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Bactericidals kill bacteria directly where bacteriostatics prevent them from dividing. However, these classifications are based on laboratory behavior; in practice, both of these are capable of ending a bacterial infection. Antibiotics by class Brand Common Mechanism Possible side effects names uses of action Aminoglycosides Amikin Binding to the bacterial 30S Garamycin ribosomal Kantrex subunit (some Mycifradin Infections work by Netromycin caused by binding to the Nebcin Gram-negative 50S subunit), bacteria, such as inhibiting the Escherichia coli translocation • Hearing loss and Klebsiella of the • Vertigo particularly peptidylPseudomonas tRNA from aeruginosa. the A-site to • Kidney Effective the P-site and damage against Aerobic also causing Humatin bacteria (not misreading of obligate/facultat mRNA, ive anaerobes) leaving the and tularemia. bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth. Ansamycins Experimental, as antitumor antibiotics Carbacephem prevents bacterial cell division by Lorabid Discontinued inhibiting cell wall synthesis.
Generic name Amikacin Gentamicin Kanamycin Neomycin Netilmicin Tobramycin
alcohol taken improved gram concurrently) negative cover. Gram negative diarrhea Cefdiel organisms. Ceftin. Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. (Note allergic MRSA reactions resistance to this class. concurrently) Claforan Inhibition of cell wall synthesis Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. Keflex • Allergic reactions Cephalosporins (Second generation) Ceclor • Gastrointestina Mandol l upset and Mefoxin diarrhea Cefzil Less gram • Nausea (if positive cover.Ertapenem Invanz Doripenem Doribax Imipenem/Cilastatin Primaxin Meropenem Cefadroxil Cefazolin Cefalotin or Cefalothin Cefalexin Carbapenems Bactericidal for both Gram• Gastrointestina positive and l upset and Gram-negative diarrhea organisms and • Nausea therefore useful • Seizures for empiric • Headache broad-spectrum Merrem antibacterial • Rash and coverage. • Nausea (if Spectracef except alcohol taken Cefobid Pseudomonas.) Cephalosporins (First generation) Duricef • Gastrointestina Ancef l upset and Keflin diarrhea Good coverage • Nausea (if against Gram alcohol taken positive concurrently) infections. Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of Cefaclor Cefamandole Cefoxitin Cefprozil Cefuroxime Cefixime Cefdinir Cefditoren Cefoperazone Cefotaxime . Zinnat • Allergic reactions Cephalosporins (Third generation) Suprax Improved • Gastrointestina coverage of l upset and Omnicef.
peptidoglycan layer of • Allergic bacterial cell reactions walls. difficilepenicillinbacterial RNA related allergic patients. and streptococcal Bind to 50S infections in subunit of Possible C. Cephalosporins (Fifth generation) Same mode of • Gastrointestina action as other l upset and beta-lactam diarrhea antibiotics: • Nausea (if disrupt the Used to treat alcohol taken synthesis of Zeftera MRSA concurrently) the peptidoglycan layer of • Allergic bacterial cell reactions walls. thereby pseudomembranous Lincocin also anaerobic inhibiting enterocolitis infections. protein clindamycin synthesis topically for acne .Cefpodoxime Ceftazidime Ceftibuten Ceftizoxime Ceftriaxone Vantin Fortaz Cedax Reduced Gram Cefizox positive cover. Glycopeptides Targocid inhibiting Vancocin peptidoglycan synthesis Vibativ Lincosamides Cleocin Serious staph-. pneumo-. • Allergic Rocephin reactions Cephalosporins (Fourth generation) the peptidoglycan layer of Cefepime Ceftobiprole Teicoplanin Vancomycin Telavancin Clindamycin Lincomycin Same mode of • Gastrointestina action as other l upset and beta-lactam diarrhea antibiotics: • Nausea (if Covers disrupt the alcohol taken synthesis of Maxipime pseudomonal concurrently) the infections.
