# AXIAL, BENDING, TORSION, COMBINED AND BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF A BEAM

Instructor: Professor James Sherwood Revised: Dimitri Soteropoulos Programs Utilized: ABAQUS CAE 6.9-EF1 Problem Description: In this tutorial, a finite element model of a beam will be constructed and analyzed using ABAQUS CAE. The analysis will look at stresses and displacements associated with multiple loading conditions for a steel I-beam. The beam will be “clamped” at one end and be loaded on the other end with prescribed displacements for axial, torsion and bending loads. A unit force will be applied to find the critical buckling load and the associated mode shape. The cross section of the beam is shown in Figure 1. The cross section dimensions are summarized in Table 1. The length of the beam is 90 cm.

Table 1. Cross Section Dimensions a b t1 t2 6 cm 7 cm 1 mm 2 mm

Figure 1. Beam Cross Section

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Creating the Model Geometry   Go to the Start Menu and open Abaqus CAE You may be prompted with an Abaqus/CAE 6.9 Extended Functionality box (Figure 1). Close this box by clicking the X in the top right hand corner.

Figure 1. Abaqus/CAE 6.9 Extended Functionality box.

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Once the Extended Functionality box is exited, the ABAQUS CAE Viewport should look similar to Figure 2. (Please note the model tree is the series of functions listed on the left hand side of the viewport, while the module is the list of icons to the right of the model tree)

Model Tree

Figure 2. ABAQUS CAE Viewport   To create the model geometry of the steel I-beam, a sketch of the cross section must be generated. Using the left mouse button, double click Parts in the model tree and the Create Part (Figure 3a) dialog box appears. Enter a new name for the part (I-BEAM), and under the Base Feature tab choose Shell for shape and Extrusion for type. Change the approximate size option to 0.5. The Create Part dialog box should look identical to Figure 3b. Click Continue… and the graphics window will change to a set of gridlines.

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Figure 3a. Create Part Dialog Box

Figure 3b. Create Part Dialog Box (I-BEAM)

For the first step in generating the model geometry, a rectangular box must be created. Click the Create Lines: Rectangle (4 lines) icon in the module. (Remember, the module is the series of icons to the right of the model tree) In the viewport click once with the cursor, then drag the cursor to any other place in the viewport and click again. A yellow rectangle should be visible in the viewport. Click the Create Lines: Connected icon in the module, hover the cursor along the top horizontal line of the rectangle until a white circle appears (Figure 4). The circle should appear at the midpoint of that line.

 

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Figure 4. Midpoint of Horizontal Line  Once the white circle appears on the horizontal line, click with the cursor and draw a vertical line which connects to the bottom horizontal line. You will know that the line is vertical if there is a V located on the right side of the line (Figure 5).

Figure 5. Vertical Line

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059 is entered for the vertical height. make sure to enter a value of 0.07 in the New Dimension box. New Dimension Box       Enter a value of 0. Move the cursor away from the vertical line and click. Dimensioned Sketch ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 6 REV 03. Enter a value of 0. Since an arbitrary rectangle was drawn in the initial sketch. Using the cursor click the middle vertical line. a New dimension: box should appear (Figure 6).059 in the new dimension box and hit Enter. At the bottom of the viewport. a New dimension: box should appear. The sketch should resize to the appropriate dimension and look similar to that in Figure 7.06 will appear when 0.2011 .16. (Please note: due to significant figures in the sketch mode a value of 0. At this point the line should turn red and its corresponding dimension should appear. Click the Add Dimension icon in the module and click the top horizontal line in the sketch. Make sure to keep a consistent set of units when creating any model. At the bottom of the viewport. At this point the line should turn red and its corresponding dimension should appear.  Figure 6. The dimension values are being input in units of meters.059 for the vertical line) Figure 7. it will now be given the proper dimensions. The sketch should resize to the appropriate dimension. Hit Enter. Move the cursur away from the horizontal line and click.

16. In the Depth: category enter a value of 0. The Edit Base Extrusion dialog box will appear (Figure 9a). Figure 9a.9m) in the Z direction. Repeat the previous step but drag the cursor over the far right vertical line. If the process was done correctly the sketch should look similar to that in Figure 8. This value will extrude the geometry 90 cm (0. At the bottom of the viewport you will be prompted to Sketch the section for the shell extrusion. Edit Base Extrusion Dialog Box (0. Click Done. After this value has been entered the Edit Base Extrusion dialog box should look similar to Figure 9b.9. If this was done correctly the left vertical line should disappear. click the Auto-Trim icon in the module. Final I-Beam Cross Section    Press Escape on your keyboard to exit the Auto-Trim tool. Edit Base Extrusion Dialog Box Figure 9b.2011 .9) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 7 REV 03. Figure 8. Click and hold the left cursor button while dragging the cursor over the far left vertical line and then let go.  To properly create the I-Beam cross section.

