Transformer Tests

BEST

BALIKESİR ELEKTROMEKANİK SANAYİ TESİSLERİ A.Ş.

Facility 1 : Ağır Sanayi Bölgesi No 149 10040
Balıkesir / Türkiye

Tel. : + 90 266 241 82 00 Fax : + 90 266 241 52 36


Facility 2 : Organize Sanayi Bölgesi 198 Ada 2 Parsel
Balıkesir / Türkiye

Tel. : + 90 266 281 10 70 Fax : + 90 266 281 10 69

www.besttrafo.com.tr
best@besttransformer.com

Transformer Tests
Page : 1


Introduction :

The methods used during tests and measurements of the Power Transformers, test and measurement
circuits, calculations and evaluation criterias are included in this manual. At the end of this manual,
BEST Balıkesir Transformer Factory laboratory hardware and measurement and test equipments are
listed.

For insulation levels of transformers, electrical characteristics and evaluation, please refer to national
and international standards and customer specifications.

Tests and evaluation definitons are listed below:

Routine Tests :
Page

1. Measurement of winding resistance 2
2. Measurement of voltage ratio and check of phase displacement 4
3. Measurement of short-circuit impedance and load loss 7
4. Measurement of no-load loss and current 10
5. Dielectric tests 12
6. Separate source AC withstand voltage test 14
7. Induced AC voltage test 15
8. Partial-discharge measurement 18
9. Tests on on-load tap-changers 21


Type Tests :

10. Temperature-rise test 22
11. Lightning-Impulse tests 26

Special Tests :

12. Switching impulse voltage test 30
13. Measurement of dissipation factor (tan o) and capacitance 32
14. Measurement of zero sequence impedance(s) 34
15. Determination of sound level 36
16. Measurement of harmonics of the no-load current 40
17. Measurement of insulation resistance 41

List of tests and measuring equipment of the testing laboratory 42










Prepared by : Haluk Odoğlu June 2009 ( 3 th Edition )


This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. A.Ş. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. There
shall be modifications to this document.

Transformer Tests
Page : 2



This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. A.Ş. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. There
shall be modifications to this document.

1- Measurement of winding resistance

Measurement is made to check transformer windings and terminal connections and also both to use
as reference for future measurements and to calculate the load loss values at reference (e.g. 75°C)
temperature. Measuring the winding resistance is done by using DC current and is very much
dependent on temperature. Temperature correction is made according to the equations below:


R R
t
t
2 1
2
1
235
235
= ·
+
+
(for copper) R R
t
t
2 1
2
1
225
225
= ·
+
+
(for aluminium)

R
2
: winding resistance at temperature t
2
, R
1
: winding resistance at temperature t
1


Because of this, temperatures must be measured when measuring the winding resistances and
temperature during measurement should be recorded as well.

Winding resistances are measured between all connection terminals of windings and at all tap
positions. During this, winding temperature should also be appropriately measured and recorded.

The measuring current can be obtained either from a battery or from a constant(stable) current source.
The measuring current value should be high enough to obtain a correct and precise measurement and
small enough not to change the winding temperature. In practice, this value should be larger than
1,2xI
0
and smaller than 0,1xI
N,
if possible.

A transformer consists of a resistance R and an inductance L connected in serial. If a voltage U is
applied to this circuit;


The value of current measurement will be : i
U
R
e
R
L
t
= ÷
÷
(1 ). Here, the time coefficient depends on
L/R ratio.


As the measurement current increases, the core will be saturated and inductance will decrease. In this
way, the current will reach the saturation value in a shorter time.

After the current is applied to the circuit, it should be waited until the current becomes stationary
(complete saturation) before taking measurements, otherwise, there will be measurement errors.

Measuring circuit and performing the measurement

The transformer winding resistances can be measured either by current-voltage method or bridge
method. If digital measuring instruments are used, the measurement accuracy will be higher.
Measuring by the current-voltage method is shown in figure 1.1

In the current – voltage method, the measuring current passing through the winding also passes
through a standard resistor with a known value and the voltage drop values on both resistors (winding
resistance and standard resistance) are compared to find the unknown resistance (winding
Transformer Tests
Page : 3


resistance). One should be careful not to keep the voltage measuring voltmeter connected to the
circuit to protect it from high voltages which may occur during switching the current circuit on and off.


C
B
A
a


b


c
N
DC
Source
A
V












Figure 1.1: Measuring the resistance by Current-Voltage method


The bridge method is based on comparing an unknown (being measured) resistor with a known value
resistor. When the currents flowing in the arms are balanced, the current through the galvanometer
will be zero. In general, if the small value resistors (e.g. less than s1 ohm ) are measured with a Kelvin
bridge and higher value resistors are measured with a Wheatstone bridge, measurement errors will
be minimised.


R
2

G
R
A
R
S

R
1

R
3

R
4

R
x

R’
3
R
N

r
N


R
G
R
x

b
a











Figure 1.2: Kelvin bridge Figure 1.3: Wheatstone bridge

The resistance measured with the Kelvin Bridge;

R R
R
R
x N
= ·
1
2
( R
1
= R
3
ve R
2
= R
4
)

The resistance measured with the Wheatstone Bridge;

b
a
R
x
R =

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shall be modifications to this document.

Transformer Tests
Page : 4


2- Measurement of voltage ratio and check of phase displacement

The no-load voltage ratio between two windings of a transformer is called turn ratio.
The aim of measurement is; confirming the no-load voltage ratio given in the customer order
specifications, determining the conditions of both the windings and the connections and examining the
problems (if any)
The measurements are made at all tap positions and all phases.

