AXIAL, BENDING, TORSION, COMBINED AND BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF A BEAM

Instructor: Professor James Sherwood Revised: Dimitri Soteropoulos Programs Utilized: ABAQUS CAE 6.9-EF1 Problem Description: In this tutorial, a finite element model of a beam will be constructed and analyzed using ABAQUS CAE. The analysis will look at stresses and displacements associated with multiple loading conditions for a steel I-beam. The beam will be “clamped” at one end and be loaded on the other end with prescribed displacements for axial, torsion and bending loads. A unit force will be applied to find the critical buckling load and the associated mode shape. The cross section of the beam is shown in Figure 1. The cross section dimensions are summarized in Table 1. The length of the beam is 90 cm.

Table 1. Cross Section Dimensions a b t1 t2 6 cm 7 cm 1 mm 2 mm

Figure 1. Beam Cross Section

ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL

1

REV 03.16.2011

Creating the Model Geometry   Go to the Start Menu and open Abaqus CAE You may be prompted with an Abaqus/CAE 6.9 Extended Functionality box (Figure 1). Close this box by clicking the X in the top right hand corner.

Figure 1. Abaqus/CAE 6.9 Extended Functionality box.

ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL

2

REV 03.16.2011

Once the Extended Functionality box is exited, the ABAQUS CAE Viewport should look similar to Figure 2. (Please note the model tree is the series of functions listed on the left hand side of the viewport, while the module is the list of icons to the right of the model tree)

Model Tree

Figure 2. ABAQUS CAE Viewport   To create the model geometry of the steel I-beam, a sketch of the cross section must be generated. Using the left mouse button, double click Parts in the model tree and the Create Part (Figure 3a) dialog box appears. Enter a new name for the part (I-BEAM), and under the Base Feature tab choose Shell for shape and Extrusion for type. Change the approximate size option to 0.5. The Create Part dialog box should look identical to Figure 3b. Click Continue… and the graphics window will change to a set of gridlines.

ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL

3

REV 03.16.2011

Figure 3a. Create Part Dialog Box

Figure 3b. Create Part Dialog Box (I-BEAM)

For the first step in generating the model geometry, a rectangular box must be created. Click the Create Lines: Rectangle (4 lines) icon in the module. (Remember, the module is the series of icons to the right of the model tree) In the viewport click once with the cursor, then drag the cursor to any other place in the viewport and click again. A yellow rectangle should be visible in the viewport. Click the Create Lines: Connected icon in the module, hover the cursor along the top horizontal line of the rectangle until a white circle appears (Figure 4). The circle should appear at the midpoint of that line.

 

ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL

4

REV 03.16.2011

Figure 4. Midpoint of Horizontal Line  Once the white circle appears on the horizontal line, click with the cursor and draw a vertical line which connects to the bottom horizontal line. You will know that the line is vertical if there is a V located on the right side of the line (Figure 5).

Figure 5. Vertical Line

ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL

5

REV 03.16.2011

Using the cursor click the middle vertical line. Make sure to keep a consistent set of units when creating any model. (Please note: due to significant figures in the sketch mode a value of 0. Move the cursor away from the vertical line and click. a New dimension: box should appear (Figure 6). At the bottom of the viewport. a New dimension: box should appear.06 will appear when 0. The sketch should resize to the appropriate dimension and look similar to that in Figure 7. make sure to enter a value of 0.059 is entered for the vertical height. Dimensioned Sketch ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 6 REV 03. At this point the line should turn red and its corresponding dimension should appear.16.  Figure 6.059 for the vertical line) Figure 7.07 in the New Dimension box. Hit Enter. New Dimension Box       Enter a value of 0. The dimension values are being input in units of meters. The sketch should resize to the appropriate dimension. Click the Add Dimension icon in the module and click the top horizontal line in the sketch. it will now be given the proper dimensions. Move the cursur away from the horizontal line and click.2011 . At the bottom of the viewport. At this point the line should turn red and its corresponding dimension should appear.059 in the new dimension box and hit Enter. Enter a value of 0. Since an arbitrary rectangle was drawn in the initial sketch.

Figure 9a. Repeat the previous step but drag the cursor over the far right vertical line. At the bottom of the viewport you will be prompted to Sketch the section for the shell extrusion. If this was done correctly the left vertical line should disappear. Edit Base Extrusion Dialog Box (0. Click Done.  To properly create the I-Beam cross section. Edit Base Extrusion Dialog Box Figure 9b. click the Auto-Trim icon in the module. Figure 8.9. This value will extrude the geometry 90 cm (0.9) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 7 REV 03. The Edit Base Extrusion dialog box will appear (Figure 9a). Final I-Beam Cross Section    Press Escape on your keyboard to exit the Auto-Trim tool.16. In the Depth: category enter a value of 0. After this value has been entered the Edit Base Extrusion dialog box should look similar to Figure 9b.2011 .9m) in the Z direction. Click and hold the left cursor button while dragging the cursor over the far left vertical line and then let go. If the process was done correctly the sketch should look similar to that in Figure 8.

and Poisson’s Ratio = 0. Click OK. the Edit Material dialog box should look similar to Figure 11b. Enter a Name for the material (STEEL). After the material properties have been entered. highlight Elasticity and click Elastic. Figure 10. Sketch mode will automatically be exited and a grey I-Beam will appear (Figure 10). The cross section sketch will be extruded into a three dimensional part. and click the Mechanical tab.3. double click on Materials in the model tree and the Edit Material dialog box will appear (Figure 11a).  ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 8 REV 03.16. Extruded I-Beam Model Defining Material Properties  To define material properties for this model. Enter values of Young’s Modulus = 200E09 Pa.  Click OK.2011 .

