AXIAL, BENDING, TORSION, COMBINED AND BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF A BEAM

Instructor: Professor James Sherwood Revised: Dimitri Soteropoulos Programs Utilized: ABAQUS CAE 6.9-EF1 Problem Description: In this tutorial, a finite element model of a beam will be constructed and analyzed using ABAQUS CAE. The analysis will look at stresses and displacements associated with multiple loading conditions for a steel I-beam. The beam will be “clamped” at one end and be loaded on the other end with prescribed displacements for axial, torsion and bending loads. A unit force will be applied to find the critical buckling load and the associated mode shape. The cross section of the beam is shown in Figure 1. The cross section dimensions are summarized in Table 1. The length of the beam is 90 cm.

Table 1. Cross Section Dimensions a b t1 t2 6 cm 7 cm 1 mm 2 mm

Figure 1. Beam Cross Section

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Creating the Model Geometry   Go to the Start Menu and open Abaqus CAE You may be prompted with an Abaqus/CAE 6.9 Extended Functionality box (Figure 1). Close this box by clicking the X in the top right hand corner.

Figure 1. Abaqus/CAE 6.9 Extended Functionality box.

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Once the Extended Functionality box is exited, the ABAQUS CAE Viewport should look similar to Figure 2. (Please note the model tree is the series of functions listed on the left hand side of the viewport, while the module is the list of icons to the right of the model tree)

Model Tree

Figure 2. ABAQUS CAE Viewport   To create the model geometry of the steel I-beam, a sketch of the cross section must be generated. Using the left mouse button, double click Parts in the model tree and the Create Part (Figure 3a) dialog box appears. Enter a new name for the part (I-BEAM), and under the Base Feature tab choose Shell for shape and Extrusion for type. Change the approximate size option to 0.5. The Create Part dialog box should look identical to Figure 3b. Click Continue… and the graphics window will change to a set of gridlines.

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Figure 3a. Create Part Dialog Box

Figure 3b. Create Part Dialog Box (I-BEAM)

For the first step in generating the model geometry, a rectangular box must be created. Click the Create Lines: Rectangle (4 lines) icon in the module. (Remember, the module is the series of icons to the right of the model tree) In the viewport click once with the cursor, then drag the cursor to any other place in the viewport and click again. A yellow rectangle should be visible in the viewport. Click the Create Lines: Connected icon in the module, hover the cursor along the top horizontal line of the rectangle until a white circle appears (Figure 4). The circle should appear at the midpoint of that line.

 

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Figure 4. Midpoint of Horizontal Line  Once the white circle appears on the horizontal line, click with the cursor and draw a vertical line which connects to the bottom horizontal line. You will know that the line is vertical if there is a V located on the right side of the line (Figure 5).

Figure 5. Vertical Line

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At this point the line should turn red and its corresponding dimension should appear. New Dimension Box       Enter a value of 0. make sure to enter a value of 0. Since an arbitrary rectangle was drawn in the initial sketch. Move the cursur away from the horizontal line and click. a New dimension: box should appear (Figure 6). The sketch should resize to the appropriate dimension. At this point the line should turn red and its corresponding dimension should appear. Make sure to keep a consistent set of units when creating any model. (Please note: due to significant figures in the sketch mode a value of 0. At the bottom of the viewport. Click the Add Dimension icon in the module and click the top horizontal line in the sketch. it will now be given the proper dimensions.059 is entered for the vertical height.16. Hit Enter. At the bottom of the viewport.059 in the new dimension box and hit Enter.  Figure 6.07 in the New Dimension box. The sketch should resize to the appropriate dimension and look similar to that in Figure 7. Dimensioned Sketch ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 6 REV 03. The dimension values are being input in units of meters.06 will appear when 0. Move the cursor away from the vertical line and click.2011 . a New dimension: box should appear. Enter a value of 0.059 for the vertical line) Figure 7. Using the cursor click the middle vertical line.

Edit Base Extrusion Dialog Box (0. At the bottom of the viewport you will be prompted to Sketch the section for the shell extrusion. Figure 8. If this was done correctly the left vertical line should disappear. Figure 9a. Click and hold the left cursor button while dragging the cursor over the far left vertical line and then let go.9. Edit Base Extrusion Dialog Box Figure 9b.16. In the Depth: category enter a value of 0. Click Done.9) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 7 REV 03. This value will extrude the geometry 90 cm (0.2011 .9m) in the Z direction. After this value has been entered the Edit Base Extrusion dialog box should look similar to Figure 9b. Final I-Beam Cross Section    Press Escape on your keyboard to exit the Auto-Trim tool. Repeat the previous step but drag the cursor over the far right vertical line.  To properly create the I-Beam cross section. The Edit Base Extrusion dialog box will appear (Figure 9a). click the Auto-Trim icon in the module. If the process was done correctly the sketch should look similar to that in Figure 8.

the Edit Material dialog box should look similar to Figure 11b. highlight Elasticity and click Elastic. Figure 10. and Poisson’s Ratio = 0.2011 . double click on Materials in the model tree and the Edit Material dialog box will appear (Figure 11a). After the material properties have been entered. Click OK. Enter a Name for the material (STEEL).3. and click the Mechanical tab.16. Sketch mode will automatically be exited and a grey I-Beam will appear (Figure 10). The cross section sketch will be extruded into a three dimensional part. Extruded I-Beam Model Defining Material Properties  To define material properties for this model.  Click OK. Enter values of Young’s Modulus = 200E09 Pa.  ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 8 REV 03.

