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Published by: Rekha Kanwar on Aug 14, 2011
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  • Cooling Water Circuit:-
  • E.S.P. FIELD:-
  • Primary air fan (P.A. fan) or Exhauster fan-
  • CHAPTER - 4
  • MP Casing:-
  • Description of Steam Turbines:-
  • 1) Steam flow:-
  • 2) HP Turbine:-
  • 3) IP Turbine:-
  • 4) LP Turbine:-
  • THEORY:-
  • Main parts of generator:-
  • (A) STATOR:-
  • (B) ROTOR:-
  • (A)Generator (110 MW):-
  • a) GENERAL:-
  • (A)Function of excitation system:-
  • (B)Type of Excitation System:-
  • D.M. PLANT:-
  • C.W. PLANT:-
  • 220 KV SYSTEM:-
  • ii.ISOLATOR:-
  • vi.220 KV MOCB:-
  • vii.220 KV ISOLATORS:-
  • CHAPTER -9
  • General Protection:


For the power generation with 2x110 MW, 3x210 MW and 2x195 MW of K.S.T.P.S. authorities are required to be operative to active full operation. The auxiliaries are basically operated on L.T. System i.e. 415 V 3-Ø power supply. It is made available to the system after providing the station transformer of 3x50 MVA capacity with voltage 220 KV/ 7.2/7.2 KV & different service transformers of capacity 1.0 MVA, 1.5 MVA, 2.0 MVA, which are located near the load centre as the transformer having the voltage of 6.6 KV /415 V. The 6.6 KV power is distributed through 6.6 KV interconnected Bus System for all the seven units with a control through AC of 220 V. The 415 V power supply is done through a L.T. SWGR (Switchgear) which are located nearby the distribution transformer as well as the load centers. The all incomers, which are breaker controlled , are having the control the L.T. SWGR are having the control system on 110/ 220 V AC. The LT supply is controlled through air break circuit breaker or MOCB (minimum oil circuit breaker) which are either L&T make or English Electric Company of India Further, the 6.6 KV system which is normally in delta configuration and terms as an unearthed system so also to keep the running motor complete in operating condition in case if any one phase of motor winding is earthed due to any reason. Earthing is detected by a protection system with alarm facility to take remedial measures immediately and at the same time to maintain the generation level in the same condition, prior to occurring of the earth fault the single phase earth fault is detected in due course till the motor is not earthed to other or another phase. “PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEM” is available through in area of each unit which helps in fast communication for prompt remedial measure.


In April 1973, Central Electricity Authority prepared a Project Report for power station comprising of the two units of each of capacity 110 MW for RSEB subsequently in September. 1975 this was revised by the Consultant Thermal Design Organization, these units are manufactured by BHEL, Hyderabad in 1st Stage. The planning commission cleared the project report in Sept., 1976 for installation of two units each of 110 MW in first estimated cost of Rs. 143 Crores. The KSTPS is five stage & seven unit power station. In first stage there is 2 unit of 110 MW, in second stage 2 unit of 210 MW. Third stage is of 210MW, fourth & fifth stages are of 195 MW each. The total power generated in KSTPS is 1240MW.

LOCATION:The Kota Thermal Power Station is situated on the left bank of Chambal River at Up Stream of Kota Barrage. The large expanse of water reached by the barrage provides an efficient direct circulation of cooling system for the power station. The 220 KV GSS is within ½ Km. from the power station.



2x110 MW 2X210 MW 1X210 MW 1X195 MW 1X195MW


LAND:Land measuring approx. 250 hectares was required for the project in 1976, For disposal of ash tank very near to power station is acquired which the ash in slurry form is disposed off through ash and slurry disposal plants.

COAL:Coal India limited owns and operates all the major coal fields in India through its coal producing subsidiary companies viz. Eastern Coal Fields Limited, Western Coal Fields Limited/Coal India limited is supply coal from its coal mines of coal producing subsidiaries BCCL, SECL & ECL to Kota Thermal Power Station through railway wagons. The average distances of SECL, ECL & BCCL are 800, 950 and 1350 Kms. respectively.

WATER:The source of water for power station is reservoir formed by Kota Barrage on the Chambal River. In case of large capacity plants huge quantities of coal and water is required.

DESIGN FEATURES:The satisfactory design consists of the flowing steps. • • • • • • • Estimation of cost. Selection of site. Capacity of Power Station. Selection of Boiler & Turbine. Selection of Condensing Unit. Selection of Electrical Generator. Selection of Cooling System.


Design of Control and instrumentation system.

CHAPTER -1 General Layout & Basic Idea
A control system of station basically works on Rankin Cycle. Steam is produced in Boiler is exported in prime mover and is condensed in condenser to be fed into the boiler again. In practice of good number of modifications are affected so as to have heat economy and to increase the thermal efficiency of plant.

The Kota Thermal Power Station is divided into four main circuits:   Fuel and Ash Circuit Air and Gas Circuit.


Cooling Water Circuit.  Feed water and Steam Circuit. feed water enters into the boiler drum through economizer. which on combustion in the boiler produced the ash. The fuel used in KSTPS is coal. From superheated it goes into the HP turbine after expanding in the HP turbine. next through dust collector (ESP) & then economizer. This ash is collected at the back of the boiler and removed to ash storage tank through ash disposal equipment. Air and Gas Circuit:Air from the atmosphere is supplied to the combustion chamber of Boiler through the action of forced draft fan and induced draft fan. Finally. The flue gases are first pass around the boiler tubes and super heated tubes in the furnace. This water is called the make up water. Then its goes to deaerator where extra air and non-condensable gases are removed from the hot water to avoid pitting / oxidation. The low pressure steam called the cold reheat 5 . Feed Water and Steam Circuit:The condensate leaving the condenser is first heated in low pressure (LP) heaters through condensate extracted pump from the low pressure extraction of the turbine. Fuel & Ash Circuit:Fuel from the storage is fed to the boiler through fuel handling device. The quantity of ash produced is approximately 30-35% of coal used. The wet steam passes through superheated. Thereafter. they are exhausted to the atmosphere through fans. In boiler tubes water circulates because of density difference in lower and higher temperature section of the boiler. From deaerator it goes to boiler feed pump which increases the pressure of the water. From the BFP it passes through the high pressure heaters. A small part of water and steam is lost while passing through different components therefore water is added in hot well.