2011 . Click File then click Save. Your Create Section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 12b.Figure 11a.16. The units chosen for the definition of the material properties should be consistent and dictate what units should be used for the dimensions of the structure. Edit Material Dialog Box  Figure 11b. double click Sections in the model tree and the Create Section dialog box will appear (Figure 12a). Click Continue…  Figure 12a. and choose Shell under the Category Tab. It may be of interest to save the file after each section of this tutorial. the model should be saved. therefore the respective Young’s Modulus units should be entered in Pa (Pascals). The file will save as a Model Database (*. At this point in preprocessing. Name the file I-Beam Tutorial. Create Section Dialog Box (FLANGE) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 9 REV 03. Enter a Name for the section (FLANGE).cae*) file. Create Section Dialog Box Figure 12b. All of the dimensions have been input in meters. and Homogeneous under the Type tab. Edit Material Dialog Box (Steel)  Please note there is no dropdown menu or feature in ABAQUS that sets specific units. Creating Sections  To create a shell section in ABAQUS.

The Edit section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 13.2011 . and choose Shell under the Category Tab. Under the basic tab enter 0. the Material is defaulted to STEEL. another section with the appropriate shell thickness for the web must be created. Because only one material has been created.   The Edit Section dialog box will then appear where a value for the respective Shell thickness can be prescribed for this section. Edit Section Dialog Box (FLANGE)    Since the flanges have a different specified thickness than the web. Click Continue… ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 10 REV 03.001 for the Shell thickness (This value will be used to define a thickness of 1 mm for both the top and bottom flanges).16. Your Create Section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 14b. If both the flanges and web had the same thickness only one section would need to be created. Click OK. When this is done the number of Thickness integration points will default to 3. the dropdown menu could be used to prescribe a different material to this section. Change the Thickness integration rule: to Gauss. and Homogeneous under the Type tab. Enter a Name for the section (WEB). Double click Sections in the model tree and the Create Section dialog box will appear (Figure 14a). If multiple materials had been created. Figure 13.

Edit Section Dialog Box (WEB) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 11 REV 03.Figure 14a. When this is done the number of Thickness integration points will default to 3. the Material is defaulted to STEEL.2011 . Click OK. If multiple materials had been created. Figure 15. the dropdown menu could be used to prescribe a different material to this section.16. Change the Thickness integration rule: to Gauss. Create Section Dialog Box (WEB)    The Edit Section dialog box will then appear where a value for the respective Shell thickness can be prescribed for this section. The Edit section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 15.002 for the Shell thickness (This value will be used to define a 2 mm thickness for the web). Create Section Dialog Box Figure 14b. Because only one material has been created. Under the basic tab enter 0.

they can be assigned to the geometry. Model Tree Expansion (Parts)  After the model tree has been expanded.Assigning Sections  Now that the shell sections have been created.  2 Top Sections 2 Bottom Sections Figure 17. double click Section Assignments. Selected Flange Sections ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 12 REV 03. Click Done. Next. While holding the shift key on the keyboard.16.2011 . this will further expand the model tree’s options. click the + to the left of the Parts icon. further expanding the model tree (Figure 16). click the + to the left of the part called I-BEAM. Figure 16. In the model tree. If the sections have been chosen correctly they will change color from grey to red (Figure 17). click the 2 sections of the top flange and the 2 sections of the bottom flange.

The Edit Section Assignment dialog box will appear (Figure 19a). Figure 18a. the web must be assigned its respective section. Edit Section Assignment (FLANGE)   Click OK. choose the FLANGE section that was created. Edit Section Assignment (FLANGE) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 13 REV 03. Edit Section Assignment Figure 19b. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 19b. Double click Section Assignments. choose the WEB section that was created. Figure 19a.2011 . If the section has been chosen correctly it will change color from grey to red. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box will appear (Figure 18a). Click Done. The top and bottom now should now turn to a blue color. Under the Shell offset option make sure the drop down definition is set to Middle surface. using the cursor click the web of the I-beam. Edit Section Assignment   Figure 18b.16. Under the Shell offset option make sure the drop down definition is set to Middle surface. Using the drop down menu under the Section option. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 18b. Next. Using the drop down menu under the Section option.

