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Cisco Interview Questions

Cisco Interview Questions

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You need to retrieve a file from the file server for your word processing application, which layer of the OSI model is responsible for this function? 1. Presentation layer 2. Application layer 3. Session layer 4. Transport layer 5. Datalink layer 2. You are working in a word processing program, which is run from the file server. Your data comes back to you in an unintelligible manner. Which layer of the OSI model would you investigate? 1. Application layer 2. Presentation layer 3. Session layer 4. Network layer 5. Datalink layer 3. The IEEE subdivided the datalink layer to provide for environments that need connectionless or connection-oriented services. What are the two layers called? 1. Physical 2. MAC 3. LLC 4. Session 5. IP 4. You are working with graphic translations. Which layer of the OSI model is responsible for code formatting and conversion and graphic standards. 1. Network layer 2. Session layer 3. Transport layer 4. Presentation layer 5. Which is the best definition of encapsulation? 1. Each layer of the OSI model uses encryption to put the PDU from the upper layer into its data field. It adds header and trailer information that is available to its counterpart on the system that will receive it. 2. Data always needs to be tunneled to its destination so encapsulation must be used. 3. Each layer of the OSI model uses compression to put the PDU from the upper layer into its data field. It adds header and trailer information that is available to its counterpart on the system that will receive it. 4. Each layer of the OSI model uses encapsulation to put the PDU from the upper layer into its data field. It adds header and trailer information that is available to its counterpart on the system that will receive it. 6. Routers can be configured using several sources. Select which of the following sources can be used. 1. Console Port 2. Virtual Terminals 3. TFTP Server

4. Floppy disk 5. Removable media 7. Which memory component on a Cisco router contains the dynamic system configuration? 1. ROM 2. NVRAM 3. Flash 4. RAM/DRAM 8. Which combination of keys will allow you to view the previous commands that you typed at the router? 1. ESC-P 2. Ctrl-P 3. Shift-P 4. Alt-P 9. Which commands will display the active configuration parameters? 1. show running-config 2. write term 3. show version 4. display term 10. You are configuring a router, which prompt tells you that you are in the privileged EXEC mode? 1. @ 2. > 3. ! 4. : 5. # 11. What does the command “IP name-server 255.255.255.255″ accomplish? 1. It disables domain name lookup. 2. It sets the domain name lookup to be a local broadcast. 3. This is an illegal command. 4. The command is now defunct and has been replaced by “IP server-name ip any” 12. The following selections show the command prompt and the configuration of the IP network mask. Which two are correct? 1. Router(config-if)#netmask-format { bitcount | decimal | hexadecimal } 2. Router#term IP netmask-format { bitcount | decimal | hexadecimal } 3. Router(config-if)#IP netmask-format { bitcount | decimal | hexadecimal } 4. Router#ip netmask-format { bitcount | decimal | hexadecimal } 13. Which layer is responsible for flow control with sliding windows and reliability with sequence numbers and acknowledgments? 1. Transport 2. Application 3. Internet 4. Network Interface 14. Which processes does TCP, but not UDP, use? 1. Windowing

2. Acknowledgements 3. Source Port 4. Destination Port 15. Select which protocols use distance vector routing? 1. OSPF 2. RIP 3. IGRP 4. PPP 1. 2 2. 1 3. 3,4 4. 4 5. 2 6. 1,2,3 7. 4 8. 2 9. 1 10. 5 11. 4 12. 3 13. 1 14. 1 15. 2,3 A: The layers are physical, data link, network, transport, session, presentation, and application layers. Q: In the TCP client-servel model, how does the three-way handshake work in opening connection? A: The client first sends a packet with sequence "x" to the server. When the server receives this packet, the server will send back another packet with sequence "y", acknowledging the request of the client. When the client receives the acknowledgement from the server, the client will then send an acknowledge back to the server for acknowledging that sequence "y" has been received. Q: What is the purpose of exchanging beginning sequence numbers during the the connection in the TCP client-server model? A: To ensure that any data lost during data transfer can be retransmitted.