Measurement circuit and performing the measurement

2.1 Turn Ratio Measurement

The turn ratio measurement can be made using two different methods;
a. Bridge method
b. By measuring the voltage ratios of the windings
a). Measurement of turn ratio is based on, applying a phase voltage to one of the windings using a
bridge (equipment) and measuring the ratio of the induced voltage at the bridge. The measurements
are repeated in all phases and at all tap positions, sequentially. During measurement, only turn ratio
between the winding couples which have the same magnetic flux can be measured, which means the
turn ratio between the winding couples which have the parallel vectors in the vector diagram can be
measured. (fig 2.1, 2.2, 2.3). In general, the measuring voltage is 220 V a.c. 50 Hz. However,
equipments which have other voltage levels can also be used. The accuracy of the measuring
instrument is ≤ ±0,1%.













Transformer under test Transformer with adjustable range (standard)
Zero position indicator U
1
Applied voltage to the bridge and HV winding (220 V, 50 Hz)
220 V
~
1
1
2
3
U
1

U
2

2
3
U
2
Induced voltage at the LV winding

Figure 1-1: Bridge connection for measuring the turn ratio

Theoretical turn ratio = HV winding voltage / LV winding voltage

The theoretical no-load turn ratio of the transformer is adjusted on the equipment by an adjustable
transformer, it is changed until a balance occurs on the % error indicator. The value read on this error
indicator shows the deviaton of the transformer from real turn ratio as % .

( ) ( )
%100
ratio turn expected
ratio turn expected ratio turn measured
Deviation ·
÷
=



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shall be modifications to this document.

Transformer Tests
Page : 5


b). The voltages at the winding couples to be measured, can be measured at the same time and the
ratio can be determined, or digital instruments which are manufactured for this purpose can be used in
the voltage ratio measurement method. By using such instruments, in addition to measuring the turn
ratio, also determining the connection group (with three phase measuring instrument) and measuring
the currents during measurement are also possible. The method of comparing the vector couple
voltages also allows measuring the angle (phase slip) between vectors at the same time

The no-load deviation of the turn ratios should be ≤ % 0,5 .

2.2 Determining the Connection Group

Depending on the type of the transformer, the input and output windings of a multi-phase transformer
are connected either as star ( Y ) or delta ( D ) or zigzag ( Z ). The phase angle between the high
voltage and the low voltage windings varies between 0° and 360° .

Representing as vectors, the HV winding is represented as 12 (0) hour and the other windings of the
connection group are represented by other numbers of the clock in reference to the real or virtual
point. For example, in Dyn 11 connection group the HV winding is delta and the LV winding is star and
there is a phase difference of 330° (11x30°) between two windings. While the HV end shows 12 (0),
the LV end shows 11 o’clock (after 330°).

Determining the connection group is valid only in three phase transformers. The high voltage winding
is shown first (as reference) and the other windings follow it.

If the vector directions of the connection are correct, the bridge can be balanced.

Also, checking the connection group or polarity is possible by using a voltmeter. Direct current or
alternating current can be used for this check.

The connections about the alternating current method are detailed in standards. An example of this
method is shown on a vector diagram below.














Figure 1-2: Connection group representation and measuring

6
I
II
1
ii
iii
n
i
4
3
2
III
12
11
n'
n
b'
a'
c
b
a
C B
A
The order of the measurements:

1)- 3 phase voltage is applied to ABC phases
2)- voltage between phases (e.g. AC) is
measured
3)- A short circuit is made between C and n
4)- voltage between B and b' is measured
5)- voltage between A and c' is measured
c'

As seen from the vector diagram, in order to be Dyn 11 group , A.c' > AB > B.b' correlation has to
realized. Taking the other phases as reference for starting, same principles can be used and also for
determining the other connection groups, same principles will be helpful.

This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. A.Ş. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. There
shall be modifications to this document.

Transformer Tests
Page : 6



This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. A.Ş. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. There
shall be modifications to this document.


Group Connection Connection Connection
0
Yy 0 Dd 0 Dz 0
1
Yd 1 Dy 1 Yz 1
5
Yd 1 Dy 5 Yz 5
6
Yy 6 Dd 6 Dz 6
1
Yd 11 Dy 11 Yz 11
The table is formed based on IEC 60076 and the idea that the winding directions of the HV and LV
windings are same

Figure 2.3: Some of the connection groups according to IEC 60076-1 standard
I II III
ii ii i i i
ii

I
II III
iii
I II III
iii i
i
ii
i
ii
I
II III


ii
I II III
I
II III
iii
i
ii
iii ii i
I II III
i i
i
ii iii
ii i i
I
II III

I II III
I
II III
iii
i
ii
iii A i
Transformer Tests
Page : 7


3- Measurement of short-circuit impedance and load loss

The short-circuit loss and the short-circuit voltage show the performance of the transformer. These
values are recorded and guaranteed to the customer and important for operational economy. The
short-circuit voltage is an important criteria especially during parallel operations of the transformers.
The short-circuit loss is a data which is also used in the heat test.

Short-circuit voltage; is the voltage applied to the primary winding and causes the rated current to flow
in the winding couples while one of the winding couples is short circuited. The active loss measured
during this, is called short-circuit loss. If the adjusting range is more than 5%, in addition to the rated
value, the losses are repeated for the maximum and minimum values.

The short-circuit loss is composed of; “Joule “ losses (direct current/DC losses) which is formed by the
load current in the winding and the additional losses (alternating current/AC losses) in the windings,
core pressing arrangements, tank walls and magnetic screening (if any) by the leakage (scatter)
fluxes.


Measuring circuit and performing the measurement:























W
A
A
A
N n
A

B

C
a


b

c
W W


C

3~
A A A
W
4 2
3
1
5
6

v
v
v

1- Power supply 5- Power Analyser
2- Supply (intermediate) Transformer 6- Transformer under test
3- Current Transformers C- Compensation Capacitor groups
4- Voltage Transformers


Figure 3.1: Short-circuit losses measurement connection diagram

This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. A.Ş. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. There
shall be modifications to this document.

