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A SEMINAR REPORT ON

“Neural Networks &Their Application”

UNIVERSITY ROLL NO - 0806331112

SUBMITTED BY -

SUBMITTED TO -

VIVEK YADAV EC(branch) 3rd (year) G (section) 53(roll no.)

Mr. MANISH KASHYAP (seminar in-charge)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I pose my copious gratitude and like to thank the entire staff of G.L.A.I.T.M, Mathura for their help and kind cooperation during my entire seminar preparation. I am extremely thankful to them for providing me with vital information about the topic. I rejoice in expressing my prodigious gratification to Department of Electronics &Communication Engineering Department, G.L.A.I.T.M, Mathura for his indispensable guidance, generous help, perpetual encouragement, constant attention offered throughout in preparing the seminar. I take this opportunity to pay my sincere thanks to Mr. MANISH KASHYAP, seminar in charge & lecturer, Electronics & Communication Engineering Department, G.L.A. Institute of Technology & Management, Mathura, for giving me the golden opportunity to present the seminar. At last but not the least, I would like to thank my parents and all my peers who have been a constant source of encouragement and inspiration in every walk of life. VIVEK YADAV

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the work which is being successfully presented in the seminar report entitled “NEURAL NETWORKS & THEIR APPLICATIONS” by me in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Bachelor Of Technology Degree in Electronics & Communication Engineering Department at G.L.A. Institute Of Technology & Management, Mathura from Uttar Pradesh Technical University, Lucknow. The matter embodied in this dissertation has not been submitted by me for award of any other degree. DATE-: 21 ,APRIL , 2011 This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of my knowledge. SUBMITTED BY -: SUBMITTED TO-: VIVEKYADAV KASHYAP) B.TECH. III YEAR (EC) INCHARGE ROLL NO.: 0806331112 SEMINAR (MR. MANISH

CONTENTS

Topic Page no.

Abstract ………………………………………………………………… ……5

1. Introduction…………………………………………………

**……………… 6 Biological neuron…………………………………………………………. 8
**

2. Artificial

neuron………………………………………………………… ….9

3. Different

models

of

artificial activation neural

neuron…………………………….10 4. Classical

5. Artificial

function………………………………………….14 network………………………………………………..16

6. Qualities

of architecture

neural of

network……………………………………………17

7. Different

ANN…………………………………………19

8. Learning

ofANN………………………………………………………… ……20

9. Advantages&Disadvantages

ofANN…………………………………22

10. Applications

of advances in field of

ANN…………………………………………………………23

11. Recent

ANN……………………………………….25

12. Conclusion……………………………………………………

…………………27

13. Bibliography…………………………………………………

…………………28

ABSTRACT

Neural network are inspired by biological nervous system and re composed of many simple computational elements operating in parallel. In this study basic component of neural network are introduced and brief on their working. Concept of activation function is also discussed. Different learning algorithm are also enlisted.Topics on advantage ,disadvantage and recent development in the field of ANN’s are mentioned in this study.

Introduction

Neural networks have seen an explosion of interest over the last few years and are being successfully applied across an extraordinary range of problem domains, in areas as diverse as finance, medicine, engineering, geology, physics and biology. The excitement stems from the fact that these networks are attempts to model the capabilities of the human brain. From a statistical perspective neural networks are interesting because of their potential use inprediction and classification problems. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are non-linear data driven self adaptive approach as opposed to the traditional model based methods. They are powerful tools for modelling, especially when the underlying data relationship is unknown. ANNs can identify and learn correlated patterns between input data sets and corresponding target values. After training,ANNs can be used to predict the outcome of new independent input data. ANNs imitate the learning process of the human brain and can process problems involving non-linear and complex data even if the data are imprecise and noisy. Thus they are ideally suited for the modeling of

