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Useful Results in continuum mechanics|Views: 101|Likes: 6

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/6227003/Useful-Results-in-continuum-mechanics

01/12/2013

text

original

Biswajit Banerjee

March 22, 2007

1 A spectral decomposition problem

• In one of Simo’s 1992 papers on plasticity [1] (p. 76) we ﬁnd the statement that “An easy calculation then

gives the spectral decomposition”

∂

∂τ

[φ(τ, q)] =

3

¸

A=1

∂

∂β

A

[

´

φ(β

1

, β

2

, β

3

, q)] n

A

⊗n

A

. (1)

Here, τ is the Kirchhoff stress, q is a scalar internal variable, and φ is yield function. The spectral

decomposition of the Kirchhoff stress is given by

τ =

3

¸

A=1

β

A

n

A

⊗n

A

. (2)

Also, isotropy implies that the yield function φ can be expressed in terms of the principal values β

i

of τ such

that

φ(τ, q) =

´

φ(β

1

, β

2

, β

3

, q) . (3)

Let’s try to work out the easy calculation.

Using the chain rule, we have

∂φ

∂τ

=

∂

´

φ

∂β

1

∂β

1

∂τ

+

∂

´

φ

∂β

2

∂β

2

∂τ

+

∂

´

φ

∂β

3

∂β

3

∂τ

or

∂φ

∂τ

=

3

¸

A=1

∂

´

φ

∂β

A

∂β

A

∂τ

. (4)

Also, since

τ = β

1

n

1

⊗n

1

+ β

2

n

2

⊗n

2

+ β

3

n

3

⊗n

3

(5)

using the identity (since the eigenvectors n

A

are orthonormal)

(n

i

⊗n

i

) · (n

j

⊗n

j

) =

0 if i = j

n

i

⊗n

i

if i = j

(6)

we get

τ · (n

1

⊗n

1

) = β

1

n

1

⊗n

1

; τ · (n

2

⊗n

2

) = β

2

n

2

⊗n

2

; τ · (n

3

⊗n

3

) = β

3

n

3

⊗n

3

. (7)

1

Using the identity

(n

i

⊗n

i

) : (n

i

⊗n

i

) = 1 (8)

we then have

[τ · (n

1

⊗n

1

)] : (n

1

⊗n

1

) = β

1

; [τ · (n

2

⊗n

2

)] : (n

2

⊗n

2

) = β

2

; [τ · (n

3

⊗n

3

)] : (n

3

⊗n

3

) = β

3

. (9)

We can simplify these further by using the identities

(A· B) : C = A : (C · B

T

) ; n ⊗n = (n ⊗n)

T

; (n ⊗n) · (n ⊗n) = n ⊗n (10)

to get

τ : [(n

A

⊗n

A

) · (n

A

⊗n

A

)

T

] = τ : [(n

A

⊗n

A

) · (n

A

⊗n

A

)] = τ : (n

A

⊗n

A

) = β

A

; A = 1, 2, 3 (11)

Taking the derivatives of both sides with respect to τ, we get

∂

∂τ

[τ : (n

A

⊗n

A

)] =

∂β

A

∂τ

; A = 1, 2, 3 (12)

Note here that as τ varies, the eigenvectors of τ (i.e., the n

A

s) also vary. So the derivatives will have the form

∂τ

∂τ

: (n

A

⊗n

A

) +τ :

∂

∂τ

(n

A

⊗n

A

) =

∂β

A

∂τ

; A = 1, 2, 3 (13)

or,

I

s

: (n

A

⊗n

A

) +τ :

∂

∂τ

(n

A

⊗n

A

) =

∂β

A

∂τ

; A = 1, 2, 3 (14)

where I

s

is the symmetric fourth-order identity tensor. Therefore,

∂β

A

∂τ

= n

A

⊗n

A

+τ :

∂

∂τ

(n

A

⊗n

A

) . (15)

Plugging (15) into (4), we get

∂φ

∂τ

=

3

¸

A=1

∂

´

φ

∂β

A

n

A

⊗n

A

+

∂

´

φ

∂β

A

τ :

∂

∂τ

(n

A

⊗n

A

) . (16)

Compare equations (16) and (1), shown below for your convenience.

