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OSHA Mobile Crane Inspection Guidelines

OSHA Mobile Crane Inspection Guidelines

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Mobile Crane Inspection Guidelines

for OSHA Compliance Officers
This information booklet is intended to provided a generic, nonexhaustive overview of
a particular standards-related topic. This publication does not itself alter or determine
compliance responsibilities, which are set forth in OSHA standards themselves and the
Occupational Safet and Health Act. !oreover, because interpretations and
enforcement polic ma change over time, for additional guidance on OSHA
compliance re"uirements, the reader should consult current administrative
interpretations and decisions b the Occupational Safet and Health #eview
$ommission and the courts.
!aterial contained in this publication is in the public domain and ma be reproduced,
full or partiall, without permission of the %ederal &overnment. Source credit is
re"uested b not re"uired.
This information will be made available to sensor impaired individuals upon re"uest.
'oice phone( )*+*, *-.-/*0.1 Telecommunications 2evice for the 2eaf )T22,
message referral phone( --/++-3*4-*055

This report was written b Anthon 2. 6rown
Mobile Crane Inspection Guidelines for OSHA Compliance Officers
7S 2epartment of 8abor
#obert 6. #eich, Secretar
Occupational Safet and Health Administration
9oseph 2ear, Assistant Secretar
Office of $onstruction and :ngineering
$harles &. $ulver, 2irector
9une -..;
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 A$<=O>8:2&:!:=TS
 A6ST#A$T
 :?:$7T@': S7!!A#A
 -.+ @=T#O27$T@O=
 *.+ !O6@8: $#A=:S
 *.- 8ifting Brinciples
 *.* Operational $onsiderations
 3.+ #:C7@#:!:=TS %O# !O6@8: $#A=:S
 3.- OSHA $onstruction #e"uirements
 3.* AS!:DA=S@ and B$SA #e"uirements
 ;.+ @=SB:$T@=& A !O6@8: $#A=:
 ;.- Breinspection
 ;.* $rane Setup
 ;.3 :lectrical HaEards
 ;.; 8oad $harts
 ;.0 Safe Operating Brecautions
 ;.4 @nspection Tpes
 ;.5 Starting the @nspection
 ;./ Specific @nspection @tems and #eferences
 ABB:=2@? A - &:=:#A8 T:#!S A=2 2:%@=@T@O=S
 ABB:=2@? 6 - &:=:#A8 8OA2 $HA#TS A=2 OB:#AT@O=A8 $O=S@2:#AT@O=S
 ABB:=2@? $ - 6AS@$ $#A=: $O!BO=:=TS
ACNO!LE"GEMENTS
Staff from the OSHA =ational Office provided assistance in preparing this report. !ike
!arshall and $huck Hardest, Office of $onstruction and :ngineering1 Ted
Twardowski, Office of $onstruction and $ivil :ngineering Safet Standards provided
initial information and reviewed comments1 9ames $alvert, :ngineer in Training,
tped and edited the report, and developed charts, tables, and graphics for the
report.
>illiam Smith, 2irector of Safet and Health, @nternational 7nion of Operating
:ngineers1 #ichard &iacin, Administrator, 8ocal ;5/, @nternational 7nion of Operating
:ngineers, !eridan, $T.1 and Scott 6uck, Safet 2irector, 8ocal -0+, @nternational
7nion of Operating :ngineers, Blainfield, @8, contributed technical assistance,
photographs and review comments throughout the proFect.
@ndividual members of the AS!:DA=S@ 63+ $ommittee, provided technical
information, materials, pictures and continual review comments. Those members
include(
Baul Gorich, 7.S. 2epartment of the =av and $hair of the 63+ $ommittee1 Theodore
A. $hristensen, 8ibert !utual @nsurance $o1 6radle 2. $losson, Bresident, =orth
American $rane 6ureau, >est1 9ames 9. Headle, Bresident, $rane @nstitute of
America, @nc.1 $arson 8. Hunecutt, :"uipment Operations !anager, 9.A. 9ones, @nc.1
:dward :. #ud, 7.S. 2epartment of the Arm1 and #obert $. >ild, 7.S. Arm $orps
of :ngineers.
A special thanks to 8eon )Skip, S. 9ohnson, American :"uipment $ompan for his
technical assistance and review comments and in ac"uiring photographs and video
footage of a simulated crane inspection on a %lour 2aniels, @nc., construction proFect
in 8A.
Steve Beterson, Training !anager, American $rane $orporation, 2ennis :ckstine,
2irector, Broduct Safet, &rove $orp., and 2an >olff, !anager for :ngineering,
=ational $rane $orp. for review comments and technical assistance.
Tom <ollins, 'ice Bresident, SpecialiEed $arriers and #iggers Association, S$H#A,
through the membership, provided assistance and initial evaluation of contents and
format.
ABST#ACT
This document provides background information about lifting principles and serves as
a guideline for inspecting mobile construction cranes. The relationship of man
components of cranes and their inter-dependence in lifting operations, OSHA
re"uirements for proper maintenance schedules, and safe crane operations will be
discussed in this document.
This document contains a listing and description of maFor components or operations to
be considered or examined when inspecting lifting e"uipment. Two tpes of commonl
used cranes, a crawler lattice boom crane and a hdraulic rough terrain crane, were
selected as examples in developing these guidelines. 2escriptive text and
photographs illustrate -/ inspection items critical to most crane inspections.
E$EC%TI&E S%MMA#'
2
OSHA compliance officers, proFect safet and health managers, and insurance
inspectors are often re"uired to inspect construction cranes. @nspections normall
include length checklists that identif mechanical components and maintenance
schedules without ade"uate descriptions or explanations, pertinent to the relationship
between these components and the craneIs overall function. Although some crane
inspection checklist items are self-explanator, it must be recogniEed that due to
increasing applications of developing technolog in the design and manufacture of
cranes, OSHA compliance officers need a better understanding of crane operations
and their basic lifting principles, and to keep abreast of related developments in
todaIs construction industr.
Since cranes affect a large segment of work at an construction site, crane
inspections b the compliance officer and proFect safet manager must include a
surve of the entire operation "uestions on how the crane will be operating and how
other crafts will be affected b working with and around the crane.
Observing crane operations prior to an inspection, or asking "uestions about how it
will or has been operating, can indicate possible problem areas that ma need a closer
review during the inspection process.
This document provides an overview and background information on lifting principles
of mobile cranes for OSHA inspectors. Also discussed is the relationship between
various components of mobile cranes to their lifting capacit and the manufacturersI
re"uirements for conducting proper maintenance schedules are also discussed.
Tpical $onstruction Site
8oad 6lock 8owered for @nspection
3
()* Introduction
Over the past few decades, there has been a
significant increase in the cost of cranes due in
part to improved engineering design and specific
Fob site re"uirements.
Toda, manufacturers design and build stronger
and lighter cranes in response to specific
industr needs. Speed, utilit, capacit, and
reach )radius, have been improved to the point
that the crane has become an indispensable
workhorse for construction. Therefore, a more
thorough understanding of cranes, their
capabilities and limitations is criticall important
for everone involved in construction toda. The
crane can perform safel and economicall when
operated within the design parameters set b
the manufacturer.
!odern #inger $rane
0++-Ton $apacit
2ue to significant advances in lifting technolog, crane operators, site supervisors,
safet professionals, and OSHA compliance officers need to keep abreast of modern
crane technolog and changes in operating procedures to help them recogniEe
problems before potentiall unsafe conditions lead to accidents that result in inFuries
andDor fatalities, as well as e"uipment damages.
>ith these factors in mind, the need for a better understanding of crane operations
and the implementation of appropriate maintenance schedules is evident in
preventing accidents.
A recent stud b 2on 2ickie, a recogniEed crane authorit with the $onstruction
Safet Association of Ontario, indicates that although mechanical failures represent
onl --J of the causes of crane accidents, the usuall result in the maFor accidents
involving inFuries, fatalities, substantial material costs, and usuall spectacular media
coverage. Studies and analses of crane accidents involving mechanical failure show
the are fre"uentl due to a lack of preventive maintenance or ade"uate training
andDor experience on the part of the personnel involved. @t is important that not onl
crane operators but also other personnel working with cranes receive training in crane
operations. $ranes and associated rigging e"uipment must be inspected regularl to
identif an existing or potentiall unsafe conditions. @n addition, preventive
maintenance must be performed as re"uired b the crane manufacturer andDor the
supplier to ensure safe crane operation. The inspections performed b OSHA
compliance officers andDor other safet professionals also can pla an important role
b identifing haEards as well as safe crane operations.
This report addresses maFor issues related to the crane itself and provide some basic
information on crane capacities and inspection criteria for OSHA compliance officers.
Since it would be difficult for a single report to full address all tpes of cranes
available in todaIs market, two tpes of cranes tpicall found on construction sites
are discussed in this report. Some of the issues encountered during inspections cover
the following three areas(
 Basic Crane Operations + 8ifting principlesDmechanics and some operational
criteria.
 T,pical Crane inspection C-ec.list + 8isting of critical items and
components recommended for periodic inspection.
 #e/ulations + %ederal OSHA regulations and applicable AS!:DA=S@ and B$SA
standards.
4
This report also contains general guidelines for crane inspections, as well as some
suggested operational considerations and inspection items recogniEed b a number of
construction companies.
$ranes are designed for both general use and for specific purposes. Similar to the
vast automobile industr, crane manufacturers produce similar models or tpes of
cranes for the same purpose, often with different siEes of the same model of crane.
:ach tpe, model, or siEe of crane manufactured, ma have different operating
controls and re"uire specialiEed operator training, individualiEed inspection criteria,
and different preventive maintenance schedules.
Two commonl used cranes, a hdraulic rough terrain crane and a crawler lattice
boom friction crane, are shown as examples for developing this document. There are
several significant differences between these two cranes, primaril in boom hoist and
load line controls. The somewhat smooth operation of the boom control adFustments
on the hdraulic cranes ma suggest falsel to the novice operator or inspector that it
is a simple crane to operate. On the other hand, the lattice boom friction cranesI
movement in its boom, or its adFustment in load position tend to be a little Ferk
re"uiring more skill and experience to operate smoothl. Another clear difference
between the two tpes of cranes is their load charts. 2ue to the fixed boom length,
the lattice boom friction crane has a somewhat simplified load chart. This re"uires
extensive motion control and an anticipation of boom movement to accuratel lift or
place loads. $onversel, the hdraulic craneIs load charts are more extensive or
complicated due to the variations in boom length thus re"uiring more training in the
multiple charts available. The differences between these two tpes of cranes are
significant enough to re"uire specific training on each tpe of crane. $rane operators
cannot be expected to be totall knowledgeable and proficient in the operation of the
man diverse tpes of cranes available toda. The cannot be expected to move from
one tpe of crane to another without ade"uate education and training on the specifics
of each piece of e"uipment.
'ariet of $rawler #ough Terrain )#DT, $rane
5
!obile $rawler $rane OperatorIs 'iew 8attice 6oom
0)* Mobile Cranes
0)( Liftin/ 1rinciples
There are four basic lifting principles that govern a craneIs mobilit and safet during
lifting operations(
-. Center of Gravity The center of gravit of an obFect is the point in the obFect
where its weight can be assumed to be concentrated or, stated in another
wa, it is the point in the obFect around which its weight is evenl distributed.
The location of the center of gravit of a mobile crane depends primaril on
the weight and location of its heaviest components )boom, carrier, upperworks
and counterweight,.
*. Leverage $ranes use the principle of leverage to lift loads. #otation of the
upperworks )cab, boom, counterweight, load, changes the location of the
craneIs center of gravit, its leverage point or fulcrum.
As the upperworks rotates, the leverage of a mobile crane fluctuates. This rotation
causes the craneIs center of gravit to change and causes the distance between the
craneIs center of gravit and its tipping axis to also change. Stabilit can be effected
b the fluctuating leverage the crane exerts on the load as it swings. The craneIs
rated capacit is therefore altered in the load chart to compensate for those changes
in leverage.
Brovided the ground is capable of supporting the load, a crane can be made more
stable b moving the tipping axis further awa from its center of gravit. The extra
stabilit gained b moving the tipping axis can then be used to carr largerDheavier
loads.
@=$#:AS:2 STA6@8@TA K !O#: 8OA2
3. Stability @s the relationship of the load weight, angle of the boom and its
radius )distance from the cranes center of rotation to the center of load, to the
center of gravit of the load. The stabilit of a crane could also be effected b
the support on which the crane is resting. A craneIs load rating is generall
developed for operations under ideal conditions, i.e., a level firm surface.
7nlevel surfaces or soft ground therefore must be avoided. @n areas where soft
ground poses a support problem for stabilit, mats and or blocking should be
used to distribute a craneIs load and maintain a level stable condition.
@n addition to overturning )stabilit failure,, cranes can fail structurall if overloaded
enough. Structural failure ma occur before a stabilit failure. @n other words, a
mobile craneIs structure ma fail long before it tips. As loads are added beond its
rated capacit, a crane ma fail structurall before there is an sign of tipping.
Structural failure is not limited to total fracture1 it includes all permanent damage
such as overstressing, bending and twisting of an of the components. >hen a crane
is overstressed, the damage ma not be apparent. =evertheless, a structural failure
has occurred and overstressed components are then subFect to catastrophic failure at
some future time.
;. Structural Integrity The craneIs main frame, crawler track andDor outrigger
supports, boom sections, and attachments are all considered part of the
structural integrit of lifting. in addition, all wire ropes, including stationar
supports or attachment points, help determine lifting capacit and are part of
the overall structural integrit of a craneIs lifting capacit. The following
elements ma also affect structural integrit(
 The load chart capacit in relationship to stabilit1
 The boom angle limitations which affect stabilit and capacit1 and
 The knowledge of the length of boom and radius in determining
capacit.
6
Stabilit failures are foreseeable, but in structural failure it is almost impossible to
predict what component will fail at an given time. =o matter what the cause, if the
crane is overloaded, structural failure can occur.
0)0 Operational Considerations
$ranes are carefull designed, tested, and manufactured for safe operation. >hen
used properl the can provide safe reliable service to lift or move loads. 6ecause
cranes have the abilit to lift heav loads to great heights, the also have an
increased potential for catastrophic accidents if safe operating practices are not
followed.
$rane operators and personnel working with cranes need to be knowledgeable of
basic crane capacities, limitations, and specific Fob site restrictions, such as location of
overhead electric power lines, unstable soil, or high wind conditions. Bersonnel
working around crane operations also need to be aware of hoisting activities or an
Fob restrictions imposed b crane operations, and ensure Fob site coordination of
cranes. $rane inspectors therefore should become aware of these issues and, prior to
starting an inspection, take time to observe the overall crane operations with respect
to load capacit, site coordination, and an Fob site restrictions in effect.
#ough Terrain )#DT, ;0-Ton $rane -0+-Ton $rawler 8attice 6oom
)Hdraulic $rane, %riction $rane
7
2)* #e3uirements For Mobile Cranes
2)( OSHA Construction #e3uirements
A review of the OSHA crane standards provide a basis for a crane inspection.
$onstruction crane standards re"uirements are found in Subpart =, *. $%# -.*4.00+.
Some ke re"uirements state that(
)-, The emploer shall compl with the manufacturerIs specifications and limitations
applicable to the operation of an and all cranes and derricks. >here manufacturerIs
specifications are not available, the limitations assigned to the e"uipment shall be
based on the determinations of a "ualified engineer competent in this field and such
determinations will be appropriatel documented and recorded. Attachments used
with cranes shall not exceed the capacit, rating, or scope recommended b the
manufacturer.
)*, #ated load capacities, and recommended operating speeds, special haEard
warnings, or instruction, shall be conspicuousl posted on all e"uipment. @nstructions
or warnings shall be visible to the operator while he is at his control station.
)0, The emploer shall designate a competent person who shall inspect all machiner
and e"uipment prior to each use, and during use, to make sure it is in safe operating
condition. An deficiencies shall be repaired, or defective parts replaced, before
continued use.
)4, A thorough, annual inspection of the hoisting machiner shall be made b a
competent person, or b a government or private agenc recogniEed b the 7.S.
2epartment of 8abor. The emploer shall maintain a record of the dates and results of
inspections for each hoisting machine and piece of e"uipment.
)-0, :xcept where electrical distribution and transmission lines have been de-
energiEed and visibl grounded at point of work or where insulating barriers, not a
part of or an attachment to the e"uipment or machiner, have been erected to
prevent phsical contact with the lines, e"uipment or machines shall be operated
approximate to power lines onl in accordance with the following(
)i, %or lines rated 0+ k' or below, minimum clearance between the lines and an part
of the crane or load shall be -+ feet1
)ii, %or lines rated over 0+ k', minimum clearance between the lines and an part of
the crane or load shall be -+ feet plus +.; inch for each - k' over 0+ k', or twice the
length of the line insulator, but never less than -+ feet1
)iv, A person shall be designated to observe clearance of the e"uipment and give
timel warning for all operations, where it is difficult for the operator to maintain the
desired clearance b visual means1
)vi, An overhead wire shall be considered to be an energiEed line unless and until the
person owning such line or the electrical utilit authorities indicate that it is not an
energiEed line and it has been visibl grounded.
)-4, =o modifications or additions which effect the capacit or safe operation of the
e"uipment shall be made b the emploer without the manufacturerIs written
approval. @n no case shall the original safet factor of the e"uipment be reduced.
To supplement the OSHA standards for $ranes and 2erricks, references are made to
applicable AS!:DA=S@ and B$SA standards. The AS!:DA=S@ L63+L series of standards
address( L$ranesL, L$ablewasL, L2erricksL, LHoistsL, LHooksL, L9acksL and LSlingsL.
%or the purpose of this document AS!:DA=S@ 63+.0, L!obile and 8ocomotive $ranesL
will be the reference document for the crane inspection criteria.
#eferences also are made to the Bower $rane Shovel Association )B$SA,, Standard
=o. *, L!obile it Hdraulic $rane Standards.L
2)0 ASME4ANSI and 1CSA #e3uirements
8
AS!:DA=S@ 63+.0 BS$A Standard =o. *
5)* Inspectin/ A Mobile Crane
Since cranes impact such a large segment of work going on at an Fob site, crane
inspections )to the OSHA $ompliance Officer and BroFect Safet !anagers, must
include a surve, or walk around, of the entire operation that "uestions how the crane
will be operating and how other crafts will be effected b working with and around the
craneM Observation of crane operations prior to an inspection, or simpl asking how
cranes have or will be used, can indicate possible problem areas that ma need a
closer review during the inspection process.
5)( 1reinspection
6efore the actual inspection, some general information about the crane operatorIs
"ualifications and the craneIs certifications should be gathered, such as(
Operator Qualifications Observe the operator in action and when the opportunit
permits ask a few "uestion concerning the cranes capacit and restrictions imposed,
either due to activit involved in or functional limitations.
Crane Records Ask for inspection and maintenance records and verif that the
appropriate operatorIs manual and load charts are available for that particular crane
in use.
5)0 Crane Setup
@n our initial surve of crane operations, look for crane stabilit, phsical
obstructions to movement or operation, and proximit of electrical power lines, as
well as the following(
A. Leveling Has the crane operator set the crane up level and in a position for
safe rotation and operationM
6. Outriggers Are the outriggers, where applicable, extended and being used in
accordance with manufacturerIs recommendationsM
$. Stability The relationship of the load weight, angle of boom, and its radius )the
distance from the cranes center of rotation to the center of load, to the center
of gravit of the load. Also, the condition of crane loading where the load
moment acting to overturn the crane is less than the moment of the crane
available to resist overturning.
2. Structural Integrity The craneIs main frame, crawler, track and outrigger
supports, boom sections, and attachments are all considered part of structural
9
components of lifting. @n addition, all wire ropes, including stationar supports,
help determine lifting capacit and are part of the structural elements of crane
operations.
5)2 Electrical Ha6ards
>orking around or near electrical power lines is one of the most dangerous practices
for crane operations. The OSHA re"uirements limit crane operations to a minimum
clearance of -+ feet.
$ranes should not be used to handle materials or loads stored under electric power
lines. @n addition, operation of mobile cranes near de-energiEed electric power lines is
not recommended until the following steps have been taken(
 The power compan or owner of the power line has deenergiEed the lines.
 The lines are visibl grounded and appropriatel marked at Fobsite.
 2urable warning signs are installed at the operatorIs station and on the
outside of the crane identifing the clearance re"uirements between the
craneDload and electrical power lines.
 A "ualified representative of the power compan or owner of the electrical
power line are on the Fob site to verif that the power lines have been de-
energiEed or properl grounded.
5)5 Load C-arts
8oad $harts are the principle set of instructions and re"uirements for boom
configurations and parts of line which establish crane capacit for safe crane
operations
N
.
 Availability The crane operator must have in hisDher possession the
appropriate load charts related to the crane in use and for the loads being
lifted.
 Correct Use The crane operator must show ade"uate understanding and
proficient use of the load charts as related to the e"uipment in use and the
loads being lifted.
5)7 Safe Operatin/ 1recautions
As stated above, cranes are carefull designed, tested, and manufactured for safe
operations. >hen used properl the can provide safe reliable service to lift or move
loads. 6ecause cranes have the abilit to lift heav loads to great heights, the also
have an increased potential for catastrophic accidents if safe. operating practices are
not followed.
Accidents can be avoided b careful Fob planning. The person in charge must have a
clear understanding of the work to be performed and consider all potential dangers at
the Fob site. A safet plan must be developed for the Fob and must be explained to all
personnel involved in the lift.
6efore operations begin for the da, a walkaround inspection needs to be conducted
to ensure that the machine is in proper working condition. Onl "ualified and properl
designated people shall operate the crane. #egular inspections are important, the
provide a means of detecting potential haEards or conditions that could contribute to a
se"uence of events leading to an accident. Safe, reliable, and the economic operation
of lifting e"uipment, cannot be ensured without regular safet inspections and
thorough preventive maintenance programs. A thorough inspection program can
forecast maintenance needs or potential e"uipment failures or malfunctions. The lack
of such a program could result in serious deterioration of the e"uipment which might
lead to excessive replacement, or repair charges, as well as an increased potential for
accidents.
10
N
See &eneral 8oad $harts and Operational $onsiderations, Appendix 6.
2ue to the wide variation of conditions under
which a crane ma operate, it is impossible for the
manufacturer to determine inspection intervals
appropriate for ever situation. @nspection
intervals recommended in manufacturerIs
publications represent minimum intervals for
average operating conditions. !ore fre"uent
inspection intervals should be re"uired if use and
site conditions are severe and warrant it.
@nspections are also designed as maintenance
checks andDor as a verification that proper repairs
or modifications of e"uipment have been
completed which, if not checked could affect
capacities as well as personnel safet. Since the
initial load rating for cranes was determined and
set under ideal conditions, inspections are
re"uired b manufacturers to guarantee optimal
operating efficienc and capacit as determined
b the load charts.
Tower $rane $ollapse
)$leaning 7p 2ebris,
The American =ational Standards @nstitute, A=S@
63+.0, )-.4/,, and OSHA both re"uire inspections
be divided into two categories( fre"uent and
periodic. @n addition to the performance of these
regular inspections, e"uipment is re"uired to be
inspected and tested to ensure that it is capable
of safe and reliable operation when initiall set or
placed in service and after an maFor repairs or
an design modification.
$rawler $rane
Brepared for @nspection
5)8 Inspection T,pes
A. Frequent Inspections )dail to monthl intervals,. %re"uent inspections are
usuall performed at the start of each shift b the operator who walks around
the crane looking for defects or problem areas. $omponents that have a direct
bearing on the safet of the crane and whose status can change from da to
da with use must be inspected dail, and when possible, observed during
operation for an defects that could affect safe operation. To help determine
when the crane is safe to operate, dail inspections should be made at the
start of each shift. %re"uent inspections should include, but are not limited to
the following(

