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liquid usually brown, green, amber or pitch black mixtures of millions of hydrocarbons (compounds made up of elements carbon and hydrogen only) sometimes the following are present: sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, metals (nickel, vanadium, iron, copper) present as crude petroleum in the earth’s crust formed by anaerobic bacterial action on plant and animal matter CLASSIFICATION OF PETROLEUM
According to the amount of valuable products present: 1.1. light crude oil 1.2. medium crude oil 1.3. heavy crude oil LIGHT 27% 10% 43% 20% MEDIUM 22% 11% 15% 32% HEAVY 7-16% 14-19% 0 70-74%
GASOLINE KEROSENE OILS RESIDUE 2.
According to the nature of hydrocarbons present 2.1. paraffin base crude oil (contains saturated hydrocarbons) 2.2. aromatic base crude oil (contains aromatic compounds) 2.3. naphthenic base crude oil 2.4. mixed base crude oil According to the amount of impurities present 3.1. “Sweet” crude oil - contains only a very small amount of SULFUR and other impurities 3.2. “Sour” crude oil - contains a large amount of SULFUR and other impurities II. PROPERTIES
Paraffinic Base Crude Oil 1.1. saturated straight chain hydrocarbon which has a carbon content of more than 60%
3.4.1. contains saturated cyclic hydrocarbons 2.3.1. contains 35% carbon 3. unsaturated (parent: benzene) 3.octane . GAS FRACTION . lubricating oils present have low pour points.25% naphthene base 3. Natural gas mostly methane (CH4) .2.usually are for fuel and preparation of synthetic gas 1.3. is 80 octane no. 2.50% paraffin base . is 0 lubricating oils obtained have a high pour point and high viscosity index Naphthenic Base Crude Oils 2. source of asphalt Mixed Base Crude Oil . 4.25% aromatic base .1. contains 35% carbon 2. octane no.1. low viscosity index Aromatic Base Crude Oil 3. 1. cyclic.100% n –heptane – 0% iso – octane – 80% n – heptane – 20% iso – octane – 0% n – heptane – 100% 1. is 100 octane no. PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM PETROLEUM 1.2.2. paraffinic wax is used for candles gives off straight run gasoline of low octane number Straight run gasoline – is that which you get directly from crude petroleum by simple distillation Octane number – is the rating of the gasoline which gives the same knocking tendency as the corresponding mixture of iso – octane and n – heptane) Examples: iso .
Refined and light heating oils 3. Gas oils used to enrich gas and fuel cracked to produce gasoline - 4. 4.3. Petrol or motor spirit principal refinery product energy source for pistons engines and gas turbines 2.- obtained from petroleum well 1. HEAVY DISTILLATES 4. paper treating. Light gas mostly contains one or two carbon compound comes from crude distillation at refinery 1.1. Off gas mostly have products with one or two carbons. 18.104.22.168. sealing.2. INTERMEDIATES 3.2.3. sulfur dioxide (SO2) from petroleum refinery conversion process 22.214.171.124. LPG liquefied petroleum gas contains compound with 4 carbons and some with 3 carbons domestic fuel synthesis of gas 2. LIGHT ENDS 2. 4. RESIDUE Heavy mineral – oils – used for medicinal purposes Heavy flotation and frothing oils Waxes – candles. Diesel oils 3. 5. hydrogen gas (H2). Solvent naphtha and kerosene used for jet fuel used for reformate stock 2.2. Heavy duty oils 3. insulating Lubricating oils .3. hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S).
7.6. LUBRICANTS Acetylene Ethylene Propylene Butene Benzene Toluene Naphthalene material applied between two machine elements which are moving intermittently or continuously with respect to each other.3. 6. L IQUID LUBRICANTS 1. 5.3.2. Chemical liquids – often become lubricants when moving elements must be encased or submerged in processing such liquids 1. the bottom product in crude oil distilling unit TERMS USED TO EXPRESS THE PROPERTIES OF LUBRICATING OIL: . 6. Lubricating oils Fuel oils Greases Petrolatum Asphalt Road oils Petroleum coke Detergents Ammonia Sulfur and derivates 7. 7.6. 5. BY – PRODUCTS 6.1. 5. 5.5. 5. 126.96.36.199. 7.7. 6.5. 5.3. 7. Lubricating oils – comes from the residue.3. PRECURSORS FOR PETROCHEMICALS 7. 188.8.131.52. Water – used in ship propeller bearings 184.108.40.206.1. in order to: control wear and friction carry away heat protect surface from corrosion minimize noise wash away dirt and contaminants - TYPES OF LUBRICANTS 1.
