or loose pole shoe screws may cause the armature to drag and fail to turn freely. If motor-ge. > Generator Tests: II gener. the t roubl e can be attributed to the engine or to the motQr-gen~erator. poo r regulation can result. If-the brushes are satisfactorily seated and making good 'contact with the commutator and the cause of trouble ts not apparent. the motor must be di s. r e gulator in com mon ground with engine.r y. Check battery to determine .TYPICAL TWO-UNIT VOLTAGE REGULATOR 7.:l'ator removed from the e ng ine . . The file should not be allowed t. The flat point always develops a slight ~ cavity and is the point tha t r e qui r e 8 mas t atte nt ion .tu r e r I s specifiC:ations. and connections are in good condition. Clean by loose ning the uppe r c on ta c t support andrnov i ng it to one si de .ons . wi r e . sa t. no output. hut cleaning the surface down to pur·e metal with a fine cut r iffe l file will insure long periods of service.a. dirty or worn hearings.d . Solder thrown f r orn the commutator r i se r bars indicates that thegene ra tor has been overheated from excessive output. Make sure regulator is properly groun:ded a t all times.u r a ted in carbon te t r-ac hl o r id e to insure clean surface s.d to con ne c t cas e of voltage. poor electrical connection.:_----~ ~~~ L- __ . around motor switch with a heavy jumper lead.nd i ute r na l c o n-.round -strap from the voltage regulator to frame nut b r oken or disconnected then check the c omrnutator .i on. CAUTION: NEVER USE EMERY CLOTH OR SANDPAPER TO CLEAN CONTACT POINTS.e ct i. 20 minutes before making voltage Use same battery and generator adjustments as this will allo-w temperathat will be used on engine for correct CURRENT-VOLTAGE REGULATOR (Cut-Out) CLOSING VOLTAGE ADJUSTNENT ___:. A f'ter filing.ator output is ze-ro.r-y a. is VOLTAGE REGULATOR The current-voltage regulator is automatic in its control a! current and voltage to battery. If this becomes l oos e a n d makes. consequently.

Gap: To check air .020.er adjustment and before :resetting voltage setting. ·the 'sp r ing support may fail to return when p r e s sur e is relieved. Closinp Voltage: Adjust clos ing voltage by turning screw clockwise to inc rea s e spring te ns ion and vo tage.3 c r ewd r iv e r b lade or othe r suitable spring can be hooked.pections andadjustme nts: the armature air gap and Armature Air. and closing adjustments are made WIth the ba tte r y di s conne cte d. If this happens.cket as required.onta c t m ount i ng s crews a nd ra us ing or lowe ring the contact bra. Retighten Air Gap: Place fingers on the armature directly ab ove the core and press armature the points just close.075".s e the voltage setting. air gap.ving When cu r r e nt-v clfa ge unit is badly procedure: out of adjustment or requires spring replace- Replacing regulator sp ring requires armature hinge. care to prevent bending or distorting spring support or the should be hooked at lower end first then stretched up with a tool.ge Setting: Adjus t the voltage setting by turning adjus bog sere w. Volta. if setting is too high.CURRENT-VOLTAGE ADJUSTMENTS eh7eks and adjustments:. CAUTION: If a djus t ing :screw is turned down (clockwise) beyond normal r a nge required for adjustment. Be sure points are lined up and screw's are retightened aH.djus trne nt is at leas t O. Current. Be sure Be rew is e xe rting force on hange r . Point Openin_g_: Adjust point opening by bending the armature stop. counterclockwise to decrease spring tension and closing voltage.020" to adjust ai r gap) (Ra. Be sure that closing voltage a.p . This should be 12.ga.020" CLOSING VOLliAGE ADJUSTI NG SCREW ARMA TURE AIR GAP (Armature to core) . push the armature down until contact points are still just touchmg..se Or lower ADJUSTING SCREWS (Loosen and shift support to adjust air gap) VOLTAGE ADJUSTMENT (Bend hanger down or turn screw in to increase voltage) FIGURE 7-7 -... then measure the air gap between the armature and the center Gap should be .CUTOUT RELAY ADJUSTMENTS Cutout Relal: This unit req~ires th~ee voltage. The final setting should always be approached by increasing spring te ns ion . then measure air gap. point ?pening. In other words . Then bend spring support up war d carefully with a small pliers until contact is made with the screw head. This urrit requires two ins.6 . ins erted betwee n the turns until the upper end of the 7. s c r e ws' after adjustment. After each adjustment.075" (Measured---'7 between Armature and Core with points touchfng) OPENING . Adjust by raising or lowering armature at its hinge mounting. 5 volt le s s than the cur rent-voltage regula tor unit setting.clockwise to inc rea se the the voltage setting and counterclockwise to d e c r ea. unit should be adjuste db elriw the required value then raised to the exa ct setting by inc r e a s ing spring tens ion.8 volts. Adjust by loosening c. use folloi. T e air gap and p o m t opemng FIGURE 7-8 -. Preferably spring . down unt il of the core. turn screw counterclockwise until enough clearance develops between the screw head and spring support.ARMATURE STOP (Bend to adjust point opening) POINT AIR GAP. This should! be . Opening should be . Spring Replacement: merit.020.Voltage Unit: the volta ge setting. replace cover and allow ample running time to again stabilize voltage and temperature before r e c hecking the voltage setting.

ALTERNATOR

CHARGING

SYSTEMS

10 aITlp. 15 amp and 30 amp alternator charging systems are used. The s ys terns can be easily identified by the rectifier-regulator unit which is mounted .e.xternally on either the engine at' equipment powered by the engine. The rectifier-regulators are shown on Figure 7-9 .. Other components .. f the o systems are also different and there can be, therefore. no interchangeability of parts between the syst e.rn s , Terminals on the 15 amp rectifier-regulator are, for example, pos it ioned in a different pattern than those on the 10 alTIp rectifier-regulator to prevent the two systems f r orn being hooked up in e r r o r . Be~ause of the differences. wiring. test procedures and precautions differ for each system. The syst ern s are described separately on the following pages.

10 AMP

ALTERNATOR

SYSTEMS

The' 10 alTIp Alternator Sy!rtem consists of three rnaj o r components: a permanent magnet ring bolted to the inside rim, of the flywheel, an alternator stator assembly which is affixed to the engine bearing plate. and a rectifierregulator unit. As the magnet ring is rotated a r ou nd the stator, an alternating current is gene r a.ted in the sta.tor winding, The AC thus produced is rectified to direct current in the rectifier-rI"Jgulator unit. This is accomplished through the use of solid state (no moving parts) electronic devices which are arranged to form a full wave bridge rect.ifier. Regulation is also provided by electronic devices which "sense" the counter-volta.ge created by the ba tt er y to control or Unlit the charging rate. Since heat is gene.rated in op era t ion of certain of these electronic devices. cooling fins are provided on the rectifier-regulator to help di s sl pa.t e the heat, This unit should be mount-ed in a well -Ventilated area. Service: No a dju s trrie rit s are possible on the alternator s y s t e rn and field service on this system is not recommended. The faulty part should be replaced by a new part. Repair of the rectifier-regulator. which is a sealed unit. requir-es the use of special test equipment available only at the place of manufacture. Stator repairs must also be performed with special equipment. The accompanying Trouble Ana lys is Chart can be us ed to pinpoint the faulty pa r t ,

TROUBLE ANALYSIS -10
CONDITION:
NO CHARGE TO BATTERY

TEST WITH ENG.INE RUNNING AT 3600 RPM - NO LOAD

AMP

ALTERNATOR

SYSTE,M

I

POSSIBLE FAULT/REMEDY

TEST A -- Di~connect B+ cable to positive (+) terminal of battery. Connect DC Voltmeter between B+ cable and ground. Check DC voltage: A-l _- If above 14 volts. If 1 ess than 14 va lts (but above volts). A-3 -- If 0 volts. A-2

I
Alternator system OK--ammeter may be 91v1ng IA~l --- false reading. RepairreeortHireplace ammeter. A-2 - Check for defecti ve er-regu 1ator

I
I

TEST S-::-With B+ cable reconnected, check B+ (at I terminal on rectifier-regulator) to ground . wi th DC Voltmeter. If 13,8 volts or higher, place minimum load of 5 amps* on battery to red~ce voltage. 8-1-If charge r ate i ncreas es . B-1 -- lnd i cates a 1ternator system OK, battery was ful ly charged. B-2 - - If Charge rate does not increase. B-2 - - Check for defective sta tor or recti fi er_______________________ __r:.ggu1ator (TEST C~ _ TEST C -- Unplug leads at rectifier-reglllator, connect VOM {multi meter) across AC 1eads, check AC voltage':

____

o

.

+---

IA-3

(TEST C). -- Check for defective stator or rectifier~gul a tor__iTI.SL..il,_ __ .

_

I I
I

I

I

I
I

C-l -- If less than 20 volts. C,..2 -- If more than 20 volts.

I
I
I

C-1 -- Defective stator, replace with new assembly. C-2 -- Defective rectiiier·regulator, replace with new unit. POSSIBLE FAULT/REMEDY
-- Rectifier~regulator

CONDITION:

BATTERY CONTINUOUSLY

CHARGES AT HIGH RATE

TEST 0 -- Check B+ to ground with DC Voltmeter: D-l -- If over 14.7 volts. D-2 -- If under 14,7 volts.
"Tum It-ghts on 7.[ 60 watts 'te:I'mina le . or more or eiaiulate

I0 1
1-

I

not functioning properly. Replace with new unit, Battery unable to hold D-2 -- Alternator system OK. charge. Check specifi c gravi ty of battery, Replace if nscassary.
1.-::; tor

load by PLaeinq a 2, 5 ohm 100 watt res

acrqss

bat tery

7.7

Precautions The rectifier-regulator will be damaged if engine' is operated for any length of t im e without a battery in the s y s t ern , A ba tte r y with a cracked ca s ew ifh all its acid drained out acts the same as no battery at all. Under these conditions, the r e ct ifi er= r eg ulat or overheats which ruins the solid st.ate electronic devices Inside the unit. Damage will not occur if an engine is run with. a dead or completely discharged battery or even with a shorted battery- -the rect if ie r- r e g ula.t or does not ov erh eat under these conditions.

1.
2. 3.

Battery polarity must be correct. Negative ground systems are used. Prevent a lt e r na to r Leads (AC) f r orn touching or shorting. This could permanently .da mag e the stator. Dis corme ct. leads at r.e ctifi er- regula tor before el ect r ic vee Id irig is d one on equipment in COlTI.lTIon ground with engine. Procedure regulat'or unit and the (See wiring diagrams)

Pre-Service

1.
Z.

Check to make sure .that a good ground is provided between the rectifiere quf prn ent , This must be in c crnrnon ground with the engine and battery. Check for and correct poor corrections or broken wires.

B+ ;. -:

AC· ~OTE TERMINAL ~RRANGEMENl

I 1
J
10
AMP

(or AC)
(or B+)

J

I I I

15

AMP

I

FIGURE 7-9

--

RECTIFIER-REGULATOR UNITS--10

AND 15 AMP SYSTEMS

15 AMP ALTERNATOR
The 15 amp alternator c i r cu it includes three major components which are: a ce r arni c magnet ring which is p e.rmane nt ly affixed to an inner r im of the flywheel, the alternator stator mounted on the bearing plate of the engine and a rectifier-regulator unit which is mounted either on the engine or on equipment powered by the. engine. Te r rrii na Is on the 15 amp rectifierregulator .a r e positioned i n a different pattern than those on the 10 amp rectifier-regulator to prevent the two systems from being hooked up in error. The 15 amp rectifier-regulator has different solid-state components and therefore cannot be used with any other charging system. The 15 amp unit i.s slightly la r-ge r , physically, than- the 10 a=p unit. Other main differences are found in the ceramic magnet ring and the alternator stator with more posts and windings which accounts for the higher output than the 10 alTIp sy st ern, The c e r arn ic ring is pern').anently assembled with roll pins a.nd compression locking pins- on the 1 firs tand i s then charged rrra.g rret ica 11 y. Beca us-e of this and the fac'ttha t s pe cia I tools are required to install the ring, it cannot be ordered or serviced as a separate it sm. The ceramic material allows better and more co.inplete alignment of magnetic poles of the electrons which thus produces an extremely high strength ma gne ti c fie·ld. While c e r a rrri c rna.gnet s are very strong, the materia.t is brittle and can crack or break if struck with a hard objector when dropped. If the magnets are badly damaged, a DeW flywheel, complete with new ceramic ring is r equi r e d=--the replacement flywheel rnus t be charge.d on special equipment at the factory just prior to s hl pment. W-hen working on eng ines with this system, avoid any rn e'ta l l i c chips or objects that could be attracted to and stick on the rna.g ne ts ,

nywhee

Two different types of ignition circuits are used in conjunction with the 15 amp battery charging s y s t e rns . They are the battery ignition and breakerless ignit io n circuits .. Magneto type ignition is not

7.8

STARTER 12 VOLT BATTERY ..,. REGULATOR FLYWHEEL AL TE'RNATOR

+

R
ci

'\ AMMETER

OR 6 GA. WIRE

BREAKER POINTS COIL

FIGURE 7-10 -- ALTERNATOR CHARGING~BATTERY

IGNITION SYSTEM (15 AMP SHOWN)

available with 15 amp systems. The ignition ci r cui.ts are d es.c r ib.e d Yn the foregoing section. The used \vith the battery type ignition circuit has 18 po.sts. but only 16. are wound. On br e a ke r-Ies s ignition circuits, these two extra posts. are wound to provide en e r gvf'or ignition. The ignition winding on the breakerless circuits are of very thin wi r e which is covered by aflepo~y~~be careful when .i ns ta ll i ng the ftywheel not to touch the sha rp edges against the wires as they can be s a s ilv cut in spite of the protective covering. Servic·e: No adjustments are possible on the alternator system and field service The faulty part should be r apfa c ed by a new part. The T'r-cub le Ana ly s i.s Chart to pinpoint t he faulty part on a 15 amp system.

=:=.

on

is not r e c orrirne.nd.e d, page 7. lOean be. used

Tests: There a-r-e crnly .a few t,ests that can be a pp l i.ed to. the charging circuit. If the battery is not being charged, checkout the battery first for c r.a ck e dc e l ls, etc., --if the battery proves lobe in g ood condition, that i s, the tests reveal it is able to hold charge, the trouble is either in a faulty rectifier-regulator

STARTER AC REGULATOR MAGNETIC TRIGGER B+ I KEY SWITCH AMMETER
-1111

12 VOLT 8ATTERY +

22 ohm RES ISTOR
IGNITION ASSEMBLY

FJ GURE 7-11

ALT£RNATUR CHARGING-BRE~KERLESS

IGNITION SYSTEM (15 AMP SHbWN)

7..9

or in the stator ing chart.

windings.

Check

stator

per test

procedures

outlined

i.n the accompanying

trouble

shoot-

The ignition circuit functions the same as pr evious ly des c r ib e d breaker ci rcuits and should be tested or serviced the same way.

les sandlot'

battery

ignition

Since the rectifier-regulator will not work (SCR's cannot turn on) without a battery in the system, there are no a ctual f e st s that can be performed on this unit with equipment in the fi e ldv--Lt will either regulate as required or it wilt not Iurict io r, at all. U it is not working, check to make sure that a good ground contact is made between rectifier and vehicle or engine--o£ten paint causes poor electrical path here.

Precautions1. Z. 3. 4.

-15 Amp Systems

Battery polarity must be correct, Negative ground systems are used with Kohler Engines. Pr everit alternator leads (AC) from touc h irrg or shorting. This could permanently damage the stator. Disconnect leads at rectifier-,r'egulator before e l.ec tr i c welding is do.ne on aqui pm ent in c ornrn on ground with engine. Do not operate for any length of time without a battery in the system. Procedure

Pre-Service I. Z.

Check to make sur e that a good g'round is .pr-ovid e d between the r e cEHie r - reg ula tor unit and the equipment. This must be in common ground with the engine and battery. (See wiring diagrams) Check for and correct poor connections or broken wires.

TROUBLE SHOOTING CONDITION:
NO CHARGE TO BATTERY

-15

AMP

SYSTEM
FAULT/REMEDY

TEST WITH ENGINE RUNNING AT 3600 RPM - NO LOAD POSSIBLE TEST A -- With B+ cable connected, check B+ (at to terminal on rectifier-regulator) ground with DC Vo 1tmeter . If 13.8 volts or higher. place minimum load of 5 * amps oil battery to reduce voltage: A-l -- If charge rate increases.

