THE VIGNELLI CANON

THE VIGNELLI CANON

Massimo Vignelli

We thank our friend Sheila Hicks for her assistance in editing of the text. Book design: Massimo Vignelli with Beatriz Cifuentes

This book is affectionately dedicated to Lella, my wife and professional partner. Together we shared our intellectual experiences and growing process from the very beginning of our professional lives. Her creative intuition and sharp criticism have enriched my life and have been the structural strength of our collaboration, without which my work would have been worth much less.

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Introduction

At the request of the publisher of this book I started to look in to the meaning of such a publication and recognized that it could become a useful instrument for a better understanding of typography in Graphic Design. This little book reveals our guidelines - those set by ourselves for ourselves. In several teaching situations I remarked the lack of some basic typographic principles in young designers. I thought that it might be useful to pass some of my professional knowledge around, with the hope of improving their design skills. Creativity needs the support of knowledge to be able to perform at its best. It is not the intention of this little book to stifle creativity or to reduce it to a bunch of rules. It is not the formula that prevents good design from happening but lack of knowledge of the complexity of the Design profession. It’s up to the brain to use the proper formula to achieve the desired result. With great pleasure I look back to all the moments when I learned something new in typography, either from a Master or from fellow practitioners. To have learned about disciplined design from my Swiss fellows, to have learned about the white space from my American fellows, to have learned about the forceful impact of type from my German fellows, to have learned about wit from my English fellows, and then even more from fellows everywhere. That beautiful feeling of enrichment that comes from new discoveries, new ways of doing the same thing better than before. It is my hope that this book may provide that feeling, or in any case confirm and reaffirm those guidelines that we designers love to set for ourselves.

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6

Part One The Intangibles Semantics Syntactics Pragmatics Discipline Appropriateness Ambiguity Design is One Visual Power Intellectual Elegance Timelessness Responsibility Equity 8 .

it is important to distill the essence of 10 the semantic search through a complex process. It is as in music. in design. when we hear the final sound. Well. Semantics eventually become an essential part of the designer’s being. the Product. to infuse the design with all the required cognitive inputs. Vulgarity implies a blatant intention of a form of expression that purposely ignores and bypasses any form of established culture. However. It could be a search for more information about the Company. that has a reason for being. It is extremely important for a satisfactory result of any design to spend time on the search of the accurate and essential meanings. I consider this action criminal since it is producing visual pollution that is degrading our environment just like all other types of pollution. unfortunately it is also ubiquitous. Semantics will also indicate the most appropriate form for that particular subject that we can interpret or transform according to our intentions. regardless of what they may be. Unfortunately. or indeed. . product. Not all forms of vernacular communication are necessarily vulgar. investigate their complexities. for me. graphic. It means to design something that has a meaning. means to understand the subject in all its aspects. the Competition.the only way that can most enrich their design. the final user. there are designers and marketing people who intentionally look down on the consumer with the notion that vulgarity has a definite appeal to the masses. Syntactic and Pragmatic. understand the context of use to better define the parameters within which we will have to operate. to relate the subject to the sender and the receiver in such a way that it makes sense to both. they are either meaningless or incredibly vulgar or criminal when done on purpose. effortlessly and in the most natural way possible. learn about their ambiguities. In addition to that it is useful to follow our intuition and our diagnostic ability to funnel the research and arrive to a rather conscious definition of the problem at hand. its Destination. a crucial component of the natural process of design. Semantics. The very first thing that I do whenever I start a new assignment in any form of design.Semantics I have always said that there are three aspects in Design that are important to me: Semantic. exhibition or interior is to search for the meaning of it. although very often that is the case. Design without semantics is shallow and meaningless but. That may start with research on the history of the subject to better understand the nature of the project and to find the most appropriate direction for the development of a new design. and therefore they supply the market with a continuos flow of crude and vulgar design. the Market Position of the subject. Semantics. about the real meaning of the subject and its semantic roots. Let’s examine them one at the time. without knowing all the processes through which the composer has gone before reaching the final result. that is not arbitrary. something in which every detail carries the meaning or has a precise purpose aimed at a precise target. How often we see design that has no meaning: stripes and swash of color splashed across pages for no reason whatsoever. and the obvious point of departure for designing. and that is why it is so important that young designers train themselves to start the design process in the correct way. Depending on the subject the search can take many directions. In our contemporary world it becomes increasingly more difficult to find honest forms of vernacular communication as once existed in the pre-industrial world. most of which is intuitive. Semantics are what will provide the real bases for a correct inception of projects. is the search of the meaning of whatever we have to design.