Figure 11a. Click Continue…  Figure 12a.16. and Homogeneous under the Type tab. All of the dimensions have been input in meters. Name the file I-Beam Tutorial.cae*) file. therefore the respective Young’s Modulus units should be entered in Pa (Pascals). and choose Shell under the Category Tab.2011 . Edit Material Dialog Box  Figure 11b. Create Section Dialog Box (FLANGE) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 9 REV 03. At this point in preprocessing. Edit Material Dialog Box (Steel)  Please note there is no dropdown menu or feature in ABAQUS that sets specific units. The units chosen for the definition of the material properties should be consistent and dictate what units should be used for the dimensions of the structure. The file will save as a Model Database (*. It may be of interest to save the file after each section of this tutorial. Click File then click Save. Enter a Name for the section (FLANGE). Your Create Section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 12b. the model should be saved. Create Section Dialog Box Figure 12b. Creating Sections  To create a shell section in ABAQUS. double click Sections in the model tree and the Create Section dialog box will appear (Figure 12a).

Enter a Name for the section (WEB).   The Edit Section dialog box will then appear where a value for the respective Shell thickness can be prescribed for this section. If both the flanges and web had the same thickness only one section would need to be created. Figure 13. and choose Shell under the Category Tab. the dropdown menu could be used to prescribe a different material to this section. the Material is defaulted to STEEL.16. Click OK. Edit Section Dialog Box (FLANGE)    Since the flanges have a different specified thickness than the web. Your Create Section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 14b.001 for the Shell thickness (This value will be used to define a thickness of 1 mm for both the top and bottom flanges). Under the basic tab enter 0. When this is done the number of Thickness integration points will default to 3. Because only one material has been created.2011 . Change the Thickness integration rule: to Gauss. Double click Sections in the model tree and the Create Section dialog box will appear (Figure 14a). Click Continue… ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 10 REV 03. If multiple materials had been created. and Homogeneous under the Type tab. The Edit section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 13. another section with the appropriate shell thickness for the web must be created.

Figure 15. Because only one material has been created.16. Under the basic tab enter 0. the Material is defaulted to STEEL. Change the Thickness integration rule: to Gauss.002 for the Shell thickness (This value will be used to define a 2 mm thickness for the web). If multiple materials had been created. Edit Section Dialog Box (WEB) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 11 REV 03. The Edit section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 15. Create Section Dialog Box Figure 14b. Click OK.2011 . When this is done the number of Thickness integration points will default to 3. Create Section Dialog Box (WEB)    The Edit Section dialog box will then appear where a value for the respective Shell thickness can be prescribed for this section. the dropdown menu could be used to prescribe a different material to this section.Figure 14a.

click the + to the left of the Parts icon. Figure 16. click the 2 sections of the top flange and the 2 sections of the bottom flange. Selected Flange Sections ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 12 REV 03. In the model tree. Click Done.Assigning Sections  Now that the shell sections have been created. click the + to the left of the part called I-BEAM.  2 Top Sections 2 Bottom Sections Figure 17.16.2011 . Next. further expanding the model tree (Figure 16). double click Section Assignments. If the sections have been chosen correctly they will change color from grey to red (Figure 17). While holding the shift key on the keyboard. this will further expand the model tree’s options. Model Tree Expansion (Parts)  After the model tree has been expanded. they can be assigned to the geometry.

choose the FLANGE section that was created. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box will appear (Figure 19a). The top and bottom now should now turn to a blue color. Next. Using the drop down menu under the Section option. Edit Section Assignment Figure 19b. Figure 19a. Edit Section Assignment (FLANGE) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 13 REV 03. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 19b.2011 . the web must be assigned its respective section. using the cursor click the web of the I-beam. Click Done.16. Double click Section Assignments. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 18b. Using the drop down menu under the Section option. Under the Shell offset option make sure the drop down definition is set to Middle surface. Figure 18a. Edit Section Assignment   Figure 18b. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box will appear (Figure 18a). Edit Section Assignment (FLANGE)   Click OK. choose the WEB section that was created. If the section has been chosen correctly it will change color from grey to red. Under the Shell offset option make sure the drop down definition is set to Middle surface.