The main coal sources for KSTPS are SECL (South Eastern Coalfields Limited). The coal is brought to the KSTPS through rails there are fourteen tracks in all for transportation of coal through rails. The coal handling plant can broadly be divided into three sections:- 6 . CHAPTER-2 COAL HANDLING PLANT INTRODUCTION:It can be called the heart of thermal power plant because it provided the fuel for combustion in boiler. Everyday 3 to 4 trains of coal are unloaded at KSTPS. ECL (Eastern Coalfield Limited) and BCCL (Bharat Coking Coal Limited). The approximate per day consumption at KSTPS is about 18000 tones.steam (CRH) goes to the reheater (boiler). The whole transportation of coal is through conveyor belt operated by 3-Ø Induction motor. The water is drawn from reservoir and after use it is drained into the river. From reheater it goes to IP turbine and then to the LP turbine and then exhausted through the condenser into hot well. In this plant unit 1 to 5 needs cooling as they work on open water cycle system while unit 6&7 needs no cooling as they work on close water system therefore the water is recycled. The coal is firstly unloaded from wagon by wagon triplers then crushed by crushers and magnetic pulley and pulverized to be transformed to the boiler. Each train consists of 58 wagons and each wagon consists of 60 tons of coal. Cooling Water Circuit:A large quantity of cooling water is required to condense the steam in condenser and maintaining low pressure in it. It costs approximate 2 crores of rupees per day including transportation expenses.

size pass through it. It is a mechanical system having two rollers each at its ends. The rollers roll with the help of a rope moving on pulley operated by a slip ring induction motor with specification: 7 . From the hopper coal pieces fall on the vibrator. The hopper. WAGON UNLOADING SYSTEM:Wagon Tripler:It unloads the coal from wagon to hopper. Crushing System.1) 2) 3) Wagon Unloading System. is in the form of net so that coal pieces of only equal to and less than 200 mm. which is made of Iron. The bigger ones are broken by the workers with the help of hammers. Conveying System.

3 50 Hz. 975 rpm. Frequency. 415 V. Rated Speed. Primary Crushers:Primary crushers are provided in only CHP stage 3 system.Rated Output. : : : : : : 71 KW. 8 . Rated Voltage. Ring granulators. 14. Rated Current.e. while breaking of coal in CHP Stage 1 & Stage 2 system is done at wagon triplers hopper jail up to the size (-) 250 mm. i) Roll crushers ii) Rotary breaker.e. When the motor operates the rollers roll in forward direction moving the wagon towards the “Wagon Table”. size. The four rollers place themselves respectively behind the first and the last pair of wheels of the wagon. of phases. There are mainly two types of crushers working in KSTPS:Primary Crushers i. On the Wagon table a limit is specified in which wagon has to be kept otherwise the triple would not be achieved. CRUSHING SYSTEM:Crusher House:It consists of crushers which are used to crush the coal to 20 mm. No. Secondary Crushers i.22 Amp.

Under ground machines are installed known as plow feeder machines. 9 . Most of the crushers employ a combination of three crushing methods. Ring granulators crush by compressing accompanied by impact and shearing. Shearing and Compression. ii. CONVEYING SYSTEM:- Stacker Reclaimer:The stacker re-claimer unit can stack the material on to the pipe or reclaim the stack filed material and fed on to the main line conveyor. The unique feature of this granulator is the minimum power required for tone for this type of material to be crushed compared to that of other type of crushers. Roll Crusher:Rotary Breaker:- Secondary Crusher:Basically there are four ways to reduce material size: impact attrition. FEEDERS:This structure is erected to serve the purpose of storage.i. During reclaiming the material discharged on to the boom conveyor by the bucket fitted to the bucket wheel body and boom conveyor feeds the material on the main line conveyor running in the reverse direction. While stacking material is being fed from the main line conveyor via triplers unit and vibrating feeder on the intermediate conveyor which feds the boom conveyor of the stacker cum reclaimer.

Ash Disposal and & Dust Collection Plant. Air and Gas Plant. ASH HANDLING PLANT This plant can be divided into 3 sub plants as follows:1) 2) 3) Fuel and Ash Plant. Fuel and ash plant:- 10 .These machines collect the coal from conveyor and drop it to the other from one conveyor with the help of jaws and this coal is taken to huge erected structure from where the coal falls to the ground.

Ash Handling Plant at KTPS consists of specially designed bottom ash and fly ash in electro static precipitator economizer and air pre-heaters hoppers. In order to get an efficient utilization of coal mills. In economizer the heat of flue gases raises the temperature of feed water. However for light up and with stand static load. Ash produced as the result of combustion of coal is connected and removed by ash handling plant.Coal is used as combustion material in KTPS. In re-heater the temperature of the steam (CRH) coming from the HP turbines heated with increasing the number of steps of re-heater the efficiency of cycle also increases. The system for both units is identical and following description is applied to both the units the water compounded bottom ash hopper receives the bottom ash from the furnace from where it is stores and 11 . The pre heating of primary air causes improved and intensified combustion of coal. Ash Handling Plant consists of especially designed bottom and fly ash system for two path boiler. The flue gases formed due to combustion of coal first passes round the boiler tubes and then it passes through the super heater and then through economizer. Air & Gas Plant:Air from atmosphere is supplied to combustion chamber of boiler through the action of forced draft fan. oil burners are also used. The air before being supplied to the boiler passes through pre-heater where the flue gases heat it. In KTPS there are two FD fans and three ID fans available for draft system per unit. Finally the flue gases after passing through the Electro-Static Precipitator is exhausted through chimney. The Pulverization also increases the overall efficiency and flexibility of boilers. Ash Disposal & Dust Collection Plant:KSTPS has dry bottom furnace.

3. In view of the environmental impact of disposal. Manufacturing of building materials. Ltd. There are various methods of utilization of coal-ash along with established engineering technologies some of them are mentioned below:   1. Associated Cement Co. Dry free fly ash is collected in two number of 31 fly ash hoppers which are handled by two independent fly ash system. Government may give attractive subsidy and create marketing facility so that entrepreneurs may come forward to use as their raw material.M/s. Making of concrete. Unit 1&2 . The ash is removed from fly ash hoppers in dry state is carried to the collecting equipment where it is mixed with water and resulting slurry sump is discharged Utilization:Utilization of coal-ash is always practice than its disposal. 2. . Two slurry pumps are provided which is common to both units & used to make slurry and further transportation to ash dyke through pipe line. Road construction etc.discharged through the clinker grinder.750 MT 12 . In all the above cases financial constraint discourages the entrepreneurs to take up the work.