-. $heck that all exposed moving parts are guarded. A removed guard
ma indicate that a mechanic is still working on part of the crane.
11
*. 'isuall inspect each component of the crane used in lifting, swinging,
or lowering the load or boom for an defects that might result in
unsafe operation.
3. @nspect all wire rope )including standing ropes,, sheaves, drums
rigging, hardware, and attachments. #emember, an hook that is
deformed or cracked must be removed from service. Hooks with
cracks, excessive throat openings of -0J, or hook twists of -+ degrees
or more, must be removed from service.
;. $heck for freedom of rotation of all swivels.
0. 'isuall inspect the boom and Fib for straightness and an evidence of
phsical damage, such as cracking, bending, or an other deformation
of the welds. 8ook for corrosion under an attachments that are
connected to the chords and lacing. >atch carefull for cracking or
flaking of paint. This ma indicate fatigue of the metal which often
precedes a failure. On lattice booms, look for bent lacing. @f the are
kinked or bent, the main chord can lose substantial support in that
area. >hen lacing is bent, the ends also tend to draw together which
pulls the main chords out of shape. This precaution is especiall
important on tubular booms where ever component must be straight
and free from an dents. 2o not attempt to straighten these members
b hammering or heating them and drawing them out. The must be
cut out and replaced with lacing to the manufacturerIs specifications,
procedures, and approval.
4. @nspect tires for cuts, tears, breaks, and proper inflation.
5. 'isuall inspect the crane for fluid leaks, both air and hdraulic.
/. 'isuall check that the crane is properl lubricated. The fuel,
lubricating oil, coolant and hdraulic oil reservoirs should be filled to
proper levels.
.. $heck that the crane is e"uipped with a full charged fire extinguisher
and that the operator knows how to use it.
-+. $heck all functional operating mechanisms such as( sheaves, drums,
brakes, locking mechanisms, hooks, the boom, Fib, hook rollers
brackets, outrigger components, limit switches, safet devices,
hdraulic clinders, instruments, and lights.
--. $heck the turntable connections for weld cracks and loose or missing
bolts. @f the are loose, there is a good chance that the have been
stretched.
-*. >hen checking the outriggers be sure that neither the beams nor the
clinders are distorted. $heck that the welds are not cracked and that
both the beams and clinders extend and retract smoothl and hold
the load. $heck the condition of the floats, and check that the are
securel attached.
-3. @nspect and test all brakes and clutches for proper adFustment and
operation.
-;. Alwas inspect boom hoist lockout and other operator aids, such as
anti-two-block devices )AT6, and load moment indicators )8!@,, for
proper operation and calibration.
-0. >hile the engine is running, check all gauges and warning lights for
proper readings and operate all controls to see that the are
functioning properl.
-4. $heck for an broken or cracked glass that ma affect the view of the
operator.
6. eriodic Inspections )- to -* month intervals,. The periodic inspection
procedure is intended to determine the need for repair or replacement of
components to keep the machine in proper operating condition. @t includes
those items listed for dail inspections as well as, but not limited to, structural
defects, excessive wear, and hdraulic or air leaks.
@nspection records of the inspected crane shall be maintained monthl on critical
12
items in use, such as brakes, crane hooks, and ropes. These inspection records should
include, the date of inspection, the signature of the person who performed the
inspection, and the serial number, or other identifier. This inspection record should be
kept readil available for review. The manufacturerIs maintenance and inspection
records, formsDchecklist, or e"uivalent should be used.
-. @nspect the entire crane for structural damage. 6e careful to check for
distortion or cracks in main frame, outrigger assemblies, and structural
attachments of the upperworks to the carrier.
*. @nspect all welded connections for cracks. @nspect the main chords and lacings
and other structural items for paint flaking and cracking which ma indicate
potential failure, as well as for dents, bends, abrasions, and corrosion. $heck
hdraulic booms for bending, side swa, or droop.
3. $heck for deformed, cracked, or corroded members in the loadDstress bearing
structure. !agnetic particle or other suitable crack detecting inspection should
be performed at least once each ear b an inspection agenc retained b the
owner. @nspection reports should be re"uested and retained in the crane file.
;. @nspect cracked or worn sheaves and drums.
0. @nspect for worn, cracked, or distorted parts such as( pins, bearings, shafts,
gears, rollers, locking devices, hook roller brackets, removable outrigger
attachments lugs, and welds.
4. @nspect for excessive wear on brake and clutch sstem parts, linings, pawls,
and ratchets.
5. @nspect all indicators, including load and boom angle indicators, for proper
operation and calibration.
/. @nspect all power plants for proper operation.
.. @nspect for excessive wear on drive sprockets andDor chain stretch.
-+. @nspect for correct action of steering, braking, and locking devices.
--. $heck that the counterweight is secure.
-*. $heck that the identification number is permanentl and legibl marked on
Fibs, blocks, e"ualiEer beams, and all other accessories.
-3. @nspect all hdraulic and pneumatic hoses, fittings, and tubing. An
deterioration of an sstem component should cause the inspector to "uestion
whether further use would constitute a safet haEard. $onditions, such as the
following, re"uire replacement of the part in "uestion(
a. An evidence of oil or air leaks on the surfaces of flexible hoses or at
the point at which the hose in "uestion Foins the metal end couplings.
b. An abnormal deformation of the outer covering of hdraulic hose,
including an enlargement, local or otherwise.
c. An leakage at connections which cannot be eliminated b normal
tightening.
d. An evidence of abrasive wear that could have reduced the pressure
retaining capabilities of the hose or tube effected. The cause of the
rubbing or abrasion must be immediatel eliminated.
5)9 Startin/ t-e Inspection
Since most crane inspections begin with a general walkaround and observation of the
overall crane set up and operation, followed b a specific inspection of items or
components, the following guidelines are presented in that order. The first section
addresses the general items and operational considerations when inspecting an tpe
of crane, followed b the specific inspection items for two specific tpes of cranes1
&rove #ough Terrain ;0 Ton )hdraulic, and !anitowoc ;-++ -0+ Ton $rawler )lattice
boom friction, cranes.
@n general, the following should be considered when inspecting an crane(
-. #e"uest for and review all inspection and maintenance documents for the
crane being inspected, including the crane manufacturerIs inspection and
maintenance re"uirements.
13
*. $onduct a walkaround inspection, paing particular attention to mechanical
sstems leaks or damage )oil, hdraulic, air, and structural deficiencies.
3. 8ook at crane cab for properl marked controls, damaged instruments and for
properl displaed and legible load charts.
;. Ask the operator, ground crew )riggers,, andDor supervisors appropriate
"uestions on load charts, rigging and load weight determinations, and
capacities.
0. #e"uest the operator to raise and lower the boomDload line, where practical,
and inspect, from the cab position, the running line or rope of the main hoist
drum and secondar line or Fib line. $heck brake action and its abilit to stop.
4. @f practical, re"uest the operator to lower boom to look at the condition of
booms sections, lacing, lifting components, anti-two-block devices, Fib back
stops, and the condition of the hook.
5. $heck crane set up and stabilit of outriggers on hdraulics andDor the
effectiveness of cribbing on crawlers. if possible, re"uest that the crane be
rotated to check all clearances and overall stabilit.
5): Specific Inspection Items and #eferences
The following table identifies the specific inspection items for cranes as well as a brief
description and purpose to help the inspector to have a better understanding of what
and wh the item is being inspected.
Table 5):A +Inspection Items and "escription
ITEM "ESC#I1TION 4 1%#1OSE
;(< Manufacturer=s operatin/ and
Maintenance Manuals
!anufacturerIs operating and maintenance
manuals shall accompan all mobile hoisting
e"uipment. These manuals set forth specific
inspection, operation and maintenance
criteria for each mobile crane and lifting
capacit.
;0< Guardin/ All exposed moving parts such as gears,
chains, reciprocating or rotating parts are
guarded or isolated.
;2< S>in/ Clearance 1rotection !aterials for guarding rear swing area.
;5< Hi/-?&olta/e !arnin/ Si/n High-voltage warning signs displaing
restrictions and re"uirements should be
installed at the operatorIs station and at
strategic locations on the crane.
;7< Boom Stops Shock absorbing or hdraulic tpe boom
stops are installed in a manner to resist boom
overturning.
;8< @ib Boom Stops 9ib stops are restraints to resist overturning.
;9< Boom An/le Indicator A boom angle indicator readable for the
operator station is installed accuratel to
indicate boom angle.
;:< Boom Hoist "isconnectA Automatic
Boom Hoist S-utoff
A boom hoist disconnect safet shutoff or
hdraulic relief automaticall stops the boom
hoist when the boom reaches a
predetermined high angle.
;B< T>o?Bloc.in/ "eCice $ranes with telescoping booms should be
e"uipped with a two-blocking damage
prevention feature that has been tested on-
site in accordance with manufacturers
14
re"uirements. All cranes hdraulic and fixed
boom used to hoist personnel must be
e"uipped with two-blocking devices on all
hoistlines intended to be used in the
operation. The anti-two blocking device has
automatic capabilities for controlling functions
that ma cause a two-blocking condition.
;(*< 1o>er Controlled Lo>erin/ $ranes for use to hoist personnel must be
e"uipped for power controlled lowering
operation on all hoistlines. $heck clutch,
chains, and sprockets for wear.
;((< LeCelin/ Indicatin/ "eCice A device or procedure for leveling the crane
must be provided.
;(0< S-eaCes Sheave grooves shall be smooth and free
from surface defects, cracks, or worn places
that could cause rope damage. %langes must
not be broken, cracked, or chipped. The
bottom of the sheave groove must form a
close fitting saddle for the rope being used.
8ower load blocks must be e"uipped with
close fitting guards. Almost ever wire rope
installation has one or more sheaves
O ranging from traveling blocks with
complicated reeving patterns to e"ualiEing
sheaves where onl minimum rope
movement is noticed.
;(2< Main Hoist and AuDiliar, "rums
S,stem
2rum crushing is a rope condition sometimes
observed which indicates deterioration of the
rope. Spooling is that characteristic of a rope
which affects how it wraps onto and off a
drum. Spoiling is affected b the care and
skill with which the first larger of wraps is
applied on the drum. !anufacturerIs criteria
during inspection usuall specif(
 !inimum number of wraps to remain
on the drum.
 $ondition of drum grooves
 $ondition of flanges at the end of
drum.
 #ope end attachment.
 Spooling characteristics of rope.
 #ope condition.
;(5< Main BoomA @ib BoomA Boom
EDtension
6oom Fibs, or extensions, must not be
cracked or corroded. 6olts and rivets must be
tight. $ertification that repaired boom
members meet manufacturers original design
standard shall be documented. =on-certified
repaired members shall not be used until
recertified.
;(7< Load Hoo.s and Hoo. Bloc.s Hooks and blocks must be permanentl
labeled with rated capacit. Hooks and blocks
are counterweighted to the weight of the
overhaul line from highest hook position.
Hooks must not have cracks or throat
openings more than -0J of normal or
15
twisted off center more than -+
o
from the
longitudinal axis. All hooks used to hoist
personnel must be e"uipped with effective
positive safet catches especiall on hdraulic
cranes.
;(8< H,draulic Hoses Fittin/s and Tubin/%lexible hoses must be sound and show no
signs of leaking at the surface or its Function
with the metal and couplings. Hoses must not
show blistering or abnormal deformation to
the outer covering and no leaks at threaded
or clamped Foints that cannot be eliminated
b normal tightening or recommended
procedures. There should be no evidence of
excessive abrasion or scrubbing on the outer
surfaces of hoses, rigid tubing, or hdraulic
fittings.
;(9< Outri//ers Outrigger number, locations, tpes and tpe
of control are in accordance with
manufacturerIs specifications. Outriggers are
designed and operated to relieve all weight
from wheels or tracks within the boundaries
of the outriggers. @f not, the manufacturerIs
specifications and operating procedures must
be clearl defined. Outriggers must be visible
to the operator or a signal person during
extension or setting.
;(:< Load #atin/ C-art A durable rating chart)s, with legible letters
and figures must be attached to the crane in
a location accessible to the operator while at
the controls. The rating charts shall contain
the following(
 A full and complete range of
manufacturerIs crane loading ratings
at all stated operating radii.
 Optional e"uipment on the crane such
as outriggers and extra counterweight
which effect ratings.
 A work area chart for which capacities
are listed in the load rating chart, i.e.
over side, over rear, over front.
 >eights of auxiliar e"uipment, i.e.
load block, Fibs, boom extensions.
 A clearl distinguishable list of ratings
based on structural, hdraulic or other
factors rather than stabilit.
 A list of no-load work areas.
 A description of hoistline reeving
re"uirements on the chart or in
operatorIs manual.
;(B< !ire #ope !ain hoist and auxiliar wire rope inspection
should include examining for
 6roken wires.
 :xcess wear.
 :xternal damage from crushing,
kinking, cutting or corrosion.
16
;0*< Cab $ontains all crane function controls in
addition to mechanical boom angle indicators,
electric wipers, dash lights, warning lights
and buEEers, fire extinguishers, seat belts,
horn, and clear unbroken glass.
;0(< Bra.in/ S,stems Truck cranes and self-propelled cranes
mounted on rubber-tired chassis or frames
must be e"uipped with a service brake
sstem, secondar stopping emergenc brake
sstem and a parking brake sstem. 7nless
the ownerDoperator can show written
evidence that such sstems were not
re"uired b the standards or regulations in
force at the date of manufacture and are not
available from the manufacturer. The braking
sstems must have been inspected and
tested and found to be in conformance with
applicable re"uirements.
$rawler cranes are provided with brakes or
other locking devices that effectivel hold the
machine stationar on level grade during the
working ccle. The braking sstem must be
capable of stopping and holding the machine
on the maximum grade recommended for
travel. The brakes or locks are arranged to
engage or remain engaged in the event of
loss of operating pressure or power.
;00< Turntable4Crane Bod, !ake sure that the rotation point of a crane
gears and rollers are free of damage, wear
and properl adFusted and the components
are securel locked and free of cracks or
damage. The swing locking mechanism must
be functional )pawl, pin, and operated in the
cab.
;02< Counter>ei/-t The counterweight must be approved and
installed according to manufacturerIs
specifications with attachment points
secured.
Table ;./6 shows the items that need to be examined for the &rove #ough Terrain ;0
Ton Hdraulic $rane and their corresponding applicable OSHA *. $%# -.*4 and A=S@
63+.0 Standards.
Table 5):B
+ #ou/- Terrain 57 Ton H,draulic Crane
STAN"A#"
;0B CF# (B08)77*<
INS1ECTION ITEMS ANSI
B 2*)7