double click on Materials in the model tree and the Edit Material dialog box will appear (Figure 11a).  Click OK. Enter values of Young’s Modulus = 200E09 Pa.2011 . and Poisson’s Ratio = 0. highlight Elasticity and click Elastic. The cross section sketch will be extruded into a three dimensional part. the Edit Material dialog box should look similar to Figure 11b. Click OK.3.16. Enter a Name for the material (STEEL). Figure 10. After the material properties have been entered.  ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 8 REV 03. and click the Mechanical tab. Extruded I-Beam Model Defining Material Properties  To define material properties for this model. Sketch mode will automatically be exited and a grey I-Beam will appear (Figure 10).

At this point in preprocessing. Edit Material Dialog Box (Steel)  Please note there is no dropdown menu or feature in ABAQUS that sets specific units.Figure 11a. Enter a Name for the section (FLANGE). It may be of interest to save the file after each section of this tutorial. therefore the respective Young’s Modulus units should be entered in Pa (Pascals).2011 . Create Section Dialog Box Figure 12b. Creating Sections  To create a shell section in ABAQUS. All of the dimensions have been input in meters. The file will save as a Model Database (*. Click File then click Save.16. the model should be saved. double click Sections in the model tree and the Create Section dialog box will appear (Figure 12a). and Homogeneous under the Type tab. Create Section Dialog Box (FLANGE) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 9 REV 03. Name the file I-Beam Tutorial. and choose Shell under the Category Tab.cae*) file. The units chosen for the definition of the material properties should be consistent and dictate what units should be used for the dimensions of the structure. Click Continue…  Figure 12a. Your Create Section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 12b. Edit Material Dialog Box  Figure 11b.

If both the flanges and web had the same thickness only one section would need to be created.2011 . When this is done the number of Thickness integration points will default to 3.16. Edit Section Dialog Box (FLANGE)    Since the flanges have a different specified thickness than the web. Under the basic tab enter 0. Click OK. another section with the appropriate shell thickness for the web must be created. The Edit section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 13.   The Edit Section dialog box will then appear where a value for the respective Shell thickness can be prescribed for this section. Because only one material has been created. Your Create Section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 14b. Click Continue… ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 10 REV 03. If multiple materials had been created. Figure 13. Double click Sections in the model tree and the Create Section dialog box will appear (Figure 14a). and Homogeneous under the Type tab. and choose Shell under the Category Tab. Enter a Name for the section (WEB).001 for the Shell thickness (This value will be used to define a thickness of 1 mm for both the top and bottom flanges). Change the Thickness integration rule: to Gauss. the Material is defaulted to STEEL. the dropdown menu could be used to prescribe a different material to this section.

the dropdown menu could be used to prescribe a different material to this section.Figure 14a. Click OK.16. Edit Section Dialog Box (WEB) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 11 REV 03.002 for the Shell thickness (This value will be used to define a 2 mm thickness for the web). Under the basic tab enter 0. The Edit section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 15.2011 . Change the Thickness integration rule: to Gauss. the Material is defaulted to STEEL. Create Section Dialog Box (WEB)    The Edit Section dialog box will then appear where a value for the respective Shell thickness can be prescribed for this section. Figure 15. When this is done the number of Thickness integration points will default to 3. Create Section Dialog Box Figure 14b. If multiple materials had been created. Because only one material has been created.

If the sections have been chosen correctly they will change color from grey to red (Figure 17). Figure 16. they can be assigned to the geometry.2011 . Next. click the + to the left of the Parts icon. Selected Flange Sections ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 12 REV 03.  2 Top Sections 2 Bottom Sections Figure 17. Model Tree Expansion (Parts)  After the model tree has been expanded.16. double click Section Assignments. While holding the shift key on the keyboard. Click Done. click the + to the left of the part called I-BEAM.Assigning Sections  Now that the shell sections have been created. further expanding the model tree (Figure 16). click the 2 sections of the top flange and the 2 sections of the bottom flange. In the model tree. this will further expand the model tree’s options.