--

If charge rate does not increase. ............. -_. ~ at rectifier-regulator. TEST B -- Unplug connect YOM (multimeter) across AC 1eads , check AC voltage:

----, leads --

A-2 --

- ~~~---_.

Indicates alternator system OK, battery was fu l ly charged. A-2 -- Check for defective stator or rectifier. ~-_ ~ulator (lEST S).

A-l

--

---_--------

B-2

B-1 -- If 1ess than 28 volts,
If more than 28 volts. BATTERY CONTINUOUSLY CHARGES AT HIGH RATE

B-1 B-2

---

Defective stator, replace with ne\~ assembly. Defective rectifier-regulator, re place wi try new uni t. POSSIBLE FAULT/REMEDY

CONDITION:

TEST C -- Check B+ to ground with DC Voltmeter: C-1 -- If over 14.7 vol ts , C-2

C-l C-2

--

If under 14.7 volts.

---

R~ct1fier-regulator not·functioning proper ly. Replace with new unit. Alternator system OK. Battery unable to hold charge. Check specific gravity of battery. Rep lace if necessary.
a 2.5 ohm
]00

>iTurn

lights on: if 60 watts ba.ttery iiermina is .

'OT'

more

OT'

simulate

load by placing

watt :resistor'

ae1"OS8

7.1 0

DIODE

---

VOLTAGE REGULATOR
SOME UNITS)

(PERMANENTLY ATTACHED ON
FIGURE 7-12 --

COYER

REClIFIER-REGULATOR

UNIT--30

AMP SYSTEM

30 AMP ALTERNATOR SYSTEM
The 30 a m p flywheel-alternator is available as an option on the K241, K301 and K321 engines. is used with conventional battery ignition sy s terns , The main components of this system are: 1. 2. 3. Permanent rna gn et ring Alternator stator Rectifier-Regulator It

The magnet ring is inside the flywheel, the stator'is assembled to the bearing plate, or g sa.r' housing and the rectifier~regulator is mounted on the outside of the engine or, in some cases, on the equipment powered by the engine. Operation: As the magnets rotate a r ound the .sta to r, an Alternating Current (Ae) is induced in the primary windings of the stator. This current is carried thru the two black leads to the full wave rectifier segment of the rectifierregulator where it is converted to Direct Current (DC) for charging the battery. Regulation is provided by the solid state (no moving parts) e le ct r oni c devices in the redifierregulator. These "sense" battery voltage and allow a bucking current to flow in the secondary or r egu-

RED

RED 12 VOLT BATTERY

+

SPARK PLUG

.cONDENSER FIGURE 7-13 30 AMP ALTERNATOR CHA.RGING--BATTERY IGNITION SYSTEM

7.11

DO NOT operate engine with bat ter-yd i s c onne cted Ir orri Alt e-r nat or System. decreases AC output to a corresponding degree.ly requ. With engine stopped.2.--- B. refer to the accompanying trouble shooting guide to pinpoint the cau s e .12 . Check resistance on RXl scale of Ohmmeter. NEG .rimary in turn. 3. Replace stator if readings not at test values. A maximum 4 amp charge should be noted if stator is OK. Faulty regulator winding A. virtually service free." if arc welding is done on equipment in common ground with engine. If p r ob lerns do occur. Defective dt ode Is ) in rectHier B. Make sure AC leads are prevented from being grounded at all times. . 6.Connect Ohmmeter leads to 2 red TeaOs. r es isto r s or' wires s ma l l er than #10 A WG are in connection from battery to rectifier. 7.Connect Ohmmeter leads to 2 black leads . in battery voltage brings about a corresponding increase in current flow in the regulator current increases in the regulator windings. Defective regulator B. its magnetic field bucks that of the p.about 2. diode is faulty. Replace stator if full output of at lea~t 30 amps is not attaihed. any increase windings.about . Disconnect battery to regulator lead when battery is being recharged. B. alternator should charge at full output. Faulty windings in stator A. the 30 aIllp system has no moving parts and is.TROUBLE ANALYSIS . nator system" 1.connect these two leads together then s tart engine and operate at full speed. Make sure that no fuses. As winding which. Start engine and operate at full speed. to make s ur e that all connections are tight and that the leads are in good condition." terminal on Rectifier -Regulator. Remove 2 red leads from Rectifier . Replace unit. Remove red lead from "REG. Rectifier-regulator must be in common 'ground with engine and battery. Disconnect wire at terminal marked "BATT.s iona l check. 4.:. lato r windings of the stator when the voltage reaches a specific level.30 AMP ALTERNATOR CONDITION SYSTEM ACTION POSSIBLE FAULT A. NO (When load applied to battery) CHARGE A. Faulty r!gulator winding A. 2.irement is an oc ca.0 ohms resistance shoii'T'Oe b ~~ --Test 2 . The on. trouble is in regulator portion of Rectifier . With regulator winding disconnected. Above this level. Service: With the exception of the rnag ne t ring.Regulator. 5. Repeat procedure on the other AC terminal. The following precautions must be taken to avoid dam. TEST AND CORRECTIVE NO OUTPUT Remove four input leads from Rectitier Regulator. therefore. 1. If stator checks out. Test 1 .Regulator -. Precautions. FULL CHARGE NO REGULATION A. connect leads of flashlight type continuity tester between BAT-NEG and one of the AC terminals then reverse these leads--lamp should turn ON one way and OFF the other.l ohms should be noter. If lamp indication is the same both ways..aging components of the 30 amp alter- Battery polarity must be co:rrect--negative (-) battery terminal is connected to ground.

and precautionary measures are the same for both types: however. If an engine. the greater rnorn errturn of the flywheel throws the pinion out of mesh and back into the r etr a ct e d or disengaged position. is described in detail earlier in this section. the cranking time shoul. LES. The armature and.rve e nga gern enf until the engine fires and attains the speed where the flywheel begins overriding the armature. the permanent rnag net s provide this strong field and only a small current is required to turn the a r rna t u r e . the engine must be allowed .ke sure the special shouldered ca ps c r ews (and l ock wa s he r s ) are use d ..13 . t r oub Ie shooting procedure. The general operation.. of time. • Even though these starters can crank for long periods without overheating. a smaltanti-drlft spring holds the pinion in the retracted position. these special ca p s cr ews properly align the pinion to the ring gear on the engine. or there may be poor ignition or some other condition p r ev enti ng it from s ta rti ng . Operation: On the wound fiel~ type starters._4-------_____ ARMATURE TIl RUST WASHER r§J' CAPS CREW (MOUNTING) ~ L'~ END -- . flooded. Precautions: In the event of a "false start". the drive pinion moves laterally on a s p l in.. pinion remain in p.d be limited to 60 seconds. that is.ed sleeve into mesh with the flywheel ring gear. Use of ordinary caps crews will allow the starter to shift which could result i n cIa sh ing of the gears . After the starting circuit is opened and as the armature coasts to a stop. In addition to securing to the machined surface all.s a r y to sta-rt the armature turi'll...----- DRIVE PINION SHOULDER/ SPACER(S) PLAY STOP NUT (130-150 IN. Ma. FRAME BRUSH) WOUND FIELD COILS ~LOW ~ MOUNT STARTER ). fails to start a:£ter this length.made .probably something wrong with the engine or it lTlay be out of fue l. When the pinion butts against a s top washer at the end of the armature shaft. When the starting circuit is closed and the armature starts to rotate. the pinion rotates along with the armature to crank the engine. still rotating when the starter is engaged. which functions as a starting motor when the starting circuit is complete.(INCLUDES END CAP ASSEMBLY NEG. the crankcase. One is the wound fie Id type while the other is the permanent magnet (PM) type.cs it. other details differ and the types are therefore described separately. If the flywheel is. if the engine gets up sufficient speed to dis e rrg a g e the' starter but then fails to continue running.-ng--on the PM starters. a relatively heavy current i~ directed thru the field coils to build up the st rong magnehc f ie Id ne c es.to come to a complete halt before a restart attempt is .) FI GURE 7-14 WOUND FI ELD TYPE STARn NG MOTOR--EXPLODED VI EW The moior-generator. • STARTING MOTORS the starter 7. At this instant. There are two other general types of starting rn otc r s used. the pinion and ring gears may clash . there is .

re.a. ReITlove end bracket r erncva l of mounting SUp rnount ing bra c ke unit.SERVICE -WOUND The. ca p s c r ew from end ca p. Secure end ca pf o frame with two thru bohs--tig'hten thru bolts to 40 ..PM 1.14 . Hold positive brush spring away with a need!. stone or fine sandpaper to polish--do If commutator not use eInery is Brush Replac'ement./ . spring and r-ern ove Service.t ev--Le a. arid frame off ove r drive end of a r rna tu r e .55 inch lb.r e there is no e xc e s s of oil to splatter from thes e parts. SERVICE. TYPE STARTERS nd B rush . carefully slip end cap off end of armature. The positive brush is affixed to field winding--peel back insulat.ke sure good rne cha ni ca l and electrical contacts are me. . In s e.ss-errrb l in g new or serviced end cap a s se rnb l y . dirty.drive. P'ERMANENT MAGNETS /THRU BOLT / HIGH MOUNT TYPE PM STARTER .se wound Iie ld type starters. Brush . Solder or . FI. Installation: BefoTe r-ea. Ma. however. holding the negative brush must be drilled out arid the new brush riveted in its p la ce. r ern cv ejs ta rt e r from engine (remove two mounting ca. Use if r oa r se-c l oth to clean b r u sh e. bracket./ .release brush spring aft er b r ush e s.ar e started on corn muta to r .-makes u. torque value./ ../ ./ BRUSH DETAIL FIGURE 7-15 PERMANENT MAGNET TY PE S TARTt NG ~10TOR--E XPLODED VI EW 7.end ca-p assembly rrius t be removed to inspect arid service the brushes Remove the two thr u bolts then./ r10UNTlNG .r rna tu r e cs haIt with SAE #10 oil. 3. then carefuHy g\lideend c'!. 1£ Bendix is in good condition.ve completely dry on fh e. t. If drive p in i on orsplined sleeve is darriag ed.ELD STARTERS and e ommuta tor.c li p new brush to s a.. ins pect ancl service the Bendix·.r t positive brush in holder. springs and attaching parts..p s crews). End Cap Bendix Drive Assembly: To.COlllmutator grooved or extreInely cloth.CommutatOr' Se t'vice: The s ta rter ill us t be complete Iy di sa s s ernb led to 5 ervice b rug hesa commutator. then turn bracket so that it will not i rrt e r fe r e with 4. replace Bendix drive as s ernb l y . wipe clean but do riot Iubr i ca.e nose pliers. disassembly can be done quickly and easily" Proceed as fallows: Remove drive pinion Re:move th i-u bo lt s . Lift positive brush from h ol d e r if complete rerrroval of end cap is n e c e saa r y. Brush r-e pl acernent ca n be made with a new end :cap assembly or with a Brush Kit.i.me' spot.ng material.p into po's it i o'rr. remove old brush. use a commutator.d e. The kit contains brushes.wr a p insulating material a round new joint. Brushes should be replaced if unevenly worn or..s and commutator./ ./ . The rivet. 2. lightly coat bushing and snd of the . when worn down to less than 5/l6" in length.

DUSTSI-lIELD\ (OPEN END TYPE) DUSTSHI ELD7 (CUP TYPE) SHIELD RETAINER~ ffJ . install the spring and pinion stop (from kit) the n r eiris tall and tighten the r:etaining nut to 120 in. This completes the ins ta llat ion. springs. kit includes can be 2'. LUBRICATE SPLINE (FROM KIT) STOP -. To replace ins ul at ed brushes.DUST SHIELD INSTALlATION--PM 5.down on lathe.I -----~ . anti-dri£tspdng. DRIVE ASSEMBLY: If pinion is badly worn or has broken teeth. . Replace brushes as follows: The input brushes a r. Leave new drive unit off if further d i s a s s arrib l v of starter is required--drive unit is the las t pa r t to be reinstalled. 5.15 . Push the dust shield on until it snaps int o position over the shield retainer. 3. Remove the drive nut . Always US.s recommended for all a. s impl y remove caps crew and lock washer. remove nut s . .s t shield retainer and a dust shield. as a unit. Keep brush leads away from contact with metal of end cap. STARTING ~TOR 6. repLace drive. Thoroughly clean the drive shaft and pinion then apply a small amount of Lub r ip la t e AERO g r e a.o the permanent magnet type starting motors. Each kit includes a new pinion stop. hold armature shaft and remove stop nut.: 'T~Tn~ ". Reve r s e pr oc edu r e to reinstall drive unit~~ tighten stop nut to 90 -110 inch Ibs . To do this. use a brush holder tool as shown which can easily be cut out of thin sheet metal. torque. -. "I I (DISCARD ORIGINAL) STOP RETIGHTENNUT 10 120 INCH LBS. FI'GURt 7-16 -. The dust sh ie ld i. Clean up commutator with a coarse. To replace.. To kee p brushes in position so that they will fit over the commutator as the end cap is r-ei ns ta l l ed. the drive shaft can be lubricated which improves its operation. Separate end cap f r orn armature -!lQ.e new brushes and. . 7. When the shield is used. lb s. The kits should also be used to replace dust shields on starters which already have the shield..ppl i c at iorrs wh e re dust and oil could build up on the d r ive shaft and cause the drive pinion to stick.-.. a du.e part of the terminal stud assembly. Do not Lubricate spline (unless dust shield is used) as dust may build up here and cause sticking. 4. turn . The KISl a tapered open end type shield whi. ". Install the shield retainer next to the drive pinion as shown. DUST SHIELDS: Kits are available [or adding dust shields t. (Refer to Pa. make sure the shoulder ca pec r ews are used as these establish a lignment of the drive pini on to ring g ea r .pacer. then slip drive unit off over spline and armature shan. lint-free c loth=--Jf badly worn or grooved. 7. The dust shield quickly added after the starter is removed f r orn the engine..s e (or equivalent) to the shaft.. When reinstalling the starter.s.• pinion stop and s prIng-o-di s ca r d the stop.rtsBulletin #65 for kits). and pull stud out thru inside of end cap.I./ r-: ~" 'V '-i) ~... Insert new stud terminal-brush unit after tl:ansferring insulation bushing from old unit. ~/~' s.E: Brush springs wilt probably fall out when brushes pull free of the commlltator. 1. A s s e rnb l e brushes with chamfered s ide away from springs. 8.l e the Kz41-K3ZI kit has a cup type ah i e ld .

Battery: Check specific gravity of battery .ct to for m a tight pre 5_5 fit on -the flywheel. Position the heated gear on the flywhe'el.ifs. This can be done.ested rernedyarestated.if 10\~. Thesympt()m.v worn or otherwise darnag ed teeth. A s the gear cools. 'rh. STARTER FAilS TO ENERGIZE A-l A-2 Sta rti rig S. 1.vi ce that requires partial dis- TEST PROCEDURE . Several methods may be used to remove the da rna. to The new gear rnust be expanded with heat be£?re ins ta l la.Ilowe d cool before the new ring g ea r ca n he installed.RTER ENERGIZES BUT TURNS TOO SLOWLY B-1 B-2 RING ring GEAR REPLACEMENT If inspection of the ring gear reveals broken.l. Battery: Check condition of battery (See A-3).TROUBLE SHOOTING 'TROUBLE ANALYSIS: pr. One method is tob r eak th e gear into sections with a cold chisel and/or a hack -saw. used. the gear rnu s tb e replaced. a r ece s S . \oli ri nq: or Solenoid: Bypass the swi tch or 561 en oi d with jumper wire . If the latter method is. replace A. flywheel retaining nut to the proper torque value after reinstalling th e flywheel on the engine_. The flywheel must be removed .a 150.ms that can chart.tarter cranks normal l y . which the only recommended field s e r.ged ring gear. Replace brushes if excessively or unevenly worn.broand tighten connections. Replacement of the end cap assembly. by s ub m e r g irig the gear in horo il or heating in an oven to about 400° F.a re liste. is assembly of the motor. pos s ib le cause and the p r ob Ie.16 .gea r is pre 5 5 fitted into.. check for u neven 1y W'Orn or d i rty brushesa.ori the outer pe rirrret e r of the flywheel.STARTER ON ENGINE CONDITION POSSIBLE FAULT .. The ring . If these step's do not solve replaced. See brush r ep l acenent procedure'. then a ft e r making sure it is not cocked. exc e s si v al.Ir orn the engine tnr ring gear replacement. Brus hes : Remove end cap. occur during n o r ma. STA.STA_RTING M0TORS . it will contra. the start'ing -rrlOtor' should be i nc l ude s the negative brush and spri. usage . the Il ywh ee l will a Is-o absorb SOUle heat and _i't must be a.oble..ANDCORRECTION or loose connections . either press the gear 'on with an arbor press or drive it o n with a S oft head harnrn er . Use a coarse cloth (not emery paper-) to clean.d in the ac cornpa nyi ng the su~g. Another way is to heat the ring gear with a torch. replace' defecti ve part.en drive the gear off'the Ilywbe e l .nd commutator.ng.rri. recnarge or rep lace ba t te ry as n eces s ary .l.t iori.itch A-3 I Check for bad lycorroded ken or frayed insulation. B. sure to tighten 'the. Be. Clean wires in poor condition.

