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projt of ob

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Published by: shabana_naqvi6120 on Aug 15, 2011
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He is beyond my thoughts and much more than this acknowledgement. under his dynamic guidance I am able to express myself. And I am now at the stage to complete my project. And finally I am thankful that he cooperated with me 2 . Thanks to Sir Waqas Raja.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT May ALLAH bless me with such kind of dedicated teacher in future.


BACKGROUND AND DEVELOPMENT OF REINFORCEMENT THEORY Behavioral theories of learning and motivation focus on the effect that the consequences of past behavior have on future behavior. Skinner argued that the internal needs and drives of individuals can be ignored because people learn to exhibit certain behaviors based on what happens to them as a result of their behavior. E. REINFORCEMENT. all other things being equal. PUNISHMENT. Skinner was a key contributor to the development of modern ideas about reinforcement theory. Thorndike articulated this idea in 1911. AND EXTINCTION TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT: 4 .F.L. This is in contrast to classical conditioning. but responses that are followed by discomfort will be weakened. In reinforcement theory a combination of rewards and/or punishments is used to reinforce desired behavior or extinguish unwanted behavior.REINFORCEMENT THEORY Reinforcement theory is the process of shaping behavior by controlling the consequences of the behavior. The law of effect basically states that. and that individuals will generally select the response that has been associated with positive outcomes in the past. responses to stimuli that are followed by satisfaction will be strengthened. in what has come to be known as the law of effect. B. Reinforcement theory suggests that individuals can choose from several responses to a given stimulus. which focuses on responses that are triggered by stimuli in an almost automatic fashion.

For example. Another example is if a mouse presses a button to avoid shock. Rather. it has some other effects as well as decreasing undesired behavior. Do not confuse this concept with punishment. punishment is not the opposite of reinforcement.Positive reinforcement is an increase in the future frequency of behavior due to the addition of a stimulus immediately following a response. Skinner discusses that while it may appear so. such as a drug addict taking drugs for the added euphoria and eliminating withdrawal symptoms. a current of external air serves as positive reinforcement because it is pleasantly cool or negative reinforcement because it removes uncomfortably hot air. and the necessity of the distinction is often debated. Avoidance conditioning is a form of negative reinforcement that occurs when behavior prevents an aversive stimulus from starting or being applied. decreases behavior presented taken away likelihood ofincreases behavior likelihood of positive punishment negative punishment positive reinforcement negative reinforcement DIFFERENCE BETWEEN REINFORCEMENT: POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE Distinguishing "positive" from "negative" can be difficult. Turning off (or removing) an annoying song when a child asks their parent is an example of Negative reinforcement (if this results in an increase in asking behavior of the child in the future). Negative reinforcement is an increase in the future frequency of behavior when the consequence is the removal of an aversive stimulus. Some reinforcement can be simultaneously positive and negative. in a very warm room. Giving (or adding) food to a dog contingent on its sitting is an example of positive reinforcement (if this results in an increase in the future behavior of the dog sitting). Many behavioral psychologists simply refer to reinforcement or punishment—without polarity—to cover all consequent environmental changes. 5 .

6 . punishment attempts to decrease the probability of specific behaviors being exhibited. both positive and negative reinforcement have the effect of increasing the probability that a particular behavior will be learned and repeated. Punishment attempts to decrease the probability of specific behaviors. An example of punishment might be demoting an employee who does not meet performance goals or suspending an employee without pay for violating work rules. An example of negative reinforcement might be a salesperson that exerts effort to increase sales in his or her sales territory (behavior). The administration of the negative reinforcer should make it more likely that the salesperson will continue to exert the necessary effort in the future. with the effect of strengthening the probability of the behavior being repeated. but many learning experts suggest that it should be used only if positive and negative reinforcement cannot be used or have previously failed. The administration of the positive reinforcer should make it more likely that the salesperson will continue to exert the necessary effort in the future.Generally speaking. Negative reinforcement results when an undesirable behavioral consequence is withheld. Negative reinforcement is often confused with punishment. but they are not the same. there are two types of reinforcement: positive and negative. Positive reinforcement results when the occurrence of a valued behavioral consequence has the effect of strengthening the probability of the behavior being repeated. Thus. because of the potentially negative side effects of punishment. The specific behavioral consequence is called a reinforcer. Punishment is one of the more commonly used reinforcement-theory strategies. As mentioned above. An example of positive reinforcement might be a salesperson that exerts extra effort to meet a sales quota (behavior) and is then rewarded with a bonus (positive reinforcer). Punishment is the administration of an undesirable behavioral consequence in order to reduce the occurrence of the unwanted behavior. negative reinforcement attempts to increase desired behavior. which is followed by a decision not to reassign the salesperson to an undesirable sales route (negative reinforcer).