agricultural data which are known to be complex and often non-linear. These networks are “neural” in the sense that they may have been inspired by neuroscience but not necessarily because they are faithful models of biological neural or cognitive phenomena. In fact majority of the network are more closely related to traditional mathematical and/or statistical models such as nonparametric pattern classifiers, clustering algorithms, nonlinear filters, and statistical regression models than they are to neurobiology models. Neural networks (NNs) have been used for a wide variety of applications where statistical methods are traditionally employed. They have been used in classification problems, such as identifying underwater sonar currents, recognizing speech, and predicting the secondary structure of globular proteins. In time-series applications, NNs have been used in predicting stock market classical performance. statistical and As statisticians such as or users of statistics, these problems are normally solved through methods, discriminant It is, analysis, logistic regression, Bayes analysis, multiple regression, ARIMA time-series models. therefore, time to recognize neural networks as a powerful tool for data analysis.

**The biological neuron
**

Neurons can be of many types and shapes, but ultimately they function in a similar way and are connected to each other in a rather complex network stylish way via strands of fibre called axons . A neurons axon acts as a transmission line and are connected to another neuron via that neurons dendrites , which are fibres that emanate from the cell body ( soma ) of the neuron. The junction that allows transmission between the axons and the dendrites are the synapse. Synapses are elementary structural and functional units that creates the signal connection between two or more neurons; sometimes meaning the connection as whole.

FIG 1-: Biological neuron

**The artificial neuron
**

Artificial neurons are information-processing units that are only approximations (usually very crude ones) of the biological neuron. Three basic elements of the artificial neuron can be identified as-:

FIG 2-: Artificial neuron

Input (xi)

Typically, these values are external stimuli from the environment or come from the outputs of other artificial neurons. They can be discrete values from a set, such as {0,1}, or real-valued numbers.

Weights (wi)

These are real-valued numbers that determine the contribution of each input to the neuron's weighted sum and eventually its output. The goal of neural network training algorithms is to determine the best possible set of weight values for the problem under consideration. Finding the optimal set is often a tradeoff between computation time and minimizing the network error.

Threshold (u)

The threshold is referred to as a bias value. In this case, the real number is added to the weighted sum.

For simplicity, the threshold can be regarded as another input / weight pair, where w0 = u and x0 = -1.

Activation Function (f)

The activation function for the original McCulloch-Pitts neuron was the unit stepfunction. However, the artificial neuron model has been expanded to include other functions such as the sigmoid, piecewise linear, and Gaussian.

**Different models of artificial neuron
**

1.Adaline model 2.Madaline model 3.Rosenballet model 4.Mcculloch pits model 5.Widrow hoff model 6.Kohonen model 1.The adaptive linear element (Adaline)

In a simple physical implementation

Fig3-:The McCulloch-Pitts Model of Neuron

this device consists of a set of controllable resistors connected to a circuit which can sum up currents caused by the input voltage signals. Usually the central block, the summer, is also followed by a quantiser which outputs either +1 of 1,depending on the polarity of the sum. Although the adaptive process is here exemplified in a case when there is only one output, it may be clear that a system with many parallel outputs is directly implementable by multiple units of the above kind. If the input conductances are denoted by wi, i = 0; 1; : : : ; n, and the input and output signals by xi and y, respectively, then the output of the central block is defined to be:

where θ = w0.

**2.Mcculloch pitts model
**

The early model of an artificial neuron is introduced by Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts in 1943. The McCulloch-Pitts neural model is also known as linear threshold gate. It is a neuron of a set of inputs and one output The linear threshold gate simply classifies the set of inputs into two different classes. Thus the output is binary. Such a function can be described mathematically using these equations: (2.1 )

(2.2)

are weight values normalized in the range of either input line, or and associated with each is a threshold

is the weighted sum, and

constant. The function threshold

is a linear step function at

as shown in figure. The symbolic

representation of the linear threshold gate is shown in figure [

Fig 4: Linear Threshold Function

Fig5-: The McCulloch-Pitts Model of Neuron

**Classical Activation functions
**

While it is possible to define some arbitrary, cost function, frequentlya particular cost will be used, either because it has desirable properties (such as convexity) or because it arises naturally from a particular formulation of the problem (e.g., in a probabilistic formulation the posterior probability of the model can be used as an inverse cost). Ultimately, the cost function will depend on the desired task.