d s c r ew s are-loose.r assembly can be removed starter d r-iv e 'cup will ser ve a's a pulley for e rrie r ge nc y purposes.i. the n m ove s ta.vo ided by hol di ng. STEP starter [room .REWIND SPRINGS WITH EXTREME 4 blower housing to mounting flange bolts. If r e c o i]./llO then remove with .i nut. sCrBwsand HAIlGE [ElliER! NG 19 PIN /' ROT()R 18 REWIND SPRING FIGURE IH FAIRBANKS-NORSE STAinER. intake s-cr e'e n is maintained If in FAi RBANKS· M RSESTART E RS Sta r ter s. To remove for disassembly. eng. 'starter r ea l ignrn e nt-ma y be ne ce ss a r y .r ting rope b r e a k s Or if s ta.e starters ar e lubricated during as. .n shoe a s sern bly (includes parts #11. and engine cranked with a rope. will not receive excessive wear from Ir..steady pun win start engine· under nc r rna. remove fails. spring /1·8. B) white removing flanges /13 and #5.on on r ew ind spring by r em ovingJiand'le then allowing rotor Model 475 OnlyTo prevent r ota. D. A pin on the.ernbl~ :£0'1' cord or re'wInd spring replacement rn a nu Iac tu r e and should or for other repair.u r e should be follo·wed. 'have die' cast a lurn i nurn housings.r ter to bench 1 .I conditions.Rerilove'washer'1!7. sc r ee n is kep t c le an when operating engine or serious 'engine darnage ca. s ta r te.1 .RETRACTABLE STARTERS Re t r a c tabl. do not aHow sta r te r rope to S nap back into s ta r.y' wear.thurnb whil. B. See Pa.m ON .Yeaul t from lack of B.r ting spring tification Ill us t r at icn for pa r ts reference numbers.e removing r aca i ner ring #6 STEP Ir.s. E. on blower hou. . washers 119 &.aged in cr a nkahaft keywa y to p r ev e nt s l ippage of the drive cup. require no furlhe r lubrication until d"sFrequently check mQuntingscrew·s..Iow spring to slowly unwind.n.ic ti on against guide.Model 425 Only . a Be su r'e starter cooling air. hold rotor #7 (as shown' in Illus .r t s IdenCAUTION:. Do not use s ta rte r in a roug·h rna rine r . to hold handle will shorten C.aae rotor to al.startershould ever fail. Always Proper pull starter handle straight out so that rope pr-oce dur e will prevent unne c e's sa'r. hou s ing. CAUTION. PARTS I DENT! FI c. to make sure. Continue arid ial l.wirtd ·slowly . A). Al so make SUIre that air clean condition at all times. The drive :cup is held in place on the engine wi th rthe flywhee.s.ti on . such as jer'king . The Disassembly If s ta. the following p r oc e d. Note: Releasing ha·ndl" wh en starter rope is extended life of starter. A smooth.Loss of parts can be a. STEP 3 .A f r ic ti on shoe a s s e mb ly under spring tension is used a ndce nga ge s in the d:rive cup wh!.Relieve te n.wa s he r #7 in position with a screwdriver (rHus.sing 0'[ engine. After eng ine has s ta r te d . cup is.n the'starter handle is pulled. Gradually re le. to unwind 'slowly. HANDLE . or pu ll ingrs'ta r ter r ope all the way out. rz.ow s ta r ter rope' to r-e.eng ine . Z .te r. Operation A.Ic tto. starter is securely tightene. 13 and 1'4).

Sp ring holders furnished. . spring #8. rotate rotor five ruruswtth the a·ir. exp Ia in e d rn Pa:ragn'-phs. then and tie a StHtinR Rope. C). note the pos it ion of spring l oop . the following the foUow'in.l of c o r d in the direction shown. and 4.-1 turns. washers 119&. us'. pre-tension.ope is now completely wound on rotor i n the dt r ec lion. as showu (Hlus. Model 425 O'lly . is too sh.Hold ing Flange" (#5and #3) STEP rotc r i.When rsp lac ing with new sp r iug-. with the outstde loop etl'gaged a r cuud the pin. pull out the .g Sta rt. Then press the spring into cover cavity thu su-e lea s ing thevsp r i ng holder. the c r-ank s ha ft and press into position. friction ring 416. holding. Rep la.eful l v from c.$ shown in I1J us .n a similar . E).e l y..gaged i n the pin.ng lao!" [rom roto r . ~hen iris ta.s w'ith lock washers and securely tighten and nat washers.0 . screws. thread through rot o r hole [rHus. B.e: loop. Reassembly STEP I . (Il lu s .. in Illu s. if used.ce nte r iug pi" # 19a1lou. A few drops of SAE 20 Or 30 oi Ls hou ld then be'. To insure the p r op e r cente-ring of the ·starter. with replacerrie nt springs simplify the aa s e mb lv procedure.d r-ope on rotor. place it on the blower housing qmter hole _of the cra nkahaft . fllO.of an inch. As sembl-y.app\ied 10 sp r inga. -as .ove r by pulling out one IDOl? at a time.@. with the' centering pin . correct' length.SCl:'~W (#4) 425 l\. (H"the centering and pul l the p in Out \0 the.Il in g a new rope # 16 in roto~. shoe a s s e rnb l y .it i on as shown .ta r te r on the four screws.•' in a similar nartges {ii.ete l y wound in proper rotation om rotor before 2 .l1.RECONOm ON! NG.:rcmove sprit.Place rotor (complete with cord and ha ndle ) into cover #20 and hook to i-otor with theaid-cfa s crewdr ive r . win.Holding 1'01.Starter . fOUI" addi biorra I turns are added in the s arne-diz ecti on.s Onl>. rrianrrer Fl.g (rom escaping from c over by ca reful ly lifting r o to r about 1/2 inc ha rid detach ius ide sp.t 1I8.Model 475 Only .Be sure rope is c ornpl. (Note: If s_pring"should escape.ing .g ca r. ) Pres s the starter Hold the s ta r te l' in the ides i red position.ov e r shaf't. into position .Replace wa s her s 1f9 & ~ 10. Start with the ir:sid.[otl ei. d. To align starter. IMPOR TANT: For For p r e vte nsi on .Prevent rewind sprin. Pla. samblv in this cente red p os itton the four 8. r e ta irring STEP washer STEP 3 . handle and wa s he r .nd l i ght -grease on c. FAI RBANKS-MORSE STARTER STEP 4 . B. Model 4·15. ). Model cord th r u slot and r ep Ia ce STEP 4 .Note: The s ta rte r will be damaged if it is not c e n te r ed p r oper ly .2 . l.ce the s. ma nne r aB s hown a r e r e pl a c ed.nd install the four -sc rew. 5 ." a pair of plie!'s B. make sure the ce nt e r irig p ine ngages the cente. C.ide loQ[Jof spring insialling #7 and in cover. (IUus."!.:rhQle in. Repl aco. 2.S and #3) . it can easily be r e p la ced in cover by co il. Thread haridke .or t to reach the c r a nks haft .e r on Engine: A.. 425. D).g parts parts are replaced.placeinelll: 1. ins. Hold the starter with _one hand and place the Iockwashe r s and nuts on the screws a ndti ghten s e cu r.475 Models Only .oub'Ie knot in the end of the rope. back restor ~urns. Rewind Spriilg H. Reins talli. Place spring in proper p os.-.1'-5 a.c e rn e n t: 1.A B FI GURE 8-2 .

remove old !Oope and replace with new -double' knot -e n d of r. of w i r-e to form hook -. r e iu s ta Il. move the s ta.emb lv .Re'place Hanelle andTe st: in end oJ Tope'. place spacer r-e ta iner atld s ecu r e wi th s c r ew [w it h wa s he r i s l ..s tart on inside loop.s'la c k r.Sheave-Pulley Assembly: a. r-ernove. pllll r. b • . Place new sp'ring i n hou. pull e rre loop out at. then install . starters are pre~lulnicated during asse mb ly and s hculd require no disassembled to :replace s ta rti ng r op e io r rewind spring.sing. 8.n dl e then t. assembly out of housing -can.f n notch. pre.ope thru bushing __ temporarily ti e knot in rope to hold tension while irrs ta Il. after blocking spring to p re ve nt La te r a l movement.spring while the a s s e mb l y is rernoved .s in s l ct on hub. pullout'to allow hub on inside Of pulley to slip into inside of spring. PlaCE! ropa. Bend piece.p r op er ly pre-tensioned.EATON RETRACTABLE STARTERS Eaton -:retractable.. into inner hub of as s e mb l y . then fully seat and turn pulley until spring e nga ge.ofis side face .cement (omit Sfep 4 if rope r e pla ce me nt unnecessary) Rs m ove 4 sc rews on sheave side of pulley ... ca r. When the starting rope is pulled. b. Rew ind t'op·e on pulley' a s s.sheave of rewitld spring flu.ta lj mg STEP Z- l<'eli~eve rewind. spring tension as foUows: <to Pull rope fiandlepu..tape' m u s t be. The Eaton starter is mounted On engine with 5 tn. b. cut and rem ov ed in se grnent s .di sa ss e mbte . If r ope Or ~pring re.(:arefullyremov'e r ew ind spriog . . pill! r cpe to fully extended po. In ser-te. Th re a d end of rope th r u ha.eLf'r orn spring.'prfl~'fe!lsion puLley is. STEP" 8.op e then: r ea s s embIe pulley to sheave. Slide pulley-sheave into p:osittonwith hub inside spring. Tie permanent 'knot .of puUey.sheave assembly. s.e f ul lv r-e m ov e r e ta.pe it used . As-socnas tension on the r ope' is' released" the pawls the d r ive icup .do not p e.ot at handle. b.bly STEP 1 _ Housing .r te r to bench for di sa s s e mb ly .h r u eope re ta iner. pawls 0. _ Dog Retainer.e . D'isassembly STEP 1 _ R·emove s c rew(a nd wa s he r s )cmdog retaine r a nd rs l tp r e hiner. c .and re~Base.. r-ope will fully r ew ind 11nt11handte hits housing'.e y .tens ior.3 . r e ta ine r in handl e. unwind vi ol ent Iv unless CAUTION: Ius i d e loop it is held in housing STEP 4 _ Starting Rope Bepla. 5' mounting 'screw's a'nd handling and i n s. fastened Cover p o s't on outIur the r service unless the blower housing of the a drive cup whi c h is retract to disengage from the. Hold pulley and slack up on r op e .Rewind Spring Replacement (omit Step 5 if rewit1d sp r irig replacement unriece sea r v ) a.a time. rewind springs.1' dogs engage in s e cur ed N the end of'the crankshaft.hook inside loops. Un tfe temp o ra ry knot in .ining clip' <lc. OOG FIGURE 8-3 EATON RETRACTABLE STARTER STEP 3 .STEP Rewind Spring: a..c a reful l y slip r eta ine r off to avoid damaging rna 11 spring spring .eing pult ed into hous ing . aHgnedwi.th bushing. af te r blocking housing to prevent it from turning.he a ve from pufl.irid ing rapidly. CAUTION: Use extreme care when removing. If'. then."irs be corne necessary. Reinstall dogs in p~lley. STEP 2.ing ha ndl. b.rope.she-ave with thumb to prevent r e wirid spring from unw. inches ..nd ta.Sheave Removal: Ca r e ful Iy sI'ip pulley . washer ami hook spring over puney sbaf t .ounting sc r e w s . Re m ov e wire. be STEP 5 .s i ng .ope out until in otc h in 3 . Rea ss em. slip rope out of r etai.t ie knot i n rope ~Q pr e ve nt rope from b.sit'ioT"J.Inse rt screwdriver blade uude r rope r e ta ine r on handle. Hold pulley . the".'placement or other n'p:. :spri!1g by r ota tihg pulley and pull . then untie other knot and slowly allow 'sp ring to unwind.ne r and untie kn. of re wirid sp rmg .Pulley .nd of tope th ru bushing in hou.t about 8.

After removing starter from engine. secure the pulley in this position (b l ock it to prevent it -f r orn rewinding). ROPE REPLACEMENT: If the' rope has not broken. then tie a knot in rope--carefuUy burn end slightly to fuse it. slip the other end in th.a. it must Us e the following p r-o c edu r e to Attach starter to e ng ine with retaining capscrews but do not tighten capscrews all the way. It's a relatively simple Job to replace the rope b efo r e it breaks. simply pull the r ope to its full extended position. making it a permanent knot. replace the rope as follows--make sure starter is realigned with the drive cup when itis reinstalled on the engine. be realigned. i ns t. ALIGNMENT. in housing and the hole in the pulley. 1.do not require se r vdcing .ALIGNMENT While retractable starters . it will be necessary to return thesla:rter unit toan authorized service center for repair--don't attempt to d is a s semble these starters as the rewind spring can unwind violently if improperly handled. worked loose on e ng i ne.s ta r-t e r . they should be checked occasionally to make sure they are secure and also that the rope is in good condition. Slowly release the pulley--brake it so that the rope winds 'slowly . Realign starter 10 drive cup per the i ns t r uc rio ns below.4 .ru the bushing.s is not done.a r-ound the pulley until it is fully retracted. cut the knot off and remove the old rope. align . 'replace it immediately. Pull starter handle out about 8" so that starter centers as dogs engage in the d r ive cup then hold rope in this position while tightening starter mounting capscrews to complete ins tallation. teeth in drive cup will be damaged. 2. the pulley is free to unwind violently which can result in a broken spring or other damage calling for rebuilding of the starter. Wh e ne ver retractable starter has b-e en removed or has If' tb i. If the rope is frayed. Install the handle on a rope. 8.l l the rope retainer washer. If rope was broken.ROPE REPLACEMENT _. but if it does break.

ablespoon of oil into spark plug hole.build ~p in the crankcase. is done not ENGINE STORAG.Il ing .rankcase vacuum check is best accompl1s-hed wi. light oi:l.ge-d oes 'not warrant pu r cha s e of commercial product.ch increments s tra ig ht section from 0 to 12". (See on Seal C.checked first: A. If water column is higher in tube connected toenglne.ENGINE-G_ENERAL SERVICE COOLING Air is drawn into the cooling shroud by fins·-p·rovided·on the nywheel·.d s urf'a ce s of engine subject to corrosion. in. Drain fuel. proceed as foll-ows: (a) Procure length of clea r plastic tubing. C. e. c.th the "V" tube manometer. ENGINE rESTS Crankcase. range. These direct air ·flow past cooling fins.phe ri c side oi manometer. if vacuum is not in the specified.h clean.external surfaces. m er cury arid water manometers are available commercially. p o s it. EXTERNAL SURFACES ExternaJ only for safety surfaces must and appearance be maintained but because in clean condition free of any.. e ra nk engine slowly by hand and replace spark plug. pression leaky 'test can caus e positive pressure.Is. Measure inside. A water "U" tube manometer is s irnp le to construct if limited usa. The rotating air sere-en and the cooling fins on the block and cylinder head must be kept clean and unobstructed at all times. r e=Lns ta.auges. place cork end into oil fill hole (ofhe.E If engine a. Remove. This poor cooling efficiency results from dirty. the following steps are r e c ornrne nde d: Drain oil from crankcase w'h i. water {colored. Drill hole in center of cork to receive 'one end of tube: (d) Pour. An engine in good condition will have c r-a nkca se vacuum of 5 to 10" water column as read on "U" tube water manometer or 1/2 to 1" Hg . Never operate engine with blower housing or cooling shrouds removed. 9.ti ng at normal temperatures.NOMETER When using rna nometer. for easier reading) into tube until level reaches the approximate halfway mark on scale. cuum Test: A partial vacuum should be present in the crankcase when e ug i ne is ope r a.1'AEEN COLUMNS {c) Pr-ocure cork ha'ving outside diameter which will be a snug fit in the oil fill hol e . f. is to be out of service for a considerable length of time. is usually evident around worn oil s ea. clean and replace sediment bowl.. Refill crankcase. thoroughly clean. Make. g. this could be attributed to one or more of the following factors -. d.a rbur-e to r .d on mercury vacuum gauge.le engine is still hot and flu sh wit. Clean exterior of engine. and c. b. FIGURE 9-1 "u" TUBE MiJ. To construct water m anomete r .1 .s then recheck pressure after Oil leakage to . of tube and mark (b) MEASURE DIFFERENCE BE.nd measure difference between columns. va c uurn 01' negative fl'ressur e is i udi c a ted. Pour t. Clogged Crankcase Breather assembly.sse-rrrb le breather B. lack of vacuum. as -calibrate. rather than sharp bend in tub e. Spr ea d+a light film of oil over anyexpo se. T'he se conditions can be confirmed by making com- Constru'ction .oil and dirt accumulation. tank.i v e pressure is present. Di s a. cause positive 'pre ssur e s. \Vor'n oil seals can cause Replacement Instructions) Blowby. On vaives can also ·engJne. If the highe I' c 0-1urn n is 0 n the a tum s .!lU" Tube Manometer Vacuum g. V .the .r end open to a tm o s phe r e ] a. Removal results in i rnp r ope r air circulation. Bend tube to form "V" and mount on b oa r d a's 'shown in accompanying illustration. Store in dry place.cond it ion e as ie s t to remedy should be. gradual.

Re condition engine. Remove head. B. On ACR e ng ines . e xces s ive c a r b on deposits have built up in the combustion A simple"feel" test can be used as a "spot check" if poor compression is suspected as the reason for har-d stading and lack of power.f nd ic a te good compression. than than for the Model. rotate flywheel b a ckwa rd s (c cunte r c l oc kwi s e direction) if l irtl. Coris i s ta nt readings of 110 to 12n p s i. Cylirlder head A. than normal compression can indicate tha D. If results of test point to poor c omp r e s s ion -= this test sh cufd be followed up with the mo re precise and accurate test method using a cornp r e s s ion gauge. Piston rings worn .Compression Test: The results ofacompression check can be used to determine if an engine is in good operating cond i t i on Or if recondi.s. test procedure foJ. C. B. re in s ta. 9. c he ck for fla tnes s (see cylinder head service). the compression. Cylinder he. t Re c ond i tj on engine. Valv·es Iea king. che ck with c ornp r e s s i on gauge. several plug. COMPRESSION REMEDY A. 650 RPM·. Hold throttle wide open. and take compression reading. Higher chamber. head.considerable resistance should be felt 1\S piston approaches TDC.tioning j s needed. CHECK high tension Iea d from Spin flywhee l agains tc ornpr e ss Ion . e ng irie s . it should snap dmvnward on the power stroke. reinstall 'and ·secure in proper se"lue nc e to spec ifi e d torque value.COMPRESSION Remove spark GAUGE TEST comp r e s s ion gauge in hole.2 . and insert Engine will have to be motored to a speed of about 1000 RPM. B.Il E. C. K91 and other pre-ACR (WITHOUT GAUGE) the spark plug . D. Since AGR engines engines is different I . After piston reaches TDC.(clockwise di r e c tion) On pre-AGR and Model K91 engine s.e ornore sis ta n ce is felt. recheck replace gasket. Piston should bounce backward with considerable force. compression. Low :readings c a n indicate several conditions or a combination of the following conditions: LOW POSSIBLE CAUSE gasket blown..SPOT Re rnove release c ornp r e s s icn at speeds Lowe r. Pull piston over Top Dead Center (TDC) .blowby o c cur ring . against power stroke - METHOD A.ad warped or l oo s e . 2 . Remove head.' these METHOD A.

