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Sketches

Introduction

Sketching is one of the most powerful tools available in UG. The basic idea of sketching is to create a 2D shape that is controlled by numerical values and geometric constraint rules. A major benefit of using sketches is that it enables you to capture your design idea quickly, without being overly concerned about the detail dimensions. The sketch process involves creating a new sketch by choosing “Insert / Sketch / Create”. Sketches are always defined using a sketch plane, and a reference direction. Once in sketch mode, you create entities that capture the shape of a geometric feature. In Figure 1, you will find many entities that are commonly used to compose a sketch. Once the sketch curves are drawn, and they may further defined using manually applied constraints and dimensions. You can change these dimensions and constraints until you get the desired geometry.

Figure 1 The final step of the sketch process is to finish the sketch and exit sketch mode. A sketch may then be used to define subsequent geometric features. When you choose Insert / Sketch in a part file that contains no geometry, a datum plane and two datum axes will appear. The sketch will be located on these datum entities. All Contact Design Visionaries for “Practical Unigraphics NX Modeling For Engineers” at info@designviz.com or 1-800-892-6655

2 sketches must be placed on a datum plane or a planar part surface, and a designated reference direction.

Figure 2 Figure 2 shows how a sketch can be used to create an extruded solid. The shape of the solid will change as you modify the sketch, as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3

Contact Design Visionaries for “Practical Unigraphics NX Modeling For Engineers” at info@designviz.com or 1-800-892-6655

Figure 4 The next step in the sketching process is to create curves that capture the desired shape.3 Topic: Creating a Sketch To create a Sketch. The datum plane is created on the XC-YC plane of the WCS. choose Insert / Sketch. UG automatically creates a datum plane and two axes that define the sketch plane. The datum entities are displayed in UG as shown in Figure 4. Figure 5 illustrates some of the tools available for sketching geometry. The datum axes are infinitely long lines that are coincident with the X and X axes. Figure 6 Contact Design Visionaries for “Practical Unigraphics NX Modeling For Engineers” at info@designviz. Figure 5 illustrates some commonly used tools for dimensioning and constraining sketch geometry. If you are working in a part file that contains no solid geometry. Figure 5 The next step in the sketching process is to dimension and constrain the sketch. when you do this.com or 1-800-892-6655 . Note that you can also use the Trim and Extend Sketcher functions to edit sketch curves.

Figure 7 Figure 8 illustrates the initial steps of the Sketching Process.4 The final step in the sketching process is to choose the “Finish Sketch” icon. This tells UG that you are finished sketching. Figure 8 Contact Design Visionaries for “Practical Unigraphics NX Modeling For Engineers” at info@designviz. and are ready for bigger and better things! To illustrate the Sketching Process. consider Figure 7. The datum entities and the shape of the desired geometry have been created. which is located on the upper left corner of the Graphics Window when you are in Sketch Mode. which shows a typical beverage pitcher.com or 1-800-892-6655 .

Vertical.5 Once the basic shape is sketched.com or 1-800-892-6655 . Figure 9 Note that in Figure 9 there are only four types of dimensions displayed: Horizontal. Figure 10 illustrates how the sketch geometry may be used to create solid geometry. you can see that the pitcher has been sized and all the geometry is ready to create the solid model. In Figure 9. you add the exact dimensions and rules. Perpendicular. Figure 10 Contact Design Visionaries for “Practical Unigraphics NX Modeling For Engineers” at info@designviz. and Angular.

Figure 11 By default. UG uses the “Inferred” dimension tool. using the “Dimensions” dialog box shown in Figure 11. To use this option. based upon the cursor position. PROJECT: • • Create a new part file Select Insert / Sketch A datum plane coincident with the x-y plane has been created along with horizontal and vertical datum axes. • Select the ‘Profile’ icon Contact Design Visionaries for “Practical Unigraphics NX Modeling For Engineers” at info@designviz. select the entity or entities that you want to dimension.com or 1-800-892-6655 . and UG determines the dimension type automatically.6 Detail: Adding Dimensions to a Sketch Seven dimension types may be placed on sketch entities. as shown in Figure 12.

• • To use the “Inferred” tool. and then select a screen location near the entity to place the dimension. you place the capture circle on top of the very first location. Select the ‘Dimensions’ icon Select the ‘Inferred’ icon from the Sketch Constraints Toolbar.7 • Using left hand mouse button clicks create the shape shown in Figure 12. Screen click 4 Screen click 3 Screen click 2 Screen click 5 Screen click 6 Screen click 7 Screen click 1 Figure 12 • You will notice that as you select screen locations. click once on the entity that you want to dimension. from the ‘Dimensions’ dialog box.com or 1-800-892-6655 . lines will be drawn between each sequential click. This will create a closed loop of curves as shown below. Make sure that when you draw the last line. Contact Design Visionaries for “Practical Unigraphics NX Modeling For Engineers” at info@designviz.

8 • Create dimensions similar to those shown in Figure 13.com or 1-800-892-6655 . the sketch should appear as shown in Figure 14. Figure 14 • End of PROJECT Contact Design Visionaries for “Practical Unigraphics NX Modeling For Engineers” at info@designviz. Each time you type in a new value hit “Enter” on the keyboard to apply the change. and the shape will update immediately. When you are finished. you may now select on each of them and input the correct dimension value. Figure 13 • Once you have created all the dimensions.

