Solar energy in india


• India is densely populated and has high solar insolation, an ideal combination for using solar power in India. India is already a leader in wind power generation. In the solar energy sector, some large projects have been proposed, and a 35,000 km2 area of the Thar Desert has been set aside for solar power projects, sufficient to generate 700 GW to 2,100 GW. In July 2009, India unveiled a US$19 billion plan to produce 20 GW of solar power by 2020.[1] Under the plan, the use of solar-powered equipment and applications would be made compulsory in all government buildings, as well as hospitals and hotels.[2] On November 18, 2009, it was reported that India was ready to launch its National Solar Mission under the National Action Plan on Climate Change, with plans to generate 1,000 MW of power by 2013.[3]


1 Current status
○ ○ ○

1.1 Installed capacity 1.2 Still unaffordable 1.3 Solar engineering training 2.1 Rural electrification 2.2 Agricultural support 2.3 Solar water heaters 3.1 Land scarcity 3.2 Slow progress

2 Future applications
○ ○ ○

3 Challenges and constraints
○ ○

• • • • •

4 Latent potential 5 Government support 6 See also 7 Notes 8 External links

[edit] Current status
With about 300 clear, sunny days in a year, India's theoretical solar power reception, on only its land area, is about 5 Petawatt-hours per year (PWh/yr) (i.e. 5 trillion kWh/yr or about 600 TW). [4][5] The daily average solar energy incident over India varies from 4 to 7 kWh/m2 with about 1500–2000 sunshine hours per year (depending upon location), which is far more than current total energy consumption. For example, assuming the efficiency of PV modules were as low as

10%, this would still be a thousand times greater than the domestic electricity demand projected for 2015.[4][6]

[edit] Installed capacity
The amount of solar energy produced in India is less than 1% of the total energy demand.[7] The grid-interactive solar power as of December 2010 was merely 10 MW.[8] Government-funded solar energy in India only accounted for approximately 6.4 MW-yr of power as of 2005.[7] However, as of October 2009, India is currently ranked number one along with the United States in terms of solar energy production per watt installed.[9] India's largest photovoltaic (PV) power plants DC GW·h Capacity Peak Power /year[10] factor (MW)

Name of Plant


Sivaganga Photovoltaic 5 Plant[11] Kolar Photovoltaic Plant[12] 3 Itnal Photovoltaic Plant, 3 Belgaum[13] Azure Power - Photovoltaic 2 Plant[14] Jamuria Photovoltaic Plant[15] 2 NDPC Photovoltaic Plant[16] 1 Thyagaraj stadium Plant1 Delhi[17] Gandhinagar Solar Plant[18] 1 Tata - Mulshi, 3 Maharashtra[19] Azure Power - Sabarkantha, 10 Gujarat[20] Moser Baer - Patan, 30 Gujarat[21] Tata - Mayiladuthurai, Tamil 1 Nadu[22] REHPL - Sadeipali, 1 (Bolangir) Orissa [23] Total 58

Completed December 2010 Completed May 2010 Completed April 2010 2009 2009 2010 April, 2010 January 21, 2011 Commissioned April 2011 Commissioned June 2011 To Be Commissioned July 2011 Commissioned July 2011 Commissioned July 2011

[edit] Still unaffordable
Solar power is currently prohibitive due to high initial costs of deployment. To spawn a thriving solar market, the technology needs to be competitively cheaper (i.e. attaining cost parity with fossil or nuclear energy). India is heavily dependent on coal and foreign oil, a phenomenon likely to continue until non-fossil/renewable energy technology becomes economically viable in the

country.[24][25] The cost of production ranges from 15 to 30 per unit compared to around 5 to 8 per unit for conventional thermal energy.[26]

[edit] Solar engineering training
The Australian government has awarded UNSW A$5.2 million to train next-generation solar energy engineers from Asia-Pacific nations, specifically India and China, as part of the AsiaPacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (APP).[27] Certain programmes are designed to target for rural solar usage development.[28]

[edit] Future applications
[edit] Rural electrification
Lack of electricity infrastructure is one of the main hurdles in the development of rural India. India's grid system is considerably under-developed, with major sections of its populace still surviving off-grid. As of 2004 there are about 80,000 unelectrified villages in the country. Of these villages, 18,000 could not be electrified through extension of the conventional grid. A target for electrifying 5,000 such villages was set for the Tenth National Five Year Plan (2002– 2007). As of 2004, more than 2,700 villages and hamlets had been electrified, mainly using solar photovoltaic systems.[4] Developments in cheap solar technology are considered as a potential alternative that allows an electricity infrastructure consisting of a network of local-grid clusters with distributed electricity generation.[7] It could allow bypassing (or at least relieving) the need to install expensive, lossy, long-distance, centralised power delivery systems and yet bring cheap electricity to the masses. Projects currently planned include 3000 villages of Odisha, which will be lighted with solar power by 2014.[29][30][31][32]

[edit] Agricultural support
Solar PV water pumping systems are used for irrigation and drinking water. The majority of the pumps are fitted with a 200–3,000 watt motor that are powered with 1,800 Wp PV array which can deliver about 140,000 liters of water per day from a total head of 10 meters. By 30 September, 2006, a total of 7,068 solar PV water pumping systems had been installed.[7] Solar driers are used to dry harvests before storage.[33]

[edit] Solar water heaters
Bangalore has the largest deployment of rooftop solar water heaters in India. These heaters will generate an energy equivalent of 200 MW every day .[34] Bangalore is also the first city in the country to put in place an incentive mechanism by providing a rebate (which has just been[when?] increased to 50) on monthly electricity bills for residents using roof-top thermal systems. These systems are now mandatory for all new structures. Pune, another city in the western part of India, has also recently made installation of solar water heaters in new buildings mandatory.[35]