usually selected for open – types.1.a. Carbon residue – it provides an indication of the coke – forming properties of petroleum products 2.1. Cloud point – temperature at which paraffin wax and similar substances will crystallize and separate from oil f. Bentonite .1. Penetration .2. Viscosity index – used to express the relationship between viscosity and temperature .no soap deposits left in the mechanism . PROPERTIES OF SOAP GREASE 2.results in good grease for rough equipment .results in good grease .no known solvent for washing the bentonite 2. the lower the viscosity .in lubricating oils: the higher the temperature. Pour point – lowest temperature at which oil will pour or flow when chilled without any disturbance g.2. Mineral or Metallic Soap . similar to conventional laundry soap 2. Silica Gel . SEMI – SOLID LUBRICANTS 2. Viscosity – resistance of fluid to flow (units used: centistokes/centipoises) b. relatively low – speed machine elements major lubricant of this type is GREASE. Dropping point . Flash point – the lowest temperature at which a combustible material will give off sufficient amount of vapor to form an inflammable mixture with air d.1.the relative consistency or hardness of grease 2.2.1. Fire point – temperature at which a combustible material will burn continuously for about 5 seconds e.1.3.temperature at which semi – solid lubricant changes to the liquid state .2.2.its water is poor 2. a suspension of a thickener in a lubricating liquid OIL THICKENERS 2.produces soap grease.viscosity index: between 0 – 100 c.
very stable .3. CHARACTERISTICS. Strontium Soap Grease . Aluminum Soap Grease .provides low shear .provide good rust protection in the presence of moisture .provides low shear 2.water resistant .water resistant .for high speed bearings 2.3.Lithium.2. Sodium Soap Grease .3.used where the temperature is 200ºF 2.3. high temperatures and bleeding of oil.resistant to small quantity of water .high dropping point .3. when properly used 2.displaced if large amount of water is present and rusting will occur .3.they emulsify to form soap oil mixture in the presence of water .high dropping point (350 –450ºF) .5.separate into oil and soap . barium or strontium soap greases are sometimes referred to as all – purpose grease because they have high resistance to water. Calcium Soap Grease . Lithium Soap Grease .1. TYPES.4.3.4.good as chassis lubricant. ALL PURPOSE GREASE .used for bearings at high speed 2.they form gummy material like rubber above 200ºF .can be worked into lather even with small quantity of water .6.water resistant .high dropping point .have preferential wetting for metals over water so that rustling does not occur .used in plain bearings operating below 150ºF 2. .3.2.used for low – speed plain or ball bearing . Barium Soap Grease . AND USES OF SOAP GREASE 2.low dropping point (210ºF) .similar in properties with barium soap grease but is less stable .
The design and finish of the bearing members 11. as a polishing agent 3. The bearing materials involved 10. graphite 3. medicinal ointment SELECTION OF PROPER LUBRICANT In the selection of a lubricant for certain machine elements.used preferably on low – speed equipment in which the operation is too slow to support and oil or grease film examples.used as mild polishing agent or lapping compound . petroleum jelly. The nature of the relative motion involved 2. the following factors should be considered: 1. chloroform. The relative speed between members 3.3. The temperature range under which the lubricant must operate 6. mica 3. zinc oxide 3.4. lubricant 2. mineral fats. 3. The life required 12.2.3. The cooling required and method of cooling 7. hot oils slightly soluble in alcohol insoluble in water color is yellow to amber Uses of waxes: 1. The friction losses allowed PROPERTIES OF AN IDEAL LUBRICANT . The method of supplying lubricant to bearing surfaces 8. or ointment contains 10% oil completely soluble in benzene. molybdenum disulfide WAXES vaseline. ether. The nature of the load between bearing surface 4. carbon disulfide. SOLID LUBRICANTS .1. The atmosphere in which the bearings will operate 9. The magnitude of the load between bearing surfaces 5.