Different types of activation functions can be used and three of them are described in [activation functions] . The most commonly used is nonlinear sigmoid activation functions such as the logistic function . A logistic function assumes a continuous range of values form 0 and 1 in contrary to the discrete threshold function. A binary threshold function was used in the first model of an artificial neuron back in 1943, the so-called McCulloch-Pitts model . Threshold functions goes by many names, e.g. step-function , heavyside function , hard-limiter etc. Common for all is that they produce one of two scalar output values (usually 1 and -1 or 0 and 1) depending on the value of the threshold. Another type of activation function is the linear function or some times called the identity function since the activation is just the input. In general if the task is to approximate some function then the output nodes are linear and if the task is classification then sigmoidal output nodes are used

**Artificial neural network
**

Computational models inspired by the human brain-:

1. Massively, parallel, distributed system, made up

**of simple processing units.(neurons)
**

2. Synaptic connection strengths among neurons

**are used to store the acquired knowledge.
**

3. Knowledge is acquired by the network from its

environment through a learning process.

FIG 3-: Simple artificial neural network

**Qualities of artificial neural network
**

1. Real time operation

2. Parallel processing 3. Fault tolerance 4. Self organising 5. Ability to generalize 6. Complete computability 7. Continuous adaptability

Different architectures of ANN

Fig-:Back Propagation network

Fig-:Multi layered Perceptron network

Fig-:Hopfield network

Fig-:Kehonen network

Learning of ANN

An ANN learns from its experience. The usual process of learning involves three tasks: 1.Compute output(s). 2.Compare outputs with desired patterns and feed-back the error.

3.Adjust the weights and repeat the process 4.The learning process starts by setting the weights by some rules . The difference between the actual output (y) and the desired output(z) is called error (delta). 5.The objective is to minimize delta (error)to zero. The reduction in error is done by changing the weights 1.Supervised learning-: or Associative learning in which the network is trained by providing it with input and matching output patterns. These input-output pairs can be provided by an external teacher, or by the system which contains the neural network (selfsupervised).

2.Unsupervised learning -:or Self-organisation in which an (output) unit is trained to respond to clusters of pattern within the input. In this paradigm the system is supposed to discover statistically salient features of

the input population. Unlike the supervised learning paradigm, there is no a priori set of categories into which the patterns are to be classified; rather the system must develop its own representation of the input stimuli. 3.Reinforcement Learning -:This type of learning may be considered as an intermediate form of the above two types of learning. Here the learning machine does some action on the environment and gets a feedback response from the environment. The learning system grades its action good (rewarding) or bad (punishable) based on the environmental response and accordingly adjusts its parameters. Generally, parameter adjustment is continued until an equilibrium state occurs, following which there will be no more changes in its parameters. The selforganizing neural learning may be categorized under this type of learning.

Advantages&Disadvantages of ANN

A.)Advantages

1.Adapt to unknown situations 2.Robustness: fault tolerance due to network redundancy 3.Autonomous learning and generalization

B.)Disadvantages

1.Not exact 2.Large complexity of the network structure.

APPLICATIONS OF ANN

**RECENT ADVANCES IN ANN FIELD
**

Integration of fuzzy logic into neural networks

1.

Fuzzy logic is a type of logic that recognizes more than simple true and false values, hence better simulating the real world. For example, the statement today is sunny might be 100% true if there are no clouds, 80% true if there are a few clouds, 50% true if it's hazy, and 0% true if rains all day. Hence, it takes into account concepts like -usually, somewhat, and sometimes.

2.