e keep the aspect ratio of length to width to be as close to 1 as is possible. A total of eight lines should be selected since the part should be rotated and the four edges on the other end of the beam should also be clicked. While holding the shift key on the keyboard. thus making the complete model blue. If the edges have been selected correctly they will turn a red color (Figure 20). To create a mesh for the model geometry. Creating a Mesh  When creating a finite element mesh with shell or plate elements. If this selection is done correctly. To exit the rotate command press Escape on the keyboard) 2 Top Edges   Web Edge Side Edge 2 Bottom Edges Figure 20. i. Click Done. The first step in creating a mesh is to seed the part. Click and hold the Seed Part icon in the mesh module and six icons will appear. In this model. then the geometry should change color to pink.  Click Ok. it is best to make elements as square as possible. (Note: To rotate the beam click F3 on the keyboard then left click and drag the cursor to rotate the part. double click Mesh (Empty) in the model tree. Selected Edges ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 14 REV 03. the elements will be made with dimensions as close as possible to 1 cm by 1 cm. The web of the I-Beam should now turn a blue color.2011 . Hover the cursor over the Seed Edge: By Number icon and release the button on the cursor. click the top and bottom edges of the flanges.16.

Click Done. In the Number of elements along the edges: prompt at the bottom of the viewport enter a number of 90.2011 . In the Number of elements along the edges: prompt at the bottom of the viewport enter a number of 6. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 15 REV 03. The edge should turn from a pink to a red color if it has been selected correctly. The edges will now appear to be seeded with evenly spaced pink points along their length. Finally.            Click Done. This will seed the selected edges to have three evenly spaced elements along their length. click the four edges along the length of the I-Beam. In the Number of elements along the edges: prompt at the bottom of the viewport enter a number of 3. A total of four lines should be selected (Figure 20). click the web edge of the I-Beam (Figure 20).16. This will seed the selected edges to have six evenly spaced elements along their length. Next. while holding the shift key on the keyboard. Hit Enter on the keyboard. Hit Enter on the keyboard. A total of two edges should be selected since the part should be rotated and the edge on the other end of the beam should also be clicked. Hit Enter on the keyboard Click Done. If the edges have been selected correctly they will turn a red color. Click Done. This will seed the selected edge to have ninety evenly spaced elements along its length.

At the Figure 21. click the + to the left of Assembly in the model tree. Meshed Geometry Creating an Instance  Now that the part has been meshed. click the Mesh Part icon bottom of the viewport you will be prompted if it is OK to mesh the part? Click Yes. Model Tree Expansion (Assembly) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 16 REV 03.  The part is now ready to be meshed. the geometry will turn blue (Figure 21). If this procedure was done correctly.16. .2011 . Figure 22. To do this task. In the mesh module. The model tree will expand and should look identical to Figure 22. it can be brought into the assembly.

16. Create Instance ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 17 REV 03.2011 . Figure 23. Create Instance Dialog Box  The I-BEAM part is selected by default because only one part has been created for this tutorial. Double click on the Instances icon in the expanded model tree.  Figure 24. then this step would allow them to be entered into the assembly. Click OK. If this step was done correctly the model should turn a blue color (Figure 24). The Create Instance dialog box will appear (Figure 23). This feature will allow multiple parts to be brought into the assembly. If multiple parts had been created.

The Create Step dialog box will appear (Figure 25a). and the Edit Step dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 26). ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 18 REV 03. Create Step Dialog Box (LOADING STEP) Click Continue….g. support constraints and forces.16. General. Figure 26.g. In the model tree.Creating a Step   A Step is where the user defines the type of loading. Create Step Dialog Box  Figure 25b. Edit Step Dialog Box  Click OK to accept the default values for the various options.2011 . Figure 25a. double click the Steps icon. Create a Name for the step called LOADING STEP. and defines the boundary conditions. The Create Step dialog box should look identical to Figure 25b. Under Procedure type choose General > Static. e. Static or Dynamic. e.

Figure 27. The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 28b. Figure 28a. Double click Sets in the model tree.Creating Sets  At this point 4 sets will be created to simplify the application of loads and boundary conditions in the upcoming steps. and under the type option make sure to choose Node. To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color. Make sure to double click the Sets option that is underneath the I-BEAM part in the model tree (Figure 27).16. Create Set Dialog Box   Figure 28b. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 19 REV 03. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. Sets Option in Model Tree  The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 28a). In this tutorial the beam was rotated such that the nodes on the right side of the beam were selected for the fixed end (Figure 29). Create Set Dialog Box (FIXED END)  Click Continue… The model will to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. A total of 19 nodes should be selected. Create a Name for the set called FIXED END.2011 . click all of the nodes at one end of the beam.

The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 30b. A total of 19 nodes should be selected. In this tutorial the beam was rotated such that the nodes on the left side of the beam were selected for the load end. and under the type option make sure to choose Node. 20 REV 03. To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color. Another set will be created for the loading end of the I-Beam. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. Create Set Dialog Box (LOAD END)   Click Continue… The model will turn to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 30a).16. Create Set Dialog Box   Figure 30b. Figure 30a.Figure 29. Create a Name for the set called LOAD END. Click Done. Double click Sets(1) in the model tree. Fixed End Set   Click Done.2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL . click all of the nodes at the opposite end of the beam that the FIXED END set was created.