Extinction may alternately serve to reduce a wanted behavior. managers may have to continue to offer positive behavioral consequences. The process of extinction begins when a valued behavioral consequence is withheld in order to decrease the probability that a learned behavior will continue. Types of reinforcement schedules: 7 . The timing of the behavioral consequences that follow a given behavior is called the reinforcement schedule. such as when a positive reinforcer is no longer offered when a desirable behavior occurs. but receives no praise in subsequent months for such behavior. if an employee is continually praised for the promptness in which he completes his work for several months. to avoid unwanted extinction. this is likely to result in the ceasing of that behavior. Over time. For example. his desirable behaviors may diminish.Extinction is similar to punishment in that its purpose is to reduce unwanted behavior. Thus.

and behavior learned in this way may be subject to rapid extinction. INTERMITTENT. Fixed interval schedules of reinforcement occur when desired behaviors are reinforced after set periods of time. fixed ratio. However. this type of reinforcement is generally not practical in an organizational setting. Research suggests that continuous reinforcement is the fastest way to establish new behaviors or to eliminate undesired behaviors. There are at least four types of intermittent reinforcement schedules: fixed interval. and variable ratio. The simplest example of a fixed interval schedule is a weekly pay check. but the person can only sign up once per day Fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement applies the reinforcer after a set number of occurrences of the desired behaviors. Examples of variable interval schedules would be special recognition for successful performance and promotions to higher-level positions. This reinforcement schedule appears to elicit desired behavioral change that is resistant to extinction. Like the fixed interval schedule. the fixed ratio schedule may not produce consistent. Variable interval reinforcement schedules are employed when desired behaviours are reinforced after varying periods of time. Example: reinforcement provided for the first response after 1 second Lab example: rat is reinforced for the first bar press after 15 seconds passes since the last reinforcement Real world example: calling a radio station is reinforced with a chance to win a prize. long-lasting. variable interval. A fixed interval schedule of reinforcement does not appear to be a particularly strong way to elicit desired behavior. Example: every second response is reinforced Lab example: rat reinforced with food after each 5 bar-presses in a Skinner box Real-world example: Used car dealer gets a $1000 bonus for each 10 cars sold on the lot. Intermittent reinforcement means that each instance of a desired behavior is not reinforced. Lab example: a rat is reinforced for the first bar press after an average of 10 seconds passes since the last reinforcement Real world example: a predator can expect to come across a prey on a variable interval schedule Variable ratio reinforcement schedule applies the reinforce after a number of desired behaviors have occurred. behavioral change. Organizational examples of variable ratio schedules are bonuses or special awards that 8 .CONTINUOUS: If behavior is reinforced each time it occurs. Example: reinforcement is provided for the first response after an average of 3 seconds since the last reinforcement. One organizational example of this schedule is a sales commission based on number of units sold. it is called continuous reinforcement. with the number changing from situation to situation.