∂φ

∂τ

=

3

¸

A=1

∂

´

φ

∂β

A

n

A

⊗n

A

. (17)

You will see that the derivativ)es of the eigenvectors with respect to τ do not appear in Simo’s equation. This is an

approximation that Simo does not mention in his paper, i.e., that the values of n

A

are kept ﬁxed when evaluating

the derivatives of φ. Or, am I missing something?

Indeed, there is an error in my analysis. Can you ﬁnd out what it is?

Let us now try an alternative proof (hat tip Prof. Andrew Norris).

Since φ(τ) is isotropic, instead of working directly with the eigenvalues β

A

, we can work with the invariants of τ.

2

Recall that the basic invariants of τ are

I

τ

= tr(τ)

II

τ

=

1

2

I

2

τ

− tr(τ

2

)

III

τ

=

1

3

tr(τ

3

) − I

3

A

+ 3 I

A

II

A

(18)

Therefore, the yield function can also be represented as

φ(τ, q) = φ(α

1

, α

2

, α

3

, q) (19)

where

α

1

= tr(τ) ; α

2

=

1

2

tr(τ

2

) ; α

3

=

1

3

tr(τ

3

) . (20)

Differentiating with respect to τ, we get

∂φ

∂τ

=

∂φ

∂α

1

∂α

1

∂τ

+

∂φ

∂α

2

∂α

2

∂τ

+

∂φ

∂α

3

∂α

3

∂τ

. (21)

Now,

∂α

1

∂τ

=

∂[tr(τ)]

∂τ

= 1 ;

∂α

2

∂τ

=

1

2

∂[tr(τ

2

)]

∂τ

= τ ;

∂α

3

∂τ

=

1

3

∂[tr(τ

3

)]

∂τ

= τ

2

. (22)

Therefore,

∂φ

∂τ

=

∂φ

∂α

1

1 +

∂φ

∂α

2

τ +

∂φ

∂α

3

τ

2

. (23)

Let us now express τ in terms of its spectral representation to get

1 =

3

¸

A=1

n

A

⊗n

A

=

3

¸

A=1

β

0

A

n

A

⊗n

A

τ =

3

¸

A=1

β

1

A

n

A

⊗n

A

τ

2

=

3

¸

A=1

β

2

A

n

A

⊗n

A

(24)

Let us also express the α

i

, i = 1, 2, 3 in terms of the spectral representation of τ, i.e.,

α

1

= tr(τ) =

3

¸

A=1

β

A

tr(n

A

⊗n

A

) =

3

¸

A=1

β

A

α

2

=

1

2

tr(τ

2

) =

1

2

3

¸

A=1

β

2

A

tr(n

A

⊗n

A

) =

1

2

3

¸

A=1

β

2

A

α

3

=

1

3

tr(τ

3

) =

1

3

3

¸

A=1

β

3

A

tr(n

A

⊗n

A

) =

1

3

3

¸

A=1

β

3

A

(25)

Therefore,

∂α

1

∂β

A

= 1 = β

0

A

;

∂α

2

∂β

A

= β

A

= β

1

A

;

∂α

3

∂β

A

= β

2

A

. (26)

3

Plugging these into (24) gives

1 =

3

¸

A=1

∂α

1

∂β

A

n

A

⊗n

A

τ =

3

¸

A=1

∂α

2

∂β

A

n

A

⊗n

A

τ

2

=

3

¸

A=1

∂α

3

∂β

A

n

A

⊗n

A

(27)

Substituting into (23), we get

∂φ

∂τ

=

∂φ

∂α

1

3

¸

A=1

∂α

1

∂β

A

n

A

⊗n

A

+

∂φ

∂α

2

3

¸

A=1

∂α

2

∂β

A

n

A

⊗n

A

+

∂φ

∂α

3

3

¸

A=1

∂α

3

∂β

A

n

A

⊗n

A

(28)

or,

∂φ

∂τ

=

3

¸

A=1

¸

∂φ

∂α

1

∂α

1

∂β

A

+

∂φ

∂α

2

∂α

2

∂β

A

+

∂φ

∂α

3

∂α

3

∂β

A

n

A

⊗n

A

(29)

or,

∂φ

∂τ

=

3

¸

A=1

∂

´

φ

∂β

A

n

A

⊗n

A

(30)

We ﬁnally have the correct expression!