Create Set Dialog Box (TOP FLANGE) Click Continue… The model will turn to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. one for the TOP FLANGE and the other for the BOTTOM FLANGE. Create a Name for the set called TOP FLANGE. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 21 REV 03.16. click the + to the left of Sets (2) in the model tree. The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 32a). Create Set Dialog Box  Figure 32b. Figure 31. To verify that the sets were not created on the same end of the beam. Created Sets Model Tree  Click the FIXED END set in the model tree and the 19 nodes which are included in that set will turn red.2011 . These sets will be created to apply the torsional load to the model. and under the type option make sure to choose Node. Likewise. The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 32b. click the LOAD END set in the model tree and the 19 nodes included in that set will turn red in the viewport. Finally two more sets will be created. The model tree will expand and should look identical to Figure 31.   Figure 32a. Double click Sets(2) in the model tree.

16. Create Set Dialog Box (BOTTOM FLANGE) Click Continue… The model will turn to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 34b. Create a Name for the set called BOTTOM FLANGE. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. and under the type option make sure to choose Node. Figure 33. Figure 34a. Node Selection Top Flange Set   Click Done. click the nodes at the end of the top flange where the LOAD END set was created.2011 . The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 34a). A total of 7 nodes should be selected. To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color (Figure 33). Double click Sets(3) in the model tree. Now a set will be created for the BOTTOM FLANGE. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 22 REV 03. Create Set Dialog Box  Figure 34b.

and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose Initial. Node Selection Bottom Flange Set  Click Done.2011 . Create a Name for the boundary condition called FIXED. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 23 REV 03. Under the Category option choose Mechanical. Apply Constraint Boundary Conditions   Boundary conditions will be defined which will simulate a fixed (also known as “clamped”) beam at one end with a tip load.16. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 36b. Double click BCs in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 36a). A total of 7 nodes should be selected. click the nodes at the end of the bottom flange where the LOAD END set was created. Figure 35. To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color (Figure 35). and choose Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre under the Types for Selected Step option.

click I-BEAM-1. Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear. click Sets… at the bottom right side of the viewport. If this selection is done correctly you will be immediately prompted by the Region Selection dialog box (Figure 37).Figure 36a. Create Boundary Condition (FIXED)    Click Continue… Using the cursor. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 24 REV 03.FIXED END. Click ENCASTRE (U1=U2=U3=UR1=UR2=UR3=0).2011 . Create Boundary Condition Figure 36b. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 38.16. Figure 37. Region Selection Dialog Box   Using the cursor.

2011 .16.Figure 38. Create Boundary Condition (AXIAL) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 25 REV 03. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP. Under the Category option choose Mechanical. Applying an Axial Load to the Beam   A 0.01% axial strain will be applied to the end of the beam as a prescribed displacement. Create Boundary Condition  Click Continue… Figure 39b. Double click BCs(1) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 39a). Create a Name for the boundary condition called AXIAL. Edit Boundary Condition Dialog Box  Click OK. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 39b. Figure 39a.

Using the cursor click I-BEAM-1. a displacement will be added in the Z direction. Region Selection Dialog Box   Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 41a). Edit Boundary Condition Figure 41b. The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 40).16. Check the box to the left of U3 and enter a value of 0.LOAD END. Figure 40. Since the I-Beam cross section was sketched in the X Y plane. Edit Boundary Condition (AXIAL) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 26 REV 03.00009. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 41b.2011 . Figure 41a.

and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 27 REV 03. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option. Applied Axial Load Applying a Torsional Load to the Beam  An equal and opposite displacement will be imposed on opposite sides of the beam to simulate a torque on the beam. To find the required displacement in the x-direction to achieve the 5° twist use:   Where x is the prescribed displacement and is equal to 0. Figure 42. Double click BCs(2) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 43a). The y-distance from the center of the beam to the top or bottom flange is 0.059/2).0295 m (0. Create a Name for the boundary condition called TORSION TOP.00258 m. Under the Category option choose Mechanical.16. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 43b.2011 . Click OK. The load is to be a 5° twist at the end of the beam. If the prescribed displacement has been applied correctly small orange arrows will be visible at the nodes (Figure 42).

Click I-BEAM-1. Create Boundary Condition Figure 43b.00258. Figure 44. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 45b.Figure 43a. the Region Selection dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 44.16.2011 .TOP FLANGE. Since this displacement will be applied to the top flange in the +X direction click the box to the left of U1: and enter a number of 0. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 28 REV 03. Region Selection Dialog Box  Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 45a). Create Boundary Condition (TORSION TOP)   Click Continue… The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear.

and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option. Edit Boundary Condition (TORSION TOP) Click OK. Create Boundary Condition Figure 46b. Figure 46a. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 46b.2011 . Edit Boundary Condition   Figure 45b. Create a Name for the boundary condition called TORSION BOTTOM. Under the Category option choose Mechanical.16.Figure 45a. Create Boundary Condition (TORSION BOTTOM) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 29 REV 03. If the procedure has been completed correctly small orange arrows will appear pointing in the +X direction at the end of the top flange. An equal and opposite displacement will be prescribed to the bottom flange. Double click BCs(3) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 46a). and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP.