Edit Section Assignment Figure 19b. Under the Shell offset option make sure the drop down definition is set to Middle surface. choose the FLANGE section that was created. choose the WEB section that was created. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box will appear (Figure 18a). The top and bottom now should now turn to a blue color. Figure 18a. Click Done. the web must be assigned its respective section. Double click Section Assignments. Under the Shell offset option make sure the drop down definition is set to Middle surface. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 19b. If the section has been chosen correctly it will change color from grey to red. Edit Section Assignment (FLANGE) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 13 REV 03.16. Using the drop down menu under the Section option. using the cursor click the web of the I-beam. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 18b. Edit Section Assignment   Figure 18b. Edit Section Assignment (FLANGE)   Click OK. Using the drop down menu under the Section option. Next. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box will appear (Figure 19a). Figure 19a.2011 .

then the geometry should change color to pink.e keep the aspect ratio of length to width to be as close to 1 as is possible. Click and hold the Seed Part icon in the mesh module and six icons will appear. If this selection is done correctly.16. it is best to make elements as square as possible. To exit the rotate command press Escape on the keyboard) 2 Top Edges   Web Edge Side Edge 2 Bottom Edges Figure 20. click the top and bottom edges of the flanges. While holding the shift key on the keyboard. A total of eight lines should be selected since the part should be rotated and the four edges on the other end of the beam should also be clicked. The first step in creating a mesh is to seed the part. Hover the cursor over the Seed Edge: By Number icon and release the button on the cursor. Creating a Mesh  When creating a finite element mesh with shell or plate elements. Click Done. The web of the I-Beam should now turn a blue color. the elements will be made with dimensions as close as possible to 1 cm by 1 cm. thus making the complete model blue. Selected Edges ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 14 REV 03. i. (Note: To rotate the beam click F3 on the keyboard then left click and drag the cursor to rotate the part. In this model.  Click Ok. If the edges have been selected correctly they will turn a red color (Figure 20).2011 . double click Mesh (Empty) in the model tree. To create a mesh for the model geometry.

In the Number of elements along the edges: prompt at the bottom of the viewport enter a number of 6. Click Done. In the Number of elements along the edges: prompt at the bottom of the viewport enter a number of 3. A total of four lines should be selected (Figure 20). Hit Enter on the keyboard Click Done. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 15 REV 03. The edges will now appear to be seeded with evenly spaced pink points along their length.16. This will seed the selected edge to have ninety evenly spaced elements along its length. In the Number of elements along the edges: prompt at the bottom of the viewport enter a number of 90. Finally. This will seed the selected edges to have six evenly spaced elements along their length. while holding the shift key on the keyboard. This will seed the selected edges to have three evenly spaced elements along their length. A total of two edges should be selected since the part should be rotated and the edge on the other end of the beam should also be clicked.            Click Done. If the edges have been selected correctly they will turn a red color. Next. click the web edge of the I-Beam (Figure 20). Click Done.2011 . Hit Enter on the keyboard. click the four edges along the length of the I-Beam. Hit Enter on the keyboard. The edge should turn from a pink to a red color if it has been selected correctly.

Figure 22. At the Figure 21.16. . Model Tree Expansion (Assembly) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 16 REV 03. the geometry will turn blue (Figure 21). Meshed Geometry Creating an Instance  Now that the part has been meshed.  The part is now ready to be meshed. In the mesh module.2011 . To do this task. it can be brought into the assembly. click the + to the left of Assembly in the model tree. click the Mesh Part icon bottom of the viewport you will be prompted if it is OK to mesh the part? Click Yes. The model tree will expand and should look identical to Figure 22. If this procedure was done correctly.

16. If this step was done correctly the model should turn a blue color (Figure 24). If multiple parts had been created. Click OK. then this step would allow them to be entered into the assembly. Create Instance ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 17 REV 03. Double click on the Instances icon in the expanded model tree.2011 . Figure 23. This feature will allow multiple parts to be brought into the assembly.  Figure 24. Create Instance Dialog Box  The I-BEAM part is selected by default because only one part has been created for this tutorial. The Create Instance dialog box will appear (Figure 23).

16. e. Figure 25a. Figure 26. Create Step Dialog Box (LOADING STEP) Click Continue…. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 18 REV 03.2011 .g. The Create Step dialog box will appear (Figure 25a). The Create Step dialog box should look identical to Figure 25b.g. General. Create a Name for the step called LOADING STEP. and defines the boundary conditions. Under Procedure type choose General > Static.Creating a Step   A Step is where the user defines the type of loading. In the model tree. Create Step Dialog Box  Figure 25b. Static or Dynamic. support constraints and forces. and the Edit Step dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 26). double click the Steps icon. e. Edit Step Dialog Box  Click OK to accept the default values for the various options.