Brooklyn. they are the overall structure. Design. etc. Brooklyn Franklin Ave to Prospect Park. Manhattan Express in Queens. Manhattan Local Late Nights and Weekends: No service Long Island City/Court Square. New York City Subway Diagram 4 5 6 E E E 2 2 2 2 E E W R N 2 2 E 4 5 6 W WR 6 4 5 4 5 6 R5 4N6 W N 4R 6 5 4 5N 6 2008 W N Q R L J Z M S Astoria/Ditmars Blvd. peak direction only Late Nights: Dyre Ave. Local Dyre Ave. how type sizes relate to each other. Late Nights and Weekends: Forest Hills/71 Ave. Bronx to South Ferry. Queens to Lower East Side/2 Ave. City Court Sq G 111 St Greenwood Ave Liberty Ave G 7 Woodhaven Blvd Jamaica Ave 104 St-Oxford Ave Liberty Ave 42 St 1 2 3 W R N Q Times Sq B D F V 42 St 6 Ave 42 St Bryant Park 4 5 6 42 St Grand Central Hunters Point Ave 21 St Queens Forest Ave 67 Ave Nassau Ave Manhattan Ave Jefferson St Wyckoff Ave DeKalb Ave Wyckoff Ave M L 85 St Forest Parkway Middle Village Metropolitan Ave 75 St Jamaica Ave Fresh Pond Rd 67 Ave M Z 8/9 5/6 Rockaway Blvd Liberty Ave Federal Circle JFK Airport 1 4 34 St Penn Station A C E 8 Ave 34 St Penn 1 2 3 Station 28 St 7 Ave 34 St Herald Sq BDF V 28 St Bway 23 St Bway 33 St Park Ave S 28 St Park Ave S 23 St Park Ave S Greenpoint Ave Manhattan Ave Cypress Hills Jamaica Ave 88 St Boyd Ave Aqueduct Racetrack Lefferts Blvd 2/3 Aqueduct North Conduit Ave Crescent St Fulton St 80 St Hudson St J 23 St 8 Ave 23 St 7 Ave 18 St 7 Ave 23 St 6 Ave Seneca Ave Palmetto St Myrtle Ave Wyckoff Ave Halsey St Wyckoff Ave Wilson Ave Moffat St Cleveland St Fulton St C A Howard Beach JFK Airtrain 14 St 8 Ave A C E L 1 2 3 14 St 7 Ave 14 St 6 Ave 8 St Bway WR N Q L 4 5 6 14 St Union Sq Astor Place 4 Ave Bleecker St Lafayette St Bedford Ave N 7 St 3 Ave 14 St 1 Ave 14 St Lorimer St Metropolitan Ave Graham Ave Grand St Metropolitan Ave Bushwick Ave Montrose Ave Bushwick Ave Morgan Ave Harrison Pl Norwood Ave Fulton St Z Grant Ave Pitkin Ave Knickerbocker Ave Myrtle Ave 2 Ave Lower East Side V F Euclid Ave Pitkin Ave Far Rockaway Mott Ave A Christopher St Sheridan Sq Houston St Varick St West 4 St-6 Ave A C E B D F V Washington Sq Spring St 6 Ave Canal St Varick St Franklin St Varick St Chambers St W Bway 1 2 3 Canal St A C E 6 Ave Prince St Bway V F D B Bway-Lafayette Spring St Lafayette St Van Siclen Ave Fulton St Shepherd Ave Pitkin Ave Beach 25 St Wavecrest Beach 36 St Edgemere Beach 44 St Frank Ave Beach 60 St Straiton Ave Van Siclen Ave Livonia Ave Beach 67 St Gaston Ave Beach 90 St Holland Broadway Union Ave Delancey St Essex St Marcy Ave Bway M J Z Hewes St Bway Lorimer St Flushing Ave Myrtle Ave Bway Bway Bway M J Z Flushing Ave Marcy Ave Central Ave Myrtle Ave Bushwick Ave Aberdeen St Halsey St Bway Chauncey St Bway Broadway Jctn East NY Ave Bowery Delancey St Alabama Ave Fulton St Broad Channel New Lots Ave Livonia Ave Kosciuszko St Gates Ave Bway Bway Canal St Bway W R N Q Canal St Canal St M J Z Centre St Lafayette St Grand St B D Chrystie St East Bway Canal St Liberty Ave Penn Ave Atlantic Ave East NY Ave Van Siclen Ave Pitkin Ave Chambers St A C Church St City Hall Bway 3 2 Cortlandt St Church St Rector St Trinity Pl 4 5 6 Chambers St Centre St F Myrtle-Willoughby Aves Marcy Ave York St Jay St Ralph Ave Fulton St Bedford-Nostrand Aves Lafayette Ave Utica Ave Fulton St Rockaway Ave Fulton St Sutter Ave Van Sinderen Ave Junius St Livonia Ave Pennsylvania Ave Livonia Ave Livonia Ave Van Sinderen Ave Beach 98 St Playland Park Pl Bway World Trade Center E Hudson River C A 4 5 Fulton St M J Z BroadwayNassau Wall St Bway Bowling Green-Bway W Whitehall St South Ferry Broad St J Z Wall St 2 3 Fulton St C A High St Brooklyn Bridge Clark St Bklyn Hgts Jay St Borough Hall F A C Court St Montague St Lawrence St Willoughby St B Q M L Rockaway Ave Livonia Ave New Lots Ave Van Sinderen Ave S 3 Classon Ave Lafayette Ave Rector St Greenwich St Wall St William St Saratoga Ave Livonia Ave DeKalb Ave Flatbush Ave Clinton-Washington Aves Lafayette Ave Kingston Throop Ave Fulton St East 105 St Tyndall Ave Rockaway Park Beach 116 St Sutter Ave Rutland Rd Canarsie Rockaway Pkwy L South Ferry 1 C A G Hoyt St Schermerhorn St 3 Q Borough Hall Joralemon St 3 2 5 4 Hoyt St Fulton Mall Fulton St Lafayette Ave Lafayette Ave Clinton-Washington Aves Fulton St Fulton St Franklin Ave S Fulton St R Nostrand Ave Fulton St Eastern Pkwy Utica Ave Nevins St Flatbush Ave 2 4 5 Atlantic Ave Flatbush Ave B Bergen St Flatbush Ave 7 Ave Flatbush Ave Eastern Pkwy Brooklyn Mus Park Pl Franklin Ave Franklin Ave Eastern Pkwy 3 2 5 4 Botanic Garden S Eastern Pkwy B Kingston Ave Eastern Pkwy Atlantic Ave R M N D Pacific St Grand Army Plaza Nostrand Ave Eastern Pkwy A J Z C A Beach 105 St Seaside C A S A C A 3 4 Bergen St Smith St Caroll St Smith St Smith St F G 9 St President St Nostrand Ave Sterling St Nostrand Ave Winthrop St Nostrand Ave Church Ave Nostrand Ave Beverly Rd Nostrand Ave Newkirk Ave Nostrand Ave Brooklyn College Flatbush Ave 5 2 Atlantic Ocean Union St 4 Ave Prospect Park Flatbush Ave 9 St 4 Ave 7 Ave 9 St F Q Parkside Ave Ocean Ave Church Ave E 18 St Beverly Rd Marlborough Rd Fort Hamilton Pkwy Ocean Pkwy Cortelyou Rd E 16 St Newkirk Ave E 16 St Brooklyn Prospect Park E 15 St Stadium St George Prospect Ave 4 Ave Tompkinsville 25 St 4 Ave Church Ave McDonald Ave Staten Island Old Town Dongan Hills Jefferson Ave Grant City New Dorp Oakwood Heights Bay Terrace Great Kills Eltingville Annadale Huguenot Prince’s Bay Pleasant Plains Richmond Valley Nassau Atlantic Tottenville Stapleton 36 St 4 Ave R M N D Ditmas Ave McDonald Ave Clifton Avenue H E 16 St Avenue J E 16 St Avenue M E 16 St Grasmere 45 St 4 Ave 9 Ave 39 St 18 Ave McDonald Ave Fort Hamilton Pkwy New Utrecht Ave Avenue I McDonald Ave Bay Pkwy McDonald Ave 53 St 4 Ave 50 St New Utrecht Ave Kings Hwy E 16 St 59 St 4 Ave 55 St New Utrecht Ave 8 Ave 61 St Fort Hamilton Pkwy 61 St N 62 St New Utrecht Ave 18 Ave 64 St 20 Ave 64 St Bay Pkwy Avenue O Avenue N McDonald Ave Avenue P McDonald Ave Kings Hwy McDonald Ave Avenue U McDonald Ave Avenue U West 7 St Avenue X McDonald Ave 86 St West 7 St D M Bay Pkwy 86 St 25 Ave 86 St Bay 50 St Neptune Ave McDonald Ave Ocean Pkwy Brighton Beach Avenue U E 16 St Neck Rd E 16 St Sheepshead Bay E 16 St Brighton Beach Brighton 6 St Q B Bay Ridge Ave 4 Ave M D 71 St New Utrecht Ave Kings Hwy West 7 St 77 St 4 Ave 79 St New Utrecht Ave 86 St 4 Ave 18 Av New Utrecht Ave Bay Ridge 95 St R 20 Ave 86 St W 8 St NY Aquarium D N F Q Coney Island Stillwell Ave 12 . Queens to Coney Island. Brooklyn Express in Manhattan. peak direction only Weekends: Jamaica Center. The syntax of design is provided by many components in the nature of the project. Queens to Chamber St. Brooklyn Local in Queens. Express in Queens Service only at Rush Hours Metropolitan Ave. Queens to Rockaway Park/Beach 116 St. This diagram is not an official publication of the Metropolitan Transit Authority. Queens to Broad St. the typefaces. Express in midtown Manhattan and Brooklyn Rush Hours: Bedford Park Blvd. Saturday – Sunday 42 St 6 Ave 51 St Lex Ave Times Square to Grand Central. Queens Forest Hill/71 Ave. Brooklyn Express in Manhattan. express lines show dots only at express stations. Queens to Myrtle Ave. Express in Manhattan Rush Hours: Nereid Ave or Dyre Ave. and at intervals in between. Brooklyn Local in Bronx. Monday – Friday Rush Hours: 6:30 am – 9:30 am. Manhattan Jamaica Center. for instance. Brooklyn Local Late Nights: No service Jamaica Center. Queens to World Trade Center. However. how pictures relate to each other and how the parts relate to the whole. Bronx to Brooklyn Bridge. 3:30 pm – 8:00 pm. Manhattan. Syntactic consistency is of paramount importance in graphic design as it is in all human endeavors. Local in Queens Rush Hours: Serves Rockaway Park. a hollow dot indicates that trains will only stop outside of rush hours. Forest Hills /71 Ave to 21 St/Queensbridge. Bronx to Coney Island. Every day Weekends: 6:30 am – 12 am. Manhattan Local in Manhattan. There are ways to achieve all this that are correct. Manhattan to Ozone Pk-Lefferts Blvd or Far Rockaway. Manhattan Local Weeknights after 9pm. Monday – Friday 51 Evenings: 8:00 pm – 12:00 am. and should be avoided. Brooklyn Evenings. Queens Local 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S Van Cortland Park/242 St. Or. Bronx to Flatbush Ave. Brooklyn Local Evenings. The consistency of a design is provided by the appropriate relationship of the various syntactical elements of the project: how type relates to grids and images from page to page throughout the whole project. Bronx to Flatbush Ave. Bronx to Flatbush Ave.61 St Roosevelt Ave 111 St Jamaica Ave Ozone Park Lefferts Blvd A 68 St Hunter College 52 St Roosevelt Ave 33 St-Rawson St 40 St-Lowery St Queens Blvd Queens Blvd Queens Plaza J V E 46 St-Bliss St Queens Blvd W N 7 R 59 St Columbus Circle 1 WR N Q 104 St Jamaica Ave 4 5 6 59 St Lexington Ave 50 St 8 Ave 42 St Port Authority A C E 50 St Bway 49 St 7 Ave S 7 47-50 Sts Rockefeller Ctr V E Lex Ave 53 St S 7 51 St Lexington Ave 21 St Jackson Ave Vernon Blvd Jackson Ave V E 23 St 45 Rd Ely Ave 7 Court House Sq Long Is. Manhattan to Brighton Beach. Brooklyn Harlem/148 St. the text and headlines. Late Nights and Weekends: No service Astoria/Ditmars Blvd. no dot indicates that trains will never stop. Queens to Smith St/9 St. Each route is represented by a colored line labeled with a letter or number at either end. Manhattan to New Lots Ave. Queens to Times Square. Manhattan Local Rush Hours: Express Myrtle Ave to Marcy Ave. Manhattan to Canarsie/Rockaway Parkway. Monday – Friday St Lex Ave Late Nights: 12:00 am – 6:30 am. Manhattan to Euclid Ave. W R N Free Transfer Station 4 5 6 A C E B D F V G S Inwood/207 St. peak direction only Part Time Extension Line is extended during certain hours 51 St 51 St 51 Ave Local Station Lex Ave LexSt Lex Ave St 51 Light type 51 St Ave Lex FLex Ave 51 St G 42 St Express Station Lex Ave 42 St 42 St 6 Ave 6 Ave Bold type 6 Ave 42 St 42 St 6 Ave 6 Ave 42 Wheelchair Accessible Station St 6 Ave FG Forest Hills/57 Ave. Local in Bronx and Brooklyn Late Nights: Wakefield/241 St. to Pelham Bay Park. Express in Manhattan and Brooklyn Late Nights: Woodlawn. Queens to Whitehall St. Queens. Express in Manhattan and Brooklyn Late Nights: Local in Manhattan and Brooklyn Weekends: Local in Manhattan Midtown-57 St/7 Ave. It is not a geographical map: relative distances have been altered in favor of better legibility.W W W R R R N N N Syntactics Mies. Manhattan Local Rush Hours: Express in Bronx. my great mentor said: “God is in the details. Brooklyn Broad Channel. Manhattan. Bronx. FG Local lines show dots at all stations. as there are others that are incorrect. Manhattan Local Late Nights: No service 42 St 6 Ave Wakefield-241 St White Plains Rd 2 Nereid Ave-238 St White Plains Rd 233 St White Plains Rd Woodlawn 4 Jerome Ave 225 St White Plains Rd 219 St White Plains Rd Mosholu Pkwy Jerome Ave D Gun Hill Rd White Plains Rd Burke Ave White Plains Rd Allerton Ave White Plains Rd Pellham Pkwy White Plains Rd Bronx Park East White Plains Rd E 180 St Morris Park Ave West Farms Sq Boston Rd East Tremont Ave 174 St Southern Blvd Freeman St Southern Blvd 170 St Grand Concourse 167 St Grand Concourse Simpson St Weschester Ave Intervale Ave Weschester Ave Prospect Ave Weschester Ave Hunts Point Ave Southern Blvd 7 5 Eastchester 5 Dyre Ave 233 St 242 St 1 Van Cortland Park 238 St Bway 231 St Bway Marble Hill-225 St Bway Baychester Ave Tolliston Ave Norwood 205 St Gun Hill Rd Seymour Ave 6 Pelham Bay Park Westchester Ave 215 St 10 Ave Inwood 207 St -Bway A Dyckman St Bway 190 St Ft Wash Ave 181 St Ft Wash Ave 207 St 10 Ave Dyckman St Nagle Ave 191 St St Nicholas Ave 181 St St Nicholas Ave The Bronx Bedford Park Blvd Jerome Ave B Lehman College Bedford Park Blvd Grand Concourse Buhre Ave Westchester Ave Middletown Rd Westchester Ave Pelham Pkwy Williamsbridge Rd Morris Park Esplanade Westchester Sq East Tremont Ave Zerega Ave Westchester Ave Castle Hill Ave Westchester Ave Parkchester Westchester Ave St Lawrence Ave Westchester Ave Morrison/Sound View Aves Westchester Ave Elder Ave Westchester Ave Whitlock Ave Westchester Ave Kingsbridge Rd Jerome Ave Fordham Rd Jerome Ave 183 St Jerome Ave Burnside Ave Jerome Ave NYU 176 St Jerome Ave Mt Eden Ave Jerome Ave Kingsbridge Rd Grand Concourse Fordham Rd Grand Concourse 182-183 Sts Grand Concourse Tremont Ave Grand Concourse 174-175 Sts Grand Concourse 175 St Ft Wash Ave 170 St Jerome Ave 168 St Bway 1 167 St River Ave B D 4 161 St Yankee Stadium 149 St Grand Concourse 2 5 4 145 St Lenox Ave 135 St Lenox Ave 3 2 125 St Lenox Ave 116 St Lenox Ave 110 St Central Park North Malcolm X Blvd 4 5 138 St Grand Concourse C A 163 St Amsterdam Ave Flushing-Main St Roosevelt Ave Longwood Ave Southern Blvd Willets Point-Shea Stadium Roosevelt Ave 157 St Bway 155 St St Nicholas Ave 155 St 8 Ave 3 Harlem 148 St 3 Ave 149 St Jackson Ave Weschester Ave E 149 St Southern Blvd Cypress Ave E 138 St E 143 St St Mary’s St 111 St Roosevelt Ave 145 St Bway 137 St City College 125 St Bway 116 St Columbia Univ 110 St Cathedral Pkwy Bway 103 St Bway 96 St Bway 1 2 3 145 St St Nicholas Ave A C B D 135 St St Nicholas Ave 125 St St Nicholas Ave A C B D 116 St 8 Ave 110 St Cathedral Pkwy CPW 103 St CPW 96 St CPW 3 Ave E 138 St Brook Ave E 138 St 103 St-Corona Plaza Roosevelt Ave 125 St 4 5 6 Lexington Ave 116 St Lexington Ave 110 St Lexington Ave 103 St Lexington Ave 96 St Lexington Ave 30 Ave 31 St Steinway St Bway Broadway 31 St 69 St Roosevelt Ave 36 St Northern Blvd Astoria Ditmars Blvd W N Junction Blvd Roosevelt Ave 90 St-Elmhurst Ave Roosevelt Ave F Jamaica-179 St Hillside Ave Astoria Blvd 31 St 46 St Bway Northern Blvd Bway 65 St Bway 82 St-Jackson Hts Roosevelt Ave 74 St Broadway 7 169 St Hillside Ave Parson Blvd Hillside Ave Sutphin Blvd Hillside Ave Kew Gardens Union Tpke Queens Blvd Briarwood Van Wyck Blvd Main St Jamaica Van Wyck Sutphin Blvd-Archer Ave JFK Airtrain 86 St Bway 79 St Bway 72 St Bway 66 St Lincoln Center 86 St CPW 81 St Museum of Natural History 72 St CPW Manhattan 63 St Lexington Ave 5 Ave 59 St ACBD 53 St 7 Ave 57 St 7 Ave W R N 57St 6 Ave 53 St 5 Ave 86 St 4 5 6 Lexington Ave R G V F E Jackson Hts Roosevelt Ave Elmhurst Ave Bway Grand Ave Newtown Woodhaven Blvd 63 Dr-Rego Park 67 Ave Queens Blvd Queens Blvd Queens Blvd Forest Hills-71 Ave Queens Blvd R G V F E 75 Ave Queens Blvd E J Z Jamaica Center Parsons/Archer 77 St Lexington Ave 36 Ave 31 St Roosevelt Island Main St F 21 St Queensbridge Queensboro Plaza 39 Ave 31 St 121 St Jamaica Ave Woodside . Brooklyn Local in Bronx. Stations on each line are indicated by dots. Brooklyn Weeknights after 9 pm and Weekends: No service Norwood-205 St. Brooklyn Local Late Nights: 36 St to Bay Ridge/95 St. Late Nights: Local Washington Heights/168 St. Brooklyn Local in upper Manhattan. Queens to Bay Parkway. Express in Brooklyn. Express in Bronx. Local in Manhattan Late Nights: Local 145 St. Queens to Chambers St. Brooklyn Express in Manhattan. In graphic design. Brooklyn Local Regular service: 9:30 am – 3:30 pm. Local Pelham Bay Park or Parkchester. Bronx to New Lots Ave Brooklyn. Manhattan Local Terminal Station 2 Part Time Service Stop is skipped during rush hours. Queens to Smith St/9 St. Local in Bronx. Express in Manhattan and Brooklyn Rush Hours: Express in Bronx (peak direction only) Jamaica/179 St.” That is the essence of syntax: the discipline that controls the proper use of grammar in the construction of phrases and the articulation of a language. Bronx to Bowling Green. Queens to Broad St. Or. Bronx to Brighton Beach. Manhattan Local Pedestrian Link 2 E FG FG FG E Wakefield/241 St. the illustrations. Brooklyn Local Wheelchair Accessible Station Access downtown or uptown only Jamaica Center. Brooklyn Local in Manhattan and Brooklyn Express. Queens Express in Manhattan and Brooklyn. Late Nights and Weekends: Metropolitan Ave. the grid. attention has been given to preserve the relative position of each station. A solid dot indicates that trains will always stop. to E180 St. Manhattan to Coney Island. peak direction only Flushing/Main St. Queens to Bay Ridge/95 St. Free transfers can be made between FG FG adjacent dots at the same station or between stations connected by pedestrian links. Local Rush Hours: Metropolitan Ave. Local in Brooklyn Late Nights: No service Woodlawn. Queens to Coney Island. Local in Brooklyn How to use this Diagram This diagram represents all lines and stations of the New York City Subway system. Grids are one of the several tools helping designers to achieve syntactical consistency in graphic design. Brooklyn 8 Ave. Bronx to Crown Heights/Utica Ave.