Pick point 6 Pick point 1 Pick point 5 Pick point 4 Pick point 2 Pick point 3 Figure 15 • • Select the ‘Dimensions’ icon Select the ‘Inferred’ icon from the Sketch Constraints Toolbar. Contact Design Visionaries for “Practical Unigraphics NX Modeling For Engineers” at info@designviz. PROJECT Create a sketch that resembles the one shown in Figure 15: • • • • Create a new part file Select Insert / Sketch Select the ‘Profile’ icon Select the screen locations as shown in Figure 15. It is called a parallel dimension because the dimension runs parallel to a line drawn between the two points. The parallel dimension may be thought of as a point-topoint dimension. from the ‘Dimensions’ dialog box. the dimension will be placed perpendicular to that line.9 Detail: Perpendicular and Parallel Sketch Dimensions Creating perpendicular and parallel dimensions can be a little confusing.com or 1-800-892-6655 . The first entity chosen when creating a perpendicular dimension must be a line.

UG creates a parallel dimension in this case. Place Dimension Here Pick Here Figure 17 • End of PROJECT Contact Design Visionaries for “Practical Unigraphics NX Modeling For Engineers” at info@designviz.com or 1-800-892-6655 .10 • Create the dimension as shown in Figure 16. Pick Here Second Pick Here First Place Dimension Here Figure 16 • Create the dimension as shown in Figure 17. UG creates a perpendicular dimension.

too many vertical dimensions have been applied. Figure 18 In this example. or are redundant. p1 is not required. The dimensions p0 and p1 are sufficient to fully dimension the height of the sketch. Figure 18 shows a typical over-constrained sketch. in some cases UG may undo more than you bargained for. It can be seen that the dimensioning scheme should be defined based upon the desired behavior the geometry should have when it is changed. Detail: If There Are Too Many Dimensions on A Sketch You May Delete or Undo “Edit / Delete” may be used when you have placed a dimension on a sketch that is not required. however. and causes the UG sketcher to become confused.com or 1-800-892-6655 . Contact Design Visionaries for “Practical Unigraphics NX Modeling For Engineers” at info@designviz. Be careful. This results in an over-constrained condition. thus. You may also use the “Edit / Undo” command. for there is no “Redo” command.11 Detail: When Placing Too Many Dimensions on a Sketch makes UG Unhappy Do not place dimensions on a sketch that are conflicting. An equally valid alternative dimensioning scheme is p2 and p0.

you can click on a dimension with MB1. Figure 19 Detail: Moving a Previously Placed Dimension Dimensions created with the “auto dimension” tool are automatically placed in a “good” location by UG. The inferred tool creates a diameter dimension on circles. For horizontal and vertical dimensions.com or 1-800-892-6655 . the placement is right in the middle of the span of the dimension.12 Detail: Radius and Diameter Sketch Dimensions You may apply either a radius or a diameter dimension to sketched arcs and circles. For diameter dimensions. If a dimension was Contact Design Visionaries for “Practical Unigraphics NX Modeling For Engineers” at info@designviz. and drag it to a new location. Figure 20 To change the position of a Sketch dimension. hold down the left mouse button. the placement is usually radial to the arc. and a radius dimension on arcs (see Figure 19).

the “parallel” constraint will not be visible. As you place more and more dimensions and geometric constraints on a sketch. For example. To apply a specific geometric constraint. since constraint options do not appear until geometry is selected.13 created using ‘Auto Placement’. this constraint option will appear. as shown in Figure 20. You will also need to fix the sketch with respect to previously existing geometry. As soon as geometric constraints are added to a sketch. select the dimension and choose one of the ‘Manual Placement’ options. which directly affect the shape of the geometry. but that doing it makes a sketch behave more predictably. you must apply enough dimensions and geometric constraints to remove all of the degree of freedom indicators. To convert it to manual placement. the system will limit its movement. simply choose it from the list of displayed constraints. you will notice yellow arrows are displayed on some of the vertices of sketched lines. Contact Design Visionaries for “Practical Unigraphics NX Modeling For Engineers” at info@designviz. the degree of freedom indicators disappear one by one. or make two lines parallel. These are the degree of freedom indicators. if one line is selected. accessed from the Sketch Constraints toolbar. force the radii of all circles to be equal. To constrain a sketch fully. or perhaps at the middle of sketched arcs. Keep in mind that it is not always necessary to fully constrain each sketch. Topic: Defining Geometric Constraints Creating geometric constraints is analogous to specifying a set of rules that sketch geometry must follow. Geometric Constraints are applied using the Create Constraints option. they are applied to the sketch. they indicate which entities and vertices have not been fully constrained. Figure 21 shows a simple sketch and its degree of freedom indicators. For example. The interaction with the geometric constraint menus can be a little confusing. A combination of dimensions and geometric constraints gives you the ability to create very complex geometric sketches.com or 1-800-892-6655 . however as soon as you select another line. Detail: The Degree Of Freedom Indicators When applying dimensions or constraints.