[edit] Challenges and constraints
[edit] Land scarcity

with nations such as Japan. This new budget has also encouraged private solar companies by reducing customs duty on solar panels by 5% and exempting excise duty on solar photovoltaic panels.[40][41] the subcontinent has the ideal combination of both high solar insolation[40] and therefore a big potential consumer base density. the government has announced an allocation of 10 billion (US$223 million) towards the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission and the establishment of a clean energy fund. This is expected to reduce the cost of a roof-top solar panel installation by 15–20%. solar panel deployment.[4][42][43][44][45] In one of the analyzed scenarios. the government has initiated a Renewable Energy Certificate (REC)[47] scheme. and the US currently ranked far ahead. as seen during the past few years.Land is a scarce resource in India and per capita land availability is low. erecting such an infrastructure. solar is the fastest growing source of energy (though from a very small base) with an annual average growth of 35%. It is an increase of 3. India is now in 7th place worldwide in PV cell production and 9th place in solar thermal systems. which does not enjoy the economies of scale possible in mass. The amount of land required for utility-scale solar power plants—currently approximately 1 km2 for every 20–60 megawatts (MW) generated[7]—could pose a strain on India's available land resource.[4] [edit] Slow progress While the world has progressed substantially in production of basic silicon mono-crystalline photovoltaic cells.7 million) from the previous budget. The detailed outlay of the National Solar Mission highlights various targets set by the government to increase solar energy in the country's energy portfolio. [edit] Government support The government of India is promoting the use of solar energy through various strategies. Globally. utility-scale. because PV is projected to continue its current cost reductions for the next decades and be able to compete with fossil fuel.[38] India can make renewable resources such as solar the backbone of its economy by 2050. In the latest budget for 2010/11. so that it attracts the individual and average family size household consumer. reining in its long-term carbon emissions without compromising its economic growth potential. China. needs the market price of solar technology deployment to substantially decline. all connected via a local grid. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)provides 70 percent subsidy on the installation cost of a solar photovoltaic power plant in North-East states and 30 percentage subsidy on other regions.[36] [edit] Latent potential Some noted think-tanks[4][37][38] recommend that India should adopt a policy of developing solar power as a dominant component of the renewable energy mix.[46] Additionally. since being a densely populated region[39] in the sunny tropical belt. Dedication of land area for exclusive installation of solar arrays might have to compete with other necessities that require land.8 billion (US$84. . India has fallen short of achieving the worldwide momentum. The budget also proposed a coal tax of US$1 per metric ton on domestic and imported coal used for power generation.[7] However. which is designed to drive investment in low-carbon energy projects. That might be possible in the future. The architecture more suitable for most of India would be a highly-distributed set of individual rooftop power generation systems.

20 MW) [5].[6] Wind power accounts for 6% of India's total installed power capacity.4 Karnataka (1730. Rajasthan (1524. Germany (27.[1] In 2009-10 India's growth rate was highest among the other top four countries. and it generates 1. China (44.676 MW) are ahead of India in fifth position. Andhra Pradesh (200. and has significantly increased in the last few years.[9] Shown here is a wind farm in Kayathar.20 MW).70 MW).1 Tamil Nadu (5904.10 MW). with an annual power production of 8. Orissa (2MW).896 MW. The worldwide installed capacity of wind power reached 197 GW by the end of 2010.40 MW) 2. Tamil Nadu.10 MW) 2. Kerala (32. Karnataka (1730.8 MW). [8] Contents [hide] • • 1 Overview 2 State-level wind power ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 2.3 Gujarat (2175.70 MW) 2.000 MW of additional wind power capacity will be installed in India by 2012. Although a relative newcomer to the wind industry compared with Denmark or the US.60 MW).215 MW) and Spain (20.The development of wind power in India began in the 1990s.70 MW).8 West Bengal (1. India has the fifth largest installed wind power capacity in the world. US (40.40 MW).7 Kerala (32 MW) 2.[3][4] West Bengal (1.50 MW). Madhya Pradesh (275.2 Maharashtra (5310. As of 31 March 2011 the installed capacity of wind power in India was 14550[2] MW. Gujarat (2175.1 MW) and other states (3. and the .5 Rajasthan (1524.50 MW) 2. mainly spread across Tamil Nadu (5904.70 MW) 2.733 MW). Maharashtra (2310.[10] The short gestation periods for installing wind turbines.[7] India is currently preparing a wind atlas.6 Madhya Pradesh (275.6% of the country's power.10MW) • • • • • • 3 Projects in India 4 Barriers 5 Future 6 See also 7 References 8 External links [edit] Overview India is the world's fifth largest wind power producer.180 MW). It is estimated that 6.60 MW) 2.