We love complexities but hate complications! Having said this. rich or poor. not one of manners. It is with this set of values that we approach Design everyday. or the meaning of all that effort. It is important to understand the starting point and all assumptions of any project to fully comprehend the final result and measure its efficiency. We design things which we think are semantically correct and syntactically consistent but if. no one understands the result. The final look of anything is the by-product of the clarity (or lack of it) during its design phase. elegance that is the opposite of vulgarity. Design is One! 14 . complicated designs reveal an equally confused and complicated mind. fails to communicate and is wasted effort. if not understood. large or small. We do not like limpy design. We feel the moral imperative of designing things that will last for a long time. We like Design to be as timeless as possible.that means elegance of the mind. Otherwise.Pragmatics Whatever we do. Sometimes it may need some explanation but it is better when not necessary. We like Design to be intellectually elegant . We like Design to be beyond fashionable modes and temporary fads. something really important has been missed. at the point of fruition. Confused. Any artifact should stand by itself in all its clarity. Clarity of intent will translate in to clarity of result and that is of paramount importance in Design. the entire work is useless. We despise the culture of obsolescence. I must add that we like Design to be forceful. regardless of what it may be: two or three dimensional.

There are no hierarchies when it comes to quality. That is Discipline and without it there is no good design. an exercise of irresponsibility. Every detail is important because the end result is the sum of all the details involved in the creative process no matter what we are doing. Discipline is also an attitude that provides us with the capacity of controlling our creative work so that it has continuity of intent throughout rather than fragmentation. for carelessness. Design without discipline is anarchy. Discipline is a set of self imposed rules. and if is not there we have lost our time. It is a bag of tools that allows us to design in a consistent manner from beginning to end. It is a commitment and a continuously painstaking effort of the creative process to which we should abide. There is no room for sloppiness. Quality is there or is not there. regardless of its style. for procrastination. 16 . parameters within which we operate.Discipline The attention to details requires discipline.

Once we search the roots of whatever we have to design we are also defining the area of possible solutions that are appropriate specific to that particular problem. 18 . Appropriateness transcends any issue of style . Appropriateness directs us to the right kind of media. rather then contrive it in to an arbitrary confinement. This issue is one of the fundamental principles of our Canon. I think that we have to listen to what a thing wants to be. the right kind of expression. Appropriateness elicits the enthusiastic approval of the client seeing the solution to his problem. We could say that this kind of “appropriation” when appropriate. or alternative routes that lead to nowhere or even worse.Appropriateness The notion of appropriateness is consequent to what I have expressed.just another way of solving a problem or expressing creativity. many ways of doing. At least for me. During the post-modern time. but the relevant thing is that. the right kind of materials. To define that prevents us from taking wrong directions. sometimes there may be other rules that one must follow to achieve the correct level of continuity. this is a relevant issue which very often determines the look of the project to be designed. the verb “to be appropriate” assumed the meaning of borrowing something and transforming it by placing it in a different context. we can say that appropriateness is the search for the specific of any given problem. However. the solution must be appropriate. Actually. the right kind of scale. could be done . to wrong solutions. no matter what. color and texture.there are many ways of solving a problem.