Shree Cement Ltd.M/s. where the particle size vary from 0. Mangalam Cement Ltd.400 MT . today an Eco friendly industry is must. or Fabric filter. In an ESP the dust lidded gas is passed through an intense electric field.48% DRY FLY ASH KOTA UTILIZATION ELECTRO-STATIC PRECIPITATOR Scope & Principle of Operation:For general mankind.75 microns to 100 micron gradually use E.M/s. . to purify the flue gases due to its higher efficiency & low running cost etc.M/s. The choice depends on the size of suspended particle matter.M/s.P. which causes ionization of the gases & they changed into ion while traveling towards opposite charged electrode get deposited as particles and thus dust is electric deposited an electrode creating the field.M/s.1500 MT Unit 6 Unit 7 . As far as air pollution is concerned now a days various flue gases filter are there in service. Grasim Industries Ltd. . Mangalam Cement Ltd. . These filters are E. .400 MT .400 MT . Birla Cement Works Ltd. .750 MT Unit 4&5 . CONTROLLER:- 13 .400 MT THERMAL POWER STATION ACHIEVED 98. .P. Shree Cement Ltd. For fly ash .S. It is continuous process.S.Unit 3 .M/s.

S.P.C.P.S. These two feedbacks are used in the 14 .Now a day micro-processor based intelligent controllers are used to regulate the power fed to the HVR. The collecting electrodes are of the shape of flat plates. Controller also takes place care of fault in KVR and gives a trapping and non-trapping alarm as per the nature of fault. field through its negative bushing. The D. It forms the voltage feed back circuit. These controls the firing / ignition angle of the thyristor connected in parallel mode. Average power fed to ESP field can be controlled by variation of the firing angle of thyristor. A very high resistance column is also connected with negative bushing. The emitting is also isolated from the roof through the support insulators which are supporting the emitting electrode frame works and also the supply to these electrodes is fed through support insulators. HIGH VOLTAGE RECTIFIER TRANSFORMER:HVR receives the regulated supply from controller. FIELD:The field consists of emitting and collecting electrodes structure which are totally isolated from each other and hanging with the top roof of field. It steps up to high voltage rectifier. The positive bushing so connected to earth through small resistance which forms a current feed back circuit. so that ESP operation is smooth and efficient As can be seen in the event of spark between electrode the output of controller is reduced to zero for few millisecond for quenching the spark. supply is fed to E. E. controller for indication and control purpose. The output of controller with respect to time is also controlled by microprocessor.

convection and radiation. 15 . conduction. These are economical for low pressure only. A boiler is always designed to absorb maximum amount of heat released in process of combustion. These tubes are interconnected to common water channels and to steam outlet.e. The wrapping system is automatically controlled with the help of the programmable metal controller. It is one of the major components of a thermal power plant. This is transferred to the boiler by all the three modes of heat transfer i. CHAPTER -3 BOILER A boiler (or steam generator) is a closed vessel in which water. From these hoppers ash is evacuated by ash handling system and dispose to the disposal area. Water tube boiler:In this type of boiler water flows inside the tubes and hot gases flow outside the tubes. under pressure is converted into steam.The ash depositing on these electrode is rapped down by separate wrapping mechanism happens at the bottom of the field. located in the ESP auxiliaries control panels. Boilers are classified as:Fire tube boiler: In this type the products of combustion pass through the tubes which are surrounded by water.

Oil burners are provided between coal burners for initial start up and flame stabilization. tangentially fired.boiler interlocks safe guarding the boiler against possibility furnace explosion owing to flame failure. This equipment systematically feed fuel to furnace as per load requirement. Better efficiency of plant owing to rapid and uniform circulation of water in tubes. For ensuring safe operation of boilers. The UV flame scanners installed in each of the four corners of the furnace. light oil (diesel oil) is sprayed for initialization then heavy oil (high speed diesel oil) is used for stabilization of flame. Natural circulation. Water tube boilers are used. The pressure inside boiler is -ive so as to minimized the pollution and looses & to prevent the accidents outside the boiler. over hanged type. furnace safe guard supervisory system (FSSS) of combustion engineering USA designed has been installed. Better overall control. Turbine . Pulverized coal is directly fed from the coal mills to the burners at the four corners of the furnace through coal pipes with the help of heated air coming from PA fan. Firstly. In KSTPS. Easy removal of scale from inside the tubes. capacity each have been installed for each boiler. scan the flame conditions and in case of unsafe working conditions trip the boiler and consequently the turbine.• • • • • • The water tube boilers have many advantages over the fire tube boilers High evaporation capacity due to availability of large heating surface. of ball mills of 34MT/hr. Four nos. 16 . Better heat transfer to the mass of water.

Furnace:- 17 .

The crushed coal from the coal crusher is transferred into the unit coalbunkers where the coal is stored for feeding into pulverizing mill through rotary feeder. Dampers are provided 18 . surrounds the fuel nozzles. water-cooled furnaces are used. The Fuel air (secondary air) provided FD fan. Major factors that assist for efficient combustion are the temperature inside the furnace and turbulence. The fuel burning system should function such that fuel and air input is ignited continuously and immediately upon its entry into furnace. Since this air provides covering for the fuel nozzles so it is called as mantle air. Fuel Oil System:The functional requirement of the fuel burning system is to supply a controllable and uninterrupted flammable furnace input of fuel and air and to continuously ignite and burn the fuel as rapidly as it is introduced into the furnace. Then coal burners are employed to fire the pulverized coal along with primary air into furnace. which causes rapid mixing of fuel and air. This system provides efficient conversion of chemical energy of fuel into heat energy. Furnace is designed for efficient and complete combustion. In modern boilers. PULVERISED FUEL SYSTEM:The boiler fuel firing system is tangentially firing system in which the fuel is introduced from wind nozzle located in the four corners inside the boiler. The rotary feeders feed the coal to pulverize mill at a definite rate. These burners are placed in the corners of the furnace and they send horizontal streams of air and fuel tangent in the center of the furnace.Furnace is primary part of the boiler where the chemical energy available in the fuel is converted into thermal energy by combustion.