[edit] Tamil Nadu (5904. Anthiur. supplying the villagers with electricity for work. holding some 52 percent of market share in India. CLP. Puliya Marathu Palayam.[13][14] The village had been selected as the showcase for India's $2 billion clean energy program which provides foreign companies with tax breaks for establishing fields of wind turbines in the area.15 billion ($189. Gudimangalam. is located near the once impoverished village of Muppandal.60 MW) Samana & sadodar in jamanagar district is set to host energy companies like China Light Power (CLP) and Tata Power have pledged to invest up to 8. Shriram EPC bagged INR 700 million contract for setting up of 60 units of 250 KW (totaling 15 MW) wind turbines in Tirunelveli district by Cape Energy.40 MW) India is keen to decrease its reliance on fossil fuels to meet its energy demand.15 billion.90 MW at the end of the December 2010.5 million) in different projects in the area.[15] Enercon is also playing a major role in development of wind energy in India. [edit] Maharashtra (5310. Coimbatore and Tiruppur Districts having more wind Mills from 2002 onwards. Suzlon’s success has made India the developing country leader in advanced wind turbine technology. Suzlon is currently the leading manufacturer of wind turbines for the Indian market. . Gomangalam. and by 2006 had captured almost 7. as Indian-owned company. near the Koyna reservoir in Satara district of Maharashtra.[11] Suzlon operates what was once Asia's largest wind farm. Sunkaramudaku.[12] [edit] State-level wind power There is a growing wind energy installations in the number of the states across the India.increasing reliability and performance of wind energy machines has made wind power a favored choice for capacity addition in India. is investing close to 5 billion for installing 126 wind turbines in Samana that will generate 100. KongalNagaram. the Vankusawade Wind Park (201 MW).7 percent of market share in global wind turbine sales. In Tamil Nadu. Wind turbiness in Tamil Nadu In February 2009. Kethanoor.70 MW) Maharashtra is second only to Tamil Nadu in terms of generating capacity. Not far from Aralvaimozhi. the Muppandal wind farm.specially. Poolavadi. the largest in the subcontinent. Tata Power has installed wind turbines in the same area for generating 50 MW power at a cost of 3. Chittipalayam. emerged on the global scene in the past decade. Suzlon has been heavily involved.[11] Suzlon. Murungappatti (MGV Place). Edyarpalayam. Chandrapuram are the high wind power production places in the both districts. Bogampatti.8 MW power. Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu is the state with the most wind generating capacity: 5502.[16] [edit] Gujarat (2175. Shown here is a wind farm in Muppandal. through its India subsidiary CLP India.

the government has introduced a raft of incentives including a higher wind energy tariff.Both projects are expected to become operational by early next year. Mehsana and Vadodara centres.[citation needed] The ARA wind farm was commissioned in June 2008 and the ANA wind farm.2 MW Arasinagundi (ARA) and 16.1-mW wind power project at Gudhe village near Panchgani in Satara district of Maharashtra.10 MW) There are many small wind farms in Karnataka. for setting up the wind farm comprising 34 turbines of 1.70 MW) Gurgaon-headquartered Gujarat Fluorochemicals Ltd is in an advanced stage of commissioning a large wind farm in Jodhpur district of Rajasthan. The 51 MW project is located at Motisindholi in Kutch district of Gujarat. Power from this 308 crore captive wind farm will be wheeled to the Gujarat state grid for onward use by ONGC at its Ankleshwar. GFL commissioned a 23. Chitradurga.[citation needed] [edit] Rajasthan (1524. and it is learnt that the first three turbines had begun production within 43 days of starting construction work. In 2006-07. The Gujarat government. cement major ACC Ltd has proposed to set up a new wind power project in . ONGC had placed the EPC order on Suzlon Energy in January 2008. To encourage investment in wind energy development in the state.[18] [edit] Karnataka (1730. Work on the project had begun in February 2008. in September 2008. Located in the Davangere district (Karnataka State). consistent with the requirement of the World Bank's disclosure policy. a joint venture between Enercon of Germany and Mumbai-based Mehra group. making it one of the states in India which has a high number of wind mill farms. These are included below. a substation at Sadodar has been installed.5 mW capacity. Each facility has signed a 20-year Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) with Bangalore Electricity Supply Company (BESCOM) for off-take of 100% of the output. they have a total installed capacity of 29. For the INOX Group company. Ltd.[17] ONGC Ltd has commissioned its first wind power project.[citation needed] The 13.[citation needed] In an independent development. ARA and ANA are Acciona’s first wind farms eligible for CER credits under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Chitradurga alone has over 20000 wind turbines.7 MW and comprise a total 18 Vestas 1. A senior official[who?] told Projectmonitor that out of the total 31. For this purpose. according to government sources. the official noted. ONGC has targeted to develop a captive wind power capacity of around 200 MW in the next two years. which is banking heavily on wind power.65MW wind turbines supplied by Vestas Wind Technology India Pvt.5 MW each. Both the wind farms will be grid-connected and will earn carbon credits for the company. Ahmedabad.5 MW Anaburu (ANA) wind farms are ACCIONA’S first in India. The remaining capacity would come on line shortly. has identified Samana as an ideal location for installation of 450 turbines that can generate a total of 360 MW. this would be the largest wind farm. he added. Gadag are some of the districts where there are a large number of Windmills. Samana has a high tension transmission grid and electricity generated by wind turbines can be fed into it. An environmental and social assessment has been conducted as part of the procedure and related documents have been provided.[citation needed] ACCIONA is in talks with the World Bank for The Spanish Carbon Fund which is assessing participation in the project as buyer for CERs likely to arise between 2010 and 2012. 12 mW had been completed so far. Both projects are being executed by Enercon Ltd.