Outri//ers
-. 8ubrication
*. Structural $ondition
3. Bressure HosesD$onnections

0--....
0-*.-.3
0-*.-.*
17

Turntable4Crane Bod,
-. :nsure 8evelDStabilit
*. >earD&earDTeethD#ollers
3. $racks
;. 6oltsD:nsure Securel Attached

0--.- H 0--.*

Counter !ei/-t
-. Broper SiEe
*. Attachment $onnectionD6olts


0-3.;.*

-.*4.00+)a,)/,
-.*4.00+)a,)-3,)ii, H )iii,
??????????
-.*4.00+)a,);,
----------
----------
En/ine Housin/
-. $leanlinessD=o #agsDTrash
*. &earD!achiner &uards
3. $lear AccessD>alkwas
;. 6rakesD$lutch AdFustments
0. Hand Signal @llustration
4. Swing 6reak

0--...4
0--./.* H 3
----------
0-* )%ig.-4,
0--.;


-.*4.00+)a,)-*,
----------
??????????
-.*4.00+)a,)-;,)i,
-.*4.00+)a,)*,
-.*4.00+)a,)-3, H
-.*4.00+)a,)-3,)iii,
Cab
-. &lassD'isibilit
*. @nstruments and $ontrols
3. %unctioning Horn )>arning
signal,
;. %ire :xtinguisher
0. Appropriate 8oad $harts and
>arning Signs
4. Broper and Ade"uate Access
)StepsD>alkwa,


----------
0-0.-.4.-.-
----------
0-3.;..
0-0.-.-.3
0--./.* H 3

"rum
-. Broper SiEe and Spoiling of
Hoistlines
*. 2rum SidesDShields for cracks
3. 2ogsDBawlsD8ocking 2evices
;. 2rum #otation vs. $ontrol
!otion

0--.3.- H *

----------
----------
----------
----------
----------
----------
----------
-.*4.00+)b,
Boom Sections
;Boom sections correspond >it-
crane model<
-.
*.
3. 6oom Stops
;.
0. Hoist 8ine &uidesDSheaves
4.
5.
/. 9ib AttachmentD
6ackstopsD6ell Slings


0-*.-.3
S-eaCe S,stem
-. :nsure Hoist 8ine and Sheave

18
SiEe !atch
*. >orn
3. 8ubricationD!ove %reel
0--.5.;

Load4AuDiliar, Hoo. and Bloc.
S,stem
-. Sheaves %unction Smoothl
*. Hook #otates %reelD8ubricated
3. Broper 6ecket
;. Broperl #eeved

0---5.--4
-.*4.00+)a,)5,
-.*4.00+)a,)5,)v,
-----------
-----------
!ire #ope4Hoist Line
-. Overall $ondition
*. :nd $onnections
3. 8ubrication
;. $lips

0--.5.4
----------
----------

----------
----------
-.*4.00+)a,).,
-.*4.00+)a,)-0,
Safet, "eCices
-. Anti-Two 6lock 2evices
*. 6oom 6ackstop 2evices
3. Swing #adius >arning 2evices
;. 9ob or Site Specific
2evicesDsstem
)near electric powerDpersonnel
hoisting platforms,