bottle oilers 2. carbon and other material 4.this is limited by the small capacity of the oil container of the application devices . Resist any viscosity change due to temperature or any other reason 2. coolers and turbines by gravitational force or by flooding .this is used only where a small quantity of lubricant is necessary . Lubricate all surfaces without creeping beyond the point it is needed METHODS OF APPLICATION 1. Be resistant to all types of degreasing materials except when it is necessary to clean off the lubricant 5.the method is useful only where the bearing to be lubricated does minor functions and operates under conditions which do not make rigid demands upon the bearings 2. Resist “squeezing out” under pressure 7. Manual Application of Lubricant . Be non – flammable in all temperatures 3. Oil lubrication use of a circulation system which includes filters.this is done by injecting oil into holes into which channel leads to the bearing surfaces . wick – fed oilers FORMS OF LUBRICANT DISTRIBUTION 1.this is used in machines which use only limited amounts of oil for given periods of operation .1. Have no internal friction and still have a viscosity 8.the method does not guarantee a sufficient supply of oil at all times and is apt to result in too much oil at the time of application . varnish.this method is used where a constant oil supply has to be maintained . Devices for Direct Application of Lubricants .these devices include: 1.this is also used in machines where a uniform supply of lubricant is required.this method gives a periodic supply of oil’ . or where it is desirable to control the rate at which the oil is fed to the bearings . Resist oxidation at all temperatures and therefore form no acids. Give complete rust protection under all conditions 6.
(Cross heads) use of a force or pressure system Related to the circulation system. the replaced plug is turned down slowly to force the grease into the lubrication groove STORAGE AND HANDLING OF LUBRICANTS Contamination of oil or grease with dust. etc. The presence of water in oil or grease destroys or nullifies the additives which might be present at that time.Example: ring – oiled shaft bearing whose rings ride and rotate on the journal. . Drums of this usage should be kept under constant temperature or under cover to avoid absorption of moist air. Grease lubrication .is applicable in areas where there is difficulty in retaining the oil use of pressure guns Types of pressure guns: push type (direct acting) Hand – pump operating type compression cocks . coolers. dirt or moisture results in reduction of its effectiveness and cause an increase of wear and maintenance. as they turn.grease is fed into the bearing where the cock is screwed down by the hand grease plugs on some high pressure plugs. thereby forming a space for the insertion of the grease stick. the plug or screw is removed. The drums containing the lubricants should always be stored on their sides to prevent any water to accumulate on top. The system is complete with tank pumps. when screwed down. 2. they dip into oil in the base and carry it to the top of the journal use of a splash system Example: compressors use this system A connecting rod splashes the oil into a trough where it is distributed to the other lube points. instrumentation. grease in the form of a stick is used for lubrication and sealing of the valve internals.
pipe coatings.sometimes called asphaltic coal rock asphalt . paints. water proofing.produced directly from the distillation column Cracked asphalt .blown or oxidized asphalt . roofing Types of Petroleum Asphalt according to the State in which they occur Solid .ASPHALT It is defined as a brown to black cemetitious material composed principally of bitumens which come from natural or petroleum sources.used in ink. Rapid Curing (RC) – cut black asphalt asphalt cement liquefied with naphtha or gasoline type diluent . rubber blends. rubber additives. paint. undersealing concrete pavements Semi – solid .asphalt so soft that penetration is not an appropriate means of measuring consistency TYPES OF LIQUID ASPHALT a.used as roofing compounds.produced by the thermal and catalytic cracking of residue from petroleum refining . Petroleum asphalt Types of Petroleum Asphalt according to Manufacture Straight – run asphalt .asphalt deposits which appear on the surface of the earth vein asphalt .refined to meet specifications for paving purposes (asphalt cement) Liquid .porous rock impregnated with asphalt 2.used for roofing. Natural asphalt asphalt lake . SOURCES OF ASPHALT 1. water proofing Blown or oxidized asphalt .
additive for ink. Emulsified Asphalt – produced by mixing together water with an emulsifying agent and asphalt cement PROPERTIES OF ASPHALT CEMENT (SOLID) 1. used in paving work (asphalt acts as binder) 2. asphalt paints 4. paints. 4. building work exterior wall covering dam proofing/water proofing roofing 3. Medium Curing (MC) – cut black asphalt asphalt cement liquefied with kerosene as diluent c.- b. rubber . 2. consistency (measured by penetration test) ductility flash point solubility – detect mineral matter and other foreign products USES OF ASPHALT 1. 3.