10MW) The total installation in West Bengal is just 1. the 50 MW project would supply gridquality power. It has a generating capacity of 23. The agency has identified 16 sites for setting up wind farms through private developers. ANERT will establish a demonstration project to generate 2 mW of power at Ramakkalmedu in Idukki district in association with the Kerala State Electricity Board. although it is currently not amongst the top five states in terms of installed capacity. Government of Kerala.Rajasthan with a capacity of around 11 mW.9 million tpa to 1. The project is slated to cost 21 crore. chairman of the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency. According to SP Gon Chaudhuri. Suzlon aims to generate the power solely for commercial purpose and sell it to local power distribution outfits like the West Bengal State Electricity Board (WBSEDCL).00 MW.03. a share the Kerala government wants to increase by 30 per cent. said the project would be the biggest in West Bengal using wind energy. Govt. aims at generating 10. A new wind farm project was launched with private participation at Ramakkalmedu in Idukki district. Expected to cost around 60 crore. Gon Chaudhuri. who is also the principal secretary in the power department. accounting for a 6. Suzlon experts are looking for the best site.[19] [edit] Kerala (32 MW) The first wind farm of the state was set up at Kanjikode in Palakkad district.3 per cent share in India's total capacity. the wind farm will meet the power requirements of the company's Lakheri cement unit where capacity was raised from 0. It is also the nodal agency for implementing renewable energy programmes of the Union ministry of nonconventional energy sources.[citation needed] [edit] West Bengal (1.[citation needed] The Agency for Non-Conventional Energy and Rural Technology (ANERT).50 MW) In consideration of unique concept. The project. this would be the second wind power project after the 9 mW farm at Udayathoor in Tirunelvelli district of Tamil Nadu. To start with. Achuthanandan in April 2008. The contribution of non-conventional energy in the total 6. At present. is setting up wind farms on private land in various parts of the state to generate a total of 600 mW of power.[citation needed] Rajasthan is emerging as an important destination for new wind farms.Mega 50 MW wind energy project soon for country[citation needed] Suzlon Energy Ltd plans to set up a large wind-power project in West Bengal Suzlon Energy Ltd is planning to set up a large wind-power project in West Bengal. As of 2007 end. this northern state had a total of 496 mW. of Madhya Pradesh has sanctioned another 15 MW project to MPWL at Nagda Hills near Dewas. All the 25 WEGs have been commissioned on 31. an autonomous body under the Department of Power. which was inaugurated by chief minister V. For ACC.10 MW as there was only 0.5 per cent.2008 and under successful operation.[citation needed] [edit] Madhya Pradesh (275.[citation needed] . ANERT is engaged in the field of development and promotion of renewable sources of energy in Kerala.5 million tpa through a modernisation plan.5 MW addition in 2006-2007 and none between 2007–2008 and 2008–2009 Bengal . for which it is looking at coastal Midnapore and South 24-Parganas districts. S.5 MW of electricity.095 mW power potential is just 5. Other wind farm sites include Palakkad and Thiruvananthapuram districts.

BSES Ltd. [21] . Ramakkalmedu Muppandal Wind Muppandal Wind Farm Muppandal Gudimangalam Gudimangalam Wind Farm Gudimangalam Puthlur RCI Lamda Danida Chennai Mohan Jamgudrani MP Jogmatti BSES Perungudi Newam Kethanur Wind Farm Hyderabad APSRTC Muppandal Madras Poolavadi Chettinad Wescare (India) Ltd. power companies are being encouraged to buy power generated by units based on renewable energy. The generating units are being offered special rates.[citation needed] [edit] Projects in India India's Largest Wind power production facilities (10MW and greater)[20] Power Plant Producer Location State Total Capacity (MWe) Vankusawade Wind Park Cape Comorin Suzlon Energy Ltd. Poolavadi Ltd.Suzlon will invest around 250 crore initially. Satara Dist. generating a total of around 1 MW. Shalivahana Wind Tirupur Ltd. Kayathar Subhash Subhash Ltd. without taking recourse to the funding available from the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (Ireda). Kethanur Wind Farm Puthlur Lamda Chennai Dewas Chitradurga Dist Perungudi Kethanur Andhra Pradesh State Road Hyderabad Transport Corp. Newam Power Company Ltd. In West Bengal. Danida India Ltd. said Gon Chaudhuri. Kayathar Ramakkalmedu Subhash Ltd. there is a composite wind-diesel plant generating 1 MW. He said there are five wind-power units in West Bengal. Muppandal Chettinad Cement Corp. Madras Cements Ltd. Mohan Breweries & Distilleries Ltd. S Banerjee. private secretary to the power minister.4 Aban Loyd Chiles Kanyakumari Offshore Ltd. said this had encouraged the private sector companies to invest in this field. at Frazerganj. Shalivahana Green Energy. Maharashtra 259 Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Kerala Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Tamil Nadu Madhya Pradesh Karnataka Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu 33 30 25 22 21 20 15 15 14 14 12 11 10 10 10 20. At Sagar Island. MP Windfarms Ltd.

The majority of modules use wafer-based crystalline silicon cells or thin-film cells based on cadmium telluride or silicon. The use of infrared photovoltaic cells has also been proposed to increase efficiencies. The Energy Density of a solar panel is the efficiency described in terms of peak power output per unit of surface area. This is not normally an issue in the locations chosen for most wind farms and research by Salford University[22] shows that noise complaints for wind farms in the UK are almost non-existent. photovoltaic panels can produce electricity from a range of frequencies of light. but semiflexible ones are available. ultraviolet.[edit] Barriers Initial cost for wind turbines is greater than that of conventional fossil fuel generators per MW installed. Noise is produced by the rotor blades.000 MW might be available for commercial use by 2012Solar panels use light energy (photons) from the sun to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect. Electrical connections are made in series to achieve a desired output voltage and/or in parallel to provide a desired current capability.[citation needed] Currently the best achieved sunlight conversion rate (solar panel efficiency) is around 21% in commercial products[3]. in case of partial or total shading. Therefore another design concept is to split the light into different wavelength ranges and direct the beams onto different cells tuned to those ranges.[citation needed] Depending on construction. infrared and low or diffused light). and at night.[1] Some recent solar panel designs include concentrators in which light is focused by lenses or mirrors onto an array of smaller cells. but usually cannot cover the entire solar range (specifically. Separate diodes may be needed to avoid reverse currents.[2] This has been projected to be capable of raising efficiency by 50%. based on thin-film cells. The structural (load carrying) member of a module can either be the top layer or the back layer. The p-n junctions of mono-crystalline silicon cells may have adequate reverse current characteristics that these are not necessary. and they can give far higher efficiencies if illuminated with monochromatic light. Reverse currents waste power and can also lead to overheating of shaded cells. Most solar panels are rigid. and perhaps produce power at night. The cells must be connected electrically to one another and to the rest of the system. [edit] Crystalline silicon modules Main article: Solar Cell . commonly expressed in units of Watts per square foot (W/ft2). Cells must also be protected from mechanical damage and moisture. but an additional generation capacity of only about 6.500 MW between 2007–12. copper or other conductive (but generally not magnetic) transition metals. The conducting wires that take the current off the panels may contain silver. Hence much of the incident sunlight energy is wasted by solar panels. This enables the use of cells with a high cost per unit area (such as gallium arsenide) in a cost-effective way. typically lower than the efficiencies of their cells in isolation. [edit] Future The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has fixed a target of 10. The most efficient mass-produced solar panels have energy density values of greater than 13 W/ft2 (140 W/m2). Solar cells become less efficient at higher temperatures and installers try to provide good ventilation behind solar panels.