0--.-..
0-* )%ig. -5,
Additional #eferences(
-.*4.00+)a,)-, ---- $rane used in accordance with manufactures specification.
-.*4.00+)a,)0, ---- @nspection( $ompetent Berson.
-.*4.00+)a,)4, ---- Annual @nspection #ecord.
-.*4.00+)a,)-4, ---- =o modifications without written approval of manufacturer.
Table ;./$ shows the items that need to be examined for the !anitowoc ;-++ -0+
Ton 8attice 6oom $rawler $rane and their corresponding applicable OSHA -.*4 and
A=S@ 63+.0 Standards.
Table 5):C + (7* Ton Lattice Boom Cra>ler Crane
STAN"A#"
;0B CF# (B08)77*<
INS1ECTION ITEMS ANSI
B 2*)7


Trac. Cra>ler S,stem
-. 8ubrication
*. $onnection 6olts
3. 2rive $hain )slack H wear,

0--....
0-*.-.3
0-*.-.*

Turntable4Crane Bod, ;%pper
!or.s<
-. Assure 8evelDStabilit
*. >earD&earDTeethD#ollers
3. $racks
;. 6oltsDBins - Assure Securel
Attached

0--.- H 0--.*
19

Counter !ei/-t
-. Broper SiEe
*. Attachment $onnectionD6olts

0-3.;.*

-.*4.00+)a,)/,
-.*4.00+)a,)-3,)ii, H
)iii,
---------
-.*4.00+)a,);,
----------
----------

En/ine Housin/
-. $leanlinessD=o #agsDTrash
*. &earD!achiner &uards
3. $lear AccessD>alkwas
;. 6rakesD$lutch AdFustments
0. Hand Signal @llustration
4. Swing 6reak

0--...4
0--./.* H 3
----------
0-* )%ig.-4,
0--.;


-.*4.00+)a,)-*,
-----------
----------
-.*4.00+)a,)-;,)i,
-.*4.00+)a,)*,
-.*4.00+)a,)-3, H
-.*4.00+)a,)-3,)iii,
Cab
-. &lassD'isibilit
*. @nstruments and $ontrols
3. %unctioning Horn )warning
signal,
;. %ire :xtinguisher
0. Appropriate 8oad $harts and
>arning Signs
4. Broper and Ade"uate Access
)stepsDwalkwa,

----------
0-0.-.4.-.-
----------
0-3.;..
0-0.-.-.3
0--./.* H 3

Hoist "rum S,stem
-. Broper SiEe and Spoiling of
Hoistlines
*. 2rum SidesDShields for $racks
3. 2ogsDBawlsD8ocking 2evices
;. 2rum #otation vs. $ontrol !otion
0. $lutch and 6rakes

0--.3.- H *


----------
----------
----------
----------
----------
----------
----------
-.*4.00+)b,
Boom Sections
;Boom sections correspond >it-
crane model<
-. 6ase Section Broperl Attached
*. Bin $learance
3. 6oom 8acingD$ord 2amage
;. 6oom Stops
0. &antr Sstem A-%rame
4. Hoist 8ine &uidesDSheaves
5. 6oom Section $onnection
BinsD<es
/. 6oom and &antr Support
Sstem
.. 9ib AttachmentD6ackstopsD6ell
Slings
)9ib Securit 2evice,


0-*.-.3

S-eaCe S,stem
-. :nsure Hoistline and Sheave SiEe
!atch

0--.5.;
20
*. >orn
3. 8ubricationD!ove freel

Load4AuDiliar, Hoo. and Bloc.
S,stem
-. Sheaves %unction Smoothl
*. Hook #otates %reelD8ubricated
3. Broper 6ecket
;. Broperl #eeved

0---5.--4
-.*4.00+)a,)5,
-.*4.00+)a,)5,)v,
-----------
-----------
!ire #ope4Hoist Line
-. Overall $ondition
*. :nd $onnections
3. 8ubrication
;. $lips

0--.5.4
----------
----------

----------
----------
-.*4.00+)a,).,
-.*4.00+)a,)-0,
Safet, "eCices
-. Anti-Two 6lock 2evices
*. 6oom 6ackstop 2evices
3. Swing #adius >arning 2evices
;. 9ob or Site Specific
2evicesDSstemDBrogram for
work near electric power and use
of personnel hoisting platforms,

0--.-..
0-* )%ig. -5,
Additional references(
-.*4.00+)a,)-, ---- $rane used in accordance with manufactures specification.
-.*4.00+)a,)0, ---- @nspection( $ompetent Berson.
-.*4.00+)a,)4, ---- Annual @nspection #ecord.
-.*4.00+)a,)-4, ---- =o modifications without written approval from manufacturers.
21
AppendiD A ? General Terms and "efinitions
Auxiliar Hoist
A supplemental hoisting unit, usuall of lower
load rating and higher speed than the main
hoist.
Axis of #otation
The vertical axis around which the craneIs
superstructure rotates.
6oom
@n cranes and derricks usage, an inclined spar,
strut, or other long member supporting the
hoisting tackle. Also defined as a structural
member attached to the revolving
superstructure used for guiding and acting as a
support for the load.
6oom Angle @ndicator
An accessor device that measures the angle
of the boom base section centerline to
horiEontal.
6oom Stops
A devise used to limit the angle of the boom at
its highest position.
6rake
A device used for retarding or stopping motion
b friction or power means.
6lock
Sheaves or grooved pulles in a frame
provided with hook, ee, and strap.
$rane
A machine consisting of a rotating
superstructure for lifting and lowering a load
and moving it horiEontall on either rubber
tires or crawler treads.
$ounterweight
>eights used for balancing loads and the
weight of the crane in providing stabilit for
lifting.
2eck
The revolving superstructure or turntable bed.

2rum
The spool or clindrical member around which
cables are wound for raising and lowering
loads.
&antr
A structural frame work )also known as an A
%rame, mounted on the revolving
superstructure of the crane to which the boom
supporting cables are reeved.
Headache 6all
A heav weight attached above the hook on a
single line or whip line to provide sufficient
weight to lower the hook when unloaded.
Holding 6rake
A brake that automaticall sets to prevent
motion when power is off.
22
9ib
An extension attached to the boom point to
provide added boom length for lifting specified
loads.
8oad
The weight of the obFect being lifted or
lowered, including load block, ropes, slings,
shackles, and an other ancillar attachment.
8oad 6lock
The assembl of the hook or shackles, swivel,
sheaves, pins, and frame suspended from the
boom point.
!ain Hoist
Hoist sstem or boom used for raising and
lowering loads up to maximum rated capacit.
!echanical 8oad 6rake
An automatic tpe of friction brake used for
controlling loads in the lowering direction. This
device re"uires tor"ue from the motor to lower
a load but does not impose additional loads on
the motor when lifting a load.
Outriggers
Support members attached to the craneIs
carrier frame which are used to the crane and
ma be blocked up to increase stabilit.
Bawl
Also known as LdogL. @t is a gear locking device
for positivel holding the gears against
movement.
Bendants Stationar cables used to support the boom.
#adius
The horiEontal distance from the axis of
rotation of the craneIs superstructure to the
center of the suspended load.
#eeving
The path that a rope takes in adapting itself to
all sheaves and drums of a piece of e"uipment.
#unning Sheave
Sheaves that rotate as the hook is raised or
lowered
Superstructure
The rotating frame, gantr and boom or other
operating e"uipment.
Test 8oad
An load or force, expressed in pounds, used
for testing or certifing the limitations within
acceptable tolerances of the anticipated load.
Two-6lock
The condition in which the lower load lock or
hook assembl comes in contact with the
upper load block or boom point sheave
assembl.
Cuadrant of Operation
The area of operation that the lift is being
made in. 7suall divided into four "uadrants,
i.e. front, rear and side)s, - left side and right
side.
23
AppendiD B ? General Load C-arts and Operational
Considerations
General Load C!arts( !anufacturerIs operating notes supplied with the machine
contain important information concerning proper set-up, operation and additional
points that need to be considered when calculating load handling capacities of cranes.
!istakes in calculating capacit can cause accidents. Several factors to be considered
when calculating a cranes load capacit, including the following(
A. Load Radius( the horiEontal distance between the center of the crane rotation
to center of the load.
6. "oo# lengt!( including the Fib, swing awa extension or an other
attachments that ma increase length of the boom.
$. arts of line(
2. Quadrant of operation( the area of operation that the lift is being made in1
note different "uadrants usuall have lower lifting capacities.
:. "oo# angle( the angle formed between the horiEontal plane of rotation and
center line of the boom.
%. $eig!t of any attac!#ents( Fib, lattice extension or auxiliar boom point.
&. $eig!t of !andling devices( ball, block, andDor an necessar rigging.
Operational Considerations:
A. >hen working at boom lengths or radii between the figures shown on the load
capacit chart, the next lower capacit rating should be used. @t is dangerous
to guess the capacit for boom lengths or radii between those listed on the
rating plate.
6. @t is ver dangerous to lift a load without knowing whether it is within the
rated capacit while expecting the crane to start to tip to warn of an overload.
$ranes ma suddenl tip over or the boom ma collapse if the load is too
heav.
$. Alwas sta within the rated capacit. Operators must reduce the load
capacit under adverse field conditions until, it is determined, the machine can
safel handle the lift.
2. 8oads shall not be allowed to exceed rated load capacit and working radius.
:. 2o not use counterweights heavier than the manufacturerIs recommended
weight.
%. :ven a light wind can blow the load out of control, collapse booms, or tip
machines.
>inds aloft can be much stronger than at ground level.
&. Broper precautions shall be taken when the velocit of wind exceeds *+-mph.
H. $rane capacit can be adversel effected when the machine set is not level.
@. 2o not lift loads when winds create an unsafe or haEardous condition. 6ooms
should be lowered, if possible, under high wind conditions.
9. %oot pedal brake locks are furnished on some cranes to allow the operator to
rest his legs when suspending the load for short periods of time. Operators
should keep their feet on the pedals while foot pedal brake locks are in use.
6rakes ma cool allowing the load to fall.
<. =o one, except the oiler, instructor or designated person should be allowed on
a crane with the operator when the crane is in operation.
24
AppendiD C ? Basic Crane Components
@n addition to reviewing the OSHA and American =ational Standards @nstitute )A=S@,
standardsDre"uirements for mobile construction cranes, it is important that each
inspector have a basic knowledge of crane components and their general purpose.
The following is a list of basic crane components which should be included in an
inspection. @n addition to a description or purpose statement photographs are
provided to help the inspector recogniEe each item. The list ma not be inclusive, but
is intended to be an aid for an inspector who ma not be a crane expert.
-. !anufacturerIs Operating !anual
*. !achine &uarding
@=SB:$T@O= @T:!S
25
-. !anufacturerIs operating and
maintenance manuals shall accompan
all mobile hoisting e"uipment. These
manuals set forth inspection, operation,
and maintenance criteria for each mobile
crane and not generall available from
an other source.
-. !anufacturerIs Operating !anual
*. All exposed moving parts such as
gears, chains reciprocating or rotating
parts are to be guarded or isolated.
*. !achine &uarding
3. Swing $learance Brotection
;. High 'oltage >arning Signs
@=SB:$T@O= @T:!S
3. The swing radius of the counterweight
shall be established and guarded to
prevent personnel or other e"uipment
from being struck b the counterweight.
Special attention shall be given to
guarding of the swing radius when near
buildings or other structures. The swing
radius guarding is intended to simpl be a
warning device and not necessaril a
barricade guard rail. There are no strength
re"uirements associated with swing radius
protection.
26
3. Swing $learance Brotection
;. High voltage warning signs shall be
displaed on the exterior of the
e"uipment on each side and on the
counterweight of the crane.
;. High 'oltage >arning Signs
0. 6oom Stops
4. 9ib 6oom Stops
@=SB:$T@O= @T:!S
0. 6oom stops are telescoping, shock
absorbing, or hdraulic-tpe safet
devices designed and installed in a
manner to stop or shut off power to the
boom controls. The purpose of the boom
stops is to prevent the boom from being
raised to a point where the center of
gravit is shifted to the rear of the crane
causing the boom to fall backwards from
to lack of resistance andDor control of
boom movement.
6oom stops can be inspected and
checked for proper function b raising
the boom ver slowl until contact is
made and power for boom movement is
stopped.
0. 6oom Stops
4. 9ib stops are restraints designed to
prevent the Fib from being raised to the
point that it overturns onto the boom
sections. 9ib stops, like boom stops, are
telescoping, shock absorbing, hdraulic
devices, designed to warn the operator
that the Fib load block has approached
the point at which
overtippingDoverturning is possible if
raising the load line continues.
27
4. 9ib 6oom Stops
5. 6oom Angle @ndicator
/. 6oom Hoist 2isconnects
@=SB:$T@O= @T:!S
5. 6oom Angle @ndicators are re"uired to
indicate the angle of the boom tip from the
base section on a horiEontal plane. The
ma be either mechanical )activated b
gravit, or electronic, with a displa
readout in the cab. Accurate readout of
boom angle determines load capacit and
working radius.
5. 6oom Angle @ndicators
/. 6oom Hoist 2isconnects are designed to
automaticall stop the boom from hoisting
when the boom reaches a predetermined
high angle
/. 6oom Hoist 2isconnects
.. Anti-Two 6lock 2evices
-+. Bower $ontrolled 8owering
@=SB:$T@O= @T:!S
28
.. Anti-Two 6lock 2evices are designed to
prevent a hoist block andDor load from being
hoisted into contact with the boom tip b
putting sufficient stress on the wire rope
that it is either cut or stressed to the point
that the line separates and the load falls
onto someone or something. A=S@ re"uires
that all hdraulic cranes be e"uipped with
anti-two block devices.
.. Anti-Two 6lock 2evices
-+. All functions of hdraulic cranes
feature Lpower controlled loweringL.
Safet devices known as Lholding valvesL
or Lcounter balanceL valves, which
prevent uncontrolled decent in the event
of hdraulic pressure loss. To test the
effectiveness of these safet devices,
retract the clinders or lower the hoist
drum with the engine not running. This
would appl to the boom lift and
extension clinder as well as the
outrigger clinders and hoist drums. =o
movement should take place without
hdraulic pressure.
-+. Bower $ontrolled 8owering

