gcreddy@gcreddy.

com

QuickTest Professional 10.00

Visit:

www.gcreddy.com
for QTP Scripts and Documents

www.gcreddy.com

1

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

I) Basic features of QTP
o QTP Launched in 2002 (Nov). By Mercury Interactive. Later taken over by HP, in 2007. o o o o QTP is an Object Based Testing Tool. QTP is for functional and Regression Testing. It follows Keyword driven approach. It supports Windows Operating Environment only.

o It supports GUI based (Graphical user interface) and Web based Applications Automation, does not support CUI (Command user interface) Applications. o It has multilingual support. (It supports English, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, etc languages with respect to license.) o It has adapted Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting edition for programming and excel like spread sheet for Data driven testing. o SQL (Structured query language) embedded or inserted with QTP, so we can use SQL statements directly from QTP. o It can be integrated with other Tools like WinRunner and Quality Center.

o It can be used for user interface (UI) test case automation and some limited (Non UI) Test case automation like File system operations and Data base operations. o It was derived from Astra QuickTest (mother tool of QTP).

o It supports IE (Internet Explorer) only for recording tests, for execution it supports other browsers like Mozilla and AOL, opera Etc apart from IE. o o QTP is a Desktop Application (I-Tier/Stand alone). QTP has two types of License, 1. Seat or Node locked License, 2. Concurrent or float license. Seat license for one system and Concurrent License, we can use for any system but one user at any time. If we want multiple concurrent licenses we can purchase. o QTP has UNI code support.

www.gcreddy.com

2

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Version History of QTP
• • • • • • • • • • Astra Quick test (Mother tool of QTP) 1.0 to 5.0 Quick Test Professional 5.6 – Nov 2002 6.5 – 2003 8.0 – 2004 8.2, 8.3 –2005 9.0,9.1-2006 9.2- 2007 mercury interactive 9.5 –2008 H.P 10.00 –2009 January

Add-In Manager
QTP supports almost all industry leading technologies, but by default it does not support, with respect to add in license it supports. Default Add- ins of QTP are: • • • Activex Visual basic Web.

Other available Add Ins are: .NET, Java, People soft, Siebel, TE (Terminal Emulators), SAP for GUI, Sap for Web, Oracle Apps, Web Services etc. During QTP launching it shows Add in manger dialog box, Add in Manger lists out all available Add Ins in the company. User needs to select appropriate Add Ins for his application or AUT. One can select more than one Add Ins also; if we select unnecessary Add Ins QTP performance will be reduced.

www.gcreddy.com

3

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Launching QTP
We can launch QTP BY selecting desktop icon otherwise start > programs> QTP Professional > QTP. During launching it shows Add-In Manager.

Add-in manager window Select appropriate Add Ins and click okay. Quick Test Launches

www.gcreddy.com

4

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

II) Key Elements of QTP Tool Window

www.gcreddy.com

5

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

QTP Tool Window 1) Test Pane: It is programming interface of QTP, used for creating, editing, viewing and deleting test scripts. Test: It is a set of statements or set of one or more actions. (It is a local concept) Action: It is a set of Statements. (It is a local concept)

www.gcreddy.com

6

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Statement: A minimal executable unit. Statements may have keywords. (Keyword such as function, method, statement etc). It is a global concept. Test pane has 2 views. Expert view- Test in VB script format.

QTP Test Pane-Expert View Key word view- Test in Icon based GUI format.

www.gcreddy.com

7

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

QTP Test Pane-Keyword View Note1: Here in test pane Test is same but views are different, if you perform any modifications in one view those automatically reflects in another view. Note 2: Technical users use expert view and business user use key word view. Note 3: User can customize Test pane view options. Navigation: Tools Menu> view options> we can use font size and colors etc. 2) Active Screen It has an optional element of QTP, it takes snap shots of every statement that user performed action or operation on AUT.

www.gcreddy.com

8

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
It can be used for understanding and editing the test easily. Navigation: View menu>active screen (for launching and closing) Configuring active screen: view>options>active screen tab>increase /Decrease capture level, apply and okay. Note 1: Generally novice testers use this feature but it occupies lot of memory space on QTP.

Active Screen

www.gcreddy.com

9

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
3) Data Table It has an integrated spread sheet (Excel like), used for Data driven testing. Navigation: View menu>Data table (for launching and closing) Data driven Testing: Testing the same task(S) or same operation with multiple sets of test data. It can be used in two ways. 1. Enter test data directly into Data Table and use. 2. Importing data from external files (Flat files, excel sheets, etc) and Data bases (MS access, Sql Server, oracle, etc.) It has two types of sheets. 1. Global Sheet- for entire test /used for all actions in the test. 2. Action Sheets- for specific action only. Data table available in 2 ways: 1. Design time data table. (Attached with every test) 2. Run time data table. (Available in result window) Run time is a carbon copy of design time data table. QTP has Data table methods for performing operations on data table.

www.gcreddy.com

10

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

QTP Tool window- Data Table 4) Debug Viewer It is used for locating and rectifying or fixing errors. It can be used for debugging the tests by step-by-step execution. We use step into, step over and step out commands for debugging. (debug commands)

www.gcreddy.com

11

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
Through Debug viewer user can watch variables and change values of variables temporarily. Navigation: View menu>debug viewer (for launching and closing)

QTP Tool Window-Debug Viewer 5) Missing Resources It can be used for showing missing resources those attached to current test such as (recovery scenarios, library files etc).

www.gcreddy.com

12

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Navigation: View menu >missing resources (for launching and closing) 6) Information This pane shows syntax errors automatically during saving the test. Navigation: view menu> information

QTP Tool Window-Information Pane 7) QTP Commands QTP Commands are available in 3 ways.

www.gcreddy.com

13

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

1. Menu options 2. Tool Bar options 3. Short cut keys (for Some important operations only)

File menu: Through file menu user can create, save tests, open existing tests, export tests in zip format. Edit Menu: It provides editing options and renaming, deleting and splitting actions. View menu: Through this menu we can launch and close, active screen, Data Table, Debug viewer, information, missing resources etc. Insert Menu: Through this menu user can inserting check points, out put values, synchronizing points. In this menu step generator available, using this user can generate recordable and non-recordable scripts. Through insert menu user can insert VB Script conditional and loop statements and transaction points (Start and End).

www.gcreddy.com

14

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Through insert menu user can create new actions, call existing actions and copy existing actions. Automation Menu: This menu provides Record, Run options and Run setting options Through this menu we can start normal recording, analog recording and Low level recording. Through this menu we can stop recoding, running and also we run tests. Resources Menu: This menu provides object repository and recovery scenarios options. Through this menu we can create /modify/delete objects information and we can associate repositories. Through this menu we can create, modify and delete recovery scenarios. Debug Menu: This menu provides debug commands for step by step execution. Through this menu we can insert/remove/break points. Tools Menu: This menu provides Tools settings option, view options and object identification configuration. Through this menu we can set tool options as well as test pane view options. In this menu object spy option available, through this we can get object’s information.(Properties and values) In this menu Virtual object option available; through this option we can create virtual objects. Window Menu: This menu provides QTP tool window style settings. Help Menu: This menu provides QTP help as well as VB Script help. Through this menu we can contact technical support people and we can send feedback. Through this menu we can check for updates and download or install directly.

www.gcreddy.com

15

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

III) QTP Testing Process
Planning o o o o o Analyzing the AUT Generating/Selecting Test cases for Automation Collecting Test Data Automation Framework Implementation QTP Tool Settings Configuration

Generating Tests o o o Recording Keyword driven methodology Descriptive Programming

Enhancing Tests

o Inserting Checkpoints
o o o o o o o o o o Inserting Output values Adding Comments Synchronization Parameterization Inserting Flow Control Statements Calling Functions/Actions Generating Steps though Step Generator Inserting Transaction Points Using Regular Expressions Using Environment Variables

Debugging Tests

o Debug Commands & Break Points
o o o Step by step execution Watching Variables Changing values of variables

Running Tests o o o Normal Execution Batch Execution AOM Scripting

www.gcreddy.com

16

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
o o Tests Running through framework Scheduled Execution

Analyzing Results o o o o QTP Result window Defining our own Results Exporting Results Deleting Results

Reporting Defects o o o Manual Defect Reporting Tool based Defect Reporting Working with Quality Center

Analyzing the AUT Before we begin creating a test, we need to analyze our application and determine our testing needs. First, determine the development environments in which our application controls were developed, such as Web, Java, or .NET, so that we can load the required QuickTest add-ins. Then determine the functionality that we want to test. To do this, consider the various activities that customers perform in our application to accomplish specific tasks. Which objects and operations are relevant for the set of business processes that need to be tested? Which operations require customized keywords to provide additional functionality? While we are thinking about the business processes we want to test, consider how we can divide these processes into smaller units, which will be represented by our test's actions. Each action should emulate an activity that a customer might perform when using your application. As we plan, try to keep the amount of steps we plan to include in each action to a minimum. Creating small, modular actions helps make our tests easier to read, follow, and maintain.

www.gcreddy.com

17

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Recording and Running:
In QTP there are 3 recording modes available for preparing Tests. 1. Normal Recording It records User Mouse and Keyboard operations on AUT with respect to objects, but unable to record continuous mouse operations like Digital Signatures, graphs, paints etc. During recording QTP generates VbScript statements in Test Pane, Simultaneously it stores objects information into object repository. Navigation: Automation>Record Or Select Record option on automation toolbar Or Use short cut key (F3) Steps for preparing a Test (through Recording): 1. Put AUT in base state 2. Select Record Option 3. It shows Record and Run Settings, Select type of Environment (Windows or Web) 4. Select Record Option (It shows two Options : 1. Record and Run Test on any open window based applications 2. Record and Run only on If we select first option it records on any opened application on Desktop. If we select Second option, it asks for the path of the AUT, After Providing the path it records only on that particular application.) 5. 6. 7. 8. Click OK Perform actions on AUT Stop recording. Save the Test

2. Analog Recording: It records the exact mouse and keyboard operations. We can use this mode for recording continuous mouse operations. It is not useful for recording normal operations why because it does not generate steps for each operation, generates total user actions in a Track File. The Track file is not editable. Navigation: 1. Keep tool under recording mode

www.gcreddy.com

18

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
2. Automation >Analog Recording OR Use Short cut Key (Shift + ALT+F3) Steps for preparing a TEST (through Analog Recording): 1. 2. 3. 4. Launch AUT (or we can launch AUT through QTP) Select Record option Automation>Analog Recording Analog Recording Settings Dialog box opens

(In this Dialog box two options available. 1. Record relative to the screen 2. Record relative to the following window If we select first option QTP records User operations with respect to Desktop coordinates. If we select Second option, we have to show the window (AUT), after showing the Window it records with respect to that window co-ordinates.) 5. Select any one option in the dialog box and click Start Analog record. 6. It records User actions 7. Stop Recording 3. Low Level Recording It records some operations on Non-supported environments apart from Normal operations. This mode records at the object level and records all run time objects as window or winobject Test objects. Use Low Level Recording for recording in an environment not recognized by QTP. Navigation: 1. Keep tool under recording mode 2. Automation >Low Level Recording Steps for preparing a TEST (through Low Level Recording): 1) Launch AUT (or we can launch AUT through QTP) 2) Select Record option 3) Automation> Low Level Recording 4) Perform options on AUT 5) Stop Recording 6) Save the Test

www.gcreddy.com

19

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Object Repository
Object Repository: It is a storage place of QTP where we can store the objects information and it also acts as interface between the test script and the AUT in order to identify the objects during execution. Object: Object is something, which has structure and properties. Software objects: We call windows, WebPages, buttons, edit boxes, check boxes etc.. as software objects. Types of Object in QTP: There are four types of object available in QTP. 1. 2. 3. 4. Run time objects Test objects Utility objects Automation objects/User defined objects.

Run time objects: The objects present in the AUT. Ex: Buttons, links, etc… Test Objects: References of Run time objects. Ex: WinEdit, WinButton, WebButton, Link, etc… Note: Test objects names vary from one environment to another. Ex: Run time objects Test objects in Test objects in VB windows Environment Environment buttons WinButton VBButton Edit box WinEdit VBEdit Check box Wincheckbox Vbcheckbox

Test objects in web Environment WebButton WebEdit Webcheckbox

Utility objects They are QTP reserved objects used for testing and result reporting. Ex: 1. SystemUtil for launching/closing the application.

www.gcreddy.com

20

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
2. Reporter for defining results. 3. Services for inserting transaction points 4. Environment for using environment variables Automation objects/User defined objects User can create objects; those can be used for performing specific operations. Ex: Creating objects in file system object class, adodb.connection class, dictionary object class, excel. Application class etc. There are two types of repository available in QTP. 1. Local repository (.MTR extension) 2. Shared repository(.TSR extension) Local Repository: QTP creates a Local Repository for every action automatically during Recording. That cannot be shared among tests. User can add some more objects to Local repository User can perform rename, delete operations in local repository. As it is QTP internal file user no need to save modifications. Navigation: Resource menu>object repository (Short cut key Ctrl+R)

www.gcreddy.com

21

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

QTP- Local Repository Shared Repository: User (Test Engineer) creates shared repository by adding objects. That can be shared among number of tests. Using this method user can perform modifications on objects easily. Operations on Object Repository Adding objects a. Local Repository: Navigation: open local repository (resource menu>object repository) >objects>Add objects to Local>show the object>click ok (No need to save separately, it saves automatically) B. Shared Repository: Navigation: Resource menu>object repository manager>object>Add objects>show the window/object>click ok

www.gcreddy.com

22

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

o o o o

Selected object only Default object types All objects types Selected object types

(If we select first option it stores Selected objects only, if we select second option it stores all default objects, if we select third option it stores All objects including static objects, if we select fourth option, we have to select object classes then it stores that class objects, we can select more than one class also.) Renaming objects a. Local Repository: Resources > object repository >select object and right click >choose rename option >modify the name>release the mouse.>close repository b. Shared Repository: Resources >object repository manager>file>open>browse path of the repository file >file>enable editing>select object &Right click>choose rename option>modify the name > release mouse>save the file & close repository manager. Deleting objects a. Local Repository: Resources > object repository >select object and right click >choose delete option >confirm deletion>. >close repository b. Shared Repository: Resources >object repository manager>file>open>browse path of the repository file >file>enable editing>select object &Right click>choose delete option>confirm the deletion >save the file & close repository manager. Associating objects repositories to an action Resources>Associate repositories>click add icon (+)>browse path of the repository>Associate with an action>click ok Merging Repositories Resources > object repository manager>tools>object repository merge tool >browse path of the first repository> browse path of the second repository>click ok>click close>save the merged repository>close the repository manager. Note: After merging also, source repository files will be available, if we do not want source files we can delete.

www.gcreddy.com

23

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
Defining new test objects Navigation: Object>Define new test object >Select Environment>Select Class of the object>Enter name of the object>Click Add>click close>Select object >select property name>enter value (like this select one by one properties and enter values)>save Note: This feature can be used for preparing tests before the AUT is ready. Spying objects For getting objects information, (Test objects names, property & Values) QTP is providing a feature called Object Spy, using this we can get objects information. Navigation>Tools>object spy>take hand icon & Show the object>get information (Object Spy shows the specific objects all available properties with their values) Note: As Object spy is an important feature, it can be available in 3 Areas.(1. In tools Menu 2. In local repository 3. In Repository manager) View Options Locate in Repository This feature can be used for identifying objects from application to repository. Navigation: View>Locate in repository >show the object>click Ok>it locates specified object in the repository. Highlight in Application This feature can be used for identifying objects from repository to application. Navigation: Select object in the repository >view>highlight in application>it highlights specified objects in the application. Exporting Repository to an XML file We can export our repository file to an xml file. Navigation: File >export Test objects to XML Enter the file name and Save with xml extension. Importing Repository from XML file We can import XML file to our repository. Navigation: File>import from XML >browse path of the XML file >it loads objects. Note: The purpose of this feature is Editing objects information outside of the QTP

www.gcreddy.com

24

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Descriptive Programming
Entering / Providing objects information directly into the test script is called Descriptive Programming. In this method of script creation, we no need to have Object Repositories. Advantages: a) Descriptive Programming based Test scripts are faster in execution than Repository based Test scripts. b) Scripts are portable (we can run these scripts from any machine easily) c) Maintenance is easy (less amount of resources) d) We can start Test Execution process even though Application is not ready. Descriptive programming is basically 2 types. 1. Static Programming 2. Dynamic Programming