Commercial use. or CIGS (or variant). polyester or polyimide film) then monolithic integration can be used. They produce high-efficiency conversion at low cost. The cells are assembled into modules by laminating them to a transparent colourless fluoropolymer on the front side (typically ETFE or FEP) and a polymer suitable for bonding to the final substrate on the other side. the cell and the module are manufactured in the same production line. The global flexible and thin-film photovoltaic (PV) market. surpassing 32 GW according to a major new study by IntertechPira. So-called inverted metamorphic (IMM) multijunction solar cells made on compoundsemiconductor technology are just becoming commercialized in July 2008. is expected to experience a CAGR of over 35% to 2019.[4] [edit] Module embedded electronics See also: Microinverter . If it is a conductor then another technique for electrical connection must be used. The main cell technologies in this category are CdTe. or a-Si. [edit] Flexible thin-film modules Flexible thin film cells and modules are created on the same production line by depositing the photoactive layer and other necessary layers on a flexible substrate. or a-Si+uc-Si tandem. inverter and voltage sensing transfer switch still need to be compacted and unitized for residential use. and more complex parabolic reflectors and solar concentrators are becoming the dominant technology. The requirements for residential and commercial are different in that the residential needs are simple and can be packaged so that as solar cell technology progresses. The only commercially available (in MW quantities) flexible module uses amorphous silicon triple junction (from Unisolar). depending on the size of the service will be limited in the photovoltaic cell arena. usually another sheet of glass. Amorphous silicon has a sunlight conversion rate of 6-12%. the other base line equipment such as the battery.g. [edit] Rigid thin-film modules In rigid thin film modules. Third generation solar cell. If the substrate is an insulator (e. despite caution in the overall PV industry. The cell is created on a glass substrate or superstrate. a so called "monolithic integration". [edit] Thin-film modules Main articles: Thin film solar cell. and the electrical connections are created in situ.Most solar modules are currently produced from silicon PV cells. and Low-cost photovoltaic cell Third generation solar cells are advanced thin-film cells. The substrate or superstrate is laminated with an encapsulant to a front or back sheet. The University of Michigan's solar car that won the North American Solar challenge in July 2008 used IMM thinfilm flexible solar cells. These are typically categorized into either monocrystalline or multicrystalline modules.

Yingli and Trina Solar are GW producers now. Many crystalline silicon module manufacturers offer a warranty that guarantees electrical production for 10 years at 90% of rated power output and 25 years at 80%. to make sure the panel is compatible with a given system.8% in solar PV installation on a year-on-year basis. five of the top ten PV module companies in 2010 are GW players. maximum power current (IMPP). this is a leftover term from the days when solar panels were used only to charge batteries. cold.[7] [edit] Top ten The top ten solar panel producers (by MW shipments) in 2010 were:[7] 1. and the measurement of performance data for monitoring and fault detection at module level. According to PVinsights. Nominal voltage refers to the voltage of the battery that the module is best suited to charge.[5] The peak power rating. measured in amperes). maximum power voltage (VMPP). Sharp Solar 4. Electrical characteristics include nominal power (PMAX. kWp. so there is never one specific voltage at which the panel operates. Sharp.000 W/m². Solar panels must withstand heat. First Solar 3. Trina Solar 6. and module efficiency (%). This enables performing Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) for each module individually. Some of these solutions make use of Power Optimizers. at a glance. a DC to DC converter technology developed to maximize the power harvest from solar photovoltaic systems.Several companies have begun embedding electronics into PV modules. measured in W). open circuit voltage (VOC). short circuit current (ISC. VOC can be measured with a meter directly on an illuminated panel's terminals or on its disconnected cable. PV module makers dramatically increased their shipments of solar panels in 2010. temperature and load conditions change. solar spectrum of AM 1. Canadian Solar . peak power. Suntech. Open circuit voltage or VOC is the maximum voltage that the panel can produce when not connected to an electrical circuit or system.[6] [edit] Production 15. Suntech 2. They actively expanded their capacity and turned themselves into gigawatt GW players.9 GW of solar PV system installations were completed in 2010. [edit] Module performance and lifetime Module performance is generally rated under standard test conditions: irradiance of 1. rain and hail for many years. The actual voltage output of the panel changes as lighting. is the maximum output according under standard test conditions (not the maximum possible output). First Solar. with solar PV pricing survey and market research company PVinsights reporting growth of 117. Nominal voltage allows users.5 and module temperature at 25°C. With over 100% year-on-year growth in PV system installation. and most of them doubled their shipments in 2010. kWp. Yingli 5.