If the edges have been selected correctly they will turn a red color (Figure 20).e keep the aspect ratio of length to width to be as close to 1 as is possible. The first step in creating a mesh is to seed the part. i. Click Done. Click and hold the Seed Part icon in the mesh module and six icons will appear. double click Mesh (Empty) in the model tree. (Note: To rotate the beam click F3 on the keyboard then left click and drag the cursor to rotate the part.16. it is best to make elements as square as possible.  Click Ok. If this selection is done correctly. the elements will be made with dimensions as close as possible to 1 cm by 1 cm. then the geometry should change color to pink. A total of eight lines should be selected since the part should be rotated and the four edges on the other end of the beam should also be clicked. In this model. Selected Edges ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 14 REV 03.2011 . click the top and bottom edges of the flanges. Hover the cursor over the Seed Edge: By Number icon and release the button on the cursor. To exit the rotate command press Escape on the keyboard) 2 Top Edges   Web Edge Side Edge 2 Bottom Edges Figure 20. To create a mesh for the model geometry. While holding the shift key on the keyboard. thus making the complete model blue. Creating a Mesh  When creating a finite element mesh with shell or plate elements. The web of the I-Beam should now turn a blue color.

Click Done.            Click Done. This will seed the selected edges to have six evenly spaced elements along their length. In the Number of elements along the edges: prompt at the bottom of the viewport enter a number of 6. Hit Enter on the keyboard. The edge should turn from a pink to a red color if it has been selected correctly. Hit Enter on the keyboard Click Done.2011 . This will seed the selected edges to have three evenly spaced elements along their length.16. Finally. This will seed the selected edge to have ninety evenly spaced elements along its length. In the Number of elements along the edges: prompt at the bottom of the viewport enter a number of 90. In the Number of elements along the edges: prompt at the bottom of the viewport enter a number of 3. click the four edges along the length of the I-Beam. A total of four lines should be selected (Figure 20). The edges will now appear to be seeded with evenly spaced pink points along their length. Click Done. while holding the shift key on the keyboard. click the web edge of the I-Beam (Figure 20). Hit Enter on the keyboard. Next. A total of two edges should be selected since the part should be rotated and the edge on the other end of the beam should also be clicked. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 15 REV 03. If the edges have been selected correctly they will turn a red color.

.2011 . Model Tree Expansion (Assembly) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 16 REV 03. it can be brought into the assembly. At the Figure 21. The model tree will expand and should look identical to Figure 22. Figure 22. click the + to the left of Assembly in the model tree. If this procedure was done correctly. To do this task. Meshed Geometry Creating an Instance  Now that the part has been meshed. the geometry will turn blue (Figure 21).  The part is now ready to be meshed.16. In the mesh module. click the Mesh Part icon bottom of the viewport you will be prompted if it is OK to mesh the part? Click Yes.

The Create Instance dialog box will appear (Figure 23). then this step would allow them to be entered into the assembly.  Figure 24. If this step was done correctly the model should turn a blue color (Figure 24).16.2011 . Figure 23. Double click on the Instances icon in the expanded model tree. This feature will allow multiple parts to be brought into the assembly. Create Instance ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 17 REV 03. If multiple parts had been created. Create Instance Dialog Box  The I-BEAM part is selected by default because only one part has been created for this tutorial. Click OK.

e. Create Step Dialog Box (LOADING STEP) Click Continue…. Static or Dynamic. and defines the boundary conditions. and the Edit Step dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 26). Figure 26. In the model tree. Under Procedure type choose General > Static. Figure 25a. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 18 REV 03.g. The Create Step dialog box should look identical to Figure 25b. General.g. double click the Steps icon. Create a Name for the step called LOADING STEP.2011 . The Create Step dialog box will appear (Figure 25a).16. e. Create Step Dialog Box  Figure 25b.Creating a Step   A Step is where the user defines the type of loading. Edit Step Dialog Box  Click OK to accept the default values for the various options. support constraints and forces.

Sets Option in Model Tree  The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 28a). ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 19 REV 03. The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 28b. Figure 27. Double click Sets in the model tree. Create Set Dialog Box   Figure 28b. Create a Name for the set called FIXED END. Make sure to double click the Sets option that is underneath the I-BEAM part in the model tree (Figure 27). Create Set Dialog Box (FIXED END)  Click Continue… The model will to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. In this tutorial the beam was rotated such that the nodes on the right side of the beam were selected for the fixed end (Figure 29). A total of 19 nodes should be selected.2011 . To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard.Creating Sets  At this point 4 sets will be created to simplify the application of loads and boundary conditions in the upcoming steps.16. Figure 28a. and under the type option make sure to choose Node. click all of the nodes at one end of the beam.