Static Programming
In this style of script generation, we provide objects information directly into the script. Ex: Invokeapplication "C:\Program Files\HP\QuickTest Professional\samples\flight\app\flight4a.exe" dialog("text:=Login").Activate dialog("text:=Login").Winedit("attached text:=Agent Name:").Set "asdf" dialog("text:=Login").Winedit("attached text:=Password:").Set "mercury" dialog("text:=Login").Winbutton("text:=OK","width:=60").Click Note: 1. Dialog, WinEdit and WinButton – Test Objects 2. text, attached text - Property names 3. Login, Agent Name:, Password:, OK - Property values or Logical Names of the Object 4. Activate, Set, Setsecure, Click - Methods Note2: If we feel one property information is not sufficient for recognizing the object uniquely, then we can provide more properties information by separating with commas.

www.gcreddy.com

25

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
Note 3: If we want to get objects information (Test objects, properties and values), we can use object spy feature. This feature is available in Tools Menu, in local repository and in repository manager. ------------------------------------------------------------------If we want maintain ‘Objects information’ in centralized location then we can use Constants. Steps: Creating Constants: Const Login="text:=Login", Agent="attached text:=Agent Name:" Const Pwd ="attached text:=Password:", Ok="text:=OK" Note: we can declare no of Constants in a line by separating with Camas (,), if we take other line then we have to use Const Statement again. Creating a Library file Place Constants in Notepad and save as .vbs file Associate the Library file to QTP (File->Settings->Resources-> Click add (+) icon-> Browse path of the Library file->Click Apply and click Ok buttons Otherwise, we can load the library file during run-time Syntax: ExecuteFile “Path of the Library file(.vbs)” After that create the Test Script using Constants Creating the Test Script using Constants: Invokeapplication "C:\Program Files\HP\QuickTest Professional\samples\flight\app\flight4a.exe" Dialog(Login).Activate Dialog(Login).Winedit(Agent).Set "asdf" Dialog(Login).Winedit(Pwd").Set "mercury" Dialog(Login).Winbutton(Ok).Click Advantages: If we maintain Object Information in the centralized location, then we can handle modifications easily. -------------------------------------------------------------------

www.gcreddy.com

26

gcreddy@gcreddy.com Dynamic Programming
In this style of script generation, first we create description objects, provide properties information and use description objects in the test script. Creating Properties Collection Objects Set Set Set Set oLogin=description.Create oAgent=description.Create oPassword=description.Create oOk=description.Create

Entering Properties Information into Objects oLogin("text").value="Login" oLogin("width").value=320 oLogin("height").value=204 oAgent("attached text").value="Agent Name:" oPassword("attached text").value="Password:" oOk("text").value="OK" Generating Tests using Properties collection Objects Invokeapplication "C:\Program Files\HP\QuickTest Professional\samples\flight\app\flight4a.exe" Dialog(oLogin).Activate Dialog(oLogin).Winedit(oAgent).Set "asdf" Dialog(oLogin).Winedit(oPassword).Set "mercury" Dialog(oLogin).Winbutton(oOK).Click Note1: Create Description objects and put into one library file, by associating that library file, we can generate tests. Note2: Dynamic programming is some difficult in preparation than static programming but maintenance is very easy.

---------------------------------------------------In this style of script creation also, we can maintain Objects information in the Centralized location by putting collection objects in a Library file.

----------------------------------------------------

www.gcreddy.com

27

gcreddy@gcreddy.com Methods or Operations
Activate: It activates dialog boxes/Windows Syntax: Object hierarchy. Activate Ex: Dialog(“Login”).Activate Window(“Flight Reservation”).Activate Click Method: It clicks on an object (Buttons) Syntax: Object hierarchy. Click Ex: Dialog(“Login”).Winbutton(“ok”).click Close Method: It closes the window,Dialog box, Browser window etc. Syntax: Object hierarchy. Close Ex: Window(“Flight Reservation”).Close Browser(“Browser”).Close DBL CLICK: It Double clicks the object. Set Method: It can be used in three ways. a. For setting the value of an edit box Syntax: Object Hierarchy. SET “Value” Ex: Dialog (“Login”).WinEdit(“Agent Name”).Set “asdf” b. Selecting a Radio Button Syntax: Object Hierarchy. Set Ex: Window("Flight Reservation").WinRadioButton("Business").Set c. Selecting/Deselecting check boxes Syntax:object Hierarchy.Set “ON/off” Ex: Window ("Flight Reservation"). Dialog("Open Order").WinCheckBox("Order No.").Set "ON" Select Method: It is used for selecting an item from a combo box or list box. Syntax: Object hierarchy.select “item” Ex: A. Window("Flight Reservation").WinComboBox("Fly From:").Select "London"

www.gcreddy.com

28

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
B. Window("Flight Reservation").Dialog("Flights Table").WinList("From").Select "12572 GetVisibletext: It returns Text from the specified area. Syntax: Variable =object hierarchy.getvisibletext Ex: x=Window("Flight Reservation").WinComboBox("Fly From:").GetVisibleText msgbox x GetRoproperty: It returns current object property value. It can be used for getting any object’s, any property value. Syntax: Variable = object hierarchy.getroproperty (“property name”) Ex: x=Window("Flight Reservation").WinEdit("Tickets:").GetROProperty ("width") msgbox x Navigate Method: It opens a specified URL in the Browser. Syntax: object hierarchy.navigate “URL” Ex: Browser("Yahoo!").Navigate "http://www.google.co.in" Getitemscount: It returns number of items in a combobox. Syntax: Variable=object hierarchy.getitemscount Ex: x=Window("Flight Reservation").WinComboBox("Fly From:").GetItemsCount msgbox x Getcontent: It returns all items from a combobox. Syntax: variable=object hierarchy.GetContent Ex: x=Window("Flight Reservation").WinComboBox("Fly From:").GetContent msgbox x Exist property: It checks whether the object is available or not. Syntax: Object hierarchy.exist(time in seconds) Ex: Window("Flight Reservation").Exist(5)

www.gcreddy.com

29

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Enhancing Tests
After generating the basic test, we have to enhance the test in order to Test the AUT with respect to requirements. There are several methods available in QTP for enhancing the TEST.

1. Inserting Check Points 2. Inserting Output Values 3. Adding Comments 4. Inserting Flow Control Statements 5. Synchronization 6. Parameterization 7. Generating Steps through Step Generator 8. Inserting Transaction Points:(Start and End)

Inserting Checkpoints
Check point is a verification point, it takes expected result from the user and compares with actual results during execution and provides test results.

There are 11 Checkpoints available in QTP:
1. Standard check point 2. Text check point 3. Text area check point 4. Bit map check point 5. Data base check point 6. Accessibility check point

7. XML Check point (from Application) 8. XML Check point (from Resource)
9. Page check point 10. Image checkpoint 11. Table checkpoint Note 1: From 6 to 11 checkpoints are only for Web.

www.gcreddy.com

30

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Note 2: From 9 to 11 checkpoints are hidden checkpoints, we can insert these checkpoints through standard checkpoint.

1. Standard Checkpoint:
It checks object property values. We can use this checkpoint for checking any property value. Navigation for Inserting standard checkpoint Keep tool under recording mode > place cursor in desired location > Insert > check point > Standard checkpoint > Show the object > click okay > select property and enter expected results & click Ok and stop Recording. Navigation for Editing standard checkpoint Select Checkpoint statement and right click > choose checkpoint properties option > modify the value > click Ok. Navigation for Deleting standard checkpoint: Select Checkpoint statements and right click > choose delete option. Inserting Standard check points through active screen: View > Active Screen >place cursor in desired location >Place mouse pointer on active screen & right click> choose insert standard checkpoint option > click ok > enter expected result > click ok Note: Inserting Standard check points through keyword view same as in expert view. Note: We can insert standard checkpoints in 3 ways. 1. 2. Through expert view, Through keyword view, Through Active screen.

3.

2) Text Checkpoint:
It Checks object’s text property value in different ways. Navigation: Keep tool under Recording mode >Insert menu > checkpoint > Text checkpoint > Show the object > click ok > Select options (Match case; ignore spaces, exact match, text not displayed.)

www.gcreddy.com

31

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
We can select one or more options > click ok & stop Recording.

3) Text Area Checkpoint:
It checks the text area present in the application. Navigation: Keep tool under Recording mode > Insert menu> Checkpoint > Text area checkpoint > Mark the area of text > select one or more options (Match case, ignore spaces, exact match, text not displayed.) Click ok and stop recording.

4.

Bitmap checkpoint:

It compares bitmaps; we can compare complete bitmaps as well as part of the bitmaps. Navigation: Keep tool under Recording mode > Insert menu > Checkpoint > Bitmap checkpoint > show the Bitmap >click ok >select “check only selected area” option if we want to compare part of the bitmap > click ok >stop recording.

5.

Database checkpoint:

It checks Content of the back end Database. Navigation: Insert > checkpoint > Database checkpoint >choose “specify SQL statement manually” option >click next > click create > select machine data source > Select DSN (QT_flight32) > click ok > enter SQL statement (select * from orders) > finish > click ok. Note: here we do not need to put tool under Recording mode and we do not need AUT since data is from backend.

6. Accessibility check point:
It checks whether the webpage in our web application is developed according to W3C (World Wide Web consortium) Rules and Regulations or not. It is a configurable checkpoint, according to our requirements, we can customize. Configuring accessibility checkpoint: Tools menu> options >web > advanced > check/uncheck items > click apply > click ok Invigilation:

www.gcreddy.com

32

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
Keep tool under recording mode with web environment >insert>checkpoint>accessibility checkpoint>show the webpage>click ok>click ok>stop recording. Result Criteria: a) If item is available but not according to W3C rules then fail. b) If an item is available, according to W3C rules then Pass. c) If an item is not available then result would be pass

7. XML Check point (from Application)
It checks content of the XML file. Navigation: Keep tool under Recording mode in web environment > insert menu > checkpoint (from application)> show the xml pages >click ok > stop Recording.

8. XML Check point (from Resource)
It checks content of the XML file. Navigation: Insert menu > checkpoint >xml checkpoint (from resource) > browse path of the XML File > click ok > click ok. Note: 1. If XML file is an individual and path available, and then we can go for inserting xml checkpoint from resource. Note: 2. If XML file is part of web application, separate path is not available then we can choose inserting XML checkpoints from application.

9. Page checkpoint:
It checks number of Links, Images and Loading time in a web page. It is a hidden checkpoint; we can insert this through standard checkpoint. Navigation: Keep tool under Recording mode with web environment > Insert menu > checkpoint > Standard checkpoint >show the web page > click ok > click ok > stop recording.

10. Image checkpoint:
It checks Image property values. Navigation: Keep tool under Recording mode with web environment > Insert menu > checkpoint >standard checkpoint > show the image > select image > click ok > click ok >stop recording.

www.gcreddy.com

33

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

11. Table checkpoint:
It checks content of the web tables. Navigation: Keep tool under Recording mode under web environment > Insert menu > checkpoint > standard checkpoint >show the web table > click ok >stop recording.

Inserting Output Values
It is a step in which one or more values are captured during test execution. The values can later be used as input at a different point in the run session or we can use as input for another test. It is stored in run time data table; it is located in QTP result window and can be retrieved later.

Types of Output Values:
1. Standard output value 2. Text output value 3. Text area output value 4. Database output value 5. XML output value (From Application) 6. XML output value (From Resource)

1) Standard output value:
We can use standard output values to output the properties values of most objects. Navigation: Keep tool under Recording mode > Insert menu >output value> standard output value > show the object > click ok > select property > modify the column name (if required) > click ok >click ok >stop recording.

www.gcreddy.com

34

gcreddy@gcreddy.com 2) Text output value:
We can use Text output values to output text strings displayed in an application. When creating a text output value we can output a part of the objects text and we can also specify text before and after options. Navigation: Keep tool under recording mode> Insert menu> output value > text output value > show the text >select one of the option(output text/text before/text after) > click modify if you want to change the column name > click ok > click ok.> check in runtime table after running it.

3) Text Area output value:
We can use text area output values to output text strings displayed within a defined area of the screen. Navigation: Keep tool under recording mode > insert menu >output value > text area output value >Mark the text area >click modify the column name if necessary > click ok > again click ok > check in run time table after running it..

4) Database output value:
We can use Database output values to output the value of the contents of database cells. Navigation: Insert menu> output value > Database output value> choose specify SQL statements manually >click next >click create >Select Machine Data source > Select Driver (QT_flight32) > click ok > enter SQL statement (select *from orders) > click finish > select data cells > click ok > Run and it will capture and see the results in run time table.

5) XML output value (from application):
we can use XML output values to output the values of XML elements in XML documents. Navigation: Keep tool under recording mode with web environment > Insert menu > output value > XML output value from application > Show the XML document > select elements > click ok >stop recording.

6) XML output Value (From Resource):
We can use XML output values to output the values of documents. XML elements in XML

www.gcreddy.com

35

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
Navigation: Insert menu >output value> XML output value from resource > browse path of the XML file > click ok > select elements >click ok.

Adding Comments
Purpose of Comments:
o o For making the script understandable For making the Script Disable from execution

Syntax:

1. Use Apostrophe (‘) before the statement
2. Use REM Command with single space before the statement

Comment a Block of Statements:
Navigation: Select block of statements > Edit menu> Advanced> Comment block Or After selecting block of statements use shortcut key Ctrl+M

Uncomment a block of statements:
Navigation: Select comment block>Edit menu> Advanced>Uncomment block Or After selecting comment block, Use shortcut key ctrl+shift+M

Inserting Flow Control Statements
QTP adapted VB script engine for applying programming logic to tests. We can insert VB script conditional statements and loop statements for applying the logic. In VB script there are 2 types of conditional statements and four types of loop statements available.

www.gcreddy.com

36

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Synchronization
It is a process of matching the speeds of both QTP and AUT in order to get proper execution and results.

Where Synchronization is required:
During test execution QTP gives instructions one by one with same speed, but AUT takes less time for some operations execution and more time for some operations execution, that time we may not get proper execution and results. In order to get proper results in between QTP & AUT synchronization is required. There are several methods available in QTP for synchronization. 1. Inserting Wait statements. 2. Inserting Synchronization points. 3. Increasing Tool default synchronization time. 4. Sync Method (Only for WEB) 5. Exist Property

Inserting Wait Statements:
We can insert wait statements in our test in order to make QTP to wait until AUT completes current operation. Syntax: Wait(time in seconds) Note: If we insert wait statements QTP waits up to maximum time even though operation is completed.

Inserting Synchronization point:
Place cursor in desired location>keep tool under recording mode > Insert menu > Synchronization point > show the object > click ok > select property name & Value (True)>enter time in Mille seconds>click ok>Stop recording. Note: if we insert Synchronization points, it does not wait up to maximum time, after completion of the current operations, it goes to next step immediately. Syntax: object hierarchy.waitproperty “property name”,value,time in milli seconds.

www.gcreddy.com

37

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
Increasing Tool default synchronization time:
Navigation: File>settings>run tab>increase object synchronization time out>apply>ok Note: If we increase QTP tool default time that can be applied for all statements in the test, but QTP does not wait up to maximum time unnecessarily, After completion of one statement execution it goes to next statement immediately.