Contradiction can sometimes reinforce ambiguity.each one complementary to the other to enrich the subject and give more depth. We often use this device to enhance the expression of the design and we treasure the end results.Ambiguity Rather than the negative connotation of ambiguity as a form of vagueness. or the ability of conferring to an object or a design. Ambiguity and contradiction can enrich a project but can equally sink the end results. I have a positive interpretation of ambiguity. However. great caution is recommended in using these spices. intended as a plurality of meanings. one has to be cautious in playing with ambiguity because if not well measured it can backfire with unpleasant results. 20 . the possibility of being read in different ways . Therefore. but more often it is a sign of discontinuity and lack of control.

controlling the consistency of its output toward its objective in the most direct and expressive way. a tempting challenge to test the interaction between intuition and knowledge. exhibitions. industrial bookshelves. between passion and curiosity. 22 . Very often people think that Design is a particular style. beautiful silver flatware. between desire and success. from wood to pottery to plastics.Design Is One The office of the Castiglioni Architects in Milano was the first place. I strongly recommend to all designers to investigate and study their work. witty stools. I went to work as a draftsman. They became the icons of Italian Design. Later they designed restaurants.it is not many different ones. camping furniture. Throughout my life I have hunted opportunities to diversify my design practice: from glass to metal. regardless of style. I discovered that what is important is to master a design discipline to be able to design anything. nice houses and an incredible museum. from furniture to interiors. The discipline of Design is one and can be applied to many different subjects. where at the age of 16.” They had already designed a very iconic radio. from printing to packaging. I was tremendously impressed by the diversity of projects and immediately fascinated by the Architect’s possibility of working in so many different areas. They were active in the whole field of Design and Architecture following the Adolph Loos dictum that an Architect should be able to design everything “from the spoon to the city. All style requires discipline in order to be expressed. a creative process with its own rules. furniture and much more. because that is what is essential and needed on every project. Design discipline is above and beyond any style. and still is. Design is one . Everything was. Nothing could be more wrong! Design is a discipline. from exhibitions to stage design and more. trade shows. from clothing to costumes.

texture or any or all of them. In three dimensional design. in any event. We have used this approach successfully in our graphic design. most of the time. is just an expression of visual vulgarity and obtrusiveness. We cannot stand Design that is weak in concept. It is essential that a design is imbued with visual strength and unique presence to achieve its purpose. manipulating light through different textures and materials gives infinite and effective results. We think good Design is always an expression of creative strength bringing forward clear concepts expressed in beautiful form and color. for instance. 24 .Visual Power We say all the time that we like Design to be visually powerful. form. where every element expresses the content in the most forceful way. Visual strength can be achieved also by using delicate layouts or materials. color. Changing scale and contrasting sizes provide an impressive array of possibilities. There are infinite possibilities to achieve a powerful expression. In graphic design. Bold type contrasting with light type creates visually dynamic impressions. difference of scale within the same page can give a very strong impact. a subject which deserves great attention to achieve effective design. Visual strength is an expression of intellectual elegance and should never be confused with just visual impact . Visual power is.which.

not to be confused with the elegance of manners and mores. in Renaissance paintings. the Music of all times. 26 . Again. Intellectual elegance is also our civic consciousness. our way of conceiving Design. It is the elegance we find in Greek statues.the one beyond compromises. our sense of decency. our moral imperative. It elevates the most humble artifact to a noble stand. in the sublime writings of Goethe. It is the thread that guides us to the best solution of whatever we do. For me. it is not a design style. our social responsibility. and many great creative minds. It is the elegance of Architecture of any period. It is the definitive goal of our minds . intellectual elegance is the sublime level of intelligence which has produced all the masterpieces in the history of mankind.Intellectual Elegance We often talk about Intellectual Elegance. the clarity of Science through the ages. but the deepest meaning and the essence of Design.

simple and enduring. We strive for a Design that is centered on the message rather than visual titillation.that doesn’t follow trends. a typography that is beyond times . We like a typography that transcends subjectivity and searches for objective values. We like the use of primary shapes and primary colors because their formal values are timeless. that reflects its content in an appropriate manner. the waste of energies and capital for the sake of novelty. We detest the demand of temporary solutions. it respects investment and lasts longer. We are for a Design that lasts. We like Design that is clear. 28 . the culture of waste. that responds to people’s needs and to people’s wants. the cult of the ephemeral. We are for a Design that is committed to a society that demands long lasting values. And that is what timelessness means in Design.Timelessness We are definitively against any fashion of design and any design fashion. We like economy of design because it avoids wasteful exercises. We despise the culture of obsolescence. A society that earns the benefit of commodities and deserves respect and integrity.

the user of the final design. As much as this may seem obvious it is one of the most overlooked issues by both designers and clients. It is important that an economically appropriate solution is used and is one that takes in proper consideration all the facets of the problem.to the Client. A responsible solution. Responsibility is another form of discipline.Responsibility In graphic design the issue of responsibility assumes particular importance as a form of economic awareness toward the most appropriate solution to a given problem. apologies. without excuses. Two . Three . the consumer. On each one of these levels we should be ready to commit ourselves to reach the most appropriate solution. we have three levels of responsibility: One . to solve the problem in a way that is economically sound and efficient.to the public at large. the integrity of the project and all its components. It should represent the fulfillment of a successful process in all its beauty. As designers.to ourselves. Too often we see printed works produced in a lavish manner just to satisfy the ego of designers or clients. a design should stand by itself. the one that solves the problem without compromises for the benefit of everyone. 30 . In the end. explanations.

or. A logo gradually becomes part of our collective culture. LANCIA Cars and others. a way of showing respect for history in a context that usually has zero understanding for these values. regardless of how well it has been designed. What is new is NOT a graphic form but a way of thinking. Think of Coca Cola. why not. When a logo has been in the public domain for more than fifty years it becomes a classic. The notion of a logo equity has been with us from the very beginning of time. we proposed a light retouch of the old one which could be adjusted for contemporary applications. We did the same for CIGA HOTELS. and that is a very wrong motivation. A real Corporate Identity is based on an overall system approach. Although this may be a legitimate request. very often. because I grew up in a country where history and vernacular architecture were part of culture of the territory and was protected. I considered established logos something to be equally protected. in its modest way it becomes part of all of us. not just a logo. and were rooted in people’s consciousness with a set of respectable connotations. Perhaps. a landmark. When we were asked to design a new logo for the FORD Motor Company. There was no reason to dispose of logos that had seventy years of exposure.Equity Many times we have been asked to design a logo or a symbol for a Company . CINZANO. a respectable entity and there is no reason to throw it away and substitute it with a new concoction. think of Shell. 32 .often at the request of the marketing department to refresh the Company’s position in the marketplace. it is motivated by the desire of change merely for the sake of change. AmericanAirlines.

justified Type Size Relationships Rulers Contrasting Type Sizes Scale Texture Color Layouts Sequence Binding Indentity and Diversity White Space A collection of experiences Conclusion 34 . centered. Margins. The Basic Ones Flush left. Columns and Modules A Company Letterhead Grids for Books Typefaces.Part Two The Tangibles Paper Sizes Grids.

rich or poor. It is one of the reasons we tend to use as much as possible the DIN sizes: proportions are always leading to other nice proportions. 74x 105 . The choice of paper in the market place is enormous. dull or glossy according to the subject.A2. The most common poster sizes in Europe are: 50x70. The choice of a size is a very important decision. better printing presses. 52x74 A9. Just another example of the misinterpretations of freedom. files and office equipment! The repercussion of ugliness is endless. it depends very much on the kind of book. Sometimes it has to conform to previous related publications. Whenever possible.sub 28) for executive level. called the A series. 420x594 A3. and a regular bond for business level. a brochure. rather than wasting one side. The international Standard paper sizes.A7. sometimes it has to break a new ground. and results in complete chaos with an endless amount of paper sizes. all stationary in USA is that size. The field is in continuos motion and we have to keep up with the times. sometimes the size itself becomes the carrier of a message even before anything is printed on it. The United States uses a basic letter size (8 1/2 x 11”) of ugly proportions. better technologies.Paper Sizes The choice of paper size is one of the first of any given work to be printed. For books. Size may vary according to countries. 297x420 .A8. competition and waste. In designing a book. without compromising the end result. Same paper for the envelopes. Not all papers are available around the world and that sometime poses some quality problems. offering the possibility of increasing and pacing the information on a large piece of paper. better inks. It is important that 36 . Not all the countries share the same level of printing quality and we have to try to obtain the best in every situation. although we tend to prefer dull papers.A1. better papers. I counted 28 different standard sizes in USA!. usually with a square flap. is based on a golden rectangle.A5. Every technology implies different production costs and we should be aware and work with the suppliers to optimize costs and quality. For text books. It involves costs and is part of the overall economy of the production process. However. The quality of reproduction continues to improve.A10. 26x37. 841x1189 . We are quite conscious about the use of paper and tend to use those which are more ecologically sound. we tend to use a limited selection of papers. and the American sizes. There are two basic paper size systems in the world: the international A sizes. It is adopted by many countries around the world and is based on the German DIN metric Standards. 37x52 . 70x100. or any other kind of printed matter. a nice economical happenstance resulting from the golden rectangle. 105 x148 . we like to use both sides of a sheet of paper. These are the basic DIN sizes in mm. for : A0. even when we do posters. More poster sizes are available in the USA. 594x841 . the choice of the paper size involves quite a complexity of issues. 100x140 centimeters. 148x210 A6.A4. The only reason we use it is because everybody in USA uses it. for illustrated books we will use a coated. 210x297 . This does not happen with the American basic size which leads to nothing. The A4 is the basic size for stationary. so are manilla folders. It is a by-product of the culture of free enterprise. we use a book paper. For stationary we like to use a heavy paper (100% cotton . It is extremely handsome and practical as well. the divine proportion. choosing the most appropriate for the job. Two thirds of it is a square.

The choice of a publication size should be made with an awareness of its consequences. and that opportunity is in every detail. A0 A1 A4 A5 A2 A7 A3 38 . reducing pollution and waste. understanding that ethics and aesthetics have a common semantic root that should be respected. ultimately saving trees. We should never forget that our task as designers is to bring dignity to our profession more than luster. is a conscious contribution to the environment. The market offerings are wide but indiscriminate. Standardizing paper sizes. governed more by the rules of competition than by standards.a designer is fully aware of the printing process and the papers required for the most efficient and economic production of the printed work. It is our professional imperative to see that these issues are respected. and consequently publication sizes.