16. The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 30b. To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color. Create Set Dialog Box (LOAD END)   Click Continue… The model will turn to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. In this tutorial the beam was rotated such that the nodes on the left side of the beam were selected for the load end. Create a Name for the set called LOAD END. A total of 19 nodes should be selected.Figure 29. 20 REV 03.2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL . The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 30a). While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. and under the type option make sure to choose Node. Double click Sets(1) in the model tree. Create Set Dialog Box   Figure 30b. Figure 30a. click all of the nodes at the opposite end of the beam that the FIXED END set was created. Fixed End Set   Click Done. Another set will be created for the loading end of the I-Beam. Click Done.

The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 32a).16. Finally two more sets will be created. Figure 31.2011 . To verify that the sets were not created on the same end of the beam. one for the TOP FLANGE and the other for the BOTTOM FLANGE. The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 32b. Double click Sets(2) in the model tree. click the LOAD END set in the model tree and the 19 nodes included in that set will turn red in the viewport. Create a Name for the set called TOP FLANGE. Create Set Dialog Box (TOP FLANGE) Click Continue… The model will turn to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. These sets will be created to apply the torsional load to the model. Created Sets Model Tree  Click the FIXED END set in the model tree and the 19 nodes which are included in that set will turn red. click the + to the left of Sets (2) in the model tree. The model tree will expand and should look identical to Figure 31. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 21 REV 03. Likewise. Create Set Dialog Box  Figure 32b.   Figure 32a. and under the type option make sure to choose Node.

Double click Sets(3) in the model tree. Create Set Dialog Box  Figure 34b. To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color (Figure 33). and under the type option make sure to choose Node.16.2011 . click the nodes at the end of the top flange where the LOAD END set was created. Create Set Dialog Box (BOTTOM FLANGE) Click Continue… The model will turn to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. Node Selection Top Flange Set   Click Done. Now a set will be created for the BOTTOM FLANGE. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. Create a Name for the set called BOTTOM FLANGE. Figure 34a. Figure 33. A total of 7 nodes should be selected. The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 34b. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 22 REV 03. The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 34a).

Create a Name for the boundary condition called FIXED. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 23 REV 03. Double click BCs in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 36a).16. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. click the nodes at the end of the bottom flange where the LOAD END set was created. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose Initial. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 36b.2011 . Figure 35. Apply Constraint Boundary Conditions   Boundary conditions will be defined which will simulate a fixed (also known as “clamped”) beam at one end with a tip load. Under the Category option choose Mechanical. Node Selection Bottom Flange Set  Click Done. A total of 7 nodes should be selected. To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color (Figure 35). and choose Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre under the Types for Selected Step option.

Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear. Create Boundary Condition (FIXED)    Click Continue… Using the cursor.Figure 36a. Figure 37. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 38. Click ENCASTRE (U1=U2=U3=UR1=UR2=UR3=0). If this selection is done correctly you will be immediately prompted by the Region Selection dialog box (Figure 37).16.2011 . ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 24 REV 03. Create Boundary Condition Figure 36b. Region Selection Dialog Box   Using the cursor. click Sets… at the bottom right side of the viewport.FIXED END. click I-BEAM-1.

16. Create a Name for the boundary condition called AXIAL. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 39b.Figure 38. Under the Category option choose Mechanical. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option.2011 .01% axial strain will be applied to the end of the beam as a prescribed displacement. Create Boundary Condition (AXIAL) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 25 REV 03. Applying an Axial Load to the Beam   A 0. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP. Edit Boundary Condition Dialog Box  Click OK. Double click BCs(1) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 39a). Create Boundary Condition  Click Continue… Figure 39b. Figure 39a.

Using the cursor click I-BEAM-1. Figure 41a. Figure 40. Region Selection Dialog Box   Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 41a). The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 41b.16. The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 40). Since the I-Beam cross section was sketched in the X Y plane. a displacement will be added in the Z direction.LOAD END.00009.2011 . Check the box to the left of U3 and enter a value of 0. Edit Boundary Condition Figure 41b. Edit Boundary Condition (AXIAL) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 26 REV 03.

Figure 42. Click OK. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 27 REV 03. Under the Category option choose Mechanical.059/2). Double click BCs(2) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 43a). If the prescribed displacement has been applied correctly small orange arrows will be visible at the nodes (Figure 42). To find the required displacement in the x-direction to achieve the 5° twist use:   Where x is the prescribed displacement and is equal to 0. Applied Axial Load Applying a Torsional Load to the Beam  An equal and opposite displacement will be imposed on opposite sides of the beam to simulate a torque on the beam.2011 . The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 43b. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP.00258 m.16. The load is to be a 5° twist at the end of the beam. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option. Create a Name for the boundary condition called TORSION TOP. The y-distance from the center of the beam to the top or bottom flange is 0.0295 m (0.

Region Selection Dialog Box  Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 45a).Figure 43a.16. Since this displacement will be applied to the top flange in the +X direction click the box to the left of U1: and enter a number of 0.TOP FLANGE. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 45b. Create Boundary Condition Figure 43b. Figure 44.00258. the Region Selection dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 44. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 28 REV 03. Create Boundary Condition (TORSION TOP)   Click Continue… The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear. Click I-BEAM-1.2011 .