e Or c o nta rn i na te d lub rica cion.ar e : Often 1.walls can also be caused by l oca l i.ludge is a rra tu r. heat of pr e i g n i eed fuel raises tempe r-a lures to value s . 'oil will be forced out of an engine at oil seals.by .mproved service and operating technique's which w i l I resu'lt iiIe.comparable' to tha t of an ace tyl e ne torch. Of'te n the cause will become apparent in view cif the pa rt icula r c ondi.INSPECTION-DISASSEMBLY When disassembling an engine. a c ts mainly 001 thoe top. The top of (he piston ring ma'y be burned thrdugh or the top g'rbove ma y be e x c e s a ive Ly wo r n and the r in g broken or stuck in the groove. Excessive sludge formatiOn c oul-d ind i c at e 5 e ve r a l things. This can be: a tbr i'bu t e d to abnormal combustion. damage to p i s t. It can a Is 0 indicat~ operation with improper ignition timing or over rich carb ur s to r adjustment or a poo r ly se rv ic e d clogged air c l es ne r which restricts ail' intake and also results in an ov e r r ich mixture.ze d hot spots resulting from blocked cooling fins or from i na de q uat.' other a va i l.s cornpr e s s i'on s troke .abl e spot.. Excessive Scoring sludge and varnish walls. These a re just a Ie w of the m o re common indicators. ot he r words.xternal Oil Leakag" If excessive oil leakage is evident.il s off the pis ton and cylinde-r walls so that the piston. Scoring of the c v l i n d e r. 4. 'IOU may be able to suggest i. land and top dng of fhe piston and r e s ul t s in early failure. in s e ve r-e cases.y at p r es s ur-e S und e r a tmosphe ric Or.t io n of the part. carefully inspect and note the physical appearance the appearance ·of parts will indicate operation under other than ideal c ond it ions . ignition will occur while the piston still has a long distance to t r a vel.sen-iced breather systems. Numerous o the r s exist and a r e obvious to the e xpe r iAlways look e n ced rne charuc . 10.o. v Evidence of E.a result •. S. the combined heat of c ornp re s s i on plus the.c omp one nts . In observing these indicators. Ior rnation. The most c ornrnon caus e is perhaps too infrequent lubricating oil cha ng ea.on s and ri n g s can take various Io rrn s . with a negative crankcase p·ressure.1 . this may indicate irnp r op e r ly . Some of the things to look for . in prolonged engine s'e r v i c e of the cylinder damage. an engine ·ope rate 5 iut er na Il. 3. on it. of cour s e. As 'raw fuel seep s d own the cy l inde r wall s . If p cs i t ive p re ss u r e s build IIp within the c rankca se f r o mva clogged b r ea the r 0 r. gaskets or an. cause scuffing and scoring of the cyl iude r walls. Scoring qr the Cyli"der Wa.ng is ov e r a dv a nc e d . it 'lias he 5 the nee e ss a r y l ub r i ca ting . rings ma keim e ta l to metal c oritac t w i th the walls. l:f ignition timi. As . This. of each of the . (o r lhese signs when disassembling all engine prior to reconditioning. Normally.ll Un b u r n t fuel not only adds to sludge formation but can. Se v er e piston Evidence of external 0\1 leakage. 2.a l by-product of combustion a nd a small a ccurnulat ion is normal.from p i s ton blow. . in. FIGU!RE Severe Piston 10-1 Damage REMOVE FLYWHEEL I-1lTH PULLER FIGURE 10-2 USING VALVE Cm'1PRESSOR Majo.

nd regrind cranksha. piston-rod assembly. the miniblock may be the best repair rn eth od ..PUSH BREAKER .. valve mechanism. both internally and externally. If you have complete shop facilities to rebore cy liride r s a.> ROD. Omitting these items not only reduces costs but allows the miniblock to be used in place of a short block in cases where the short block crankshaft is not. suitable for the particular application..fts.2 . SPRINGS. CAMSHAFT CONTROL OISC~ BUSHING"" (&1 GOVERNOR ASSEMBLY GEAR . lJ ~ . MINIBLOCK: A miniblock could be ccnside red as a "crankless" short block since it has the same items except that the crankshaft and bearing plate assembly are 'Omitted.J. is extensively damaged or badly worn internally. you may choose to completely ove·rhaul the engine using appropriate oversize and/ or undersize replacement parts. Parts included with each short block are shown in the accompanying illustration.OQ J"-..COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL SHORT BLOCK ASSEMBLY SHORT BLOCK. including crankshaft. a short block could be used. KEEPERS PISTON.. If an engine is in bad shape. FIGURE 10-3 -. If the bore. connecting rod are damaged but the crankshaft and all other parts ate in good condition. 10.l internal parts. RI NGS (ASSEMBLY) PIN CAMSHAFT PIN. VALVES. &.~\ P.ase-bearing plate assembly must be in condition to be reused on the miniblock.. When an engine. crankshaft and bearing plate installed--all other items must either be transferred from the damaged engine or taken from stock to build the short block up to a complete unit. Each short block includes a crankcase with a l. CROSS SHAFT CONNECTING (ASSEMBDY ) SPRING.REPLACEMENT METHODS There are several different methods to choose when repairing a failed single cylinder engine... camshaft. such as. These repair and replacement methode are described briefly in the following. D~ COVER (FUEL PUMP PAD) are assemb led to Short & GASKET NOTE: AU parts Block exaepi: oi Z fi ZZ tube and dipetriek. The crankc. ~ ~ ~ BREAKER POINTS (ASSEMBLY) RD.ersal Service Engine or <: basic catalog engine if available for the engine spec involved.REPAIR . piston. consider replacing it with a Univ..

-~~----~ " -.3 . reduction gears or whatever is called for under the particular specification.MOUNT \. when available.TYPICAL UNIVERSAL SERVICE ENGINE (ROPE START VERSION) 10. FUEL TANK : I FOR (OPTION) Yl. s BOLT APPLI CAT! COMMON PILOTS ct RCLES FOR FUEL PUMP OR COVER ONS FIGlJRE 10-5 -. ASSEMBLY Miniblocks. Miniblocks and short blocks are offered as repair aids while the Universal Service Engines are for co. starting motor or motor generator.mplete replacement of failed engines.0' MUFFLER FLAT TYPE ~ PROVISIONS TOP . short blocks and Universal Service Engines are Ii st ed by variation nurnb e r .COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL MINIBLOCK ASSEMBLY UNIVERSAL SERVICE ENGINES: These are complete engines less such items as fuel tank. RETRACTABLE START VERSIONS AVA! LABLE /---"''':.m "the failed engine Or added using ·service kits. BALL BEARING (REAR ONLY) ASSEMBLY e9/ POINTS ORDERING CORRECT GOVERNOR PARTS ~ (INSTALLED) BREAKER & ROD " CONNECTING ASSEMBLY ROD ~~~~"~ CAMSHAFT (INSTALLED) FIGURE 10-4 -.@Jq} I OIL SEALS RINGS l_U. These items may be transferred fro.. Basic (catalog) engines are also indicated in the index where available. for the engine spec involved in the Specification Number Index of the pa r ts rna nua L. The basic catalog engines are complete units built to specifications including fuel tank starters. Basic catalog engines are available only for certain specification numbers. ELECTR I C START.

breaker assembly and push rod. a the r as s e mb l y.the sequence may such as motor . 17.DISASSEMBLY PROCEDURE The following is intended as a guide to di sas sernbl y of the standard be varied slightly to facilitate re m ova. instrument panels.9. crankshaft out of cylinder block.r to t- Z. valve cover and b r. Pin will slide out easily Remove Loosen Unscrew earn shaft and valve tapp e ts .tif r ic t. Remove va l v e Raise va. fuel tank. shaft from inside it may be n e c e s s a r yito p re s s if this is done. 1. remove carburetor carburetor.e r head. Disconnect Close Remove Remove Remove Remove Remove valve air lead and remove spark plug.gne to assembly. 18. Burnp iug end of crankshaft with harnme i. screen and head b aff le .n. 11.Iv e springs with a spring compressor spring r e ta i ne r s . blower rotating housing.4 . 5. have s ta. at carburetor. pulley. ing a small. on sediment c l earie r from b o wl . ·Sedime. and r e m ov e gove r no r ann governor bushing nut and remove governor right of cyli!1der nut until b l ock.to loosen flywheel s hould be a vo ided as damage c i-ariks. 1.ha. pin out from power-take-of! 16. Use of a puller ts recommended flywheel. etc. from governor shaft. Re rno ve piston assembly from cylinder block. 12. engine items mcde l s -. 4. 20. fuel line intake. Bearing plate should be removed first Turn cylinder block upside down andvus side of engine. oil s e a'l s and .generators. 13. ma. 9. 10. e c yl ind. 7. and push valve keepers off valve sterns. 3. 8. 15. for removing this can Flywheel is mounted on tapered portion of the crankshaft.l of sp e c ia l equipment or accessory e r s . Remove crankshaft. located to lower of governor bushing FIGURE 10-6 -- REMOVING BEARING 'PLATE WlTl1 PULLER 10.. . if n e c e s sa r y . punch. Remove oil base and 'unscrew 14. c o nne c ti ng rod ca p.ft . 6.t b owl 'and brackets cylinder and starter baffle remain attached to tank.ion b e a ri ng s . au. breaker point lead. springs and valves. d r ive camshaft after it is driven free of block. Remove Remove Remove Remove breaker point c ov er . governor gear is -f r e e Loosen (do not r e move} screw to s Iide off stub shaft.

oil and grime accumulation from engine parts. There are many commercially available cleaners that.CYLINDER A. rebating is necessary. inside micrometer to determine amount of wear (See Fits and Clearance Section). Diesel fuel oil or kerosene can be applied to the stones as a cutting-cooling agent.ing . B. 010. (See Recond:ition.With the lower edge of each stone po s it ione d even with the Iowest edge of the bore. then after drying thoroughly. 2. BLOCK INSPECTION A. Reboring to one of these over sizes will allow usage of the available oversize piston and ring assemblies. 005.030". the bearings can be reused.Lower hone into bore and after cente r ing .ckly remove grease. If cylinder bore is not damaged and is within t.ke sure that all trace of the 'cleaner is removed before the engine is reassembled and placed in operation.Cylinder Block.See Clearance Section for original c yl. CYLINDER 1..) If the bearings turn e as i l y and noiselessly and there is no evidence of scoring 01.020 or .ENGINE RECONDITIONI'NG All parts. After installing coarse stones in hone I proceed as follows: Bl . remove coarse stones and replace with bu r ms hing rst.ol e r a nce s only light deglazing may be necessary. excessively Worn or tapered or out of round more than . Surfaces must also be free of deep scratches or nicks. Ev e n small amo~nts of these c Ie aner s qui ck ly break down the Iub r i. size then use finish stones and polish to final size. should be thoroughLyde.aned--dirty parts cannot be accurately gauged or inspected properly for wear or damage. Bearing. apply light coat of SAE· 10 oil to prevent r ue t. Use an.. If such a cleaner is used.MEASURING CYLINDER BORE 11. Use an inside m i. . While most commercially available cylinder bo r e s can be used with either portable drills or dr iIl p r e s s es . 00 o o B o 0 FIGURE 11-1 -. Check size frequently. adjust so that stones are in contact with walls.When bore is within. B2 .ksha£t c r os abo r e . Reboring is best accomplished at drill speed of about 600 RPM. B. Continue with burnishing st. B3 . '0025 ot'desired size. Do not remove bearings unless they show signs of damage and are to be replaced. Reboring procedure . Move hone up and down while reboring to prevent formation of cutting ridges. ma. Gasket surfaces -Check all surfaces to make sure that they are free of gasket fr.inde r wall with soap and wa te r .3 .inde r bore size. B4 .cr orne te r to measure wear then select nearest suitable oversize of either. the use of a Iow speed drill press is preferred as it facilitates more accurate alignment of the bore in relation to the cran. BLOCK Remove old oil seal from block but do not install new seal until after crankshaft is reinstalled.1 . start drill and honing process.a gments and sealer materials. 0005 of de s i r ed. qui.If badly sc or ed . Cylinder bore . RECONDITIONING .grooving on the races. C.(Crankshaft} .One beadng is p r e s se d into the cylinder block--the other is located in the bearing plate.one s until within.ca ti ng properties of engine oils.After re b o r-ing .oue s . carefully clean c yl.

e . 1.nce. (3 PIECE) SERVICE (4 PIECE) GROOVE INSTALL BOTTOM RING FIRST MIOULE GROOVE PROD.s . replacement gear teeth wiU also necessitate of the c rarikreplacement '2.and if the old piston is within wear limits and free oi score or scuff ma r ks . {iIO" und. Check bearing.s i z.r. . the. Rings must be' installed according to marking.ti ng rods with be"ring area .e rsi ee connecting rod (big end) rnus t then be us ed to achieve proper r unning-c l ea ra.nge me n t to pr ov i. If the cylinder block does not need reboTing.002". running and side clearance. TYPE I I SERVICE (3 PIECE) TOP GR 00 V E INSTALL TOP RING LAST RING WITH INSIDE BEV El UP OR WITH FIGURE lT~3 "TOP" MARKING UP TYPE AND SERV I CE TYPE RINGS PRODUCTION 11.c. Se r vice type set s are used when cylinder is worn but within wear and out of round limits (wear limit. out of round limit. .2 .s ha It . when used. C'cnne.. area {big end) for excessive wear. PISTON - PISTON RINGS Production type and service type ring replacement sets are ava ilab ledn the standard s ize plus . The chrome ring. If we a r is mod e r-at e. 004"). 4. • 020" and. . Service se tauaua lly i nc. The production standard type set is used only when cylinder is not worn or out of r ound. Rep la ee rori and cap if worn beyond lim its stated. place e a c h ring in tu rri in its running a r ea in c yltnde 'r bore and check end cl ea r a nc. Generallycompressioh rings must be installed with groove or bevel up When this rs on inside diame. should be installed in the top groove. TYPE PROD.KeYway6-~.'01"0" unde. Cylinder bore must be de g la zed before service ring sets a i-e used. Sligh. If wear limits. Cr<lnkpin pickup.lude expanders or other a e ra.. 005" oversize. Inspect c.y 'be r e us ed. Production oversize sets are used only when cylinder has been r eb o r-ed-t o the corresponding ove r s iz e. however.e sets. itma. Chrome plated ring'S.e crankshaft or regrind the c rarikp int o .t can he with crocus CONNECTING 1.CRANKSHAFT l. Never r eu s e old rings. Before ins taUing new rings on p i s tori.de uniform pressure on ring and beUer conformity to cylinder wall . are exceeded by rnore than .e a r-eva va i l ab l e for use with reground c r a nkpi n.010".n rings. Z.a nd clean up grooves."010" cnde rs tze. If keyways for flywheel . Z.so.terof dng. TYPE PROD. Broken Dr badly of . (SINGLE) PROD.Gears .regardless of wear.scor~ or.. ROD score marks. it will be necessary to either replac.shah may be ne c e. Remove old r ing.met"'~Uc score marks cleaned cloth soaked i n O\\. 030'" cve r s iz.. as s tat ed In Ctea ranc e SectIon. when 3.s sa rv.rankpin [or n:arks are badly worn cam worn or chipped. BOTTOM PROD.

Use ring expa nde r to install rings and check side clearance of each ring after i ns ta l lia t i ori. Check clearance 0'£ valve stems in guides--refer for evito page Guides: Guides must be replaced if "-JOI'nsufficiently to a ll ow valve stem-guide clearance to exceed limits stated in the \<Ii-ear Tolerance Chart on page 15. the original piston.fine" grade of grinding c orn p.=rna ke sur e r e ta ine rs are [ully engaged in' grQoves. .VALVE MECHANISM Carefully inspect valve dence."oove. Seats with more than 1/16" rnu st be r'e condi t i. Check va lv e s and valve seat area.o n valve face'. 'When bevel is on outside of r ing.re special hard faced valves for both intake ".ed in the top gJ.4 for valve details.the original piston and connecting rod ca n be reused a fte r r e condit ioni ng. Use a ha nd va 1ve . 11.uides .oued with 45· and IS" cuttets to obtain proper widt h . rn us t be ins ta ll.. VALVES . or inserts or distortion. Use an arbor press to insta II new g. mechanism parts. cracks 15. Light! y coat va lye face with ".ROD ASSEMBLY Normally very little wear takes place in the piston boss-piston pin area. A new piston pin should be used when a new connecting rod is used w.-refer to page 15.. install in down pos t ion or toward skirt. If .of deep pitting. s e t s .a r e used in certain ~pplications.4.4 for valve guide deta i ls . Seating surfaces should be held as close as possible to 1/32" width.TOP COMPRESSION FIGURE 11-4 -- MEASURING PISTON RING END GAP FIGURE 11-5 -- RING INSTALLATION SEQUENCE used. D.. depth specified then. Exhaust valves seat on special hardened inserts. the pin will usually not have to be replaced.!::.ed--be careful hot to damage block when r ernov ing old guide. SOITle applications requi.ing until smooths u rfa c e is obtained on sa a t and .guide is completely remov. retainers . Valve guides are not used On K91 models... us e a valve guide reamer and ream new guide to s pecined 1. Continue g t'ind. Reground or new valves rn us t be lapped in to provide proper fit. Exha us t valves are a Iwav s hard fa c e d. To remove.n inst r u ct i on a iar e usually included with new ring. Intake valve seats a r e usually machined into block although inserts . Valves and Valve Seats: Consult parts manual for correct valve numbers when replacing valves..p r e s s to. After checkin" pin. Follow instructions carefully.3 . press guide down into va lv e chamber and carefully break protruding end until .ourid then rotate va Ive on s eat WIth g r ind e I'.TIdexhaust valves.I'll OiDlE COJ~p RESS ION 3 . rod and piston boss to make sure proper clearances are a vai la b l e .OIL CONTROL ----2 .it h. Ring installatio.gri nd er with suction cup fOT fina 1 lapping. lubricate pin then assemble pi~ton to rod with pin (light inte r fe r e nc e to laos e fit) and lock pin with 2:!!. t- PISTON .