Boiler Drum:The drum is a pressure vessel. Coal burners distribute the fuel and air evenly in the furnace. Ignition takes place when the flammable furnace input is heated above the ignition temperature. This ignition energy is provided by oil guns and by igniters. The steam purification primarily depends on the extent of moisture removal.so that quantity of air can be modulated. No flammable mixture should be allowed to accumulate in the furnace. It also houses the equipment needed for purification of steam. Ignition energy is usually supplied in the form of heat. The drum internals reduce the dissolved solids content of the steam to below the acceptable limit. It provides water storage for preventing the saturation of tubes. Its function is to separate water and steam from the mixture (of steam & water) generated in the furnace walls. since solids in steam are carried by the moisture associated with it. Drum is made up of two halves of carbon steel plates having thickness of 133 mm. 19 .

Main parts of boiler drum are:• • • • • • • Feed pipe Riser tube Down comer Baffle plate Chemical dosing pipe Turbo separation Screen dryer 20 . Feed water is supplied to the drum from the economizer through feed nozzles. The top and bottom semi cylinders with hemispherical dished ends are fusion welded to form the boiler drum. down comer stubs. Manhole is used for facilitating the maintenance person to go inside the drum for maintenance.The top half and bottom half are heated in a plate heating furnace at a very high temperature and are pressured to form a semi cylindrical shape. The drum form the part of boiler circulating system i. The drum is provided with manholes and manhole covers.e. The drum is provided with stubs for welding all the connecting tubes i. Water from the drum goes to water walls through six down comers. movement of fluid from the drum to the combustion zone and back to boiler drum.e. riser tubes stubs and super heater outlet tube stubs. Boiler drum is located at a height of 70m from ground.

The following fans are used in boiler house. Secondly. Theoretically balanced draft means keeping furnace pressure equal to atmospheric pressure. Draught Fans:A fan can be defined as volumetric machine which like pumps moves quantities of air or gas from one place to another. this fan also dries the coal. Forced draught fan (F. Thus FD fan takes air from atmosphere at ambient temperature & so provides additional draught. fan) or Exhauster fanPulverized coal is directly fed from coal mills to the burners at the four corners of the furnace through coal pipes with the help of heated air coming from PA fan. Usually sized for 1500 RPM due to high pressure.A. Primary air fan (P. but in practice the furnace is kept slightly below atmospheric pressure. Its speed varies from 600-1500 RPM.D.D. It ensures that there is no egress of air or hot gas and ash into boiler house. This air is supplied by FD fan. fan):- 21 . In doing this it overcomes resistance to flow by supplying the fluid with the energy necessary for contained motion. fan):The combustion process in the furnace can take place only when it receives a steady flow of air.• Drum level gauge Draft System:The combustion process in a furnace can take place only when it receives a steady flow of air and has the combustion gases continuously removed. Induced draught fan (I.

A control damper is provided on the discharge which modulates to maintain a constant differential pressure across igniter when any igniter is in service. Two air fans are usually provided. Two fans are usually provided. fans trip the scanner air fan will draw air from atmosphere through emergency damper. One will run and other will remain as stand by. Typical speed 3000 RPM. Typical speed is 1460 RPM. When F.The flue gases coming out of the boiler are passed to the ESP & then dust free gases are discharged up by the chimney to the atmosphere through the ID fan. Igniter air fan:It is used to provide necessary combustion air to igniter. Economizer:- 22 . One will run and 2nd will remain as stand by.D. Scanner Air Fan:Used to provide necessary cooling air to the flame scanners.

Air preheaters:Air preheaters are employed to recover the heat from the flue gases leaving the economizer and are used to heat the incoming air for combustion.e. This raises the temperature of the furnace gases. thus improving the overall efficiency of the boiler. has been heated above the temperature corresponding to its pressure. improves combustion rates and efficiency and lowers the stack (chimney) temperature. An from the flue gases and uses it for heating the feed water before it enters into the steam drum. a large number of small diameter thin walled tubes are placed between two headers. 23 . which contains more heat than the saturated steam at the same pressure i. The flue gases flow outside the tubes. The use of economizer results in saving fuel consumption and higher boiler efficiency but needs extra investment. Feed water enters the tubes through the other. In an economizer. Super heater:Superheated steam is that steam.The flue gases coming out of the boiler carry lot of economiser extracts a part of this heat heat. it. Cooling of flue gases by 20% raises the plant efficiency by 1%.

water delivered to steam generator from header. • No corrosion and pitting at the turbine blades occur owing to dryness of steam. Reheater:Reheater are provided to raise the temperature of the steam from which part of energy has already been extracted by HP turbine.This additional heat provides more energy to the turbine and thus the electrical power output is more. A reheater can also be convection. which heated to above the saturation temperature. The steam is superheated to the highest economical temperature not only to increase the efficiency but also to have following advantages – • Reduction in requirement of steam quantity for a given output of energy owing to its high internal energy reduces the turbine size. it is delivered to economizer. turbine blades remain dry so the mechanical resistance to the flow of steam over them is small resulting in high efficiency. After header. This is done so that the steam remains dry as far as possible through the last stage of the turbine. • Superheated steam being dry. which are at a temperature well below the saturation value corresponding to that pressure. radiation or combination of both. 24 . A super heater is a device which removes the last traces of moisture from the saturated steam leaving the boiler tubes and also increases its temperature above the saturation temperature. Circulation System:In natural circulation system.

natural circulation balance draft water tube boiler. Capacity. 375 tonnes per hour. In water wall tubes a part of the water is converted to steam due to boiler and the mixture flows back to the drum. After the super heater when the steam temperature becomes high and pressure upto 150 Kg. the steam is separated out through the steam separators and passed to the super heater.From economizer the water enters the drum and thus joins the circulation system through down covering water wall tubes. 3./cm3 steam is allowed to enter the turbine to convert potential energy to kinetic energy. 25 . No. Make 4. BHEL. Soot Blower:The boiler tubes are cleaned with the help of steam by the process called soot blowing. We are well known that a greater no. 2. : : : Two. Slowly and slowly the fine ash particles are collected on the tube surface and from a layer this is called soot. Soot is a thermal insulating material. of Units. There are mainly three types of soot blower are used in KSTPS: • • • Water wall soot blower Super heater soot blower Air pre heater soot blower TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION OF BOILER 1. Type : Direct fired. In the drum. of tubes are presented inside the boiler.

: : HSD and fuel oil. 26 . : : : : : : 540oC. * : : : : Slack Coal. 1 No. Ash disposal B) OIL:Type. 3 : 70 Nos. of coal mills in 10. 8. a) ID fans. 1 No. Wet system.5./Cm2 86. Quantity. c) PA fans. of soot blowers : : : : 139 Kg. e) Scanner Air fan. 3074 tones per day. Steam Pressure. 2 Nos. 2 Nos. No. Conveyor. Steam Temperature 9.6 %. 6. No. FUEL:a) COAL:Type Quantity consumed Type of handing. a) HSD – 5520 KL per year. 2 Nos. Efficiency 7. 1 No. b) FD fans. d) Seal Air fan. No. f) Igniter fan. of fans in service.