--. 8eveling @ndicator 2evices
-*. Sheaves
@=SB:$T@O= @T:!S
29
--. 8eveling of the crane is extremel
important. @f a crane is out of level more
than -
o
it exerts a side load on the crane,
and can effect structural capacit. @t also
can increase the load radius when the
crane is rotated to another "uadrant of
operation.
--. 8eveling @ndicator 2evices
-*. All sheaves should be checked for
cracks, grooving, or damage from two-
blocking. 7ndue looseness in the bearing
or bushing should be noted. The sheaveIs
groove surface should be smooth and
slightl larger than the wire rope being
used. @t should be checked with a sheave
gauge to be sure it is the proper siEe for
the wire rope being used. On most
hdraulic cranes, sheave guards which
prevent the wire rope from coming off
the sheave, are removable pins. 6e sure
that all of these pins are in place.
-*. Sheaves
-3. !ain Hoist and Auxiliar 2rums
-;. !ain 6oom, 9ib and 6oom :xtensions
@=SB:$T@O= @T:!S
30

-3. 2rum lagging and flanges should be
inspected for cracks or other deficiencies
and winch mounting bolts should be
checked. An undue movement of the
drum on its bearings should be noted.
The wire rope anchoring to the drum
should meet the manufacturers
specifications and must not be
LoverspooledL. @n other words, with the
rope full spooled on the drum, the
drum flanges must extend above the top
wrap of the rope. An spoiling devices,
such as rollers, or drum rotation
indicators, must be functioning properl.
-3. !ain Hoist and Auxiliar 2rums
-;. All components of the boom
assembl should be checked for cracks,
bends, or other deformities. On
hdraulic cranes, special attention
should be given to the topside of the
boom where the extension sections
exert an upward force. All connecting
pins and bolts should be checked. >ear
pads should be adFusted properl or
replace if necessar.
-;. !ain 6oom, 9ib and 6oom :xtensions

-0. 8oad Hooks and Hook 6lock
-4. Hdraulic Hoses, %ittings and Tubing
@=SB:$T@O= @T:!S
31

-0. Hooks should be examined to see if
the are cracked or distorted beond
allowable tolerances. =o welding or
heating should be done on hooks. Hooks
and blocks should be labeled as to their
capacit and weight.
$onnecting bolts on block cheek plates
should be checked. Hook swivels and
sheave guards should also be checked.

-0. 8oad Hooks and Hook 6lock
-4. All hdraulic hoses, fittings, swivels,
and tubings should be checked for
leaking. On flexible hoses, be sure that
the working pressure stamped on the
hose is more than the working pressure
it will be exposed to.
-4. Hdraulic Hoses, %ittings and Tubing
-5. Outriggers
-/. 8oad #ating $hart
@=SB:$T@O= @T:!S
32
-5. Outrigger beams and housings should
be checked for cracks or distortions.
Outrigger floats, or pads, should be
checked for damage. The floats must
have the capacit to be securel attached
to the outriggers. Outrigger beams should
be marked to indicate when the are full
extended.
-5. Outriggers
-/. A durable load rating chart for the
specific model and serial number of the
crane shall be accessible to the operator
at his operating or work station. All
limitations, warnings, specifications and
safet data should be displaed
-/. 8oad #ating $hart
-.. >ire rope
*+. $ab
@=SB:$T@O= @T:!S
33
-.. >ire rope should be removed from
service when the conditions listed in *.
$%# -.*4.00+)a,)5, are found. The
include outside wire wear, reduction in
diameter, broken wires, distortion,
corrosion, or heat damage. Special
attention should be given to standing
rope, such as pendants, at the end
fittings. @t should be determined that the
wire rope is the proper diameter, length,
and tpe of construction for that
particular crane and it should be spooled
evenl on the hoist drum.
-.. >ire rope
*+. The cab should be clean and free
from clutter. All controls should be
labeled as to their function and free to
return to the neutral position when
released, unless designed to do
otherwise. All gauges and warning lights
should be operable and a fire
extinguisher )at least 0-6$, should be
mounted in the cab. The seat should be
securel attached and the cab door
should open outward and operate
smoothl. :lectrical and other warning
signs should be posted in the cab. All
glass must be safet glass with no cracks
or distortions.
*+. $ab
34

2
 
APPENDIX B - GENERAL LOAD CHARTS AND OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS APPENDIX C - BASIC CRANE COMPONENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Staff from the OSHA National Office provided assistance in preparing this report. Mike Marshall and Chuck Hardesty, Office of Construction and Engineering; Ted Twardowski, Office of Construction and Civil Engineering Safety Standards provided initial information and reviewed comments; James Calvert, Engineer in Training, typed and edited the report, and developed charts, tables, and graphics for the report. William Smith, Director of Safety and Health, International Union of Operating Engineers; Richard Giacin, Administrator, Local 478, International Union of Operating Engineers, Meridan, CT.; and Scott Buck, Safety Director, Local 150, International Union of Operating Engineers, Plainfield, IL, contributed technical assistance, photographs and review comments throughout the project. Individual members of the ASME/ANSI B30 Committee, provided technical information, materials, pictures and continual review comments. Those members include: Paul Zorich, U.S. Department of the Navy and Chair of the B30 Committee; Theodore A. Christensen, Liberty Mutual Insurance Co; Bradley D. Closson, President, North American Crane Bureau, West; James J. Headley, President, Crane Institute of America, Inc.; Carson L. Huneycutt, Equipment Operations Manager, J.A. Jones, Inc.; Edward E. Rudy, U.S. Department of the Army; and Robert C. Wild, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. A special thanks to Leon (Skip) S. Johnson, American Equipment Company for his technical assistance and review comments and in acquiring photographs and video footage of a simulated crane inspection on a Flour Daniels, Inc., construction project in LA. Steve Peterson, Training Manager, American Crane Corporation, Dennis Eckstine, Director, Product Safety, Grove Corp., and Dan Wolff, Manager for Engineering, National Crane Corp. for review comments and technical assistance. Tom Kollins, Vice President, Specialized Carriers and Riggers Association, SC&RA, through the membership, provided assistance and initial evaluation of contents and format. ABSTRACT This document provides background information about lifting principles and serves as a guideline for inspecting mobile construction cranes. The relationship of many components of cranes and their inter-dependence in lifting operations, OSHA requirements for proper maintenance schedules, and safe crane operations will be discussed in this document. This document contains a listing and description of major components or operations to be considered or examined when inspecting lifting equipment. Two types of commonly used cranes, a crawler lattice boom crane and a hydraulic rough terrain crane, were selected as examples in developing these guidelines. Descriptive text and photographs illustrate 18 inspection items critical to most crane inspections. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

3

OSHA compliance officers, project safety and health managers, and insurance inspectors are often required to inspect construction cranes. Inspections normally include lengthy checklists that identify mechanical components and maintenance schedules without adequate descriptions or explanations, pertinent to the relationship between these components and the crane's overall function. Although some crane inspection checklist items are self-explanatory, it must be recognized that due to increasing applications of developing technology in the design and manufacture of cranes, OSHA compliance officers need a better understanding of crane operations and their basic lifting principles, and to keep abreast of related developments in today's construction industry. Since cranes affect a large segment of work at any construction site, crane inspections by the compliance officer and project safety manager must include a survey of the entire operation questions on how the crane will be operating and how other crafts will be affected by working with and around the crane. Observing crane operations prior to an inspection, or asking questions about how it will or has been operating, can indicate possible problem areas that may need a closer review during the inspection process. This document provides an overview and background information on lifting principles of mobile cranes for OSHA inspectors. Also discussed is the relationship between various components of mobile cranes to their lifting capacity and the manufacturers' requirements for conducting proper maintenance schedules are also discussed.

Typical Construction Site Load Block Lowered for Inspection

their capabilities and limitations is critically important for everyone involved in construction today. substantial material costs. two types of cranes typically found on construction sites are discussed in this report. Speed. This report addresses major issues related to the crane itself and provide some basic information on crane capacities and inspection criteria for OSHA compliance officers. a more thorough understanding of cranes. and OSHA compliance officers need to keep abreast of modern crane technology and changes in operating procedures to help them recognize problems before potentially unsafe conditions lead to accidents that result in injuries and/or fatalities.4 1. The inspections performed by OSHA compliance officers and/or other safety professionals also can play an important role by identifying hazards as well as safe crane operations. indicates that although mechanical failures represent only 11% of the causes of crane accidents. safety professionals. Since it would be difficult for a single report to fully address all types of cranes available in today's market.0 Introduction Over the past few decades. With these factors in mind. Regulations – Federal OSHA regulations and applicable ASME/ANSI and PCSA standards. In addition. utility. the need for a better understanding of crane operations and the implementation of appropriate maintenance schedules is evident in preventing accidents. Today. and usually spectacular media coverage. A recent study by Don Dickie. capacity. . preventive maintenance must be performed as required by the crane manufacturer and/or the supplier to ensure safe crane operation. The crane can perform safely and economically when operated within the design parameters set by the manufacturer. Typical Crane inspection Checklist – Listing of critical items and components recommended for periodic inspection. Modern Ringer Crane 500-Ton Capacity Due to significant advances in lifting technology. Therefore. they usually result in the major accidents involving injuries. manufacturers design and build stronger and lighter cranes in response to specific industry needs. there has been a significant increase in the cost of cranes due in part to improved engineering design and specific job site requirements. fatalities. a recognized crane authority with the Construction Safety Association of Ontario. Some of the issues encountered during inspections cover the following three areas:    Basic Crane Operations – Lifting principles/mechanics and some operational criteria. Cranes and associated rigging equipment must be inspected regularly to identify any existing or potentially unsafe conditions. and reach (radius) have been improved to the point that the crane has become an indispensable workhorse for construction. as well as equipment damages. Studies and analyses of crane accidents involving mechanical failure show they are frequently due to a lack of preventive maintenance or adequate training and/or experience on the part of the personnel involved. site supervisors. crane operators. It is important that not only crane operators but also other personnel working with cranes receive training in crane operations.

primarily in boom hoist and load line controls. a hydraulic rough terrain crane and a crawler lattice boom friction crane. There are several significant differences between these two cranes. Cranes are designed for both general use and for specific purposes. Another clear difference between the two types of cranes is their load charts. They cannot be expected to move from one type of crane to another without adequate education and training on the specifics of each piece of equipment. Due to the fixed boom length. Conversely. Variety of Crawler Rough Terrain (R/T) Crane . or size of crane manufactured. model.5 This report also contains general guidelines for crane inspections. Similar to the vast automobile industry. On the other hand. individualized inspection criteria. crane manufacturers produce similar models or types of cranes for the same purpose. This requires extensive motion control and an anticipation of boom movement to accurately lift or place loads. Two commonly used cranes. Each type. the lattice boom friction crane has a somewhat simplified load chart. the hydraulic crane's load charts are more extensive or complicated due to the variations in boom length thus requiring more training in the multiple charts available. may have different operating controls and require specialized operator training. are shown as examples for developing this document. and different preventive maintenance schedules. The somewhat smooth operation of the boom control adjustments on the hydraulic cranes may suggest falsely to the novice operator or inspector that it is a simple crane to operate. or its adjustment in load position tend to be a little jerky requiring more skill and experience to operate smoothly. often with different sizes of the same model of crane. The differences between these two types of cranes are significant enough to require specific training on each type of crane. as well as some suggested operational considerations and inspection items recognized by a number of construction companies. Crane operators cannot be expected to be totally knowledgeable and proficient in the operation of the many diverse types of cranes available today. the lattice boom friction cranes' movement in its boom.

bending and twisting of any of the components. a structural failure has occurred and overstressed components are then subject to catastrophic failure at some future time. i. As loads are added beyond its rated capacity. the leverage of a mobile crane fluctuates.. help determine lifting capacity and are part of the overall structural integrity of a crane's lifting capacity. Nevertheless. Structural Integrity The crane's main frame. 4. stated in another way. angle of the boom and its radius (distance from the cranes center of rotation to the center of load) to the center of gravity of the load. Stability can be effected by the fluctuating leverage the crane exerts on the load as it swings. the damage may not be apparent.6 2. In areas where soft ground poses a support problem for stability. The following elements may also affect structural integrity:  The load chart capacity in relationship to stability. Structural failure may occur before a stability failure. and attachments are all considered part of the structural integrity of lifting. it includes all permanent damage such as overstressing. 2. a mobile crane's structure may fail long before it tips. boom sections. In other words. carrier. cranes can fail structurally if overloaded enough.e. a level firm surface. Center of Gravity The center of gravity of any object is the point in the object where its weight can be assumed to be concentrated or. Rotation of the upperworks (cab. a crane can be made more stable by moving the tipping axis further away from its center of gravity. boom. This rotation causes the crane's center of gravity to change and causes the distance between the crane's center of gravity and its tipping axis to also change. Provided the ground is capable of supporting the load. Stability Is the relationship of the load weight. Leverage Cranes use the principle of leverage to lift loads. load) changes the location of the crane's center of gravity. . The extra stability gained by moving the tipping axis can then be used to carry larger/heavier loads. all wire ropes. The stability of a crane could also be effected by the support on which the crane is resting. including stationary supports or attachment points.0 Mobile Cranes Mobile Crawler Crane Operator's View Lattice Boom 2.1 Lifting Principles There are four basic lifting principles that govern a crane's mobility and safety during lifting operations: 1. As the upperworks rotates. it is the point in the object around which its weight is evenly distributed. In addition to overturning (stability failure). The crane's rated capacity is therefore altered in the load chart to compensate for those changes in leverage. A crane's load rating is generally developed for operations under ideal conditions. Unlevel surfaces or soft ground therefore must be avoided. crawler track and/or outrigger supports. its leverage point or fulcrum. mats and or blocking should be used to distribute a crane's load and maintain a level stable condition. INCREASED STABILITY = MORE LOAD 3. upperworks and counterweight). When a crane is overstressed. The location of the center of gravity of a mobile crane depends primarily on the weight and location of its heaviest components (boom. counterweight. in addition. Structural failure is not limited to total fracture. a crane may fail structurally before there is any sign of tipping.

and manufactured for safe operation. unstable soil. site coordination. The boom angle limitations which affect stability and capacity. Rough Terrain (R/T) 45-Ton Crane (Hydraulic Crane) 150-Ton Crawler Lattice Boom Friction Crane . Personnel working around crane operations also need to be aware of hoisting activities or any job restrictions imposed by crane operations. and ensure job site coordination of cranes. take time to observe the overall crane operations with respect to load capacity. structural failure can occur. but in structural failure it is almost impossible to predict what component will fail at any given time. they also have an increased potential for catastrophic accidents if safe operating practices are not followed. When used properly they can provide safe reliable service to lift or move loads.2 Operational Considerations Cranes are carefully designed. such as location of overhead electric power lines. limitations. Crane operators and personnel working with cranes need to be knowledgeable of basic crane capacities. Because cranes have the ability to lift heavy loads to great heights. No matter what the cause. 2. and specific job site restrictions. Crane inspectors therefore should become aware of these issues and. or high wind conditions.7  and The knowledge of the length of boom and radius in determining capacity. and any job site restrictions in effect. if the crane is overloaded. prior to starting an inspection. tested.  Stability failures are foreseeable.