Transformer Tests
Page : 8


In general, the HV windings of the transformer are supplied while the LV windings are short-circuited.
During measurement, the current has to be at the value of I
N
or close to this value as far as possible.
The voltage, current and short-circuit losses of each phase should be measured during measurement.

In cases where the power supply is not sufficient enough to supply the measurement circuit,
compensation to meet the reactive power has to be made using capacitors.

Before beginnig to measure, the transformer winding/oil temperature has to be stabilised and the
winding/oil temperature and winding resistances have to be measured.

In order to avoid increasing the winding temperature by the applied current, the measurement has to
be completed in a short time and the measuring current has to be kept between 25%...100% of the
rated current. In this way, the measurement errors due to winding temperature increase will be
minimised.

The losses have to be corrected based on reference temperature (e.g. 75°C ) stated in the standards
and evaluated. The short-circuit voltage U
km
and losses (P
km
) which are found at the temperature
which the measurement was made, have to be corrected according to this reference temperature.

The direct-current/DC losses on the winding resistances, while the resistance values are R
YG
and R
AG

(phase to phase measured resistances) are as follows ;

Direct-current loss = at measuring temperature t
m
P
DC
= 1,5.( I
1
2
.R
YG
+ I
2
2
.R
AG
).
AC / Additional losses = at measuring temperature t
m
P
ac
= P
km
- P
dc
.

Losses at reference (75°C ) temperature:

t
R
: 235
o
C for Copper ( acc. to IEC )
225
o
C for Aluminium ( acc. to IEC)
75
R
t
m
t
R
t
AC
P
m
t
R
t
C 75
R
t
DC
P
k
P
+
+
· +
+
° +
· = .


Short-circuit voltage :

At measuring temperature (t
m
)
N
km
km
U
U
100 u · = |%|

N
km
RM
S
P
100 u · = |%| “ohmic/DC ” component, RM
2
km
2
xm
u u u ÷ = |%| “inductive /AC”
component

At reference (75°C) temperature:
N
k
R
S
P
100 u · = | %| xm
2
R
2
k
u u u + = | %|

The short-sircuit losses and short-circuit voltage measurements, calculations and corrections have to
made at rated, maximum and minimum ranges.

This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. A.Ş. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. There
shall be modifications to this document.

Transformer Tests
Page : 9


Since the circuit forming the measurement in high power transformers and reactors are inductive, the
power factor (Cos m) will be very small (Cos m: 0,01 ...... 0,003, or angle = 1°..... 10 minutes). For this
reason, the errors in measurement current and voltage transformers will be very high. In this case, the
measurement results have to be corrected by a multiplier.

Measuring circuit and error correction equations :

) (
100
E(%)
1 P P
km kd
÷ · = P
kd
: Corrected loss
P
km
: Loss read at the Wattmeter
E ( % ) : Total error

E(%) = E
o
( % ) + E
i
( % ) + E
u
( % ) E
o
( % ) : Measurement error
E
i
( % ) : Current transformer turn ratio error
E
u
( % ): Voltage transformer turn ratio error

( )
100
δ cos
cos
1 (%)
δ
E ·

÷
÷ =
m
m
. Here o = o
i
- o
u
.
o
i
: Current transformer phase error
o
u
: Voltage transformer phase error

When the measurement transformer phase errors are stated in minutes;

E
o
( % ) = + 0,0291. (o
i
– o
u
). tg m .


If the measurement current is different than rated current “ I
N
”, the short-circuit voltage and short-
circuit losses for the rated current value are calculated as follows;

m
N
km k
I
I
U U · =
2
m
N
km k
)
I
I
( P P · =

U
km
: Measured short-circuit voltage I
m
: Measured test current
P
km
: Measured short-circuit losses P
k
: Short-circuit losses at the rated current
U
K
: Short-circuit voltage at the rated current

When the transformer short-circuit losses and the voltage are measured at a frequency which is
different than the rated frequency, correction has to be made to according to below equations:

Short-circuit voltage :
m
N
km k
f
f
U U · = Short-circuit loss :
2
m
N
AC DC k
)
f
f
( P P P · + =
Here :

U
km
: short-circuit voltage at f
m
measured frequency P
ac
: additional losses at f
m
measured
frequency
U
k
: short-circuit voltage at f
N
rated frquency P
k
: short-circuit losses at f
N
rated frequency


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shall be modifications to this document.

Transformer Tests
Page : 10


4- Measurement of no-load loss and current

The no-load losses are very much related to the operational performance of a transformer. As long as
the transformer is operated, these losses occur. For this reason, no-load losses are very important for
operational economy. No-load losses are also used in the heating test.

The no-load loss and current measurements of a transformer are made while one of the windings
(usually the HV winding) is kept open and the other winding is supplied at the rated voltage and
frequency. During this test the no-load current (Io) and the no-load losses (Po) are measured. The
measured losses depend heavily on the applied voltage waveform and frequency. For this reason, the
waveform of the voltage should be very sinusoidal and at rated frequency. Normally, the
measurements are made while the supply voltage is increased at equal intervals from 90% to 115% of
the transformer rated voltage ( U
N
) and this way the values at the rated voltage can also be found.

No-load losses and currents:

The no-load losses of a transformer are grouped in three main topics; iron losses at the core of the
transformer, dielectric losses at the insulating material and the copper losses due to no-load current.
The last two of them are very small in value and can be ignored. So, only the iron losses are
considered in determining the no-load losses.

Measuring circuit and performing the measurement:


W
A
A
A
n N
A

B

C
a


b


c
W W



3~
A A A
W
4 2
3
1
5
6
v
v
v

























1- Power supply 5- Power Analyser
2- Supply (intermediate) Transformer 6- Transformer under test
3- Current Transformers 4- Voltage Transformers


4-1: Connection diagram for measuring no-load losses

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shall be modifications to this document.