Margins. six. according to size and need. Columns provide only one kind of consistency. The grid represents the basic structure of our graphic design. Sometimes. but just one . Therefore. four.” There are other types of graphic design more concerned with illustration or of a narrative nature. eight. rather than a constricting device. Nothing could be more useful to reach our intention than the Grid. . five. one should learn to use it so as to retrieve the most advantageous results. Therefore. The basic understanding is that the smaller the module of the grid the least helpful it could be. three. We could say that an empty page is a page with an infinitesimal small grid. There are infinite ways of doing this and that is why the grid is a useful tool. it provides consistency. it is equivalent to not being there. we will divide the page from top to bottom in a certain number of Modules. Therefore.the most appropriate . After that we divide the page in a certain number of columns according to the content. four. However. Once we have structured the page. The secret is to find the proper kind of grid for the job at hand. two. in designing a grid we want to have the outside margins small enough to provide a certain tension between the edges of the page and the content. Conversely a page with a coarse grid is a very restricting grid offering too few alternatives.Grids. six. There are infinite kinds of grids. etc. Columns and Modules 40 For us Graphic Design is “organization of information. or more. we will begin to structure the information and place it in the grid in such a way that the clarity of the message will be enhanced by the placement of the text on the grid. it helps to organize the content. it becomes important to know which kind of grid is the most appropriate. but we also need to have an horizontal frame of reference to assure certain levels of continuity throughout the publication.for any problem. it gives an orderly look and it projects a level of intellectual elegance that we like to express.

2x4 Grid 5x4 Grid 3x6 Grid 6x6 Grid 4x8 Grid .

with the proper hierarchy and clarity. 6 Località Pianodardine 83100 Avellino T. At the top we will put the name of the Company starting and containing it in the second column. consectetuer adipiscing elit. The first fold of the letter will be in conjunction with the third module and just below that. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam. Another typical example of a letterhead is the one with a central axis. we will place the sender’s address at the bottom of the page splitting the information between the second and the third columns. Duis autem vel eum iriure dolor in hendrerit in vulputate velit esse molestie consequat.tr Mr. The proper choice of a typeface will give the appropriate final look to the stationary. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. Recepient’s name. vel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis at vero eros et accumsan et iusto odio dignissim qui blandit praesent luptatum zzril delenit augue duis dolore te feugait nulla facilisi. Smith. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam. Date. If we have established a horizontal grid of six modules. Date. Year Dear Mr. the letter will start. according to our canon. quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit dolor in hendrerit in vulputate velit esse molestie consequat. we will divide the space in three columns.com.abdiibrahim. The addressee will be positioned on the second module from the top and flush left with the second ABDIPHARMA Mr. acasa@cantineacasa. Recepient’s Title Recepient’s address City. The remaining two columns will be for the text. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam. typing the text flush left from the second column toward the right margin. in a way that it will look centered on the page. quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo. sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat.Istanbul T. three are for the text and one is for the right margin. quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo. we will position the address of the receiver on the second module. We will place the logo at the very top of the letter positioned in the center column. Year Dear Mr. Recepient’s name Recepient’s Title Recepient’s address City. Sometimes we will position the logo (or the symbol) on the first column. sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam. Sincerely. sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. +00 000 000 0000 F. vel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis at vero eros et accumsan et iusto odio dignissim qui blandit praesent lup tatum zzril delenit augue duis scing elit. second column.it . The intention of this example is only to demonstrate the use of a grid in a letterhead.cantineacasa. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam. Ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat.A Company Letterhead 44 After setting the outside margins at 10mm. Province Zip code City. +39 0825 610733 E. The overall asymmetrical layout conveys a feeling of modernity.it www. vel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis at vero eros et accumsan et iusto odio dignissim qui blandit praesent luptatum zzril delenit augue duis dolore te feugait nulla facilisi. and in this example. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam. Province Zip code City. For this kind of letterhead we will design a grid of five columns. Massimo Vignelli Kore Şehitleri Caddesi No:00 00000 Zincirlikuyu . The over all look of the letterhead is accomplished when the letter is typed with the message. +39 0825 626406 F. +00 000 000 0000 www. Massimo Vignelli Aziende Agricole Spa Via Filande. Duis autem vel eum iriure dolor in hendrerit in vulputate velit esse molestie consequat. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. Ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. every component has its proper place. Sincerely. right below the first fold. of which. Usually. leaving the left one blank for the use of a logo. or just empty space. one is for the left margin. Naturally. this is only one of the many possible combinations for a letterhead. vel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis at vero eros et accumsan et iusto odio dignissim qui blandit praesent lup tatum zzril delenit augue duis scing elit. or names. quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit dolor in hendrerit in vulputate velit esse molestie consequat. quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. from the edges of the paper. sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Smith. consectetuer adipiscing elit.

meaningless placements of the information on the printed page. which is always somehow connected to the grid. Duis autem vel eum iriure dolor in hendrerit in vulputate velit esse molestie consequat. and the return address on the square flap of the back of the envelope. For the envelopes we will place the logo on the front of the envelope centered all the way to the left. Recepient’s Title Recepient’s address City. Year Andrew Smith Director of Communication Address information Telephone +0 00 000 0000 Fax +0 00 000 0000 andrew. The letter will then start from the first fold down.corpvida. of pages Fax number To 1 Massimo Vignelli Rosario Norte 660 Las Condes. Province Zip code City. quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit dolor in hendrerit in vulputate velit esse molestie consequat. there are many ways of doing even that . Duis autem vel eum iriure dolor in hendrerit in vulputate velit esse molestie consequat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam. quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo.some more inspired than others. vel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis at vero eros et accumsan et iusto odio dignissim qui blandit praesent luptatum zzril delenit augue duis dolore te feugait nulla facilisi.com Dear Mr. or any other piece of stationary. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. It is just like in music. vel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis at vero eros et accumsan et iusto odio dignissim qui blandit praesent lup tatum zzril delenit augue duis scing elit. Ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Fernando Siña (56-2) 330 4001 N.smith@company. That is the magic of the grid. the name of the Company and its addresses all set centered. consectetuer adipiscing elit. where five lines and seven notes allow one to make infinite compositions. Obviously. Santiago Chile Teléfono (56-2) 330 4100 / 330 4000 Fax (56-2) 330 4001 www. The purpose of the grid is to help to prevent arbitrary. or an invoice. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam. Subject Date Company From D. Sincerely. Mr. Smith. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam. The concept is basically the same. Recepient’s name.cl 46 . vel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis at vero eros et accumsan et iusto odio dignissim qui blandit praesent lup tatum zzril delenit augue duis scing elit.cl Fax Vignelli CorpVida 11 Octubre 2006 Presentación Identidad Corporativa Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. The illustrations provide several examples for stationary layouts. A page is structured by the grid and the information falls in the proper place. sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Santiago Chile Teléfono (56-2) 330 4100 / 330 4000 Fax (56-2) 330 4001 www. sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. consectetuer adipiscing elit. Date. Sincerely. Naturally the same approach will be used to design a fax form. The final look is quite appropriate for more conservative situations. At the bottom of the page. quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo.column. Massimo Vignelli Rosario Norte 660 Las Condes.corpvida. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam.

so that there will be the least need for cropping their images.Grids for Books For the design of a book the grid provides again structure and continuity from cover to cover. In a picture book. according to the content. The illustrations provide several examples of grids for several kinds of books. so the grid should be devised to take that in proper consideration. Today photographers are more careful about the composition of their images. 48 . The content determines the container . It is a good practice to relate the grid to the proportion of the majority of pictures. In agreement with the content the size of the book will be the first thing to be determined. in accord with the most appropriate way to exhibit the material.a basic truth also in book design. the grid could have a number of columns and subcolumns to organize the information accordingly. By structuring the grid accordingly the book will have a higher level of integrity than otherwise. A book with square pictures will be square. a book with rectangular pictures will be rectangular or oblong.

50 .

as well as having overlapping grid for different parts of the content. nisl in quos odio eu odio. Libero cras vel elit iaculis eget. ut velit nonummy. ligula risus integer velit incidunt. quisque diam consectetur interdum. quisque diam consectetur interdum. congue varius. metus donec senectus sed nisi placerat condimentum. sollicitudin at. newspapers.We have designed grids for books.but all following the same basic concept of organizing information. cursus odio placerat ultrices adipiscing lectus ornare. pellentesque suspendisse nec non vivamus ac. congue varius. This gives great elegance of detail to the printed page. the more complicated the layout becomes. ut velit nonummy. luctus nisl congue pretium lectus condimentum. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. quidem vitae turpis enim. justo risus integer velit incidunt. pellentesque suspendisse nec non pulvinar dui cras. turpis pharetra gravida urna pellentesque vel. mi sodales. Sed hendrerit proin diam duis eu. mi sodales. Sed hendrerit proin diam duis eu. sollicitudin at. the more complex the grid is. cursus odio placerat ultrices adipiscing lectus ornare. scelerisque tempus vivamus ac. justo congue pretium lectus condimentum. and one has to be very careful about that. ligula risus integer velit incidunt. To do that a specific leading should be determined for the type area of each module with the illustration modules coinciding.ideally the size of a line of type which helps to achieve what I said above. Urna pellentesque vel. Depending on the size of the book we like to keep the space between the columns and the modules rather tight . scelerisque tempus odio. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet Aliquam proin et magnis sit augue. 52 . metus donec senectus sed nisi placerat condimentum. Ultrices orci id egestas at risus sit. Arcu fermentum nibh. pharetra gravida. justo congue pretium lectus condimentum. It is considered to be “good typography” as done by the Masters. Adipiscing a lectus. One element of refinement is to plan a grid in such a way that type and illustrations follow the same exact grid. Ac lorem pellentesque cras. Aliquam proin et magnis sit augue. luctus nisl iaculis aliquam aenean amet nulla. ligula risus integer velit incidunt. luctus nisl iaculis aliquam aenean amet nulla. in maecenas pharetra gravida ullamcorper neque. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. turpis pharetra gravida urna pellentesque vel. scelerisque tempus vivamus ac. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. One can draw a grid based on the leading size. Ac lorem pellentesque cras. quidem vitae turpis enim. Naturally. Arcu fermentum nibh. mi sodales. congue varius. luctus nisl iaculis aliquam aenean amet nulla. Arcu fermentum nibh. Pellentesque cras. Ultrices orci id egestas at risus sit. in maecenas pharetra gravida ullamcorper neque. the picture proportions. and posters . Libero cras vel elit iaculis eget. nisl in quos odio eu odio.each one with its own level of specificity . pellentesque suspendisse nec non pulvinar dui cras. Sed hendrerit proin diam duis eu. Adipiscing a lectus. in maecenas pharetra gravida ullamcorper neque. magazines. metus donec senectus sed nisi placerat condimentum. One of the great advantages of the computer is in the definition of the grid which can be achieved in a very precise way and much better than before.

