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CHAPTER 6: NUTRITION ENERGY VALUE: Energy value (J g-1) = 4.

.2 (J g-1 C-1) mass of water (g) increase in temperature ( C) Mass of food sample (g) VITAMIN C: Percentage of ascorbic 0.1% acid in fruit juice (%) Concentration of ascorbic acid in fruit juice (%) = Volume of 0.1% ascorbic acid solution Volume of fruit juice = Volume of 0.1% ascorbic acid solution Volume of fruit juice CHAPTER 7: RESPIRATION PERCENTAGE OF OXYGEN: Percentage of oxygen = (length of bubbles gas + potassium hydroxide solution) (length of bubbles gas + potassium pyrogalate solution) Initial length of bubble gas

CHAPTER 8: DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEM QUADRAT SAMPLING TECHNIQUE: Percentage coverage = Aerial coverage of all quadrats (m2) 100%

Number of quadrats quadrats area Percentage frequency 100% = Number of quadrats containing the species Number of quadrats Density = Total number of individuals of a species in all quadrats Number of quadrants area of each quadrat CAPTURE, MARK, RELEASE AND RECAPTURE TECHNIQUE: Population size = Num. of animals in first sample Num. of animals in second sample

Number of marked animals recaptured