Department of Labor. "Mobile it Hydraulic Crane Standards. "Mobile and Locomotive Cranes" will be the reference document for the crane inspection criteria. The employer shall maintain a record of the dates and results of inspections for each hoisting machine and piece of equipment. or by a government or private agency recognized by the U. "Cableways". special hazard warnings. (iv) A person shall be designated to observe clearance of the equipment and give timely warning for all operations. (5) The employer shall designate a competent person who shall inspect all machinery and equipment prior to each use. shall be conspicuously posted on all equipment. equipment or machines shall be operated approximate to power lines only in accordance with the following: (i) For lines rated 50 kV or below. Where manufacturer's specifications are not available. Any deficiencies shall be repaired.550. or scope recommended by the manufacturer.4 inch for each 1 kV over 50 kV. (ii) For lines rated over 50 kV. (2) Rated load capacities. minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the crane or load shall be 10 feet plus 0. to make sure it is in safe operating condition. In no case shall the original safety factor of the equipment be reduced. (16) No modifications or additions which effect the capacity or safe operation of the equipment shall be made by the employer without the manufacturer's written approval. and during use. but never less than 10 feet. "Derricks". (15) Except where electrical distribution and transmission lines have been deenergized and visibly grounded at point of work or where insulating barriers.2 ASME/ANSI and PCSA Requirements . References also are made to the Power Crane Shovel Association (PCSA). or instruction. where it is difficult for the operator to maintain the desired clearance by visual means. "Hoists".S.5. Instructions or warnings shall be visible to the operator while he is at his control station. 2. Standard No. The ASME/ANSI "B30" series of standards address: "Cranes". Some key requirements state that: (1) The employer shall comply with the manufacturer's specifications and limitations applicable to the operation of any and all cranes and derricks. For the purpose of this document ASME/ANSI B30. the limitations assigned to the equipment shall be based on the determinations of a qualified engineer competent in this field and such determinations will be appropriately documented and recorded. or defective parts replaced. Attachments used with cranes shall not exceed the capacity. 29 CFR 1926. or twice the length of the line insulator.1 OSHA Construction Requirements A review of the OSHA crane standards provide a basis for a crane inspection." 3. To supplement the OSHA standards for Cranes and Derricks. annual inspection of the hoisting machinery shall be made by a competent person. "Jacks" and "Slings". Construction crane standards requirements are found in Subpart N. (vi) Any overhead wire shall be considered to be an energized line unless and until the person owning such line or the electrical utility authorities indicate that it is not an energized line and it has been visibly grounded. minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the crane or load shall be 10 feet. not a part of or an attachment to the equipment or machinery. "Hooks". (6) A thorough. rating.0 Requirements For Mobile Cranes 3. and recommended operating speeds.8 3. references are made to applicable ASME/ANSI and PCSA standards. have been erected to prevent physical contact with the lines. before continued use.

such as: Operator Qualifications Observe the operator in action and when the opportunity permits ask a few question concerning the cranes capacity and restrictions imposed. 2 4. or walk around. 4. and proximity of electrical power lines. as well as the following: A. Crane Records Ask for inspection and maintenance records and verify that the appropriate operator's manual and load charts are available for that particular crane in use. physical obstructions to movement or operation. Leveling Has the crane operator set the crane up level and in a position for safe rotation and operation? . look for crane stability.5 PSCA Standard No. some general information about the crane operator's qualifications and the crane's certifications should be gathered. of the entire operation that questions how the crane will be operating and how other crafts will be effected by working with and around the crane? Observation of crane operations prior to an inspection. crane inspections (to the OSHA Compliance Officer and Project Safety Managers) must include a survey.9 ASME/ANSI B30. either due to activity involved in or functional limitations.0 Inspecting A Mobile Crane Since cranes impact such a large segment of work going on at any job site. or simply asking how cranes have or will be used. 4.1 Preinspection Before the actual inspection. can indicate possible problem areas that may need a closer review during the inspection process.2 Crane Setup In your initial survey of crane operations.

Correct Use The crane operator must show adequate understanding and proficient use of the load charts as related to the equipment in use and the loads being lifted.3 Electrical Hazards Working around or near electrical power lines is one of the most dangerous practices for crane operations. boom sections. track and outrigger supports. 4. they also have an increased potential for catastrophic accidents if safe. C. Structural Integrity The crane's main frame. tested. and attachments are all considered part of structural components of lifting. and its radius (the distance from the cranes center of rotation to the center of load) to the center of gravity of the load. A safety plan must be developed for the job and must be explained to all personnel involved in the lift. where applicable. the condition of crane loading where the load moment acting to overturn the crane is less than the moment of the crane available to resist overturning. and manufactured for safe operations. D. Accidents can be avoided by careful job planning. Also. .   Availability The crane operator must have in his/her possession the appropriate load charts related to the crane in use and for the loads being lifted. The OSHA requirements limit crane operations to a minimum clearance of 10 feet.10 B. including stationary supports. 4. A qualified representative of the power company or owner of the electrical power line are on the job site to verify that the power lines have been deenergized or properly grounded. all wire ropes. angle of boom. help determine lifting capacity and are part of the structural elements of crane operations. operation of mobile cranes near de-energized electric power lines is not recommended until the following steps have been taken:     The power company or owner of the power line has deenergized the lines. 4. Because cranes have the ability to lift heavy loads to great heights. cranes are carefully designed. crawler. Outriggers Are the outriggers. The person in charge must have a clear understanding of the work to be performed and consider all potential dangers at the job site.5 Safe Operating Precautions As stated above. When used properly they can provide safe reliable service to lift or move loads. operating practices are not followed. Cranes should not be used to handle materials or loads stored under electric power lines. extended and being used in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations? Stability The relationship of the load weight. The lines are visibly grounded and appropriately marked at jobsite.4 Load Charts Load Charts are the principle set of instructions and requirements for boom configurations and parts of line which establish crane capacity for safe crane operations*. Durable warning signs are installed at the operator's station and on the outside of the crane identifying the clearance requirements between the crane/load and electrical power lines. In addition. In addition.

or repair charges. Safe. Only qualified and properly designated people shall operate the crane. * See General Load Charts and Operational Considerations. as well as an increased potential for accidents. A thorough inspection program can forecast maintenance needs or potential equipment failures or malfunctions. (1968). ANSI B30. In addition to the performance of these regular inspections. a walkaround inspection needs to be conducted to ensure that the machine is in proper working condition. The lack of such a program could result in serious deterioration of the equipment which might lead to excessive replacement. Inspection intervals recommended in manufacturer's publications represent minimum intervals for average operating conditions.11 Before operations begin for the day. they provide a means of detecting potential hazards or conditions that could contribute to a sequence of events leading to an accident. More frequent inspection intervals should be required if use and site conditions are severe and warrant it. it is impossible for the manufacturer to determine inspection intervals appropriate for every situation. and OSHA both require inspections be divided into two categories: frequent and periodic. if not checked could affect capacities as well as personnel safety. Inspections are also designed as maintenance checks and/or as a verification that proper repairs or modifications of equipment have been completed which. and the economic operation of lifting equipment. Crawler Crane Prepared for Inspection 4. cannot be ensured without regular safety inspections and thorough preventive maintenance programs. Due to the wide variation of conditions under which a crane may operate.6 Inspection Types . inspections are required by manufacturers to guarantee optimal operating efficiency and capacity as determined by the load charts. Regular inspections are important. reliable. Appendix B. Since the initial load rating for cranes was determined and set under ideal conditions.5. Tower Crane Collapse (Cleaning Up Debris) The American National Standards Institute. equipment is required to be inspected and tested to ensure that it is capable of safe and reliable operation when initially set or placed in service and after any major repairs or any design modification.

Remember. Frequent inspections are usually performed at the start of each shift by the operator who walks around the crane looking for defects or problem areas. and when possible. hook rollers brackets. any hook that is deformed or cracked must be removed from service. This may indicate fatigue of the metal which often precedes a failure. lubricating oil. procedures. and attachments.12 A. Check all functional operating mechanisms such as: sheaves. 12. 3. Visually inspect the crane for fluid leaks. or lowering the load or boom for any defects that might result in unsafe operation. Look for corrosion under any attachments that are connected to the chords and lacing. The fuel. both air and hydraulic. and lights. such as cracking. the ends also tend to draw together which pulls the main chords out of shape. limit switches. Inspect and test all brakes and clutches for proper adjustment and operation. Visually inspect each component of the crane used in lifting. Components that have a direct bearing on the safety of the crane and whose status can change from day to day with use must be inspected daily. drums. Check for freedom of rotation of all swivels. or hook twists of 10 degrees or more. but are not limited to the following: 1. coolant and hydraulic oil reservoirs should be filled to proper levels. and approval. bending. Frequent inspections should include. This precaution is especially important on tubular booms where every component must be straight and free from any dents. 14. drums rigging. 4. locking mechanisms. tears. sheaves. Always inspect boom hoist lockout and other operator aids. If they are loose. Hooks with cracks. observed during operation for any defects that could affect safe operation. hardware. swinging. Check the condition of the floats. daily inspections should be made at the start of each shift. outrigger components. Check that all exposed moving parts are guarded. instruments. breaks. They must be cut out and replaced with lacing to the manufacturer's specifications. 2. A removed guard may indicate that a mechanic is still working on part of the crane. 5. or any other deformation of the welds. such as anti-two-block devices (ATB) and load moment indicators (LMI). Watch carefully for cracking or flaking of paint. 6. safety devices. 10. brakes. Inspect tires for cuts. for proper operation and calibration. Check the turntable connections for weld cracks and loose or missing bolts. Frequent Inspections (daily to monthly intervals). Visually inspect the boom and jib for straightness and any evidence of physical damage. . jib. and proper inflation. the main chord can lose substantial support in that area. When checking the outriggers be sure that neither the beams nor the cylinders are distorted. must be removed from service. hooks. Check that the crane is equipped with a fully charged fire extinguisher and that the operator knows how to use it. Do not attempt to straighten these members by hammering or heating them and drawing them out. Inspect all wire rope (including standing ropes). excessive throat openings of 15%. If they are kinked or bent. and check that they are securely attached. 11. 8. there is a good chance that they have been stretched. the boom. hydraulic cylinders. 13. Visually check that the crane is properly lubricated. When lacing is bent. look for bent lacing. To help determine when the crane is safe to operate. 9. Check that the welds are not cracked and that both the beams and cylinders extend and retract smoothly and hold the load. On lattice booms. 7.

excessive wear. and all other accessories. It includes those items listed for daily inspections as well as. The manufacturer's maintenance and inspection records. The periodic inspection procedure is intended to determine the need for repair or replacement of components to keep the machine in proper operating condition. Magnetic particle or other suitable crack detecting inspection should be performed at least once each year by an inspection agency retained by the owner. Check for any broken or cracked glass that may affect the view of the operator. removable outrigger attachments lugs. Inspect all power plants for proper operation. cracked. Any evidence of oil or air leaks on the surfaces of flexible hoses or at the point at which the hose in question joins the metal end couplings. gears. While the engine is running. Be careful to check for distortion or cracks in main frame. Inspection records of the inspected crane shall be maintained monthly on critical items in use. 13. outrigger assemblies. Check that the identification number is permanently and legibly marked on jibs. check all gauges and warning lights for proper readings and operate all controls to see that they are functioning properly. Inspect all hydraulic and pneumatic hoses. hook roller brackets. 16. rollers. Periodic Inspections (1 to 12 month intervals). 2. and ropes. shafts. the signature of the person who performed the inspection. Inspection reports should be requested and retained in the crane file. Inspect the entire crane for structural damage. . braking. Inspect cracked or worn sheaves and drums. Check hydraulic booms for bending. including load and boom angle indicators. These inspection records should include. Inspect for excessive wear on drive sprockets and/or chain stretch. 6. or equivalent should be used. side sway. structural defects. and ratchets. 12. and corrosion. and structural attachments of the upperworks to the carrier. including any enlargement.13 15. equalizer beams. Check that the counterweight is secure. locking devices. This inspection record should be kept readily available for review. cracked. and the serial number. or corroded members in the load/stress bearing structure. Inspect for worn. and welds. such as brakes. fittings. Any abnormal deformation of the outer covering of hydraulic hose. pawls. such as the following. d. the date of inspection. crane hooks. Inspect all welded connections for cracks. b. The cause of the rubbing or abrasion must be immediately eliminated. Inspect the main chords and lacings and other structural items for paint flaking and cracking which may indicate potential failure. c. Any evidence of abrasive wear that could have reduced the pressure retaining capabilities of the hose or tube effected. for proper operation and calibration. 9. or other identifier. bearings. and locking devices. 11. 10. 4. local or otherwise. or distorted parts such as: pins. Inspect for excessive wear on brake and clutch system parts. blocks. 1. but not limited to. bends. and tubing. 3. 8. as well as for dents. Conditions. Inspect for correct action of steering. 7. Any deterioration of any system component should cause the inspector to question whether further use would constitute a safety hazard. abrasions. and hydraulic or air leaks. or droop. linings. require replacement of the part in question: a. B. Any leakage at connections which cannot be eliminated by normal tightening. Inspect all indicators. 5. forms/checklist. Check for deformed.