Make sure to double click the Sets option that is underneath the I-BEAM part in the model tree (Figure 27).2011 . and under the type option make sure to choose Node. In this tutorial the beam was rotated such that the nodes on the right side of the beam were selected for the fixed end (Figure 29). ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 19 REV 03. The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 28b. To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color.16. Double click Sets in the model tree. Figure 27. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard.Creating Sets  At this point 4 sets will be created to simplify the application of loads and boundary conditions in the upcoming steps. Sets Option in Model Tree  The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 28a). Figure 28a. Create a Name for the set called FIXED END. click all of the nodes at one end of the beam. A total of 19 nodes should be selected. Create Set Dialog Box (FIXED END)  Click Continue… The model will to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. Create Set Dialog Box   Figure 28b.

and under the type option make sure to choose Node. The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 30a). The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 30b. click all of the nodes at the opposite end of the beam that the FIXED END set was created. Create Set Dialog Box   Figure 30b. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. A total of 19 nodes should be selected.2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL . Another set will be created for the loading end of the I-Beam. Double click Sets(1) in the model tree. Create Set Dialog Box (LOAD END)   Click Continue… The model will turn to a turquoise color with a visible mesh.16. 20 REV 03.Figure 29. To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color. Figure 30a. Click Done. Fixed End Set   Click Done. Create a Name for the set called LOAD END. In this tutorial the beam was rotated such that the nodes on the left side of the beam were selected for the load end.

ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 21 REV 03.16. Finally two more sets will be created. and under the type option make sure to choose Node. The model tree will expand and should look identical to Figure 31. Created Sets Model Tree  Click the FIXED END set in the model tree and the 19 nodes which are included in that set will turn red.   Figure 32a. Figure 31. one for the TOP FLANGE and the other for the BOTTOM FLANGE. click the + to the left of Sets (2) in the model tree. The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 32a). Likewise. Create Set Dialog Box (TOP FLANGE) Click Continue… The model will turn to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. To verify that the sets were not created on the same end of the beam. Create a Name for the set called TOP FLANGE. Create Set Dialog Box  Figure 32b. Double click Sets(2) in the model tree. click the LOAD END set in the model tree and the 19 nodes included in that set will turn red in the viewport. These sets will be created to apply the torsional load to the model.2011 . The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 32b.

The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 34a). click the nodes at the end of the top flange where the LOAD END set was created. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 22 REV 03.2011 . Figure 34a. Create Set Dialog Box  Figure 34b. Now a set will be created for the BOTTOM FLANGE.16. The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 34b. Figure 33. To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color (Figure 33). Create Set Dialog Box (BOTTOM FLANGE) Click Continue… The model will turn to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. Create a Name for the set called BOTTOM FLANGE. A total of 7 nodes should be selected. Double click Sets(3) in the model tree. Node Selection Top Flange Set   Click Done. and under the type option make sure to choose Node.

Apply Constraint Boundary Conditions   Boundary conditions will be defined which will simulate a fixed (also known as “clamped”) beam at one end with a tip load. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose Initial. A total of 7 nodes should be selected. and choose Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre under the Types for Selected Step option. click the nodes at the end of the bottom flange where the LOAD END set was created. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. Create a Name for the boundary condition called FIXED. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 23 REV 03. Node Selection Bottom Flange Set  Click Done. Double click BCs in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 36a). Under the Category option choose Mechanical.2011 . The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 36b.16. Figure 35. To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color (Figure 35).

Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear.FIXED END. If this selection is done correctly you will be immediately prompted by the Region Selection dialog box (Figure 37). Create Boundary Condition Figure 36b. Click ENCASTRE (U1=U2=U3=UR1=UR2=UR3=0).Figure 36a. click I-BEAM-1. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 38. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 24 REV 03.2011 . Create Boundary Condition (FIXED)    Click Continue… Using the cursor. click Sets… at the bottom right side of the viewport. Region Selection Dialog Box   Using the cursor.16. Figure 37.

Create a Name for the boundary condition called AXIAL. Edit Boundary Condition Dialog Box  Click OK. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 39b.2011 . and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option. Applying an Axial Load to the Beam   A 0.16. Under the Category option choose Mechanical.01% axial strain will be applied to the end of the beam as a prescribed displacement. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP. Figure 39a. Double click BCs(1) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 39a). Create Boundary Condition (AXIAL) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 25 REV 03. Create Boundary Condition  Click Continue… Figure 39b.Figure 38.

Check the box to the left of U3 and enter a value of 0. Using the cursor click I-BEAM-1. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 41b. Figure 40.LOAD END.2011 . Edit Boundary Condition Figure 41b.16. Figure 41a. Region Selection Dialog Box   Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 41a). The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 40). a displacement will be added in the Z direction. Since the I-Beam cross section was sketched in the X Y plane.00009. Edit Boundary Condition (AXIAL) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 26 REV 03.