Transformer Tests
Page : 11


In general according to the standards, if there is less than 3% difference between the effective (U)
value and the average (U’) value of the supply voltage, the shape of the wave is considered as
appropriate for measurements. If the supply voltage is different than sinusoid, the measured no-load
losses have to be corrected by a calculation. In this case, the effective (r.m.s.) value and the average
(mean) value of the voltage are different. If the readings of both voltmeter are equal, there is no need
for correction.

During measurements, the supply voltage U´ is supplied to the transformer by the average value
voltmeter. In this way, the foreseen induction is formed and as a result of this, the hysteresis losses
are measured correctly. The eddy-current losses should be corrected according to equation below.

) P k (P P P
2 1 o m
· + · = P
m
: Measured loss
P
0
: no-load losses where the voltage is sinusoidal
Here : P
0
= P
h
+ P
E
= k
1
. f + k
2
. f
2


2
'
U
U
k

= P
1
: The hysteresis loss ratio in total losses (P
h)
= k
1
. f
P
2
: The eddy-curent loss ratio in total losses (P
E
) = k
2
. f
2



At 50 Hz and 60 Hz, in cold oriented sheet steel, P
1
= P
2
=% 50. So, the P
0
no-load loss becomes:


2 1
m
0
P k P
P
P
· +
= . Here: P
1
= P
2
=0,5.


According to IEC 60076-1; P
m
= P
0
.( 1+d ). Here

'
÷ '
=
U
U U
d .


During no-load loss measurement, the effective value of the no-load current of the transformer is
measured as well. In general, in three phase transformers, evaluation is made according to the
average of the thre phase currents.

Before the no-load measurements, the transformer might have been magnetised by direct current and
it’s components (resistance measurement or impulse tests). For this reason, the core has to be
demagnetised. To do this, it has to be supplied by a voltage value (increasing and decreasing
between the maximum and minimum voltage values for a few minutes) higher than the rated voltage
for a certain time and then the measurements can be made.

The no-load currents are neither symmetrical nor of equal amplitude in three phase transformers. The
phase angles between voltages and currents may be different for each of three phases. For this
reason, the wattmeter readings on each of the three phases may not be equal. Sometimes one of the
wattmeter values can be 0(zero) or negative (-).


This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. A.Ş. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. There
shall be modifications to this document.

Transformer Tests
Page : 12


5 - Dielectric tests

The following insulation tests are performed in order to meet the transformer insulation strength
expectations.

Unless otherwise requested by the customer, the following test are performed in the following order
(IEC 60076-3) :

- Switching impulse test : to confirm the insulation of the transformer terminals and windings to the
earthed parts and other windings, and to confirm the insulation strength in the windings and
through the windings.

- Lightning impulse test : to confirm the transformer insulation strength in case of a lightning hitting
the connection terminals.

- Separate source AC withstand voltage test : to confirm the insulation strength of the
transformer line and neutral connection terminals and the connected windings to the earthed
parts and other windings.

- Induced AC voltage test ( short duration ACSD and long duration ACLD ) : to confirm the
insulation strength of the transformer connection terminals and the connected windings to the
earthed parts and other windings, both between the phases and through the winding.

- Partial discharge measurement : to confirm the “partial dicharge below a determined level”
property of the transformer insulation structure under operating conditions.


According to standards, the transformer windings are made to meet the maximum operating voltage
U
m
and the related insulation levels. The transformer insulation levels and the insulation test to be
applied according to IEC 60076-3 is shown in the below table.

tests
Winding
structure
Maximum
operating
voltage
U
m
kV
Lightning
impulse
( LI )
Switching
impulse
( SI )
Long
duration AC
( ACLD )
Short
duration AC
( ACSD )
Applied
voltage test
uniform
insulated
U
m
s 72,5
type
( note 1 )
na
na
( note 1 )
routine routine
72,5 <U
m
s 170 routine na special routine routine
170 < U
m
< 300 routine
routine
( note 2 )
routine
special
( note 2 )
routine
uniform
and
gradually
insulated
> 300 routine routine routine special routine

Note 1 : In some countries, in transformers with U
m
s 72,5 kV applied as routine test and the ACLD test is
applied as routine or type test.

Note 2 : If the ACSD test is defined, the SI test is not applied.


This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. A.Ş. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. There
shall be modifications to this document.

Transformer Tests
Page : 13


In case of a transformer with one or more than one gradual insulation, if foreseen by the induced
voltage test, the switching impulse test is determined according to the maximum U
m
voltage winding.
The foreseen test voltage can not be reached in lower U
m
voltage windings. In this case, the ratio
between the tap changer’s optimum tap position and the windings shall be such arranged that, the
lowest U
m
voltage winding reaches the most appropriate value. This is acceptable ( IEC 60076-3).

If chopped wave is requested during ligthning impulse ( LI ) test, the peak value of the chopped wave
is 1.1 times the full wave value (10% higher).

For transformers with the high voltage winding U
m
> 72.5 kV, the lightning impulse (LI) test is a routine
test for all windings of the transformer.

Repeating the dielectric tests :

If no modification is made in the internal insulation of a transformer, only maintenance is made, or if
insulation tests are required for a transformer which is in operation, and if no agreement is made with
the customer, test is performed with test voltages at 80% of the original test values. However, the long
duration induced voltage test ( ACLD ) is always repeated with 100% of the original value. For new
transformers with factory tests completed, tests are repeated always with 100% of the original values
( IEC 60076-3 section 9 ).
















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shall be modifications to this document.

Transformer Tests
Page : 14


6- Separate source AC withstand voltage test

The aim of this test is to check the insulation strength between the windings and earthed core, other
windings, construction pieces and the tank, with foreseen test voltage. In this way, the insulation
strength of the transformer is tested against excessive voltages due to operational system instabilities,
malfunctions, operational mistakes and transient events.