5. operation and maintenance criteria for each mobile crane and lifting capacity. from the cab position. the running line or rope of the main hoist drum and secondary line or jib line. the following should be considered when inspecting any crane: 1. Materials for guarding rear swing area. followed by a specific inspection of items or components. reciprocating or rotating parts are guarded or isolated. lacing. High-voltage warning signs displaying restrictions and requirements should be installed at the operator's station and at strategic locations on the crane. and inspect. 2. paying particular attention to mechanical systems leaks or damage (oil. anti-two-block devices. 6. Ask the operator. ground crew (riggers). 4. where practical. 4. Look at crane cab for properly marked controls.8A –Inspection Items and Description ITEM (1) Manufacturer's operating and Maintenance Manuals DESCRIPTION / PURPOSE Manufacturer's operating and maintenance manuals shall accompany all mobile hoisting equipment. jib back stops. All exposed moving parts such as gears.14 4. lifting components. air) and structural deficiencies. request the operator to lower boom to look at the condition of booms sections. If practical. including the crane manufacturer's inspection and maintenance requirements.8 Specific Inspection Items and References The following table identifies the specific inspection items for cranes as well as a brief description and purpose to help the inspector to have a better understanding of what and why the item is being inspected. 3.7 Starting the Inspection Since most crane inspections begin with a general walkaround and observation of the overall crane set up and operation. the following guidelines are presented in that order. hydraulic. The first section addresses the general items and operational considerations when inspecting any type of crane. damaged instruments and for properly displayed and legible load charts. chains. and capacities. Grove Rough Terrain 45 Ton (hydraulic) and Manitowoc 4100 150 Ton Crawler (lattice boom friction) cranes. and/or supervisors appropriate questions on load charts. 7. Request the operator to raise and lower the boom/load line. followed by the specific inspection items for two specific types of cranes. Check crane set up and stability of outriggers on hydraulics and/or the effectiveness of cribbing on crawlers. Shock absorbing or hydraulic type boom stops (2) Guarding (3) Swing Clearance Protection (4) High-Voltage Warning Sign (5) Boom Stops . request that the crane be rotated to check all clearances and overall stability. Request for and review all inspection and maintenance documents for the crane being inspected. Table 4. and the condition of the hook. Conduct a walkaround inspection. if possible. In general. These manuals set forth specific inspection. rigging and load weight determinations. Check brake action and its ability to stop.

Automatic Boom Hoist Shutoff (9) Two-Blocking Device (10) Power Controlled Lowering (11) Leveling Indicating Device (12) Sheaves (13) Main Hoist and Auxiliary Drums System     Minimum number of wraps to remain on the drum. All cranes hydraulic and fixed boom used to hoist personnel must be equipped with two-blocking devices on all hoistlines intended to be used in the operation. The anti-two blocking device has automatic capabilities for controlling functions that may cause a two-blocking condition. A boom hoist disconnect safety shutoff or hydraulic relief automatically stops the boom hoist when the boom reaches a predetermined high angle. Lower load blocks must be equipped with close fitting guards. Sheave grooves shall be smooth and free from surface defects. Cranes for use to hoist personnel must be equipped for power controlled lowering operation on all hoistlines. cracked. Almost every wire rope installation has one or more sheaves – ranging from traveling blocks with complicated reeving patterns to equalizing sheaves where only minimum rope movement is noticed. Spooling is that characteristic of a rope which affects how it wraps onto and off a drum. cracks. Rope end attachment. Check clutch. . A boom angle indicator readable for the operator station is installed accurately to indicate boom angle. or chipped. The bottom of the sheave groove must form a close fitting saddle for the rope being used. Cranes with telescoping booms should be equipped with a two-blocking damage prevention feature that has been tested onsite in accordance with manufacturers requirements. Flanges must not be broken. A device or procedure for leveling the crane must be provided. and sprockets for wear. Spoiling is affected by the care and skill with which the first larger of wraps is applied on the drum. Drum crushing is a rope condition sometimes observed which indicates deterioration of the rope. (6) Jib Boom Stops (7) Boom Angle Indicator Jib stops are restraints to resist overturning. chains. or worn places that could cause rope damage. Manufacturer's criteria during inspection usually specify: (8) Boom Hoist Disconnect.15 are installed in a manner to resist boom overturning. Condition of drum grooves Condition of flanges at the end of drum.

The rating charts shall contain the following: (18) Load Rating Chart     A full and complete range of manufacturer's crane loading ratings at all stated operating radii. Jib Boom. or hydraulic fittings. (15) Load Hooks and Hook Blocks (16) Hydraulic Hoses Fittings and Tubing Flexible hoses must be sound and show no signs of leaking at the surface or its junction with the metal and couplings.16   (14) Main Boom. Optional equipment on the crane such as outriggers and extra counterweight which effect ratings. Rope condition. Boom jibs. If not. Outriggers must be visible to the operator or a signal person during extension or setting. types and type of control are in accordance with manufacturer's specifications. Non-certified repaired members shall not be used until recertified. . i. the manufacturer's specifications and operating procedures must be clearly defined. Hooks and blocks are counterweighted to the weight of the overhaul line from highest hook position. Boom Extension Spooling characteristics of rope. Hooks and blocks must be permanently labeled with rated capacity. locations. All hooks used to hoist personnel must be equipped with effective positive safety catches especially on hydraulic cranes. i.e. must not be cracked or corroded. Bolts and rivets must be tight. or extensions. rigid tubing. over front. Certification that repaired boom members meet manufacturers original design standard shall be documented. over side. Hoses must not show blistering or abnormal deformation to the outer covering and no leaks at threaded or clamped joints that cannot be eliminated by normal tightening or recommended procedures. over rear. There should be no evidence of excessive abrasion or scrubbing on the outer surfaces of hoses. (17) Outriggers Outrigger number. Outriggers are designed and operated to relieve all weight from wheels or tracks within the boundaries of the outriggers. A work area chart for which capacities are listed in the load rating chart. A durable rating chart(s) with legible letters and figures must be attached to the crane in a location accessible to the operator while at the controls. Hooks must not have cracks or throat openings more than 15% of normal or twisted off center more than 10o from the longitudinal axis.e. Weights of auxiliary equipment.

wear and properly adjusted and the components are securely locked and free of cracks or damage. Truck cranes and self-propelled cranes mounted on rubber-tired chassis or frames must be equipped with a service brake system. (23) Counterweight . A clearly distinguishable list of ratings based on structural. Contains all crane function controls in addition to mechanical boom angle indicators. External damage from crushing.17 load block. boom extensions. The braking system must be capable of stopping and holding the machine on the maximum grade recommended for travel. A description of hoistline reeving requirements on the chart or in operator's manual. Excess wear. and clear unbroken glass. hydraulic or other factors rather than stability. seat belts. (21) Braking Systems (22) Turntable/Crane Body Make sure that the rotation point of a crane gears and rollers are free of damage. A list of no-load work areas. warning lights and buzzers. The counterweight must be approved and installed according to manufacturer's specifications with attachment points secured. fire extinguishers. electric wipers. The braking systems must have been inspected and tested and found to be in conformance with applicable requirements. Unless the owner/operator can show written evidence that such systems were not required by the standards or regulations in force at the date of manufacture and are not available from the manufacturer. Crawler cranes are provided with brakes or other locking devices that effectively hold the machine stationary on level grade during the working cycle. jibs. pin) and operated in the cab. secondary stopping emergency brake system and a parking brake system. horn.    (19) Wire Rope Main hoist and auxiliary wire rope inspection should include examining for    (20) Cab Broken wires. kinking. dash lights. The brakes or locks are arranged to engage or remain engaged in the event of loss of operating pressure or power. cutting or corrosion. The swing locking mechanism must be functional (pawl.

Lubrication 2.550) INSPECTION ITEMS Outriggers 1. Pressure Hoses/Connections Turntable/Crane Body 1. 3.4.1.3 5-1.9.550(a)(8) 1926. Cracks 4. Glass/Visibility 2.9.8. 2.550(a)(14)(i) 1926. 5. Attachment Connection/Bolts Engine Housing 1926. Structural Condition 3. Ensure Level/Stability 2.550(a)(12) ------------------1926.16) 5-1.8B shows the items that need to be examined for the Grove Rough Terrain 45 Ton Hydraulic Crane and their corresponding applicable OSHA 29 CFR 1926 and ANSI B30.1 & 5-1.18 Table 4.9 5-2.550(a)(2) 1926.2 & 3 .5 5-1.1 ---------5-3.550(a)(13)(ii) & (iii) ---------- ANSI B 30. Functioning Horn (Warning signal) 4. Wear/Gear/Teeth/Rollers 3. 4.2 1926.3 5-2.8B – Rough Terrain 45 Ton Hydraulic Crane STANDARD (29 CFR 1926. Proper and Adequate Access (Steps/Walkway) ---------5-5.9 5-5. Table 4. Appropriate Load Charts and Warning Signs 6.2 5-1.550(a)(13)(iii) 1.1.6 5-1. Instruments and Controls 3.2 5-3.1.5 Standards.6. Bolts/Ensure Securely Attached Counter Weight 1.4.1. Swing Break Cab 1926.1. Cleanliness/No Rags/Trash Gear/Machinery Guards Clear Access/Walkways Brakes/Clutch Adjustments Hand Signal Illustration 5-1. Fire Extinguisher 5.2 & 3 ---------5-2 (Fig.550(a)(4) ------------------- 1.1.4 6.8.550(a)(13) & 1926. Proper Size 2.

Clips Safety Devices ------------------1926. 5.550(a)(7)(v) --------------------1. Boom Stops 4.1. Sheaves Function Smoothly 2. Ensure Hoist Line and Sheave Size Match 2. Hook Rotates Freely/Lubricated 3. 8. Drum Sides/Shields for cracks 3. Job or Site Specific Devices/system (near electric power/personnel hoisting platforms) 5-1.19 Drum 1.1. Overall Condition 2.550(a)(7) 1926. 7.550(a)(15) 1. Proper Size and Spoiling of Hoistlines 2.6 ------------------5-1-7. 3.4 5-2. Jib Attachment/ Backstops/Belly Slings Sheave System 1. Anti-Two Block Devices 2. Drum Rotation vs.7. Properly Reeved Wire Rope/Hoist Line 1926. Boom Backstop Devices 3.550(a)(9) 1926.7.9 5-2 (Fig. 2. Dogs/Pawls/Locking Devices 4.3 5-1. Lubrication/Move Freely Load/Auxiliary Hook and Block System 1. Control Motion Boom Sections (Boom sections correspond with crane model) ---------------------------------------------------------------1926.1-6 5-1. Swing Radius Warning Devices 4. Hoist Line Guides/Sheaves 6.1 & 2 .3. Worn 3. Lubrication 4.550(b) 1. 17) 5-1. End Connections 3. Proper Becket 4.

8. Table 4.6 5-1. Attachment Connection/Bolts Engine Housing 1926.4. Cracks 4.16) 5-1.550(a)(2) ---------5-5. Connection Bolts 3.1.2 & 3 ---------5-2 (Fig.2 5-1. Table 4.6.1.1 ---------5-3.3 . Swing Break Cab 1. 3.550(a)(8) 1926. Glass/Visibility 2. Assure Level/Stability 2.4 5-3.1. 1926.4.8C – 150 Ton Lattice Boom Crawler Crane STANDARD (29 CFR 1926. 4.550) INSPECTION ITEMS Track Crawler System 1.8C shows the items that need to be examined for the Manitowoc 4100 150 Ton Lattice Boom Crawler Crane and their corresponding applicable OSHA 1926 and ANSI B30. Bolts/Pins . Cleanliness/No Rags/Trash Gear/Machinery Guards Clear Access/Walkways Brakes/Clutch Adjustments Hand Signal Illustration 5-1. Appropriate Load Charts and Warning Signs 1926.20 Additional References: 1926.2 ANSI B 30.550(a)(1) ---. Proper Size 2.550(a)(6) ---.9 5-2.550(a)(13)(ii) & (iii) --------1926.550(a)(12) -------------------1926.1.2 5-1. Fire Extinguisher 5.9 5-5.Crane used in accordance with manufactures specification.3 5-2.Annual Inspection Record.9. 1926.No modifications without written approval of manufacturer. Wear/Gear/Teeth/Rollers 3.Assure Securely Attached Counter Weight 1. 5. Functioning Horn (warning signal) 4. 1926. Instruments and Controls 3.550(a)(14)(i) 1926. 2.5 Standards.5 6.550(a)(4) ------------------1.1.550(a)(16) ---. Lubrication 2. Drive Chain (slack & wear) Turntable/Crane Body (Upper Works) 1.9.Inspection: Competent Person.550(a)(5) ---.1 & 5-1.1.