to ensure that it has a “zero point”.14 Degree-ofFreedom Indicators Figure 21 Detail: The Fix Constraint One of the most important geometric constraints is the “Fix” constraint. The Fix constraint does not fix a point in space. The gap is closed using a “Coincident” constraint Figure 22 Contact Design Visionaries for “Practical Unigraphics NX Modeling For Engineers” at info@designviz.g. a circle center or endpoint of a line) onto another vertex (see Figure 22).com or 1-800-892-6655 . Detail: The Coincident Constraint The “Coincident” constraint is used to place vertex (e. it fixes a point with respect to all other geometry in the sketch. It is used to anchor one point on the sketch.

and then select the “Coincident” constraint from the list of available constraints. select the desired vertices.com or 1-800-892-6655 . Make sure it is not a closed loop. • Construct a sketch that resembles Figure 23. Contact Design Visionaries for “Practical Unigraphics NX Modeling For Engineers” at info@designviz. Select the ‘Fix’ constraint icon Notice how the fix constraint removes the yellow degree of freedom indicators.15 To use this constraint. PROJECT: Place “Fix” and “Coincident” Geometric Constraints onto a sketch. as shown in Figure 23. Select the Create Constraints icon Select the lower left corner of the sketch. Fix this corner Figure 23 • • • from the Sketch Constraints Toolbar.

Select these points Figure 24 • • Select the ‘Coincident’ constraint icon End of PROJECT Contact Design Visionaries for “Practical Unigraphics NX Modeling For Engineers” at info@designviz.com or 1-800-892-6655 .16 • Select the two points as shown in Figure 24.

PROJECT Create several Horizontal and Vertical Constraints.com or 1-800-892-6655 . UG will often automatically apply a horizontal or vertical geometric constraint to them. Select the lines shown in Figure 25 marked “Select at these locations”. Select the Vertical geometric constraint The sketch will appear as shown in Figure 26. if this does not occur. Select at these locations Figure 25 • • • Select Create Constraints from the Sketch Constraints Toolbar. You may also place these constraints on manually. Figure 26 Contact Design Visionaries for “Practical Unigraphics NX Modeling For Engineers” at info@designviz.17 Detail: Horizontal And Vertical Geometric Constraints When you sketch a line that is nearly horizontal or vertical. • Sketch a profile similar to the one shown in Figure 25.

and apply a Horizontal constraint Your sketch looks like Figure 27. Figure 27 • End of PROJECT Detail: The Point on Curve Constraint The Point on Curve constraint is a very powerful constraint option. It may be used to align points. to lines or other curves. It is especially useful for creating geometry where elements must be aligned to each other. The name is a bit misleading . For example if you had a series of holes that lined up with a slot or edge. The desired behavior is that the holes should follow the angle of the edge. endpoints of curves. arc center points.it should really be thought of as a point constrained to be on an infinite extension of a curve.18 • Select the other lines. you may use the “Point on Curve” constraint. The holes on the right hand portion of the shape shown in Figure 28 should be aligned with the angled edge on the left-hand side. Figure 28 contains a good example of the application for a Point on Curve constraint. Figure 28 Contact Design Visionaries for “Practical Unigraphics NX Modeling For Engineers” at info@designviz.com or 1-800-892-6655 .

the location of the holes follows. Pick Pick Figure 30 • Select Create Constraints from the Sketch Constraints Toolbar.19 In Figure 29.com or 1-800-892-6655 . the point on curve constraint has been applied. Contact Design Visionaries for “Practical Unigraphics NX Modeling For Engineers” at info@designviz. Figure 29 The following exercise illustrates the use of the Point on Curve constraint. Each center point of the circles has been aligned with the angled edge on the left-hand side of the shape. You can see that as the angle is changed. PROJECT Create the sketch depicted in Figure 30.

including the “Point on Curve” constraint. A list of constraints will appear. • • Figure 31 • End of PROJECT Contact Design Visionaries for “Practical Unigraphics NX Modeling For Engineers” at info@designviz.20 • Select the two entities labeled “pick here” in Figure 24. Select the “Point on Curve” constraint The result is shown in Figure 31.com or 1-800-892-6655 . It does not matter which entity is selected first.

The Collinear constraint aligns two or more lines to with each other. and then select the collinear geometric constraint from the list of available constraints. as shown in Figure 32. select the appropriate lines.21 Detail: The Collinear Line Constraint The “Collinear” geometric constraint is similar to the Point on Curve constraint.com or 1-800-892-6655 . Contact Design Visionaries for “Practical Unigraphics NX Modeling For Engineers” at info@designviz. From this… To this… Figure 32 To apply the “Collinear” geometric constraint.

22 Detail: The Tangent Constraint The “Tangent” geometric constraint applies a tangency condition to the selected curves (lines or arcs) as shown in Figure 33. To apply this constraint. From this To this Figure 33 Contact Design Visionaries for “Practical Unigraphics NX Modeling For Engineers” at info@designviz. and then select the “Tangent” constraint. select the two entities near to the desired tangency location.com or 1-800-892-6655 .

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