Pulverized coal is directly fed from the coal mills to the burners at the four corners of the furnace through coal pipes. One for each unit. GENERAL DESCRIPTION:Boilers are tangentially fired. 140oC. natural circulation. coupling with scoop tube arrangement for regulating feed water pressure for each unit. ESP with collection efficiency of 99. 27 . balance draft. ESP : : : : 180 Meters. radiant type. A multiflue reinforced concrete stack with two internal flues has been provided. The mill rejects are conveyed in a sluice way to an under-ground tank. Height of Chimney. Volume of flue Gas/ Temp.Air emitted. Two boiler feed pumps each of 100 % capacity are driven by AC motor through hyd. of flue gas. The pulverized fuel pipes from the mills to the bunkers are provided with basalt lined bends to reduce erosion and to improve the life of these pipes owing to poor grade of coal there is a high percentage of mill rejects. From this tank the mixture is taken to an overhead hydro-bin where water is decanted and the mill reject are disposed off by trucking.8% have been provided to reduce environmental pollution and to minimize induce draft fan wear. They are designed for burning low grade coal with high ash content.b) Furnace Oil : 28800 KL per year. Oil burners are located between coal burners for flame stabilization. 198 M3/ Sec. dry bottom with direct fired pulverized coal from bowl mills.

Superheated steam temperature is controlled by attemperation. The UV flame scanners installed at two elevation in each of the four corners of the furnace. It converts the potential or kinetic energy of the working substance into 28 . Three ID fans each of 60% capacity have been provided one ID fan to serve as standby. Oil preheating arrangement is provided on the tanks floors for the heavy oil tanks. air.4 STEAM TURBINE INTRODUCTION:Turbine is a machine in which a shaft is rotated steadily by impact or reaction of current or stream of working substance (steam. CHAPTER . This equipment systematically feed fuel to furnace as per load requirement. Facilities have been provided to simultaneously unload and transfer 10 light oil and 40 heavy oil tankers to the designated tanks. furnace safe guard supervisory system (FSSS) of combustion engineering USA designed has been installed. scan the flame conditions and in case of unsafe working conditions but out fuel and trip the boiler and consequently the turbine. Due to anticipated high abrasion of ID fans impellers. Turbine – boiler interlocks safe guarding the boiler against possibility furnace explosion owing to flame failure. water. For ensuring safe operation of boilers.The air required for combustion is supplied by two forced draft fans. gases etc) upon blades of a wheel.

The passage of steam through moving part the commonly called the blade. enter the moving part of the turbine and here suffer a change in direction of motion which gives rose to change of momentum and therefore to a force. PRINCIPAL OF OPERATION OF STEAM TURBINE:(1. When the working substance is steam it is called the steam turbine. may take place in such a manner that the pressure at the outlet side of the blade is equal to that at the inlet inside. 29 .) Working of the steam turbine depends wholly upon the dynamic action of Steam. The steam is caused to fall in pressure in a passage of nozzle: due to this fall in pressure a certain amount of heat energy is converted into mechanical kinetic energy and the steam is set moving with a greater velocity. This constitutes the driving force of the machine. Such a turbine is broadly termed as impulse turbine. The rapidly moving particles of steam. The process of expansion and direction changing may occur once or a number of times in succession and may be carried out with difference of detail.mechanical power by virtue of dynamic action of working substance.

in which the steam particles changes its directions and hence its momentum changes. The blades are attach to the rotating elements are attached to the stationary part of the turbine which is usually termed the stator. Such a turbine is broadly termed as impulse reaction turbine. 4. Simple velocity compounded impulse turbine. or Sets of such elements. Pure reaction turbine.) On the other hand the pressure of the steam at outlet from the moving blade may be less than that at the inlet side of the blades. These are (1) the nozzle in which the system expands from high pressure and a state of comparative rest to a lower pressure and a status of comparatively rapid motion. 5. TECHNICAL DATA OF TURBINES:The main technical data of 110 MW turbines is given below:Rated output. (3. 110 MW. the drop in pressure suffered by the steam during its flow through the moving causes a further generation of kinetic energy within the blades and adds to the propelling force which is applied to the turbine rotor. casing or cylinder. certain types of turbine have come into existence.) The blade or deflector. 1.(2. The pressure compounded impulse turbine. 30 . Although the fundamental principles on which all steam turbine operate the same. 6. yet the methods where by these principles carried into effect very end as a result. 3. 2. Simple impulse steam turbine. therefore two important elements. The majority of the steam turbine have. Impulse reaction turbine. Pressure-velocity compounded turbine.

Maximum Temp. 3000 rpm Clockwise 130 atm 146 atm 535oC 545oC 31. Rated temperature of steam before the stop valve. 545oC. Maximum steam pressure before stop valve. Direction of rotation viewing from the front bearing pedestal. Maximum temperature of steam before the stop valve.6 atm 35 atm 535oC. of steam before MP Casing. Informative heat flow at the economic output 95 MW. Rated pressure of steam before MP Casing:Rated Temp. of steam before MP Casing. Rated pressure of steam MP Casing.Economic output Rated speed. 2135 K cal/Kwh 31 . Rated steam pressure before Stop valve.

• • • Single flow HP turbine with 25 reaction stages.Informative heat rate at the rated output HP Cylinder 2152. The individual 32 . Quantity of oil for first filling. 2 row carts wheel + 8 moving wheels. 4 & 5 & two 195 MW turbine installed for unit 6 & 7. Description of Steam Turbines:1) Steam flow:210 MW steam turbine is a tandem compound machine with HP. for the turbine. MP Cylinder LP cylinder 12 moving wheels. Double flow IP turbine with 20 reaction stages per flow. At KSTPS there are 2x110 MW turbines installed for unit 1 & 2 and 210 MW turbines installed for units 3. 2 main stop & control valves. 4 moving wheels of Double row design. 2 reheat stop & control valves. IP & LP parts.5 K Cal/Kwh. 1800 liters. Double flow LP turbine with 8 reaction stages per flow. The HP part is single flow cylinder and HP & LP parts are double flow cylinders. 2 bypass stop & control valve. & & 2 steam check valve in CRH.

