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Nanasi Elementary Geometric Society

author(s)
title

and

subtitle
publisher
date
uri

2011-08-12
http://myopenarchive.org/docs/NEGS/116

format
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type
language
references

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Preprint
ja_JP
http://p.booklog.jp/book/32279

http://www.freeml.com/egs

INTRODUCTION

[1]

n n

Fig 1 R 1

1R
(
)

R
Z
1R = R (x1 X)
dx1 x1 X =
2 +Z 2

Z tan 1R = BA d
RX
tan A = RX
(1)
Z , tan B =
Z

1R
Fig 1: Angle of view of a line-segment. (X, Z)
[
]
[
]
(
)2 (
)2
R
R
1
1 R X
1 R + X
2
R [X, Z] = Tan
+ Tan
, X + Z
=
Z
Z
tan 1R
sin 1R
(1)
2 1 n n
nR [X, Z] 3 n n
S n 4 n
Sn = nR [0, Z] 5 nR [X, Z] 1
6

Fig 2: Hypersolid angle.

Fig 3: Hypersphere angle.

Fig 4: Hypercone angle.

HYPERSOLID ANGLE

Fig 2 n D
(x1 , x2 , , xn , z) = (X, 0, , 0, Z)
D n nR [X, Z] [2] (2)
1

The hypersolid angle of view of a hyperball

nR [X, Z]


=
(
D

Zdx1 dx2 dxn


(x1 X)2 + x22 + + x2n + Z 2

) n+1

(2)

(2) (n + 1)
(3)
(4)

x1 = r cos 1
x2 = r sin 1 cos 2
..
.
xn1 = r sin 1 sin 2 cos n1
xn = r sin 1 sin 2 sin n1


(x1 , x2 , , xn )
n1


sinn2 1 sinn3 2 sin n2
(r, 1 , , n1 ) = r

Zrn1 sinn2 1 sinn3 2 sin n2
n
R [X, Z] =

dn1 d1 dr
n+1
D
(r2 2Xr cos 1 + X 2 + Z 2 ) 2

(3)

(4)

(4) (13) (5) (X, 0, )


(6)

x1 X = Z tan cos 1
x2 = Z tan sin 1 cos 2
..
.

xn1 = Z tan sin 1 sin 2 cos n1

xn = Z tan sin 1 sin 2 sin n1


(5)


n1
n2
n3
n

(x1 , x2 , , xn ) Z sin
sin
1 sin
2 sin n2


(, , , ) =
n+1
cos

1
n1

( n1
)

sin
sinn2 1 sinn3 2 sin n2
dn1 d1 d
nR [X, Z] =

(6)
(6) n (n + 1)

HYPERSPHERE ANGLE

Wallis (7) [3]

In [] = In [ ] =

sinn d =
0

n1
cos sinn1
In2 []
n
n

(7)

I0 [] = I1 [] = 1 cos n In []
In [] [4] (8)
2

The hypersolid angle of view of a hyperball

In [] = In [ ] =

] ( [ n+1 ] )

2
n
+
1
1
[ n+2 ]
sinn d = B
,
=

2
2
2
[

(8)

1 (n + 1) n S n
Sn
lim nR [0, Z] =
Fig 3
Z0
2
Z < 0 (6) (9)
n+1

S n = In1 [ ]In2 [1 ] I1 [n2


]I0 [n1
2] =

2 2
]
[
n+1
2

(9)

n+1

In [] =(SS n
R (n + 1)
)
n+1
2
Rn
S n Rn = 2n+1
[ 2 ]

HYPERCONE ANGLE BY SEMIAPEX ANGLE

[ ]
Fig 4 = Tan1 R
Z
n
n
n R [0, Z] S (10)
(
nR [0, Z]

Sn

=S

In1 []
In1 []

)
=S

n1

In1 [] = S

n1

[
[ ]]
1 R
In1 Tan
Z

(10)

(10) Fig 5 (AA )

(B+BB )

Fig 5: The approximate hyper-solid-angle of view of a hyper-ball.