Q: How does Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) work? A: ATM works by transmitting all traffic in small, fixed-sized cells. These small, fixed-size cells reduces queuing delay and can be switched quickly. ATM fits into layer 2 of the OSI model and provides functions for framing and error correction. At the port interface, ATM switches convert cells into frames, and vice versa. ATM provides Quality of Service and traffic shaping. Q: Given a Class B Network with subnet mask of 255.255.248.0 and a packet addressed to 130.40.32.16, what is the subnet address? A: Take the 2 addresses, write them in binary form, then AND them. The answer is 130.40.32.0 What is UTP? UTP — Unshielded twisted pair 10BASE-T is the preferred Ethernet medium of the 90s. It is based on a star topology and provides a number of advantages over coaxial media: It uses inexpensive, readily available copper phone wire. UTP wire is much easier to install and debug than coax. UTP uses RG-45 connectors, which are cheap and reliable. What is a router? What is a gateway? Routers are machines that direct a packet through the maze of networks that stand between its source and destination. Normally a router is used for internal networks while a gateway acts a door for the packet to reach the ‘outside’ of the internal network What is Semaphore? What is deadlock? Semaphore is a synchronization tool to solve critical-section problem, can be used to control access to the critical section for a process or thread. The main disadvantage (same of mutual-exclusion) is require busy waiting. It will create problems in a multiprogramming system, where a single CPU is shared among many processes. Busy waiting wastes CPU cycles. Deadlock is a situation when two or more processes are waiting indefinitely for an event that can be caused by only one of the waiting

processes. The implementation of a semaphore with a waiting queue may result in this situation. What is Virtual Memory? Virtual memory is a technique that allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. A separation of user logical memory from physical memory allows an extremely large virtual memory to be provided for programmers when only a smaller physical memory is available. It is commonly implemented by demand paging. A demand paging system is similar to a paging system with swapping. Processes reside on secondary memory (which is usually a disk). When we want to execute a process, we swap it into memory. Explain the layered aspect of a UNIX system. What are the layers? What does it mean to say they are layers? A UNIX system has essentially three main layers: ? The hardware ? The operating system kernel ? The user-level programs The kernel hides the system’s hardware underneath an abstract, highlevel programming interface. It is responsible for implementing many of the facilities that users and user-level programs take for granted. The kernel assembles all of the following UNIX concepts from lowerlevel hardware features: ? Processes (time-sharing, protected address space) ? Signals and semaphores ? Virtual Memory (swapping, paging, and mapping) ? The filesystem (files, directories, namespace) ? Pipes and network connections (inter-process communication) Question 1: How does the race condition occur? It occurs when two or more processes are reading or writing some shared data and the final result depends on who runs precisely when.

Question 2: What is multiprogramming? Multiprogramming is a rapid switching of the CPU back and forth between processes. Question 3: Name the seven layers of the OSI Model and describe them briefly. Physical Layer - covers the physical interface between devices and the rules by which bits are passed from one to another. Data Link Layer - attempts o make the physical link reliable and provides the means to activate, maintain, and deactivate the link. Network Layer - provides for the transfer of information between end systems across some sort communications network. Transport Layer - provides a mechanism for the exchange of data between end system. Session Layer - provides the mechanism for controlling the dialogue between applications in end systems. Presentation Layer - defines the format of the data to be exchanged between applications and offers application programs a set of data transformation services. Application Layer - provides a means for application programs to access the OSI environment. Question 4: What is the difference between TCP and UDP? TCP and UDP are both transport-level protocols. TCP is designed to provide reliable communication across a variety of reliable and unreliable networks and internets. UDP provides a connectionless service for application-level procedures. Thus, UDP is basically

an unreliable service; delivery and duplicate protection are not guareented. Question 5: What does a socket consists of? The combination of an IP address and a port number is called a socket.

Network engineer/architect interview questions
1. Explain how traceroute, ping, and tcpdump work and what they are used for? 2. Describe a case where you have used these tools to troubleshoot. 3. What is the last major networking problem you troubleshot and solved on your own in the last year? 4. What LAN analyzer tools are you familiar with and describe how you use them to troubleshoot and on what media and network types. 5. Explain the contents of a routing table (default route, next hop, etc.) 6. What routing protocols have you configured? 7. Describe the commands to set up a route. 8. What routing problems have you troubleshot? 9. How do you display a routing table on a Cisco? On a host? 10. How do you use a routing table and for what? 11. What is a route flap? 12. What is a metric? 13. When do you use BGP, IGRP, OSPF, Static Routes? 14. What do you see as current networking security issues (e.g. NFS mounting, spoofing, one time passwords, etc.)? 15. Describe a routing filter and what it does. 16. Describe an access list and what it does. 17. What is a network management system? 18. Describe how SNMP works. 19. Describe the working environment you are currently in, e.g. frequent interruptions, frequent priority shifting, team or individual. 20. What do you use to write documentation? Editor? Mail reader? 21. What platform (s) do you currently work on at your desk? 22. How do you manage multiple concurrent high level projects? 23. Describe a recent short term stressful situation and how you managed it. 24. How do you manage a long term demanding stressful work environment? 25. Have you worked in an assignment based environment, e.g. work request/trouble ticket system, and if so, describe that environment. 26. Describe what network statistics or measurement tools you are familiar with and how you have used them. 27. Describe what a VPN is and how it works. 28. Describe how VoIP works. 29. Describe methods of QoS. 30. How does ToS bit work?

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