3) IP Turbine:The IP part of turbine is of double flow construction. 33 . The HP turbine exhaust (CRH) leading to reheater have two swing check valves that prevent back flow of hot steam from reheater. Because of its rotation symmetry the barrel type casing remain constant in shape and leak proof during quick change in temperature. The IP turbine exhausts directly goes to LP turbine by cross ground pipes. The inner casing too is cylinder in shape as horizontal joint flange are relieved by higher pressure arising outside and this can kept small. The steam from HP turbine after reheating enters the inner casing from above and below through two inlet nozzles. The HP turbine consists of 25 reaction stages. The double flow inner casing is supported kinematically in the outer casing. The casing of IP turbine is split horizontally and is of double shell construction. The steam coming from reheater called HRH is passed to turbine via two combined stop and control valves.turbine rotors and generator rotor are rigidly coupled. bearing etc. Due to this reason barrel type casing are especially suitable for quick start up and loading. The arrangements of inner casing confines high steam inlet condition to admission branch of casing. The moving and stationary blades are inserted into appropriately shapes into inner casing and the shaft to reduce leakage losses at blade tips. while the joints of outer casing is subjected only to lower pressure and temperature at the exhaust of inner casing. The centre flows compensates the axial thrust and prevent steam inlet temperature affecting brackets. into HP turbine. The HP cylinder has a throttle control. Main steam is admitted before blending by two combined main stop and control valves. 2) HP Turbine:The HP casing is a barrel type casing without axial joint. The pressure in outer casing relieves the joint of inner casing so that this joint is to be sealed only against resulting differential pressure.

The moving and stationary blades are inserted in appropriately shaped grooves in shaft and inner casing. The outer casing consist of the front and rear walls. The inner shell is attached to outer shell with provision of free thermal movement. CHAPTER-5 ELECTRICITY GENERATOR To the end of the turbine rotor generator is coupled. 4) LP Turbine:The casing of double flow type LP turbine is of three shell design.The IP turbine consists of 20 reaction stages per flow. The outer casing is supported by the ends of longitudinal beams on the base plates of foundation. the lateral longitudinal support bearing and upper part. The shells are axially split and have rigidly welded construction. The double flow inner casings consist of outer shell and inner shell. so that when turbine rotates the rotor turns with it. The rotor is housed inside the stator having coil of copper bars in which electricity is produced through the movement of magnetic field created by rotor The electricity passes from the stator winding to the transformer which steps up the voltage so that it can be transmitted effectively over the power line of grid 34 . Steam admitted to LP turbine from IP turbine flows into the inner casing from both sides through steam inlet nozzles.

The cooling water is drawn from the river but the Boiler Feed Water must be pure than potable water (DM Water). The cold water continuously pumped in condenser.C. shaft sealing lubricating oils.L. Temperature detectors and other devices installed or connected within then machine. The source of excitation of rotor windings is thyristor controlled D. But these two types of water (boiler feed water and cooling water ) must never mix together. There is a provision for cooling water in order to maintain a constant temperature of coolant (hydrogen) which controls the temperature of windings Main parts of generator:(A) STATOR:i. supporting & enclosing the stator windings. permit the windings.p.H. The generator stator is a tight construction. The steam passing around the tubes loose heat and rapidly change into water. pressure & purity in machine under the conditions. supply.E. teeth core & hydrogen temperature. which ensures reliability. STATOR FRAME 35 .The steam which has given up its heat energy in changed back into a condenser so that it is ready for reuse. TURBO GENERATOR THEORY:TURBO GENERATOR manufactured by B. and incorporated with most modern design concepts and constructional features. The auxiliary equipment’s supplied with the machine suppresses and enables the control of hydrogen pressure and purity.m. with constructional & operational economy. the Generator is designed for continuous operation at the rated output. Cooling medium hydrogen is contained within frame & circulated by fans mounted at either ends of rotor. The generator is driven by directly coupled steam turbine at a speed of 3000 r. core and hydrogen coolers.

34. (B) ROTOR:i. iv. iii.ii. iv. 2. ii. ROTOR WINDINGS:BEARINGS:SLIP RINGS:BUSH GEAR ASSEMBLY:- TECHNICAL DATA:(A) Type Generator (110 MW):: t. The inlet and outlet of cooling water from both of machine i. vi.602 36 . The assembly of individual cooler elements in stator frame is however carried out only from the non-driving side. STATOR CORE STATOR BARS STATOR WINDINGS TERMINAL BUSHINGS BEARINGS VENTILATION SYSTEM HYDROGEN COOLERS:Three Hydrogen Coolers each comprising of two individual units are mounted inside the stator frame.e. vii. v. The Clearing of the individual cooler element can be carried out from both ends of the Generator even during operation. from non-driving side as well as turbine side.g. iii.p.

37 . 400C 12 mm. 7.p. 1000 + 5% rated. of elements Cooling medium Discharge losses Quantity of H2 Quantity of water Temp Cooling cold H2 Temp. HYDROGEN COOLER:Nos.8 (lagging). 6.37.Continuous apparent power Active power Power factor Rated voltage Current Critical speed Frequency Phase connection No. Informative. of peak.5%. 30 M3/ sec. 10.220 A 3000 r. 420 mm. double star. 7. 1500 KW. 0. of terminals Main diameter of slip rings Voltage regulation Reactance : : : : : : : : : : : : 1. 39% 0. H2 at 2 ATM. 34oC.m. at 50 Hz. How resistance (H2 side) Inherent voltage regulation Short circuit ratio : : : : : : : : : 6 Water.000 KW. 39%.500 KVA.