2. Dogs/Pawls/Locking Devices 4.7.8.1 & 2 ------------------------------------------------------1926.4 5-2.2 & 3 6. Lubrication/Move freely Load/Auxiliary Hook and Block System 1.6 ------------------5-1-7. End Connections 3. Proper and Adequate Access (steps/walkway) Hoist Drum System 1. Boom and Gantry Support System 9. Lubrication 5-1. Hook Rotates Freely/Lubricated 3.3. Sheaves Function Smoothly 2. 7.1.550(a)(7)(v) --------------------1.21 1926.7. Drum Sides/Shields for Cracks 3. Proper Size and Spoiling of Hoistlines 2. Properly Reeved Wire Rope/Hoist Line 1926. Control Motion 5. 5. 4. Jib Attachment/Backstops/Belly Slings (Jib Security Device) Sheave System 1. Proper Becket 4. Overall Condition 2. Base Section Properly Attached Pin Clearance Boom Lacing/Cord Damage Boom Stops Gantry System A-Frame Hoist Line Guides/Sheaves Boom Section Connection Pins/Keys 8.550(a)(13)(iii) 5-1. 3.1-6 5-1. Ensure Hoistline and Sheave Size Match 2.3 5-1.550(a)(7) 1926.550(b) . Worn 3. Drum Rotation vs. 6. Clutch and Brakes Boom Sections (Boom sections correspond with crane model) ---------1.550(a)(13) & 1926.

1.General Terms and Definitions Auxiliary Hoist A supplemental hoisting unit.550(a)(9) 1926.550(a)(6) ---. 17) Additional references: 1926.No modifications without written approval from manufacturers.Annual Inspection Record.9 5-2 (Fig. Job or Site Specific Devices/System/Program for work near electric power and use of personnel hoisting platforms) 5-1. 1926. Swing Radius Warning Devices 4. usually of lower load rating and higher speed than the main . Clips Safety Devices ------------------1926.550(a)(16) ---.550(a)(15) 1.Crane used in accordance with manufactures specification.22 4. Appendix A .Inspection: Competent Person.550(a)(5) ---. Boom Backstop Devices 3. 1926. 1926.550(a)(1) ---. Anti-Two Block Devices 2.

including load block. An accessory device that measures the angle of the boom base section centerline to horizontal. The assembly of the hook or shackles. and strap. pins. Hoist system or boom used for raising and lowering loads up to maximum rated capacity. The spool or cylindrical member around which cables are wound for raising and lowering loads. slings. swivel. strut. Axis of Rotation The vertical axis around which the crane's superstructure rotates. eye. An extension attached to the boom point to provide added boom length for lifting specified loads. A device used for retarding or stopping motion by friction or power means. A machine consisting of a rotating superstructure for lifting and lowering a load and moving it horizontally on either rubber tires or crawler treads. ropes. The revolving superstructure or turntable bed. shackles. Sheaves or grooved pulleys in a frame provided with hook.23 hoist. sheaves. or other long member supporting the hoisting tackle. Also defined as a structural member attached to the revolving superstructure used for guiding and acting as a support for the load. A heavy weight attached above the hook on a single line or whip line to provide sufficient weight to lower the hook when unloaded. An automatic type of friction brake used for controlling loads in the lowering direction. A brake that automatically sets to prevent motion when power is off. an inclined spar. In cranes and derricks usage. A structural frame work (also known as an A Frame) mounted on the revolving superstructure of the crane to which the boom supporting cables are reeved. Weights used for balancing loads and the weight of the crane in providing stability for lifting. and any other ancillary attachment. A devise used to limit the angle of the boom at its highest position. The weight of the object being lifted or lowered. and frame suspended from the boom point. This device requires torque from the motor to lower a load but does not impose additional loads on Boom Boom Angle Indicator Boom Stops Brake Block Crane Counterweight Deck Drum Gantry Headache Ball Holding Brake Jib Load Load Block Main Hoist Mechanical Load Brake .

It is a gear locking device for positively holding the gears against movement. Load Radius: the horizontal distance between the center of the crane rotation to center of the load. The horizontal distance from the axis of rotation of the crane's superstructure to the center of the suspended load. The path that a rope takes in adapting itself to all sheaves and drums of a piece of equipment. . i.left side and right side. Pawl Pendants Radius Reeving Running Sheave Superstructure Test Load Two-Block Quadrant of Operation Appendix B . rear and side(s) . Outriggers Support members attached to the crane's carrier frame which are used to the crane and may be blocked up to increase stability. expressed in pounds.24 the motor when lifting a load. Also known as "dog". used for testing or certifying the limitations within acceptable tolerances of the anticipated load. The area of operation that the lift is being made in.e. gantry and boom or other operating equipment. Several factors to be considered when calculating a cranes load capacity. operation and additional points that need to be considered when calculating load handling capacities of cranes. Usually divided into four quadrants. including the following: A. Any load or force. The condition in which the lower load lock or hook assembly comes in contact with the upper load block or boom point sheave assembly. Mistakes in calculating capacity can cause accidents. front. Sheaves that rotate as the hook is raised or lowered The rotating frame.General Load Charts and Operational Considerations General Load Charts: Manufacturer's operating notes supplied with the machine contain important information concerning proper set-up. Stationary cables used to support the boom.

Boom length: including the jib.25 B. and/or any necessary rigging. It is very dangerous to lift a load without knowing whether it is within the rated capacity while expecting the crane to start to tip to warn of an overload. Parts of line: Quadrant of operation: the area of operation that the lift is being made in. The following is a list of basic crane components which should be included in any inspection. or tip machines. B. the machine can safely handle the lift. Always stay within the rated capacity. under high wind conditions. Appendix C . Do not lift loads when winds create an unsafe or hazardous condition. J.Basic Crane Components In addition to reviewing the OSHA and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards/requirements for mobile construction cranes. D. In addition to a description or purpose statement photographs are provided to help the inspector recognize each item. block. F. Brakes may cool allowing the load to fall. it is determined. No one. collapse booms. Boom angle: the angle formed between the horizontal plane of rotation and center line of the boom. D. Booms should be lowered. C. but is intended to be an aid for an inspector who may not be a crane expert. if possible. G. Foot pedal brake locks are furnished on some cranes to allow the operator to rest his legs when suspending the load for short periods of time. The list may not be inclusive. Do not use counterweights heavier than the manufacturer's recommended weight. I. Weight of any attachments: jib. it is important that each inspector have a basic knowledge of crane components and their general purpose. E. Loads shall not be allowed to exceed rated load capacity and working radius. note different quadrants usually have lower lifting capacities. Cranes may suddenly tip over or the boom may collapse if the load is too heavy. swing away extension or any other attachments that may increase length of the boom. When working at boom lengths or radii between the figures shown on the load capacity chart. F. Operators should keep their feet on the pedals while foot pedal brake locks are in use. It is dangerous to guess the capacity for boom lengths or radii between those listed on the rating plate. lattice extension or auxiliary boom point. G. Operators must reduce the load capacity under adverse field conditions until. Operational Considerations: A. Weight of handling devices: ball. H. Crane capacity can be adversely effected when the machine set is not level. C. Proper precautions shall be taken when the velocity of wind exceeds 20-mph. Even a light wind can blow the load out of control. Winds aloft can be much stronger than at ground level. the next lower capacity rating should be used. E. instructor or designated person should be allowed on a crane with the operator when the crane is in operation. . except the oiler. K.

These manuals set forth inspection.26 1. . Manufacturer's Operating Manual 2. Machine Guarding INSPECTION ITEMS 1. Manufacturer's operating and maintenance manuals shall accompany all mobile hoisting equipment. and maintenance criteria for each mobile crane and not generally available from any other source. operation.

High voltage warning signs shall be displayed on the exterior of the equipment on each side and on the counterweight of the crane. Special attention shall be given to guarding of the swing radius when near buildings or other structures. High Voltage Warning Signs 3. INSPECTION ITEMS 3. . All exposed moving parts such as gears.27 1. 2. There are no strength requirements associated with swing radius protection. Swing Clearance Protection 4. The swing radius of the counterweight shall be established and guarded to prevent personnel or other equipment from being struck by the counterweight. The swing radius guarding is intended to simply be a warning device and not necessarily a barricade guard rail. Machine Guarding 3. Swing Clearance Protection 4. Manufacturer's Operating Manual 2. chains reciprocating or rotating parts are to be guarded or isolated.

Boom stops can be inspected and checked for proper function by raising the boom very slowly until contact is made and power for boom movement is stopped. Boom Stops 6. Jib Boom Stops 7. designed to warn the operator that the jib load block has approached the point at which overtipping/overturning is possible if raising the load line continues. shock absorbing.28 4. High Voltage Warning Signs 5. Jib stops are restraints designed to prevent the jib from being raised to the point that it overturns onto the boom sections. The purpose of the boom stops is to prevent the boom from being raised to a point where the center of gravity is shifted to the rear of the crane causing the boom to fall backwards from to lack of resistance and/or control of boom movement. They may be either mechanical (activated by INSPECTION ITEMS . like boom stops. Boom stops are telescoping. Boom Hoist Disconnects 7. 6. are telescoping. 5. Jib stops. Boom Stops 6. Boom Angle Indicators are required to indicate the angle of the boom tip from the base section on a horizontal plane. Jib Boom Stops INSPECTION ITEMS 5. hydraulic devices. shock absorbing. or hydraulic-type safety devices designed and installed in a manner to stop or shut off power to the boom controls. Boom Angle Indicator 8.

with a display readout in the cab. Power Controlled Lowering INSPECTION ITEMS 9. Boom Angle Indicators 8. Accurate readout of boom angle determines load capacity and working radius. Anti-Two Block Devices are designed to prevent a hoist block and/or load from being hoisted into contact with the boom tip by putting sufficient stress on the wire rope that it is either cut or stressed to the point that the line separates and the load falls onto someone or something.29 gravity) or electronic. 7. Boom Hoist Disconnects are designed to automatically stop the boom from hoisting when the boom reaches a predetermined high angle 8. Boom Hoist Disconnects 9. ANSI requires that all hydraulic cranes be equipped with anti-two block devices. Anti-Two Block Devices 10. .

Safety devices known as "holding valves" or "counter balance" valves.30 9. 11. Sheaves INSPECTION ITEMS 11. Leveling Indicator Devices . All functions of hydraulic cranes feature "power controlled lowering". Leveling of the crane is extremely important. Leveling Indicator Devices 12. which prevent uncontrolled decent in the event of hydraulic pressure loss. It also can increase the load radius when the crane is rotated to another quadrant of operation. This would apply to the boom lift and extension cylinder as well as the outrigger cylinders and hoist drums. No movement should take place without hydraulic pressure. 10. Power Controlled Lowering 11. Anti-Two Block Devices 10. To test the effectiveness of these safety devices. If a crane is out of level more than 1o it exerts a side load on the crane. retract the cylinders or lower the hoist drum with the engine not running. and can effect structural capacity.

12. Undue looseness in the bearing or bushing should be noted. grooving.31 12. must be functioning properly. or drum rotation indicators. The sheave's groove surface should be smooth and slightly larger than the wire rope being used. Be sure that all of these pins are in place. The wire rope anchoring to the drum should meet the manufacturers specifications and must not be "overspooled". It should be checked with a sheave gauge to be sure it is the proper size for the wire rope being used. Any spoiling devices. . the drum flanges must extend above the top wrap of the rope. In other words. All sheaves should be checked for cracks. Jib and Boom Extensions INSPECTION ITEMS 13. sheave guards which prevent the wire rope from coming off the sheave. or damage from twoblocking. are removable pins. Sheaves 13. Main Boom. Any undue movement of the drum on its bearings should be noted. with the rope fully spooled on the drum. such as rollers. Drum lagging and flanges should be inspected for cracks or other deficiencies and winch mounting bolts should be checked. Main Hoist and Auxiliary Drums 14. On most hydraulic cranes.

Connecting bolts on block cheek plates should be checked. bends. No welding or heating should be done on hooks. Hooks and blocks should be labeled as to their capacity and weight. Fittings and Tubing INSPECTION ITEMS 15. Wear pads should be adjusted properly or replace if necessary. Hydraulic Hoses. .32 13. On hydraulic cranes. Main Boom. Hooks should be examined to see if they are cracked or distorted beyond allowable tolerances. special attention should be given to the topside of the boom where the extension sections exert an upward force. All components of the boom assembly should be checked for cracks. Hook swivels and sheave guards should also be checked. Main Hoist and Auxiliary Drums 14. Load Hooks and Hook Block 16. 14. Jib and Boom Extensions 15. or other deformities. All connecting pins and bolts should be checked.

Fittings and Tubing 17. swivels. The floats must have the capacity to be securely attached to the outriggers. should be checked for damage. fittings. On flexible hoses. Outrigger floats. . Outrigger beams should be marked to indicate when they are fully extended. be sure that the working pressure stamped on the hose is more than the working pressure it will be exposed to. Outrigger beams and housings should be checked for cracks or distortions.33 15. and tubings should be checked for leaking. 16. Load Hooks and Hook Block 16. or pads. Hydraulic Hoses. All hydraulic hoses. Outriggers 18. Load Rating Chart INSPECTION ITEMS 17.

broken wires. Special attention should be given to standing rope. specifications and safety data should be displayed 18. or heat damage. length. corrosion. and type of construction for that particular crane and it should be spooled evenly on the hoist drum. They include outside wire wear. A durable load rating chart for the specific model and serial number of the crane shall be accessible to the operator at his operating or work station. distortion.34 17. All limitations. Cab INSPECTION ITEMS 19. reduction in diameter. . warnings. Wire rope should be removed from service when the conditions listed in 29 CFR 1926. Outriggers 18. It should be determined that the wire rope is the proper diameter. Load Rating Chart 19. at the end fittings. Wire rope 20.550(a)(7) are found. such as pendants.

unless designed to do otherwise. All gauges and warning lights should be operable and a fire extinguisher (at least 5-BC) should be mounted in the cab. The seat should be securely attached and the cab door should open outward and operate smoothly. Electrical and other warning signs should be posted in the cab. All controls should be labeled as to their function and free to return to the neutral position when released.35 19. Cab . Wire rope 20. The cab should be clean and free from clutter. All glass must be safety glass with no cracks or distortions. 20.

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