Region Selection Dialog Box  Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 48a). The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 48b. Figure 48a. the Region Selection dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 47. Since this displacement will be applied to the bottom flange in the -X direction click the box to the left of U1: and enter a number of -0. Edit Boundary Condition (TORSION BOTTOM) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 30 REV 03. Edit Boundary Condition Figure 48b.  Click Continue… The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear.00258. Figure 47. Click I-BEAM-1.16.BOTTOM FLANGE.2011 .

Figure 49. Click OK. An expanded view of the loading end of the beam is shown in Figure 49. Create a Name for the boundary condition called BENDING. Under the Category option choose Mechanical. If the procedure has been completed correctly small orange arrows will appear pointing in the -X direction at the end of the bottom flange.16. a prescribed displacement in the –Y direction will be imposed on the tip of the beam. Axial and Torsional Loads Beam in Bending  Finally. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP.2011 . ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 31 REV 03. Double click BCs(4) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 50a). The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 50b. Both the axial and torsional loads are applied in this view.

Create Boundary Condition Figure 50b.006. Click I-BEAM-1.2011 .16. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 32 REV 03. Figure 51. Region Selection Dialog Box  Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 52a).LOAD END.Figure 50a. Create Boundary Condition (BENDING)   Click Continue… The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 52b. Since this displacement will be applied to the load end in the -Y direction click the box to the left of U2: and enter a number of -0. the Region Selection dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 51.

Axial. An expanded view of the loading end of the beam is shown in Figure 53. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 33 REV 03.2011 .16. All three loading conditions are applied in this view (Axial. and Bending). Figure 53. Torsion and Bending Loads. Torsion. Edit Boundary Condition (BENDING) Click OK. Edit Boundary Condition  Figure 52b.Figure 52a. If the procedure has been completed correctly small orange arrows will appear pointing in the -Y direction on the loading end of the beam.

At this point the selected boundary conditions should be highlighted blue. This will expand the model tree and should look similar to Figure 54.2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL . Pop Up Menu (Suppress)  Click Suppress. Figure 54. To do so click the + to the left of BCs (5) in the model tree. Model Tree Expansion (BCs)  Once the model tree has been expanded all off the created boundary conditions can be viewed. While holding Ctrl on the keyboard click the AXIAL. The pop up menu should look similar to that in Figure 55. suppressing the loads is helpful rather than deleting the loads when they are unwanted for the analysis. and TORSION BOTTOM boundary conditions. If this is done correctly a red X will appear to the left of the boundary conditions in the model tree. Since only the BENDING boundary condition is of interest for this analysis. Note: Suppressed BCs will not write to the inp file. Please note that the FIXED boundary condition should not be suppressed for any analysis since is needed to clamp the end of the beam and is not considered a loading condition. Since this tutorial calls for multiple loading conditions. Release the Ctrl button on the keyboard and right mouse click one of the selected boundary conditions. TORSION TOP.   Figure 55. the others can be suppressed. An analysis for the bending loading condition will be completed.16. 34 REV 03.

i. perform the analysis. Figure 57. The Create Job dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 56. In the Create Job dialog box. Blank spaces are not allowed in a job name.2011 . A job will take the input file created by the preprocessor and process the model. you have been preprocessing the model. Up to this point. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 35 REV 03.Creating a Job  To create a job for this model.16. Thus the use of the underline in the name. double click the Jobs icon in the model tree. Edit Job Dialog Box (BENDING)  Accept the default values and click OK. Figure 56. Create Job Dialog Box (BENDING)   Click Continue… The Edit Job dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 57).e. create a Name for this job called BENDING.

Figure 58. Set Work Directory (FOLDERS)   Click OK. setting the work directory must be accomplished. Set Work Directory  The Set Work Directory screen will immediately appear (Figure 59).2011 . Click OK.16. Click Select… and use standard Windows practice to select (and possibly create) a subdirectory. Figure 59. At the top of the screen. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 36 REV 03.Setting the Work Directory  To ensure that the input files write to the correct folder. click File and in the dropdown menu click Set Work Directory… (Figure 58).