Fuzzy logic and neural networks have been integrated for uses as diverse as automotive engineering,

applicant screening for jobs, the control of a crane, and the monitoring of glaucoma.

**Pulsed neural networks
**

1.

"Most practical applications of artificial neural networks are based on a computational model involving the propagation of continuous variables from one processing unit to the next. In recent years, data from neurobiological experiments have made it increasingly clear that biological neural networks, which communicate through pulses, use the timing of the pulses to transmit information and perform computation. This realization has stimulated significant research on pulsed neural networks, including theoretical analyses and model development, neurobiological modeling, and hardware implementation."

**Hardware specialized for neural networks
**

1.

Some networks have been hardcoded into chips or analog devices ? this technology will become more useful as the networks we use become more complex.

2.

The primary benefit of directly encoding neural networks onto chips or specialized analog devices is SPEED!

3.

NN hardware currently runs in a few niche areas, such as those areas where very high performance is required (e.g. high energy physics) and in embedded

**applications of simple, hardwired networks (e.g. voice recognition).
**

4.

Many NNs today use less than 100 neurons and only need occasional training. In these situations, software simulation is usually found sufficient

When NN algorithms develop to the point where useful things can be done with 1000's of neurons and 10000's of synapses, high performance NN hardware will become essential for practical operation.

CONCLUSION

1.

All current NN technologies will most likely be vastly improved upon in the future. Everything from handwriting and speech recognition to stock market prediction will become more sophisticated as researchers develop better training methods and network architectures

2.

Although neural networks do seem to be able to solve many problems, we must put our exuberance in check sometimes ? they are not magic! Overconfidence in neural networks can result in costly mistakes: see for a rather funny story about the government and neural networks.

.

**NNs might, in the future, allow:
**

a. Robots that can see, feel, and predict the

**world around them
**

b. Improved stock prediction c. Common usage of self-driving cars d. Composition of music e. Handwritten documents to be automatically

**transformed into formatted word processing documents
**

f. Trends found in the human genome to aid in

**the under standing of the data compiled by the Human Genome Project
**

g. Self-diagnosis of medical problems using

neural networks

h. And much more!

REFRENCES

1.

Hertz, J., Palmer, R.G., Krogh. A.S. (1990) Introduction to the theory of

neural

computation,

Peruses

Books.

**ISBN 0-201-51560-1
**

2.

B.Yegnarayana(2010) 203-1253-1

Artificial neural

networks PHI publication. ISBN-978-81“Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Foundation” by HAYKINS

3.

SESSION: 2010-2011
A SEMINAR REPORT ON
“Neural Networks &Their Application”
UNIVERSITY ROLL NO - 0806331112
SUBMITTED BY -
SUBMITTED TO -
VIVEK YADAV EC(branch) 3rd (year) G (section) 53(roll...

SESSION: 2010-2011

A SEMINAR REPORT ON

“Neural Networks &Their Application”

UNIVERSITY ROLL NO - 0806331112

SUBMITTED BY -

SUBMITTED TO -

VIVEK YADAV EC(branch) 3rd (year) G (section) 53(roll no.)

Mr. MANISH KASHYAP (seminar in-charge)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I pose my copious gratitude and like to thank the entire staff of G.L.A.I.T.M, Mathura for their help and kind cooperation during my entire seminar preparation. I am extremely thankful to them for providing me with vital information about

A SEMINAR REPORT ON

“Neural Networks &Their Application”

UNIVERSITY ROLL NO - 0806331112

SUBMITTED BY -

SUBMITTED TO -

VIVEK YADAV EC(branch) 3rd (year) G (section) 53(roll no.)

Mr. MANISH KASHYAP (seminar in-charge)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I pose my copious gratitude and like to thank the entire staff of G.L.A.I.T.M, Mathura for their help and kind cooperation during my entire seminar preparation. I am extremely thankful to them for providing me with vital information about

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