• In the operator split algorithm in [1] we have the the following expression for the algorithmic ﬂow rule

b

e

= exp

−2˙ γ∆t

∂φ

∂τ

· (b

e

)

trial

(31)

If the spectral decompositions of b

e

and τ are

b

e

=

3

¸

A=1

λ

2

A

n

A

⊗n

A

; τ =

3

¸

A=1

β

A

n

A

⊗n

A

(32)

and

∂φ

∂τ

=

3

¸

A=1

∂

´

φ

∂β

A

n

A

⊗n

A

(33)

show that

(b

e

)

trial

=

3

¸

A=1

¸

λ

2

A

exp

2˙ γ∆t

∂

´

φ

∂β

A

¸

n

A

⊗n

A

. (34)

From (31), we have

(b

e

)

trial

= exp

2˙ γ∆t

∂φ

∂τ

· b

e

= exp

κ

∂φ

∂τ

· b

e

(35)

where

κ := 2˙ γ∆t . (36)

4

Expanding in an inﬁnite series, we have

exp

κ

∂φ

∂τ

= 1 + κ

∂φ

∂τ

+

κ

2

2

∂φ

∂τ

2

+

κ

3

3!

∂φ

∂τ

3

+ . . . (37)

Deﬁne

α

A

:=

∂

´

φ

∂β

A

. (38)

Then,

∂φ

∂τ

=

3

¸

A=1

α

A

n

A

⊗n

A

;

∂φ

∂τ

2

=

3

¸

A=1

α

2

A

n

A

⊗n

A

;

∂φ

∂τ

3

=

3

¸

A=1

α

3

A

n

A

⊗n

A

; . . . (39)

Therefore,

exp

κ

∂φ

∂τ

= 1 +

3

¸

A=1

¸

κ α

A

+

κ

2

2

α

2

A

+

κ

3

3!

α

3

A

+ . . .

¸

n

A

⊗n

A

. (40)

Since

1 =

¸

A

n

A

⊗n

A

(41)

we then have

exp

κ

∂φ

∂τ

=

3

¸

A=1

¸

1 + κ α

A

+

(κ α

A

)

2

2

+

(κ α

A

)

3

3!

+ . . .

¸

n

A

⊗n

A

=

3

¸

A=1

e

κ α

A

n

A

⊗n

A

. (42)

Using the spectrla decomposition of b

e

, we get

exp

κ

∂φ

∂τ

· b

e

=

¸

3

¸

A=1

exp(κ α

A

) n

A

⊗n

A

¸

·

¸

3

¸

B=1

λ

2

B

n

B

⊗n

B

¸

. (43)

From the identity

(n

i

⊗n

i

) · (n

j

⊗n

j

) =

0 if i = j

n

i

⊗n

i

if i = j

(44)

we then get

exp

κ

∂φ

∂τ

· b

e

= e

κ α

1

λ

2

1

n

1

⊗n

1

+ e

κ α

2

λ

2

2

n

2

⊗n

2

+ e

κ α

3

λ

2

3

n

3

⊗n

3

=

3

¸

A=1

λ

2

A

e

κ α

A

n

A

⊗n

A

. (45)

Therefore, from (35)

(b

e

)

trial

=

3

¸

A=1

¸

λ

2

A

exp

2˙ γ∆t

∂

´

φ

∂β

A

¸

n

A

⊗n

A

. (46)

References

[1] J. C. Simo. Algorithms for static and dynamic multiplicative plasticity that preserve the classical return

mapping algorithms of the inﬁnitesimal theory. Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Engrg., 99:61–112, 1992.

5

Sloping Tank Pressure

Recursive cell method for PBX 9501

MTS model 4340 steel

Thermoplasticity notes (incomplete)

ThermoElasticity notes

Large deformation plasticity and MPM (working paper)

Manufactured solutions

Simulation of mock pbx

Validation of plasticity models

Talk on MTS moel for 6061T6 Al

Fragmentation with the Material Point Method

Generalized Method of Cells for PBX 9501

Fluid structure interaction

Micromechanics of PBX 9501

Exact relations for composites

bbetopim6

em2004_paper270

Em 2002 Paper

CuPlasticCompare

MTS6061T6Al

Impact Small

Impact Tests

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