Right click the job called BENDING and click the Write Input option. Now that the correct directory has been sourced in the command window type abaqus inter j=BENDING and then hit enter. Model Analysis (ABAQUS Command) Method #1      Go to the Start Menu and open Abaqus Command ABAQUS is set to a default directory (Example E:\>).2011 .16.Writing the Input File (. To access a specific directory within that drive type cd followed by the specific folder name in that directory (e. Abaqus Command Prompt (COMPLETED) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 37 REV 03. To change directories in the Abaqus Command type the directory of choice followed by a colon (D:) then hit Enter.g. If the job has completed successfully the Abaqus prompt should look similar to Figure 60.inp) of this model to the work directory. first click the + next to the Jobs(1) icon in the model tree. cd APPLIED STRENGTHS T. It may be helpful to go to the folder on the computer to which the work directory is set to ensure that the input file was written there. Figure 60.. This choice will write an input file (.A) then hit Enter.inp)    To write the input file of the job that was created.

If you see a warning:  Click OK.16. If this selection was done correctly. Analysis Results Isometric View ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 38 REV 03. The intent of this warning is to prevent the user from accidentally overwriting a previously completed analysis with the same name. the model should turn to a green color and the truss will have rotated to an isometric view (Figure 61). return to view the ABAQUS CAE viewport.2011 . the BENDING job should still be highlighted in ABAQUS CAE model tree.inp file for processing by ABAQUS can be accomplished with ABAQUS CAE Right click the job called BENDING and click the Submit option. Because the last step of creating the model was to create a job/write (and possibly submit) an input file.  Figure 61.Method #2    An alternative method for submitting an *. Right click the BENDING job and then click Results. Postprocessing using ABAQUS CAE   After the analysis has successfully completed in the Abaqus Command window using Method #1 or using Method #2. The model will now be submitted for analysis by ABAQUS and the progress can be viewed in the status window at the bottom of the screen.

then click it. and the Apply Front View button can be clicked to view the model in the X Y plane. click View in the toolbar at the top of the screen. If not. Click Toolbars and make sure the option Views has a check mark to the left of it. Figure 62. Views Toolbar  To view the deformed shape of the model. Next. The model should look similar to that in Figure 63.  To rotate the truss back into the X Y plane for viewing.2011 . click the Plot Contours on Deformed Shape icon in the Visualization module. The Views toolbar will appear (Figure 62). Figure 63.16. Deformed Shape (BENDING) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 39 REV 03.

16. At the top of the viewport underneath the top toolbar click the drop down menu Mises (Figure 64). The I-Beam model should look similar to that in Figure 65. Mises Dropdown  Using the cursor click Third Invariant. Figure 64. Figure 65.2011 . Third Invariant Stress Contour ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 40 REV 03.Obtaining Stress Values in Elements  To obtain the stresses in an element first the appropriate type of stress must be viewed. this will change the contour color to represent the third invariant stress levels.

Click Element under the General Queries option. Query Dialog Box (ELEMENT) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 41 REV 03.16. Figure 67a. Toolbar Tools  The Query dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 67a). output stress values will be obtained for different elements.2011 . Now that the appropriate stress contour is being viewed. and then click Query… Figure 66. Query Dialog Box Figure 67b. At the top toolbar click Tools (Figure 66). The Query dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 67b.

To complete both the AXIAL and TORSION loading return to the model tree by clicking the Model tab at the top left of the screen. To complete the analysis using the TORSIONAL load. The value of the stress will then appear at the bottom of the viewport (Figure 68). Recall that the elastic modulus was prescribed to be 200x109 Pa and all dimensions were input in meters therefore the output stress values are in units of Pa. Please note: the stress value listed corresponds to the element outlined with a red box in the viewport.   ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 42 REV 03. Modeling Different Loading Conditions  This tutorial completes the post processing for the BENDING loading condition of the project. Create a new Job called TORSION and complete the post processing as needed. Please note: two torsional loads must be suppressed since there is a load for both the top and bottom flanges. Earlier in the tutorial the AXIAL & TORSIONAL boundary conditions were suppressed.2011 . (To resume the torsion condition right click TORSION TOP & BOTTOM in the model tree and click resume).16. At this point click the element on the model for which the stress value is desired. Stress Value in Viewport  Without exiting the Query dialog box click another element to view the stress value. Stress Value Figure 68. Suppress both the BENDING and AXIAL boundary conditions and Resume both of the TORSION boundary conditions.

2011 .  Likewise. For the best analysis. the AXIAL job should still be highlighted in ABAQUS CAE model tree. S Dropdown  Using the cursor click RF. resume the respective boundary conditions and complete the post processing as needed. Right click the AXIAL and then click Results. If a combination of loading conditions is desired. At the top of the viewport underneath the top toolbar click the drop down menu S (Figure 69). Since the reaction force in the Z direction is desired click the Magnitude dropdown menu directly to the right of the RF dropdown and then click RF3. this unit load should be distributed amongst all of the nodes at the tip of the beam. this will change the contour from viewing stresses to the magnitude of reaction forces.16. the amount of force to apply to each node is a function of the beam width of the element and the number elements connected to a node.  ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 43 REV 03. a unit axial load will be applied to the tip of the beam.   Figure 69. The Create XY Data dialog box will appear (Figure 70a). Beam Buckling  For the beam buckling analysis. Because the last step of creating the model was to create a job/write (and possibly submit) an input file. However. Please note: two torsional loads must be suppressed since there is a load for both the top and bottom flanges. To obtain the reactions at the nodes click the Create XY Data icon in the Visualization module. The reaction forces at the nodes at the end of the beam are to be determined. Choose the ODB field output option (Figure 70b). suppress the TORSION and BENDING conditions and create a new Job called AXIAL and complete the post processing as needed.

