Contents

Preface to the First Edition Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the Third Edition
1

vii ix xi
1
1

Introduction
Fields 1.2 Geophysical Fieldwork 1.3 Geophysical Data 1.4 Bases and Base Networks i.5 Global Positioning Satellites
1.1

5

10

22 25

2

Gravity Method 2.1 Physical Basis of the Gravity Method
2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

29 29
31 38 41

Gravity Meters Gravity Reductions Gravity Surveys Field Interpretation

46
51 51 53 58 62 67 71 71 75 78

3

Magnetic Method
Magnetic Properties 3.2 The Magnetic Field of the Earth 3.3 Magnetic Instruments 3.4 Magnetic Surveys 3.5 Simple Magnetic Interpretation
3.1

4

Radiornetric Surveys
Natural Radiation 4.2 Radiation Detectors 4.3 Radiornetric Surveys
4.1

5

Electric Current Methods
5.1

- General Considerations

Resistivity and Conductivity
Varying Current Methods

83 83
88 91

5.2 DC Methods
5.3
6

Resistivity Methods 6.1 DC Survey Fundamentals
6.2 6.3 6.4

97 97
107 108 113

Resistivity Profiling Resistivity Depth-sounding Capacitative Coupling
V

1 Reflection Theory 12.1 SP Surveys Polarization Fundamentals Time-domain IP Surveys Frequency-domain Surveys IP Data Electromagnetic Methods Two-coil CW Systems 8.1 VLF Radiation Presentation of VLF Results Natural and Controlled-source Audio-magnetotellurics Radar Fundamentals Data Processing Seismic Waves Seismic Sources Detection of Seismic Waves Recording Seismic Signals 9.3 Limitations of the Refraction Method 207 207 211 216 223 225 229 Appendix Terrain Corrections for Hammer Zones B to M Bibliography Index vi .General Considerations 11.2 Reflection Surveys 197 197 201 13 Seismic Refraction 13.2 7.2 VLF Instruments 9.2 11.1 11.3 9.4 179 179 183 188 192 12 Seismic Reflection 12.CONTENTS 7 SPandiP 7.1 Refraction Surveys 13.2 Other CWEM Techniques 8.3 11.1 162 Ground Penetrating Radar 10.2 GPR Surveys 10.3 167 167 171 175 11 Seismic Methods .3 7.5 8 8.4 7.3 Transient Electromagnetics 129 129 140 144 149 149 155 158 9 VLF and CSAMTIMT 9.2 Field Interpretation 13.1 117 117 120 122 124 126 7.4 10 10.

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