Its ability to transfer heat through forced convection is about 75% better than air.95 to overcome the serious possibility of hydrogen explosion with in the machine and to ensure the safety of operation purity of hydrogen on the generator. Casing must be maintained as high as possible. of hydrogen heat carrying capacity is 1. At pressure 0. Increasing the hydrogen pressure the machine improves its capacity to absorb & remote heat. The purity of 38 . This reduces the wind age losses in high speed machine like turbo-generator.035 atm. It also has higher transfer co-efficient. Smooth operation of machine in view of vertical elimination of wind age noise & the use of heavy gas light enclosure and dirty probe casing.0 atm. Density of hydrogen is approx. Relative cooling properties of air and hydrogen are given below:1) 2) 3) Elimination of fire risk because hydrogen will not support combustion. Hydrogen is used for cooling medium primarily because of its superior cooling properties & low density. Corona discharge is not harmful to insulator. of hydrogen heat carrying capacity is 1. But at 2.Type : HC-WLL-BS/C46 CHAPTER-6 COOLING SYSTEM a) GENERAL:In KSTPS hydrogen cooling system is employed for generator cooling.3 times of air. 7/14 of the air at a given temperature and pressure. Thermal conductivity of hydrogen 7. Since oxidation is not possible.

it is chiefly dependent on exciter. of dryers are provided to absorb the hydrogen in the Generator. The excitation system have following principal feature :. When excitation system response is controlled by fast acting regulators. The excitation system must be reliable. transformer and then rectified. The silica gel is reactivated by heating. In case of hydrogen purity drops below 98% an alarm is provided. b) HYDROGEN DRYERS:Two nos. It should be able to adjust the field current of the Generator.5. Moisture in this gas is absorbed by silica gel in the dryer as the absorbed gas passes through it. The excitation system makes contribution improving power system stability in steady state condition. either by normal controller automatic control so that for all operation & between no load and rated load. (A) Function of excitation system:Exciter supply is given from The main function of excitation system is to supply required excitation current at rated load condition of turbo Generator. 39 . The saturation of silica gel is indicated by change in its color from blue to pink.hydrogen should be 98% above but should not be less than 98%. The terminal voltage of the system machine is maintained at its value. EXCITATION SYSTEM The electric power Generators requires direct current excited magnets for its field system.Exciter of quick response & high voltage of not less than 1. stable in operation and must response quickly to excitation current requirements.4 times the rated filed voltage and nominal exciter response of minimum 0. By suitable change over from drier to the other on un-interrupted drying is achieved.

(B)Type of Excitation System:There have been many developments in excitation system design. Brushes excitation system. An automatic voltage regulator (AVR). the DC power is fed to the Generator field winding through a field breaker. The ultimate is to achieve stability. After rectification in thermistor. Field flashing equipment. the modern excitation system adopted presently on BHEL makes turbo-generator I. Field suppression equipment. Conventional DC excitation system. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT:In the excitation system the power required for excitation of Generation are tapped from 11 KV bus ducts through a step down rectifier transformer. STATIC EXCITATION SYSTEM:In KSTPS static excitation system is provided it mainly consists of the following:1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Rectifier transformer. There has been continuing reach among the design and the use alike from improving the excitation system performance. converter. accuracy etc. Nos. 40 . The AVR control the o/p from thyristor converter by adjusting the firing angle depending upon Generator voltages. of thyristor converters. The field flashing system facilitates initial built up of the Generator voltage from the static AC or DC supply.

41 . These are (I)_Voltage (II) Frequency (III) Phase displacement (IV) Phase sequence (V) Wave form. Internal corrosion costs power station crores of rupees in repair without strict control impurities in steam also form deposit over turbine blades and nozzles. a) Turbidity & Sediment. acid etc. Un-dissolved and suspended solid materials. The impurities present in water are as follows:1) 2) 3) 4) 5). Wave form and phase sequence of the Generator are determined at the design of each connection SYNCHRONIZING of the generator. This action is taken for synchronizing the Generator.m.p. (A) SYNCHRONIZING:For synchronizing the Generator to the grid system 5 condition of equality have to be satisfied.). Dissolved slats and minerals. Dissolved gases Other minerals (oil. the voltage is slowly built up with the help of excitation system. CHAPTER-7 WATER TREATMENT PLANT The principle problem in high pressure boiler is to control corrosion and steam quality..OPERATION:After bringing the speed to operation speed say 3000 r.

The filter water to DM plant through 250 dia. Provision is made for back washing the activated carbon filter. Sodium Sulphate solution of required strength is dosed into different filtered water by mean of dosing pump to neutralize chlorine prior to activated carbon filter. When pressure drop across filter exceeds a prescribed limit from the activated carbon filter the works acid cation unit. cation exchanger and mixed bed exchanger. Pune.. Two filtered water booster pumps are provided on filtered water line for meeting the pressure requirement in DM Plant. weak acid. 42 . When water passed an activated carbon filter will remove residual chlorine from water. The deception water the weak base anion exchanger unit water then enters degasified unit where free CO2 is scrubbed out of water by upward counter flow of low pr. header from where a heater top off has been taken to softening plant.b) Silica. d) Sodium & Potassium Salt.M. PLANT:In this plant process water is fed from all these dissolved salts. air flow through degasified lower and degassed water is pumped to strong base exchanger (anion exchanger). b) CO2 gas. This plant consists of two streams each stream with activated carbon filter. 6). a) O2gas. e) Dissolved Sales Minerals. Wanson (India) Ld. D. c) Micro Biological. Equipment for demineralization cum softening plant is supplied and erected by M/s.

4. B.5 kg. Five pumps are used for condensing Unit No./Cm2.Three seal water pump are used for sealing circulating water pump shaft at pr.W. Two pumps for unit 1 & 2 with one stand by is used for supplying raw water to chlorified chemical dosing is tone between and chlorified water is taken through main line. PUMP HOUSE:Filter water after demineralization is used for bearing cooling from BCW pump house after passing through strainer and heat exchanger it enters at 30-32oC and leave exchanger at 38oC. Oil coolers are situated on ground and there are no. From main line water passes through filter bed to filter the water.Arrangement for dosing ammonia solution into de-mineralized water after mixed bed unit has been provided p+1 correction before water is taken in de-condensate transfer pump the DM water to unit condensor as make up./cm2.W. At 42 M elevation the water is stored in tank and used for cooling the oil coolers and returned back to river.9 Kg.1 & 2 and after condensing this water is discharged back into the river. Chlorified water is pumped to 42 m elevation by two pumps of capacity 270 M3/Inch at discharge pressure of 6./Cm2.C.94 Kg. PLANT:Circulating water pump house has pumps for condensing the steam for condenser. of tress for each unit. From here the water is pumped to CW Pump by TWS (Traveling water screens) pumps are run by motors of 90 KW and has a capacity of 240 Cum/hr/pump at pressure of 5 kg/cm2. C. The raw water used in ash handling plant and remaining quantity is stored in sumps of BCW Pump House. and develop pressure about 1. 43 . Each pump has capacity of 8275 M3/Hr.