Nitrofurans Bacterial or protozoal . Dynabac Erythocin. lower Erythroped respiratory tract infections. protein vomiting. upper respiratory tract Biaxin infections. of peptidyl Gonorrhea tRNA. inhibiting Pneumonia translocation Liver Toxicity. resulting in a loss of membrane potential leading to inhibition of protein.Lipopeptide Bind to the membrane and cause rapid depolarization . DNA and RNA synthesis Daptomycin Cubicin Gram-positive organisms Azithromycin Clarithromycin Dirithromycin Erythromycin Roxithromycin Troleandomycin Telithromycin Spectinomycin Macrolides Zithromax. Zitrocin syphilis. thereby Visual Disturbance. and biosynthesis diarrhea by binding (especially at reversibly to higher doses) the subunit 50S of the bacterial • Jaundice ribosome. TAO Lyme disease Ketek Trobicin Aztreonam Azactam Furazolidone Furoxone inhibition of bacterial • Nausea. infections. Streptococcal Sumamed. mycoplasmal infections. Monobactams Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
rarely given by injection The second component prevents bacterial resistance to the first component Inhibits isoprenyl pyrophosphat e. ear or Kidney and nerve bladder damage (when given infections. (rare) Amoxicillin/clavulan Augmentin ate Ampicillin/sulbactam Unasyn Piperacillin/tazobacta Zosyn m Ticarcillin/clavulanat Timentin e Polypeptides Eye. Amoxil Principen Geocillin Wide range of Tegopen infections. and • Prostaphlin Lyme disease Pentids Pen-Vee-K Pipracil Negaban Ticar Penicillin combinations • Gastrointestina l upset and diarrhea Allergy with serious anaphylactic reactions Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of Brain and kidney damage bacterial cell walls.Nitrofurantoin Amoxicillin Ampicillin Azlocillin Carbenicillin Cloxacillin Dicloxacillin Flucloxacillin Mezlocillin Methicillin Nafcillin Oxacillin Penicillin G Penicillin V Piperacillin Temocillin Ticarcillin diarrhea or enteritis Macrodantin Urinary tract . by injection) usually applied directly to the eye or inhaled into the lungs. Macrobid infections Penicillins Novamox. Dynapen • penicillin used Floxapen for Mezlin streptococcal Staphcillin infections. a molecule that carries the building blocks of the peptidoglycan bacterial cell wall outside of the inner membrane  Interact with Bacitracin Colistin Coly- . Unipen syphilis.
which alters its permeability. Quinolones Urinary tract infections.Mycin-S Polymyxin B the gram negative bacterial outer membrane and cytoplasmic membrane. communityacquired pneumonia. central nervous system thereby (uncommon). inhibiting tendinosis (rare) DNA replication and transcription. Ocuflox Trovan Raxar Zagam Omniflox inhibit the bacterial DNA gyrase or the Nausea (rare). topoisomerase irreversible damage to IV enzyme. gonorrhea Withdrawn Withdrawn Withdrawn Withdrawn Ciprofloxacin Enoxacin Gatifloxacin Levofloxacin Lomefloxacin Moxifloxacin Nalidixic acid Norfloxacin Ofloxacin Trovafloxacin Grepafloxacin Sparfloxacin Temafloxacin Cipro. Polymyxin B and E are bactericidal even in an isosmotic solution. which destabilizes the outer membrane. Ciprobay Penetrex Tequin Levaquin Maxaquin Avelox NegGram Noroxin Floxin. . bacterial diarrhea. Ciproxin. It displaces bacterial counter ions. They act like a detergent against the cytoplasmic membrane. bacterial prostatitis. mycoplasmal infections.