2011 . Applied Axial Load Applying a Torsional Load to the Beam  An equal and opposite displacement will be imposed on opposite sides of the beam to simulate a torque on the beam.16.00258 m. If the prescribed displacement has been applied correctly small orange arrows will be visible at the nodes (Figure 42). To find the required displacement in the x-direction to achieve the 5° twist use:   Where x is the prescribed displacement and is equal to 0. Under the Category option choose Mechanical. Double click BCs(2) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 43a). The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 43b. Click OK. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option.0295 m (0. The y-distance from the center of the beam to the top or bottom flange is 0. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP. The load is to be a 5° twist at the end of the beam. Create a Name for the boundary condition called TORSION TOP.059/2). ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 27 REV 03. Figure 42.

Figure 44. Since this displacement will be applied to the top flange in the +X direction click the box to the left of U1: and enter a number of 0. Click I-BEAM-1. Region Selection Dialog Box  Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 45a). Create Boundary Condition Figure 43b. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 28 REV 03.TOP FLANGE. the Region Selection dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 44.Figure 43a. Create Boundary Condition (TORSION TOP)   Click Continue… The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear.2011 . The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 45b.16.00258.

Double click BCs(3) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 46a). Create Boundary Condition Figure 46b. If the procedure has been completed correctly small orange arrows will appear pointing in the +X direction at the end of the top flange. Create Boundary Condition (TORSION BOTTOM) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 29 REV 03. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option. Edit Boundary Condition   Figure 45b. Create a Name for the boundary condition called TORSION BOTTOM.Figure 45a. Figure 46a. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 46b. Edit Boundary Condition (TORSION TOP) Click OK. An equal and opposite displacement will be prescribed to the bottom flange.2011 . Under the Category option choose Mechanical.16.

Region Selection Dialog Box  Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 48a). Since this displacement will be applied to the bottom flange in the -X direction click the box to the left of U1: and enter a number of -0. Click I-BEAM-1.00258. the Region Selection dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 47. Edit Boundary Condition (TORSION BOTTOM) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 30 REV 03.  Click Continue… The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear. Edit Boundary Condition Figure 48b. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 48b.2011 . Figure 47. Figure 48a.BOTTOM FLANGE.16.

Create a Name for the boundary condition called BENDING.2011 . The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 50b. Both the axial and torsional loads are applied in this view. Double click BCs(4) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 50a). and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP. Figure 49. Under the Category option choose Mechanical. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 31 REV 03. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option.16. Click OK. a prescribed displacement in the –Y direction will be imposed on the tip of the beam. If the procedure has been completed correctly small orange arrows will appear pointing in the -X direction at the end of the bottom flange. Axial and Torsional Loads Beam in Bending  Finally. An expanded view of the loading end of the beam is shown in Figure 49.

Create Boundary Condition Figure 50b. Create Boundary Condition (BENDING)   Click Continue… The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear.2011 .LOAD END.Figure 50a. Figure 51. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 52b. the Region Selection dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 51.006.16. Region Selection Dialog Box  Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 52a). Click I-BEAM-1. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 32 REV 03. Since this displacement will be applied to the load end in the -Y direction click the box to the left of U2: and enter a number of -0.

Figure 53. Torsion. An expanded view of the loading end of the beam is shown in Figure 53. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 33 REV 03. All three loading conditions are applied in this view (Axial. and Bending). Torsion and Bending Loads. Edit Boundary Condition (BENDING) Click OK. Axial. If the procedure has been completed correctly small orange arrows will appear pointing in the -Y direction on the loading end of the beam.Figure 52a.16. Edit Boundary Condition  Figure 52b.2011 .

A job will take the input file created by the preprocessor and process the model. Figure 57. In the Create Job dialog box. double click the Jobs icon in the model tree. Figure 56. Create Job Dialog Box (BENDING)   Click Continue… The Edit Job dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 57). create a Name for this job called BENDING. you have been preprocessing the model.16. Edit Job Dialog Box (BENDING)  Accept the default values and click OK. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 35 REV 03. i. The Create Job dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 56.Creating a Job  To create a job for this model. Up to this point. Blank spaces are not allowed in a job name. perform the analysis. Thus the use of the underline in the name.e.2011 .

Click Select… and use standard Windows practice to select (and possibly create) a subdirectory. Set Work Directory  The Set Work Directory screen will immediately appear (Figure 59).16.Setting the Work Directory  To ensure that the input files write to the correct folder.2011 . Figure 59. Figure 58. Set Work Directory (FOLDERS)   Click OK. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 36 REV 03. setting the work directory must be accomplished. At the top of the screen. Click OK. click File and in the dropdown menu click Set Work Directory… (Figure 58).