Be ca r eful not to nick or sc r a tc. the flywheel will also ab s o rb some hea tand it must be allowed to cool beIore the new ring gear can be installed. Another wa~' is to heat the ring gear with a torch. it will be necessary on all engines except 1<. A slightly warped head ca. gear must be replaced. either press the gear on with an arbor press or drive it on with a soft-head hammer. head should be cheeked for flatness.:241. 0 11. If clearance is insufficient. it wi. especially in gasket seat area. mrrrr. Several methods may be used to remove the damaged dng gear. the ring.rfa ce d by simply rubb irrg Han a piece of sandpaper positioned . As the gea.ll contract to form a tight press fit on the flywheel. Position tbe heated gear on the flywheel. If no evidence' of this is found.e fo r e installation._r cools. turn adjusting CYUNDER HEAD » :Slacked cooling fins often cause Loca. This ca n be done by submerging the gear in hot oil or heating in oven to about 400 to 450 F.. Carefully clean carbon dep os it s from cylinder head if it is to be reus ed. If the latter method is used.nce betwe e n valve s tem and ta pp e t (See Clearance Sec tion) . RING GEAR (Ele"ctric Start Engines Only) If inspection of the ring gear reveals broken. Make sure stem is ground perfectly flat.-us e put tv knife or s irn il a. loosen the is attained then securely tighten locknut. high temperature c ornb u s tion bases can burn away portions of aluminum alloy head. excessively worn or otherwise damaged teeth. The new gear must be expanded with heat b. The ring gear is press fitted into a recess on the outer perimeter of the flywheel. The flywheel must be off the engine for ring gear replacement.r blade to s c rape d e p o s its. then drive the gear off the flywheel. Install valves in guides. Adjustable locking tappets nut . If gasket fails in area surrounding one of the retaining cap s c r ew s .h a lurn i-. then after making sure it is hot c oc ked. FIGlJRE 11-6 -. One method is to break the gear with a cold chisel and/or a hack saw. rotate camshaft to position where cam has no effect on tappet--hold valve firmly on seat and check clea r a. On these models. Be sure to tighten the flywheel retaining nut to the proper torque value after reinstalling the flywheel on the engine.CAMSHAFT AND VALVE MECHANISM Vahre Clearance: Valve clearance must be checked after resurfacing and lapping ill.4 .~:SHAFT7 SPACER (S)/ ~~ CAMSHAFT PIN =: are used on the K241.liz e d "hot spots" which can result in "blown" cylinder head gaskets.on a flat surface.n be r e su. K301 and 1021 nut in or out until proper clearance e ng irie s. K301 and K321 to grind end of valve stem until correct clearance is attained.

in: sp ec i f i c vve s i.sel'nbLy tool Y . one..Il. 010" spacer on stub shaft t'h e n install gear-beari.DYNAMIC BALANCE SYSTEM ~_. and p r es s new shafts into block until 2. crankshaft is reinstalled.. Snap ring retainers bold are driven off the crankgear in and is s tc: on c ons-i s ts of two balance gears which run 011 needle bearings.5 . The gears the d i r ec t i on opposite to rotation of the crankshaft. do not install bottom gear until after the c i-a nkahaft is. primary on tool. insert PRIMARY TI MI NG I"IARK TEETH FIG. 0. Balance Gear: Slip one. then is As. r. 0 J 0" spacer and one.020") next to the r e tai n e r . Re fe r to illustration 11.THUNG GEARS ~HTH .ng assembly on stub shaft (with timing marks out)--if assembly tool is not being used. After installing retainer. 1. 005" spacer. remove old shafts they protrude. .3 5 7 s imp l ifi e s procedure necessary wheneve r the. OZO" sp<tcer which are installed on the snap ring r e ta.8 for timing timing marks line up wit h teeth Retiming marks.r s so that tool in mesh with gears.i n e r end of the shaft--install the th i ck e. 691" above the su r fa c e of the boss.l. care must be e xe. TIMING -WITH ASSEMBLY TOOL (or timing balance gea r s to crankshaft. This system bearing units are assembled to case.005 . Dynamic Balance is found the 1·021 engines.einstalled. STEP 1: Turn both balance g ea.URE 11-8 -- TII'lING !~.s t spacer (.r c i s e d to make sure that the proper end play i s attained and that the gear sare p rope rly timed to thee ng ine.010") is attained with one. Prope:r gear en d play (. recheck end play and adjust (add or subtract.e geartwo stub shafts which are pres's fitted into special bosses in the cr a rikthe gears and spacer washers are used to c ont r olte nd play.RKS . Use the following p r oced u r e to install Dy na rn ic Balance components. Stub Shaft: If new shafts are required.on e of the: K241 and 10'01 models r "\Nhen wcr king on DynamiC Balance models.05" spacers) if needed.~SSE~1BLY TDOl 11.

STEP 2: Hold gears with tool butted against gasket surface. then press crankshaft STEP 3: an the 'way into STEP 4: turn crankshaft to see if standard timing the secondary timing mark on the bottom balance gear--if timing is off a. rna r k on crankshaft lines up with these marks cannot be lined up. TIMING .ca. OlD". 020" spacer (largest next to retainer) to obtain proper end play of . gears. crankcase. 005" spacer and one. use the fo ll owing procedure to time the balance gears to the ST EP I: Crankshaft: Pres s c r a nks haft into b lock.. then lower shaft until c. Remove tool. 005 to . At i gn secondary timing mark on this gear with secondary timing mark (on counte r weight) of crankshaft then install gear-bearing on shaft. align crankshaft .r a nkg ea r is just started into mesh (about 1/16") in balance. STEP 2: « 11. Bottom Balance Gear-Bearing Assembly: Rotate crankshaft until it is approximately 15° past BDC then slip one. 010H spacer_over stub shaft before installing bottom gear-bearing assembly.6 . Use one . Rotate crankshaft to align timing marks on c r ankg ea r and cam gea r.-a lig n prima ry timing mark on top ba la nce g e a r wah standard timing mark next to crankgear--press shaft until c r a nkg ea r i s engaged 1/16" into top gear (narrow side).WITHOUT TOOL If the assembly engine. then pres s crankshaft remainder of th:e way into the block. tool is not a:vailable.lig ne d with standard timing mark on c r a nksha It after installation if properly t irn e d. Install snap ring retainer then recheck and adjust end playas needed. Secondary timing mark will also be a.mshaft timing marks.nd must becorrectecl. As a Hna l check. a l i g n standard marks on c z-anks haft with bearing oil drain ho le .

dju s te d for end clearance bl' moving back-and-forth movement of the shaft . -Rotate.§J§! (J ~ CAMSHAFT ASSEt.... J BEARING FIGURE 12-1 1. washer On stub shaft and slide governor needle inside of bLoc k . type bearing.nt o pl ac e .. Be r e w prevents does governor gea r from sliding off e. Place cylinder block 011 it s si<le. assem"bly to be sure holding screw not contact weight section of gear. e i the r side can fa<..governor gear outs ide of c yl i nde r block.REASSE.speed clamping throttle br-acket bearing in block.. GovernOr a. Most engines have a crOSS shaft with an extension riveted in place to line up with governor gear.IBlY I '0: I I I I \7' -:9. into place.n be a. Pl-ace ..if usl ng unshielded.MBLY VALVE MECHANISM CYLl NOER HEAD ~~")! "I"'. Set b ea r ing to b. o FIGURE 12-2 GOVERNOR GEAR ASSEI~BLY HI CRANKCASE 12.. ~ CRANI<CAS E I' 1 -.. The -govexnor allow a slight Place space shaft ca. Slid" governor shaft into place from cont r ol disc on governor bu shmg nut and thread bushing nut into block. Rear a. d.e ins ide. needle bearing or bushing On Iat e r models is p r ov id e d :in block to hold cross shaft in alignment. MAJOR COMPONENTS OF TYPICAL ENGINE 'side facing t owa r d ins i d e of Main Bearing Install rear rna in bear ing by p r e s s i ng it into cylinder block with shielded bloc k... I I I I (0/ / i~ / AN II-FR Icrt ml BEARING ~ ~ !. EXPLOdED VIEW. Shaft 2. c. Tighten holding screw from stub shaft during assembly.1 . ~? I I . To Install a. Governor A 3. gea:r a s se rnb lv i..

010" thick washers as necessary to a tt a i n-p r op e r end play (See Fits and Clearance Section). Place' block on base of arbor press arid ca r e. b.. Push rod through cams naft vand tap lightly until r-od just' starts i nt. Check end pia].ACR models with the a ut orna tic spa rk adva nc a cam shaft. c. FIGURE 12-3 INSTALLING CAMSHAFT FIGURE 12-4 CAHSHAFT END PLAY FIGURE ~2 -5 Tl M11~G ~tARKS ON A UTOI'\A Tl C SPARK ADVANCE CMSHAFT FIGURE 12-6 TII·m~G MARKS orl CRANKSHAFT AND CAHSHAFT 12.nne.are interchangeable on other models. b. Before pushing rod thrcug h camshaft.JI. block.s c on t rol Ied by.make sure gears mesh as shaft is p re s s ed into bottoms aga inst inner race.. Turn crankshaft and camshaft until timing: mark gear . press crankshaft into bearing -. a nd block. is ne ce s sa r y at the bearing plate end. e.. O.It is placed. Installation iape r e d end of c r a nks haft through i.Iul l v Insert antifr ic ti on bearing (or sleeve bearing On K141).d in exhaust valve guide. K161.eler gauge -. Lubricate rod then i ns e r t into block (bearing plate side).iof gaskets used be tween the bearing plate plate is installed -. Turn . New bearing plc\te.r race' of d.uides is in s ta l le.nk s haft lines up with mark (dot) on cam When marks are aligned.if within t cle r a nc e press rod i nt o final position or remove rod and add (or subtract) .the End play must be checked after bearing th ic kne s s. Camsha'ft a.c yl inde r block Tappets rrrus t be i ns ta l Ie d before ca m s ha.o bo r e at P. I on s n ou Id e r of c r a.2 .skets have notch to allow any oil that mal' leak past to drain back i nt o.' . end of block. T'. recheck Hming mark to make sure they are still d.dire'ct'ions stated in Step 6.a s shown in Figure 12-6. and insert tappets in valve g. While rod is a tight press f ita t P.o seal when bearing plate and gaskets are i ns ta l l ed . slip cine . KISI ACR engines make sure shorter tappet Inta k e and exhaust tappets. C r"nkshi:dt a. 005"washer (end play) between end of ca rnaha It (opposite gear end) and block. Lubricate __ on K141. After shoulder aligned. a iight to Ioos e f it. bearing. end.:~"p'ly gasket sealer around end of rod (outside b loc k j t. with [". If gasket is not notched'. O. Positioncamsheft inside block. Crankshaft end play i. T. Note: On pre.4. at block. ~~. Installation upside down.. 5. spread a c tua to r s a nd insert cam :-:-align timing marks on cam and on gear: as shown in Figure 12-5. 005 and . c.

Be s ur e r eta ine r rings are fully e nga ge d ill g.Rltl(.ctiO'n.O.ines . .e pin then assemble piston to connecting rod and secure piston pin with retainer rings. Crankshaft bearing USe in bore and b. Bea ri rig. FIGURE 12-8 INSTALLING BEARl NG PLATE FIGURE 12-9 Press front main bearing into bearing p Ia te .02. c r ank s ha.'ASSnmLY 12. remove bearing plate and add or subtract gaskets to achieve proper clearance.FIGURE 12-7 6.g e during ins tal lat ion .Pla t.. end) and shoulder 0[1 c r ankshaft. Make SUre bearing is straight and true bottomed properly.r i ng plate to blOCK..3 .mbly a. Ins tall gaskets with thicker gasket next to block. T.place be a rin~r plate On cr a nk s ha ft and ca refully pre s s plate orit o shaft and into position on block. of cine . Be sure corlnet)ting' r od marking is towa r d flywheel side of engine. 7. Install cap screws with ccpp e r was he rs and secure b e a. a.0"and one .. After making sure rings are in proper p os i.It end play will be adversely affected.t i on in correct grooves. d.etain e r ri ngs . Use a ring c ornp r'e-ss o r. end p la y is determined by thickness' of gaskets used between block and bearing plate.. Gently push pist-on int o bore with ham me t: handle . ~-.rocves in piston bo s s es. A lways US e new r..do nbt p ound . s ta. NOTE: C·rankshaft end play is e ape c ial'ly triticaLo.0.~.10" gas ket should bring end play within limits --·this must be checked plate isinsialled. Draw screws up evenly to "void distortion of bearing plate.s s ern bl y into cylinder bore. InJUal after ·c.to p r e ve nt ring b re aka. Lub r icat. Crankshaft end play is measured (with feeler gauge) between inner race of rear bearing (P.duc ti on e ng. If cocked.gge r r irig 'gaps so thev are not in line and insert complete a. b.ngear r e. IHSTAlUNG PISTON . oil complete assembly. If end play is not within tcde r a nce as stated in Cl e ar aric e S". Pis ton and Rod Ass.

and in s e que. good c.ca us e damage b.. marks place block on end and oil connecting up and face rod big end and crank pin.ALL BURRS MUST BE REMOVED. shielded spa. remove us e d.s obtained.lAPPET FI GUilE 12 -1:4 Tl GHTE.s op e rat i on .gr ound until propel' c Ie ara nc.ing rod and cap line flywhe e l end of. Iris tal I new spark plug a nd tighten to specified o r que . Any and an oil leak can r e s u lt . grooves of valve s t. gasket rn us t be "sed topreve\lt oil leakage . 9. valves and install c ornpr e s s springs va lve springs . c. After oil seals are started on shaft.5-15.". pages 15.1. On 1<.0.2. Apply grease foreign matter to lip th en guide oil seals into position on crankshaft without on knifelike edg. After correct clearance is obtained. FIGURE 11.i o n. rod .8. ENDS MUST BE GROUND SQUARE AND . 10. a. lU41.21" adjus tfa pp et s to correct cl ea r a n c e . Use pilot s t ud s to align c y linde r block. K 16.llir'lg ". to lock cap screws. lock or Ioc k washers' to +igb te n cap s. of Oil Seals Crankshaft damaging lips of seals. K lSI with iric o r re c t valve c I ea ra nce. b. On and cap screws are then attached 1:0 connecting to r que value a. c..pl'a c e valves.cr ew s to proper If locking tabs are used. (See F'l gu r e 12-12) Ref'e r to. b. On 1<91.s stated in Clearance Se c t.ug s or . A new. Assemble oil base to block with foul' screws.e'm s ..4 . 10. Use. Valves should seat.e i. K301.. 12-12 INSTALLING OIL SEALS \JITH SLEEVE Rnd Setting Valves FIGURE 12-13 CHECKING CLEARANCE VALVE .and retainers a nd rotators and place locking keys (pins . d.engine. Always Check use a new gasket head that when head has been removed gasket for service surfaces make work. gasket and oil base. After Rod to Crankshaft p i s t on assembly is irrsta l led. Keep valve seat hom 1/32" to 1/16" in widrh .c n 1<91) III if 1. be ground a nd Ia ppe dv i » to Va l ve cIe a r anc e should be checked cold. be nd tabs Installation a. Cylinder Head c.NI NG CY Ll NDER HEAD CAPSCREWS Inst. Rod cap. 011 Base a. b.nc e u nt ii proper be . d. Torque pa n bolts. Lubricate stems th en r e. Va l ve s . place block on its Slide.e driven s qua r el y into. The oil seals may now b.on ta c t a ta l l potnts . the valves must be remcv e d and ends . b.e 0.r k pl. a torque wrench d. (See It is important Figure 12-11) that on conrie c t.. gap should 020 for radio 12. any bending of seal may .2-41.6 for correct oil seal depth.ching a.0]8" fOI g_.25 or torque cylinder on face plate head to be sure Jt is important cap s c r ews be lubricated then tightened Spa rk plug evenly i$ r ea-ch ed . c. valve seats obtain a good valve and ports should be t ho r oug hl y c l e e ne d . Atta. b ea r i ng plate and cylinder b l oc k .

run all leads out through hole provided [i n 11 o+c l.. b.el . The accompanyil1.e the magnet or rotor has a keyway and is press fitted on. On the s. .magnet rotor is marked "engine-side" for proper assembly. crankshaft -.s e cur e d to. Most other types are a.-------FILTER ~ Oo---GASKET ~------SEAL -------FILTER GASKET ttJ----COVER 1----FIGURE 12-15 VAlVE COVER TYPICAL CRANKCASE BREATHER ~---VALVE FIGURE 12-16 COVER TYP ICAl CRANKCASE BREATHER 13."m"n.exc ept in rotor type magne'to s y s tem.STUD (IN CMNKCASE)------7' COVER-----~ BREATKER PLATE ~ STUD------7' GASKET--~ BREATHER-----~ 'J REED-----t.ssembled in the same get1eral sequence. of the flywhe.ptt magnet.~ BAFflE-----OEt] O'-------SEAl .g iIl u s t.·a1te.s . Magneto a. . All parts good condition. Breather a.r op e r ly.. the bea r ing pla re . r e ed and filter for reconditioned engine. On all magneto ignitiotl systems the magneto coil .'ator system the coil is pa r tof the s tato r assembly which is also .s: are affixed to the inside rim.Assembly must be clean and in Reed type breathers are used to maintain slight vacuum ill crankcase. Cover must be securely tightened to prevent oilleakc a ge. magneto components. Several di He r e nt breather type s are used.Make sure reed valve IS installed p. c.5 INSTALLING ROTOR TYPE HAGNETS . After installing bearing plate. On the magneto . Pel.s s ern bl y is secured in stationary p os it i cn en the bearing plate. ~ ~ ROTOR FLYWHEEL tYPE ~IAGNEHl FIGURE 12-18 FIGURE 12-19 !! 12..r-at Ion s s how the c-o-rr e c t orde r of assembly for two of the more common types. Use new gaskets.oc k position) on b. 14.co re a.