All other reaction components should be left unchecked (Figure 71b). Create XY Data Dialog Box   Figure 70b.16. and click Edit Selection. Scroll down and click the black arrowhead next to RF: Reaction force . Under the Variables tab click the Positions: drop down menu and change the selection to Unique Nodal.Figure 70a. Create XY Data Dialog Box (FIELD) Click Continue… The XY Data from ODB Field Output dialog box will appear (Figure 71a). Figure 71a. Make sure that Pick from viewport is selected in the Method section. When the elements have been selected they will turn a red color. XY Data from ODB Field Output   Figure 71b.2011 .This click will expand the selection for more options. Scroll down and check the box next to RF3. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 44 REV 03. XY Data from ODB Field Output  Next click the Elements/Nodes tab. click the nodes on the model at the end of the beam which the load was applied. A total of 19 nodes should be selected. Click Plot.

A plot should appear similar to that in Figure 72. Figure 72. Field Output Plot  To view the numerical values of the reactions at the nodes.  Figure 73. This option is located directly to the right of the Create XY Data option.  Click Dismiss.16. XY Data Manager Dialog Box ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 45 REV 03.2011 . The XY Data Manager dialog box will appear (Figure 73). click the XY Data Manager icon in the Visualization module.

16. Edit XY Data Dialog Box    In this dialog box the value of the reaction force at the respective node is listed. 46 REV 03. Import Node Numbers (Excel)  Double click each entry and enter the reaction force value in column B of the same Excel workbook (Figure 76). To view the value. Figure 74. At this point click start on the computer and open Microsoft Excel. In column A of a new Excel workbook enter the node numbers of the 19 nodes found in the XY Data Manager dialog box (Figure 75). Click OK.2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL . Figure 75. double click each selection and an Edit XY Data dialog box will appear (Figure 74).

In this case the sum is 5164. Many of the nodes have the same respective reaction force and it may be beneficial to color code the nodes with the same reaction forces (Figure 77).16. Figure 77. Dividing each Reaction Force value by this total gives the respective force to apply to each node so as to have a net unit force on the end of the beam (Figure 77).9. Color Coded Unit Loads (Excel)  Now that the nodal forces are known return to Abaqus CAE and close the Edit XY Data and XY Data Manager dialog boxes. Import Reaction Forces (Excel)  Use the SUM function in Excel to add all the forces in column B. Return to the model tree by clicking the Model tab at the top left 47 REV 03.2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL .Figure 76.

ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 48 REV 03. Double click Steps (2) and you will be prompted by the Create Step dialog box (Figure 78a). Expand Steps (2) in the model tree if it is not already expanded by clicking the + to the left of the Steps(2) listing. Create Step Dialog Box (BUCLKE)  Click Continue… The Edit Step dialog box will immediately appear.2011 . Figure 78a. Right click LOADING STEP and left click Suppress. Create Step Dialog Box Figure 78b. Under the Procedure type: drop down menu choose Linear perturbation and click Buckle. The Edit Step dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 79. The only boundary condition that should still be resumed is the FIXED boundary condition. Suppress the AXIAL boundary condition (Right click -> Suppress).16. The Create Step dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 78b.  hand side of the viewport. Under the Number of eigenvalues requested: option enter a value of 5 in the box. Create a Name: for the step called BUCKLE.

Edit Step Dialog Box (5 Eigenvalues)    Click OK. Figure 80.557. 233.412. Similar to creating sets in the first part of the tutorial. In the dialog box click the Mesh tab. Create Set Dialog Box (NODES_3_6_10_11)   Click Continue… At the top toolbar click View then click Part Display Options… and the Part Display Options dialog box will immediately appear.779. Create a Name for the set called Nodes_3_6_10_11 and ensure that Node is selected under the type option. double click Sets (4) in the model tree and the Create Set dialog box will immediately appear. and 430.2011 . 393.16.Figure 79.711. The Create Set dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 80. we will create 4 sets since there are repeated unit load values of 116. Next click In all partrelated modules and check the box next to Show node labels (Figure 81). ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 49 REV 03. Rather than individually load 19 nodes with its respective unit load value.

and 11. While holding Shift on the keyboard click nodes 3. Set Creation (Nodes 3. This was done so that the appropriate unit load could be placed on the correct nodes. Part Display Options Dialog Box   Click OK. At this point small purple node labels will appear on the model.Figure 81. 6. 11) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 50 REV 03.16. 10. Figure 82. 10.2011 . 6. When the nodes are selected they will turn a red color (Figure 82).