Sync Method: (only for WEB)
Waits for the browser to complete current navigation. Syntax: Object Hirearchy.Sync Ex: Browser("Yahoo! Toolbar").Page("Yahoo! Toolbar").Sync

Selecting an appropriate Method:
1. Suppose in our test one or more statements only are taking more time for execution then selecting “Inserting synchronization method” is better. 2. Suppose in our test more statements are taking more time for execution then selecting “increasing tool time out” . 3. Above two are local features but wait statement is Vbscript feature, even though some drawbacks are there in using wait statement, it is better to use wait statement in functions.

Inserting Transaction Points
We can insert Transaction points for measuring Transaction time. It is a performance concept but QTP supports measuring transaction time per user only. Syntax: Services.StartTransaction "name of the transaction" ------statements ---------------services.EndTransaction "name of the transaction" Note: We can insert multiple transactions points in a test.

www.gcreddy.com

38

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Parameterization
Passing parameters, through this concept we can pass multiple values. We use parameterization in Data Driven Testing.

Data Driven Testing: Testing the Same operation with multiple sets of test
data. Types of Parameterization: We can parameterize tests in several ways. 1. Through Loop Statements 2. Dynamic Test Data Submission 3. Through Data Table 4. Fetching Test Data directly from External files (Flat files & Spreadsheets)

5. Fetching Test Data directly from Databases (MS Acess, oracle etc).
6. Getting Test Data from front end objects.

1. Through Loop Statements:
We can use loop statements for passing sequential numbers & Logical Numbers. Note: We can’t generate Strings. For orderno=1 to 10 step 1 ' for one increment step keyword is not mandatory Window("Flight Reservation").Activate Window("Flight Reservation").WinButton("Button").Click Window("Flight Reservation").Dialog("Open Order").WinCheckBox("Order No.").Set "ON" Window("Flight Reservation").Dialog("Open Order").WinEdit("Edit").Set orderno Window("Flight Reservation").Dialog("Open Order").WinButton("OK").Click Next

2.Dynamic Test Data Submission:
Through Loop Statements we can give strings also but every time user has to enter data. For x=1 to 3 Agent =inputbox("enter an Agent Name") Password=inputbox("enter a password") invokeapplication "C:\Program Files\Mercury Interactive\QuickTest Professional\samples\flight\app\flight4a.exe"

www.gcreddy.com

39

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
Dialog("Login").Activate Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Agent Name:").Set Agent Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Agent Name:").Type micTab Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Password:").SetSecure password Dialog("Login").WinButton("OK").Click Window("Flight Reservation").Close Next

3. Through Data Table:
QTP adds one data table (Spreadsheet) for every test, we can use Data Table for Data Driven Testing. It has 3 types of usage a. Entering test data directly into data table and use b. Importing test data from external Flat files c. Importing test data from external Spread sheets d. Importing test data from Data bases. A. Entering test data directly into data table and use. Steps: Generate the basic test>open data table(View>Data Table) Click on column header>enter the name of the field (like this we can create number of columns) > Enter Data>connect the data to test (variable=datatable(“column name”, Sheet id) Example: agent=datatable(“agent”,1) Pass parameters.) Run the test. Agent = Datatable("Agent",1) pwd=Datatable ("Password",1) invokeapplication "C:\Program Files\Mercury Interactive\QuickTest Professional\samples\flight\app\flight4a.exe" Dialog("Login").Activate Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Agent Name:").Set Agent Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Agent Name:").Type micTab Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Password:").SetSecure pwd Dialog("Login").WinButton("OK").Click Window("Flight Reservation").Close

www.gcreddy.com

40

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
b. Importing test data from external files: Open Data Table (view>Data table)>place mouse pointer on data table and right click>file>import from file>Click ok>Browsw path of the file(it imports data from the flat file) Connecting Test Data to QTP Test as above and run the test.

c. Importing test data from external Spread sheets:
Open Data Table (view>Data table)>place mouse pointer on data table and right click>file>import from file>Click ok>Browse path of the excel sheet (it imports data from the excel sheet) Connecting Test Data to QTP Test as above and run the test. D. Importing test data from Data bases: Through Data table we can import Test Data from Data bases, but first we have to create /get the DSN(Data source Name)& we have to use SQL Commands. 1. Creating a Test Database: open MS Access (or we can use any other database). Start programs>MS Office>MS Access>file >new>Select blank Database>enter name of the database>Save with mdb extension. Creating Tables: Select Create table in design view>Enter field name(Agent)and Select data type(text) Like this we can create number of fields>save&enter table name. Entering Data into Tables: Select table>enter the data. Creating DSN & importing data Navigation: view>data table>Place mouse pointer on Data table>sheet>import>from database(Database query wizard opens)>choose ‘specify SQL statements manually>click next >click create>click new>select driver type>click next >browse path to store> enter DSN Name>Click Save>click next>click finish>select>browse the database& select>click ok>click ok>select DSN>click ok>enter SQL statement (select *from login)>click finish. Note: DSN Creation is one time activity, by using the DSN we can get data for number of tests.

4. Fetching Test Data directly from Flat files
5). Fetching Test Data directly from Excel Sheets 6) Fetching Test Data directly from Databases

www.gcreddy.com

41

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Environment Variables in QTP
These are global variables; if we want to use some variables globally (From number of tests) declaring as global variables is better. If we declare as local variables in number of tests, modifications are difficult. Types of Environment variables: 1. Built in variables: These are system defined variables, we can access from all tests but these are designed as read only. 2. User defined variables: Variables that we predefine in the active external environment variables file. We can create as many files as we want and we can change values of variables. Usage of environment variables: Syntax: Variable = Environment(“environment variable name”) Ex: X=Environment (“ActionName”) Msgbox x Example Script: ProductDir =environment ("ProductDir") app= "\samples\flight\app\flight4a.exe" Systemutil.Run ProductDir & app Dialog("Login").Activate Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Agent Name:").Set "gcreddy" Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Password:").SetSecure "4b3c86f2107ff565cc195ba6c24739091b656407" Dialog("Login").WinButton("OK").Click Creating user defined environment variables: Navigation: File > settings > Environment > select variable type as user defined > click add icon (+) > enter variable name & Value > click ok (like this we can create number of variables) > click export > browse path & enter file name, save with xml extension > click ok. Associating environment variable file: Navigation: File > settings >Environment > select variable type as user defined > check “load variables and values from the external file” > browse path of the xml file > click apply & ok.

www.gcreddy.com

42

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
Or We can load environment file directly Environment.loadfromfile”path of the xml file” Usage of user defined Environment variables: Associate environment file to current test: Variable = Environment (“Variable Name”) X=environment (“city”) Msgbox x Modifying Environment files: Select XML file>open with notepad>modify the values>Save.

www.gcreddy.com

43

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Actions
Action: A Set of Statements for performing a Task or Tasks. We divide our test into actions to streamline the process of testing. Purpose of Actions: For better understandability For reusing components Types of Actions: 1) Non Re usable actions 2) Re usable actions 3) External actions Operations on Actions: • Creating Actions • Splitting Actions • Renaming Actions • Deleting Actions • Calling an Action • Copying an Action • Making an Action Reusable/Non Reusable Creating an Action: Insert>call to new action>enter name of the action>click ok Steps: 1. Create required actions(ex login, insert,delte) 2. Prepare Scripts for those actions. Splitting an action: Navigation: Place cursor in desired location>Edit menu>action>split action>Enter Action 1 name & action 2 name. Steps: 1. Generate total test in the default action 2. Split into meaningful actions.

www.gcreddy.com

44

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
Note: At a time we can split one actions into 2 actions. Renaming actions: Select desired action in action drop down box> edit menu>action>rename action>modify the name>click ok. Deleting Actions: Select desired action in action drop down box>edit menu>action>delete action>confirm deletion. Calling an action: Insert>call to existing action>browse path of the test>select desired action>click ok. Note: U can’t edit Copying an action: Insert>call to copy of action>browse path of the test>select desired action>click ok. Note: we can edit this action. Making an action reusable: Select Non Reusable action >edit >action>action properties>check reusable action check box >click ok.

www.gcreddy.com

45

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

VB Script
(Fundamentals and Features)
1) Introduction 2) Comments 3) VB Script Variables 4) VB Script Data Types 5) VB Script Operators 6) Input/Output Operations 7) Constants 8) Conditional Statements 9) Loop through Code 10) VB Script Procedures 11) Procedures 12) VBScript syntax rules and guidelines 13) Errors

www.gcreddy.com

46

gcreddy@gcreddy.com 1.0 Introduction
• • • VBScript is a scripting language. A scripting language is a lightweight programming language. VBScript is a light version of Microsoft's programming language Visual Basic.

When a VBScript is inserted into a HTML document, the Internet browser will read the HTML and interpret the VBScript. The VBScript can be executed immediately, or at a later event. Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition brings active scripting to a wide variety of environments, including Web client scripting in Microsoft Internet Explorer and Web server scripting in Microsoft Internet Information Service. 1.1 Windows Script Host (WSH) It is a Windows administration tool. WSH creates an environment for hosting scripts. That is, when a script arrives at your computer, WSH plays the part of the host — it makes objects and services available for the script and provides a set of guidelines within which the script is executed. Among other things, Windows Script Host manages security and invokes the appropriate script engine Windows Script Host is built into Microsoft Windows 98, 2000, and Millennium Editions and higher versions.

A Windows script is a text file. We can create a script with any text editor as long as we save our script with a WSH-compatible script extension (.js, vbs, or .wsf). The most commonly available text editor is already installed on our computer — Notepad. We can also use your favorite HTML editor, VbsEdit, Microsoft Visual C++, or Visual InterDev. 1.2 Creating a script with Notepad 1. Start Notepad. 2. Write your script. For example purposes, type Msgbox "Hello VB Script" 3. Save this text file with a .vbs extension (instead of the default .txt extension). For example, Hello.vbs 4. Navigate to the file you just saved, and double-click it. 5. Windows Script Host invokes the VB Script engine and runs your script. In the example, a message box is displayed with the message "Hello VB Script"

1.3 Hosting Environments and Script Engines Scripts are often embedded in Web pages, either in an HTML page (on the client side) or in an ASP page (on the server side). In the case of a script embedded in an HTML page, the engine component that interprets and runs the script code is loaded by the Web browser, such as Internet Explorer. In the case of a script embedded in

www.gcreddy.com

47

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
an ASP page, the engine that interprets and runs the script code is built into Internet Information Services (IIS). Windows Script Host executes scripts that exist outside an HTML or ASP page and that stand on their own as text files. 1.4 Available Script Engines Generally, we write scripts in either Microsoft JScript or VBScript, the two script engines that ship with Microsoft Windows 98, 2000 and Millennium Editions. We can use other script engines, such as Perl, REXX, and Python, with Windows Script Host. A stand-alone script written in JScript has the .js extension; a stand-alone script written in VBScript has the .vbs extension. These extensions are registered with Windows. When we run one of these types of files, Windows starts Windows Script Host, which invokes the associated script engine to interpret and run the file.

www.gcreddy.com

48

gcreddy@gcreddy.com 2.0 Comments
The comment argument is the text of any comment we want to include. 2.0 Purpose of comments: o o We can use comments for making the script understandable. We can use comments for making one or more statements disable from execution.

2.1 Syntax Rem comment (After the Rem keyword, a space is required before comment.) Or Apostrophe (') symbol before the comment 2.2 Comment/Uncomment a block of statements

o Select block of statement and use short cut key Ctrl + M (for comment) o Select comment block and use short cut key Ctrl + Shift + M (for
uncomment)

www.gcreddy.com

49

gcreddy@gcreddy.com 3.0 VB Script Variables
A variable is a convenient placeholder that refers to a computer memory location where we can store program information that may change during the time our script is running. 3.1 Declaring Variables We declare variables explicitly in our script using the Dim statement, the Public statement, and the Private statement. For example: Dim city Dim x We declare multiple variables by separating each variable name with a comma. For example: Dim x, Top, Bottom, Left, Right

We can also declare a variable implicitly by simply using its name in our script. That is not generally a good practice because we could misspell the variable name in one or more places, causing unexpected results when our script is run. For that reason, the Option Explicit statement is available to require explicit declaration of all variables. The Option Explicit statement should be the first statement in our script. 3.2 Option Explicit Forces explicit declaration of all variables in a script.

Option Explicit ' Force explicit variable declaration. Dim MyVar ' Declare variable. MyInt = 10 ' Undeclared variable generates error. MyVar = 10 ' Declared variable does not generate error. 3.3 Naming Restrictions for Variables

Variable names follow the standard rules for naming anything in VBScript. A variable name: • • • • Must begin with an alphabetic character. Cannot contain an embedded period. Must not exceed 255 characters. Must be unique in the scope in which it is declared.

www.gcreddy.com

50

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
3.4 Scope of Variables o o o A variable's scope is determined by where you declare it. When we declare a variable within a procedure, only code within that procedure can access or change the value of that variable If we declare a variable outside a procedure, we make it recognizable to all the procedures in our script. This is a script-level variable, and it has scriptlevel scope.

3.5 Life Time of Variables o o o The lifetime of a variable depends on how long it exists. The lifetime of a script-level variable extends from the time it is declared until the time the script is finished running. At procedure level, a variable exists only as long as you are in the procedure.

3.6 Assigning Values to Variables Values are assigned to variables creating an expression as follows: The variable is on the left side of the expression and the value you want to assign to the variable is on the right. For example: B = 200 City = “Hyderabad” 3.7 Scalar Variables and Array Variables A variable containing a single value is a scalar variable. A variable containing a series of values, is called an array variable. Array variables and scalar variables are declared in the same way, except that the declaration of an array variable uses parentheses () following the variable name. Example: Dim A(3) Although the number shown in the parentheses is 3, all arrays in VBScript are zerobased, so this array actually contains 4 elements.

We assign data to each of the elements of the array using an index into the array. Beginning at zero and ending at 10, data can be assigned to the elements of an array as follows: A(0) = 256 A(1) = 324

www.gcreddy.com

51

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
A(2) = 100 A(3) = 55

Similarly, the data can be retrieved from any element using an index into the particular array element you want. For example: SomeVariable = A(4) Arrays aren't limited to a single dimension. You can have as many as 60 dimensions, although most people can't comprehend more than three or four dimensions. Arrays aren't limited to a single dimension. We can have as many as 60 dimensions, although most people can't comprehend more than three or four dimensions. In the following example, the MyTable variable is a two-dimensional array consisting of 6 rows and 11 columns: Dim MyTable(5, 10)

In a two-dimensional array, the first number is always the number of rows; the second number is the number of columns.

3.8 Dynamic Arrays We can also declare an array whose size changes during the time our script is running. This is called a dynamic array.

The array is initially declared within a procedure using either the Dim statement or using the ReDim statement. However, for a dynamic array, no size or number of dimensions is placed inside the parentheses. For example: Dim MyArray() ReDim AnotherArray() To use a dynamic array, you must subsequently use ReDim to determine the number of dimensions and the size of each dimension.

In the following example, ReDim sets the initial size of the dynamic array to 25. A subsequent ReDim statement resizes the array to 30, but uses the Preserve keyword to preserve the contents of the array as the resizing takes place.

www.gcreddy.com

52

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
ReDim MyArray(25) ReDim Preserve MyArray(30)

There is no limit to the number of times we can resize a dynamic array, although if we make an array smaller, we lose the data in the eliminated elements.