[8] for example Fowler's Mill at Battersea in London. Margate. and were quite different from the later European vertical windmills. Yorkshire.7. in Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Windmills were in widespread use across the Middle East and Central Asia. around a vertical axis.[19] These earliest mills were used to grind cereals. can also be found in 13th-century China (during the Jurchen Jin Dynasty in the north). these windmills were used to grind grain or draw up water.[9][10] The authenticity of an earlier anecdote of a windmill involving the second caliph Umar (AD 634–644) is questioned on the grounds that it appears in a 10th-century document. introduced by the travels of Yelü Chucai to Turkestan in 1219. the horizontal-axis or vertical windmill (so called due to the plane of the movement of its sails) is believed to date from the last quarter of the 12th century in the triangle of northern France. The earliest certain reference to a windmill in Europe (assumed to have been of the vertical type) dates from 1185.[11] Made of six to twelve sails covered in reed matting or cloth material. Sunpower 9. and Hooper's Mill at Margate in Kent.[6] It has been claimed that the Babylonian emperor Hammurabi planned to use wind power for his ambitious irrigation project in the 17th century BC. in Weedley. in small numbers. used for irrigation. These early modern examples seem not to have been directly influenced by the horizontal windmills of the Middle and Far East.[12] A similar type of horizontal windmill with rectangular blades. Renewable Energy Corporation 10.[8] They were invented in eastern Persia (what is now Afghanistan).[15][16][17][18] In northwestern Europe. as recorded by the Persian geographer Estakhri in the 9th century. Kent.[13] Hooper's Mill. which was used in ancient Tibet and China since the 4th century. and later spread to China and India from there. eastern England and Flanders.[7] Horizontal windmills The Persian horizontal windmill The first practical windmills had sails that rotated in a horizontal plane. Hanwha Solarone 8. although a number of earlier but less certainly dated twelfth century European sources referring to windmills have also been found. An 18th Century European horizontal windmill Horizontal windmills were built.[14] Vertical windmills There is an ongoing debate among historians on whether and how the windmill from the middle East influenced the development of the early European windmill.[4][5] Another early example of a wind-driven wheel was the prayer wheel. Solarworld The windwheel of the Greek engineer Heron of Alexandria in the 1st century AD is the earliest known instance of using a wind-driven wheel to power a machine. . but to have been independent inventions by engineers influenced by the Industrial Revolution.

." The smock is commonly of octagonal plan. The lighter construction in comparison to tower mills make smock mills practical as drainage mills as these often had to be built in areas with unstable subsoil. Smock mill Main article: Smock mill The smock mill is a later development of the tower mill where the tower is replaced by a wooden framework. though examples with more.Post mill A windmill on the background of the 1792 Battle of Valmy. a small windmill mounted at right angles to the sails. France. A method of keeping the cap and sails into the wind automatically is by using a fantail. or fewer. sheet metal or tar paper. These are also fitted to tail poles of post mills and are common in Great Britain and English-speaking countries of the former British Empire. the mill is able to rotate to face the wind direction. Denmark and Germany but rare in other places. at the rear of the windmill. Tower mill Main article: Tower mill By the end of the thirteenth century the masonry tower mill. They are built with the sails facing the prevailing wind direction. Main article: Post mill The evidence at present is that the earliest type of European windmill was the post mill.[20] In this way it is possible to drive machinery below or outside the body while still being able to rotate the body into the wind. allowing the sails to be made longer. This type of windmill was the most common in Europe until the 19th century when more powerful tower and smock mills replaced them. on which only the cap is rotated rather than the whole body of the mill. an essential requirement for windmills to operate economically in North-Western Europe. where wind directions are variable. to accommodate the drive shaft. boarded or covered by other materials like slate. Hollow-post mills driving scoop wheels were used in the Netherlands to drain wetlands from the 14th century onwards. so the main structure can be made much taller. had been introduced. The spread of tower mills came with a growing economy that called for larger and more stable sources of power though they were more expensive to build. which enables them to provide useful work even in low winds. In contrast to the post mill. sides exist. so named because of the large upright post on which the mill's main structure (the "body" or "buck") is balanced. The first post mills were of the sunken type where the post was buried in an earth mound to support it. This was often covered over or surrounded by a roundhouse to protected the trestle from the weather and to provide storage space. Later a wooden support was developed called the trestle. called the "smock. smock mills are also used for a variety of purposes. The smock is thatched. The body contains all the milling machinery. Having originated as a drainage mill. The cap can be turned into the wind either by winches or gearing inside the cap or from a winch on the tail pole outside the mill. only the cap of the tower mill needs to be turned into the wind. By mounting the body this way. Tower mills with a fixed cap are found around the Mediterranean Sea. Hollow-post mill In a hollow-post mill the post on which the body is mounted is hollowed out.

built in 1757. Fanø. Berton invented a system consisting of longitudinal wooden slats connected by a mechanism that lets the miller open them while the mill is turning. Amsterdam. Germany and less commonly elsewhere. In all cases the mill needs to be stopped to adjust the sails. Bulgaria and Russia [22] A mill with an even number of sails has the advantage of being able to run with a damaged sail and the one opposite removed without resulting in an unbalanced mill. A tower mill with fantail • Beacon Mill. Kos. and consists of a simple triangle of cloth wound round a spar. culminating in Patent sails invented by William Cubitt in 1813. Postmedieval mill sails had a lattice framework over which the sailcloth was spread. Denmark • Tower mill with jib sails in Antimahia. six or eight sails. since the sails almost reach the ground. Portugal. Machinery Main article: Mill machinery . The majority of windmills have four sails. Greece. parts of Romania. with five. The miller can adjust the amount of cloth spread according to the amount of wind available and power needed. which were easier to handle in freezing conditions. In France. • Post mill of Talcy. In medieval mills the sailcloth was wound in and out of a ladder type arrangement of sails. • Smock mill De 1100 Roe. type called a grondzeiler ("ground sailer") by the Dutch . Multi-sailed mills. France with medieval style sails • Groenendijkse Molen.[21] The jib sail is commonly found in Mediterranean countries.When used in a built-up area it is often placed on a masonry base to raise it above the surrounding buildings. Earlier multi-sailed mills are found in Spain. In these sails the cloth is replaced by a mechanism of connected shutters. Greece Sails Main article: Windmill sail Common sails consist of a lattice framework on which a sailcloth is spread. In the 20th century increased knowledge of aerodynamics from the development of the airplane led to further improvements in efficiency by German engineer Bilau and several Dutch millwrights. A hollow post drainage mill • Wilton Windmill. Netherlands. Inventions in Great Britain in the late 18th and 19th century led to sails that automatically adjust to the wind speed without the need for the miller to intervene. while in colder climates the cloth was replaced by wooden slats. a smock mill of 1802 • A smock mill with a stage on a brick base in Sønderho. were built in Great Britain (especially in and around the counties of Lincolnshire and Yorkshire).