Abaqus Command Prompt (COMPLETED) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 37 REV 03.16.g. cd APPLIED STRENGTHS T.inp)    To write the input file of the job that was created.inp) of this model to the work directory. To access a specific directory within that drive type cd followed by the specific folder name in that directory (e.Writing the Input File (. Figure 60.A) then hit Enter.2011 . It may be helpful to go to the folder on the computer to which the work directory is set to ensure that the input file was written there. first click the + next to the Jobs(1) icon in the model tree.. Model Analysis (ABAQUS Command) Method #1      Go to the Start Menu and open Abaqus Command ABAQUS is set to a default directory (Example E:\>). To change directories in the Abaqus Command type the directory of choice followed by a colon (D:) then hit Enter. This choice will write an input file (. If the job has completed successfully the Abaqus prompt should look similar to Figure 60. Right click the job called BENDING and click the Write Input option. Now that the correct directory has been sourced in the command window type abaqus inter j=BENDING and then hit enter.

Postprocessing using ABAQUS CAE   After the analysis has successfully completed in the Abaqus Command window using Method #1 or using Method #2. If this selection was done correctly. Because the last step of creating the model was to create a job/write (and possibly submit) an input file. the model should turn to a green color and the truss will have rotated to an isometric view (Figure 61).inp file for processing by ABAQUS can be accomplished with ABAQUS CAE Right click the job called BENDING and click the Submit option. Right click the BENDING job and then click Results. If you see a warning:  Click OK. The model will now be submitted for analysis by ABAQUS and the progress can be viewed in the status window at the bottom of the screen. return to view the ABAQUS CAE viewport. The intent of this warning is to prevent the user from accidentally overwriting a previously completed analysis with the same name.16.Method #2    An alternative method for submitting an *. Analysis Results Isometric View ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 38 REV 03.  Figure 61. the BENDING job should still be highlighted in ABAQUS CAE model tree.2011 .

The Views toolbar will appear (Figure 62). The model should look similar to that in Figure 63. Deformed Shape (BENDING) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 39 REV 03. and the Apply Front View button can be clicked to view the model in the X Y plane. Click Toolbars and make sure the option Views has a check mark to the left of it. click View in the toolbar at the top of the screen. Views Toolbar  To view the deformed shape of the model.2011 .16. If not. Next. Figure 62. Figure 63. click the Plot Contours on Deformed Shape icon in the Visualization module. then click it.  To rotate the truss back into the X Y plane for viewing.

Figure 65. this will change the contour color to represent the third invariant stress levels. At the top of the viewport underneath the top toolbar click the drop down menu Mises (Figure 64). Mises Dropdown  Using the cursor click Third Invariant. Third Invariant Stress Contour ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 40 REV 03.16. Figure 64.2011 .Obtaining Stress Values in Elements  To obtain the stresses in an element first the appropriate type of stress must be viewed. The I-Beam model should look similar to that in Figure 65.

and then click Query… Figure 66. Query Dialog Box (ELEMENT) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 41 REV 03. Toolbar Tools  The Query dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 67a).2011 . At the top toolbar click Tools (Figure 66). The Query dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 67b. Query Dialog Box Figure 67b.16. output stress values will be obtained for different elements. Figure 67a. Now that the appropriate stress contour is being viewed. Click Element under the General Queries option.

Choose the ODB field output option (Figure 70b). suppress the TORSION and BENDING conditions and create a new Job called AXIAL and complete the post processing as needed. the AXIAL job should still be highlighted in ABAQUS CAE model tree. If a combination of loading conditions is desired. this will change the contour from viewing stresses to the magnitude of reaction forces. this unit load should be distributed amongst all of the nodes at the tip of the beam. Right click the AXIAL and then click Results. resume the respective boundary conditions and complete the post processing as needed.   Figure 69.  ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 43 REV 03. S Dropdown  Using the cursor click RF. The Create XY Data dialog box will appear (Figure 70a).16. At the top of the viewport underneath the top toolbar click the drop down menu S (Figure 69).  Likewise. Please note: two torsional loads must be suppressed since there is a load for both the top and bottom flanges. For the best analysis. To obtain the reactions at the nodes click the Create XY Data icon in the Visualization module. a unit axial load will be applied to the tip of the beam.2011 . Beam Buckling  For the beam buckling analysis. However. Since the reaction force in the Z direction is desired click the Magnitude dropdown menu directly to the right of the RF dropdown and then click RF3. Because the last step of creating the model was to create a job/write (and possibly submit) an input file. the amount of force to apply to each node is a function of the beam width of the element and the number elements connected to a node. The reaction forces at the nodes at the end of the beam are to be determined.