Test circuit and performing the test

~
1
A

B

C

N
2
3
4 5
6 7
8
Û
V
ef
A V
a

b

c














1- Adjustable voltage transformer 2- Current transformer and ampermeter

3- Test transformer input voltage voltmeter 4- Test transformer
5- Capacitive voltage divider 6- Effective voltage voltmeter

2 ) 8- Transformer under test 7- Peak value voltmeter (Peak value/


Figure 6.1: Separate source AC withstand voltage test connection diagram

During the Separate source AC withstand voltage test, the frequency of the test voltage should be
equal to the transformer’s rated frequency or should be not less than 80% of this frequency. In this
way, 60 Hz transformers can also be tested at 50 Hz. The shape of the voltage should be single phase
and sinusoidal as far as possible.

This test is applied to the star point (neutral point) of uniform insulated windings and gradual (non-
uniform) insulation windings. Every point of the winding which test voltage has been applied is
accepted to be tested with this voltage.

The insulation tests of the input terminals (phase inputs) of the gradual insulation windings is
completed during induced voltage test. (Section 7).

The test voltage is measured with the help of a voltage divider. The test voltage should be read from
voltmeter as peak value divided by 2 . Test period is 1 minute. All the terminals of the winding under
test should be connected together and the voltage should be applied here. Meanwhile, the terminals of
the non tested windings should be connected together as groups. Non-tested windings, tank and the
core should be earthed. The secondary windings of bushing type current transformers should be
connected together and earthed. The current should be stable during test and no surges should occur.

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Transformer Tests
Page : 15


7- Induced AC voltage test

The aim of this test is to check the insulation both between phases and between turns of the windings
and also the insulation between the input terminals of the graded insulation windings and earth.

During test, normally the test voltage is applied to the low voltage winding. Meanwhile the other
windings should be left open and earthed from a common point.

Since the test voltage will be much higher than the transformer’s rated voltage, the test frquency
should not be less than twice the rated frequency value, in order to avoid oversaturation of the
transformer core. The test voltage value is choosen according to the U
m
’ value of the winding with
highest operating voltage. Other windings should be kept at a test level closest to their own operation
voltage.


The test voltage can either be measured on a voltage divider connected to the HV terminal or on a
voltage transformer and voltmeter which have been set together with this voltage divider at the LV
side. Another method is to measure the test voltage with a peak-value measuring instrument at the
measuring-tap end of the capacitor type bushing (if any).

Test period which should not be less than 15 seconds, is calculated according to the equation below;

120 seconds x ( Rated frequency / Test frequency )

The test is accepted to be succesful if no surges, voltage collapses or extreme increases in the current
has occurred.

As seen in table at section 5, the induced voltage tests are classified as short duration or long duration
and according to the operation voltage being less or more than 72.5 kV, in IEC 60076-3 standard.
Different routine, type and special tests are performed accordingly. In transformers with the highest
operation voltage less than 72.5 kV, partial-discharge measurement is not mandatory. However in
transformers bigger than 72.5 kV, partial-discharge measurement during induced voltage tests is
mandatory.

Short duration induced voltage test ( ACSD ) :

a

) Uniform insulated windings
The test connection of a transformer is the same as operating connection. Three phase, symmetrical
voltage is applied to the transformer under test. Normally the test voltage is twice the rated voltage.
This voltage should not be more than the test voltage. To be safe, the tap position of the transformer
under test should be appropriate. The value of the test voltage (between phases and between phase
and earth) is measured at the LV side on an accurate voltage transformer.

Test connection
A
B
C
G
3 ~
N
N
2
3
4
1
5
c
b
a
W
V
U
A
V








1- Synchronous generator
2- Test transformer
3- Current trans. and ampermeter
4- Voltage trans. and voltmeter
5- Transformer under test


Figure 7.1: Induced AC voltage test connection diagram

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Transformer Tests
Page : 16



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shall be modifications to this document.

In transformers with U
m
< 72.5 kV, normally partial discharge measurement is not performed. Test
period is as explained above. The voltage level to be applied is given in standards.

In transformers with U
m
> 72.5 kV , normally this test is performed together with partial discharge
test. The voltage levels and application periods are given in figure 7.2 below. The measurement and
evaluation levels for partial discharge are:

3 / 3 , 1
2 m
U U · = phase – ground ve
m
U U · = 3 , 1
2
phase – phase












Figure 7.2: Test period voltage-time diagram

b) non-Uniform insulated windings

There are two different methods for three phase transformers:

1. Together with partial-discharge measurement, phase—earth strength test.
2. Together with partial-discharge measurement, inter-phase strength test while the star point is
earthed. This test is performed as explained in section a) above.

Only phase – earth test is applied to single phase transformers. In three phase transformers, the test
voltage is applied to the phase terminals as single phase. The test is repeated for each phase. So, the
foreseen test voltage is applied once to each HV input. In such transformers, the induced voltage test
and the voltage test applied to the phase terminals are considered to be performed together.

The single phase voltage application should be 3 / 5 , 1
2
m
U U · = in phase – earth test.

In phase – phase test, U
2
= 1.3 . U
m
in partial – discharge measurement. In transformers with U
m
=
420 ve 550 kV and test value is 460 kV and 510 kV, the partial–discharge voltage level is taken as
U
2
= 1.3 . U
m
in phase-phase test and as 3 · 2 1 =
2
/
m
U , U in phase-earth test..












Figure 7.3: Single phase induced voltage test in non-uniform insulated windings connection diagram
A : 5 minutes
B : 5 minutes
C : test period
D : > 5 minutes
E : 5 minutes
U
m
: maximum
operation
voltage
3 /
m
1,1.U

C
U
2
U
2
U
1

A
B
D
E
3 /
m
1,1.U

1- Synchronous generator
2- Test transformer
3- Current trans. and ampermeter
4- Voltage trans. and voltmeter
5- Transformer under test
6- Capacitive voltage divider
A
B
C
G
3 ~
N
N
2
3
4
1
5
c
b
a
W
V
U
6
V
A
V
Transformer Tests
Page : 17



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shall be modifications to this document.