Create Boundary Condition (TORSION BOTTOM) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 29 REV 03. Edit Boundary Condition (TORSION TOP) Click OK. Figure 46a. Under the Category option choose Mechanical. Edit Boundary Condition   Figure 45b. Double click BCs(3) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 46a). Create a Name for the boundary condition called TORSION BOTTOM.2011 . and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP. Create Boundary Condition Figure 46b.Figure 45a. If the procedure has been completed correctly small orange arrows will appear pointing in the +X direction at the end of the top flange. An equal and opposite displacement will be prescribed to the bottom flange. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 46b. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option.16.

  Click Continue… The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear. the Region Selection dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 47. Region Selection Dialog Box  Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 48a). Figure 48a. Figure 47.16.BOTTOM FLANGE. Edit Boundary Condition (TORSION BOTTOM) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 30 REV 03. Since this displacement will be applied to the bottom flange in the -X direction click the box to the left of U1: and enter a number of -0. Click I-BEAM-1. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 48b. Edit Boundary Condition Figure 48b.2011 .00258.

and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option. Double click BCs(4) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 50a). a prescribed displacement in the –Y direction will be imposed on the tip of the beam. An expanded view of the loading end of the beam is shown in Figure 49. Click OK.2011 . ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 31 REV 03. Both the axial and torsional loads are applied in this view.16. Create a Name for the boundary condition called BENDING. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP. If the procedure has been completed correctly small orange arrows will appear pointing in the -X direction at the end of the bottom flange. Figure 49. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 50b. Under the Category option choose Mechanical. Axial and Torsional Loads Beam in Bending  Finally.

Click I-BEAM-1. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 52b.16.Figure 50a.006. Figure 51. the Region Selection dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 51.2011 . Create Boundary Condition (BENDING)   Click Continue… The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 32 REV 03. Create Boundary Condition Figure 50b. Since this displacement will be applied to the load end in the -Y direction click the box to the left of U2: and enter a number of -0.LOAD END. Region Selection Dialog Box  Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 52a).

Axial. Torsion and Bending Loads.Figure 52a. and Bending). Figure 53. All three loading conditions are applied in this view (Axial. If the procedure has been completed correctly small orange arrows will appear pointing in the -Y direction on the loading end of the beam. Edit Boundary Condition  Figure 52b.2011 . Torsion.16. An expanded view of the loading end of the beam is shown in Figure 53. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 33 REV 03. Edit Boundary Condition (BENDING) Click OK.

While holding Ctrl on the keyboard click the AXIAL.2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL . Please note that the FIXED boundary condition should not be suppressed for any analysis since is needed to clamp the end of the beam and is not considered a loading condition. the others can be suppressed. Since only the BENDING boundary condition is of interest for this analysis. If this is done correctly a red X will appear to the left of the boundary conditions in the model tree.16. An analysis for the bending loading condition will be completed. suppressing the loads is helpful rather than deleting the loads when they are unwanted for the analysis. and TORSION BOTTOM boundary conditions.   Figure 55. The pop up menu should look similar to that in Figure 55. Note: Suppressed BCs will not write to the inp file. Since this tutorial calls for multiple loading conditions. Figure 54. At this point the selected boundary conditions should be highlighted blue. This will expand the model tree and should look similar to Figure 54. To do so click the + to the left of BCs (5) in the model tree. 34 REV 03. Pop Up Menu (Suppress)  Click Suppress. Model Tree Expansion (BCs)  Once the model tree has been expanded all off the created boundary conditions can be viewed. Release the Ctrl button on the keyboard and right mouse click one of the selected boundary conditions. TORSION TOP.

In the Create Job dialog box. create a Name for this job called BENDING. i. Blank spaces are not allowed in a job name. Create Job Dialog Box (BENDING)   Click Continue… The Edit Job dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 57). perform the analysis. you have been preprocessing the model.2011 . A job will take the input file created by the preprocessor and process the model. Up to this point. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 35 REV 03.16. Figure 56.Creating a Job  To create a job for this model.e. The Create Job dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 56. Figure 57. Thus the use of the underline in the name. Edit Job Dialog Box (BENDING)  Accept the default values and click OK. double click the Jobs icon in the model tree.

Set Work Directory (FOLDERS)   Click OK.Setting the Work Directory  To ensure that the input files write to the correct folder. At the top of the screen. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 36 REV 03. Click OK. Figure 59.16. Click Select… and use standard Windows practice to select (and possibly create) a subdirectory. setting the work directory must be accomplished. Figure 58. click File and in the dropdown menu click Set Work Directory… (Figure 58). Set Work Directory  The Set Work Directory screen will immediately appear (Figure 59).2011 .