4.0 VB Script Data Types
VBScript has only one data type called a Variant. A Variant is a special kind of data type that can contain different kinds of information, depending on how it is used. Because Variant is the only data type in VBScript, it is also the data type returned by all functions in VBScript. 4.1 Variant Subtypes Beyond the simple numeric or string classifications, a Variant can make further distinctions about the specific nature of numeric information. For example, we can have numeric information that represents a date or a time. When used with other date or time data, the result is always expressed as a date or a time. We can also have a rich variety of numeric information ranging in size from Boolean values to huge floating-point numbers. These different categories of information that can be contained in a Variant are called subtypes. Most of the time, we can just put the kind of data we want in a Variant, and the Variant behaves in a way that is most appropriate for the data it contains. The following table shows subtypes of data that a Variant can contain.

Subtype Empty Null Boolean Byte Integer Currency Long Single Double

Date (Time) String

Description Variant is uninitialized. Value is 0 for numeric variables or a zerolength string ("") for string variables. Variant intentionally contains no valid data. Contains either True or False. Contains integer in the range 0 to 255. Contains integer in the range -32,768 to 32,767. -922,337,203,685,477.5808 to 922,337,203,685,477.5807. Contains integer in the range -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647. Contains a single-precision, floating-point number in the range -3.402823E38 to -1.401298E-45 for negative values; 1.401298E-45 to 3.402823E38 for positive values. Contains a double-precision, floating-point number in the range -1.79769313486232E308 to -4.94065645841247E-324 for negative values; 4.94065645841247E-324 to 1.79769313486232E308 for positive values. Contains a number that represents a date between January 1, 100 to December 31, 9999. Contains a variable-length string that can be up to approximately 2 billion characters in length.

www.gcreddy.com

53

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
Object Error Contains an object. Contains an error number.

We can use conversion functions to convert data from one subtype to another. In addition, the VarType function returns information about how your data is stored within a Variant.

5.0 VB Script Operators
Operators are used for performing mathematical, comparison and logical operations. VBScript has a full range of operators, including arithmetic operators, comparison operators, concatenation operators, and logical operators. 4.1 Operator Precedence When several operations occur in an expression, each part is evaluated and resolved in a predetermined order called operator precedence. We can use parentheses to override the order of precedence and force some parts of an expression to be evaluated before others. Operations within parentheses are always performed before those outside. Within parentheses, however, standard operator precedence is maintained. When expressions contain operators from more than one category, arithmetic operators are evaluated first, comparison operators are evaluated next, and logical operators are evaluated last. Comparison operators all have equal precedence; that is, they are evaluated in the left-to-right order in which they appear. Arithmetic and logical operators are evaluated in the following order of precedence. 4.2 Arithmetic Operators: Operator 1) Exponentiation Operator (^) 2) Multiplication Operator (*) 3) Division Operator (/) 4) Integer Division Operator (\) 5) Mod Operator Description Raises a number to the power of an exponent. Multiplies two numbers. Divides two numbers and returns a floating-point result. Divides two numbers and returns an integer result. Divides two numbers and returns only the remainder.

www.gcreddy.com

54

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
6) Addition Operator (+) 7) Subtraction Operator (-) 8) Concatenation Operator (&) 4.3 Comparison Operators Used to compare expressions. Operator 1) = 2) <> 3) < 4) > Description Equal to Not equal to Less than Grater than Operator 5) <= 6) >= 7) Is Description Less than or equal to Greater than or equal to Object equivalence Sums two numbers. Finds the difference between two numbers or indicates the negative value of a numeric expression. Forces string concatenation of two expressions.

4.4 Concatenation Operators Operator 1) Addition Operator (+) Description Sums two numbers. If Then 1) Both expressions are numeric Add. 2) Both expressions are strings Concatenate. 3) One expression is numeric and Add. the other is a string Forces string concatenation of two expressions.

2) Concatenation Operator (&)

4.5 Logical Operators Operator 1) Not 2) And 3) Or 4) Xor 5) Eqv 6) Imp Description Performs logical negation on an expression. Performs a logical conjunction on two expressions. Performs a logical disjunction on two expressions. Performs a logical exclusion on two expressions. Performs a logical equivalence on two expressions. Performs a logical implication on two expressions. Syntax result= Not expression result= expression1 expression2 result= expression1 expression2 result= expression1 expression2 result= expression1 expression2 And Or Xor Eqv

result= expression1 Imp expression2

www.gcreddy.com

55

gcreddy@gcreddy.com 6) Input/Output Operations
6.1 InputBox Function Displays a prompt in a dialog box, waits for the user to input text or click a button, and returns the contents of the text box. Example: Dim Input Input = InputBox("Enter your name") MsgBox ("You entered: " & Input) 6.2 MsgBox Function Displays a message in a dialog box, waits for the user to click a button, and returns a value indicating which button the user clicked. Example: Dim MyVar MyVar = MsgBox ("Hello World!", 65, "MsgBox Example") ' MyVar contains either 1 or 2, depending on which button is clicked. 7) VB Script Constants A constant is a meaningful name that takes the place of a number or string and never changes. 7.1 Creating Constants We create user-defined constants in VBScript using the Const statement. Using the Const statement, we can create string or numeric constants with meaningful names and assign them literal values. Const statement Declares constants for use in place of literal values. Example: Const MyString = "This is my string." Const MyAge = 49 Const CutoffDate = #6-1-97# Note that String literal is enclosed in quotation marks (" "). Represent Date literals and time literals by enclosing them in number signs (#). We declare multiple constants by separating each constant name and value with a comma. For example: Const price= 100, city= “Hyderabad”, x= 27

www.gcreddy.com

56

gcreddy@gcreddy.com 8) Conditional Statements
We can control the flow of our script with conditional statements and looping statements. Using conditional statements, we can write VBScript code that makes decisions and repeats actions. The following conditional statements are available in VBScript: 1) If…Then…Else Statement 2) Select Case Statement 8.1 Making Decisions Using If...Then...Else The If...Then...Else statement is used to evaluate whether a condition is True or False and, depending on the result, to specify one or more statements to run. Usually the condition is an expression that uses a comparison operator to compare one value or variable with another. If...Then...Else statements can be nested to as many levels as you need. 8.1.1 Running a Statements if a Condition is True (single statement) To run only one statement when a condition is True, use the single-line syntax for the If...Then...Else statement. Dim myDate myDate = #2/13/98# If myDate < Now Then myDate = Now 8.1.2 Running Statements if a Condition is True (multiple statements)

To run more than one line of code, we must use the multiple-line (or block) syntax. This syntax includes the End If statement. Dim x x= 20 If x>10 Then msgbox "Hello G.C.Reddy" msgbox "x value is: "&x msgbox "Bye Bye" End If 8.1.3 Running Certain Statements if a Condition is True and Running Others if a Condition is False

We can use an If...Then...Else statement to define two blocks of executable statements: one block to run if the condition is True, the other block to run if the condition is False. Example:

www.gcreddy.com

57

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Dim x x= Inputbox (" Enter a value") If x>100 Then Msgbox "Hello G.C.Reddy" Msgbox "X is a Big Number" Msgbox "X value is: "&X Else Msgbox "GCR" Msgbox "X is a Small Number" Msgbox "X value is: "&X End If 8.1.4 Deciding Between Several Alternatives A variation on the If...Then...Else statement allows us to choose from several alternatives. Adding ElseIf clauses expands the functionality of the If...Then...Else statement so we can control program flow based on different possibilities. Example: Dim x x= Inputbox (" Enter a value") If x>0 and x<=100 Then Msgbox "Hello G.C.Reddy" Msgbox "X is a Small Number" Msgbox "X value is "&x Else IF x>100 and x<=500 Then Msgbox "Hello GCR" Msgbox "X is a Medium Number" Else IF x>500 and x<=1000 Then Msgbox "Hello Chandra Mohan Reddy" Msgbox "X is a Large Number" Else End If End If End If Msgbox "Hello Sir" Msgbox "X is a Grand Number"

8.1.5 Executing a certain block of statements when two / more conditions are True (Nested If...) Example: Dim State, Region State=Inputbox ("Enter a State") Region=Inputbox ("Enter a Region")

www.gcreddy.com

58

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

If state= "AP" Then If Region= "Telangana" Then msgbox "Hello G.C.Reddy" msgbox "Dist count is 10" Else if Region= "Rayalasema" Then msgbox "Hello GCR" msgbox "Dist count is 4" Else If Region= "Costal" Then msgbox "Hello Chandra mohan Reddy" msgbox "Dist count is 9" End End End End If If If If

8.2 Making Decisions with Select Case The Select Case structure provides an alternative to If...Then...ElseIf for selectively executing one block of statements from among multiple blocks of statements. A Select Case statement provides capability similar to the If...Then...Else statement, but it makes code more efficient and readable. Example: Option explicit Dim x,y, Operation, Result x= Inputbox (" Enter x value") y= Inputbox ("Enter y value") Operation= Inputbox ("Enter an Operation") Select Case Operation Case "add" Result= cdbl (x)+cdbl (y) Msgbox "Hello G.C.Reddy" Msgbox "Addition of x,y values is "&Result Result= x-y Msgbox "Hello G.C.Reddy" Msgbox "Substraction of x,y values is "&Result Case "mul" Result= x*y Msgbox "Hello G.C.Reddy" Msgbox "Multiplication of x,y values is "&Result Result= x/y

Case "sub"

Case "div"

www.gcreddy.com

59

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
Msgbox "Hello G.C.Reddy" Msgbox "Division of x,y values is "&Result Case "mod" Result= x mod y Msgbox "Hello G.C.Reddy" Msgbox "Mod of x,y values is "&Result Case "expo" Result= x^y Msgbox "Hello G.C.Reddy" Msgbox"Exponentation of x,y values is "&Result Msgbox "Hello G.C.Reddy" msgbox "Wrong Operation" End Select 8.3 Other Examples 8.3.1 Write a program for finding out whether the given year is a leap year or not? Dim xyear xyear=inputbox ("Enter Year") If xyear mod 4=0 Then msgbox "This is a Leap year" Else msgbox "This is NOT" End If 8.3.2 Write a program for finding out whether the given number is, Even number or Odd number? Dim num num=inputbox ("Enter a number") If num mod 2=0 Then msgbox "This is a Even Number" Else msgbox "This is a Odd Number" End If 8.3.3 Read two numbers and display the sum? Dim num1,num2, sum num1=inputbox ("Enter num1") num2=inputbox ("Enter num2") sum= Cdbl (num1) + Cdbl (num2) 'if we want add two strings conversion require

Case Else

www.gcreddy.com

60

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
msgbox ("Sum is " &sum) 8.3.4 Read P,T,R values and Calculate the Simple Interest? Dim p,t, r, si p=inputbox ("Enter Principle") t=inputbox ("Enter Time") r=inputbox ("Enter Rate of Interest") si= (p*t*r)/100 ' p= principle amount, t=time in years, r= rate of interest msgbox ("Simple Interest is " &si)

8.3.5 Read Four digit number, calculate & display the sum of the number or display Error message if the number is not a four digit number? Dim num, sum num=inputbox ("Enter a Four digit number") If Len(num) = 4 Then sum=0 sum=sum+num mod 10 num=num/10 num= left (num, 3) sum=sum+num mod 10 num=num/10 num= left (num, 2) sum=sum+num mod 10 num=num/10 num= left (num, 1) sum=sum+num mod 10 msgbox ("Sum is " &sum) else msgbox "Number, you entered is not a 4 digit number" End If 8.3.6 Read any Four digit number and display the number in reverse order? Dim num,rev num= inputbox("Enter a number") If len(num)=4 Then rev=rev*10 + num mod 10 num=num/10 num= left(num,3) rev=rev*10 + num mod 10 num=num/10 num= left(num,2) rev=rev*10 + num mod 10 num=num/10 num= left(num,1) rev=rev*10 + num mod 10

www.gcreddy.com

61

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

msgbox "Reverse Order of the number is "&rev Else End If 8.3.7 Read 4 subjects marks; calculate the Total marks and grade? (a) If average marks Greater than or equal to 75, grade is Distinction b) If average marks Greater than or equal to 60 and less than 75 , then grade is First c) If average marks Greater than or equal to 50 and less than 60 , then grade is Second d) If average marks Greater than or equal to 40 and less than 50 , then grade is Third e) Minimum marks 35 for any subject, otherwise 'no grade fail') Dim e,m,p,c, tot e=inputbox ("Enter english Marks") m=inputbox ("Enter maths Marks") p=inputbox ("Enter physics Marks") c=inputbox ("Enter chemistry Marks") tot= cdbl(e) + cdbl(m) + cdbl(p) + cdbl(c) msgbox tot If cdbl(e) >=35 and cdbl(m) >=35 and cdbl(p) >=35 and cdbl(c) >=35 and tot >=300 Then msgbox "Grade is Distinction" else If cdbl(e) >=35 and cdbl(m) >=35 and cdbl(p) >=35 and cdbl(c) >=35 and tot >=240 and tot<300 Then msgbox "Grade is First" else If cdbl(e) >=35 and cdbl(m) >=35 and cdbl(p) >=35 and cdbl(c) >=35 and tot >=200 and tot<240 Then msgbox "Grade is Second" else If cdbl(e) >=35 and cdbl(m) >=35 and cdbl(p) >=35 and cdbl(c) >=35 and tot >=160 and tot<200 Then msgbox "Grade is Third" else msgbox "No Grade, Fail" End End End End If If If If msgbox "Number, you entered is not a 4 digit number"

8.3.8 Display Odd numbers up to n? Dim num,n n=Inputbox ("Enter a Vaule")

www.gcreddy.com

62

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
For num= 1 to n step 2 msgbox num Next 8.3.9 Display Even numbers up to n? Dim num,n n=Inputbox ("Enter a Vaule") For num= 2 to n step 2 msgbox num Next 8.3.10 display natural numers up to n and write in a text file? Dim num, n, fso, myfile n= inputbox ("Enter any Value") num=1 For num= 1 to n step 1 Set fso= createobject ("scripting.filesystemobject") set myfile=fso.opentextfile ("E:\gcr.txt", 8, true) myfile.writeline num myfile.close Next 8.11 Display Natural numbers in reverse order up to n? Dim num,n n=Inputbox ("Enter a Vaule") For num=n to 1 step -1 msgbox num Next 8.12 Display Natural numbers sum up to n? (using For...Next Loop) Dim num, n, sum n= inputbox ("Enter a Value") sum=0 For num= 1 to n step 1 sum= sum+num Next msgbox sum 8.13 Display Natural numbers sum up to n? (using While...Wend Loop) Dim num, n, sum n= inputbox ("Enter a Value") While num <=cdbl (n) sum= sum+num num=num+1 Wend msgbox sum 8.14 Display Natural numbers sum up to n? (using Do...Until...Loop)

www.gcreddy.com

63

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Dim num, n, sum n= inputbox ("Enter a Value") sum=0 num=1 Do sum= sum+num num=num+1 Loop Until num =cdbl (n+1) msgbox sum 8.15 Write a Function for Natural Numbers sum up to n? Function NNumCou (n) Dim num, sum sum=0 For num= 1 to n step 1 sum= sum+num Next msgbox sum End Function 8.16 Verify weather the entered 10 digit value is a numeric value or not? Dim a,x,y,z,num num=Inputbox ("Enter a Phone Number") d1= left (num,1) d10=Right (num,1) d2=mid (num, 2, len d3=mid (num, 3, len d4=mid (num, 4, len d5=mid (num, 5, len d6=mid (num, 6, len d7=mid (num, 7, len d8=mid (num, 8, len d9=mid (num, 9, len

(1)) (1)) (1)) (1)) (1)) (1)) (1)) (1))

If isnumeric (d1) = "True" and isnumeric (d2) = "True" and isnumeric (d3) = "True" and isnumeric (d4) = "True"and isnumeric (d5) = "True"and isnumeric (d6) = "True"and isnumeric (d7) = "True"and isnumeric (d8) = "True"and isnumeric (d9) = "True"and isnumeric (d10) = "True" Then msgbox "It is a Numeric Value" else Msgbox "It is NOT Numeric" End If 8.17 Verify weather the entered value is a 10 digit value or not and Numeric value or not? (using multiple if conditions) Dim a,x,y,z,num num=Inputbox ("Enter a Phone Number")

www.gcreddy.com

64

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
d1= left (num,1) d10=Right (num,1) d2=mid (num, 2, len d3=mid (num, 3, len d4=mid (num, 4, len d5=mid (num, 5, len d6=mid (num, 6, len d7=mid (num, 7, len d8=mid (num, 8, len d9=mid (num, 9, len

(1)) (1)) (1)) (1)) (1)) (1)) (1)) (1))

If len (num) =10 Then If isnumeric (d1) = "True" and isnumeric (d2) = "True" and isnumeric (d3) = "True" and isnumeric (d4) = "True"and isnumeric (d5) = "True"and isnumeric (d6) = "True"and isnumeric (d7) = "True"and isnumeric (d8) = "True"and isnumeric (d9) = "True"and isnumeric (d10) = "True" Then msgbox "It is a Numeric Value" End If End If If len (num) <> 10 Then Msgbox "It is NOT valid Number " End If

www.gcreddy.com

65

gcreddy@gcreddy.com 9) Looping Through Code
o Looping allows us to run a group of statements repeatedly.

o Some loops repeat statements until a condition is False; o Others repeat statements until a condition is True.
o There are also loops that repeat statements a specific number of times.