and Helvetica. Naturally there are many ways of understanding and expressing typography. to which I can add another half a dozen. Century Expanded. This enabled anyone who could type the freedom of using any available typeface and do any kind of distortion. just to make money or for identity purposes.Typefaces The Basic Ones 54 The advent of the computer generated the phenomena called desktop publishing. The accent was on structure rather than type. but I don’t think it should be a form of entertainment. mostly for a logo or a short promotional text. In reality the number of good typefaces is rather limited and most of the new ones are elaborations on pre-existing faces. Personally. weight. particularly in very ephemeral or promotional contexts. Futura. and typographic alignments. as a pretext for pictorial exercises. As I said. I am not interested in describing all the different possibilities as much I am in expressing my point of view and my approach. As you can see my list is pretty basic but the great advantage is that it can assure better results. such as flush left. I still believe that most typefaces are designed for commercial reasons. Bodoni. only bad design is. I don’t believe that when you write dog the type should bark! I prefer a more objective approach: I try to make as clear as possible the different parts of a message by using space. Univers (the most advanced design of the century since it comes in 59 variations of the same face). Baskerville. . Besides those already mentioned. I can get along well with a half a dozen. I do not like typography intended as an expression of the self. I see typography as a discipline to organize information in the most objective way possible. It is also true that in recent years the work of some talented type designers has produced some remarkable results to offset the lack of purpose and quality of most of the other typefaces. There are times when a specific type design may be appropriate. and a few other modern cuts. centered or justified. I strongly believe that design should never be boring. It was a disaster of mega proportions. if all people doing desktop publishing were doctors we would all be dead! Typefaces experienced an incredible explosion. These are not our typical areas of involvement but whenever a brilliant solution is found I appreciate both the intent and the results. A cultural pollution of incomparable dimension. Good design is never boring. The aim of the exhibition was to show that a large variety of printed matter could be done with an economy of type with great results. In order to draw attention to that issue I made an exhibition showing work that we had done over many years by using only four typefaces: Garamond. I am aware that there is room for that too. is not the type but what you do with it that counts. at the time. The computer allowed anybody to design new typefaces and that became one of the biggest visual pollution of all times. Caslon. I can add Optima. but probably no more. One of the most important elements in typography is scale and size relationship. In other words. but it is not my language and I am not interested in it.

1957 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890 56 . 1788 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890 Century Expanded.Garamond. 1931 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890 Helvetica. 1900 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890 Futura. 1930 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890 Times Roman. 1532 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890 Bodoni.

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com www. 1999 Segnaletica di Identificazione: Esempi di pannelli in alluminio verniciato a spruzzo applicati direttamente sulla parete. Vignelli Associates Designers 475 Tenth Avenue New York. 1999 Segnaletica di Identificazione: Pannelli quadrati a doppia faccia sporgenti a bandiera dalla parete dell’edificio o dai pilastri lungo i binari.A. 1999 Segnaletica di Identificazione di Stazione: Pannelli in alluminio verniciato a spruzzo con lettere ritagliate e illuminate all’interno.com Progetto: Segnaletica delle Stazioni FS Medie e Piccole 7 Giugno. Scala 1:5 Pagina 7 9 Vignelli Associates Designers 475 Tenth Avenue New York.com Grandi Stazioni S.00 25mm Grandi Stazioni S.A.vignelli.A. New York 10018 Telephone 212/244 1919 Fax 212/967 4961 e-mail design@vignelli. Vignelli Associates Designers 475 Tenth Avenue New York. 1999 Segnaletica di Identificazione: Tipologie di pannelli in alluminio verniciato a spruzzo su cui le lettere e i pittogrammi possono essere applicati tramite serigrafia o pellicola adesiva.com Progetto: Segnaletica delle Stazioni FS Medie e Piccole 7 Giugno. Pannelli quadrati e supporti in alluminio verniciato a spruzzo su cui pittogrammi e numeri possono essere applicati tramite serigrafia o pellicola adesiva.com Progetto: Segnaletica delle Stazioni FS Medie e Piccole 7 Giugno.com Grandi Stazioni S. Progetto: Segnaletica delle Stazioni FS Medie e Piccole 7 Giugno. Progetto: Segnaletica delle Stazioni FS Medie e Piccole 7 Giugno.A.p. New York 10018 Telephone 212/244 1919 Fax 212/967 4961 e-mail design@vignelli. 1999 Segnaletica Direzionale: Dimensione e modulazione dei pannelli in alluminio verniciato a spruzzo su cui le lettere e i pittogrammi possono essere applicati tramite serigrafia o pellicola adesiva.A.com www. New York 10018 Telephone 212/244 1919 Fax 212/967 4961 e-mail design@vignelli. New York 10018 Telephone 212/244 1919 Fax 212/967 4961 e-mail design@vignelli. Scala 1:5 Pagina 9 12 Vignelli Associates Designers 475 Tenth Avenue New York. Scala 1:5 Pagina 6 Vignelli Associates Designers 475 Tenth Avenue New York. New York 10018 Telephone 212/244 1919 Fax 212/967 4961 e-mail design@vignelli.p.vignelli. Pagina 10 13 3 250mm 300mm 2 Uscita 3 2 Biglietteria Uscita .p.vignelli. New York 10018 Telephone 212/244 1919 Fax 212/967 4961 e-mail design@vignelli.vignelli. Scala 1:5 Pagina 8 10 Biglietteria Sottopassaggio Ai binari Uscita 5mm 1500mm 10mm 5mm 50mm 600mm 150mm Vietato attraversare i binari Servirsi del sottopassaggio 50mm 1500mm 50mm 300mm 150mm Grandi Stazioni S.vignelli. Scala 1:10 Pagina 11 8 Segnaletica luminosa di identificazione Stazione Frasc Fras Segnaletica di identificazione Stazione sull’Edificio 600mm 300mm 25mm Frascati 100mm 600mm 1500mm 2500mm 150mm Segnaletica Direzionale Segnaletica d’Informazione 75mm 100mm Uscita La sala d'attesa resterá chiusa dalle ore 24.p.vignelli.com www.p.com www.com Grandi Stazioni S.Grandi Stazioni S.com www.A. 1999 Segnaletica di Identificazione: Pannelli in alluminio verniciato a spruzzo su cui le lettere e i pittogrammi possono essere applicati tramite serigrafia o pellicola adesiva.00 alle ore 5. Progetto: Segnaletica delle Stazioni FS Medie e Piccole 7 Giugnoo.p. Vignelli Associates Designers 475 Tenth Avenue New York.com www. Pannelli e supporti in alluminio verniciato a spruzzo su cui pittogrammi e numeri possono essere applicati tramite serigrafia o pellicola adesiva.

ut velit nonummy. Adipiscing a lectus. it is important to control the shape of the rugged side by shifting sometimes the text from line to line to obtain a better profile. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. or for the address at the bottom of a letterhead. mi sodales. sollicitudin at. in maecenas pharetra gravida ullamcorper neque. turpis pharetra gravida urna pellentesque vel. 66 . Aliquam proin et magnis sit augue. in maecenas pharetra gravida ullamcorper neque. quisque diam consectetur interdum. nisl in quos odio eu odio. scelerisque tempus vivamus ac. cursus odio placerat ultrices adipiscing lectus ornare. sollicitudin at. quisque diam consectetur interdum. mi sodales. justo congue pretium lectus condimentum. quidem vitae turpis enim. However. scelerisque tempus vivamus ac. particularly in Linotype. quidem vitae turpis enim. justo congue pretium lectus condimentum. Justified is used more for text books. turpis pharetra gravida urna pellentesque vel. Sed hendrerit proin diam duis eu. nisl in quos odio eu odio. but it is not one of our favorites because it is fundamentally contrived. quisque diam consectetur interdum. ut velit nonummy. This type of alignment derives from metal composition. pellentesque suspendisse nec non pulvinar dui cras. sollicitudin at. We use centered for lapidary text. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. turpis pharetra gravida urna pellentesque vel. Arcu fermentum nibh. Formerly it was faster to keep the alignment on the left side rather then having to kern the slug for every line. mi sodales. ut velit nonummy. Adipiscing a lectus. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. quidem vitae turpis enim. It also makes more sense since in our culture we read from left to right and it is better for the eye to go to the next line than having to cope with hyphens all the time. Arcu fermentum nibh. This may be time consuming but aesthetically rewarding. Arcu fermentum nibh. Adipiscing a lectus. Centered. cursus odio placerat ultrices adipiscing lectus ornare. scelerisque tempus vivamus ac. invitations. and for business cards. Justified Most of the time we use flush left. or any rhetorical composition where it may be more appropriate. Aliquam proin et magnis sit augue. Sed hendrerit proin diam duis eu. nisl in quos odio eu odio. cursus odio placerat ultrices adipiscing lectus ornare. in maecenas pharetra gravida ullamcorper neque. justo congue pretium lectus condimentum. pellentesque suspendisse nec non pulvinar dui cras. pellentesque suspendisse nec non pulvinar dui cras.Flush Left. Aliquam proin et magnis sit augue. Sed hendrerit proin diam duis eu.

