# Chapter 1

Problem Solutions
1.1
− E / 2 kT
ni = BT 3 / 2 e g
(a)
Silicon

−1.1

exp ⎢
⎢⎣ 2 ( 86 × 10−6 ) ( 250 ) ⎥⎦
= 2.067 × 1019 exp [ −25.58]
ni = 1.61× 108 cm −3

(i)

ni = ( 5.23 × 1015 ) ( 250 )

(ii)

ni = ( 5.23 × 1015 ) ( 350 )

(b)

GaAs

(i)

ni = ( 2.10 × 1014 ) ( 250 )

3/ 2

−1.1

exp ⎢
⎢⎣ 2 ( 86 × 10−6 ) ( 350 ) ⎥⎦
= 3.425 × 1019 exp [ −18.27 ]
ni = 3.97 ×1011 cm −3
3/ 2

3/ 2

−1.4

exp ⎢
−6
⎢⎣ 2 ( 86 × 10 ) ( 250 ) ⎥⎦

= ( 8.301× 1017 ) exp [ −32.56]
ni = 6.02 × 103 cm −3

(ii)

ni = ( 2.10 × 1014 ) ( 350 )

3/ 2

−1.4

exp ⎢
⎢⎣ 2 ( 86 × 10−6 ) ( 350 ) ⎥⎦

= (1.375 × 1018 ) exp [ −23.26]
ni = 1.09 × 108 cm −3

1.2

⎛ − Eg ⎞
ni = BT 3 / 2 exp ⎜

⎝ 2kT ⎠

−1.1
1012 = 5.23 × 1015 T 3 / 2 exp ⎜

−6
×
2(86
10
)(
T
)

a.

⎛ 6.40 × 103 ⎞
1.91× 10−4 = T 3 / 2 exp ⎜ −

T

By trial and error, T ≈ 368 K
b.
ni = 109 cm −3

−1.1

109 = 5.23 × 1015 T 3 / 2 exp ⎜
⎜ 2 ( 86 × 10−6 ) (T ) ⎟

⎛ 6.40 × 103 ⎞
1.91× 10−7 = T 3 / 2 exp ⎜ −

T

By trial and error, T ≈ 268° K

1.3
Silicon

79] ni = 1.95] ni = 8.66 ⎥ = (1.62 ×1015 cm −3 1.856 × 1019 ) exp [ −7.40 × 1013 cm −3 ni = (1.626 × 1018 ) exp [ −12. N d = 5 × 1015 cm −3 ⇒ n − type n0 = N d = 5 × 1015 cm −3 n 2 (1.1 ⎥ exp ⎢ −6 ⎢⎣ 2 ( 86 × 10 ) (100 ) ⎥⎦ = ( 5.66 × 1015 ) (100 ) (a) 3/ 2 ⎡ ⎤ −0.66 × 1018 ) exp [ −38.10 × 1014 ) ( 300 ) = ( 2.23 × 1015 ) ( 500 ) (c) 3/ 2 ⎡ ⎤ −1.1 ⎥ exp ⎢ ⎢⎣ 2 ( 86 × 10−6 ) ( 300 ) ⎥⎦ = ( 2.37 ] exp ⎢ ⎢⎣ 2 ( 86 × 10−6 ) (100 ) ⎥⎦ ni = 35.ni = ( 5.10 × 1014 ) ( 300 ) 3/ 2 3/ 2 ⎛ ⎞ −1.8 × 10 ) = ⇒ p0 = 6.5 × 10 ) ⇒ p0 = 4.79 ×10−10 cm −3 ni = ( 5.23 × 1015 ) (100 ) (a) 3/ 2 ⎡ ⎤ −1.674] exp ⎢ ⎢⎣ 2 ( 86 × 10−6 ) ( 500 ) ⎥⎦ ni = 8.1 ⎥ exp ⎢ −6 ⎢⎣ 2 ( 86 × 10 ) ( 500 ) ⎥⎦ = ( 5. ni = (1.23 × 1015 ) ( 300 ) (b) 3/ 2 ⎡ ⎤ −1.4 exp ⎜ ⎟ −6 ⎝ 2(86 × 10 )(300) ⎠ (1.5 × 10 4 cm −3 p0 = i = 5 × 1015 n0 10 2 N d = 5 × 1015 cm −3 ⇒ n − type b.66 × 1015 ) ( 500 ) (c) 3/ 2 ⎡ ⎤ −0.32] ni = 1.9 cm −3 ni = (1.80 × 106 cm −3 6 ni2 (1.5 .4 a.23 × 1018 ) exp [ −63.718 × 1019 ) exp [ −21.79] exp ⎢ ⎢⎣ 2 ( 86 × 10−6 ) ( 300 ) ⎥⎦ ni = 2.5 × 1010 cm −3 ni = ( 5.66 ⎥ = (1.66 × 1015 ) ( 300 ) (b) 3/ 2 ⎡ ⎤ −0.48 × 10 −4 cm −3 p0 = 15 5 × 10 n0 2 1.63 × 1014 cm −3 Germanium.66 ⎥ = ( 8. no = N d = 5 × 1015 cm −3 ni = ( 2.847 × 1019 ) exp [ −12.65 ×10 ) −12 = 1.

5 × 103 cm −3 no 5 × 1016 2 no = N d = 5 × 1016 cm −3 (c) From Problem 1.7 (a) (b) p-type po = N a = 2 × 1017 cm −3 10 ni2 (1.125 × 103 cm −3 po 2 × 1017 2 (c) po = 2 × 1017 cm −3 From Problem 1. Germanium N a = 1016 cm −3 ⇒ p − type 10 2 p0 = N a = 1016 cm −3 ni = (1.4 × 1013 cm −3 13 n 2 ( 2.9 Add Donors a.25 × 10 4 cm −3 n0 = i = 1016 p0 b.61×10 ) = 8 2 no 1.79 × 10 ) −6 = 2.1(a)(i) ni = 1.(a) (b) n-type no = N d = 5 × 1016 cm −3 10 n 2 (1.66 × 1015 ) ( 300 ) 3/ 2 3/ 2 ⎛ ⎞ −0.61 × 108 cm −3 (1.5 × 10 ) ⇒ n0 = 2.97 × 10 ) = 11 2 po = 3.5 × 10 ) po = i = = 4.130 cm −3 no = 5 × 1015 cm −3 10 ni2 (1.8 (a) 2 × 10 17 = 0.5 × 10 ) po = = ⇒ po = 4. N a = 1016 cm −3 ⇒ p − type p0 = N a = 1016 cm −3 n 2 (1.97 × 1011 cm −3 ( 3.66 × 1015 ) ( 300 ) = (1. N d = 7 × 1015 cm −3 .5 × 10 ) no = = = 1.5 × 104 cm −3 no 5 × 1015 2 (b) no  po ⇒ n-type (c) no ≅ N d = 5 × 1015 cm −3 1.66 ⎟ exp ⎜ ⎜ 2 ( 86 × 10−6 ) ( 300 ) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( 2.4 × 10 ) n0 = i = ⇒ n0 = 5.1(a)(ii) ni = 3.6 a.76 × 1010 cm −3 p0 1016 2 1.15 × 106 cm −3 5 × 1016 1.

15 J n = eDn dn Δn = eDn dx Δx ⎡10 15 −10 2 ⎤ = (1.23 × 1015 ) T 3 exp ⎜ 6 − ⎜ ( 86 × 10 ) (T ) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ By trial and error.08 (ohm − cm) −1 J =σE ⇒σ = 1.63 × 10 16 cm −3 1.16 −1 .31× 1015 cm −3 1.36 × 104 ( Ω − cm ) (b) J = σ E = σ ( 0.36 × 103 A / cm2 1. σ ≅ eμ n N d = (1.5 × 10 ⎦ J n = 576 A/cm 2 1. T ≈ 324° K 1.36 ≤ σ ≤ 1.6 × 10 −19 ) (180 ) ⎢ −4 ⎥ ⎣ 0.80 ) N a = 1.6 × 10 −19 ) ( 8500 ) N d For 1015 ≤ N d ≤ 1019 cm −3 ⇒ 1. So ni2 = (106 )( 7 × 1015 ) = 7 × 10 21 ⎛ − Eg ⎞ = B 2T 3 exp ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ kT ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ 2 −1.10 I = J ⋅ A = σ EA I = ( 2.11 J 85 = E 12 σ = 7.1) ⇒ 0.14 (a) For n-type.1 ⎟ 7 × 1021 = ( 5.136 ≤ J ≤ 1.5) (1.6 × 10 −19 ) ( 480 )( 0.6 ×10 ) (1350 ) −19 N d = 2.12 g≈ 1 1 1 ⇒ Na = = eμ p N a eμ p g (1.13 σ = eμ n N d Nd = σ eμ n = ( 0.Want po = 106 cm −3 = ni2 / N d b.3 mA 1.2 )(15 ) (10−4 ) ⇒ I = 3.

026 ) ln ⎢ ⎢ (1.119 A/cm 2 1.4 e−1 = 0.5 × 10 10 )2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (c) ⎡ (10 18 )(10 18 ) ⎤ ⎥ = 0.17 V Vbi = ( 0.026 ) ln ⎢ 10 2 ⎢⎣ (1. ⎡ (1018 )(1016 ) ⎤ ⎥ ⇒ Vbi = 1. N a = 1017 cm −3 ⇒ po = 1017 cm −3 6 ni2 (1.026 ) ln ⎢ ⎢ (1.817 V Vbi = ( 0.8 × 10 ) ⎥⎦ c.026 ) ln ⎢ 6 2 ⎢⎣ (1. ⎡ (1018 )(1018 ) ⎤ ⎥ ⇒ Vbi = 1.17 a.5 × 10 10 )2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1.8 × 10 ) ⎥⎦ b.8 × 10 ) ⎥⎦ 1.J p = −eD p dp dx ⎛ −1 ⎞ ⎛ −x ⎞ = −eD p (10 15 ) ⎜ ⎟ exp ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ Lp ⎟ ⎜ Lp ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ (1.19 ⎛N N ⎞ Vbi = VT ln ⎜ a 2 d ⎟ ⎝ ni ⎠ a. ⎡ (1016 )(1016 ) ⎤ ⎥ ⇒ Vbi = 1.01× 1017 cm −3 1.4 e−3 = 0.4 e − x / Lp J p = 2.937 V Vbi = ( 0.29 V Vbi = ( 0.24 × 10−5 cm −3 po 1017 2 b.41 V Vbi = ( 0.4 A/cm2 (a) x=0 (b) x = 10 μ m J p = 2.20 ⎡ N a (1016 ) ⎤ ⎛ Na Nd ⎞ ⎥ Vbi = VT ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ = ( 0.8 × 10 ) no = = ⇒ no = 3.026 ) ln ⎢ 6 2 ⎢⎣ (1.026 ) ln ⎢ ⎢ (1.18 (a) ⎛N N ⎞ Vbi = VT ln ⎜ a 2 d ⎟ ⎝ ni ⎠ ⎡ (10 16 )(10 16 ) ⎤ ⎥ = 0. n = no + δ n = 3.5 × 10 ) ⎥⎦ ⎝ ni ⎠ .24 × 10 −5 + 1015 ⇒ n = 1015 cm −3 p = po + δ p = 1017 + 1015 ⇒ p = 1.6 ×10 ) (15) (10 ) exp ⎛ − x ⎞ −19 Jp = 15 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ Lp ⎠ 10 × 10 −4 J p = 2.026 ) ln ⎢ 6 2 ⎢⎣ (1.883 A/cm 2 (c) x = 30 μ m J p = 2.5 × 10 10 )2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (b) ⎡ (10 18 )(10 16 ) ⎤ ⎥ = 0.697 V = ( 0.

04333 11.8 300 0.3 ⎛ ⎞ −1.817 0.00 × 1011 Vbi 1.026 5196.44 × 109 2.09 × 108 2.026) ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 300 ⎠ T kT (T)3/2 200 0.80 × 106 1.25 200 250 300 1.302 1.0 450 0.2 350 0.370 1.256 6.637 V For N a = 1018 cm −3 .9 400 0.0390 9545.9 500 0.180.03467 8000.03033 6547.80 × 1010 2. Vbi = 0.For N a = 1015 cm −3 .389 1.817 V Vbi (V) 0.327 1.4 ⎟ ni = ( 2.277 Vbi (V) 1.35 1.22 ⎛ V ⎞ C j = C jo ⎜ 1 + R ⎟ ⎝ Vbi ⎠ −1/ 2 350 400 450 500 T(C) .405 1.01733 2828.637 1015 1016 1018 Na(cm3) 1017 1. Vbi = 0.02 × 103 1.349 1.02167 3952.45 1.4 250 0.21 ⎛ T ⎞ kT = (0.1× 1014 )(T 3 / 2 ) exp ⎜ − 6 ⎜ 2 ( 86 × 10 ) (T ) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛N N ⎞ Vbi = VT ln ⎜ a 2 d ⎟ ⎝ ni ⎠ T 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 ni 1.

00743 + 0.00962 × 10−12 ) or τ = 4.684 ⎠ −1/ 2 (b) 5 ⎞ ⎛ C j = ( 0. 8 ⎠ −1 / 2 = 0. C j = ( 0.0118 C j (avg ) = = 0.⎡ (1.5 ⎝ 1. C j = (0.026 ) ln ⎢ ⎢⎣ (1. Cj = Cjo = 0.02) ⎜1 + = 0.09 × 10 −10 ) s 1.5 × 1010 )2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ a.02 + 0.00962 pF 2 vC ( t ) = vC ( final ) + ( vC ( initial ) − vC ( final ) ) e − t / τ where τ = RC = RC j (avg ) = (47 × 103 )(0.684 ⎝ ⎠ −1/ 2 (c) = 0.5 V.02) ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ⎝ 0. 8 ⎠ 0.5 ×10 10 ) 2 ⎥⎦ 1 ⎞ ⎛ C j = ( 0.0143 pF 2 τ = RC j ( avg ) = 6.52 ×10−10 s Then vC ( t ) = 1.23 (a) ⎛ V ⎞ C j = C jo ⎜1 + R ⎟ ⎝ Vbi ⎠ −1 / 2 5 ⎞ ⎛ For VR = 5 V.255 pF = 0.164 pF .8 ⎠ 0.4 ) ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ⎝ 0.684 V Vbi = ( 0.00743 pF −1 / 2 ⎛ 1.00863 pF ⎟ ⎝ 0. C j = (0.139 pF 1.0118 pF ⎟ ⎝ 0.757 ⎠ −1/ 2 = 0.172 pF = 0. VR = 1 V 1 ⎞ ⎛ C j = (0.00863 C j (avg ) = = 0. 5 ⎞ For VR = 1.5 ⎞ For VR = 3.4 ) ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ⎝ 0.72 ×10−10 s (b) vC ( t ) = vC ( final ) + ( vC ( initial ) − vC ( final ) ) e − t / τ ( 3.684 ⎠ −1/ 2 (a) 3 ⎞ ⎛ C j = ( 0.02 ) ⎜ 1 + = 0.24 ⎡ (1018 )(1015 ) ⎤ ⎥ = 0.02 pF −1/ 2 ⎛ 3.4 ) ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 0.5 V.026 ) ln ⎢ ⎢ (1.5 = 0 + ( 5 − 0 ) e − ti / τ 5 + r /τ ⎛ 5 ⎞ = e 1 ⇒ t1 = τ ln ⎜ ⎟ 1.5 = 5 + (0 − 5)e − t2 /τ = 5 1 − e − t2 /τ so that t2 = 8.5 ⎠ −10 t1 = 5.5 × 10 16 )( 4 × 10 15 ) ⎤ ⎥ = 0.25) ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ⎝ 0.757 V Vbi = ( 0.44 × 10 s For VR = 0 V.

5 μ A ⎝ 0.757 ⎠ 1 f0 = −3 2π ( 2.2 × 10 )( 0.27 (a) 150 × 10 ( ) I = I S eVD / VT − 1 −6 = 10 −11 (e VD / VT ) − 1 ≅ 10−11 eVD / VT ⎞ ⎟ −1 ⎠ .26 a.026 ⎠ b.026 ⎠ ⎛ 0.f0 = 1 2π LC = 1 ( 2.2 ×10 )( 0.7 ⎞ I = (10−13 ) exp ⎜ ⎟ ⇒ I = 49.0599 V b.026 ⎟⎠ − 1 ⎠ ⎦ 2190 −1 IF = 2190 IR 1.25) ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ⎝ 0.026 ⎠ ⎛ 0.2 MHz 1.026 ⎠ ⎛ 0.2 ⎞ ⎟ − 1⎥ exp ⎜ ⎟ −1 ⎠ ⎦ ⎝ 0.0663 pF C j = (0.90 = exp ⎜ ⎠ ⎦ ⎝ VT ⎛V ⎞ exp ⎜ D ⎟ = 1 − 0. VR = 10 V −1/ 2 10 ⎞ ⎛ = 0.5 ⎞ I ≅ (10−13 ) exp ⎜ ⎟ ⇒ I = 22.05 mA ⎝ 0. ⎛ 0.38 MHz b. ⎛ 0.5 ⎞ I ≅ (10−11 ) exp ⎜ ⎟ ⇒ I = 2.90 = 0.2 ⎞ ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ − 1⎥ exp ⎜⎝ 0.026 ⎠ ⎛ 0.25 ⎡ ⎛V I = I S ⎢ exp ⎜ D ⎝ VT ⎣ a. ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ VD ⎟ − 1⎥ − 0.7 ⎞ I = (10−11 ) exp ⎜ ⎟ ⇒ I = 4.6 ⎞ I = (10−11 ) exp ⎜ ⎟ ⇒ I = 0.105 A ⎝ 0.25 mA ⎝ 0.026 ⎠ 1.6 ⎞ I = (10−13 ) exp ⎜ ⎟ ⇒ I = 1.026 ⎠ = ⎛ −0.93 A ⎝ 0.10 ⎝ VT ⎠ VD = VT ln ( 0.10 ) ⇒ VD = −0.0663 × 10−12 ) f 0 = 13.164 ×10 ) 2π −3 −12 f 0 = 8.3 mA ⎝ 0. IF IR ⎡ ⎛ VF ⎢ exp ⎜ I ⎝ VT = S ⋅⎣ IS ⎡ ⎛ VR ⎢exp ⎜ ⎝ VT ⎣ = ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ 0.

80 ×10−6 2.98 −0.68 ×10−11 2.70 1.3 0.20 0.39 ×10 −14 9.68 ×10−13 2.3 −10.2 0.50 ×10 −14 6.65 −3.10 0.66 −8.4 0.307 ID(A) 4. ⎛ V − VD1 ⎞ ID2 = 10 = exp ⎜ D 2 ⎟ I D1 ⎝ VT ⎠ ΔVD = VT ln (10) ⇒ ΔVD = 59.3 −8.93 ×10−3 log10ID −12.50 ×10 −14 4.1 0.31 (a) 1.32 −5.28 ⎛ 0.08 ×10 −10 9.026 ⎠ I S = 2.25 ×10−6 1.026) ln ⎜ ⎟ −11 ⎠ ⎝ 10 ⎠ (b) ⎛ 150 × 10−6 ⎞ VD = VT ln ⎜ ⎟ −13 ⎝ 10 ⎠ Or VD = 0.05 ×10−2 4.04 ×10 −11 2.05 ×10−4 4.56 ×10 −7 2.14 ×10 −5 10 −3 1.66 −6.99 −7.40 0.60 0.30 a.60 0.80 ×10−8 2.75 ×10 −9 4.19 ×10−9 1.9 mV ≈ 60 mV .20 0.7 9.19 ×10−11 1.50 0.45 ×10 −12 2.7 ⎞ 10−3 = I S exp ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 0.98 −2.549 V 1.03 ×10−7 4.50 0.99 −5.25 ×10−4 1.50 ×10 −13 4.03 ×10−9 4.30 0.⎛ 150 × 10−6 Then VD = VT ln ⎜ −11 ⎝ 10 Or VD = 0.30 0.32 −3.6 0.70 (b) I S = 10 −14 A VD(v) 0.10 0.42 ×10 −9 ID(A) 4.40 0.03 × 10 −15 A (b) VD I D ( A ) ( n = 1) I D ( A )( n = 2 ) 0.93 ×10−1 log10ID −10.08 ×10 −10 1.65 −1.5 0.430 V ⎞ ⎛ 150 × 10−6 ⎞ ⎟ = (0.45 ×10 −12 3.29 (a) I S = 10 −12 A VD(v) 0.

2 ⎞ −12 I D = (10−15 )exp ⎜ ⎟ = 2.026 ⎠ 1.2 K .56 × 10−4 A = 0.5150 ≤ VD ≤ 0.b.026 ⎠ ⎛ 1.1 ⎞ −5 I D = 10−23 exp ⎜ ⎟ = 2.026 ⎠ ID = 0 (iii) I D = −10 −15 A (iv) I D = −10 −15 A (b) (i) 1.5150 V VD = (0.33 ⎛V ⎞ I D = I S exp ⎜ D ⎟ ⎝ Vt ⎠ ⎛ 1.05 × 10 A ⎝ 0.32 ⎛I VD = Vt ln ⎜ D ⎝ IS ⎞ ⎛ 2 × 10−3 ⎞ = = 0.2 K So 295 ≤ T ≤ 328. (2) n = 50 ⇒ n = 5.7 mV ≈ 120 mV 1.622 V (ii) ⎛ 0.35 IS doubles for every 5C increase in temperature. ΔVD = VT ln (100 ) ⇒ ΔVD = 119.0 ⎞ I D = ( 5.64 )( 5 ) = 28.256 mA 1.026)ln ⎜ ⎟ −15 ⎝ 10 ⎠ VD = 0.026) ln ⎜ −12 ⎟ ⎝ 5 × 10 ⎠ 0.6347 V 1.64 Where n equals number of 5C increases.5 × 10 −12 A ⇒ T = 295 K For I S = 50 × 10 −12 A.11× 10 A ⎝ 0.669 V ⎞ ⎛ 150 × 10−6 ⎞ ⎟ = ( 0. 026 ⎝ ⎠ 1 . Then ΔT = ( 5. (0 026) ln ⎟ ⎜ −14 ⎟ ⎝ 5 × 10 ⎠ ⎠ ⎛ 2 × 10−3 ⎞ = 0.6347 V .026 ⎠ (a) (b) ⎛ 1.37 × 10 A 0 .026 ⎠ I D = 2.07 × 10−21 ) exp ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 0.10 ⎞ −21 12 ×10−3 = I S exp ⎜ ⎟ ⇒ I S = 5. 2 ⎛ ⎞ −3 I D = 10−23 exp ⎜ ⎟ = 1.07 × 10 A ⎝ 0.19 × 10 A ⎝ 0.34 (a) (b) (c) ⎛ 1.0 ⎞ −7 I D = 10−23 exp ⎜ ⎟ = 5.026 ) ln ⎜ ⎟ −15 ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎠ ⎛ 25 × 10−6 ⎞ VD = ( 0.31 (a) (i) (ii) ⎛I VD = Vt ln ⎜ D ⎝ IS VD = 0. I S = 10 −12 A at T = 300K For I S = 0.

147 × 109 ) × I D (−55) ⎛ 0.6 ⎞ exp ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 0.147 ×10 )(1.5194 0. VD(v) ID(A) VD(v) 0.03220 VT @− 55°C ⇒ 216°K ⇒ VT = 0.40 0.01865 ⎠ ( 2.0322 ⎠ ⎛ 0.38 ⎛ I ⎞ 10 = I D ( 2 × 10 4 ) + VD and VD = ( 0.026 ln ⎜ −9 ⎟ ⎝ 0.250 0.6 ⎞ exp ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 0.271×10 − 5 0.83 × 103 I D (−55) 1.226 3 ×10 0.37 3.39 .50 0.5194 4.1.229 0.517 0.374 ×10 ) 9 = 8 13 I D (100) = 2.147 × 109 I S (−55) VT @100°C ⇒ 373°K ⇒ VT = 0.4740 mA 1.227 3.237 ×10 ) ( 9.1×10−5 − 5 0.75 ×10−4 −4 0.2284 3. ΔT = 155° C I S (−55) I S (100) = 2155 / 5 = 2.25 ×10 −5 0.50 0.026 ) ln ⎜ D−12 ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ Trial and error.2284 3.7415 ×10 0.5194 4.2285 V I D ≅ 3.5194 V I D = 0.36 I S (T ) = 2ΔT / 5 .5 = ID (105) + VD ⎛ V ⎞ ⎛ ID ⎞ I D = 5 ×10−9 exp ⎜ D ⎟ ⇒ VD = 0.272 × 10−5 A (b) I D = I S = 5 × 10−9 A VR = ( 5 × 10−9 )(105 ) = 5 × 10−4 V VD = 3.026 ⎠ ⎝ 5 × 10 ⎠ Trial and error.4995 V 1.01865 I D (100) = (2. VD ID VD −5 0.5194 4.228 3.2715 ×10 (a) So VD ≅ 0.2285 0.740 ×10−4 VD = 0.

40  VD  VD  VI  I1 1K IR I2  V0  I S = 2 × 10 −13 A V0 = 0.6065 ⎞ ⎛ 2.026 ⎠ ⎝ VT ⎠ = 2. VD = 0.45 V ⎝ 80 ⎠ ⎠ ⎛I ⎞ 0. Then.705 × 10−3 ⎞ (0.60 mA 1K I1 = I 2 + I R = 2. 7 ⇒ 23.105 mA 0.41 (a) Assume diode is conducting. VD = VT ln ⎜ D ⎟ ⎝ IS ⎠ By trial and error: I D = 2.45 = I D RTH + VD .402 V 1.026) ln = ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ −13 ⎝ 2 × 10 ⎠ ⎠ VI = 2VD + V0 ⇒ VI = 1.81 V 1.705 mA IR = ⎛I VD = VT ln ⎜ 1 ⎝ IS = 0.75 K  VTH   VD  ID ⎛ R2 VTH = ⎜ ⎝ R1 + R2 ⎞ ⎛ 30 ⎞ ⎟ (1. VD = Vγ = 0.60 ⎞ I 2 = I S exp ⎜ 0 ⎟ = ( 2 × 10−13 ) exp ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 0.3 μ A 30 .6 = 0.2 V   VD  R2  30 K ID RTH  R1  R2  18.7 V So that I R 2 = 0.60 V ⎛V ⎞ ⎛ 0.2) = ⎜ ⎟ (1.I s = 5 × 10 −13 A R1  50 K  1.2) = 0.56 μ A.

VD = 0. I1 = = R2 R1 R1 We have I1 = I 2 + I D . 30 ⋅ (1. (b) I D = 0 From (1) I D = VA = 2.50 V 5 1.7 μ A (b) Let R1 = 50 k Ω Diode is cutoff.2) = 0.6 V (a) 11VA = 25 + 5 ( 0.3 .5 − VA ⇒ I D Neg.43 Minimum diode current for VPS (min) I D (min) = 2 mA.7 ⇒ 50 μ A 10 Then I D = I R1 − I R 2 = 50 − 23.7 4.1.7 5 − 0.42 5 V 3 k 2 k ID VB VAVr VA 2 k 2 k A&VA: 5 − VA V = ID + A 2 2 A& VA − Vr (1) (2) 5 − (VA − Vr ) + ID = (VA − Vr ) 2 2 5 − (VA − Vr ) ⎡ 5 − VA VA ⎤ VA − Vr +⎢ − ⎥= So 3 2⎦ 2 ⎣ 2 Multiply by 6: 10 − 2 (VA − Vr ) + 15 − 6VA = 3 (VA − Vr ) 25 + 2Vr + 3Vr = 11VA Vr = 0.2 − 0.545 V 5 − VA VA − = 2.3 I R1 = Or I D = 26. I D = 0 VD = 1.6 ) = 28 ⇒ VA = 2.45 V 30 + 50 Since VD < Vγ . ⇒ I D = 0 2 2 Both (a).7 V I2 = 0.5. VB = 2 ⋅ 5 = 2 V ⇒ VD = 0.

3 0.5 0.4.375 ×10−4 2.7 I= ⇒ I = 0.482 I = 0.4834 Diode forward biased VD = 0.7 + I (20) − 8 ⇒ Vo = +0.5Ω 82.380 mA 3.379 ×10−4 I = 0.46 (a) 0.026 ) ln ⎜ −12 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ×10 ⎠ VD VD = 0.44 (a) Vo = 0.3 mA so (1) I1 = I 2 + I D or 9.7 = + 14.3 4.483 V 2. (1).496 → (d) I = − I S ⇒ I = 2 × 10−12 A Vo ≅ −5 V 1.2 ×10−4 2.7 (b) I= ⇒ I = 0.24 V I ⎛ ⎞ VD = ( 0.259 ×10−4 10 = I ( 4 × 10 4 ) + VD → I → I ⎛ ⎞ VD = ( 0.35 V (c) (d) 10 − 0.802 ×10 10 = I ( 2.481 0.7 ⇒ I = 0.5Ω 1.7 V 5 − 0.45 (a) VD 0.372 mA 5 + 20 Vo = 0.482 (b) Vo 0. 9.026 ) ln ⎜ −12 ⎟ × 2 10 ⎝ ⎠ VD VD = 0.496 Vo = −0.3 = − 2 + 14.3 0.6 0.2325 mA 20 + 20 Vo = I (20 K) − 5 ⇒ Vo = −0.482 V 0.5 × 10 4 ) + VD Vo 0.14 V I =0 Vo = I (20) − 5 ⇒ Vo = −5 V I= 1.4834 0.808 ×10−4 −4 0.3 ⇒ R1 R1 R1 = 0.3 (2) R1 R2 Using Eq.41 kΩ Then R2 = 82.215 mA 20 10 − 0.7 = +2 R1 R2 Maximum diode current for VPS (max) P = I DVD 10 = I D ( 0.026 ) ln ⎜ −12 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ×10 ⎠ VD Vo = VD = 0.226 mA I ⎛ ⎞ VD = ( 0.480 0.496 V I → 0.496 I = 0.238 mA Vo = −0.484 (c) 5 = I ( 2 × 109 ) + VD → ID → 2.7 ) ⇒ I D = 14.7 V .10 V 3.

7) ⇒ P = 0.30 mV peak-to-peak 1.65 mA 1 8 − 3(0. (0.30 mV peak-to-peak For I DQ = 0.025 mA 2 I D1 = I D 2 − I R 2 = 3. RS = 260Ω ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ vS ⎟⎟ ⎠ .47 0. VT (0.30 mA I R 2 = I D1 = (a) ID2 ID2 = VI − 2Vr − V0 5 − 3(0.026 kΩ = 26Ω 1 I DQ id = 0.30 ⇒ R1 = 2.  ␯d    diode resistance rd = VT /I ⎛ ⎜ VT /I ⎛ rd ⎞ vd = ⎜ ⎟ vS = ⎜ V ⎝ rd + RS ⎠ ⎜⎜ T + RS ⎝ I ⎛ VT ⎞ vd = ⎜ ⎟ vs = vo ⎝ VT + IRS ⎠ b.65 mA = I D1 1 = 2(0.48 τd = a.4)(4.4)(0.5 = (0.49 RS ␯S a. 1 id = 0.375 mA IR2 = (b) 1.28 mω (b) 1.026) = 260Ω 0.65 = 0.65 = 0.1 mA ⇒ τ d = b.025 − 0.42 V P = I ⋅ VD = (0.026) = = 0.65) ID2 = ⇒ I D 2 = 3.35 K R1 R1 0.7) + 0.05 I DQ = 50 μ A peak-to-peak vd = idτ d = (26)(50) μ A ⇒ vd = 1.65) = 1.7 + V ⇒ V = 2.65) = = 1.05 I DQ = 5 μ A peak-to-peak vd = idτ d = (260)(5) μ V ⇒ vd = 1.65 I D1 = 2.

599 V ⎛ 100 × 10−6 ⎞ Schottky diode. I = 0.01 mA.026) ln ⎜ −7 ⎟ ⎝ 5 × 10 ⎠ ⎝ IS ⎠ = 0.4796 I 0.026 I = 0.1796 + 0.5 × 10−3 ⎞ Va = VT ln ⎜ ⎟ = (0.26) vS v v 0.026 + (0. 0 = ⇒ 0 = 0.26 ) vS I = 1 mA.30 = 0.5 × 10 −3 .299 V 1.026) ln ⎜ ⎟ −9 ⎝ 10 ⎠ Va = 0.52 (a)  VD  I1 0.026 ⎠ ⎝ VT ⎠ I S = 4. Va = (0. Va = (0.⎞ v0 ⎛ VT v 0.026 + (1)(0. v0 v 0.026) ln ⎜ ⎟ −14 ⎝ 10 ⎠ Va = 0.87 × 10 −12 A IS = 1.026 = ⇒ 0 = 0.50 vs 0.1)( 0.50 ⎛V I ≅ I S exp ⎜ a ⎝ VT ⎛ I ⎞ ⎞ ⎟ .0909 ⎟= vS ⎝ VT + IRS ⎠ 0.01)(0.026 =⎜ ⇒ 0 = 0.4796 ⎞ exp ⎜ a ⎟ exp ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 0.5 × 10−3 = ⎛V ⎞ ⎛ 0.51 Schottky pn junction I ⎛V ⎞ Schottky: I ≅ I S exp ⎜ a ⎟ ⎝ VT ⎠ ⎛ I ⎞ ⎛ 0.1796 V Then Va of pn junction = 0.1 mA.26) vS 1.5 mA I2 I1 + I 2 = 0.026 + ( 0.909 vS 0. Va = VT ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ IS ⎠ ⎛ 100 × 10−6 ⎞ pn junction.

1 mA rZ = 10Ω I Z rZ = ( 0.5 × 10 V ⎠ ⎝ T ⎠ ⎛V ⎞ 5.599 a.9 = 1.1)(10 ) = 1 mV VZ0 = 5.2395 VD = (0.6 V at I Z = 0.49999 mA pn junction. I 2 = 0.00863)(10 ) VZ = V0 = 5.5 K V0  VPS  10 V  I  VZ  IZ VZ = VZ 0 = 5.1813 2VD1 = VT ln ⎜ −12 ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ VD1 = 0.5 × 10 −3 ⎝ VT ⎠ ⎛ 0.599 + ( 0.01 VZ = VZ 0 + I Z rZ = 5.5 × 10−3 ⎞ ⇒ VD = 0.9 − VD1 ⎞ 10−12 exp ⎜ D1 ⎟ = 5 × 10−8 exp ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ VT ⎠ ⎝ VT ⎠ ⎛ 0.3093 Schottky diode ⎛ 0.⎛V 5 × 10−8 exp ⎜ D ⎝ VT ⎞ ⎛ VD ⎞ −12 −3 ⎟ + 10 exp ⎜ ⎟ = 0.50 + 0.599 4.401 = = 8.685 V RL IL . I1 = 0.026 ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ VT ⎠ ⎝ 10 ⎛ 5 × 10−8 ⎞ + 0.5907 ⎞ I = 10−12 exp ⎜ ⎟ ⇒ I = 7.9 ⎛V ⎞ ⎛ 0.0001× 10 −8 exp ⎜ D ⎟ = 0.35 mA ⎝ 0.63 mA R + rZ 0.0001× 10 ⎠ Schottky diode.9 ⎞ exp ⎜ D1 ⎟ = ⎜ exp ⎜ ⎟ −12 ⎟ ⎝ 0.90 V ⎛V ⎞ ⎛V ⎞ I = 10 −12 exp ⎜ D1 ⎟ = 5 × 10−8 exp ⎜ D 2 ⎟ ⎝ VT ⎠ ⎝ VT ⎠ VD1 + VD 2 = 0.00001 mA (b)  VD1  I   VD2   0.026) ln ⎜ −8 ⎟ ⎝ 5.53 R  0.5907 pn junction VD 2 = 0.026 ⎠ 1.9 ⎞ ⎛ −VD1 ⎞ = 5 ×10−8 exp ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ exp ⎜ ⎝ VT ⎠ ⎝ VT ⎠ ⎛ 2V ⎞ ⎛ 5 × 10−8 ⎞ ⎛ 0. RL → ∞ ⇒ IZ = 10 − 5.

8 1.669 mA 0. 50 0 .798 + ( 0.658 V 1.0392 V c. I = IZ + IL 10 − V0 V0 − 6.8 ) = 176.02 V0 = VZ = VZ 0 + I Z rZ = 6.8 mW IZ = %= 176.11 − 5.798 1 1⎤ ⎡ 1 + = V0 ⎢ + + ⎥ 0.791 − 6.55 I Z rZ = ( 0.010 2 10 5.006158)( 20 ) IZ = V0 = 6.66569 ⇒ ΔV0 = 0.7049 − 5.50 0.9 = V0 (102.5 + 0.01059 )(10 ) = 5.8 − 74.30 0.599 + ( 0.8 − 0.66569 V VPS = 9 V ⇒ I Z = ΔV0 = 5.50 0.8 ⇒ I Z = 26 mA 0.798 V0 = + 0. 9 − 6. 26 − 11 %= × 100 ⇒ 136% 11 PZ = ( 26 )( 6.010 2 ⎦ 20.50 0.798 V a.791 V ΔV0 = 6.1)( 20 ) = 2 mV VZ 0 = 6.8 mW IZ = 12 − 6.56 .9 = V0 (53) V0 = 6.2 PZ = (11)( 6.8 × 100 ⇒ 136% 74.59 mA 0.798 ⇒ I Z = 6. VPS = 11 V ⇒ I Z = 9 − 5. I = PS .13 V 1.158 mA 0.599 1 1⎤ ⎡ 1 + = V0 ⎢ + + ⎥ 0.921 V b.010 ⎣ 0. I = IZ + IL V0 V − V0 V − VZ 0 IL = .5) V0 = 5.54 a. RL = ∞ 10 − 6. 020 1⎦ ⎣ 359.599 + ( 0.2 b.599 = 6. IZ = 0 RL R rZ 10 − V0 V0 − 5.006669 )(10 ) = 5.51 VZ = V0 = 5.599 V0 = + 0.8 ⇒ I Z = 11 mA 0.921 ΔV0 = −0.7049 V b.020 0 .8 ) ⇒ PZ = 74.51 VZ = V0 = 5.020 1 10 6.0 + 559.50 0.599 = 10.002 = 6.

1 A ⎛ 0.For VD = 0.754 V .2 ⎞ + 1⎟ For ID = 0 VD = VT ln ⎜ −14 ⎝ 5 × 10 ⎠ VD = VDC = 0. I SC = 0.