Create Load Dialog Box Figure 84b. 290.  Click Done. the appropriate loads can be applied to the nodes. Repeat the same method to create sets for: Nodes [103. 476] Nodes [569. 474. 572. 473. New Sets Figure 83. All Created Sets  Now that the sets have been created. The Create Load dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 84b.2011 . 7]  If all of the sets have been created correctly the model tree should have a total of 8 sets and look similar to Figure 83. 571. Create Load Dialog Box (NODES) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 51 REV 03. Ensure Mechanical is selected under Category and Concentrated force under Types for Selected Step. Create a Name: for the load called NODES_3_6_10_11. 573] Nodes [2. Figure 84a. Double click Loads in the model tree and the Create Load dialog box will appear (Figure 84a). 475. 570. 289.16. 104.

Figure 86a.2011 . The model should look similar to that in Figure 87. The Edit Load dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 86b. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 52 REV 03. Edit Load Dialog Box  Figure 86b.16. the Region Selection dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 85.02261 in the CF3: option. Click I-BEAM-1. Small yellow arrows will be visible pointing in the –Z direction if the procedure has been completed correctly. Click Continue… In the bottom right hand side of the viewport click Sets… and the Region Selection dialog box will appear. Edit Load Dialog Box (-0.NODES_3_6_10_11. Enter a value of -0. Figure 85.02261) Click OK. Region Selection Dialog Box (NODES)  Click Continue… The Edit Load dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 86a).

2011 . 104. 289.04522 Nodes [569. Loads of: Nodes [103. 473. 572. 290. 475. Model Load (-0. 573] = -0.076227 Nodes [2. 474. 476] = -0.Figure 87.083333  If this procedure has been completed correctly there will be small yellow arrows located ALL the nodes on the loading end of the beam (Figure 88). 7] = -0. 570.16. 571. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 53 REV 03. create loads for the three other sets that were generated in the previous steps.02261)  Using the same approach.

Also.2011 . Buckle Load Figure 89. the first buckling load is listed in the viewport to be 30200 Hz. the deformed shape should look similar to that in Figure 89. Unit Load   Double click Jobs (1) in the model tree and create a job named BUCLKE. When viewing the results.16.Figure 88. Deformed Shape (Localized Buckle) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 54 REV 03. Write the input file and post process the job the same way as in the first part of this tutorial.

Shell Section Input File ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 55 REV 03. These changes will be made by editing the .16.inp files that are generated in the working directory. This part of the . This will open the Find dialog box. Open the folder on the computer that the working directory is set to.  The buckled shape shown in Figure 89 is distorted and appears to be localized buckling of the thin flanges and webs and not overall Euler buckling of the column.inp)  While holding Ctrl on the keyboard press the letter F. Input File (.inp file should look similar to that in Figure 90.2011 .inp file using Notepad.inp file should look similar to that shown in Figure 91. The model will now be edited to increase the thickness of the flanges from 1 mm to 5 mm and the web from 2 mm to 4 mm. Open the BUCKLE. Figure 90. Enter Shell and then click Find Next. The . Figure 91.

Figure 93. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 56 REV 03.2011 . Figure 92.inp extension MUST be entered in the file name) Go to the Abaqus Command window and source to the directory if it is not already sourced.inp (Note: the .004. Abaqus Command Prompt (COMPLETED)   Return to the Abaqus CAE viewport and click the Results tab located at the top of the model tree. Double click the first item in the Results tab called Output Databases. Change 0.16. This is where we will change the thickness values of the flanges and web.001 to 0.odb and click OK. The Open Database dialog box will appear. This section of the input file should look similar to Figure 92.002 to 0. Shell Section Input File (Increased)    Click File then click Save As… Enter a File name: for this input file called BUCKLE_EULER.005 and change 0. Enter the command abaqus inter j=BUCKLE_EULER and hit Enter. If the analysis completed successfully the command window will look similar to that in Figure 93. Source to the BUCKLE_EULER.

the first buckling load is listed in the viewport to be 168712 Hz. the deformed shape should look similar to that in Figure 94. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 57 REV 03.16. Note the buckling force that was applied was based on the force distribution over the nodes resulting from an axial pull on the thinner sections. The localized buckling is not present in this view and the overall buckling looks to be Euler buckling and notice that the deflection is about the smaller area moment of inertia. the buckling load may be slightly incorrect for this second buckling analysis.  Conclusion  Save the file by doing either File > Save or clicking the disk icon   Close ABAQUS CAE: File > Exit or Ctrl+Q This completes the Finite Element Analysis of an I-Beam tutorial. Also. When viewing the results. However. the important lesson is that the finite element method can find critical buckling loads be they local or overall Euler buckling. Deformed Shape (Euler Buckle)  The buckled shape is shown in Figure 94. Thus.2011 . Buckle Load Figure 94. That force distribution may not be the same as we did not increase the size of the web and flanges by the same scale factor.

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