then provide no Consequence (ignore the behavior). then when the behavior is shown. If you want to increase a behavior (more frequent. more likely). provide a Consequence of Reward.are applied after varying numbers of desired behaviors occur. a rat is reinforced for each 10 bar presses Real world example: a roulette player betting on specific numbers will win on average once every 37 tries RULES OF REINFORCEMENT There are three basic principles of this theory. Anything that increases the behavior is the reward and anything that decreases the behavior is punishment. If you want to decrease a behavior (less frequent. then when the behavior is shown. Variable ratio schedules appear to produce desired behavioral change that is consistent and very resistant to extinction. 9 . These Rules provide an excellent blueprint for influence. if you want a behavior to extinguish (disappear. more intense. REINFORCEMENT THEORY IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGERS: Reinforcement theory provides implications for managers. fall out of the behavioral repertoire). every third response is reinforced Lab example: on average. The three Rules describe the logical outcomes which typically occur after consequences. managers should do the following: Tell individuals what they can do to get positive reinforcement: the work standard lets all employees know what kind of behavior is acceptable. then when the behavior is shown. less likely). Example: on average. Neither Rewards nor Punishments extinguish behavior. These are the Rules of Consequences. provide a Consequence of Punishment. 1st managers should keep in mind that motivated behavior is influenced by employee's learning what is acceptable / unacceptable to the organization. Rewards increase behavior. When working with employees to develop motivation. less intense. Punishments decrease behavior. Finally.

Rewards on performance: managers should not reward individuals in the same way. Recognize that failure to reward can also modify behavior: if a manager does not praise for good performance. A 2006 study found that only 41% of employers thought that pay was a key factor in losing top talent whereas 71% of top performers indicated that it was a top reason. the reinforcement should immediately follow the good performance. Administer the reinforcement as close in time to the related behavior as possible: to achieve maximum impact. Management can take three major strategic decisions to reward employees which are: What to pay? How to pay? How to construct employee recognition programs? REINFORCEMENT AT ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL 10 . Rewards are intrinsic in the form of employee recognition and extrinsic in the form of compensation system. the employee must know why. The higher the performance the better the reward should be. By applying these guidelines managers help employees to focus on the organizational objectives while at the same time modifying employee behavior.Tell individuals what they are doing wrong: if rewards are not coming. REINFORCEMENT AT INDIVIDUAL LEVEL Reinforcement at individual level can be both intrinsic and extrinsic. Companies often underestimate its importance. the employee will not know what behavior the manager wants. Providing feedback/information will allow the employee to improve motivated behavior. Reinforces such as pay can motivate people that is why reinforcement can be used to motivate employees.

11 . both are rewarded because if only individuals are rewarded then the team effectiveness will suffer and if only teams are rewarded then it can lead to social loafing. it should give group based appraisals. Some research has suggested that whereas financial incentives may be more motivating in the short term.Employee recognition programs range from a spontaneous and private “Thank you” up to widely publicized formal programs in which specific types of behavior are encouraged and the procedures for attaining recognition are clearly identified. EFFECTS OF FUNCTIONS: PRODUCTIVITY ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER JOB SATISFACTION REINFORCEMENT AT ORGANIZATIONAL EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT PRODUCTIVITY: A performance measure including effectiveness and efficiency. Reinforcement counts for both its positive and negative effects because its effect can be repeated by any individual having influence of it. Their only response was recognition. ] REINFORCEMENT AT TEAM LEVEL While rewarding individuals. management must take care that in addition to individual performance evaluations and incentives. 1500 employees were surveyed in a variety of work settings to find out what they considered to be the most powerful workplace motivator. A few years ago. The drawback of rewarding only individuals is that it can hinder or interfere with the development of high performance teams by setting competition among team members. So management must take such strategic decisions that individuals and teams. An organization is effective if it achieves its goals and does so by transferring inputs to outputs at the lowest cost. small group incentives and any other kind of rewards that reinforce team effort and commitment as now days most companies are team based. in the long run non financial incentives are more motivating.