and we are horrified by any type deformation. but there are exceptions. I prefer to keep the same size for heads and subheads in a text. cursus odio placerat ultrices adipiscing lectus ornare. Naturally every situation may require a different ratio. Arcu fermentum nibh. in maecenas pharetra gravida ullamcorper neque. For display reasons we like to set the type much larger or increase the leading to achieve a particular effect. justo congue pretium lectus condimentum. however. Aliquam proin et magnis sit augue. as in packaging design where a more flexible attitude could provide better results. Sed hendrerit proin diam duis eu. But even there. scelerisque tempus vivamus ac. a proper use of roman or italic type. using rulers when appropriate (to separate different parts of the message). 10 pt text and 20 pt headings). scelerisque tempus vivamus ac. 9 on 10. quidem vitae turpis enim. Title Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. Choose the proper size of type in relation to the width of the column: 8 on 9. for larger columns. 18 on 20. pellentesque suspendisse nec non pulvinar dui cras. mi sodales. pellentesque suspendisse nec non pulvinar dui cras. justo congue pretium lectus condimentum. scelerisque tempus vivamus ac. mi sodales. Aliquam proin et magnis sit augue. sollicitudin at. nisl in quos odio eu odio. ut velit nonummy. sollicitudin at. should be with great moderation. justo congue pretium lectus condimentum. Sed hendrerit proin diam duis eu. sollicitudin at. 10 on 11 pt for columns up to 70 mm. Arcu fermentum nibh. 68 . 12 on 13. quidem vitae turpis enim. nisl in quos odio eu odio. regular and light type weights. and just make them in bold. ut velit nonummy. Basically we stick to no more then two type sizes on a printed page. Title Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. 16 on 18. Title Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. pellentesque suspendisse nec non pulvinar dui cras. cursus odio placerat ultrices adipiscing lectus ornare. or two line spaces above and one below according to the context. when used. and a logical use of bold. turpis pharetra gravida urna pellentesque vel. ut velit nonummy. quisque diam consectetur interdum. quisque diam consectetur interdum. quisque diam consectetur interdum. We try to achieve a typographic composition that expresses intellectual elegance as opposed to blatant vulgarity by using typographic devices: a proper amount of leading for the context. turpis pharetra gravida urna pellentesque vel. Arcu fermentum nibh. Adipiscing a lectus. There are situations. a regular spacing. cursus odio placerat ultrices adipiscing lectus ornare. We do not like the use of type as a decorative element. Adipiscing a lectus. nisl in quos odio eu odio. in maecenas pharetra gravida ullamcorper neque.Type Size Relationship We have some basic rules for typesetting. in maecenas pharetra gravida ullamcorper neque. mi sodales. quidem vitae turpis enim. turpis pharetra gravida urna pellentesque vel. Aliquam proin et magnis sit augue. We like to play off small type with larger type usually twice as big (for instance. Adipiscing a lectus. We love type size consistency in a book. 14 on 16 for columns up to 140 mm. Sed hendrerit proin diam duis eu. a tight kerning. which is also more economical since you can set a style page and stick to it. with a line space above and none below.

fecha en ndario suce n tada cale Direcció rro pac s.66 9. Civil 0009003 0009003 0009003 0009003 0009003 Stoccolma 2 Apellido Paterno Apellido de Fecha .180 Rete 160 Metri Tessuto 9. capitaliz Dec las cond regi o de los partes rro a plaz rso de este de 200 ento quea) son de aho an al reve juram rito( de bajo el susc especific declaro Fecha dos por además consigna hechos s. Dato s Adic Nombre de la Casilla ) giro(s) Numero ar ( consider RUT N.C-D 1879 1879 1879 1879 1879 1879 1879 1879 1879 1879 1879 Tessuto Cat. I have a great love and respect for typography and I tried to learn as much as possible from all the great Masters.180 Rete 160 Div.180 Rete 160 Div.66 9. los cer y las que laro cono iciones CorpBanca. cont 1 “En este de este Titular fiel Firma copia Firma Titular 1 Titular 2 Firma 70 .66 9.180 Rete 160 Div. Extra 2272 2272 2272 2272 2272 2272 2272 2272 2272 2272 2272 2906 2906 2906 2906 2906 2906 2906 2906 2906 2906 2906 0009003 0009003 0009003 0009003 0009003 de Ape Registro nta N. Teléfono Ciudad Comuna Cat.180 Rete 160 Div. el prim de 200 derecho es de nes de aho reterner pactado 12 mes Condicio Cuenta odo para de giros prenden ión de por periidad máximadel mes de ientes com s sus Aceptac 4. Comuna Direcció 3. Stoccolma Salotti Fissi o con Letto Stoccolma 1 Codice 0009003 Fecha de Ape rtura Articolo Div. stro. light rulers (1/2 pt or 1 pt) will separate items within each part of the form.66 9.66 9. regardless of the size.66 Tessuto Cliente 1711 1711 1711 1711 1711 1711 1711 Tessuto Cat. Fem. fidesigno 2 Titular Firma recibir amos) declaro( rato” acto.180 Rete 160 Div.66 9.66 9.C-D 1879 1879 1879 1879 1879 1879 1879 Tessuto Cat. Econ . Persona s Juríd icas Teléfono Ciudad Depto. sigu en toda cuentas la cantel último día periodos aceptar rigen las que se hasta ación.180 Rete 160 Div.66 9. Titul ar rtura eta N. Fem.180 Rete 160 Div. In that situation the type between the rulers will be 8 pt. RUT/C. bolder rulers (2 pt) will separate major parts of the text.66 9.66 9.I imiento de Nac A M D idad o Activ Profesión Numero Depto. Libr Nombres Materno Estado Sexo Mas.E-F 2018 2018 2018 2018 2018 2018 2018 2018 2018 2018 2018 Tessuto Pelle Cat. always set closer to the ruler above.66 9. n Calle Sólo ionales Cuenta N.E-F 2018 2018 2018 2018 2018 2018 2018 Tessuto Pelle Cat.66 9.180 Rete 160 Div. n undo Calle Titular rno Cuenta N. á la tos de prende de efectuar .180 Rete 160 Div. com los efec Calle máximo .180 Rete 160 Div. Civil Codice 0009003 0009003 0009003 0009003 0009003 0009003 0009003 Articolo Div.66 Tessuto Cliente 1711 1711 1711 1711 1711 1711 1711 1711 1711 1711 1711 Tessuto Cat.180 Rete 160 Div.180 Rete 160 Metri Tessuto 9. Most of the things that I have said have been practiced by the Masters of the XX Century. This is another little but important detail of my Canon. all making a mark and opening a new way with their interpretations.180 Rete 160 Div.66 9.180 Rete 160 Div. Cue 1.180 Rete 160 Div.I Cat. Type should always hang from the ruler. Econ . Teléfono Ciudad Comuna Nombres Direcció Apellido Fecha Materno Estado Sexo Mas. In a form.66 9.180 Rete 160 Div.66 9. The basic rules of typography have been set long ago but as beautiful scores they have been played in different ways by many talented artists. RUT/C.B 1797 1797 1797 1797 1797 1797 1797 1797 1797 1797 1797 Tessuto Cat.Rulers When using rulers I set a hierarchy of weights to clarify the different parts of the text. for instance. Biperson al nto Nacimie A M D idad o Activ Profesión Numero Depto. Extra 2272 2272 2272 2272 2272 2272 2272 2906 2906 2906 2906 2906 2906 2906 2.66 9.180 Rete 160 Div.B 1797 1797 1797 1797 1797 1797 1797 Tessuto Cat. Seg Pate Apellido . para anual sivos que se con un a reajuste er periodo .

I love the play between a very large type size for headlines versus a much smaller type size for the body text.something we try to stay away from. Some people who talk loud and tend to scream trying to persuade you. roman and italic to differentiate different parts of a text. stick to the minimum. but even there. is what space is in Architecture.Contrasting Type Sizes One of the most exciting elements of typography for me is the contrast of scale on a printed page. Type weights can be used to great advantage when dedicated to a specific function. White space provides the silence. It is the articulation of space that gives Architecture the perfect pitch. silence is noticeable. White. Another element is the relationship among type sizes in the same printed page. It is really the white that makes the black sing. love to increase the size and weight of type to make the message louder. That is exactly what I consider intellectual vulgarity . with proper white space in between. If necessary. light. there are other devices such as bold. in typography. White space for me is a very important element in graphic composition. In a world where everybody screams. That is the essence of our typography. rather than be used for color purposes or even worse as a phonetic analogy. Our first rule is to stick to one or two type sizes at the most. 72 .

The choice of the proper material. too big or too small for the task at hand. Therefore. its sound. physical. its thickness. its weight. its texture. when it is deliberately chosen. 74 .actually by being purposely out of scale. Design means to be in control of every detail and scale is one of the most relevant ones. In design the issue of scale is continuously present and we have to master it regardless of the subject because it doesn’t allow mistakes. its color. Scale is the most appropriate size of an object in its natural context. An example which comes to mind is the sculptures by Claus Oldenburg where the transformation of scale in a particular context gives power and life to the object. it can be manipulated to achieve particular expression in a particular context . However. Scale applies to everything. both tangible and intangible. and psychological. To master the notion of scale is a lifelong search that involves interpretation of functions. It can be right or it can be wrong. And so is its opposite. In the previous paragraph I have given some examples of the meaning of scale in graphic design.Scale The notion of scale is an essential element of the design vocabulary. its temperature .every detail assails our senses and provokes a response. Manipulation of scale implies knowledge and full awareness of the meaning of scale. we must be in control of it because by choosing the most appropriate one to convey our message we succeed in our intent. it can be appropriate or inappropriate.