In the whole plant.5 KV to 400 KV.BCW here stand for water used for cooling oil used for cooling the bearing. 3. It connects the plant with the 400 KV switchyard.5 KV to 220 KV. GENERATOR TRANSFORMER (GT – B):It steps up the voltage from 16. 2. Main transformers. It is located in between the main plant and the switchyard. UNIT AUXILIARY TRANSFORMER (UAT):It is a step down transformer with 20 MVA capacities.5 KV to 6. 4. 44 . The main transformers installed in the transformer yard are: 1. To start the plant by taking the supply from the grid. These are installed in a transformer yard. To supply power to the auxiliaries from the generator. In CW pump house water is discharged from nozzle and impinged for traveling water screens for cleaning it. 2. CHAPTER-8 TRANSFORMER Transformer is a static device which is used to change the voltage level keeping the power and frequency same. GENERATOR TRANSFORMER (GT – A):It steps up the voltage from 16.9 KV. which are necessary: 1.9 KV. It steps down the voltage from 16. To step up the generated voltage. 3. It is used to step down 220 KV from the grid to 6. It connects the plant with the 220 KV switchyard. STATION TRANSFORMER (ST):It is a step down transformer with 50 MVA capacities. there are about 83 transformer installed at various places to operate the auxiliaries. In the plant transformer is one of the most important equipment.

6 kV.4333 KV.V. Neutral is solidly grounded. It is used to step down from 6. one for each unit. UNIT AUXILIARY TRANSFORMER:Each unit has two unit auxiliary transformers. UAT is connected between the generator and the GT. STATION SERVICE TRANSFORMER (SST):It is a step down transformer with 2MVA capacity. Generator transformer winding connected in star\delta with a phase displacement of 30 degrees. UAT bus is connected to the station bus. GENERATOR TRANSFORMER:There are 7 generator transformers in the plant. one for each stage. STATION TRANSFORMER:When the unit is to be started.T’s in the plant. which step up the voltage from 16. The output from the generator is fed to the generator transformer. UNIT SERVICE TRANSFORMER (UST):It is a step down transformer with 2 MVA capacity. The load that requires uninterrupted supply is left connected on the station transformer. When the generator is synchronized and starts producing power. side is provided at the side of the tank. In case neutral is solidly connected to the earth a very small current flowing through the neutral causes the tripling of the transformer. Auxiliaries of one unit take about 20MW of power.5. At the time of starting all the auxiliaries are supplied from the station transformer. The rating of the station transformer is 50 MVA. Before starting of the unit. It takes power from the grid at 220 kV and steps it down to 6. There are 5 S. UAT relieves GT from extra load of about 20 45 .5 KV to 400 KV and supplies power to grid.4333 KV. Neutral point on the H. So in this case more care is to be taken. about 80% of the load is shifted on to the unit auxiliary transformer. Three – phase supply from the generator is connected to the low voltage side bushings and the output is taken from the opposite side. 6.6 KV to 0. When the unit starts generating electricity these transformers are energized and then supplies power to the auxiliaries.6 kV to 0. It is used to step down from 6. power supplied to the auxiliaries is taken from the station transformer. A tapping is taken from the power coming from the generator to the GT.

There are two step down transformer each feeding 6.2 kva four feeder take off from 220 switch yard.6 kV to 0. UAT bus supplies only those auxiliaries.6 KV system (Station Switchyard ) viz. Each station transformer has two windings one secondary side and is rated for 50/25/25 mva.9kV. Each of the two 110 MW generator is connected to this system through a step up of 125 MVA 240/ 11 KV yard generator transformer.5 kV to 6. UNIT SERVICE TRANSFORMER:It is also a 66-kV/ 415 V transformers which is used to supply the auxiliaries connected to the unit secondary switchgear bus. Each of four feeders are provided with bypass isolators which is connected across line breaker and breaker isolator. It steps down the voltage from 6.433 kV it is used to supply the low voltage auxiliaries. UNIT STATION TRANSFORMER:It is a step down transformer. It is a step down transformer. The rating of UAT is 20 MVA. which is connected to the station bus. two to SKATPURA GSS and other to HEERAPURA. By closing bus coupler between 220 KV buses and putting line feeders whose breaker required maintenance of any one bus through by pass isolators and all other line feeders whose breaker is by passed is then 46 . Jaipur GSS. 270/7/7. which steps down the voltage from 16. which are not necessary to be energized in case of sudden tripping of generator. BS-IS & SB-IB. SWITCH YARD 220 KV SYSTEM:Two 220 KV bus bars have been provided in switch yard and are inter-connected through a bus coupler.MW which is to be supplied to the auxiliaries via GT and ST thus increasing the efficiency.

vii. 2. vi. 4. Plane Overload Protection. viii. 5. 47 . A brief description of equipments of 220 KV systems is as follows. i. x. v.transformed to bus coupler breaker. Field Protection. iii. ix. xi. CIRCUIT BREAKERS:ISOLATOR:CIRCUIT TRANSFORMER:POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER:LIGHTENING ARRESTOR:220 KV MOCB:220 KV ISOLATORS:220 KV Current Transformers:CIRCUIT BREAKER:POWER CAPACITOR:220 KV LIGNTENING ARRESTOR:- CHAPTER -9 PROTECTION 1. 3. ii. iv. Inter-turn Fault Negative Phase Sequence Protection. Pole Slipping.

6. Rotor Earth Fault Protection.110 MW & 210 MW turbines and generators. It provided an opportunity for encounter with such huge machines like wagon tippler . to isolate faulty generator is not sufficient to prevent future damage. 10. The basis function of protection applied to generator is to reduce voltage to minimum by rapid discrimination clearance of faults. Forward Power Protection. 48 . Unlike other apparatus the opening of C. Tripping of even a generating unit may cause overloading of associated machines and even to system unstability.B. Under Frequency & Over Frequency Protection. Reverse Power Protection. 7. General Protection: It is most important electrical equipment of many generating station. The architecture of the power plant the way various units are linked and the way working of whole plant is controlled make the student realize that engineering is not just learning the structured description and working of various machines. 8. Generator Voltage Protection. CONCLUSION The first phase of practical training has proved to be quiet fruitful. 9. but the greater part is of planning proper management.

49 . It is recommended that there should be some project specially meant for students where presence of authorities should be ensured. It has allowed an opportunity to get an exposure of the practical implementation to theoretical fundamentals. Training is not carried out into its tree sprit.g. wagon Tripler (CHP).But there are few factors that require special mention. There should be strict monitoring of the performance of students and system of grading be improved on the basis of work done. However training has proved to be quite fruitful.It also provides an opportunities to lean low technology used at proper place and time can cave a lot of labour e.

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