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Asphaltic Concrete Mix Design

Seksyen Loji Dan Kuari JKR Woksyop Persekutuan KL

Construction Of Road in the 60s by JKR

Is this JKR Works After 100 Years

STILL Little PROBLEMS IN ROAD RESURFACING !

Road Structure

Wearing Course BinderCourse` Roadbase

Sub-base Subgrade

Cracking

Cracking
Why cracking in asphalt surfacing undesirable? 1. It allows surface water to penetrate into the lower pavement layers, causing localised weakening of the pavement structure. 2. It reduces the dynamic modulus of the surfacing, making it less able to distribute imposed traffic loads.

Possible Causes of Cracking


1. Excess fines in mixture. 2. Insufficient bitumen. 3. Insufficient compaction. 4. Improperly proportioned mixture. 5. Voids content too high. 6. Rolling when mixture too cold. 7. Overheating the bitumen. 8. Wet mixing time too long. 9. Improper joint preparation & construction. 10. Over Rolling - vibratory roller. 11. Too high amplitude - vibratory roller.

Rutting

Rutting
Why rutting in asphalt surfacing undesirable? 1. It creates an irregular road profile, thus poor riding quality, dangerous to traffics. 2. It increases roughness, thus increases vehicle operating costs. 3. It allows surface water to accumulate, thus increases risk of skidding and aquaplaning, and water infiltration into pavement structure.

Possible Causes of Rutting


1. Excess bitumen. 2. Excess fines in mixture. 3. Improperly proportioned mixture. 4. Excessive tack coat. 5. Excessive segregation.

Skidding

Skidding
Does asphaltic concrete road surfacing lack the necessary macrotexture for skidding resistance at high speeds ?

Possible Causes of Smooth Surface Texture


1. Excess fines in mixture. 2. Excess bitumen. 3. Over rolling. 4. Rolling when mixture too hot. 5. Excessive segregation. 6. Abrasion of aggregates by traffic.

The solution ?

Porous Asphalt

Stone Mastic Asphalt

Component Of Asphalt Aggregate  Filler  Bitumen




JKR KUARI BUKIT PENGGORAK, KUANTAN

MAT ERIALS ST ANDARD


MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Crushing Value Soundness Flakiness Index Water Absorption Polish Stone Value ( Wearing Course Only ) STANDARD MS 30 AASHTO Test Method T104 MS 30 MS 30 MS 30 REQUIREMENT < = 30 < = 12 % < = 30 < = 2 % > = 40

MARSHALL PROPERTIES Stabilty Flow Stiffness Air Void in Mix Void in Aggregate Filled With Bitumen

WEARING > 500 kg 2 mm - 4 mm > 250 kg/mm 3 - 5 Percent 75 - 85 Percent

BINDER > 450 kg 2 mm - 4 mm > 225 kg/mm 3 - 7 Percent 65 - 80 Percent

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MIX AND MATERIALS Bitumen Content 5.0 - 7.0 Percent 5.5 - 6.5 Percent 4.0 - 6.0 Percent 2.33 mT per m3 1.022 0.667 mT 0.625 mT ACW 14 Wearing ACW 14 Binder ACB 28 Binder

Density of Mix SG Bitumen 80 - 100 Satu Ela Metal Satu Ela Premix

Satu mT Bitumen Satu litre Diesel

20 mT Premix 0.2 mT Premix

5 litre per mT Premix

Aggregate - The Major Component Of Premix Production.

Basalt

Granite

Coarse Aggregate Testing


1 Test Per Stockpile Per 2,500 Tons Of Asphaltic Concrete Produced; * Aggregate Crushing Value. * Sodium Sulphate Soundness. * Flakiness Index. * Water Absorption. * Polished Stone Value (Wearing Course Only).

Limestones in wearing course?

Fine Aggregate Testing


1 test per stockpile per 2,500 tons of asphaltic concrete produced; * Sodium Sulphate Soundness. * Water Absorption.

Sand or quarry dust?

Fine aggregate: Natural sand, mining sand or quarry fines.