Texture has an infinite range of tactile or visual experiences and it is essential for designers to sharpen their perception in order to articulate and master the media. and this is true for any material including paper. or will be trapped inside of it if the surface has been etched. Any shiny surface reflects light.Texture Light is the master of form and texture. when polished. A silver object. from opulent to restrained. Texture and color in a mutually supporting dialogue define any creative artifact . A glass will reveal its color when light passes through it. engraved. It is by mastering light that we can achieve the expression of any artifact. to celebrate its appropriateness. or treated with some texture. The basic qualities of reflection or absorption of light are the elements to play with in designing any kind of object. to reveal its soul.anything waiting for us to decode its inner secrets and thereby enrich our perception and transfer it to whatever we choose. 76 . It is through the choice of materials and their finishes that we articulate the shape of an object to express its content. reflects light and when engraved. will trap the light. a wide spectrum ranging from rich to poor. A polished material has completely different and sometimes opposite connotations from a matte surface. any dull surface absorbs light.

and Yellow.Color Most of the time we use color as a Signifier. This is particularly true in Corporate Identity Programs where Chromotype becomes the Identifier along with the Logotype or other devices (morphotypes. we tend to prefer a primary palette of Red. therefore. Therefore. Appropriateness is one of the rules we use in choosing colors knowing how effective it can be to use the right color at the right time. Generally speaking we do not use color in a pictorial manner. feelings. there are times for just black and white.) We have used the entire spectrum of colors to express moods. as we do with typefaces. Color is a very important element in the formulation of our projects. 78 . It merely means that most of the time we like to use color to convey a specific message. or as an Identifier. but. passions. phonotypes etc. connotations and more. Blue. we tend to use it more as symbol or as an identifier. This may seem restrictive. we have limited and articulated our palette to express the message in the clearest and most understandable way. There are times for strong primary colors and times for subtle pastel colors. and times where rich browns and hearty colors work more appropriately to the task at hand. This doesn’t mean that we do not like colors or that we are not sensitive to them.

Outlined images.which will be provided by the sum of all the elements in the design. Some considerations are practical others are aesthetic. Once the number of vertical divisions are decided the next step is horizontal divisions which will provide the number of modules per page. for a newspaper. Or. Ultimately the most important device is the management of the white space in the layouts. can add sparks to the page as a variety of other devices. from programs to posters and I still do it with pretty good results. one has to keep in mind what kind of visual material will comprise the layout. from magazines to newspapers. An icon is an image that expresses its content in the most memorable way. but not necessarily excitement .when holding the book . Once again. crop the picture to follow the grid. and screaming titles. For literary books the margins follow a different set of considerations.to an overall shape of the text column. in designing any kind of publication the most helpful device is the grid. such as to design the most appropriate margins for that publication. ranging from the position of the thumbs . it is inevitable that the layouts reflect the interpretation of the designer. Bad layouts have no space left for breathing .Layouts Any kind of publication has different layout requirements. from books to encyclopedias. 5. Again 2. Or. 3 or 4 columns for a book or a brochure. For square pictures a square grid may be better than a rectangular one. Once the outside margins are established (I tend to like narrow margins to increase the tension) the basic grid should be devised according to the nature of the publication: 2. It is important to remember that many devices are available to make layouts exciting. well suited for rectangular images. otherwise. 4. one could design a double grid accommodating both situations. 8 or more. if the publication has a consistent variety of the two formats. However. or to the need of providing space for side notations (either by the author or by the reader). 3. according to the variety need of the publication. Every detail is important to achieve the final look of a publication. The purpose of the grid is to provide consistency to the layouts. It is the white space that makes the layout sing. images. line drawings. Great designs can be achieved without the use of the grid. when appropriate. We have designed all kind of books covering a variety of needs and situations. I have applied these basic rules to an endless list of publications. In defining the grid. It is important that proper attention is given even to small details. images and captions and the task of the designer is to sift through the images to select those which best portray the essence of the content and possess the quality of becoming an icon. and bold initials. but the grid is a very useful tool to guarantee results.every little space covered by a cacophony of type-sizes. Most publications are composed of text. 6. 6 or more. 80 . from brochures to annual reports.

82 .

followed by a page with a full bleed picture facing a white page with a picture . but. we attribute great importance to this detail of the layout process. there should be room for everyone in the creative process. or even a tabloid is a cinematic object where turning of the pages is an integral part of the reading experience. some bleeding there in a casual way. followed by a full bleed picture spread. We like the layouts to be forceful. A publication is simultaneously the static experience of a spread and the cinematic experience of a sequence of pages.Sequence If sifting the images is the first task in the process of publication. 84 . it is probably a bad layout! The book layout we tend to favor is a very simple format of a page of text beside a picture on a full bleed page. We would say that if you see the layout. a book. the sequence of layouts is definitively the next one. a brochure. A simple format gives rewarding results when the basic sequence is articulated in a way that is not repetitive. Therefore. We would rather see this sort of neutral approach than the obtrusive assault of many layouts.either on the center or upper right corner. Actually the nature of the publication will help to overcome the monotony of this approach. We tend to like a form of layout that almost disappears to the eyes of the reader. then again. A publication. We do not like limpy layouts with little pictures spreaded around the pages some bleeding here. whether a magazine.

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We prefer the square because it gives the book a sharper look. Sandwich Early in my career I developed a type of book binding that I called “sandwich”.Binding One cannot talk about books without discussing the binding.which is particularly convenient in picture books when you have one image across the spread. Hence. and sometimes the cover is printed. If the cover is going to be laminated with cloth or leather a regular chipboard could be sufficient. on the front and one at the end of the book glued to the endpapers. 88 . It consists of a panel of chipboard. Spine The spine could be round or square. There are several components in a binding and several choices to make: Cover If the cover is going to be laminated with paper you must recommend a calendered cardboard so that the surface will be smooth. Since then it has become common. laminated. Headband This is the finish between the spine and the book. and wrapped around the cardboard. In the past very fancy endpapers were used for this function. generally white. or any other material. The binding of a book or a brochure adds the final touch of quality to the product. the name sandwich binding. The main reason for this binding is to enable the book to open flat . It could be printed in a solid color or have a pattern or an illustration. Endpapers This is the part that connects the book to its binding and it is usually made with a stronger paper than the one of the book. with the title hot-stamped on it. The spine is made of cloth. It exist in many variations and we like the plain white most. The final look is that of two gray boards holding a stack of white pages.

In some of the tables we have designed. Identity and diversity .Identity and Diversity The notion of identity and diversity is a recurrent theme in both two and three dimensional design.an essential contraposition to bring life to design. We like to play with those elements. A typical example would be a book series where the basic identifiers are constant and the specific illustration changes from cover to cover. it is necessary to achieve the proper balance between those components. changing the relative position of the elements provides diversity without compromising the identity of the design. or to offer enough flexibility in any given design solution to overcome those pitfalls. We like to design a strong identity program in which there is enough room to play appropriateness without loosing identity. we like to involve the user to define the final look of the object. in the design of furniture. 90 . Too much diversity creates fragmentation a very common disease of badly designed communication. In a Corporate Identity Program enough diversity must be provided to avoid sameness and to increase attention. Too much identity generates perceptive redundancy and lack of retention. Therefore. Also.

The white space on the printed page is the correspondent of space in architecture. 92 . It is the fundamental qualifier and protagonist of the image. but one should not underestimate the importance of white space to better define the hierarchy of every component. In both situations space is what qualifies the context. Somehow.White Space I often say that in typography the white space is more important than the black of the type. For many artists white space is the essential element of the composition. Wider margins deflate the tension and bring about a certain level of serenity to the page. non only separates the different parts of the message but helps to position the message in the context of the page. it relates to the epic grandeur of the American landscapes. Such is indeed the power of the white space. Almost all the great American graphic designers have used white space as the significant silence to better hear their message loud and clear. White space. Decreasing or increasing the letter spacing (kearning) confers very distinctive character and expression to the words. images and the edges of the page. The relationship between the size of type and the space around it is one of the most delicate and precious elements of a composition. the organization of information needs a structure to hold together. Tight type setting transforms words into lines just as loose type settings transform words in to dots. Just like space is the protagonist in Frank Lloyd Wright’s architecture. I must say that the masterful handling of white space on a printed page is perhaps the most peculiar attribute of American graphic design. All this is space manipulation and it is this device that is used in layouts to achieve a desired expression. Tight margins establish a tension between text. Naturally.

In the course of a lifetime it’s been possible to continuously evaluate details covering the whole spectrum of materials from the diameter of a pipe. evaluated. very often. not in an arbitrary way.colors. that are governed very often by a modular relationship ranging. and height. not happenstance. Freedom of choice can only happen with knowledge and that is an ongoing process that requires structure and determination. Contrived solutions are never good nor long lasting. Economy in design is the most appropriate and lean solution to every problem. Odd sizes imply more labor costs and waste of materials. I think that this is quite an important aspect of a modus operandi. but not an odd size in between. from single to double. This process of observation and selection has gradually built up an inventory of choices and feelings eventually leading to a personal canon . It is part of our ethics as well as our design vocabulary. or four or more.A collection of experiences Very early on we discovered that modular and standard dimensions offer benefits that are economical from both cost and meaning points of view. casual size. thickness.which becomes a recurrent element of our creative vocabulary. It involves every detail. such as size relationship between parts of a given object. for example. There are some basic elements. 94 . The opposite is quite true. width. Standardization related to the size of construction materials can bring significant savings in any three dimensional project. and finally filed in our memory according to our personal canon. Good design doesn’t cost more than bad design. materials. Every sense of our body gets involved but it must be processed. a disc within a disc will have a diameter half the size of the larger or a third of it but not an odd. This process of sifting and selecting extends to everything around us . The use of standard and modular sizes of paper in the printing industry can achieve considerable savings.something we are proud of. analyzed. Economy doesn’t mean cheap design. And that is because there is some universal harmony that demands those choices. Quality is not necessarily more expensive than cheap solutions. textures. Costly solutions can never be a product of good design because economy is at the essence of the design expression. The standardization of paper sizes in the project we did for the National Park Service economized million of dollars . to the texture and color of any material. Also. It is imperative that a designer becomes familiar with all these aspects of design and the realization process. from one to three.

I love systems and despise happenstance. images. We sifted through materials to find those for which we have the closest affinity.our interpretations of reality. textures. And that is why I love Design. 96 .a language that attempts to be as objective as possible. preventing them from assuming a frozen meaning. We sifted through colors. I love them within a frame of reference . for me. It is imperative to develop your own vocabulary of your own language . I love contradiction because it keeps things moving. ambiguity means plurality of meanings.a consistent reassurance that at least and at last I am the one responsible for every detail. As much as I love things in flux. knowing very well that even objectivity is subjective. I love ambiguity because. and gradually we built a vocabulary of materials and experiences that enable us to express our solutions to given problems . or becoming a monument to immobility. typefaces.Conclusion Throughout our creative lives we have sifted through everything to select what we thought best.

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