The following looping statements are available in VBScript: • • • • Do...Loop: Loops while or until a condition is True. While...Wend: Loops while a condition is True. For...Next: Uses a counter to run statements a specified number of times. For Each...Next: Repeats a group of statements for each item in a collection or each element of an array.

9.1 Using Do Loops We can use Do...Loop statements to run a block of statements an indefinite number of times. The statements are repeated either while a condition is True or until a condition becomes True. 9.1.1 Repeating Statements While a Condition is True Repeats a block of statements while a condition is True or until a condition becomes True

a) Do While condition Statements --------------------Loop Or, we can use this below syntax:

Example: Dim x Do While x<5 x=x+1 Msgbox "Hello G.C.Reddy" Msgbox "Hello QTP" Loop b) Do Statements --------------------Loop While condition Example:

www.gcreddy.com

66

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
Dim x x=1 Do Msgbox "Hello G.C.Reddy" Msgbox "Hello QTP" x=x+1 Loop While x<5 9.1.2 Repeating a Statement Until a Condition Becomes True c) Do Until condition Statements --------------------Loop Or, we can use this below syntax: Example: Dim x Do Until x=5 x=x+1 Msgbox "G.C.Reddy" Msgbox "Hello QTP" Loop Or, we can use this below syntax: d) Do Statements --------------------Loop Until condition Or, we can use this below syntax:

Example: Dim x x=1 Do Msgbox “Hello G.C.Reddy” Msgbox "Hello QTP" x=x+1 Loop Until x=5 9.2 While...Wend Statement Executes a series of statements as long as a given condition is True. Syntax:

www.gcreddy.com

67

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
While condition Statements --------------------Wend Example: Dim x x=0 While x<5 x=x+1 msgbox "Hello G.C.Reddy" msgbox "Hello QTP" Wend 9.3 For...Next Statement Repeats a group of statements a specified number of times. Syntax: For counter = start to end [Step step] statements Next

Example: Dim x For x= 1 to 5 step 1 Msgbox "Hello G.C.Reddy" Next 9.4 For Each...Next Statement Repeats a group of statements for each element in an array or collection. Syntax: For Each item In array Statements Next Example: Dim a,b,x (3) a=20 b=30 x(0)= "Addition is "& a+b

www.gcreddy.com

68

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
x(1)="Substraction is " & a-b x(2)= "Multiplication is " & a*b x(3)= "Division is " & a/b For Each element In x msgbox element Next Example: MyArray = Array("one","two","three","four","five") For Each element In MyArray msgbox element Next 10) VB Script Procedures In VBScript, there are two kinds of procedures; the Sub procedure and the Function procedure. 11.1 Sub Procedures A Sub procedure is a series of VBScript statements (enclosed by Sub and End Sub statements) that perform actions but don't return a value. A Sub procedure can take arguments (constants, variables, or expressions that are passed by a calling procedure). If a Sub procedure has no arguments, its Sub statement must include an empty set of parentheses (). Syntax: Sub Procedure name () Statements --------------------End Sub Or Sub Procedure name (argument1, argument2) Statements -----------

www.gcreddy.com

69

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
----------End Sub Example: 1 Sub ConvertTemp() temp = InputBox("Please enter the temperature in degrees F.", 1) MsgBox "The temperature is " & Celsius(temp) & " degrees C." End Sub Example: 2 11.2 Function Procedures A Function procedure is a series of VBScript statements enclosed by the Function and End Function statements. A Function procedure is similar to a Sub procedure, but can also return a value. A Function procedure can take arguments (constants, variables, or expressions that are passed to it by a calling procedure). If a Function procedure has no arguments, its Function statement must include an empty set of parentheses. A Function returns a value by assigning a value to its name in one or more statements of the procedure. The return type of a Function is always a Variant. Syntax: Function Procedure name () Statements --------------------End Function Or Function Procedure name (argument1, argument2) Statements

www.gcreddy.com

70

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
--------------------End Function Example: 1 Function Celsius(fDegrees) Celsius = (fDegrees - 32) * 5 / 9 End Function Example: 2 Function cal(a,b,c) cal = (a+b+c) End Function 11.3 Getting Data into and out of Procedures o o Each piece of data is passed into our procedures using an argument. Arguments serve as placeholders for the data we want to pass into our procedure. We can name our arguments any valid variable name. When we create a procedure using either the Sub statement or the Function statement, parentheses must be included after the name of the procedure. Any arguments are placed inside these parentheses, separated by commas.

o
o

11.4 Using Sub and Function Procedures in Code A Function in our code must always be used on the right side of a variable assignment or in an expression. For example: Temp = Celsius(fDegrees) -OrMsgBox "The Celsius temperature is " & Celsius(fDegrees) & " degrees."

To call a Sub procedure from another procedure, type the name of the procedure along with values for any required arguments, each separated by a comma. The Call statement is not required, but if you do use it, you must enclose any arguments in parentheses.

www.gcreddy.com

71

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
The following example shows two calls to the MyProc procedure. One uses the Call statement in the code; the other doesn't. Both do exactly the same thing.

Call MyProc(firstarg, secondarg) MyProc firstarg, secondarg

Notice that the parentheses are omitted in the call when the Call statement isn't used.

www.gcreddy.com

72

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

11) VB Script Built in Functions
1) Asc Function 'Returns ANSI character code corresponding to first letter in a string Dim val val="hyderabad" val=Asc(val) msgbox val 2) Chr Function 'Returns the character associated with the specified ANSI character code. Dim val val=65 val=Chr(val) msgbox val 'Output: A 3) Date Function It returns current system Date Dim myDate myDate=Date msgbox myDate 4) Abs Function It returns obsolute value of the given number. Dim num num=157.56 num=Abs(num) msgbox num 'Output: 157.56 num=-157.56 num=Abs(num) msgbox num 'Output: 157.56 Note: It provide positive value

www.gcreddy.com

73

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

5) Array Function We can enter list of values using this function Ex: Dim var 'List of strings var=Array("Hyderabad","Chennai", "Nellore") msgbox var(0) 'output: Hyderabad msgbox var(1) 'output: Chennai msgbox var(2) 'output: Nellore 'List of numeric values var=Array(100,200, 300) msgbox var(0) 'output: 100 msgbox var(1) 'output: 200 msgbox var(2) 'output: 300 'List of mixed values var=Array(100,"India", #01-05-2010#) msgbox var(0) 'output: 100 msgbox var(1) 'output: India msgbox var(2) 'output: 01/05/2010 6) IsArray Function It checks weather the given variable is an Array or not Dim var1, var2,x 'List of strings var1=Array("Hyderabad","Chennai", "Nellore") x=isArray(var1) 'It returns True/False like Result msgbox x x=isArray(var2) msgbox x

www.gcreddy.com

74

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
7) IsDate It checks weather the given value is Date type data or not Examples: Dim myDate,x myDate=100 x=IsDate(myDate) msgbox x 'Output: False myDate="India" x=IsDate(myDate) msgbox x 'Output: False myDate=#10/05/2010# x=IsDate(myDate) msgbox x 'Output: True myDate=#10-05-2010# x=IsDate(myDate) msgbox x 'Output: True myDate=#10-05-10# x=IsDate(myDate) msgbox x 'Output: True myDate=10-05-2010 x=IsDate(myDate) msgbox x 'Output: False 8) DateDiff Function It provides difference between two dates, based on interval (day/month) Dim Date1, Date2,x Date1=#10-10-2008# Date2=#10-09-2010#

www.gcreddy.com

75

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
x=DateDiff("d", date1,date2) 'd for day msgbox x' It subtracts date1 from date2 x=DateDiff("m", date1,date2)' m for month msgbox x' It subtracts date1 from date2 x=DateDiff("y", date1,date2) 'it considers days only msgbox x' It subtracts date1 from date2 Note: through this function, we can day or month wise diffrence only. 9) IsNumeric It checks weather the given value is numeric or not and It provides True/False like Result Example: Dim val,x val="100" x=Isnumeric(val) msgbox x 'Output: True val=100 x=Isnumeric(val) msgbox x 'Output: True x=Isnumeric(500) msgbox x 'Output: True x=Isnumeric("India") msgbox x 'Output: False 10) Len Function It finds legngh of the String Example: Dim val,x val="Hyderabad" x=Len(val)

www.gcreddy.com

76

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
msgbox x 'Output: 9 val=100 x=Len(val) msgbox x 'Output: 3 val="Hydera100" x=Len(val) msgbox x 'Output: 9 val="hy$@*de" x=Len(val) msgbox x 'Output: 7 val="100" x=Len(val) msgbox x 'Output: 3 val=#10-10-2010# x=Len(val) msgbox x 'Output: 10 x=Len("Krishna") msgbox x 'Output: 7 x=Len(Krishna) msgbox x 'Output: 0 x=Len() msgbox x 'Output: Error 11) Left Function Returns a specified number of charectors of a given string from left side Syntax: variable=Left(string,Lengh)

www.gcreddy.com

77

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
Example: Dim val,x val="Hyderabad" x=Left(val,3) msgbox x ' Output: Hyd val="9247837478" x=Left(val,1) msgbox x ' Output: 9

val="H92yderabad" x=Left(val,3) msgbox x ' Output: H92 x=Left(9247837478,5) msgbox x ' Output: 92478 val=#10-10-10# x=Left(val,3) msgbox x ' Output: 10/ 12) Right Function Returns a specified number of charectors of a given string from Right side Example: Dim val,x val="Hyderabad" x=Right(val,3) msgbox x ' Output: bad val="9247837478" x=Right(val,1) msgbox x ' Output: 8 val="H92yderabad" x=Right(val,3)

www.gcreddy.com

78

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
msgbox x ' Output: bad

x=Right(9247837478,5) msgbox x ' Output: 37478 val=#10-10-10# x=Right(val,5) msgbox x ' Output: /2010 13) Mid function Returns a specified number of characters of a given string Example: Dim val,x val="Hyderabad" x=Mid(Val,5,3) msgbox x ' Output: rab val="Hyderabad" x=Mid(Val,5) msgbox x ' Output: rabad val="9247837478" x=Mid(val,6,5) msgbox x ' Output: 37478 val="H92yderabad" x=Mid(val,1) msgbox x ' Output: H92yderabad x=Mid(9247837478,5) msgbox x ' Output: 837478 val=#10-10-10# x=Mid(val,5) msgbox x ' Output: 0/2010

www.gcreddy.com

79

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
14) StrReverse retuns reverse value of a string Example: Dim val,x val="Hyderabad" x=StrReverse(val) msgbox x 'Output dabaredyH val="001" x=StrReverse(val) msgbox x 'Output: 100 val=1002 x=StrReverse(val) msgbox x 'Output: 2001 val=#10-10-10# x=StrReverse(val) msgbox x 'Output: 0102/01/01 x=StrReverse("Hyderabad") msgbox x 'Output: dabaredyH x=StrReverse(100) msgbox x 'Output: 001 15) StrComp Function It compares two string (Binary and textual) If a) Both are equal, returns 0(zero) b) String 1 greater than string 2, returns 1(one) b) String 2 greater than string 1, returns -1

www.gcreddy.com

80

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
Example: Dim str1,str2,x str1="India" str2="India" x=StrComp(str1,str2,1) msgbox x 'Output 0 str1="india" str2="INDIA" x=StrComp(str1,str2,1) msgbox x 'Output 0 str1="India" str2="Indian" x=StrComp(str1,str2,1) msgbox x 'Output -1 str1="Indian" str2="Ndia" x=StrComp(str1,str2,1) msgbox x 'Output -1 str1="Indian" str2="India" x=StrComp(str1,str2,1) msgbox x 'Output 1 str1=100 str2=100 x=StrComp(str1,str2,1) msgbox x 'Output 0 str1=100 str2=101 x=StrComp(str1,str2,1) msgbox x 'Output -1

www.gcreddy.com

81

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

16) Lcase function Coverts Upper case values into Lower case Dim val,x val="HYDERABAD" x=Lcase(val) msgbox x 'Output hyderabad val="Hyderabad" x=Lcase(val) msgbox x 'Output hyderabad val="HederabaD" x=Lcase(val) msgbox x 'Output hyderabad val="hyderabad" x=Lcase(val) msgbox x 'Output hyderabad x=Lcase("HYDERABAD") msgbox x 'Output hyderabad 17) Ucase function Coverts Lower case values into Upper case Example: Dim val,x val="HYDERABAD" x=Ucase(val) msgbox x 'Output HYDERABAD val="Hyderabad" x=Ucase(val) msgbox x 'Output HYDERABAD

www.gcreddy.com

82

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

val="HederabaD" x=Ucase(val) msgbox x 'Output HYDERABAD val="hyderabad" x=Ucase(val) msgbox x 'Output HYDERABAD x=Ucase("HYDERABAD") msgbox x 'Output HYDERABAD 18) Round Function Returns the round value of a given value if value decimal point above .5 it returns, next nearest value, below .5 returns before integer value. Example: Dim num,x num=14.49 x=Round(num) msgbox x 'Output: 14 num=14.59 x=Round(num) msgbox x 'Output: 15 num="14.49" x=Round(num) msgbox x 'Output: 14 num="Hyd" x=Round(num) msgbox x 'Output: Error 19) Trim Function Returns a copy of string without leading spaces

www.gcreddy.com

83

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
Dim val val=" msgbox x x=Len(x) msgbox x val=" msgbox x x=Len(x) msgbox x val=" msgbox x x=Len(x) msgbox x val=" msgbox x x=Len(x) msgbox x 20) Ltrim Function It removes spaces from left side of a string Dim val val=" msgbox x x=Len(x) msgbox x val="100 x=LTrim(val) " VB Script" x=LTrim(val) VB Script " 2#$%^" 100" VB Script" x=Trim(val)

x=Trim(val)

x=Trim(val)

x=Trim(val)

www.gcreddy.com

84

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
msgbox x x=Len(x) msgbox x val=" msgbox x x=Len(x) msgbox x val=" msgbox x x=Len(x) msgbox x val= msgbox x x=Len(x) msgbox x 21) Rtrim It removes spaces from right side of a string Dim val val="VB Script x=RTrim(val) msgbox x x=Len(x) msgbox x val=" msgbox x x=Len(x) msgbox x 100 " " 100 VB Script " 2#$%^ "

x=LTrim(val)

x=LTrim(val)

x=LTrim(val)

x=RTrim(val)

www.gcreddy.com

85

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

val=" msgbox x x=Len(x) msgbox x val=" msgbox x x=Len(x) msgbox x val= msgbox x x=Len(x) msgbox x