[21] With the coming of the industrial revolution. and in other cases as fully working mills.Interior view. Post mills sometimes have a head and/or tail wheel driving the stone nuts directly. More recently windmills have been preserved for their historic value. Historic American Buildings Survey Gears inside a windmill convey power from the rotary motion of the sails to a mechanical device.000 at its peak.[23] Of the 10. brake wheel and brake blocks in smock mill d'Admiraal in Amsterdam Spread and decline Oilmill De Zoeker. The machinery differs if the windmill is used for other applications than milling grain. including papermills. Pantigo windmill. although windmills continued to be built in large numbers until late in the 19th Century. threshing mills. wool. East Hampton. and for example to process oil seeds. Additional gear wheels drive a sack hoist or other machinery. In grist mills the great spur wheel. Windshafts can be wholly made of wood. A drainage mill uses another set of gear wheels on the bottom end of the upright shaft to drive a scoop wheel or Archimedes' screw.000 windmills in use in the Netherlands around 1850. Most of these are being run by volunteers though there are some grist mills still operating commercially. Kent • Cross section of a post mill • Windshaft. lower down the upright shaft. paints and stone products [3] • An isometric drawing of the machinery of the Beebe Windmill. Sawmills use a crankshaft with to provide a reciprocating motion to the saws. The sails are carried on the horizontal windshaft. paintmill De Kat and paltrok sawmill De Gekroonde Poelenburg at the Zaanse Schans The total number of wind powered mills in Europe is estimated to have been around 200. • Diagram of the smock mill at Meopham.000 waterwheels. It has the brake around the outside of the rim and teeth in the side of the rim which drive the horizontal gearwheel called wallower on the top end of the vertical upright shaft.[24] about 1000 are still standing. in some cases as static exhibits when the antique machinery is too fragile to put in motion. The brake wheel is fitted onto the windshaft between the front and rear bearing. drives one or more stone nuts on the shafts driving each millstone. compared to some 500. New York. Many of the drainage mills have been appointed as backup to the modern pumping stations. Windmills have been used to power many other industrial processes. instead of the spur gear arrangement. or wood with a cast iron poll end (where the sails are mounted) or entirely of cast iron. the importance of wind (and water) as primary industrial energy source declined and was eventually replaced by steam (in steam mills) and internal combustion engines. The Zaan district has been said to have been the first industrialized region of . There are around 50 working mills in operation in Britain as of 2009.

built by companies like Jacobs Wind.[26][27] Eventually steel blades and steel towers replaced wooden construction.[24] Economic fluctuations and the industrial revolution had a much greater impact on these industries than on grain and drainage mills so only very few are left. The mill was completed in 1718 and became known as the Oude Molen and was located between Pinelands Station and the Black River. for many years. so that in 1717 the Heeren XVII sent carpenters. a fixture of the landscape throughout rural America. Eclipse. including: steel tube towers. Long since demolished. The farm wind pump was invented by Daniel Halladay in 1854. and at their peak in 1930. The development of these 13 experimental wind turbines pioneered many of the wind turbine design technologies in use today. Vermont. The early tower-mills did not survive the gales of the Cape Peninsula. USA Main article: Windpump Windpumps are used extensively on farms and ranches in the central plains and South West of the United States and in Southern Africa and Australia. masons and materials to construct a durable mill. Construction of mills spread to the Cape Colony in the 17th century. USA of 1. By 1863 Cape Town could boast eleven mills stretching from Paarden Eiland to Mowbray. La Cour's mill from 1896 later became the local powerplant of the village Askov.[28] The multi-bladed wind turbine atop a lattice tower made of wood or steel hence became. Wincharger. The first windmills for electricity production were built by the end of the 19th century by Prof James Blyth in Scotland (1887).25 MW[35] and the NASA wind turbines developed from 1974 through the mid 1980's. Airline and Winpower and by the Dunlite Corporation for similar locations in Australia. By the 1930s windmills were widely used to generate electricity on farms in the United States where distribution systems had not yet been installed.the world with around 600 operating wind powered industries by the end of the 18th century. its name lives on as that of a Technical school in Pinelands. Paris-Dunn. a 100 kW generator on a 30 m (100 ft) tower. Firms such as Star. By 1908 there were 72 wind-driven electric generators in Denmark from 5 kW to 25 kW. variable- . A tower-top gearbox and crankshaft convert the rotary motion into reciprocating strokes carried downward through a rod to the pump cylinder below. Ohio (1887–1888)[31][32][33] and Poul la Cour in Denmark (1890s). These mills feature a large number of blades so that they turn slowly with considerable torque in low winds and be self regulating in high winds. Wind turbine Main article: Wind power A windmill used to generate electricity is commonly called a wind turbine. Brush in Cleveland. Universal Aeroelectric.000 units were in use. [25] Windpumps Windpump in South Dakota. Miller Airlite. an estimated 600.[29][30] Charles F. Fairbanks-Morse and Aermotor became famed suppliers in North and South America. Rønland Windpark in Denmark Forerunners of modern horizontal-axis utility-scale wind generators were the WIME-3D in service in Balaklava USSR from 1931 until 1942. [34] the Smith-Putnam wind turbine built in 1941 on the mountain known as Grandpa's Knob in Castleton.