The test connection in figure 7.3 is given for a transformer with HV neutral point insulated according to
1/3 test voltage.

Long duration induced voltage test ( ACLD ) :

For uniform and gradual insulation windings.

In three phase transformers, it is applied either to terminals respectively as single phase connection,
or symmetrically as three phase connection.

The star point (if any) is earthed during test, the other windings are earthed from; star point if they are
star connected and from any terminal or from power supply if they are delta connected. The test
application period and values are given in figure 7.4 .













Figure 7.4: Long duration induced voltage test, voltage-time diagram


In all voltage steps of the test, partial-discharge measurement is made. The details of partial-discharge
measurement are explained in section 8. The voltages according to earth should be as;
3 / 7 , 1
1
m
U U · = and 3 / 5 , 1
2
m
U U · = and partial-discharge measurement should be made at all

HV line terminals.

The test is accepted as succesful if there are no test voltage collapses, a sudden increase in test
current, smoke, abnormal sound, gas bubbles during test. The details about evaluation of test and
partial-discharge measurement results are given in standards ( e.g. IEC 60076 – 3 ).

A : 5 minutes
B : 5 minutes
C : test period
D : 60 minutes for U
m
> 300 kV
30 minutes for U
m
<300 kV
E : 5 minutes
U
m
: Maximum operation
voltage
3 /
m
1,1.U

C
U
2
U
2
U
1

A
B
D
E
A
3 /
m
1,1.U

Transformer Tests
Page : 18



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shall be modifications to this document.

8- Partial Discharge Measurement

It aims to measure the partial discharges which may occur in the transformer insulation structure
during test.

Partial-discharges are electrical arks which form the surges between electrodes of any area of the
insulating media of a transformer between the conductors. These discharges may occur in air bubbles
left in the insulating media, gaps in the solid materials or at the surfaces of two different insulators.
Although these discharges have small (weak) energy, the thermal energies due to these discharges
can cause aging, deformation and tear of the insulating material.

The following conditions can be determined during partial-discharge measurement;

- To determine whether a partial-discharge above a certain value has occurred in the transformer
at a pre-defined voltage

- To define the voltage values where the partial-discharge starts by increasing the applied voltage
(partial-discharge start voltage) and the value where the partial-discharge ceases by decreasing
the applied voltage (partial-discharge cease voltage).

- To define the partial-discharge strength at a pre-defined voltage

How Partial-Discharge occurs and measured magnitudes :

The structure where a partial-discharge occurred in an insulating media is shown in the simplified
figure 8.1. As seen on the simpliified diagram, the impulses forming on the discharge point cause a
AU voltage drop at the transformer line terminals. This forms a measurable “q” load at the measuring
impedance. This load is called apparent load and given in pC (Pico-Coulomb) units.

During measurements; AU voltage drop, average value of apparent partial-discharge current, partial-
discharge power, impulse count within a time unit, partial-discharge start and cease voltages can also
be determined.




















Figure 8.1 a) simple schematics of an insulator with gas gap b) equivalent circuit
U : Applied Voltage
Z : Impedance of the supply circuit
C
1
: Capacitance of the discharge part
C
2
: Capacitance of the discharge part and
serially connected insulator
C
3
: Capacitance of the other parts of the
insulator
R
1
: Discharge resistance
DG: Discharge gap
Z
U
a)
C
2

C
2

C
3
C
3

C
1

B
A
Z
b)
U
DG
C
1

C
2
C
3

R
1
AU
1

i
1
( t )

A
Transformer Tests
Page : 19


Measuring circuit and application

Partial-discharge measurement structure of a transformer and related circuit in accordance with IEC
60270 is explained below.
























Figure 8.2: Partial discharge measuring connection circuit


The measurement circuit in figure 8.2 is formed according to Bushing-tap method stated in standards.

Before starting to measure, complete measurement circuit should be calibrated. For this, a calibrator
(Calibration generator) is necessary. The calibrator produces a q
0
load with a predefined value.
Calibrator is connected to the test material in parallel. The q
0
load produced in the calibrator is read at
the measuring instrument. These steps are repeated at all terminals of the transformer to be
measured at no-voltage.

K = q
0
/ q
0m



Application of the test

After the calibration operations are completed, the calibration generator is taken away from the
measuring circuit. When the power system is connected (supply generator switch is closed), the
voltage level will be too low (remenance level). This value which is considered as the base noise
(interference) level of the measuring system should be less than half of the guaranteed partial-
discharge level.

Voltage level

The voltage is substantially increased up to the level stated by the specifications and in the meantime
the partial-discharge values at the predefined voltage levels are measured at each measuring terminal
and recorded. The voltage application period, level and measuring intervals are given in the induced
voltage test section.
Z
m

Z
m

Z
m

G
~
V
a


b

c
N



C
B
A
q
o

Z
m
Z
m

Z
m

1
2
3
4
5
6
F
7 8
1- supply generator 6- measuring impedance
2- supply transformer 7- selective switch
3- test transformer 8- measuring instrument and ossiloscope
4- voltage transformer and measuring circuit q
o
- calibration generator
5- filter
K : correction factor
q
0
: load at the calibrator
q
0m
: load read at the measuring instrument

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Transformer Tests
Page : 20


After the transformer is energised for measuring operations, the partial-discharge value read at the
measuring instrument is multiplied with the predefined K correction factor, and real apparent partial-
discharge value for each terminal is found.

q
m
: load read at the measuring instrument
q = K . q
m

K : correction factor
q : Real apparent load


Evaluation

The test is considered to be succesful if the partial-discharge value measured at the transformer’s
measuring terminals is lower than predefined values or values stated in the standards and no
increasing tendency is observed during test.