r vi.c e Section me nt p r oce du r e .. arm as far as possible to left !-lousing and Fuel T.f u se d ] are installed and carburetor. d. refer to Igni t ion S ys te m Se r vice. Set breaker gap at . SC 12. b. Caution: Gasoline Connect for (I) head baffle. with two screws. This should be suff ic ie nt. These beal'ing p la te . and (3) blower housing -. on c r anks haft a nd p l a. a s. shaft.6 . 19. lock washer and holding hut. it must be "run-ln. Iue Lta nk and brackets fuel line between filter FINAL ADJUSTMENTS Follow RUN-IN instructions in Service Procedure Section Ior final adjustment of engine.retor a. oil and under After the initial oil of proper weight." 5 hours.15.r-el.firne to seat the piston non-detergent dogs. c. b. e. Points Install Fasten push rod. Be SUre b r e ake r lead grommet is in place. For ig nition s e "log. The r o ta t ing sc r c en is fastened to s ta r te r pulley with either screws and spacers Or a wire retainer. mag- b r ea'k e r. GOVel:nol' A rm and Linkage a. on carburetor adjust- to carburetor in speed gover no r arm Kl41" K161. E. in position and attach d. c. 16. 17. Carbu.gasket neto l. In s er t carburetor Connect Position governor g ove rnor linkage arm in throttle arm. (2) cylinder baffle. Install starter pulley. spring disc KI8l Before tightening clamp bolt.. onto governor only] .. hnkage control and slide (K91.in. b. Fiywheel a. far as possible tighten nut and check with a' pair for freedom of pliers. (i. Refer to S.irn ina r y adjus trne nts before installing br e. Place wave washe r flywheel i n position.eari .q ue value sp e cifie d in Clearance Section.assembled in parts are fastened to engine by cap screws which attach to cylinder head and Shorter screws go into lower portion of blower housing.ank turn shaft counterclockwise (away from carburetor). The e"gine is rrow ready sequence s tat ed . flywheel on shaft. Insert a new gasket and assemble to intake port with two screws. PROCEDURES (RECONDITIONED ENGINES) On load f o r a period Afte r an engine has of about b ee n r ec ondi ticned and reassembled. carburetor FIGURE 12-20 INSTALLING FLYWHEEL 18. c.eaker a. Ins e r ta bar between flyw.2) drain the non-cde te r ge ut type oil and refill w it h detergent type API Servtce Do not continue using non-detergent oil after the first 5 hours of operation. c. Blower a.heel fins and t ig hte n hold ing nut to to r. place Place cover . run-in period.ake r poi nt cover. Make p.c e The square key holds b. b. (See Page 2. at the same tirn et as baffles and shrouds. pull of movement. OZO full open.

balance line is connected to the atmospheric side of the secondary regulator and to the ca rbu r e tp r air horn. On certain systems. At idle speed the velocity of a'ir through carburetor rna)' not be s'uHicient 10. depress the primer hutton on "he s econda ry regulatol' for an instant so that .inucus An idle line is used on s orne engines when engine is operating at idle speeds. Operation: The secondary r a te . This balance Insures a constant ratio of fuel to air under varying degrees of a i r+c Ie a ne r r e s t r i c t i on.engjne operation.r e fuel is introduced a t the lower i d l e speeds. the idle mixture adjustment is made at the regulator rather than at the carburetor. b. On c a r bu r e t o r s having a choke. LPG is stored in speciale ontaine r s under pre "sure up to approximately 200 psi d ep e'nd irrg on ambient te rnp e r a-. on equipment near the fuel supply tank. 13.i n fuel system into the idle fuel system. The primary regulator can be mounted on the engine but is usually rnou nte d.cau se d b).1 GA$SYSTEIoI COMPONENTS Startirtg Engine: The carburetor is adjusted at the factory a nd under normal operating conditions will re qu i r e no r ea dju s trne nt . the r e g uln to r diverts fuel from the rria.or . a. The gas is 800/0 liquid.ore can be started without priming or choking.gulator. IDLE ADJUSTMENT~ FIGURE 13. C r ea te d by turning valve allowing fuel to enter the ca rbure t. Some gas Iue'l systems use a ve"y ae n stttve s e c onda r y regulator and ther e f.ugh fuel will enter the carburetor for starting. The. the engine over at a cont. On systems having the idle line. dose choke. If carburetor does not have a choke. A sealed fuel system includes a spe c ia l carburetor.1 . Open fuel supply va lve. restricted air fiow. If adjustment t s necessary because of gas vaIue s or air c ondi ti on s refer to the Carburetor Adjustment Section.. a balance line is used to avoid the problem of an over= r ic h Iue trn ixtu re which can be .0 draw enough fuel to sustain . opens the regulator regulator withholds gas until a vacuum.SPECIAL FUEL SYSTEMS GAS SYSTEMS Use of Liquif'ie d Petroleum Gas (LPG) requires s e a l. The idle line carries fuel fr-om the secondary regulator to the air intake side of the ca rbur e tc r whe. For this reason. per square inch or 7 'to 11 inch water column. or a two-stage r egula to r which eliminates the two regulators previously listed. when stored at this pressure" Fuel is withdrawn under pressure from the top of the tank as vapor and the p r irna r y reg'ulator reduce s the pressure to 4 to 8 ounces. primary regulator and 'secondary re. When the fuel demand drops to a c er ta in point.e·nb.ed fuel s y ste m of s p e c ia l ca rbu re rion equipment. tur e s . some carburetors use a separate idle fuel system.

mp l ic it. 4. Operation: As the engine is cranked.gas entel'ing the venru r i at the noz.he nozzle that varies with the . speed. the adjustment must be made on the secondar. air \.. a nd remove ve n tu r i (removable is toward air intake. Remove Remove carburetor load screw f rorn e'ngine.\l. t. be replaced. maximum f. . The mixing point of gas and a i r is located at the' point of gr ea te sr p r e s s ur e drop inside the ve n tu r i . Oil! those engines that do not use a balance line and the idJe adjustment is made on the carburetor.2 . parts. screws. the gas. Disassembly: When it is necessary. carburetor on. Set e ng irrea t full throttle engine RPl\1.to s i. idle setting.a. and wip. blowout In apec t. A gas c a rb ur e to r the r e f or e serves to control the r at i o-of gas to load and speed conditions. Start engine. 13. With an air hose. idle adjustment screw a rid spring.r should.move air cleaner from arm carburetor. fol- 1. ~I/! \J ifrjlln ~ ~VAlVE SCREWS VALVE IDLE SPEED SCREW .e the horizontal type. Adjust the Ioa d adjustment until the e ng ine runs Open choke after. Di s oonrie c t 'governor Di s c onrie c t fuel line. on Kohler Engines a r.~A ~ .le t where a load adjustment sc r ew c ont rol s the now ofTue l to the venturi nozzle. See special instruction Io r K181 gas lowing pages. THROTTLE SHAFT <.DJUSH1ENT LOAD S CRE \·1 LOC K NUT FIGURE 13-2 GAS CARBURETORS Descri[. thoroughly and worn part" NOTE: A different type of carburetor is used On the lOB!.owe d.ce ab Ie venturi.y in. a s s ernbl y and spring (if used). set the idle adjustment ne e-dl e . 3.changiRg rate of air fl ow and thus meters a greatel' v ol ume ofg a s at he av ie r loads and a decreased value at 1ightet' engine loads. Set the idle stop adjustrne nt for the proper idle speed. This creates a suction within. Clean all. Air enters the air ho r-nta rid mixes with the . the following procedure shol. be cleaned. 5. -Gas venturi cast in the ing parts. After ehgine has been allowed to warm l1P. Due. a tachometer should be used Io r the final power adjustment. Re. OUST SEAl~ SET SCRE\~~~)l'1 ~ '~TfjROTTLE VENTURl VENTUR1~~ ~~.d and r ea dju s t the load a dju s tment s c rew for . from carburetor.l a re a s subject to wear and make sure <Ill a.a l. throttle valve 7. e.y regulator. On gas systems using an idle line.~ LOAD SCREW'i! .zle. Loosen venturi set screw(s) Note: Heavy end of venturi Remove Remove throttle valve (disc. ~ i~ ~ JDLE ADJUSHIENT IDLE . all inte r na l openings Knspection of Parts: and pa ss a gewa y s .re a s are free from dirt. To d i sa.s ee mb le carburetor.e free of oil and g r ease .c. design and few movcarburetor rarely needs attention. The carburetors either have the body making it an integral part or a rep l. and throttle s haft}. 2.d be Iol l. return throttle to idle position and adjust. If-p ossible a nd p ut unde r full Loa. gas enters the na rbur e to r and passes through the fuel i n. 6. The volume of gas/fuel mixture entering the engine is controlled by the throttle valve [d i s c ]. engine has come up to governed smoothly at gove r ne'd spe e da nd no load.n. d. SPRING SeREH ~ A. B.!io.!nd~r varyin'g GARRETSON CARBURETOR carburetors used. type). the ca rb ur e to.

dose the idle fuel a dju s ti ng s cr ewcomp Operl load . s c r ewapp r oxirnate ly :.9.st j dl '1. all the way. i.e wd r ive r . valve sc r ew. 5.oe • adjustment K9 1. can be made when it is not pos s ro.e w for' correct and adjust @~ THROTTLE STOP SCREW START ADJUSTMENT FIGURE 13-3 11.levto Ioad the as follows: Disconnect econ.rme o. for ma xl mwerr. Ai:ljustment: L 2. Br ing engine a high speed. turrisopen. speed.egins to d r op . Tighten starting c hoke and close the !liarting adjus.e ng i ne speed then leaner until speed drops <'l.1 /Zturns ope n.e. ad. 6. 5.e thcd as it infl ue nc e s the rn ixtur e u nd e r this e hgi he coridi t ion .. cleaner Ensign on carburetor.. t. 3. to obtain. and throttle Pta ce ve ntur i in ce. 4. CBMGa's nt 1-1/4 4 turns Ca:rbure. 1. lo<).s . ··Using a s c r. when used. adjust slightly. Find speed b. to Adjustment: Ganetson the throttle OH Carburetors shaft to make sure it tu r ns freely H ne..'" assembly a'nd spring Or load sc r. load screw [or maximum RPM then ca r e Iul lv tu r n in to where the RPM j us t begi. 7. so that t. '7. from closed to open position. tur ns OIl rr j n the idle stop adjus ting screw a pp r ox i rna te ly 2 turns. lock nut.dle s t op sc r.the 'midpoint of these two positions and tighten lock nut.e w lock nut. adjustment RPM while e speed holding thrott!e id l e screw at . Ins ta l l load adjustment On SC1. 6 .rrka ge and ai r. set i.setting set screw To set engin. va Ive i's held slightlropen.ns to fall. 4. 3 4. of load ac rew for h ighe. ng th5 s m. Z. When engin".ment Screw and spring throttle valve .ef'ul l y and load engine positions 'of the load .:lb I.he throttle Ie te'l y . 5. Adjust screw b ef.r Ii. ta r t eng i. Set l oad to .of venturi air intake adjustment side of ca rbur e to. B.to1.Completely c lo se the load adjus tme nrac x e-«. ADJUSIII~G MODEL 'em·l CARBURETOR 'speedoI i/2 to maximum operating spe e. at least halfway. c. e ngille . when going richer and leaner Open thr o ttl. Check Mount TUT bu r e to ron e ngi ne a uac h \ ng fuel gove r no. M21ke temporary With engine warm. i[1" tall Connect Connec Install c a rbu r e t.Iea ne r. 6.3 .screw.d.engine the two .rb ur e'tor w.S 13.I.or fue l lipe.r and secure set sce-ewl s l.o r e at rnfdp oin t. on regulator choke throttle engine. 3·} /2 tu r ns vori K241 and 1001 models.ith heavy end . The idle adjustment must be carefully made us. 10. L_gove r n o r arm t o car b ure tor.ab out 2/3's Io r the best rated idle. K Hl. then.d 5CtfrW without Ioa d: A reasonable adjustment.orniierand plug intake manifold connection. 2. starts. Model Set start i ng adjustrne Set load Set idle Close Open Crank adjustment adjustment open.Open thrott le s imul taue ou sl v. Install idle adjust. toward 1n5 tall th r o~tleshaft..t first adjustment screw. an engine where the·. 3.

If the engine a dju aringisc.in thr ot tre shaft retainer hQre's !r. of adapter.ng block.le s ha H~l.y: 1. valve in Place 'seal washers in seal retainers and a s s e rnb l e .om opp os Ite: side's. Make sure choke plate is a s s ernbl ed in original position. then ne e dle with spring plate intihrbtUe from throttle rem ave adap te r plate body. throttle pia te and thr 0 tt. Le a ve csc r ew s loose.bly.shaJt and lever in throttle body and attach choke plate wifh scre\vs. collar.to Iue l block .Leave screws loose. and gasket from throttle body. ~LbAD ADJUSTMENT scm~ PLATE ADAPTER PLATE SI1AFT ~ADAPTER GASKET FIGURE 13-4 K]81 CARBURETOR ADJUSTMENTS 13'. 5. Tighten load 9.7. 4.r e w and lock washers. body.s e n Ioad adjustment lock.thr..' T'he n remove Iue l block screws. need'le valve in throttle. Blow o lit all passages and channels with compressed air.c r e w goe~ in raised! por~ Z.ottle shaft ate assembled in same wa vias before. In. If engine is required to idle" slowly return theeugtne speed to idl e-and adjust the 'idle adjustment screw £o:r best or s. KISI GAS CARBURETOR Disassembly: 1. body using two short screws arid Long s. Place adapter pia te gasket on Ihrb\tle body andaUach lock wa sher s . 'Pla ce choke . Set the idle: stop adjustment [o. medium length t. shaft screw with nutFr-om fuel rn e te r=- 2. 10. R e rno ve throttle with seals.r is not required to idle.. ' 5·. idle adjustment Ma r kpositi cn of choke body and posHionof Loosen choke Rerno ve choke plate screws and choke plate. aligp for bes tolos ing and then tighten screws. leave the idle fuel adjustment ew On the th r ortl e arm may then be u se dLo adjust for screw completely closed.engine runs smoothly at governed speed and no load. replace if g r coved or damaged. 8. Rea ss. Do not attempt to contr-ol the idle speed with the idle fue Ladjustme nt.on. triel.scrl'W until .ernb'l.I!-. check nut on rnafnadjus tmeut sc rew and thr e'ad scr-ew in.icn. 3. remove load adjustment i.ne RPM. Remove choke shaft and lever. Remove. Turn idle needle Assemble the n back J. pia te screws. block and gasket.t . The idle stop the minimum speed desired.. Neyer USB a wireot' d'rHI to dean out jets. ad apte r plate to throttle' screw befoz-e us s ernb ly. shaf'tc o'lla r set screw and re rn ove choke 6.r the proper idle speed. FUEL BLDCK ~ @l . Close choke plate for best closing and securely. tighten screws.Place me te r ing block gasket on adapter and attach fuel metering biock with s c. Inspect idle needt e va lve. Adjust 10adadjustme. Replac e when darna ged or wo r n excessively.4 . Close throttle. Use tachometer if possible fo r thi. choke lever with choke plate in ac los ed p os iti. Remove the adapter pta te s c r e wa nd l o ckwa s be r s . 4. Make sure throttle pl"'-te and.disassem. The n r e m ave seal r e ta ine rs Cleaning and InspectIon: Thoroug'hly c le an aU meta lpa-rcs with cleaning solvent. Put the engine under its no r-rna l Lcad and readjus:t the load s c r'ew for rria.nt..eve.. then back out valve on turn. out screw two ful] turns and tightencheck nut.moothe s t idle. Assemble collar over end of choke shaft and tighten 'set screw. adjustment lock nut if used.s e r t throttle shaft in throliJe body and attach throttle plate to throttle shaft with screws.unt'il screw just conta c ts seat. Inspect choke ahaft for wear or damag. With carburetor inverted" Ioc. Tighten screws uniformly.xim urn-e rig i. 'Insped fh rottle shaft for we ar Or damage.r 'as s ern lily. Pla:ce lock was he r 0". ' Place spring On idle needle valve and assemble idle lightly against its se a.s final load adjustment.

3.grn . FI GURE SCTeWS SCREH~ D -5 PRI MARY REGULATOR and lever assembly. As the need for more fuel increases. II adjustment i s ne c e s sa r y .en. 1.s houl d be u s.e fromrl~H.y sure a nd is ec ur. Adj ust.e . Replace diaphragm and seat Irrsp e ct rubber seat Iorfo a ssernbl y if ne ce s s a r y . the fuel inlet va. JPla. remove the bonne t cap. The outle t pressure should be approximately 6 OUflC. adjust theisp dng tension to vaTY the pre s s ur e . a ss. .completely op.cve r in position making 's cr e ces and tighten e ve nl. 4. The irile t p r es sur e for (he. the gas inlet valve begins to open and a. Z. Make sure all parts are clean and and f r-e. 2. Replace if necessary.! _/ REGULATOR COVE R SPRING TENSIQN o Q o -e DIAPHRAGM LEVER F'UEL OUTLET RETAINING .screwd.ousi.5 .corne s from the Iue l supp ly tank. is necessary. be kept.e d be taken that no pipe .nt." an outlet pressure 'of app r ox irna te l v 6 ounces 'or II inches water column.at. H <./ASSEMBL Y SCREW diaphragm.PRIMARY REGULA TOES Description: The [unction of the primary re gul ato r is to provide ioitial control of the luelunder pressure as tt.dop e enters into the regulato!" tor it can lodge on the seat and 13. Remove Remove housing cover a:rip adjus'trne. a pr-e's sure .l l. Do not remove unl e s s r-ep l ac eme.4. < SEAT lever engaged ASSEMBLY & lnspectiotr'of I. 3. r e ign material or excessive se a t indention. Disa's.y . c lea.. Start Pla. At this pressure drop.nt spring.lve opens mor.ce a l] assembly h. pri mar y regula tcr s used 00 Koh'Ie r Engines should never exceed Z50 psi. Remove d. The primary r egulato r is adjusted fa.e.r and d iaph r agrn are pos i t ion . tha tdiap hr-ag m l.embl.iap hz-a gro l e ver .v e. Ins ertdtapbr agm lever seat :>. Inspect Jns'pe ct b r a s s odfice for n ick s.y'iver.ow s-Tue l to pas s thr ough the primary r'e g ula. outlet p r es su r.to r to the secondary ir'eg'Ulator.. Ope ration: Upon demand for fuel.ment: A rte r re a. Pipe dope .e with r eta iriing screws. Using a l a r ge.dr op occurs on the fuel outl e t rside o[the regulator dtap hra. the. SUre Place adjLlstrnen~ sp r ing on top of diaphragm in proper that the housing vent is above the 'outlet of regula.tor.r acks ae a ti ng area or weak a r e as .8S or 11 inches water column. c.ng c. Reassembly.o r .n w he n mounting or servicing the re gul.. retaining Pa r ts: diaphragm for br eaks . Ii is i rrrp o rta nt that the inlet on the inlet Iitttng but c a re should orifice.sembly: z. Turning in or c l oc kwi ss increase s the outl e t p r e s s ure and turning out d e c r eas es.s s emblv it wi'll be ne c'es s ar y to check the outlet pres sure..ce diaphragm into position making properly .e and allows more fuel to pass through until the valve is .