with the Enercon E-126 capable of delivering up to 7 MW. with capacities of 20–30 kW each. rising concerns over energy security. Top of Form en 1280 619 2 isch 1 Google solar panels on buildings solar panels on buildings SafeSearch moderate ▼ › Off› Moderate (recommended)› Strict Report offensive imagesMore about SafeSearch . while wind turbine production has expanded to many countries. The modern wind power industry began in 1979 with the serial production of wind turbines by Danish manufacturers Kuriant. Since then.400 MW. partial-span pitch control. with a total nameplate capacity of 194. and Bonus. As the 21st century began. Worldwide there are now many thousands of wind turbines operating. they have increased greatly in size. These early turbines were small by today's standards. composite blade materials. A wind turbine looking like a windmill is De Nolet in Rotterdam. global warming.speed generators. and acoustic engineering design capabilities. Vestas. structural. and eventual fossil fuel depletion led to an expansion of interest in all available forms of renewable energy.[36] Europe accounted for 48% of the total in 2009. Nordtank. as well as aerodynamic.

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""."".""."treehugger."".""."/search? q\x3dsolar+panels+on+buildings\x26hl\x3den\x26biw\x3d1280\x26bih\x3d619\ x26gbv\x3d2\x26tbm\x3disch\x26tbs\x3dsimg:CAQSEgmhM_1rEb2rWvSH4iQ uRdwyePw".[]."telegraph. [].com".\x3c/b\x3e"."".""."".""."".""."468 × 395".""."".""."".1."solarpanels_1236780c.""."206"."0"."More sizes"."duke-solar-panels2.""."0".""."177"."/search? q\x3dsolar+panels+on+buildings\x26hl\x3den\x26biw\x3d1280\x26bih\x3d619\ x26gbv\x3d2\x26tbm\x3disch\x26tbs\x3dsimg:CAESEgkHXMbXM7v9oiF46yV stKvCsw"."".gstatic."".""."".com/images? q\x3dtbn:ANd9GcQHISfe4CcGbbCDE23lHtgz_Z7gV4sZrT30I1pR3phkGW__ ."".""."".gstatic. []."pePXRQjURvY9hM:":["/imgres? q\x3dsolar+panels+on+buildings\x26hl\x3den\x26biw\x3d1280\x26bih\x3d619\ x26gbv\x3d2\x26tbm\x3disch\x26tbnid\x3dpePXRQjURvY9hM:\x26imgrefurl\x 3dhttp://ecofuture."244".""."550 × 466"."B1zG1zO7_aIOkM:":["/imgres? q\x3dsolar+panels+on+buildings\x26hl\x3den\x26biw\x3d1280\x26bih\x3d619\ x26gbv\x3d2\x26tbm\x3disch\x26tbnid\x3dB1zG1zO7_aIOkM:\x26imgrefurl\x3 dhttp://www."Dress Up your \x3cb\x3eBuilding\x3c/b\x3e with Inflatable \x3cb\x3eSolar Panels\x3c/b\x3e"."".gstatic.""."http://t2.jpg".""."".1.""."/search? q\x3dsolar+panels+on+buildings\x26hl\x3den\x26biw\x3d1280\x26bih\x3d619\ x26gbv\x3d2\x26tbm\x3disch\x26tbs\x3dsimg:CAQSEgkHXMbXM7v9oiF46yV stKvCsw"."http://t2.."/search? q\x3dsolar+panels+on+buildings\x26hl\x3den\x26biw\x3d1280\x26bih\x3d619\ x26gbv\x3d2\x26tbm\x3disch\x26tbs\x3dsimg:CAESEgmhM_1rEb2rWvSH4iQ uRdwyePw".net/energy/the-solarskin/\x26docid\x3dDcdNySUbAPBk5M\x26w\x3d550\x26h\x3d466\x26ei\x3dw f1FTrGNHs7MrQf-vOzrAw\x26zoom\x3d1".php\x26docid\x3deOslbLSrwrMqnM\x26w\x3d468\x26h\x3d395\x26ei \x3dwf1FTrGNHs7MrQf-vOzrAw\x26zoom\x3d1".."More sizes"."People who agree to have \x3cb\x3esolar panels\x3c/b\x3e installed on their \x3cb\x3ebuildings\x3c/b\x3e will get \x3cb\x3e.IkLkXcMnj8bKM\x26w\x3d460\x26h\x3d287\x26ei\x3dwf1FTrGNHs7MrQfvOzrAw\x26zoom\x3d1"."". Photo: SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY".co."\x3cb\x3eSolar panels\x3c/b\x3e: we could be seeing more of these."244"."".uk".com/images?q\x3dtbn:ANd9GcRcdA6qplcVIhIB_pmhBGzHsOUDF5cjdLe2fp8cFhGeKsgFPGk"."207".""."284"."".[]].""."Similar".""."0".treehugger. [].com/files/2008/06/duke-energy-solar-power-northcarolina."Similar"."ecofuture.jpg".""."http://t3.[]."".1.[]."".net"."460 × 287".com/images?q\x3dtbn:ANd9GcT9XctqVfCSEC9UYQVbCRE2GW3tdAznY3SGksbv5dbesA8pNXW".[]]."".

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