(C+ C C )

CALCULATION OF HYPERSOLID ANGLE

]
]
[
[
A = Tan1 RX
(1) B = Tan1 RX
Z
Z

(X, 0, ) Z tan
[ (6)
]
1 X 2 +Z 2 tan2 R2

[] = Cos
(n 1) Sn1
i

|2XZ tan |
(11) 1

The hypersolid angle of view of a hyperball

(
)

n1
S n1 In1 [A ] + |B | S n1
sin

A
)
nR [X, Z] = | | (
)

| | (
n1
B S n1
d = S n2 |AB| In2 [ ] sinn1 d
sin
|A |

(|X| < R)

(|X| R)
(11)
(
)
Z
1
2
(11) R 1 R [0, Z] = 2 1 2 2
R +Z

(11) xz n
Scilab http://www7.atwiki.jp/neetubot/pub/
ncontour.sce Fig 6
n=2
(S^2)/2=6.2831853071795862
(S^2)/4=3.1415926535897931

n=1
(S^1)/2=3.1415926535897931
(S^1)/4=1.5707963267948966
1.5

1.5

1.0

1.0

n=3
(S^3)/2=9.8696044010893580
(S^3)/4=4.9348022005446790
1.5

0.509

1.0
1

1.27

1.27

0.958

1.11
1.58

1.42

1.49

0.954
1.9

0.797

1.58

1.99

2.21
2.48

1.74
2.52
1.89

2.97

2.84

0.5

0.5

2.05

2.36

3.78
4.09
4.4
4.72
5.03
5.34
5.66
5.97

0.641

2.52
2.67

0.485

2.83

0.329
0.172

2.99
0.0

0.644

0.331

0.0
0.0

3.47
3.96
4.45
4.94
5.44
5.93
6.42
6.91
7.41
7.9
8.39
8.88
9.38

0.5

3.15
3.46

2.2

0.5

1.0

1.5

0.509

0.0
0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

Fig 6: Contour map of the hypersolid angle.


Fig 6 nR [X, Z] n xz

n n (n + n )

n = 1 (1)

z
n =

Sn
4

Sn
2

< n <

Sn
2

n = S4 n z n
oblate hypersphere
0 < n <

Sn
4

n = 0 Z = 0 |X| > R

t n = lim nR [X = R+t cos , Z = t sin ]


t0

(11) (12)
n1

2
=
n = [ n+1 ] 0
n
S
2
2
4

(12)

The hypersolid angle of view of a hyperball

(12) Z = 0
n
n = 2
S k
k
k
= 2 S

CONCLUSION

41

(11) r cos 1 X = Z tan cos 1 ,


n1
n

r sin 1 = Z tan sin 1 , rn1 sinn2 1 d1 dr = Zcossin


n+1 d1 d (4)
(13) 3R [X, Z]

nR [X, Z]

= ZS

r=0

1 =0

rn1 sinn2 1

n2

(r2 2Xr cos 1 + X 2 + Z 2 )

n+1
2

d1 dr

(13)

(13) n
n
n
( )u (
)v
ZCZ
X
RX
+
= 1
RZ

dX
dZ = 0 x X RX RX Z = CZ
z Z RZ

[1]

Manuel Jaime Prata, Solid angle subtended by a cylindrical detector at a point


source in terms of elliptic integrals, Radiat. Phys. Chem. (2003) 67, 599-603,
DOI:10.1016/S0969-806X(03)00144-0. http://arxiv.org/abs/math-ph/0211061v2

[2]

, 4 , II, 2008-01-29.
http://my.reset.jp/gok/math/pdf/spm/sphere.pdf

[3]

, sincos n , , 2005-07-01. http://d.


hatena.ne.jp/arakik10/20050701/p2

[4]

, , IA , 2006-02-13. http://
lecture.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp/nkiyono/2006/miya-gamma.pdf

Kouji Mizuhashi (e-mail: waterwheelplanner@gmail.com)