A) then hit Enter. Figure 60. Abaqus Command Prompt (COMPLETED) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 37 REV 03.Writing the Input File (. first click the + next to the Jobs(1) icon in the model tree. To change directories in the Abaqus Command type the directory of choice followed by a colon (D:) then hit Enter. To access a specific directory within that drive type cd followed by the specific folder name in that directory (e. cd APPLIED STRENGTHS T.16. It may be helpful to go to the folder on the computer to which the work directory is set to ensure that the input file was written there.. This choice will write an input file (.inp)    To write the input file of the job that was created. Right click the job called BENDING and click the Write Input option.2011 . Now that the correct directory has been sourced in the command window type abaqus inter j=BENDING and then hit enter. Model Analysis (ABAQUS Command) Method #1      Go to the Start Menu and open Abaqus Command ABAQUS is set to a default directory (Example E:\>).g.inp) of this model to the work directory. If the job has completed successfully the Abaqus prompt should look similar to Figure 60.

return to view the ABAQUS CAE viewport.16.Method #2    An alternative method for submitting an *. the BENDING job should still be highlighted in ABAQUS CAE model tree.  Figure 61. The intent of this warning is to prevent the user from accidentally overwriting a previously completed analysis with the same name. If this selection was done correctly.inp file for processing by ABAQUS can be accomplished with ABAQUS CAE Right click the job called BENDING and click the Submit option. The model will now be submitted for analysis by ABAQUS and the progress can be viewed in the status window at the bottom of the screen. Right click the BENDING job and then click Results. Because the last step of creating the model was to create a job/write (and possibly submit) an input file.2011 . the model should turn to a green color and the truss will have rotated to an isometric view (Figure 61). Analysis Results Isometric View ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 38 REV 03. Postprocessing using ABAQUS CAE   After the analysis has successfully completed in the Abaqus Command window using Method #1 or using Method #2. If you see a warning:  Click OK.

16. and the Apply Front View button can be clicked to view the model in the X Y plane. click View in the toolbar at the top of the screen. Views Toolbar  To view the deformed shape of the model. The model should look similar to that in Figure 63. Figure 63. Click Toolbars and make sure the option Views has a check mark to the left of it. then click it.2011 . If not. Deformed Shape (BENDING) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 39 REV 03. click the Plot Contours on Deformed Shape icon in the Visualization module. The Views toolbar will appear (Figure 62). Next.  To rotate the truss back into the X Y plane for viewing. Figure 62.

At the top of the viewport underneath the top toolbar click the drop down menu Mises (Figure 64).Obtaining Stress Values in Elements  To obtain the stresses in an element first the appropriate type of stress must be viewed.2011 .16. Figure 64. Mises Dropdown  Using the cursor click Third Invariant. The I-Beam model should look similar to that in Figure 65. this will change the contour color to represent the third invariant stress levels. Figure 65. Third Invariant Stress Contour ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 40 REV 03.

Click Element under the General Queries option.2011 . Figure 67a. Now that the appropriate stress contour is being viewed. Query Dialog Box Figure 67b. The Query dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 67b. Query Dialog Box (ELEMENT) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 41 REV 03. Toolbar Tools  The Query dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 67a). and then click Query… Figure 66.16. At the top toolbar click Tools (Figure 66). output stress values will be obtained for different elements.

Modeling Different Loading Conditions  This tutorial completes the post processing for the BENDING loading condition of the project.2011 . Please note: two torsional loads must be suppressed since there is a load for both the top and bottom flanges.16. Recall that the elastic modulus was prescribed to be 200x109 Pa and all dimensions were input in meters therefore the output stress values are in units of Pa. To complete both the AXIAL and TORSION loading return to the model tree by clicking the Model tab at the top left of the screen. Create a new Job called TORSION and complete the post processing as needed. Stress Value Figure 68. Please note: the stress value listed corresponds to the element outlined with a red box in the viewport. The value of the stress will then appear at the bottom of the viewport (Figure 68). (To resume the torsion condition right click TORSION TOP & BOTTOM in the model tree and click resume). Suppress both the BENDING and AXIAL boundary conditions and Resume both of the TORSION boundary conditions. At this point click the element on the model for which the stress value is desired. Stress Value in Viewport  Without exiting the Query dialog box click another element to view the stress value. To complete the analysis using the TORSIONAL load.   ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 42 REV 03. Earlier in the tutorial the AXIAL & TORSIONAL boundary conditions were suppressed.

this will change the contour from viewing stresses to the magnitude of reaction forces. However. Since the reaction force in the Z direction is desired click the Magnitude dropdown menu directly to the right of the RF dropdown and then click RF3. a unit axial load will be applied to the tip of the beam.2011 . If a combination of loading conditions is desired. For the best analysis. The Create XY Data dialog box will appear (Figure 70a). To obtain the reactions at the nodes click the Create XY Data icon in the Visualization module. Right click the AXIAL and then click Results. Choose the ODB field output option (Figure 70b). the AXIAL job should still be highlighted in ABAQUS CAE model tree. S Dropdown  Using the cursor click RF. Please note: two torsional loads must be suppressed since there is a load for both the top and bottom flanges.  Likewise. the amount of force to apply to each node is a function of the beam width of the element and the number elements connected to a node. Because the last step of creating the model was to create a job/write (and possibly submit) an input file. At the top of the viewport underneath the top toolbar click the drop down menu S (Figure 69). The reaction forces at the nodes at the end of the beam are to be determined.   Figure 69. Beam Buckling  For the beam buckling analysis. resume the respective boundary conditions and complete the post processing as needed. this unit load should be distributed amongst all of the nodes at the tip of the beam.16. suppress the TORSION and BENDING conditions and create a new Job called AXIAL and complete the post processing as needed.  ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 43 REV 03.