fue I inlet fitting hole by f i rs.c he s Dirt CAUSED on hie. PRHIER FUEL LOCK OFF [>~ LOCK Ot:F- NUT ADJUSTMENT SCREH FlGURE Di. 13-6 ~\oDEL S OR SO REGULATOR ~. ori the end of the l e ve r a s's e mbl y s'o tha t the elld of the pusher pin will come-up and slide out the endof the retainer dip ." n a Oldadm it s fuel to the .r t ing.6 .S and SD r.abs·olutel\.e·ngine Io r .'icks Otl the seating surface.. Upon cranking the engine.e ve r a nd spring. diaphragm pus.". cover.".op {vacuum) from crankIng. 13. Remove. The diaphragm spring tension is t.the fuel inlet valve seat. pulls rn or e and m o re air through the regulator.ss ur e doe's not rise. be inspected for dir'i 01. the ga s inlet va lv e begins to ·op. the l nl. a pressure drop occurs on the fuel outl. nece's~"-ry. ave r 11 in. This regulator when the .model.ransfe r re d to the fuel inlet valve bi' the diaphragm never..ing. put a knife unde r the re ta i rie r clip. NOTE: 0" the .e gula. diaphragm.to r s .gm Spritlg holds. OperatiOn: With the e ng ine ishut off. Imp r op e r pr e s s u r e adjustment.diaphragm lever a nd ap r.ate the flow of gas to the carburetor d e rna nd ceases. the p r e s.TROUBLE SHOOTING PRTM:AR Y REGULATOR TROUBLE O'utl"t p r e ss ure water c ol urri n. 4. the fuel i nle t va l ve agatnst .aph ra g m l. To remove diaphragm. thediapht.su r e drop in the regulator i n c re a s e s urltil the fuel inlet valve is cornp Iete l y op·en.e"gin" Des" ript iori: The sec ondary regula to r s used will re gul. SECONDARY R.r ifl'c e shoul d n o t be rernov e d unles$:. Remove Remove' assembly housing screws.. Fuel leaking from regulator vent and outlet p r. At thi S P r-e "·sure dr op .e.! inlet BY valve se a t .d . Remove diaphragm and gas·ket{sl.sta.t n~moving' the brass o r if ic e. howe ve r .he s against the di.sassembly: L 2. FUEL INLEli DIAPflRAGM REGULATOR COVER <. Ruptured or defective Dirt on valve' seat. The b r a s s o.e t side of the regulator diaphragm. Since One side of the diaphragm is exposed [verrte d ] to atmospheric pressure while the outlet side is expc s ed-on ly tathe p r e ss u r e d r. 11s the :eng ineia c ce l er a te s and.: it s houl.et plungeI' Or valve must' be r em ov ed through the .ECULATORS on Kahle rEngines are 'c crnp'ac t ~ingle diaphragm a cc u r-a te Iy ·and will shut the gas off automatically type. Some diapb ra gm s are attached to the diaphragm lever. the'.

Replace if damaged. MO[lEL KH REGULATOR of Pa r ts : diaphragm and gasket for nicks..L VE s SEAT FIGURE 13-8' MODEL F OR F1 REGULATOR 13. OT r ubb er seat o r repair exe es s ive scat to be worn i nde nta tion.§l% SCREW fiGURE 13-7 DISJ\. 4.tion l. Inspect brass Inspect R:eplace orifice Replace material if damaged.7 . ASSmBLY ~PLUG . Icr foreign all ot he r pads areas [0.SSEMBU Inspec..Il. 3.. 01" Replace if ne ce s s a r y..LEVER REGUlJ\TOR CdIJER~ III I ~w <. Inspect breaks and cracks. IDLE i'lOJUSHlEIH PRIM[R VENT /BALANCE LINE CONNECTION OR DlAPHAAGH SPRi NG " DIAPHRAGM LEVER RETAIN LNG SCREw FUEL OUTlET FUEL " FUEL INLET V. 2.. which appear damaged.

the inlet plunger (valve) is ins e r ted through the fuel inlet fitting hole. On the model Sand SD r egulat. screw.gm & SD only) Make s u r e dia phra. Phce'g'asketJdiiaphr". 5. spring on tip of adjusting into position. only st art screws.ion and . Tighten fuel inlet fitting . ~10DEL KN REGULATOR 2. it is n. Irise r t diaphragm lever and . '"""'-BRASS ORIFICE FUEL INLET FlGURE 13-10 DISASSU1BLY MODEL F OR Fl REGULATOR 13. Pl ace leaf 4.tighten assembly screws evenly.gro S Place regulator housing in po s it. (models . Do not tighten the retaining screw mo r a than enough to hold the lever in place . Before tighteliing.or s .sp r i ng and s e cure with r e tatuing Be rew. it. On the model SD regulator. If it is too tight.ecessary to blow in the outlet Iit tmg to set the diaphragm slack. is ~ngaged (model with SO regulator diaphragm only) lever. "IDLE ~'IOLE ADJUSTMENT ADJUST HENT SPRING ~. Tighten screws.DIAPHRAG!~ ~ATMOSPHE'E CHMtBER FIGURE 13-9 Reassembly: I. KN. will bind the lever. Make Sure 'all pa r t s arc clean and free from dirt.8 . 3..

p. The regulator is simple to m aunt 911 the .bble as . compact unit. the re gul a to r i.-. This. Eng iue s \lsiq'g the Ensj. p-ermittin. Turn SCJI"eW in s. PRIMARY SEcbNDARY SECONDARY VALVE SECONDARY DIAPHRAGM FIGIJRE 13-11 tvW STAGE REGULATO.than tirr n un .rium is r ea c hed . The Garretson S. Afte r proper a dju s tm e nt is reached.l supply on.1re back to LO. 10 psi. 1.. Inserting (6-) Aligning Studs '" G 166.admitting rno r e fuel. If. Op e ra cion: Vaporized Iuel Ts ad m itred to. . Turn Iue. Turn in one more.n.d i s c ua s e d previoilsly) IE soap bubble b r ea ks .o the.(jcedu~e ~ Special Tools Required G161-199 C 161-198 Easy-Oui Tool Tool Valve ·Seat.a rt id l. Service· t< >:< P . As this vacuum be.a .lowl y until fuel flow stops completely.era dju strn e nt . inc r ea s es. which opens the. When . The model S and SD reg.nle t at tank pressure (up to 250 psi}.s in s iz. Since the s eccnda r y valve IS closed.s ing the primer. This primary diaphragm sp.r ing has 'sufficient te nsion to require app r ox itna te l y 10 psi p re s s ure.v . but nornver should b€ made in.iQ St·.ai'le additional turn. When fuel is flowillg. On the model KN regulator. the fuel Ilow should stop. will allow fue.fue! inlet is c onriec te d ·t.dju's trn e nt s-cr e w lock IIUt arid turnadju s rrne nt Screw in un ti l fuel flow stops .s i t. SD & KNreglllators require the. Nave r atte mpt to set engine. 3. It combine s both prima ry a nd finalsecpridarystage re g u la tio-n i-nto a ·single. thedi~tphragm is moved nearer the center of the regulator.v e nt il a ted r-oom or _pr. lock off or fuel control adjustrne nt.rabl y outs ide. l oose n the a.g the spr ingt o open the primary valve to attempt td bring the press1. If bubble inc.es re qut r e 'only one adjustment.~ngine. As more fuel is required.ulator inl-et to a source of c ornp r e s.sfe.See Tool Li st 13.l l a i:t-cool.s.pressure on the. fuel is' not shutting off prope r1y' and adjus tme nt is ueeess a r. secondary valve.fhe pre s s ur e reac 'hes th i s l e ve l . This adjustmerit-s'hould be made while the .rease.53 '. Check the adjustment several times by de p.e ~egulator . When.Adjustment: Se c o nda r y regulators used on Kohler Engin. makil1g th i s . on the internal side oJ the diaphragm to c ou nte r a-ct the ope·ping force due to the spring.a.e and breaks.r es. a. fuel ta nk with the fuel outlet connected to the ca rbu re to r .g Iur the r pressure' rise. open the lock i:lff. additional turn after fuel is completely shut off.R T'V.. the pressure on the rnre rria.'elJ. A soap bubble can be used tocheck·fuel shut off.crew rnay be turned in from the' normal position to se tthe idle mixture if it fs roor'tch.s. spring ading on the opposite side of the diaphragm.nt ..adijustlng:. When the primer is released. (Use soap bu. The adjustment s. the. c a l ly for us e with sma..9 .ed engine s .adjus trne. the valve is closed..r irna r y diaphragm is lowered ~lightly. psi.dju s tm e nt 2.ulalor.gins "cling on the diaphragm. to open fu r the r . preventi. Its action roesul t s from vacuum obtained from the ca rbu r e to r .gn mode! For Fl regulator-have .AGE REGULATOR (ZENITH) Dest r ipt icn: The two s tage regulator used On Kahle r Engines is a double diaphragm type regula tor de signed spe c if i-. The regulator .ion as P'05s ib Ia andadjust6d in t!)e po s it ion tha t it will be m ounte d on the e ng ine . .l side of the primary d iap hr a grnb uil ds up until the pressure ove r corne s the. The s e conda r y diapnra. speed with this adjustment. caus ing the s e c onda-r y va lve. tighten lock nut.engine is rUllning. the following p r ocedure should be followed: NOTE: Regulators should be mounted as close to a ve r+ic.gm :aC:'5. aga i ns t the s e c onda r y val ve spring. Never us'e the lock off adjusting sc r e w in an attempt to adjust the [ueimixture at any speed except idle. until an equilib. Connect reg.s must be adjusted by de p r e s s i ng the primer button for an instant.l p o.gas is used.eda i r or g".crew until fuel comes ~hrough th. vacuum from the c a r bu r e tor.l to flow from the ou tl et .

e ve r and a xl e .T 7. If either seat and secondary valve seats. remove the t r ua r c lock and r e pl. 10. these Scribe a. and valve piston assembly by following p r oc e dur e outlined in Step 6.d e nd of tool G161-199 in orifice of valve seat. Use a paper clip or similar tool and remove the rubber va. Re mov e the primary and diaphragm.to r body.a te d ill the valve is scratched or irnp e r fec t and must be r ep Iac e d. This completes disassembly. O.10 .to r on bench 13-12 DISASSEMBLY ruo STAGE REGULATOR procedure.Iv e disc.ac e parts as needed" then . The button 'Should r-etu rnj o-i t s original position.arnp casrtng in vise.o. These seats are Ioc. Align easy-out with va lve seat orifice by adjusting puller nut unt il half of its shoulder has entered f'ue l valve c hanne l . Iai Iu r e. Remove Remove Carefully channels the diaphragm lever examine the o r if ic e s of the primary of the r e gula. no further service is r e qut r ed . Dep r e s s the button and then r e Ie as e it.sling and primary fuel valve p i ston will fall out. ruse r t taper e.e next step. Tilt the ca. Notice that secondary a dju s tme u t ass embly is toward operator r s left and contains a spl'ing loaded adjusting s c r e w. 1L Cl.i/ASSEMBlY G SCREH VAL VE SPRING FIGURE Di sa. Place rs gul.·ight {cloc'kwise} to extract valve seat. valve. 4.rma Llv . Remove the six assembly cover. secondary a djus tme nt as sern bly . match mark parts can be replaced from 'primary diaphragm in their original position. 9. Remov~ the primary d iap hr-agrn lever by tak in g out the two axl e re ta irri ng screws and Hfting out the l.5 operating n. that secure the primary cover and diaphragm assembly to regulator body. 8. l. 2.s s ernbl y: Follow the s"quellce damage to c e r ta in parts. 5. Hold easy-out hand III to prevent its rotating while turning puller nut to . Discard old valve seat. Turn r egula to r over secondary and r e rrrove the secondary cover and diaphragm. screws spring.. 12. cover to regulator Figure 13-12. part of tool C 161-199. Should a part be rusted or corroded. 13. COVE.se cur e by r eprac ing tr ua r c lock. Turn easy-out to Left (counterclockwise) until tapered threads a r e firmly engp. Examine primer button located in the c e nte r of the aec onda r y diaphragm cover. sp rings and Hber wa s he r s .a. se. If primer 1. Use a 13/16" w r e nc h 'a'nd remove the' primary valve pLug.dju s tab l e and c on ta in s a much heavier spring.ged in valve seat orifice. Place old Hbe r wa she r orr s hould e r of puller nut. body casting 3. Also note that primary valve plug is not a. to do so' could result ill of operations as Lis te d in the service with primary side up and fuel outlet boss toward operator. so that upon reassembly. assembly s c rews .

in.r-erriove one aligning Dep r e s s d iap hr a. 1. Cle'.ne:l. AUgn match ma r ks on primary diaphragm co ve r "Old regulato. screws while. 'Clean or r ep la. If p r e s s ur-e c r e eps up.Lve plug. an.n diaphragm. small end of spring di. i'·1 valve . washe:r and sptirlg assembly- in th'eright hand piston chan.1. finger tight.. valve channel.epr-e s s ing plunger far enough to secure Install Place Insert new l-ubbe r valve regulator body diap'hragm cover by . Disregard 7th hole i.gerthroUigh with t r ua r c l oc k.t ing plun.er op er a to r .HJ o r r ep Ia c e valve parts a svne ed ed a nd r e.dju s ring s cr ew -to left (clockwise ) three' (3 ) turns. depress pri m e r button two Dr three rirn es .>. plates up.ce any questio<lable parts wi t h jre. 14. 5.6rifice down. body casting with valve channel in a vertical position . s in.a. 'on inserting to cl (C161-198). 7. 19.' boss toward operator. then. a bubble will begin to e. turn itt o the Turn the' s e c onda r y 'a. Rs m ove stud.r dry. Reassemqly NOTE: pistons L The following parts are interchangeable: and 'dis c s .the hea. body. z-epla c e the'm with' new seats as follows: Hold. it.I harnrner arid seat the valve by driving it i.me w va Ive seat.w parts. Connect right Z·. 18.c. l6. Exarrrine both diaphragm levers.s ol u ti. bos s toward i z. 6.l. Pr-~5i.w..11 . p r-irna r y side up a ud fuel outlet them with assembly . Install primary va. regulator. then i ns ta ll Ins e r t six.ri witih a se r i e s of l ig'ht tap s .ha nne I ori operator's :dg~lt. prima 1'\1 a nd secondary ih alcohol and a i. '8. Use arre w fiber the spring l ca de.d-a xl e a. tighten screw moderately tight.ov e. the .a'l. 3.chec k for ieak. Tig'hten all 'screws ev e nly . on bench 50 that the word "primary" is up andfue l outlet boss is toward 13. Surfaces should be parallel. 15..Tighten washer and install s econda r y adjustment assembly in left ha"d chaune I.' Place p'r irna ry diaphragm sp r-ing on small diaphragm plate'. In sp e c t all parts for wea r or Primary and secondary diaphragm Ie ve r s and axle s .sae mbl y and secure axle with two retainer s c r e ws . dean aU parts damage . Use a srn. valve NOTE: Ins tan secondary Ins tal l one a s s'e mb lv s c r ew "linge r tight arid then remove one aligning stud. regulator on beric h.Cle?ning ·and Insp. Testing l. valve channel ope r a to r. and Adjustirrg .vi e r of the two spr ing e}. Turn re.. 23. If s e c crtda r y . NOTE: Disregard 7th hole in diaphragm. fiber s e cure Iy with a lJ f 16" wrench. th twoaxle retainer sc. Continue in this manne r until'all six a ss ernb ly s cre ws have been installed.pres- Place a. 11)5Ia11diaphragm Install Install five aligning secondary Ie ve r arid axle assembly studs (C166-53) pl. a va..xpa nd . Place a.w fiber washer On the p r-i.-egulator va l ve is leaking. ne. sure Place remaining aligning studs one at a time and replace ore the . (no tools required). 13.ection: After disassembly.ce in five with and se curcwi assembly button sc r ewbole down.CO'ler·.r ews . diaphragm.d adjusting s. ll. .ce parts as ne ces s ar y Keep regulator inEet connec ted to a sou r ce of c omp re s se da i r or gas 'in excess· of 2·5·psi. and r epl a. inlet to a sou r ce of compressed air Dr gas in' ex c e s s of 25 psi.c.c r e w and the zz. as it will go'.s c s in valve p i stons marked disc on be.guiatorov. p r irna r y valve is lea ktng. body casting. valve seats . 10.d hold p.ma r y va Iva plug {the on e without 'one havin. 9.y 2 psi and remain stea dy. Io s e rttool and valve seat in. .. Remove p r e s sure gauge from fuel outlet channel "red CDVer ope niug with a film of bubble .un'_gauge should read appr oxirnatel. primary and secondary va l ve If valve seals have been retTlD.ins.nch with side the end with rubber "s econda ry': up a ndf'ue l outlet first.o n .Now.rt Install and position 12. pressure gauge to fuel outlet a n. 17.'ed. in a depres·s·ed position.g m cove r alL the way.l ve piston.er. and replace it with another s-c r e. (counte rdockwise) as far. conne c t a O~15 lb.g.rimer button. on ope rator s right. . Repl. Inse. . maintaining.ce it with an 'as s e rnb l y 'screw. 3. Ins tal l primer button a s s e mcl y in se"condary and d. tighten a Il va s s e rnb l y screws eve nl y .e nd with d\«phragm lever tubber disc Firs t.s ton .align. a valve p i.0. 4.ing s tud s (C166-53) i n the six assembly screw hol e s in body casting primary diaphragm.r .

iiun· c y Liude-r ihea ds and fuel'C:ups for starting on gasoline. Re gula tor is now rea~)' to be pla ced in s'e 5. will require a p res s ur-e of [rom. SLWPLY VALVE AIR CLEA'ER~ FIGURE 13-13 KEROSENE SYSTE~I 13. Whe n Ins ta Il ing the combination sys te m . air intake through a secondary regu.. Retighten . ber . an airres. Changeover' 1.ation. Keep reg.cu on corm e c t i on s . Shut off gas 'cock Open located a he.o r i ze ) and oc ta. T'o. adjusted for c o r r-e. Pressure rria y be: c he c ke d 'with a ma. smooth. regulate air adjus trne nt by turning until m e nt jet 'to insure. Start engine.ompres·.ulator fuel outl.as an electric plant.a d of gas filter and gas regulator).oline in fuel supply ga S 01 ine line (normany fi1 te t . further aid oper. It rna. Clo~'e shut-off va l.e line pressure. If engine r un s ut"levetl!ly with no ope r a ti on is. 1.triction inlet ring on the flywheel so that the operating ternpe r arur e of the engine increases and aids vaporization of ker o se rie. the K241 arid K3QI e'nSines use. The Iowe r cost of kerosene the reduction in: horsepower (25 . then turn adj us t ing Screw One turn to the r.-solirie fuel and is ge ne. The r e a d ing for cor r e ct p r ess ur e would be 7' to 12.4.cock in gas l ine . proper pe r Io r ma nee uncle r Gas io Gas.y be necessary to regulate gas' adjus tload.12 . the type of fuel to be. Ve ndo r s of LPG (Butane and Propane) and natural gas Can supply' i nfo rma t i.ve on gasoline supply filter..ight {clockwise).r a Ily' used ona constant al l ow s tbe engine to be ope ra tedon such . Cas fuel is supplied directly to carbur eto'r.norne te r.irig .and allow fuel to enter combustion c harn-. if any adjustment is ne c e s s a r y . Description: Ke r os e ne.300/0) limits its us e s . For this reason.iope ra tl. It will be nec es sa r y for the vendors supply o.c h a l l ows gas to flow into system for quicker sta r t. used rn us t be C onsi.rrecomm'end a primary r:egulator t6 b e used with the system to r e duc.tc. to The· ·"ngille.on is available on rnos t Kohler Engines..4 to:8 ou rrce srp e r. 2. r vice. KEROSEN E SYSTEM life make' this fuel atrra c tive: however. GASOLINE either gas Qr. kerosene' powered erigine s are equipped with lower ·c. 81m t. Open gas . inches Water column.ct fuel ~ air mixture.r y regulator. 3. 3.ca rbu re to r ONLY. If unit has not be en previously tu!"e jet and turn jet until engine runs smooth load. 2. Further adjustments should be made at the .de red. loosen lock nut on rn ixunder load. . The I<:Z41 and K3Ql engines also have spe cta l piston rings to keep the crankcase oil dilution at a rninirnum .et co ve r e d with a bubble fiim and slowly tu rrr-se c onda r y adjusting"screw to left (counterclockwise) until a b\lbhle begins to farm at outlet. The volatility (ability to vap. COMBINATION GASspeed This system application.square iric h to be supplied to the c on n e c tj o n at the ·second<i.ne rating of kerosene is lower than gasoline. The secondary te'gulator has a priming button whi.g. arid longer Valve.r Adjustment Se c tion .lator mounted on engine. By ·turning engine 'over at a continuous rate engina' vacuum will opeTI regulator .off val ve on Refe r to Ca i-bu r e.l ce k nut.