Minocin Terramycin Lyme disease. acne • • • Gastrointestina l upset Sensitivity to sunlight Potential toxicity to inhibiting the binding of aminoacyltRNA to the mRNAribosome . • Urinary tract infections (except sulfacetamide. DHPS. Septra Tetracyclines Declomycin Syphilis. catalyses the vomiting. They are competitive inhibitors of the enzyme dihydropteroa te synthetase. and mafenide and silver sulfadiazine. infections.Sulfonamides Mafenide Sulfamylon Sulfonamidochrysoid Prontosil ine (archaic) Sulamyd. Sulfacetamide Bleph-10 MicroSulfadiazine Sulfon Silver sulfadiazine Silvadene Thiosulfil Sulfamethizole Forte Sulfamethoxazole Gantanol Sulfanilimide (archaic) Sulfasalazine Azulfidine Sulfisoxazole Gantrisin Folate synthesis inhibition. used topically for burns) • • • • • Trimethoprim Proloprim. DHPS Nausea. Trimpex TrimethoprimSulfamethoxazole (Co-trimoxazole) (TMP-SMX) Demeclocycline Doxycycline Minocycline Oxytetracycline Tetracycline Bactrim. Vibramycin chlamydial infections. and conversion of diarrhea PABA (paraAllergy aminobenzoat (including skin e) to rashes) dihydropteroa Crystals in te. used for eye infections. and in its absence cells will be unable to divide. mycoplasmal Sumycin. a key step urine in folate Kidney failure synthesis. Decrease in Folate is white blood necessary for cell count the cell to synthesize Sensitivity to nucleic acids sunlight (nucleic acids are essential building blocks of DNA and RNA).
or for low protein Rifabutin Rifapentine Streptomycin Arsphenamine Chloramphenicol . and urine polymerase to mycobacteria inhibit transcription Mycobacterium rash. teeth. Antituberculosis aminoglycosi ototoxicity des Others Spirochaetal Salvarsan infections (obsolete) Chloromyce meningitis. urinary tract infections Myambutol Antituberculosis Trecator Antituberculosis complex. Mycobutin avium complex GI symptoms Priftin Antituberculosis As other Neurotoxicity.Clofazimine Dapsone Capreomycin Cycloserine Ethambutol Ethionamide Isoniazid Pyrazinamide Rifampicin (Rifampin in US) Achromycin V. topical anemia. RNA positive and Rimactane tears. fetus during *malaria *Note: pregnancy Malaria is • Enamel caused by a hypoplasia protist and not a (staining of bacterium. They do so mainly by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit in the mRNA Inhibits peptide synthesis I. Rarely: aplastic Inhibits tin MRSA. bacterial use. discolored urine. Reddish-orange sweat. Steclin rickettsial mother and infections.N. Drugs against mycobacteria Lamprene Antileprotic Avlosulfon Antileprotic Capastat Antituberculosis Antituberculosis Seromycin .H. Antituberculosis Aldinamide Antituberculosis Binds to the β subunit of mostly GramRifadin.
Historic: typhus. also mechanism is taste. alcohol amoebiasis. anaerobes. anaerobic specific headache. widely used in veterinary medicine. cream for infected cuts Metronidazole Flagyl Mupirocin Bactroban Platensimycin Quinupristin/Dalfopri Synercid stin Rifaximin Thiamphenicol Xifaxan Traveler's diarrhea caused by E. amoebae. metallic bacteria. cholera. gram positive. caused by This nonDiscolored urine. anaerobes Acute cystitis in women synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome Inactivates enolpyruvyl transferase. side-effects. Ointment for impetigo.cost internal treatment. A chlorampheni col analog. May inhibit bacterial protein . for its activity Giardiasis against a variety of bacteria. nausea . gram negative. and protozoa. Lacks known anemic Gram-positive. thereby blocking cell wall synthesis Fosfomycin Monurol Fusidic acid Linezolid Fucidin Zyvox VRSA Produces toxic free radicals which disrupt DNA Infections and proteins. coli Gram-negative. responsible is contraindicated trichomoniasis.
synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome Tigecycline Tinidazole Generic Name Tigacyl Tindamax Fasigyn Brand Names protozoan infections Common Uses upset stomach. bitter taste. and itchiness Possible Side Effects Mechanism of action .
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