click the nodes on the model at the end of the beam which the load was applied. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 44 REV 03. XY Data from ODB Field Output   Figure 71b. Make sure that Pick from viewport is selected in the Method section. Scroll down and click the black arrowhead next to RF: Reaction force .Figure 70a. All other reaction components should be left unchecked (Figure 71b). Click Plot. Scroll down and check the box next to RF3. Figure 71a. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. Under the Variables tab click the Positions: drop down menu and change the selection to Unique Nodal. When the elements have been selected they will turn a red color. Create XY Data Dialog Box   Figure 70b.This click will expand the selection for more options.2011 . and click Edit Selection. Create XY Data Dialog Box (FIELD) Click Continue… The XY Data from ODB Field Output dialog box will appear (Figure 71a). A total of 19 nodes should be selected.16. XY Data from ODB Field Output  Next click the Elements/Nodes tab.

 Figure 73. click the XY Data Manager icon in the Visualization module. Figure 72. A plot should appear similar to that in Figure 72. XY Data Manager Dialog Box ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 45 REV 03.  Click Dismiss.2011 . Field Output Plot  To view the numerical values of the reactions at the nodes.16. The XY Data Manager dialog box will appear (Figure 73). This option is located directly to the right of the Create XY Data option.

Edit XY Data Dialog Box    In this dialog box the value of the reaction force at the respective node is listed. Import Node Numbers (Excel)  Double click each entry and enter the reaction force value in column B of the same Excel workbook (Figure 76). At this point click start on the computer and open Microsoft Excel.16. To view the value. 46 REV 03. Figure 74.2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL . Click OK. Figure 75. In column A of a new Excel workbook enter the node numbers of the 19 nodes found in the XY Data Manager dialog box (Figure 75). double click each selection and an Edit XY Data dialog box will appear (Figure 74).

Return to the model tree by clicking the Model tab at the top left 47 REV 03.Figure 76. Figure 77. Import Reaction Forces (Excel)  Use the SUM function in Excel to add all the forces in column B. Color Coded Unit Loads (Excel)  Now that the nodal forces are known return to Abaqus CAE and close the Edit XY Data and XY Data Manager dialog boxes.2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL .16. In this case the sum is 5164. Dividing each Reaction Force value by this total gives the respective force to apply to each node so as to have a net unit force on the end of the beam (Figure 77). Many of the nodes have the same respective reaction force and it may be beneficial to color code the nodes with the same reaction forces (Figure 77).9.

The Edit Step dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 79.16. Double click Steps (2) and you will be prompted by the Create Step dialog box (Figure 78a). Expand Steps (2) in the model tree if it is not already expanded by clicking the + to the left of the Steps(2) listing. Suppress the AXIAL boundary condition (Right click -> Suppress). The Create Step dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 78b. Create Step Dialog Box (BUCLKE)  Click Continue… The Edit Step dialog box will immediately appear. The only boundary condition that should still be resumed is the FIXED boundary condition. Create a Name: for the step called BUCKLE. Create Step Dialog Box Figure 78b. Under the Number of eigenvalues requested: option enter a value of 5 in the box. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 48 REV 03.2011 . Figure 78a. Under the Procedure type: drop down menu choose Linear perturbation and click Buckle. Right click LOADING STEP and left click Suppress.  hand side of the viewport.

557. Next click In all partrelated modules and check the box next to Show node labels (Figure 81). and 430.Figure 79. Figure 80. Similar to creating sets in the first part of the tutorial. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 49 REV 03.711. Create Set Dialog Box (NODES_3_6_10_11)   Click Continue… At the top toolbar click View then click Part Display Options… and the Part Display Options dialog box will immediately appear.16. Create a Name for the set called Nodes_3_6_10_11 and ensure that Node is selected under the type option. The Create Set dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 80. we will create 4 sets since there are repeated unit load values of 116. Rather than individually load 19 nodes with its respective unit load value.2011 . Edit Step Dialog Box (5 Eigenvalues)    Click OK. In the dialog box click the Mesh tab. 393.412.779. double click Sets (4) in the model tree and the Create Set dialog box will immediately appear. 233.

10.Figure 81. Figure 82. 6. This was done so that the appropriate unit load could be placed on the correct nodes. 11) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 50 REV 03.2011 . While holding Shift on the keyboard click nodes 3. and 11. 10. Set Creation (Nodes 3.16. At this point small purple node labels will appear on the model. When the nodes are selected they will turn a red color (Figure 82). Part Display Options Dialog Box   Click OK. 6.