Ire similar . kerose ne operation '.se ne to. The ca r bu r e tor drain 'ke r ois Open gasoline fuel cup lever.onirig 13.in is bperatedeng)nes't:riustbe engine.to·. open fuel in Gas ol irie Carbure tor Recond. fill cup and close Lever. the fuel supply va.o rba.Tl ow from fuel tank to carburetor.rbu re tors used .r te ngi rie .Ive must be dosed to prevent mus t be .tthe ke r cse ne ca n be drained before starting the e.13 .tigine.. slip'ply't?lve to permit ka r o. star ted'ongasol ine. and repair.The ca.iti. Sta. . NOTE: F'or -ca rbu re tor adjusting Sec t ion. see Ca rbur e tor Adjustment After engine 'has started. Before starting The carburetor used for gasoline Note: Kerosene except a bowl d r a. to those tnc ludeds.dr-a ine d of all ke r ose ne .

GENUINF KOHLER PARTS .AfwO!j4 WI?:.

or sp r-oke t must be loc a te d within lIZ Lubrication Oil bath grade. Do not pryor force spring lock away from ring.iJISASSEMBLED 14. lever jumps: out. remove nameplate and proceed as follows: Turn a djus ti ng.WET TYPE install sheave or sprocket as c Io s'e to housing the length of the shaft e xt e ns i on. he a.: BEARING RELEASE -: Q SHIFTING LEVER -: -: POWERSHAFT . Keep hous-ing fiUed to oil level hole with nondetergent SAE 30 SAE 20 SAE i o operation. O· TO 50' F~ BELOW O· F.DIFICATIONS & ACCESSORIES CLUTCH CLUTCH sheave -.45 pounds is required at finger position on shifting lever to engage dutch. Cha ng e oil in PTO Adj UE.in. type Iub r i ca Hon is used. Center of To avoid ove r loadtng shafts or bearings.MO. A new clutch may re qui. oil of proper after each 100 'hcu r s of engine 1m e nt Cku tch adjustment is necessary wb eri it slips. ABOVE 50· F. for nor ma I function surface wear.r c'e oi'40 . as p os s ihl e .r e adjustment To adjust clutch. engine. (YOKE) SHAFT) .ts Or when the shifting to compensate. *NO'FE: Adjusting ring is spring loaded and need not be loosened.1 . ring." in clockwise direction (use scr ewd r iver hl a de ] until fo. YOKE/ ROLL PIN CLUTCH ASSEI~BLY i~ KEY/ " ~ FIGURE 14-1 WET TYPE CLUTCrl .

./ CLUTCH PLA1E .:.fJ sPIDER f" ~ /RELEASE I~~REUASE &1lJ SLEEVE • BEARING Remove two cap screws out spacer s .:. 3..SSE~1BLEO 14.dur e for r ea s se mb Iy..-.1 . clutch assembly should be bolted to-c. Z. Take out four housing 'hous i ng . .<.DRY TYPE pressure sboul. V "". ~Ch /' If clutch plate replacement is necessary." / ~.d be required to engage clutch. /~ DRIVECUP / ASSEf:IlL Y FIGURE 14-4 DRY TYPE CLUTCH ~ DISA. from clutch yoke . uns c r ew adjustment collar and replace the plate. Adjustments should be made if slipping or overheating A firm is noticed. ·r YOKE NAMEPLATE Service 1. On final engagement. J 8. CL. housing. lubricate bearing inspection on clutch SHIFTING lEVER -: ~.UTCH/ . Pull assembly out key lock screw in 6. ""'" " /' ~~ / til /' POWER SHAFT ~ I. unit off of engine crankshaft. unti l a firm Release ·dutch and with a Ia rg e screwdriver pressure is required to engage dutch. Reverse the above p r oce.' Z .and take l .%. Pull out clutch cross 3.~ . k r. Remove inspection plate and l ocate adjustment lock by turning turn dutch flywheel.~\" 'D .f .1./C:/ Remove lock bolt and back clutch assembly. 7. "a / CLUTe!l HOUSING ! t{Ol.2 . ADJUSTltIG/ DRIVE/ PLA1E @@ BODY AS""U .I SEAmy Ii![§{{ RETAINER 3!. bolts and el lde off clutch .OVlfj. 4. shaft . center to Lock or clutch collar through will release plate under load. 5. Every 50 operating rollers hours should go over clutch c ol la r clockwise. on Clutch Remove cove r pla te and r e Ie a s e clutch. 4. 2. ODe notch at a time. / _ll~).~ t.~.r anks-haft ..FIGURE 14-2: GEAR REDUCTION FIGURE 14-3 ADJUSTING CLUTCK CLUTCH -. /~) ~. 1.

750" 1.115" T. gear housing cover oil along with driven gear. all parts and inspect bushmg new seals and gear (flat Remove old oil seals and install side out) in the gear STEP :B . t ion Wrap piece of tape or roll paper around crankshaft gear to protect tbe oil seal. Drain Remove Remove Wash lubricating four oil from unit. adding or removing 4. ) shaft. 001/.074-1. and copper washers inSit. Replace worn parts. slide housing.740-. shaft is supported by two bearings .084" FIGURE 14-5 EXPLODED VIEW -~ GEAR REDUCTION UNIT 14. housing and cover. 4.evel plug. The drive gear is an integral part of the engine c r ankshaft. T.3 . over' the shaft .115" 1.a.105-1. for wear. paper should be wrapped a rcund Install the gasket(s) and reducti. an unit to the oil level hole.) THRUST SHAFT END . by varying the total gasket damaging the cover oil 3. The following procedure is used: STEP A . the shaft to prevent the keyway from gear cover and tighten cap screws.and attach to the block.from ·gear hou s i ng and 'slide holding shaft. Cl84" K161 K181 K241 1(301 1.ducti on unit c.GEAR REDUCTION The r e. Two lock wa she r s are used on the outside of housing. cap screws 5 four cap crews to engine.le.074-1. . oil Hll plug and oill. 5.Removal I.115" 1. Adjust shaft 'end clearance gaskets as required. 2. O.s used in engine.Installa 1.one in the cover and the other in the housing.l05-1. T. Urrtrrn us t be disassembled for removal. Oil s e als are provided at both ends of the shaft.GEAR HUB K91 -K141 DIMENSION .onsi s ts of a driven gear which is p r ess e d on the power take off (P. The P. 3. (Same grade . Tape seal: Or 2. O.on to . Remove 006 inches thickness.105-1.

4 . push arm upwa r d to m cve choke plate toward closed position. Af'te r desired position i s attained.7). Proceed as follows: 1. z. CHOKE LEVE. 3. Choke adjustment must be made on cold engine.-~. check for evidence of binding in linkage--correct if necessary. A lesser degree of choking is needed m-rni lde r temperatures. adjust choke lever by hand to determine if choke setting is too lean or too rich.ostat.Thermos ta tic Type: Rem ove air deane r from ca rb ure to r to ob serve position of choke plate. tighten adjustment lock screw._ BOL ~-------HOLE IN SHAFT ~I"-J". Be sure chokes are fully open when engine is at nor-mal operating temperature..LOCK SCREW/ CHokE PLATE FIGURE 14-6 -. Loosen adjustment lock screw on choke body. 4. If starting in extreme cold.- CROSS SHAFT FIGURE 14-7 -- ELECTRIC- THER~IOSTATIC AUTot~ATIC CHOKE 14. Ele ctric . Up wa rd movement will result in less choking.s made. tighten clamp bolt then remove drill" After replacing air cleaner. After adjustment i. Move choke arm until hole in brass shaft lines up with slot in bearings.ic Type: The automatic choke is a heat sensitive thermostatic unit. At room temperature. Insert #43 drill (. If en.089"')~ ~n ~ II t \ "--------MOVE ARM UP TO INCREASECHOKEMOVE DOWNWARD TO DECREASE CHOKE CLAt·1P T------. 089) and push all the way down to engine manifold to €ilgage in notch in base of choke unit (See Figure 14. M-oving adju 9 trn e nt b cracke t dow nwa r d will inc r ea s e the a ill aunt ofc hoking.R ARM DRILL (. This allows the position of adjustment bracket to be changed. adjustment can be made to remedy situation. proceed as follows: 1. Z. choke should be in full closed position before engine is started. 3·. Once this has been e sta bli shed . Loosen clamp bolt em choke lever.THERt~OSTATlC TYPE AUTOMATIC CHOKE AUTOMATIC CHOKES Therm..gine should fail to start when cranked. choke lever will be se t in a vertical position.__ fl. If adjustment is needed.

# 1 Phillips 3" Rirlg Compressor Ring Expander 12 oz. using certain winterized engines during the TOOL LIST Common TooLs is a list of t. This system cleaner and should never be used in anything but sn ow c ond it ion s .i ca ti ons. 14. Thi.s and furnishes sufficient heat while the' engine is running to keep these parts operative. Torque . for cold weather applications. X 3/8" x 10" Lb.5 .st of a duct assembly which is mounted on the carburetor and is . This duct p r ote c. S. This The equipment Engines used for w in te r or cold weather operation are supplied with special special equipment is designed to.ons . 25 Blade 5/16" 3/8" Drive Valve Needle Timing Spring Compressor Gauge Punch Nose Pliers Light Ratchet }" Extension Special Tools Tachometer 3/8" Drive 0\1 seal sleeves and drivers aid a s s e mb Iva nd insure seal p r o te c ti on during assembly.s filter should be washed every 8 hours running time and oUed with SAE 30 oil. lowing drawings and dimensions for making oil seal s lee ves and drivers. a second duct is installed adjacent to the preheater duct which covers the governor. For certain snowmobile applications or for engines to be used where snow and ice accumulations.generally used on engines exposed to ice and snow a ccumula ti. the air intake heater should be removed and replaced with the Kohler approved dry type air cleaner. A resistor type spark plug is norm_ally used and assures better starting characteristics. Ins ide the duct assembly is an aluminum foil filter that filters the air passing through. a special intake system is used. All dimensions are Use folin inches. Lb.ts the working exterior parts of the governor fr_om snow and ice a ccurnula tton. gain optimum perfo-rmance at low temperatures. This plug minimizes fouling Engine users or owners should be cautioned against hot summer months since these engines may overheat. the ignition system and the governor. The special air intake system may consi.tandard 1 /2" Hex. CAUTION: This system must not be used in a r ea s where there is no snow or whe re high dust conditions are prevalent. The duct draws heat from the muff'le r and preheats the' air entering the carburetor. In areas where high dust i:sencountered. Torque In.WINTERIZED ENGINES equipment.oo Following l s that are used in servicing Kohler' Engines: SIZE DESCRIPTION Combination Combination Combination Combination Combination Screw Screw Screw Pliers Ball Peen Feeler Drift Hammer Driver Driver Driver Wrench Wrench Wrench Wrench Wrench SIZE 3/8" 7/16" DESCRIPTION 3/8" Socket 3/8" Socket 7/16" Hex. 1/2" Deep Standard 3/8" Socket 9/16" 3/8" Socket 3/8" Socket x 6" 9/16" Deep 5/8" 5/16" 13/16" Deep Wrench Wrench Ft. affected is primarily the air intake system. air intake is protected from does not include: an air For certain appl.

K321 8-13/16" 1-11/16" 1.503" .003'1 sleeves 1 .500" K321 . 14-8) 5-1/4" 1-3/4" K91 ENGINE MODEL K141.935" .907" C* . K301. K161> K1Bl 6-1/4" 2" 1.. To de- C dimension for etandard crankshafts. 1 1 I I :n FIGURE 14-7 DIMENSIONAL n_:~\:__ ~_j ..252/1. K301. On some appl-ioairione .t .. Corp.- A ~I C ----------(::. use diameter of crankshaft plus .903" .905/.905/ ..910" ..248/1.6 . K181 4~3/4" 1.7515·" 1 .933/ .--fr-" *t FIGURE 14.495/1.7510/ .002/i .-8 DIMENSIONAL DIAGRAI~ -- SEAL DRIVER SEAL DIMENSION DRIVER A B C (FIG.245/1. epeeial: tel"mine C dimeneion. 003". Corp.J'" ~Q .253" will. PURCHASED The Bendix The Bendix The Bendix DESCRIPTION Easy-Out Valve Seat Inserting Tool Aligning Stud (6 Rqd. ) C-161-199 C-161-198 C-166-53 14.. ~ Jg I' I .498/1.128" K241.003" 1.120" K241.3/4" ENGINE MODEL K141. K161.002/1 . D02/.II B C.. be needed.250" 1 .902/.902/.---------~ Dri~ ~~.123/1.938" required for special equipment a r e a s follows: FROM Corp.906". .125/1.253" 1 . 14-7) A B k9] 3. 7-5/16" 1. t -------~--.~------------------------~~~ B DIAGRAM -SEAL SLEEVE SEAL DIMENSION SLEEVE (FIG. Tools PART NO.930/.-B L ------.

lb. lb. 1bs . 35 in.. 1 bs . 9/16-18 70 .0 f't. 1 b. lb . n. CONVERSION TABLE (INCH LBS. ft. 200 ft. ARM LOCK SCREW 35 i 11. 1b. 1bs . 1 b. reo ft. lb. lb. lb. or. lb. *'* 'II'll 18-22 18-22 18-22 ft. ft. ft. Lbe. 1 bs . K181 K241. ~ @ @> FIGURE 15-1 @ K91 @ K141. . ft. 325 ft. ft. 35 ft. 1bs. 1 b. ft..25-30 ft. lb. ft. 260 in. ft. 200 in. lb. ft. 1b. ft. SCREWS & NUTS Torque 0 lightening Grade 5 115 140 250 270 35 40 55 75 80 105 125 165 in. 1b._. 1 b. ft. ft. 150 ft. libs . 1 bs • 35 in. 1b. ft. ft. lb.-22 f't . 1 b. 1 b. Gra d e 8 -165 in. 1bs. . K301. 1b. 1 b. 1b. 1 bs . ---------- 300 in • 1bs~. 1 bs. 245 ft. 1 bs • ft. . ~ 30Q. 1 b. 1b. 1b. *iubrioate with oi~ at as8emb~y. 10. 300 in. ft. lb. 15-20 15-20 15-20 . ft. 18. lb. ft. ft. ft. 100 ft. K301 MOde~8 with 3/4" ~ 16 thread tighten nut to 100 ft. ft. ft. ft. 1b. 1 ~ C®>. lbs.. 200 FLYWHEEL NUT 40-55 50-60 50-50 50-50 60-70 60-70 SPARK PLUG 18-22 18-22 18-22 200 in. ft. lb. ft. 150 . 1 bs .lbs. 1b. 200 in. lbs. 230 ft. n. ft. lb. @ 1 b. l!bs.) 15 180 5 60 10 120 20 240 25 300 30 360 35 420 40 480 45 540 50 600 v """". lbs ~"" 300' i 11. FOOT LBS. '10 in. lb.1 . 165 .. ~ @ K321 @. =o« earlder K241. ft. in. 1 bs. TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS CYLINDER ENGINE MJDEL GOV. 45 ft. 1b. 1b. 35 in. 1 bs.SPECIFICATIONS . 110 ft. 1bs. 30 50 60 80 105 115 165 175 230 260 330 350 470 200 in. ft. 1 b. 350 in. 70 ft. 1 b. FOOT LBS. 1 bs. 1 bs • ft. 50 ft. 1 b. n. @ 1 b. 1bs. 1b. HEAD* CONNECTING ROD* 140 in. ft.. lbs. ft. @ W:!) CYLINDER HEAD TIGHTENING SEQUENCE - 15. ft. 1 bs. 75 ft..· in. 5/15-18 5/15-24 3/8-16 3/8-24 7/16-14 7/16-20 1/2-13 1/2-20 9/16-12 5/8-11 5/8-18 3/4-10 3/4-16 BOLTS. 85 in. K9l K141 K161 K181 K24'l K301 K321 lbs. ft. 1b. 140 ft. ft.. 1 b. 25-3. 1 bs. lb·. pO-70 ft. 25-30 ft. K161. in.in. 1bs . 1 b. lb. 1 bs. lbs. ft. STANDARD Size Grade 2 1/4-20 1/4-28.. 1bs. fNCH LBS. lb.

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241.006 .0035 2. VALVE FIGURE 15-2 -.9405 .9305 . PISTON .2535/1.037/.045 - MODEL 1::..037/.2545 1-15/32 . F VALVE HEAD DIAMETER G 1 -5/16 .370/1.001 ).045 1.0025 Maximum Allowable Taper .0045 K321 3. 0045 K301 3.9405 .lS DIMENSION (SEE FIG.7025 .0'045 J BORE K181 2.006 .037/.380 45° .006 .4 . 1-15. D.0005 .130 45° . EXHAUST IImKE l'erJl'inding--see 15.2445 .006 Maximum Side Clearance VALVE STEM TO GUIDE** .(101 1.312/.006 .2535/1.0005 .0065 .001 1 . 89" .045 89° MODEL K141.0045 *Maximum allowable before replacement> reboIing with va!ve closed.979/.5025 .1885 .001 r~axi mum Taper CONNEen NG ROD .004 Intake.037/.866 .LOCATION VALVE DETAI. to Crankpin-Max.312/.006 .2485 ----- -- D GUIDE DEPTH E GUIDE I.312/.313 1.045 .045 1 .313 1-1/8 45° 890 .005 .005 Maximum but of Round CRANKSHAFT CRA~KPIN .378 Maximum Oversize Diam~ter . .037/.0035 2.0045 CYLINQER BORE 2.5025 .817 45° ..973 NONE NONE .9305 .006 Exhaust .) SPECIFICATION (INCHES )* K9l K141 & K161 2-7/8l' BORE 2-15/16" 2.0015 .3105/.3095 i .359 Maximum Wear Diameter PISTON RING .Maximum Clearance . 2 for new dimensions.0035 3'.807/ .3110 VALVE FACE ANGLE H VALVE STEM DIA~IETER .001 1.120/1 .0005 .005 . 15-2) A B C MODEL K91 INTAKE EXHAUST 89° .----NONE NONE .045 ---- _.878 .1885 . K161.3105/.Maximum Wear Diameter-Big End .0045 page . D.005 .Maximum Clearance **Measia'e at top oj guide 2.3090/.005 .0025 .0035 2.VALVE DETAIL DRAWING -.005 . K321 K INTAKE EXHAUST 89 0 SEAT ANGLE SEAT WIDTH: INSERT O.THRUST FACE 2. K181 INTAKE EXHAUST 89° .3785 .0035 3.005 .2545 1~5/l6 .006 .2460/.4945 .1885 .001 K241 3.0015 .0005 Maximum Out of Round .00il5 .2465 .989 45° .0005 .001 1.006 .065 0 .3090/.972/.3'il10 .0035 Rod.006 .0025 .3095 15.301.503 .0025 .2545 .2480/.006 .0005 1.0065 .WEAR TOLERANCES & CLEARANCES (MAX.9385 .313 1-3/8 45° 1-15/32 .0035 3.313 1 .037/. Clear.0005 .312/ .5025 .

apply a liberal arriount of lightgrease such as lubriplate on the seal lip area.-bearing plate configuration differs with type of i~nHionsystem used--these differences are shown in the cutaway views in Figure 15-4 to help identi.. crankcase face at PTO end.73" 1/2" .73" .~===========Jj~--OIL CONTROL GROOVE lAPERSMALLER TOYJ'ARDTOP ----- .52" .. PRESS SEAL AGAINST SHOULDER -+--+-SEAL DEPTH on SEAL LOCATWN FIGURE 15-4 -.THRUST FACE* _____ jr. .1211 *Wi... ENGINE MODEL K91 K141 K161 K181 K241 K241A K301 K301A K321 MAGNETO ROTOR 1/32" 1/32" 1/32" I .FRONT 15.th sleeve seal in untn.t 8~ouldeI'.52" 1/2" bottoms --- ---- -- -~bearing-drive 1/3211 1/32" 1/32" 1/211 1/211 1/2" 1/2" 1/211 -- -- .486" -- -- . Use seal dr ive r and seal sleeve of appropriate. FIGURE 15-3 -. BREAKERLE'SS BATTERY -- Full In 1/32" 1/2" 1/2" . -+Measure wear at thrust face & at right angle to pin bore. Note that the front oil seal depth varies with engine model and type of bearing plate used.l: it a:ga. sIz.73" . 1/811 for K241 thru K321..e and install carefully to prevent the seal lip f r orn rolling and creasing.52" 1/2" 'FRONT OIL SEAL LOCATION 3 AMP ALTERNATOR 10 AMP ALTERNATOR .52" 1/2" .inr. Press against outer edges of seal--press squarely into position and to the depth specified in the chart below. SLEEVE BEARING (TYPICAL) Depth measured in from FLYWHEEL MAGNETO (TYPICAL) IBREAKERLESS (TYPICAL) BATTERY (TYPICAL) -I . REAR OIL SEAL DEPTH: 1/32" for K91 thru K181.5 .... Rear oil seal installation details are shown in Figure 15-5 on the next page.PISTON WEAR MEASUREMENT DETAILS OIL SEAL INSTALLATION When installing new oil seals.52" 1/32" Full In 1/32" 1/32" 1/2" •12" l/2" .fy the various bearing plate types. FLYWHEEL MAGNETO 1/32'" 1/32'"* 1/32" 1/32" 1/211 .

.. 4 ~.'2.. "2.DOUBU SEALS INSTALL BACK-TO-BAGK OPEN S1 DE OPEN S1 DE I SINGLE SEAL I are I DOUBLE SEAL I NOTE: In applications using an oil r-es e r vo l r outside the PTO end of block.-.& C~ ti&2L- ~ #d ~ 0'Y'Z'I I n a 34 2.l. b '2_':. 1(.'1 j z.'". FIGURE 15-5 -..' ZB Vi ZG \~ '1.4 J Ga.REAR OIL SEAL INSTALLATION DETAILS 0 10('> '/ Do. Yz . install seals with lips facing direction shown in the cutaway view on the right. seals installed back to back to provide sealing both ways--on these. two.6 . 0. 'L 0 '1.S J7.. 'J I II 4 '(d <. I:) IlL 4- 15.j f oo o t<'.4- ~ I Y:z'{ ."".