2#$%^ "

x=RTrim(val)

VB Script

"

x=RTrim(val)

100

x=RTrim(val)

22) Split function Returns a zero-based, one-dimensional array containing a specified number of substrings Example: Dim a,b,x b="VB Script is a Powerful scripting Language" a=Split(b," ") x=IsArray(b) msgbox x 'Output: False x=IsArray(a) msgbox x 'Output: True msgbox a(6) 'Output: Language b="VB,Script,is,a,Powerful,scripting,Language" a=Split(b,",") msgbox a(5) 'Output: Scripting b="VB Script is a Powerful scripting Language"

www.gcreddy.com

86

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
a=Split(b) msgbox a(5) 'Output: Scripting b="VB@Script@is@a@Powerful@scripting@Language" a=Split(b,"@") msgbox a(5) 'Output: Scripting b="VBScriptisaPowerfulscriptingLanguage" a=Split(b) msgbox a(5) 'Output: Error

12) VBScript syntax rules and guidelines
21.1 Case-sensitivity: By default, VBScript is not case sensitive and does not differentiate between uppercase and lower-case spelling of words, for example, in variables, object and method names, or constants. For example, the two statements below are identical in VBScript: Browser("Mercury").Page("Find a Flight:").WebList("toDay").Select "31" browser("mercury").page("find a flight:").weblist("today").select "31" 21.2 Text strings: When we enter a value as a text string, we must add quotation marks before and after the string. For example, in the above segment of script, the names of the Web site, Web page, and edit box are all text strings surrounded by quotation marks. Note that the value 31 is also surrounded by quotation marks, because it is a text string that represents a number and not a numeric value. In the following example, only the property name (first argument) is a text string and is in quotation marks. The second argument (the value of the property) is a variable and therefore does not have quotation marks. The third argument (specifying the timeout) is a numeric value, which also does not need quotation marks. Browser("Mercury").Page("Find a Flight:").WaitProperty("items count", Total_Items, 2000) 21.3 Variables: We can specify variables to store strings, integers, arrays and objects. Using variables helps to make our script more readable and flexible 21.4 Parentheses: To achieve the desired result and to avoid errors, it is important that we use parentheses () correctly in our statements.

www.gcreddy.com

87

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
21.5 Indentation: We can indent or outdent our script to reflect the logical structure and nesting of the statements. 21.6 Comments: We can add comments to our statements using an apostrophe ('), either at the beginning of a separate line, or at the end of a statement. It is recommended that we add comments wherever possible, to make our scripts easier to understand and maintain. 21.7 Spaces: We can add extra blank spaces to our script to improve clarity. These spaces are ignored by VBScript.

13) Errors
We have two types Errors in VB Script; they are VBScript Run-time Errors and VBScript Syntax Errors

13.1 VBScript Run-time Errors VBScript run-time errors are errors that result when our VBScript script attempts to perform an action that the system cannot execute. VBScript run-time errors occur while our script is being executed; when variable expressions are being evaluated, and memory is being dynamic allocated. 13.2 VBScript Syntax Errors VBScript syntax errors are errors that result when the structure of one of our VBScript statements violates one or more of the grammatical rules of the VBScript scripting language. VBScript syntax errors occur during the program compilation stage, before the program has begun to be executed.

www.gcreddy.com

88

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

File System Operations
File System Object Model: The File System Object (FSO) model provides an object-based tool for working with folders and files. It allows us to use the familiar object. method syntax with a rich set of properties, methods, and events to process folders and files. We can also employ the traditional Visual Basic statements and commands. The FSO model gives our application the ability to create, alter, move, and delete folders, or to determine if and where particular folders exist. It also enables us to get information about folders, such as their names and the date they were created or last modified. The FSO model makes processing files much easier as well. When processing files, our primary goal is to store data in an efficient, easy-to-access format. We need to be able to create files, insert and change the data, and output (read) the data. Although we can store data in a database, doing so adds a significant amount of overhead to our application. We may not want to have such overhead, or our data access requirements may not call for the extra functionality associated with a fullfeatured database. In this case, storing our data in a text file or binary file is the most efficient solution. The FSO model, contained in the Scripting type library (Scrrun.dll), supports the creation and manipulation of text files through the TextStream object; however, the FSO model does not support binary files. To manipulate binary files, use the FileOpen Function with the Binary keyword. Examples 1) Create a Folder Option Explicit Dim objFSO, objFolder, strDirectory strDirectory = "D:\Gcreddy" Set objFSO = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject") Set objFolder = objFSO.CreateFolder(strDirectory) 2) Delete a Folder Set oFSO = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject") oFSO.DeleteFolder("E:\Gcreddy") 3) Copying Folders Set oFSO=createobject("Scripting.Filesystemobject") oFSO.CopyFolder "E:\gcr", "C:\jvr", True

4) Checking weather the folder available or not, if not creating the folder

www.gcreddy.com

89

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
Option Explicit Dim objFSO, objFolder, strDirectory strDirectory = "D:\Gcreddy" Set objFSO = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject") If objFSO.FolderExists(strDirectory) Then Set objFolder = objFSO.GetFolder(strDirectory) msgbox strDirectory & " already created " else Set objFolder = objFSO.CreateFolder(strDirectory) end if 5) Returning a collection of Disk Drives Set oFSO = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject") Set colDrives = oFSO.Drives For Each oDrive in colDrives MsgBox "Drive letter: " & oDrive.DriveLetter Next 6) Getting available space on a Disk Drive Set oFSO = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject") Set oDrive = oFSO.GetDrive("C:") MsgBox "Available space: " & oDrive.AvailableSpace 7) Creating a Flat File Set objFSO = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject") Set objFile = objFSO.CreateTextFile("E:\Gcreddy.txt") 8) Checking weather the File is available or not, if not creating the File strDirectory="E:\" strFile="Gcreddy.txt" Set objFSO = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject") If objFSO.FileExists(strDirectory & strFile) Then Set objFolder = objFSO.GetFolder(strDirectory) Else Set objFile = objFSO.CreateTextFile("E:\Gcreddy.txt") End if 9) Reading Data character by character from a Flat File Set objFSO = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject") Set objFile = objFSO.OpenTextFile("E:\Gcreddy.txt", 1) Do Until objFile.AtEndOfStream strCharacters = objFile.Read(1) msgbox strCharacters Loop

www.gcreddy.com

90

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
10) Reading Data line by line from a Flat File Set objFSO = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject") Set objFile = objFSO.OpenTextFile("E:\Gcreddy.txt", 1) Do Until objFile.AtEndOfStream strCharacters = objFile.Readline msgbox strCharacters Loop 11) Reading data from a flat file and using in data driven testing Dim fso,myfile Set fso=createobject("scripting.filesystemobject") Set myfile= fso.opentextfile ("F:\Gcreddy.txt",1) myfile.skipline While myfile.atendofline <> True x=myfile.readline s=split (x, ",") SystemUtil.Run "C:\Program Files\Mercury Interactive\QuickTest Professional\samples\flight\app\flight4a.exe","","C:\Program Files\Mercury Interactive\QuickTest Professional\samples\flight\app\","open" Dialog("Login").Activate Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Agent Name:").Set s(0) Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Password:").SetSecure s(1) Dialog("Login").WinButton("OK").Click Window("Flight Reservation").Close Wend 12) Writing data to a text file Dim Stuff, myFSO, WriteStuff, dateStamp dateStamp = Date() Stuff = "I am Preparing this script: " &dateStamp Set myFSO = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject") Set WriteStuff = myFSO.OpenTextFile("e:\Gcreddy.txt", 8, True) WriteStuff.WriteLine(Stuff) WriteStuff.Close SET WriteStuff = NOTHING SET myFSO = NOTHING 13) Delete a text file Set objFSO=createobject("Scripting.filesystemobject") Set txtFilepath = objFSO.GetFile("E:\gcr.txt") txtFilepath.Delete() 14) Checking weather the File is available or not, if available delete the File strDirectory="E:\" strFile="gcr.txt" Set objFSO = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject") If objFSO.FileExists(strDirectory & strFile) Then

www.gcreddy.com

91

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
Set objFile = objFSO.Getfile(strDirectory & strFile) objFile.delete () End if 15) Comparing two text files Dim f1, f2 f1="e:\Gcreddy1.txt" f2="e:\Gcreddy2.txt" Public Function CompareFiles (FilePath1, FilePath2) Dim FS, File1, File2 Set FS = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject") If FS.GetFile(FilePath1).Size <> FS.GetFile(FilePath2).Size Then CompareFiles = True Exit Function End If Set File1 = FS.GetFile(FilePath1).OpenAsTextStream(1, 0) Set File2 = FS.GetFile(FilePath2).OpenAsTextStream(1, 0) CompareFiles = False Do While File1.AtEndOfStream = False Str1 = File1.Read Str2 = File2.Read CompareFiles = StrComp(Str1, Str2, 0) If CompareFiles <> 0 Then CompareFiles = True Exit Do End If Loop File1.Close() File2.Close() End Function Call Comparefiles(f1,f2) If CompareFiles(f1, f2) = False Then MsgBox "Files are identical." Else MsgBox "Files are different." End If 16) Counting the number of times a word appears in a file sFileName="E:\gcr.txt" sString="gcreddy" Const FOR_READING = 1 Dim oFso, oTxtFile, sReadTxt, oRegEx, oMatches Set oFso = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject") Set oTxtFile = oFso.OpenTextFile(sFileName, FOR_READING) sReadTxt = oTxtFile.ReadAll Set oRegEx = New RegExp oRegEx.Pattern = sString oRegEx.IgnoreCase = bIgnoreCase oRegEx.Global = True Set oMatches = oRegEx.Execute(sReadTxt) MatchesFound = oMatches.Count

www.gcreddy.com

92

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
Set oTxtFile = Nothing : Set oFso = Nothing : Set oRegEx = Nothing msgbox MatchesFound 17) Read a CSV File Using Database Techniques On Error Resume Next Const adOpenStatic = 3 Const adLockOptimistic = 3 Const adCmdText = &H0001 Set objConnection = CreateObject("ADODB.Connection") Set objRecordSet = CreateObject("ADODB.Recordset") strPathtoTextFile = "C:\Databases\" objConnection.Open "Provider=Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0;" & _ "Data Source=" & strPathtoTextFile & ";" & _ "Extended Properties=""text;HDR=YES;FMT=Delimited""" objRecordset.Open "SELECT * FROM PhoneList.csv", _ objConnection, adOpenStatic, adLockOptimistic, adCmdText Do Until objRecordset.EOF Wscript.Echo "Name: " & objRecordset.Fields.Item("Name") Wscript.Echo "Department: " & _ objRecordset.Fields.Item("Department") Wscript.Echo "Extension: " & objRecordset.Fields.Item("Extension") objRecordset.MoveNext Loop 18) Read a Text File into an Array Const ForReading = 1 Set objFSO = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject") Set objTextFile = objFSO.OpenTextFile _ ("e:\gcreddy.txt", ForReading) Do Until objTextFile.AtEndOfStream strNextLine = objTextFile.Readline arrServiceList = Split(strNextLine , ",") Wscript.Echo "Server name: " & arrServiceList(0) For i = 1 to Ubound(arrServiceList) Wscript.Echo "Service: " & arrServiceList(i) Next Loop

www.gcreddy.com

93

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Excel File Operations
1) Create an Excel file, enter some data and save the file through VB scripting? 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Dim objexcel Set objExcel = createobject("Excel.application") objexcel.Visible = True objexcel.Workbooks.add objexcel.Cells(1, 1).Value = "Testing" objexcel.ActiveWorkbook.SaveAs("f:\exceltest.xls") objexcel.Quit

2) Data Driven Testing through an External Excel Sheet 1) Set myExcel=Createobject("Excel.Application") 2) Set myFile=myExcel.workbooks.open ("C:\Documents and Settings\admin\My Documents\gcreddy.xls") 3) Set mySheet=myFile.worksheets("Sheet1") 4) Rows_Count=mySheet.usedrange.rows.count 5) For i= 1 to Rows_Count 6) Agent=mySheet.cells(i,"A") 7) pwd=mySheet.Cells(i,"B") 8) SystemUtil.Run "C:\Program Files\Mercury Interactive\QuickTest Professional\samples\flight\app\flight4a.exe","","C:\Program Files\Mercury Interactive\QuickTest Professional\samples\flight\app\","open" 9) Dialog("Login").Activate 10) Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Agent Name:").Set Agent 11) Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Password:").SetSecure pwd 12) Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Password:").Type micReturn 13) Window("Flight Reservation").Close 14) Next 3) Compare two excel files Set objExcel = CreateObject("Excel.Application") objExcel.Visible = True Set objWorkbook1= objExcel.Workbooks.Open("E:\gcreddy1.xls") Set objWorkbook2= objExcel.Workbooks.Open("E:\gcreddy2.xls") Set objWorksheet1= objWorkbook1.Worksheets(1) Set objWorksheet2= objWorkbook2.Worksheets(1) For Each cell In objWorksheet1.UsedRange If cell.Value <> objWorksheet2.Range(cell.Address).Value Then msgbox "value is different" Else msgbox "value is same" End If Next objWorkbook1.close objWorkbook2.close

www.gcreddy.com

94

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
objExcel.quit set objExcel=nothing 4) Data Driven Testing using Data Table methods Datatable.AddSheet "gcreddy" Datatable.ImportSheet "C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\Desktop\gcreddy.xls",1,3 n=datatable.GetSheet (3).GetRowCount For i= 1 to n Datatable.SetCurrentRow(i) Invokeapplication "C:\Program Files\HP\QuickTest Professional\samples\flight\app\flight4a.exe" Dialog("Login").Activate Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Agent Name:").Set datatable("agent",3) Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Password:").Set datatable("pwd",3) Dialog("Login").WinButton("OK").Click Window("Flight Reservation").Close Next Example 2): Datatable.AddSheet "gcreddy" Datatable.ImportSheet "C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\Desktop\gcreddy.xls",1,3 n=datatable.GetSheet (3).GetRowCount For i= 1 to n Datatable.SetCurrentRow(i) VbWindow("Form1").Activate VbWindow("Form1").VbEdit("val1").Set datatable("V1",3) VbWindow("Form1").VbEdit("val2").Set datatable("V2",3) VbWindow("Form1").VbButton("ADD").Click eres= Datatable.Value ("res",3) ares=VbWindow("Form1").VbEdit("res").GetROProperty ("text") If eres=ares Then datatable("res",3)=pass else datatable("res",3)=fail End If Next 5) Open an Excel Spreadsheet Set objExcel = CreateObject("Excel.Application") Set objWorkbook = objExcel.Workbooks.Open("C:\Scripts\gcreddy.xls") 6) Read an Excel Spreadsheet Set objExcel = CreateObject("Excel.Application") Set objWorkbook = objExcel.Workbooks.Open _