All Created Sets  Now that the sets have been created. 7]  If all of the sets have been created correctly the model tree should have a total of 8 sets and look similar to Figure 83. Ensure Mechanical is selected under Category and Concentrated force under Types for Selected Step. Repeat the same method to create sets for: Nodes [103. 571. 473.16. Create Load Dialog Box Figure 84b. Double click Loads in the model tree and the Create Load dialog box will appear (Figure 84a). the appropriate loads can be applied to the nodes.  Click Done. 476] Nodes [569.2011 . Create a Name: for the load called NODES_3_6_10_11. Figure 84a. 474. 289. Create Load Dialog Box (NODES) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 51 REV 03. 572. 573] Nodes [2. New Sets Figure 83. 104. 475. The Create Load dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 84b. 290. 570.

02261) Click OK. Region Selection Dialog Box (NODES)  Click Continue… The Edit Load dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 86a). The model should look similar to that in Figure 87. The Edit Load dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 86b.2011 . Click I-BEAM-1.02261 in the CF3: option. Figure 85. Edit Load Dialog Box (-0. Enter a value of -0.16. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 52 REV 03. Figure 86a. the Region Selection dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 85. Edit Load Dialog Box  Figure 86b. Small yellow arrows will be visible pointing in the –Z direction if the procedure has been completed correctly.NODES_3_6_10_11. Click Continue… In the bottom right hand side of the viewport click Sets… and the Region Selection dialog box will appear.

573] = -0. 7] = -0.04522 Nodes [569. 473. 104.076227 Nodes [2.16. 290. 571. 476] = -0. create loads for the three other sets that were generated in the previous steps. 572.2011 . 289.Figure 87.02261)  Using the same approach. Model Load (-0.083333  If this procedure has been completed correctly there will be small yellow arrows located ALL the nodes on the loading end of the beam (Figure 88). 475. Loads of: Nodes [103. 474. 570. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 53 REV 03.

Deformed Shape (Localized Buckle) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 54 REV 03. Also. the first buckling load is listed in the viewport to be 30200 Hz.2011 . Write the input file and post process the job the same way as in the first part of this tutorial. the deformed shape should look similar to that in Figure 89. When viewing the results. Buckle Load Figure 89. Unit Load   Double click Jobs (1) in the model tree and create a job named BUCLKE.16.Figure 88.

This part of the .inp files that are generated in the working directory. This will open the Find dialog box. Input File (.inp file using Notepad.inp file should look similar to that in Figure 90.16. Shell Section Input File ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 55 REV 03. Enter Shell and then click Find Next. Figure 90. Figure 91.  The buckled shape shown in Figure 89 is distorted and appears to be localized buckling of the thin flanges and webs and not overall Euler buckling of the column. The .2011 . Open the BUCKLE. These changes will be made by editing the . The model will now be edited to increase the thickness of the flanges from 1 mm to 5 mm and the web from 2 mm to 4 mm. Open the folder on the computer that the working directory is set to.inp)  While holding Ctrl on the keyboard press the letter F.inp file should look similar to that shown in Figure 91.

004.002 to 0. Change 0. Figure 93. This section of the input file should look similar to Figure 92. The Open Database dialog box will appear.inp extension MUST be entered in the file name) Go to the Abaqus Command window and source to the directory if it is not already sourced.001 to 0.odb and click OK. Abaqus Command Prompt (COMPLETED)   Return to the Abaqus CAE viewport and click the Results tab located at the top of the model tree.005 and change 0.16. This is where we will change the thickness values of the flanges and web. Double click the first item in the Results tab called Output Databases.inp (Note: the . Shell Section Input File (Increased)    Click File then click Save As… Enter a File name: for this input file called BUCKLE_EULER. Enter the command abaqus inter j=BUCKLE_EULER and hit Enter. Source to the BUCKLE_EULER. Figure 92. If the analysis completed successfully the command window will look similar to that in Figure 93. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 56 REV 03.2011 .

Note the buckling force that was applied was based on the force distribution over the nodes resulting from an axial pull on the thinner sections. When viewing the results. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 57 REV 03. Buckle Load Figure 94. That force distribution may not be the same as we did not increase the size of the web and flanges by the same scale factor. the buckling load may be slightly incorrect for this second buckling analysis. The localized buckling is not present in this view and the overall buckling looks to be Euler buckling and notice that the deflection is about the smaller area moment of inertia.  Conclusion  Save the file by doing either File > Save or clicking the disk icon   Close ABAQUS CAE: File > Exit or Ctrl+Q This completes the Finite Element Analysis of an I-Beam tutorial.16. the first buckling load is listed in the viewport to be 168712 Hz. the important lesson is that the finite element method can find critical buckling loads be they local or overall Euler buckling. Also. Deformed Shape (Euler Buckle)  The buckled shape is shown in Figure 94. However. Thus. the deformed shape should look similar to that in Figure 94.2011 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful