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LIBERTY UNIVERSITY

THE ROLE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT IN THE GOSPEL OF JOHN

A PAPER SUBMITTED TO DR. TOM CAMPBELL IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR
THE COURSE NBST 655

LIBERTY THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

BY ELKE SPELIOPOULOS

DOWNINGTOWN, PENNSYLVANIA SUNDAY, AUGUST 14, 2011

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................... 1 BIBLICAL/JEWISH BACKGROUND ....................................................................................... 1 THE HOLY SPIRIT CONFIRMS JESUS MESSIANIC IDENTIY IN JOHN 1:32-33............... 2 THE HOLY SPIRIT IMPARTING NEW LIFE IN JOHN 3:5-8 ................................................. 3 THE HOLY SPIRIT GIVEN WITHOUT BOUNDARY IN JOHN 3: 34 .................................... 6 THE NATURE OF WORSHIP EXPRESSED BY THE SPIRIT IN JOHN 4:23-24 .................... 6 THE HOLY SPIRIT AS THE SOURCE OF LIFE IN JOHN 6:63 .............................................. 7 THE HOLY SPIRIT GIVING EVIDENCE OF GODS PRESENCE IN JOHN 7:39 .................. 8 THE HOLY SPIRIT AS DIVINE HELPER IN JOHN 14:15-26 ................................................. 8 THE HOLY SPIRIT CONTINUES TO TEACH WHAT JESUS TAUGHT IN JOHN 15:26 .... 10 THE HOLY SPIRIT AS CONVICTING THE WORLD OF SIN IN JOHN 16:5-15 ................. 11 THE GIVING OF THE HOLY SPIRIT IN JOHN 20:22 ........................................................... 13 THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE HOLY SPIRIT AND LIVING WATER...................... 13 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................ 14 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................................... 15

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INTRODUCTION The Gospel of John can appear somewhat mysterious to those who have grappled with the Synoptic Gospels first. Yet it holds theological riches untold, usually written in beautiful word pictures, which help readers understand who the Godhead is. In particular, the second Person of the Godhead, Jesus, the Son, sheds light on the third Person, the Holy Spirit. In this paper the inspired words of the writer of the Fourth Gospel will be evaluated pertaining to the third Person of the Godhead, the Holy Spirit. In multiple passages, John addresses the nature and the role of the Holy Spirit. Through a review of the pertinent passages in the Gospel of John,this paper seeks to clarify the understanding the writer aims to impart to his readers through his depiction of Jesus presentation of the person and role of the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit in the Gospel of John is a full part of the Trinity, convicting the world of sin andteaching believers all they need to live godly lives in the period after Jesus crucifixion and ascension. BIBLICAL/JEWISH BACKGROUND References to the Holy Spirit commence not only with early Christian writing in the pages of the New Testament. Rather, mentions of a divine Spirit begin in the second verse of the first book of the Bible, Genesis 1:2. Yet in the pages of the Old Testament this divine Spirit is most often depicted as a power from God given to individuals, rather than a group of believers or for that matter the Israelites. This power seems to allow these individuals to perform tasks or have insights they would not have had without it. As Hurtado points out, Although expressed through human personalities, the Spirit typically comes from God in special situations and under special circumstances, and is an entity distinguishable from the human person.1 Larry W. Hurtado, God in New Testament Theology (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 2010), 74.
1

In addition, depictions of the divine Spirit in extracanonical writings are typically associated with prophetic abilities or utterances. In addition, the divine Spirit is associated with the creation of the world, sanctification of the righteous, eschatological blessings, and human enablement.2 Yet while there is mention of the divine Spirit, the New Testament texts clearly build on this limited image given in the Old Testament and ancient Jewish writings. Hurtado contrasts 75 references in the Old Testament with 275 references in the New Testament. Taking into account the much larger amount of writings in the Old Testament, it becomes even more apparent that early Christian writers attribute a much higher importance to this topic, possibly reflecting a still more intense level of religious experience ascribed to the Spirit in early Christian groups.3 Building on this Old Testament background, the Gospel of John provides readers with several important insights into the nature of the Holy Spirit, including the passage in John 14-16, which Hurtado calls perhaps the most sustained focus on the Spirit in the NT.4 THE HOLY SPIRIT CONFIRMS JESUS MESSIANIC IDENTIY IN JOHN 1:32-33 The writer of the Gospel of John gives his readers the first encounter with the Holy Spirit in a passage during John the Baptists second testimony, recorded in John 1:29-34, which records the day after he was baptizing in Bethany across the Jordan and was questioned by the Pharisees. The baptism of Jesus in this passage is not explicitly described, butclearly implied from the context5 and proposes foreknowledge of the occurrence recorded in the Synoptic Gospels.
2 3 4 5

Ibid., 75. Ibid., 77. Ibid., 80.

Roy B. Zuck, A Biblical Theology of the New Testament, electronic ed. (Chicago: Moody Press, 1994).

Walvoord and Zuck write that since the Gospel of John does not record the baptism of Jesus, it also does not describe the Spirits descent as happening while John baptized Jesus. What is significant, however, is that the invisible Spirit came from heaven and manifested Himself in a bodily (dovelike) form.6 As with many recorded episodes from Jesus life in John, it is not explicit how John the Baptist knew that Jesus was the One he was to look for, yet as Jesus approached, John proclaimed that He was the Lamb of God and relayed the story of the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove descending and remaining on him. While the reader is not told how he knew to recognize him (and John admits his own lack of knowledge in v. 31), Morris writes that what is clear is that he had a divinely appointed sign, and that he knew Jesus by that sign.7John the Baptist thus affirms his inferior relationship to Jesus of Nazareth and asserts Jesus Messianic role8, and the Fourth Evangelist in turn points to Jesus divinity, already introduced to the reader in the prologue of John 1. THE HOLY SPIRIT IMPARTING NEW LIFE IN JOHN 3:5-8 In the famous passage in which Jesus has a discussion with Nicodemus, the Pharisee who came to Him in the cover of the night, Jesus addressed the involvement of the Holy Spirit in imparting new life. John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck, and Dallas Theological Seminary, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, vol. JN of 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1983-), 32. Leon Morris, The Gospel According to John, The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1995), 271-72. Robert James Dr, The Beloved Disciple's Memoirs and Letters: The Gospel of John, I, II, and III John, Study Guide Commentary Series (Marshall, Texas: Bible Lessons International, 1999), 36.
8 7 6

Westcott believes that the language of born of water and of spirit in v. 5 suggests a remote parallel and a marked contrast9, and expands on this: The water and the spirit suggest the original shaping of the great Order out of Chaos, when the Spirit of God brooded on the face of the waters.10 Carson offers up five possible interpretations of this obscure passage regarding the work of the Holy Spirit in conjunction with the water mentioned: 1) Some interpreters read the water of this passage to refer to the natural birth, and in particular amniotic fluid, in other words, two births, one natural and the other supernatural.11 2) Other interpreters understand water to point to Christian baptism, with some of them even pointing to an allusion to sacraments here by aligning the new birth with the sacrament of baptism and therefore regeneration.12 3) In a variation of 2), some interpret water to refer to Johns baptism; in this case Jesus may be suggesting that this baptism isnt sufficient, but rather that Spirit-birth needs to follow.13 4) A few interpreters see this statement in light of the ritual washings of the Essene community and a call for spiritual rebirth, not solely purification Brooke Foss Westcott and Arthur Westcott, eds., The Gospel According to St. John Introduction and Notes on the Authorized Version (London: J. Murray, 1908), 49.
10 11 12 13 9

Ibid. Carson, The Gospel According to John, 191. Ibid., 192. Ibid., 192-93.

through water, yet Carson rejects this as water and Spirit are linked, not contrasted in v. 5.14 5) Finally some scholars have proposed that water refers to Torah, yet while there is, of course, some relationship in rabbinic writings between water and Torah, no evidence exists for this being the case here, according to Carson.15 While finding some association between passages where men are called Gods children with some level of hint at the begetting aspect in certain eschatological passages, Carson believes the focus in this passage is on the impartation of Gods nature as spirit and signals a new beginning.16 Zuck agrees that the thrust of the passage is clearly on the regenerating power of the Spirit in believers.17 He points to the Old Testament link found in Ezekiel 36:25-27, where both water and spirit are mentioned, with one indicating purification from impurity and the other an indwelling of the Holy Spirit, empowering Gods people to live in obedience to Him.18 A reference here should also be made to the passage depicting Jesus encounter with the Samarian woman at the well in John 4. Here water can be viewed as symbolic for the free gift of the Spirit, an imagery that is also expanded upon in John 7:3739.19 The Fourth Evangelist thus describes and confirms the life-giving role of the Holy Spirit.
14 15 16 17 18 19

Ibid., 193. Ibid. Ibid., 195. Zuck, A Biblical Theology of the New Testament, 198. Ibid.

Joel B. Green, Scot McKnight, and I. Howard Marshall, Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1992), 347.

THE HOLY SPIRIT GIVEN WITHOUT BOUNDARY IN JOHN 3:34 This reference to the Holy Spirit comes in a longer discourse by John the Baptist when he was questioned regarding purification (v. 25). Borchert states that the Evangelist uses this passage to express his view of the unity of the Father and the Son as also embracing the Holy Spirit: Indeed, the Spirit is also part of that unity, and here it said that there was no partial giving of the Spirit to Jesus (3:34). The Jewish rabbis considered that the various prophets had received the Spirit in differing proportions or measures.But that idea could hardly be confessed of Jesus, who was for John the incarnation (1:14) of the fullness (pl roma) of God (1:16), the one who existed in the bosom (kolpon) of the Father (1:18).20 The writer of the Gospel of John thus affirms that Jesushas the full endowment of the Holy Spirit, the Spirit without limit. The Old Testament prophets had the Spirit only for limited times and for limited purposes.21 THE NATURE OF WORSHIP EXPRESSED BY THE SPIRIT IN JOHN 4:23-24 Utley writes that the Evangelists words here hint at worship that is not restricted by locality or even physicality22. Pointing back to other descriptions offered in the Gospel of God as light, love and spirit, worship can also not be restricted to a time sequence or is necessarily either earthly or heavenly. Believers need to see that true worship is after the pattern of [Gods] essential nature.23 Gerald L. Borchert,The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman& Holman Publishers, 2001), 194. Walvoord, Zuck, and Dallas Theological Seminary, The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 32. Robert James Dr, The Beloved Disciple's Memoirs and Letters: The Gospel of John, I, II, and III John, Study Guide Commentary Series (Marshall, Texas: Bible Lessons International, 1999), 36. Robert B. Hughes and J., The Tyndale Reference Library (Wheaton, Ill.: Tyndale House Publishers, 2001), 72.
23 22 21 20

The Fourth Evangelist thus expresses the encompassing nature of worship as one that far eclipses principles understood up until this point. THE HOLY SPIRIT AS THE SOURCE OF LIFE IN JOHN 6:63 This passage is a critical one as some of Jesus disciples began to desert Him because they found His teachings too hard. It is interesting to note here that this desertion by some of the disciples is reminiscent of the passage found in Matthew 7:13, referring to the narrow and the wide gate. While many were initially excited, only some remained. As one commentary notes, the characteristic that separated those who left and those who stayed was a Godgiven ability to discern between the things of the flesh and the things of the Spirit.24 In both the Old Testament and the New Testament, the Spirit of God is often depicted as the source of life. In John 6:63, the reader finds a continuation of this depiction. In general, the writer of the Gospel of John stressed this idea of the Spirit as the source of life,25 and it is very apparent in this passage, which leaves the reader somewhat dazed as to why anyone would leave the Messiah in a passage that Kstenberger describes as closing the first half of Jesus public ministry on a note of failure.26 The Gospel writer here affirms the life-giving role of the Holy Spirit for those who remain with and in Christ.
24 25

Ibid.

Barclay Moon Newman and Eugene Albert Nida, A Handbook on the Gospel of John, Helps for translators; UBS handbook series (New York: United Bible Societies, 1993), 213.
26

Andreas Kstenberger, Encountering John (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 1999),

105.

THE HOLY SPIRIT GIVING EVIDENCE OF GODS PRESENCE IN JOHN 7:39 The discourse depicted in John 7 occurred during the Feast of Tabernacles, a festival which happened in a context of the ceremony of water-drawing and libationinterpreted in Judaism as a promise of the rivers of salvation to pour out from the Temple.27 The passages read at the festival included Isaiah 12:3, Ezekiel 47:1-2, and Zechariah 14:8. All of these passages refer to flowing water emanating from the Temple or Jerusalem, and even holding salvific properties in the Isaiah passage. This imagery is the one Jesus now advanced by clearly aligning living flowing water with salvation and the Evangelist clarifying for the audience that this would find its expression in the outpouring of the Holy Spirit, a still future event for the disciples at the time of Jesus words. As Grudem points out, this moment of the giving of the Holy Spirit would constitute a transition in the lives of the disciples;28 something they were not quite prepared for yet as they did not yet fully understand that Jesus would have to die first. The writer of the Gospel of John here affirms that the Holy Spirit will serve as an assurance of the presence of God in the believer. THE HOLY SPIRIT AS DIVINE HELPER IN JOHN 14:15-26 In this passage, placed in the time of the last meal Jesus shares with His disciples and what is a private discourse to His disciples in the upper room,29 the writer of the Gospel of John further expands on the person and role of the Holy Spirit.
27 28

Green, McKnight, and Marshall, Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels, 347.

Wayne A. Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Inter-Varsity Press; Zondervan Pub. House, 1994), 634.
29

W.E. Vine,Collected Writings of W.E. Vine (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1997).

It is also a passage where both of the terms used to refer to the Holy Spirit in the Gospel of John are used: In verse 26, the (pneuma - 14:17, 26) as well as is even explained with the term (parakl tos- 14:16, 26). . There have

been many translations offered.30Grammatically speaking, the word parakl tos is a passive verbal adjective, which can be translated one called alongside in the sense of an advocate who can assist in a court setting.31Yet the Holy Spirits work may best be described as primarily teaching, revealing and interpreting Jesus to the disciples.32Maybe it is best to follow the advice given by Brown to use transliteration because, like love, the term is a many-splendoured thing!33 In 14:16, Jesus says that another Helper34 (ESV) will come. According to Lloyd-Jones, this is one of the proof points the Gospel writer uses to underline the deity of the Holy Spirit: The Holy Spirit is one who takes the place of our Lord.35Zuck adds that it is important to note that Johns comparison of the Holy Spirit as Paraclete to Jesus own role as a Paraclete while
30 31 32 33

Refer to footnote 31. Green, McKnight, and Marshall, Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels, 347. Ibid.

Walt Russell, The Holy Spirits Ministry in the Fourth Gospel, Grace Theological Journal 8 (1987; 2002): 235 Translated Counselor in NIV 1984 and HCSB; Advocate in NET and NRSV; Comforter in ASV. The focus of this paper is not to provide a lengthy discussion of the meanings and reasoning behind each of these translations. Most commentaries will offer an explanation. Some translations have chosen to not translate the term, but rather stay with the title Paraclete. David Martyn Lloyd-Jones, God the Holy Spirit (Wheaton, Ill.: Crossways Books, 1997), 14.
35 34

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with the disciples strongly implies that the Spirit must be as personal as Jesus Himself is.36 He sees the Holy Spirits primary role as bearing witness to Jesus.37 On a side note, John 14:16 as well as 14:26 and 15:26are the root of the heatedfilioque discussion, which centered on whether the Holy Spirit proceeds only from the Father, or also from the Son. Borchert describes the conflict that emanated from theological considerations: There is a freedom in Johannine picture-thinking that irritates our mind-set and has led to a number of church arguments. For example, in the next section on the Holy Spirit the text of 14:16 reads, I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Counselor [Paraclete]. This text has been used by the Western church to argue that the Holy Spirit must be the third persona of the Trinity and that the Holy Spirit must have proceeded from the Father and the Son. Accordingly, the Western creed reads and the son (filioque). But the Eastern church has consistently argued that the filioque clause is totally unnecessary. The arguments over this expression have been intense with bishops deciding to excommunicate each other from their fellowships.38 In the passage at hand, the Gospel writer has described the role of the Holy Spirit as a divine Helper witnessing to Jesus as the Christ. THE HOLY SPIRIT CONTINUES TO TEACH WHAT JESUS TAUGHT IN JOHN 15:26 As part of the Farewell Discourse, Jesus promised that the Holy Spirit would be there to teach the disciples after Jesus death, resurrection and ascension. He would also remind them of all that Jesus has taught them. Again pertaining to the deity of the Holy Spirit, the King James Version Study Bible notes here the criticality of rememberingthat the Holy Spirit does not proceed out of the Father, but rather from beside Him, indicating that He is no less God than the Father or the Son. So while the Holy Spirit is being sent by both the Father and the Son, this in no way suggests the
36 37 38

Zuck, A Biblical Theology of the New Testament, 198. Ibid., 200.

Gerald L. Borchert, Logos Library System; The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman& Holman Publishers, 2003), 118.

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Spirit is less in deity than are the Father or Son. Instead it explains the relationship among the three eternal persons of the Trinity.39 Newman and Nida discuss the issue that the phrase I will send him to you from the Father cannot be simply considered from a locational perspective, but needs to be viewed in the causative manner in which Jesus speaks these words. As such they feel that it may be necessary to translate this clause I will cause him to go from the Father and to come to you.40 Jesus assured the disciples and all believers that they would not be left alone, but rather that they would experience peace through the fellowship and teaching of the Holy Spirit. By causing the Holy Spirit to come, Jesus ensured the continuation of His teaching ministry to them through the third Person of the Trinity. In writing this, the Fourth Evangelist assured the readers of the Holy Spirits ongoing teaching ministry. THE HOLY SPIRIT AS CONVICTING THE WORLD OF SIN IN JOHN 16:5-15 In this lengthy passage within the Farewell Discourse, Jesus taught again on the ministry of the Holy Spirit. Jesus comforted His disciples to prepare them for His imminent crucifixion, burial, resurrection and ascension, which meant a departure from them. He also taught them about the ongoing ministry of the Holy Spirit to convict the world of sin. Regarding the Holy Spirits role to convict of sin, about righteousness, and about judgment, Kennedy writes The Holy Spirit convicts about sin (the abstract idea of sin and guilt, not personal sins) because they are not believing on Christ. If men are in a state of faith, then sin and guilt are not issues; the substitutionary work of Christ removes them. The Holy Spirit will
39 40

King James Version Study Bible ., Electronic Ed (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1997). Barclay Moon Newman and Eugene Albert Nida, A Handbook on the Gospel of John,

213.

12 convict about righteousness because Christ has ascended to the Father. Ascending to the Father and being accepted by Him qualifies Christ in His person and work; therefore the Holy Spirit takes this fact and works. In order for men to ascend they must meet this standard. The Holy Spirit will convict about judgment because God judged the leader and head of sinful creation. The precedent has been set. God broke Satans hold. Those who stay with Satan will partake of judgment also.41 Utley highlights that in this passage truth (al theia) is used in its OT connotation of trustworthiness and only secondarily in a sense of truthfulness.42That the Holy Spirit was not simply intended as a secondary source of revelation or as an empowerment for more effective missionary activity is made clear by the writer of the Fourth Gospel in that he depicts Him as a gift given to believers to allow them to come to an understanding of the Gospel and to assure them of the presence of the Father and of the Son, guiding them in their ways.43 How significant the ministry of the Holy Spirit would turn out to be is apparent when listening to the words of Robertson: One need only refer to Peters sermon at Pentecost after the coming of the Holy Spirit, to Peters Epistles, to Pauls Epistles, to Hebrews, to Johns Epistles, to see how under the tutelage of the Holy Spirit the disciples grew into the fullness of the knowledge of God in the face of Christ.44 The writer of the Gospel of John here affirms that the Holy Spirit will convict the world of sin and will embolden the disciples. Tod Kennedy, The Convicting Ministry of the Holy Spirit: John 16:8-11. Chafer Theological Seminary Journal Volume 1, 3 (Fountain Valley, CA: Chafer Theological Seminary, 1995), I9. Robert James Dr, The Beloved Disciple's Memoirs and Letters: The Gospel of John, I, II, and III John, Study Guide Commentary Series (Marshall, Texas: Bible Lessons International, 1999), 146.
43 44 42 41

Green, McKnight, and Marshall, Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels, 347.

A.T. Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament, vol. JN of 16 (Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, 1997), 14.

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THE GIVING OF THE HOLY SPIRIT IN JOHN 20:22 The final depiction of the Holy Spirits person and ministry is given in the twentieth chapter of John. Jesus breathed on the disciples with the words Receive the Holy Spirit.(ESV) Immediately, the disciples thoughts would have gone back to the very beginning of the Torah, where God breathes life into Adam in Genesis 2:7.45 Zuck believes that this passage is intended to symbolically foreshadow the actual giving of the Holy Spirit to the believers at Pentecost, and he names the disciples fearful behavior through the final chapters of the Fourth Gospel as the key reason why he believes this.46 While allowing for an allusion to Ezekiels Valley of the Dry Bones, and in particular Ezekiel 37:9, Carson suggests that this passage is best understood as a kind of acted parable pointing forward to the full enduement still to come.47 The Fourth Evangelist here ensures his audience that the Holy Spirit will indeed be given to them by no one other than Jesus Himself. THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE HOLY SPIRIT AND LIVING WATER One final word on the terms Spirit and water, often used in combination, or at least alluded to. Burge suggests that the overarching imagery of Spirit and water form a Johannine highlight to the important connection between the two. The connection between the two are visible all throughout the Gospel of John, from chapter 1 where water accompanies Jesus inauguration and anointing in the Spirit to the crucifixion of Jesus about which Burge writes, Is it any surprise, then, that in 19:34, when Jesus is stabbed with a lance, waterthis mysterious Walvoord, Zuck, and Dallas Theological Seminary, The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 32.
46 47 45

Zuck, A Biblical Theology of the New Testament, 200. Carson, The Gospel According to John, 655.

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waterpours forth?48 As such, life-giving water and life-giving Spirit seem to go hand-in-hand. A further study in this area is warranted. One book that would allow a better understanding of Old Testament imagery is Robin Routledge's Old Testament Theology: A Thematic Approach. Another book that will help connect the Old Testament world to that of the New Testament is The Epic of Eden by Sandra L. Richter. CONCLUSION While the Holy Spirit is by far the most ambiguous and hard-to-grasp Person of the Trinity, the writer of John has given believers a solid foundation on which to build their beliefs. The Holy Spirit has been proven to be same in essence with the Father and the Son, but a distinct Person within the Trinity. His ministry is to convict the world of sin, about righteousness, and about judgment. He is there as an ever-present Helper to guide and teach the believers in the days after the ascension of Jesus to the right hand of the Father. The Fourth Gospel paints a picture that is consistent with Old Testament imagery and that constantly revisits the concepts of living water, life-giving breath and divine Presence through the Holy Spirit within those who are followers of God. We can restassured that even though Jesus is at the right hand of God, we are not left alone, but rather live in daily communion with the Godhead and are partakers of the Living Water and the Bread of Life. Gary M. Burge, Interpreting the Gospel of John (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1992), 139.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY Barclay Moon Newman and Eugene Albert Nida.A Handbook on the Gospel of John. Helps for translators; UBS handbook series. New York: United Bible Societies, 1993. Borchert, Gerald L. Logos Library System; The New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman& Holman Publishers, 2003. Burge, Gary M. Interpreting the Gospel of John. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1992. Carson, D. A. The Gospel According to John. Grand Rapids, MI: Wb. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1991. David Martyn Lloyd-Jones. God the Holy Spirit. Wheaton, Ill.: Crossways Books, 1997. Green, Joel B., Scot McKnight, and I. Howard Marshall.Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1992. Grudem, Wayne A. Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Inter-Varsity Press; Zondervan Pub. House, 1994. Hughes, Robert B., and J.The Tyndale Reference Library. Wheaton, Ill.: Tyndale House Publishers, 2001.. Hurtado, Larry W. God in New Testament Theology. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 2010. Kennedy, Tod. The Convicting Ministry of the Holy Spirit: John 16:8-11. Chafer Theological Seminary Journal 1, no. 3 (1995). King James Version Study Bible .Electronic Ed. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1997. Kstenberger, Andreas. Encountering John. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 1999. Lloyd-Jones, David Martyn.God the Holy Spirit. Wheaton, Ill.: Crossways Books, 1997. Morris, Leon. The Gospel According to John.The New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1995. Robert James Dr. The Beloved Disciple's Memoirs and Letters: The Gospel of John. I, II, and III John, Study Guide Commentary Series. Marshall, Texas: Bible Lessons International, 1999. Robertson, A.T. Word Pictures in the New Testament.Vol. JN of 16. Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, 1997. Russell, Walt. The Holy Spirits Ministry in the Fourth Gospel.Grace Theological Journal 8 (1987; 2002).

16 Vine, W.E. Collected Writings of W.E. Vine. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1997. Walvoord, John F., Roy B. Zuck, and Dallas Theological Seminary.The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures. Vol. JN of 1. Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1983. Westcott, Brooke Foss, and Arthur Westcott, eds. The Gospel According to St. John Introduction and Notes on the Authorized Version. London: J. Murray, 1908. Zuck, Roy B. A Biblical Theology of the New Testament. Electronic ed. Chicago: Moody Press, 1994.