In addition to the measured partial-discharge level, the below conditions should also be considered in
transformers:

- Partial-discharge start and cease voltages are above the operating voltage.
- Depending on the test period, partial-discharge level stays approximately stable.
- Increasing the test voltage causes almost no partial-discharge level change.










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Transformer Tests
Page : 21


9 - On-Load Tap Changer Tests

After the on-load tap changer is mounted on the transformer, the below listed tests are applied at
100% rated auxiliary voltage (excluding item b);


a) When there is no voltage at the transformer, operate the tap changer 8 times through the
whole adjustement range

b) When there is no voltage at the transformer, operate the tap changer once through the whole
adjustment range at the 85% of the auxilary rated voltage

c) When the transformer is at no-load condition, operate the tap changer once through the
whole adjustment range at rated voltage and frequency

d) When one of the windings is short-circuited and the other winding is loaded with rated current
as far as possible, operate 10 times ±2 taps at both sides of the rated tap position



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Transformer Tests
Page : 22


10- Temperature-Rise Test

Temperature-rise test is a type test. The oil and winding temperatures are tested whether they are in
accordance with both standards and technical specifications or not.

The connections during test, technical specifications of test and measuring instruments are explained
in section 3 load losses and section 2 measuring winding resistances.

A simplified temperature distribution is shown in figure 10-1.



θ
o


LV HV
θ
co

θ
ci

C

θ
a

o

θ
o

θ
wmax
θ
hs
θ
w

θ
o

θ
g


o

wo


w

Bottom of wind.
Av. Wind.temp
Ave. Oil temp.
Top oil exit
Bottom oil inlet.















Temperature rise θ


θ
o
= Maximum oil temperature (under cover)
∆θ
o
= Maximum oil temperature rise ∆θ
o
= θ
o
- θ
a

θ
a
= Ambient temperature
θ
w
= Average winding temperature
∆θ
w
= Average winding temperature rise ∆θ
w
= θ
w
- θ
a

θ
ci
= Input temperature to cooler
θ
co
= Exit temperature from cooler
θ
wmax
= Maximum winding temperature

C = Cooler
θ
oavg
= Average oil temperature
∆θ
wo
= Temperature difference between winding and oil
∆θ
oavg
= Average oil temperature rise
θ
hs
= Hot - spot temperature


Figure 10.1: Simplified temperature distribution of a transformer


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Transformer Tests
Page : 23


a) Performing the test

During this test make sure that the transfomer is away from especially outside effects (hot or cold air
flows).

The power, voltage and current (which should be recorded during test) measuring principles are the
same as section 3 measuring load losses. Unless otherwise requested by the customer, the
temperature increase test is made at the highest loss and current ranges.

Since the transformer temperature risings and ambient temperatures should be recorded during test,
thermometers are placed in the thermometer pocket on the transformer cover, at the cooler inlet and
exit and 1 or 2 meter away from the transformer. Before starting the test, while the transformer is cold
(windings are cold and in balance), the temperatures at these thermometers are measured and
recorded. The winding temperature is also measured and recorded before starting the test (cold
resistance). To reach the operating condiitions, the transformer is placed at the tap position where
maximum losses occur. At this condiditon it is supplied with enough current and voltage to cover the
short-circuit losses and no-load losses at this tap position.

Whenever appropriate, the cooling system is shut down temporarily for a while to shorten the 1st step
of the test for a few hours.

The transformer is loaded with a total calculated from no-load and load losses. In multiple winding
transformers, if the power of one of the windings is equal to the total power of other windings, the
loading should be made with the total windings’ loss.

The maximum current and voltage values during supply are as follows;

Supply Current:
k
P
k
P
o
P
N
I
b
I
+
· = Supply Voltage:
k
P
k
P
o
P
k
U
b
U
+
· =
Here :

I
N
= Test current (the current at the tap which the test is performed),
P
0
= No-load loss , P
K
= Load loss


Temperature rising test is performed in two steps:

1) Supplying with total losses ( 1st step of test ) :
The step where total losses are supplied is continued until the difference between the top oil
temperature rising and the ambient temperature becomes saturated ( is continued until the
difference between top oil temperature and ambient temperature stays below 1°C for 3 hours ).
This step is called 1st step of the test. During this, the supply values of the transformer, all oil
temperatures and ambient temperature should be measured at appropriate time intervals.

2) Supplying with rated current ( 2nd step of test ) :
After the top oil temperature rising is saturated, the transformer is loaded with I
N
(the current at
test tap position) current for 1 hour. Meanwhile, all oil temperatures and ambient temperatures are
measured. After this 1 hour period, the supply is stopped and the circuit is opened (this step is
called the 2nd step of the test) and after the circuit is opened, resistance is measured quickly and
the cooling curve of the winding is formed, and then by extrapolation of the resistance-time curve,
the resistance value at exactly the opening moment of the circuit is found.

After the supply current is stopped, during resistance measurement, the fans and pumps are kept
running (if any) ( according to IEC 60076-2 ).

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Transformer Tests
Page : 24


b) Measuring the ambient temperature (cooling air or water temperature)

In air cooled transformers, the air temperature around the transformer should be taken as ambient
temperature. According to standards, air temperature is measured by 3 thermometers or thermo
elements distributed around the transformer. Measuring is performed in oil inside a container which
has a 2 hour time-constant. The containers should be protected against extreme air flow and heat
waves. The containers should be placed at three sides of the transformer, 1 – 2 meter away from the
transformer and at half height of the coolers. If the transformer is being force cooled (by fans), the
forced air inlet should be measured as ambient temperature. The cooling media is measured in the
thermometer pocket at the cooling water inlet.

The cooler ambient temperature (cooling air or water temperature) is measured every ½ or 1 hour and
recorded and is used in average temperature rise calculations at the last quarter of the test.

c) Calculating the temperature rise of the oil

The top oil temperature can be measured in the thermometer pocket which is on the transformer
cover. The difference between maximum measured temperature and ambient temperature is ∆θ
t
.