2011 . Scroll down and check the box next to RF3. All other reaction components should be left unchecked (Figure 71b).16. A total of 19 nodes should be selected. Figure 71a. Create XY Data Dialog Box (FIELD) Click Continue… The XY Data from ODB Field Output dialog box will appear (Figure 71a). XY Data from ODB Field Output  Next click the Elements/Nodes tab. When the elements have been selected they will turn a red color. and click Edit Selection.This click will expand the selection for more options. XY Data from ODB Field Output   Figure 71b. Scroll down and click the black arrowhead next to RF: Reaction force . Under the Variables tab click the Positions: drop down menu and change the selection to Unique Nodal. click the nodes on the model at the end of the beam which the load was applied. Create XY Data Dialog Box   Figure 70b. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 44 REV 03. Click Plot. Make sure that Pick from viewport is selected in the Method section.Figure 70a. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard.

  Click Dismiss.2011 . click the XY Data Manager icon in the Visualization module. A plot should appear similar to that in Figure 72. This option is located directly to the right of the Create XY Data option.  Figure 73. The XY Data Manager dialog box will appear (Figure 73).16. Field Output Plot  To view the numerical values of the reactions at the nodes. Figure 72. XY Data Manager Dialog Box ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 45 REV 03.

46 REV 03.16.2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL . In column A of a new Excel workbook enter the node numbers of the 19 nodes found in the XY Data Manager dialog box (Figure 75). At this point click start on the computer and open Microsoft Excel. Click OK. Edit XY Data Dialog Box    In this dialog box the value of the reaction force at the respective node is listed. Figure 74. To view the value. Figure 75. double click each selection and an Edit XY Data dialog box will appear (Figure 74). Import Node Numbers (Excel)  Double click each entry and enter the reaction force value in column B of the same Excel workbook (Figure 76).

16.2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL .9. Color Coded Unit Loads (Excel)  Now that the nodal forces are known return to Abaqus CAE and close the Edit XY Data and XY Data Manager dialog boxes. Dividing each Reaction Force value by this total gives the respective force to apply to each node so as to have a net unit force on the end of the beam (Figure 77).Figure 76. Return to the model tree by clicking the Model tab at the top left 47 REV 03. Import Reaction Forces (Excel)  Use the SUM function in Excel to add all the forces in column B. Figure 77. In this case the sum is 5164. Many of the nodes have the same respective reaction force and it may be beneficial to color code the nodes with the same reaction forces (Figure 77).

Expand Steps (2) in the model tree if it is not already expanded by clicking the + to the left of the Steps(2) listing. Create Step Dialog Box (BUCLKE)  Click Continue… The Edit Step dialog box will immediately appear. The only boundary condition that should still be resumed is the FIXED boundary condition. Create a Name: for the step called BUCKLE.16. Under the Number of eigenvalues requested: option enter a value of 5 in the box. Suppress the AXIAL boundary condition (Right click -> Suppress).2011 . Figure 78a. Double click Steps (2) and you will be prompted by the Create Step dialog box (Figure 78a). ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 48 REV 03. Create Step Dialog Box Figure 78b. Right click LOADING STEP and left click Suppress. The Edit Step dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 79. Under the Procedure type: drop down menu choose Linear perturbation and click Buckle. The Create Step dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 78b.  hand side of the viewport.

and 430.Figure 79. The Create Set dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 80.2011 . Rather than individually load 19 nodes with its respective unit load value. double click Sets (4) in the model tree and the Create Set dialog box will immediately appear. Create a Name for the set called Nodes_3_6_10_11 and ensure that Node is selected under the type option.557.16. Create Set Dialog Box (NODES_3_6_10_11)   Click Continue… At the top toolbar click View then click Part Display Options… and the Part Display Options dialog box will immediately appear. In the dialog box click the Mesh tab. Next click In all partrelated modules and check the box next to Show node labels (Figure 81). Figure 80.412. 233. Similar to creating sets in the first part of the tutorial. 393. Edit Step Dialog Box (5 Eigenvalues)    Click OK. we will create 4 sets since there are repeated unit load values of 116.779.711. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 49 REV 03.

11) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 50 REV 03. 10. This was done so that the appropriate unit load could be placed on the correct nodes. When the nodes are selected they will turn a red color (Figure 82). Figure 82. Part Display Options Dialog Box   Click OK.16. and 11. Set Creation (Nodes 3. 6. 6. While holding Shift on the keyboard click nodes 3. 10.2011 . At this point small purple node labels will appear on the model.Figure 81.