Cement or limestone?
Mineral filler: Rock dust, limestone dust, hydrated lime or hydraulic cement. Anti-stripping agent: Ordinary Portland cement.

Material passing 75 um to bitumen ratio by weight 0.6 - 1.2. Mineral Filler / Anti Stripping Agent

80-100 or 60-70 ?

Bitumen grade: Penetration grade 80-100 (MS 124).

Bitumen Testing
* Penetration. * Softening point. * Solubility in Trichloroethylene. * Ductility. * Flash point. * Retained penetration after thin film oven. * Loss on heating. Test frequency: Not stated in JKR Guidelines or JKR/SPJ. Recommends one set of test per every bitumen delivery to the plant.

BITUMEN QUALITY
PENETRATION TEST
100 gramme needle

5 seconds

bitumen at 25 degrees Celsius

penetration value in 0.1 mm

Mix Design

Mix Design Requirements


1. Grading of combined aggregates + filler Table 4.8 JKR/SPJ. 2. Bitumen content - Table 4.9 JKR/SPJ. 3. Marshall method of mix design - Clause 4.2.4.3 JKR/SPJ. 4. Test parameters of Marshall specimens Table 4.10 JKR/SPJ. 5. Establish design aggregate grading and bitumen content with tolerances in Table 4.11 JKR/SPJ.

Mix Design Requirements


1. Grading of combined aggregates + filler Table 4.8 JKR/SPJ. 2. Bitumen content - Table 4.9 JKR/SPJ. 3. Marshall method of mix design - Clause 4.2.4.3 JKR/SPJ. 4. Test parameters of Marshall specimens Table 4.10 JKR/SPJ. 5. Establish design aggregate grading and bitumen content with tolerances in Table 4.11 JKR/SPJ.

Table 4.8 - Gradation Limits For Asphaltic Concrete


SPECIFICATION
100

B.S. Sieve Size, mm % Passing By Weight 90 20 100-100 80 14 80-95 70 10 68-90 60 50 5 52-72 40 3.35 45-62 30 1.18 30-45 20 10 0.425 17-30 0 0.150 7-16 0.010 0.100 1.000 10.000 100.000 Sieve Size mm 0.075 4-10

% Passing

Mix Design Requirements


1. Grading of combined aggregates + filler Table 4.8 JKR/SPJ. 2. Bitumen content - Table 4.9 JKR/SPJ. 3. Marshall method of mix design - Clause 4.2.4.3 JKR/SPJ. 4. Test parameters of Marshall specimens Table 4.10 JKR/SPJ. 5. Establish design aggregate grading and bitumen content with tolerances in Table 4.11 JKR/SPJ.

Mix Design Requirements


1. Grading of combined aggregates + filler Table 4.8 JKR/SPJ. 2. Bitumen content - Table 4.9 JKR/SPJ. 3. Marshall method of mix design - Clause 4.2.4.3 JKR/SPJ. 4. Test parameters of Marshall specimens Table 4.10 JKR/SPJ. 5. Establish design aggregate grading and bitumen content with tolerances in Table 4.11 JKR/SPJ.

Table 4.9 - Design Bitumen Contents

Class of Mix

Normal Range of Design Bitumen Content by Weight of Mix 5.0 - 7.0 % 4.5 - 6.0 % 4.0 - 6.0 %

ACW 20 - WC ACB 20 - BC ACB 28 - BC

Clause 4.2.4.3 Asphaltic Concrete Mix Design


1. Prepare specimens for standard stability and flow tests as per AASHTO T 245 using 75 blows/face. 2. Determine bulk specific gravity of specimens as per AASHTO T 166. 3. Determine stability and flow values as per AASHTO T 245. 4. Voids analysis; VMA, VFB, VIM.

Mix Design Method


MS 535 Specification for asphaltic concrete for road pavement and airfield runway by the Marshall test method. Asphalt Institute MS-2 Mix design methods for asphalt concrete.

Mix Design Requirements


1. Grading of combined aggregates + filler Table 4.8 JKR/SPJ. 2. Bitumen content - Table 4.9 JKR/SPJ. 3. Marshall method of mix design - Clause 4.2.4.3 JKR/SPJ. 4. Test parameters of Marshall specimens Table 4.10 JKR/SPJ. 5. Establish design aggregate grading and bitumen content with tolerances in Table 4.11 JKR/SPJ.

Table 4.10 - Test Parameters For Asphaltic Concrete


Parameter Stability S Flow F Stiffness S/F Air voids in mix VFB WC > 500 kg > 2.0 mm BC > 450 kg > 2.0 mm

>250 kg/mm >225 kg/mm 3.0 - 5.0 % 3.0 - 7.0 % 75 - 85 % 65 - 80 %

Mix Design Requirements


1. Grading of combined aggregates + filler Table 4.8 JKR/SPJ. 2. Bitumen content - Table 4.9 JKR/SPJ. 3. Marshall method of mix design - Clause 4.2.4.3 JKR/SPJ. 4. Test parameters of Marshall specimens Table 4.10 JKR/SPJ. 5. Establish design aggregate grading and bitumen content with tolerances in Table 4.11 JKR/SPJ.

Table 4.11 - Tolerances For Asphaltic


Parameter

Concrete Mixes

Bitumen content. Fractions of combined aggregate passing 5.0 mm and larger sieves. Fractions of combined aggregate passing 3.35 mm and 1.18 mm sieves. Fractions of combined aggregate passing 425 m and 150 m sieves. Fraction of combined aggregate passing 75 m sieve.

Permissible Variation % by weight of total mix +/- 0.2 %

+/- 5.0 %

+/- 4.0 %

+/- 3.0 %

+/- 2.0 %

Trial Lay
A minimum of 10 tons of each mix shall be placed in trial areas to demonstrate to the satisfaction of S.O. that the mixing, laying and compacting equipment conforms to the requirements of the specification, and that the proposed mixes are satisfactory. 1. Rollers. 2. Paver. 3. Trial site. 4. Tests on premix sample : Binder content & aggregate grading. Theoretical maximum specific gravity. Prepare Marshall specimens. Specific gravity, volumetric properties, Marshall stability and flow of Marshall specimens.

Trial Lay - Continue


5. Record temperatures of premix on lorry, at plant and site. 6. Record laying temperatures. 7. Record laying thickness. 8. Check texture of paved surface. 9. Record rolling temperatures. 10. Record rolling pattern. 11. Check texture and condition of compacted surface. 12. Record compacted thickness and density from core samples. 13. Check consistency in production. 14. Check at least one longitudinal joint.

Temperature Of Bitumen < 177 C (350 F)

Each aggregate shall be stored in a separate stockpile. Stockpiles of sand and other fine aggregates shall be kept dry using waterproof covers or other means.

Aggregate Stockpile

Aggregate Grading Test


Batch plant - 1 test per hot bin per day of production. Drum mix plant - 1 test per cold bin per day of production.

Temperature < 163 C (325 F)

Sampling of premix

Sampling of Premix
Sample quantity: > 20 mm (eg. ACB28) - minimum 24 kg. < 20 mm (eg. ACW20) - minimum 16 kg. Sampling from lorry: > 20 mm - take 4 increments. < 20 mm - take 3 increments. One increment approx. 7 kg (use size 2 squaremouth shovel). Scoop 100 mm below surface.

Testing of Premix
1 test per 200 tons of asphaltic concrete produced; * Bitumen content & grading. * Maximum specific gravity. * Preparation of Marshall specimens. * Bulk specific gravity of Marshall specimens. * Volumetric properties (VMA, VFB, VIM). * Marshall stability & flow.

Density and Thickness Requirement


1. Required compacted density; Wearing Course : 98 - 100% Marshall density Binder Course : 95 - 100% Marshall density 2. The average thickness over any 100 metre length shall be not less than the required thickness. The minimum thickness at any point shall be not less than the required thickness minus 5 mm.

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