The hypersolid angle of view of a hyperball2011 7 14

[1] n = S n 2
=

= [2 cos ]

n1
2
n+1
2


[ ]

R n
n [1] (11)
X R (1)

1
[1] S I1 [] = S0 =
1, S 0 = 2

B
n
n2
R [X, Z] = S
In2 [] sinn1 d

lim cos = 0,

lim

cos (cos )

d
1 cos2

= 0

cos / tan

d
sin2 cos2

=2

cos = sin cos

=2
0

cos sin cos


d
1 sin2 cos2

tan = tan sin

A
2

=2

Z tan2 + X 2 R2

2XZ tan
[
]
[
]
X +R
B = Tan1
A = Tan1 X R
(1)
Z
Z

cos =

(tan ) d
d = [2]
0 = 2 (2)
1 + tan2

n 3 n =

n1

[ n+1
2 ]

(n+2)
R n
n [1] (11)

2
X R (1)
(n+2)
n

=S
In [] sinn ( cos ) d =

2
Fig 1
(

S n [In [] sinn cos ] 2


(In []) sinn
+
2
n = lim nR [R + t cos , t sin ]
)

t0

In [] sinn1 cos2 d

cos d + n

(3)

(3) 1 lim cos = 0,


2

lim In [] = 0 0 3

2
2

cos = 1 sin2 (4)

(n+1)(n+2) = S n

Fig 1:

(
)
(In []) sinn cos + nIn [] sinn1 d
(4)

(4) (In []) (5)


(1) t 0

d d
sinn1 cos
cos = tan 1tan B = 2 A = 2

(In []) =
sinn d =
d d 0
sin cos
1 = B A = 2 (2)
(5)

In [] (6)

2
2 = 2
( cos ) d
nIn [] = (n 1)In2 [] sinn1 cos

(6)

[
]
(4) 1 (5) (10) B = Tan1 X+R
, A =
Z
[
]
1 XR
2 (6) Tan
2 3
Z
(n+2)

(7) 0 (9)
(n+2)

(n 1) n
=
S
(n + 1)

(9)

Fig 2

In2 [] sinn1 d
n+1

(n 1)S n
2
n
[
]
=

=
(n + 1)S (n2)
n+3
2

(7)

[1] n = S n 2

n 1

[1] (13)
3 3R [X, Z]

Fig 2: 3R

Fig 2 3R
TABLE 1
)
R (
2
2Zr sin

3R =
ddr
2
2
2
2
(r 2Xr cos + X + Z )
r=0 =0

)]
R [(
(Zr)/X

=
dr
2
2
2

r=0
R

=
r=0

r 2Xr cos + X + Z

=0

(Zr)/X
(Zr)/X

(r X)2 + Z 2
(r + X)2 + Z 2

)
dr

r = X + Z tan r = X + Z tan
( (
)
)
)
(
Z
Z
1
=
1+
tan d +
tan d
(8)
X
X

TABLE 1: 3R

100
200
300
400
0.028 0.015 0.010 0.008
0.163 0.083 0.055 0.038

(8)
]
[
3
+
[1] (1) 1R = Tan1 RX
Z
[
]
Tan1 R+X
(9) [1] 2
Z

(
(
))
2 + Z2
Z
(R
+
X)
3
3R [X, Z] = 1R
log
X
(R X)2 + Z 2

(9)

[1] (11) (9)


z

nR [0, Z] 2k+1
[X, Z]
R
B

3R [X, Z] = 2
(1 cos ) sin2 d
A

)
B ( 2
2
R (X Z tan )
http://www.
=
sin2 d
XZ tan
freeml.com/egs
A
)
(
Z
R2 X 2 + Z 2
sin 2
tan d
1 cos 2 +
2XZ
X
A
[
]B
sin 2
R2 X 2 + Z 2
Z
=

cos 2 +
log | cos |
2
4XZ
X
A

[1] ,
(10)
, , 2011-09.
2