290. 572. 476] Nodes [569. 474. Create Load Dialog Box Figure 84b. 104. New Sets Figure 83. the appropriate loads can be applied to the nodes.2011 .16. Repeat the same method to create sets for: Nodes [103. 570. The Create Load dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 84b. Figure 84a. Ensure Mechanical is selected under Category and Concentrated force under Types for Selected Step. 571. 475.  Click Done. 473. All Created Sets  Now that the sets have been created. Create Load Dialog Box (NODES) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 51 REV 03. 289. Double click Loads in the model tree and the Create Load dialog box will appear (Figure 84a). 573] Nodes [2. Create a Name: for the load called NODES_3_6_10_11. 7]  If all of the sets have been created correctly the model tree should have a total of 8 sets and look similar to Figure 83.

02261) Click OK. Small yellow arrows will be visible pointing in the –Z direction if the procedure has been completed correctly. Figure 85. Region Selection Dialog Box (NODES)  Click Continue… The Edit Load dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 86a). Edit Load Dialog Box (-0. the Region Selection dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 85.NODES_3_6_10_11. Edit Load Dialog Box  Figure 86b.02261 in the CF3: option. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 52 REV 03.2011 . Figure 86a. Enter a value of -0. Click I-BEAM-1. Click Continue… In the bottom right hand side of the viewport click Sets… and the Region Selection dialog box will appear. The model should look similar to that in Figure 87. The Edit Load dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 86b.16.

473. 104. 573] = -0. 571. 476] = -0.076227 Nodes [2. Model Load (-0.16. 475. 289. 572.02261)  Using the same approach. 474.Figure 87. Loads of: Nodes [103.083333  If this procedure has been completed correctly there will be small yellow arrows located ALL the nodes on the loading end of the beam (Figure 88). create loads for the three other sets that were generated in the previous steps. 290.2011 . 7] = -0. 570.04522 Nodes [569. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 53 REV 03.

Write the input file and post process the job the same way as in the first part of this tutorial. When viewing the results.2011 .16. Unit Load   Double click Jobs (1) in the model tree and create a job named BUCLKE. Deformed Shape (Localized Buckle) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 54 REV 03. the deformed shape should look similar to that in Figure 89. Also. Buckle Load Figure 89.Figure 88. the first buckling load is listed in the viewport to be 30200 Hz.

inp file using Notepad.  The buckled shape shown in Figure 89 is distorted and appears to be localized buckling of the thin flanges and webs and not overall Euler buckling of the column. This part of the . Shell Section Input File ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 55 REV 03. Figure 91.inp file should look similar to that shown in Figure 91. The model will now be edited to increase the thickness of the flanges from 1 mm to 5 mm and the web from 2 mm to 4 mm. Open the BUCKLE. This will open the Find dialog box. Open the folder on the computer that the working directory is set to. Figure 90.inp)  While holding Ctrl on the keyboard press the letter F.2011 . Input File (. The .inp files that are generated in the working directory.16. These changes will be made by editing the .inp file should look similar to that in Figure 90. Enter Shell and then click Find Next.

This section of the input file should look similar to Figure 92. Source to the BUCKLE_EULER.005 and change 0.inp extension MUST be entered in the file name) Go to the Abaqus Command window and source to the directory if it is not already sourced. Figure 92. If the analysis completed successfully the command window will look similar to that in Figure 93. Change 0. Figure 93.inp (Note: the .004. This is where we will change the thickness values of the flanges and web. Shell Section Input File (Increased)    Click File then click Save As… Enter a File name: for this input file called BUCKLE_EULER.16. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 56 REV 03. Double click the first item in the Results tab called Output Databases.2011 . Enter the command abaqus inter j=BUCKLE_EULER and hit Enter.odb and click OK. The Open Database dialog box will appear. Abaqus Command Prompt (COMPLETED)   Return to the Abaqus CAE viewport and click the Results tab located at the top of the model tree.002 to 0.001 to 0.

2011 .  Conclusion  Save the file by doing either File > Save or clicking the disk icon   Close ABAQUS CAE: File > Exit or Ctrl+Q This completes the Finite Element Analysis of an I-Beam tutorial. However. the deformed shape should look similar to that in Figure 94. the buckling load may be slightly incorrect for this second buckling analysis. The localized buckling is not present in this view and the overall buckling looks to be Euler buckling and notice that the deflection is about the smaller area moment of inertia. Note the buckling force that was applied was based on the force distribution over the nodes resulting from an axial pull on the thinner sections. When viewing the results. That force distribution may not be the same as we did not increase the size of the web and flanges by the same scale factor. the first buckling load is listed in the viewport to be 168712 Hz. Buckle Load Figure 94. Also.16. Thus. Deformed Shape (Euler Buckle)  The buckled shape is shown in Figure 94. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 57 REV 03. the important lesson is that the finite element method can find critical buckling loads be they local or overall Euler buckling.