www.gcreddy.com

95

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
("C:\Scripts\New_users.xls") intRow = 2 Do Until objExcel.Cells(intRow,1).Value = "" Wscript.Echo "CN: " & objExcel.Cells(intRow, 1).Value Wscript.Echo "sAMAccountName: " & objExcel.Cells(intRow, 2).Value Wscript.Echo "GivenName: " & objExcel.Cells(intRow, 3).Value Wscript.Echo "LastName: " & objExcel.Cells(intRow, 4).Value intRow = intRow + 1 Loop objExcel.Quit 7) Add Formatted Data to a Spreadsheet Set objExcel = CreateObject("Excel.Application") objExcel.Visible = True objExcel.Workbooks.Add objExcel.Cells(1, 1).Value = "Test value" objExcel.Cells(1, 1).Font.Bold = TRUE objExcel.Cells(1, 1).Font.Size = 24 objExcel.Cells(1, 1).Font.ColorIndex = 3 8) Sort an Excel Spreadsheet on Three Different Columns Const xlAscending = 1 Const xlDescending = 2 Const xlYes = 1 Set objExcel = CreateObject("Excel.Application") objExcel.Visible = True Set objExcel = CreateObject("Excel.Application") objExcel.Visible = True Set objWorkbook = _ objExcel.Workbooks.Open("C:\Scripts\Sort_test.xls") Set objWorksheet = objWorkbook.Worksheets(1) Set objRange = objWorksheet.UsedRange Set objRange2 = objExcel.Range("A1") Set objRange3 = objExcel.Range("B1") Set objRange4 = objExcel.Range("C1") objRange.Sort objRange2,xlAscending,objRange3,,xlDescending, _ objRange4,xlDescending,xlYes

www.gcreddy.com

96

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Database Operations
ADO (Active Data Objects), this technology allows users to access data easily from many existing databases (such as Access or Paradox) or from ODBC compliant databases like Oracle or MS SQL Server. Using ADO is quite simple and allows programmers to provide flexible database front ends to users that are reliable and include many features. Following are some of the key objects found in the ADO object model and some of their key methods and properties. Connection Object This object represents an open connection to the data source. This connection can be a local connection (say App.Path) or can be across a network in a client server application. Some of the methods and properties of this object are not available depending on the type of data source connected to. Command Object A command object specifies a specific method we intend to execute on or against the data source accessed by an open connection. RecordSet Object The RecordSet object represents a complete set of records from an executed command or from an underlying base table in the database. A key thing to note is that a RecordSet object references only one record at a time as the current record. Examples 1) Get Test Data from a Database and use in Data Driven Testing (through Scripting) 1) Dim con,rs 2) Set con=createobject("Adodb.connection") 3) Set rs=createobject("Adodb.recordset") 4) con.provider=("microsoft.jet.oledb.4.0") 5) con.open "C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\My Documents\Gcreddy.mdb" 6) rs.open "Select * From Login",con 7) While rs.eof <>True 8) SystemUtil.Run "C:\Program Files\Mercury Interactive\QuickTest Professional\samples\flight\app\flight4a.exe" 9) Dialog("Login").Activate 10) Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Agent Name:").Set rs.fields ("Agent") 11) Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Password:").Set rs.fields ("Password") 12) Dialog("Login").WinButton("OK").Click 13) Window("Flight Reservation").Close 14) rs.movenext 15) Wend

www.gcreddy.com

97

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

2) Exporting Data from a Database to an Excel Sheet 1) Dim con,rs 2) Set con=createobject("adodb.connection") 3) Set rs=createobject("adodb.recordset") 4) con.provider="microsoft.jet.oledb.4.0" 5) con.open"C:\Documents and Settings\admin\My Documents\Gcreddy.mdb" 6) rs.open"select*from Login",con 7) Set ex=createobject("Excel.Application") 8) Set a=ex.workbooks.open("C:\Documents and Settings\admin\My Documents\Gcreddy.xls") 9) Set b=a.worksheets("sheet1") 10) i=1 11) Do While Not rs.EOF 12) b.cells (i,1).value=rs.fields("agent") 13) b.cells(i,2).value=rs.fields("password") 14) rs.movenext 15) i=i+1 16) Loop 17) a.save 18) a.close 3) Exporting Data from a Database to a Text file Dim objCon,objRs,ObjFso,myFile,myData,rc,r Set objCon=createobject("Adodb.connection") Set objRs=createobject("Adodb.Recordset") set objFso=createobject("Scripting.Filesystemobject") Set myFile=objFso.OpenTextFile("C:\Documents and Settings\gcr\My Documents\gcreddy.txt",8) objcon.provider=("Microsoft.jet.oledb.4.0") objcon.open"C:\Documents and Settings\gcr\My Documents\gcreddy.mdb" objrs.open "select * from login",objCon r=1 Do until objRs.EOF a=objRs.Fields ("Agent") b=objRs.Fields ("Pwd") myFile.Writeline a &","& b r=r+1 objRs.MoveNext Loop myFile.Close objCon.Close 4) Connecting to a SQL Sever database Const adOpenStatic = 3 Const adLockOptimistic = 3 Set objConnection = CreateObject("ADODB.Connection") Set objRecordSet = CreateObject("ADODB.Recordset")

www.gcreddy.com

98

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
objConnection.Open _ "Provider=SQLOLEDB;Data Source=atl-sql-01;" & _ "Trusted_Connection=Yes;Initial Catalog=Northwind;" & _ "User ID=fabrikam\kenmyer;Password=34DE6t4G!;" objRecordSet.Open "SELECT * FROM Customers", _ objConnection, adOpenStatic, adLockOptimistic objRecordSet.MoveFirst Wscript.Echo objRecordSet.RecordCount 5) Open a Database Using a DSN Const adOpenStatic = 3 Const adLockOptimistic = 3 Set objConnection = CreateObject("ADODB.Connection") Set objRecordSet = CreateObject("ADODB.Recordset") objConnection.Open _ "Northwind;fabrikam\kenmyer;34ghfn&!j" objRecordSet.Open "SELECT * FROM Customers", _ objConnection, adOpenStatic, adLockOptimistic objRecordSet.MoveFirst Wscript.Echo objRecordSet.RecordCount 6) Open Two Record sets Const adOpenStatic = 3 Const adLockOptimistic = 3 Set objConnection = CreateObject("ADODB.Connection") Set objRecordSet = CreateObject("ADODB.Recordset") Set objRecordSet2 = CreateObject("ADODB.Recordset") objConnection.Open _ "Provider= Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0; " & _ "Data Source=inventory.mdb" objRecordSet.Open "SELECT * FROM GeneralProperties Where ComputerName = 'Computer1'", _ objConnection, adOpenStatic, adLockOptimistic objRecordSet.MoveFirst objRecordSet2.Open "SELECT * FROM Storage Where ComputerName = 'Computer1'", _ objConnection, adOpenStatic, adLockOptimistic

www.gcreddy.com

99

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

objRecordSet2.MoveFirst Do Until objRecordset.EOF Wscript.Echo objRecordset.Fields.Item("ComputerName") Wscript.Echo objRecordset.Fields.Item("OSName") objRecordSet.MoveNext Loop Do Until objRecordset2.EOF Wscript.Echo objRecordset2.Fields.Item("DriveName"), _ objRecordset2.Fields.Item("DriveDescription") objRecordSet2.MoveNext Loop objRecordSet.Close objRecordSet2.Close objConnection.Close 7) Searching a Database Using String Criteria Const adOpenStatic = 3 Const adLockOptimistic = 3 Set objConnection = CreateObject("ADODB.Connection") Set objRecordSet = CreateObject("ADODB.Recordset") objConnection.Open _ "Provider = Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0; " & _ "Data Source = eventlogs.mdb" objRecordSet.Open "SELECT * FROM EventTable " & _ "WHERE Type = 'Error'", objConnection, adOpenStatic, _ adLockOptimistic objRecordSet.MoveFirst Wscript.Echo "Number of records: " & objRecordset.RecordCount objRecordSet.Close objConnection.Close 8) Insert Data into a database table using Database Command Object Dim objCon,objCom Set objCon=Createobject("ADODB.connection") objCon.open"Provider=Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0;Data Source=C:\gcreddy.mdb;" Set objCom=Createobject("ADODB.Command") objCom.ActiveConnection=objCon

www.gcreddy.com

100

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
objCom.CommandText="insert into Emp values('G C Reddy',88233,30000)" objCom.Execute objCon.Close Set objCom=Nothing Set objCon=Nothing 9) Insert multiple sets of Data (using Excel sheet) into a database table using Database Command Object Dim objCon,objCom,strEmpName,intEmpNo,intEmpSal,intRowcount,i Set objCon=Createobject("ADODB.connection") objCon.open"Provider=Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0;Data Source=C:\gcreddy.mdb;" Set objCom=Createobject("ADODB.Command") objCom.ActiveConnection=objCon Datatable.AddSheet("input") Datatable.ImportSheet "C:\gcreddy.xls",1,"input" intRowcount=Datatable.GetSheet("input").GetRowCount Msgbox intRowcount For i=1 to intRowcount step 1 DataTable.SetCurrentRow(i) strEmpName= DataTable.Value(1,"input") intEmpNo= DataTable.Value(2,"input") intEmpSal= DataTable.Value(3,"input") objCom.CommandText="insert into Emp values( '"&strEmpName&" ',"&intEmpNo&","&intEmpSal&")" objCom.Execute Next objCon.Close Set objCom=Nothing Set objCon=Nothing

www.gcreddy.com

101

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Object Identification Configuration
Overview: Generally for every object 20-25 properties information available, qtp recognizes object using 2 0r 3 important properties. Qtp has default object identification configuration for every environment, if we feel that configuration is not sufficient for recognizing objects in our application, we can configure some more Object Identification Types a) 1) 2) b) 1) 2) c) Normal identification Mandatory properties Assistive properties Smart identification base filter properties optional filter properties Ordinal identifier

1) 2) 3)

location index creation time(only for web)

QTP learns information in the following in case of normal identification: First of all the qtp learns all the mandatory properties at a time and thinks whether these properties sufficient to identify the object uniquely. if it feels sufficient then it stops learning otherwise, It learns first assistive property and once again stops and thinks, like this qtp learns one by one. At the end of assistive properties list also if it feels not satisfied and it finally goes to Ordinal Identifier. QTP learns information in the following in case of Smart Identification: Smart identification is an optional feature, if we feel normal identification is not sufficient for any object, and then we configure Smart Identification for that object, in order to avoid Ordinal Identifier. After normal identification if qtp feels not satisfied then it goes to smart identification. in smart identification 2 types of properties available, first qtp learns all base filter properties at a time and thinks whether these properties are sufficient for identifying the object uniquely. If it feels sufficient, then it stops learning otherwise it goes Optional Filter Properties and learns one by one. Still it feels not satisfied finally it goes to Ordinal Identifier.

www.gcreddy.com

102

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Ordinal identifiers: There are 3 types of ordinal identifiers available

1) Location: is based on object location in the AUT ,location starts from zero.

2) index: it is based on sequence of the programs, index starts from zero

3) Creation time: it is based on loading time of the web objects. qtp generates 0,1,2 like numbers. Tool Settings Globalization: As QTP is a I-tier(Stand-alone) application,making Tool settings globally is not possible. For making tool settings global, QTP is providing a special feature called "Generate Script". STEPS: 1) Settings available in 3 areas. a) File->Settings b) Tools->Options c) Tools->Object Identification 2) Perform required settings and generate Scripts 3) Share Script files to team members and ask them to execute those scripts. NOTE: After executing these scripts all team members can get same settings.

www.gcreddy.com

103

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Regular Expressions in QTP
What is Regular Expression? It is a way of representing data using symbols. They are often used within matching, searching or replacing algorithms. Regular Expressions in QTP: Regular expressions can be used in QTP for identifying objects and text strings with varying values. Where we use: o Defining the property values of an object in Descriptive programming for handling dynamic objects o For parameterizing a step o creating checkpoints with varying values Using Regular Expressions in QTP:

We can define a regular expression for a constant value, a Data Table parameter value, an Environment parameter value, or a property value in Descriptive programming. We can define a regular expression in standard checkpoint to verify the property values of an object; we can set the expected value of an object's property as a regular expression so that an object with a varying value can be verified. We can define the text string as a regular expression, when creating a text checkpoint to check that a varying text string is displayed on our application, For XML checkpoints we can set attribute or element values as regular expressions. Ways of Regular Expressions: a) Backslash Character: A backslash (\) can serve two purposes. It can be used in conjunction with a special character to indicate that the next character be treated as a literal character. Alternatively, if the backslash (\) is used in conjunction with some characters that would otherwise be treated as literal characters, such as the letters n, t, w, or d, the combination indicates a special character. b) Matching Any Single Character: A period (.) instructs QTP to search for any single character (except for \n). Ex:

www.gcreddy.com

104

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
welcome. Matches welcomes, welcomed, or welcome followed by a space or any other single character. c) Matching Any Single Character in a List: Square brackets instruct QTP to search for any single character within a list of characters. Ex: To search for the date 1867, 1868, or 1869, enter: 186[789] d) Matching Any Single Character Not in a List:

When a caret (^) is the first character inside square brackets, it instructs QTP to match any character in the list except for the ones specified in the string. Example: [^ab] Matches any character except a or b. e) Matching Any Single Character within a Range:

To match a single character within a range, we can use square brackets ([ ]) with the hyphen (-) character. Example: For matching any year in the 2010s, enter: 201[0-9] f) Matching Zero or More Specific Characters:

An asterisk (*) instructs QTP to match zero or more occurrences of the preceding character. For example: ca*r Matches car, caaaaaar, and cr g) Matching One or More Specific Characters:

A plus sign (+) instructs QTP to match one or more occurrences of the preceding character. For example: ca+r Matches car and caaaaaar, but not cr.

www.gcreddy.com

105

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

h) Matching Zero or One Specific Character:

A question mark (?) instructs QTP to match zero or one occurrences of the preceding character. For example: ca?r Matches car and cr, but nothing else. i) Grouping Regular Expressions:

Parentheses (()) instruct QTP to treat the contained sequence as a unit, just as in mathematics and programming languages. Using groups is especially useful for delimiting the argument(s) to an alternation operator ( | ) or a repetition operator ( * , + , ? , { } ). j) Matching One of Several Regular Expressions:

A vertical line (|) instructs QTP to match one of a choice of expressions. k) Matching the Beginning of a Line:

A caret (^) instructs QTP to match the expression only at the start of a line, or after a newline character. l) Matching the End of a Line: A dollar sign ($) instructs QTP to match the expression only at the end of a line, or before a newline character. m) Matching Any AlphaNumeric Character Including the Underscore:

\w instructs QTP to match any alphanumeric character and the underscore (A-Z, az, 0-9, _). n) Matching Any Non-AlphaNumeric Character:

\W instructs QTP to match any character other than alphanumeric characters and underscores. o) Combining Regular Expression Operators:

We can combine regular expression operators in a single expression to achieve the

www.gcreddy.com

106

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
exact search criteria we need. For example, start.* Matches start, started, starting, starter, and so forth. we can use a combination of brackets and an asterisk to limit the search to a combination of non-numeric characters. For example: [a-zA-Z]* To match any number between 0 and 1200, we need to match numbers with 1 digit, 2 digits, 3 digits, or 4 digits between 1000-1200. The regular expression below matches any number between 0 and 1200. ([0-9]?[0-9]?[0-9]|1[01][0-9][0-9]|1200) RegExp object

VB Script is providing RegExp object for defining Regular expressions, It provides simple support for defining regular expressions. Regular Expression Object Properties and Methods:

Properties:

a) Global Property

b) IgnoreCase Property

c) Pattern Property

Methods:

a) Execute Method

b) Replace Method

www.gcreddy.com

107

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

c) Test Method Regular Expressions Examples:

1) Match File Names in a Directory against Regular Expression Set objFS = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject") Set objShell = CreateObject("WScript.Shell") strCurrentDirectory = objShell.CurrentDirectory Set objFolder = objFS.GetFolder(strCurrentDirectory) Set colFiles = objFolder.Files Set objRE = New RegExp objRE.Global = True objRE.IgnoreCase = False objRE.Pattern = WScript.Arguments(0) For Each objFile In colFiles bMatch = objRE.Test(objFile.Name) If bMatch Then WScript.Echo objFile.Name End If Next 2) Match Content in a File against a Regular Expression strFileName = "E:\gcreddy.txt" Set objFS = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject") Set objTS = objFS.OpenTextFile(strFileName) strFileContents = objTS.ReadAll WScript.Echo "Searching Within: " WScript.Echo strFileContents objTS.Close Set objRE = New RegExp objRE.Global = True objRE.IgnoreCase = False objRE.Pattern = WScript.Arguments(0) Set colMatches = objRE.Execute(strFileContents) WScript.Echo vbNewLine & "Resulting Matches:" For Each objMatch In colMatches WScript.Echo "At position " & objMatch.FirstIndex & " matched " & objMatch.Value --------------------------------------------------

www.gcreddy.com

108

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Batch Testing
Executing a group of tests/series of tests at a time is known as Batch Testing or Batch Execution. For performing Batch Testing, QTP has provided a separate Tool called 'Test Batch Runner'. Steps for Batch Testing: 1). Create Individual Tests and Run once. 2). Open 'Test batch Runner' Tool and Form Batches. 3) Provide permission to 'Test batch Runner' to run tests 4). Run or Execute Test Batches from Test Batch Runner. 5) View Test wise Result in 'Test Result Viewer' Forming a Test Batch: Launch Test Batch Runner. Navigation: Start>program>quicktest professional>Tools>Test Batch Runner>File>new>batch>add>browse path of the test (like this add number of tests)>save with MTB extension (Module test batche)>close test batch runner. Running or Executing a Test Batch Open Test Batch Runner Tool Navigation: File>open>browse path of the test batch>batch>run Note: Test Batch Runner launches QTP Tool, QTP runs Tests one by one. Note: Allowing other products to Run Tests. Navigation: Tools>Options>Run>check allow other mercury products>apply & Ok Executing partial Test Batch Open Test Batch Runner >open Test Batch>Select or deselect tests>run test batch.

www.gcreddy.com

109

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

VB Script Other Objects
1) Dictionary Object Dictionary Object that stores data key, item pairs. A Dictionary object is the equivalent of a PERL associative array/Hash Variable. Items can be any form of data, and are stored in the array. Each item is associated with a unique key. The key is used to retrieve an individual item and is usually an integer or a string, but can be anything except an array. Creating a Dictionary Object: Set objDictionary = CreateObject("Scripting.Dictionary") Dictionary Objects Methods:

Add Method Adds a key and item pair to a Dictionary object Exists Method Returns true if a specified key exists in the Dictionary object, false if it does not. Items Method Returns an array containing all the items in a Dictionary object. Keys Method Returns an array containing all existing keys in a Dictionary object. Remove Method Removes a key, item pair from a Dictionary object. RemoveAll Method The RemoveAll method removes all key, item pairs from a Dictionary object. Example: Dim cities Set cities = CreateObject("Scripting.Dictionary") cities.Add "h", "Hyderabad" cities.Add "b", "Bangalore"

www.gcreddy.com

110

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
cities.Add "c", "Chennai" Dictionary Objects Properties: Count Property Returns the number of items in a collection or Dictionary object. Read-only. CompareMode Property Sets and returns the comparison mode for comparing string keys in a Dictionary object. Key Property Sets a key in a Dictionary object. Item Property Sets or returns an item for a specified key in a Dictionary object. For collections, returns an item based on the specified key. Read/write. Examples: 1)  Add  Elements to a Dictionary

Set objDictionary = CreateObject("Scripting.Dictionary") objDictionary.Add "Printer 1", "Printing"    objDictionary.Add "Printer 2", "Offline" objDictionary.Add "Printer 3", "Printing"

2) Delete All Elements from Dictionary Set objDictionary = CreateObject("Scripting.Dictionary") objDictionary.Add "Printer 1", "Printing"    objDictionary.Add "Printer 2", "Offline" objDictionary.Add "Printer 3", "Printing" colKeys = objDictionary.Keys Wscript.Echo "First run: " For Each strKey in colKeys     Wscript.Echo strKey Next objDictionary.RemoveAll colKeys = objDictionary.Keys

www.gcreddy.com

111

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
Wscript.Echo VbCrLf & "Second run: " For Each strKey in colKeys     Wscript.Echo strKey Next 3) Delete One Element from a Dictionary Set objDictionary = CreateObject("Scripting.Dictionary")

objDictionary.Add "Printer 1", "Printing" objDictionary.Add "Printer 2", "Offline" objDictionary.Add "Printer 3", "Printing"

colKeys = objDictionary.Keys

Wscript.Echo "First run: " For Each strKey in colKeys Wscript.Echo strKey Next

objDictionary.Remove("Printer 2") colKeys = objDictionary.Keys

Wscript.Echo VbCrLf & "Second run: " For Each strKey in colKeys Wscript.Echo strKey Next

www.gcreddy.com

112

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
4) List the Number of Items in a Dictionary Set objDictionary = CreateObject("Scripting.Dictionary") objDictionary.Add "Printer 1", "Printing"    objDictionary.Add "Printer 2", "Offline" objDictionary.Add "Printer 3", "Printing" Wscript.Echo objDictionary.Count 5) Verify the Existence of a Dictionary Key Set objDictionary = CreateObject("Scripting.Dictionary") objDictionary.Add "Printer 1", "Printing" objDictionary.Add "Printer 2", "Offline" objDictionary.Add "Printer 3", "Printing" If objDictionary.Exists("Printer 4") Then Wscript.Echo "Printer 4 is in the Dictionary." Else Wscript.Echo "Printer 4 is not in the Dictionary." End If 2) RegExp object

VB Script is providing RegExp object for defining Regular expressions, It provides simple support for defining regular expressions. Regular Expression Object Properties and Methods: Properties: a) Global Property b) IgnoreCase Property c) Pattern Property Methods: a) Execute Method

www.gcreddy.com

113

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

b) Replace Method c) Test Method

1) Match File Names in a Directory against Regular Expression

Set objFS = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject") Set objShell = CreateObject("WScript.Shell") strCurrentDirectory = objShell.CurrentDirectory

Set objFolder = objFS.GetFolder(strCurrentDirectory) Set colFiles = objFolder.Files

Set objRE = New RegExp objRE.Global = True

objRE.IgnoreCase = False objRE.Pattern = WScript.Arguments(0)

For Each objFile In colFiles bMatch = objRE.Test(objFile.Name) If bMatch Then WScript.Echo objFile.Name End If Next

www.gcreddy.com

114

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
2) Match Content in a File against a Regular Expression strFileName = "E:\gcreddy.txt" Set objFS = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject")

Set objTS = objFS.OpenTextFile(strFileName) strFileContents = objTS.ReadAll WScript.Echo "Searching Within: " WScript.Echo strFileContents objTS.Close

Set objRE = New RegExp objRE.Global = True

objRE.IgnoreCase = False objRE.Pattern = WScript.Arguments(0)

Set colMatches = objRE.Execute(strFileContents) WScript.Echo vbNewLine & "Resulting Matches:" For Each objMatch In colMatches WScript.Echo "At position " & objMatch.FirstIndex & " matched " & objMatch.Value Next 3) Database Command Object 1) Insert Data into a database table using Database Command Object Dim objCon,objCom Set objCon=Createobject("ADODB.connection") objCon.open"Provider=Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0;Data Source=C:\gcreddy.mdb;" Set objCom=Createobject("ADODB.Command")

www.gcreddy.com

115

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
objCom.ActiveConnection=objCon objCom.CommandText="insert into Emp values('G C Reddy',88233,30000)" objCom.Execute objCon.Close Set objCom=Nothing Set objCon=Nothing 2) Insert multiple sets of Data (using Excel sheet) into a database table using Database Command Object Dim objCon,objCom,strEmpName,intEmpNo,intEmpSal,intRowcount,i Set objCon=Createobject("ADODB.connection") objCon.open"Provider=Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0;Data Source=C:\gcreddy.mdb;" Set objCom=Createobject("ADODB.Command") objCom.ActiveConnection=objCon Datatable.AddSheet("input") Datatable.ImportSheet "C:\gcreddy.xls",1,"input" intRowcount=Datatable.GetSheet("input").GetRowCount Msgbox intRowcount For i=1 to intRowcount step 1 DataTable.SetCurrentRow(i) strEmpName= DataTable.Value(1,"input") intEmpNo= DataTable.Value(2,"input") intEmpSal= DataTable.Value(3,"input") objCom.CommandText="insert into Emp values( '"&strEmpName&" ',"&intEmpNo&","&intEmpSal&")" objCom.Execute Next objCon.Close Set objCom=Nothing Set objCon=Nothing 4) Word Object 1) Create a word document and write some data dim mw set mw=CreateObject("Word.Application") mw.Documents.Add mw.selection.typetext "hello" mw.ActiveDocument.SaveAs "e:\gcreddy.doc" mw.quit set mw=nothing

www.gcreddy.com

116

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
2) Create Script to get the list of links in Google and do spell check Dim d set mw=CreateObject("Word.Application") set d=Description.Create d("micclass").value="Link" set a=Browser("Google").page("Google").childobjects(d) for i=0 to a.count-1 mw.WordBasic.filenew s=a(i).getROProperty("innertext") mw.WordBasic.insert s if mw.ActiveDocument.Spellingerrors.count>0 then Reporter.ReportEvent 1,"Spelling","spelling error :"&s end if mw.ActiveDocument.Close(False) next mw.quit set mw=nothing 3) Script to display all the doc files in all the drives in the system

Dim mw Set mw=CreateObject("Word.Application") Set fs=createobject("Scripting.FileSystemObject") Set d=fs.Drives mw.FileSearch.FileName="*.doc" For each dr in d msgbox dr mw.FileSearch.LookIn=dr mw.FileSearch.SearchSubFolders=True mw.FileSearch.Execute For each i in mw.FileSearch.FoundFiles print i Set f=fs.GetFile(i)

www.gcreddy.com

117

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
print f.Name&" "&f.Size&" "&f.DateCreated print "-------------------------------------------------------------------" Next Next mw.Quit 5) IE Object

1) Open Internet Explorer and navigate to yahoo mail Dim ie Set ie=CreateObject("InternetExplorer.Application") ie.Visible=True ie.Navigate "www.yahoomail.com" x=Browser("CreationTime:=0").GetROProperty("title") msgbox x

www.gcreddy.com

118

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

Automation Framework
Automation: Accessing one Software Objects from another Software is called Automation. (AUT is one s/w and Testing Tool is another s/w.) Automation Framework: It is a set of guidelines, assumptions and process developed by experts in order to perform a task(s) in an effective, efficient and optimized way. Or A systematic approach to automate software Test process Why Automation Framework: In one project test automation we use various files, we perform various tasks, in order to organize and manage them all, a systematic approach (Automation Framework) required. Files to be used: a) Flat files (.txt), b) Excel files (.xls) c) Object repository files (.tsr) d) XML files (.xml) e) Library files (.vbs/.qfl) f) Test Scripts (.mts) g) Test Batch Files (.mtb) h) Recovery scenario files (.qrs) i) Test Result file (.XML) Tasks to be performed: a) Analyzing the application b) Selecting Areas/Test Cases for Automation c) Planning (Effort estimation, Schedule, Work allocation and Automation Framework implementation) Etc...

www.gcreddy.com

119

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
d) Creating Generic and project specific functions. e) Creating required Automation resources (Functions, Object repository Files, Environment variable files---etc) f) Creating Tests (Using Object Repository or Descriptive Programming) g) Enhancing Tests(Inserting Checkpoints, Output Values, Transaction points, Flow Control Statements, Synchronization, Parameterization---etc ) h) Debugging and running tests(Individual test execution, Test Batch execution --etc) i) Defining and exporting test results j) Analyzing results k) Test reporting l) Defect Reporting using companies defect management system. m) Modifying tests n) Performing re and regression testing ---etc Types Of Automation Framework: Automation Framework is not a qtp feature, it’s a 3rd party concept. And this is purely local concept.(framework may vary from one company to another) 1. Record/Playback or Linear Framework (1st generation framework). In this Framework we create tests using recording,low resources maintenance, Form batches and executing tests. Drawbacks: Modifications and maintenance are difficult,less command on scripts,low performance ---etc 2. Modular Framework. In this Framework,reusable components can be recognized,first we concentrate on creating reusable components, then creating tests using those components. Advantages: It reduces test Automation time Performance is high than recording and playback Drawbacks: Less usage of keywords, no concentration on Data driven testing and low performance than latest Frameworks like Keyword Driven Framework.

www.gcreddy.com

120

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
3. Data Driven Framework In this Framework,we concentrate more on Data Driven testing.We recognize positive and negative scenarios,then collecting test data and parameterizing. Advantages: We can check reliability of the system,positive and negative testing. Drawbacks: Less concentration on complex Functionality Testing and low keywords usage. 4. Keyword Driven framework 5. Hybrid Framework In the above frameworks Keyword Driven framework is very famous in the industry. It is a mixing of more than one approach. In this approach,we mix Data driven and Modular approaches OR Data Driven and Keyword Driven approaches---etc Advantages: Scope is very high as we mix different approaches,Flexible for performing any tasks. Drawbacks: Organizing and managing resources are difficult,complex architecture,low in performance. NOTE: Now a days Mix of Data driven and Keyword driven approaches is a famous Hybrid Framework in the industry. Keyword Driven Framework Keyword: 1. Any word used as the key to a code 2 A reserved word used to identify a specific command, function etc. (in our test automation example keywords are : Keywords to be used in Test Automation: a) Test Objects (EX: Browser,page,webEdit,WinButton---etc) b) Functions (Built-In and User defined) c) Methods (Ex:Set,Select,Activate,Navigate---etc) d) Statements (EX:Dim,If,For---etc)

www.gcreddy.com

121

gcreddy@gcreddy.com

e) Operators (EX: +,/,*,and,or,not---etc) Keyword Driven Approach: In this approach we use keywords for preparing tests. First we create tests and make them as functions, through framework we execute them and generate results. Key elements of Automation Framework: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Well defined folder structure Initialization script Driver script input data spreadsheet process guidelines document

Why folder structure? In order to create, store, organize and manage files a well defined folder structure required. Folder structure is a mandatory element of any framework, but folder names may vary from one framework to another and company to another . Folder Structure: 1. Object Repository 2. Environment 3. Library a) Company b) Project Specific 4. Test data 5. Test log 6. Recovery scenarios 7. Miscellaneous And 1. Initialization script (.vbs file) 2. Driver script (QTP Script file) 1) Object Repository: In this folder we store object repository files(.tsr), all team members can use this repositories. 2) Environment: In this folder we store environment variables files(.xml), all team members can use this variables.

www.gcreddy.com

122

gcreddy@gcreddy.com
3) Function Library:this folder contains two sub folders one is for storing common functions of our company, another folder for storing our project specific functions(.vbs). 4) Test Data: in this folder we store test data required for data driven testing, for that we use either .xls files or .txt files or .mdb files. 5) Test Log: In this folder we store test result(excel sheet). 6) Recovery scenarios: In this folder we store qtp recovery scenarios files(.qrs). 7) Miscellaneous: in this folder we store the files other than above files(ex-process guideline doc and messages among team members and instructions by team lead etc). And 1) Initialization script (.vbs file): It launches qtp tool and calls driver script, at end it closes qtp tool. 2) Driver script (QTP Script file): It is only the qtp script, we can associate all resources to this script

www.gcreddy.com

123