Honour-rarium. bonus and extra pay for extra work so the workers and employees will work hard with full concentration and their will be employee involvement in the job as well which will cause low turn over and organization will not loose its employees. promotions. so there will be more production due to job satisfaction. But absenteeism has direct impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization. and. and add new and fresh ideas to the organization. to retain these employees there should be some kind of reinforcement like rewards. sick leaves and promotions are given to the employees then there is less chances of absenteeism in any organization because if employee is satisfied then he can work with full devotion and concentration with the increase in the organization’s production. it can bring about a complete shut down of the production facility. Like if bonus. It’s obviously difficult for an organization to operate smoothly and to attain its objectives if employees fail to report to their jobs. In organizations they rely heavily upon assembly line production. It may create the opportunity to replace an underperforming individual with someone who has higher skills and motivation. Such reinforcement can be helpful in maintaining a constant environment in the organization. fatigue. it can result in drastic reduction in quality of output. All organizations. In fact. Not all absences are bad because it can have a negative impact on the organization there are many situations in which the organization may benefit by an employee’s voluntarily choosing not to come to work. open up increased opportunities for promotions. and often important decisions must be delayed. For instance illness. in some cases. The work flow is disrupted. if the right people are leaving the organization – the marginal and sub marginal employee’s turnover can be positive. A high rate of turnover can also disrupt the efficient running of an organization when knowledgeable and experienced personal leave and replacements must be found and prepared to assume positions of responsibility.ABSENTEEISM: Failure to report to work. absenteeism can be considerably more than a disruption. JOB SATISFACTION: A general attitude towards ones job. have some turnover. or excess stress can significantly decrease an employee’s productivity. of course. TURNOVER: Voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from the organization. But on other hand turnover can also be harmful for organization as it lost its old trained and skillful employees. It is also an important element for any employee working in any organization because if 12 . the difference between the amount of rewards workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive. To reduce this kind of absenteeism reinforcement can be used by higher authorities.

EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT: A participative process that uses the entire capacity of employees and is designed to encourage increased commitment to the organization success. It can be some domestic problem as well. This would be too much helping for the organization to retain its employees. The reason might be not contented with the pay or the facilities that particular organization is providing. employees will become more motivated. So the involvement of the workers can also be used as a source of reinforcement. turnover and less job involvement. more productive and more satisfied with their jobs. The underlying logic is that by involving workers in those decisions that affect them and by increasing their autonomy and control over their work lives. This shows that employee involvement also plays an important role in the organization.an employee is not satisfied with his job then he may cause some trouble for his organization through absenteeism. ANALYSIS OF ARTICLE: 13 . This would motivate him to improve his work and he will be much satisfied with his job and will work with more concentration. more committed to the organization. Thus it would affect the level of productivity in any organization for this purpose if the organization provides him with the necessary facilities and other conveniences as a reward of working hard on his task or completing the task on time would a reinforcement for him.

” Two types of Reinforcement but only one type of Punishment The fact Skinner described two types of reinforcement but only one type of punishment Feelings Rather Than Behaviors Most of the students have to perceive reinforcement and punishment in terms of their effects on organisms’ emotion rather than behaviors. the concept of negative reinforcement is difficult to teach. These are the reasons why this is so… Surplus Meaning of Negative and Punishment Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary defines reinforcement as “the acts of strengthening”. According to James V. Skinner’s Definitions Skinner’s habit of using word in at least two different ways.This Article describes the problems that occur during the teaching of reinforcement theory. Most of the time skinner defined reinforcement as a behavioral consequences that increases the probability that a response will be repeated in the future. Michigan. Negative as “disagreeable” & Punishment as “suffering pain or loss. But James pointing out that there are two types of punishment positive and negative as well two types of reinforcement positive and negative. 14 .

e. everyone will be strongly influenced through the skilful use of reinforcement principles. what the receiver does. 15 . The reinforces are always delivered under the same conditions to each different receiver. The source has complete control of each receiver (i. 4. In fact it is used too often by managers and typically under the wrong conditions. It is also probably the one influence tool that almost every manager knows. 5. The source has complete control of all significant reinforces for all receivers. 3. when the receiver does it. 2.CONCLUSION: Reinforcement theory is simple and widely applicable. The source is well-trained in the theory and practice of reinforcement. The reinforcement theory will work marvelously when it is properly employed. one should realize that it is not the Swiss Army Knife of persuasion that can be ingeniously applied anytime anywhere with anyone. Under the correct conditions. USING REINFORCEMENT TO BEST EFFECT For using reinforcement to its best following conditions should be fulfilled: 1. The source has a detailed and consistent plan of reinforcement. what other receivers are in the situation). Given the discussion of the limitations of reinforcement theory.


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