)
co
θ
ci

2
1
o
θ
oavg
θ ÷ · ÷ = average oil temperature

∆θ
o
= θ
o
- θ
a
average oil temperature rise


The cooler inlet and exit temperatures are measured by thermometers insulated against ambient air
and placed at the cooler pipes. In a transformer with seperate cooler, the oil inlet-exit temperature
difference is measured at inlet-exit pipes near transformer tank.

If during the test, the transformer under test can not be supplied with enough current to cover the total
losses due to insufficiency of the laboratory power supply, the difference (test losses being not less
than 80% of the total losses) shall be calculated as below;

∆θ
on
= temperature rise at total losses P
n
X
m
n
P
P
om
Δθ
on
Δθ
|
|
.
|

\
|
· =
∆θ
om
= temperature rise at test losses P
m ( at measuring losses)

X = for distribution transformers 0,8 ( natural cooling, power
<2500 kVA)

For ON..- cooling 0,9 OF. And for OD..cooling 1,0

d) Measuring the temperature rise of the winding

After the oil temperature has reached saturation, the transformer is loaded with I
N
rated current for 1
hour. This time is considered to be necessary for adapting the balance condition between winding and
oil, to operating state. After this time, the loading is finished and the circuit is opened and the
resistance of the winding is measured for some time to form the cooling curve.

The heating of the winding is calculated with the below equation;

235 )
1
θ (235
1
R
2
R
2
θ ÷ + =
θ
2
: Temperature of the winding when the circuit is opened
θ
1
: Average oil temperature at he beginning of test (cold case)
R
2
: Resistance at temperature θ
2
( hot case )

R
1
: Resistance at temperature θ
1
( cold case )

Not: For aluminium winding, 225 should be used instead of 235.

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Transformer Tests
Page : 25


Supplying with I
N
rated current for one hour is defined as 2nd step of the test. The oil temperature will
decrease a little during this time. The relation between the winding and average oil temperature should
be calculated according to below equation..

So: ∆θ
wo
= θ
2
- θ
o
(I
N
) .

∆θ
wo
: temperature difference between the winding and the oil
θ
2
: winding temperature ( temp.at the circuit opening moment from cooling curve )
θ
o
(I
N
) : average oil temperature after supplying with ( 2nd step of the test) I
N
for 1 hour

θ
y
(I
N
) temperature ; the calculation of oil heating is made according to the method in item c).


The difference between the winding and oil temperatures at the 2nd step of the test:

When the difference betwen the oil and winding temperatures ∆θ
sy
, is added to the θ
y
, which is in
pargraph c) (supplying with total losses), ∆θ
s
average winding temperature is found:

∆θ
w


= ∆θ
wo
+ ∆θ
o


In cases where I
N
rated current can not be reached due to insufficiency of the laboratory supply, the
difference between winding and oil temperatures ∆θ
wo
can be corrected as below:


y
m
I
N
I
wom
Δθ
woN
Δθ
|
|
.
|

\
|
· =

∆θ
woN
: winding-oil temperature difference at rated
current
∆θ
wom
: winding-oil temperature difference at test
current
y...exponent : ON and OF cooling = 1.6
OD cooling = 2.0

A maximum temperature formed at any part of the winding insulation system is defined as “ hot–spot
temperature “ and this value is a parameter showing the heat load limit of the transformer.

Winding hot-spot temperature rising is calculated a below:

θ
hs
= θ
o
+K
hf
. ∆θ
wo


K
hf
: hot – spot factor

Hot – spot factor; it can be taken as 1.1 for distribution transformers and 1.3 for power transformers
( according to IEC 60076-2 ).

When the transformer is loaded with total losses at the 1st step of the test, if the test frequency is
different than rated frequency, there is no need to make a correction (the required load to heat the oil
is defined with total losses). However, for loading with rated current for 1 hour at the 2nd step of the
test, correction has to made according to below equation :


ac
P +
dc
P
ac
P
2
m
f
N
f
+
dc
P
N
I =
m
I
I
m
: test current f
N
: rated frequency
I
N
: rated current f
m
: test frequency
P
dc
: direct current loss P
ac
: additional loss


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Transformer Tests
Page : 26


11- Lightning Impulse Test

Impulse test are applied to transformers to confirm their withstand against atmospheric lightnings and
transient extra voltages during switchings. As explained in section 5, these tests are defined as type or
routine test depending on the operating voltage levels.

Power transformers used in high voltage networks have to face atmospheric discharges (lightnings).
The amplitudes of lightning excessive voltages always depend on impulse current and the impulse
impedance at the place of the lightning. This value can reach a few times of the transformer winding's
operating voltage.

Impulse voltages are formed by an "impulse voltage generator" at laboratories. For oil type
transformers; in general, the impulse wave is defined as negative (-) polarity in many standards and
it's shape at the line terminal should be as “ T
front
/ T
tail
=1.2 ± 30 % / 50 ± 20% μS ”. Other than this
shape which is defined as full wave (Figure 11.1), the chopping time should be (Figure 11.2) between
2....6 uS for chopped wave at the tail.


V















Figure 11.1 : Full wave lightning impulse
















Figure 11.2: Tail chopped lightning impulse
V U(t)
T
c
O’
t (s)
A
0,3
0,7
0,9
1,0
B
D
E
C
0,7 U
0

T
1
= 1.2 ± 30 % μS
T
2
= 50 ± 20% μS
B
U(t)
1,0
T
2

A
0,9
0,5
0,3
0
t (s)
O’’
T
U
0

T
1
= 1,67 T
T
1


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Transformer Tests
Page : 27


Lightning impulse voltages are applied to each one of the line terminals sequentially, at the amplitude
level, with number and method defined in the standards/specifications. During test, the windings which
voltage is not applied should be earthed directly or through a small resistance (Figure 11.3 and 11.4).

In three phase transformers, if not requested by the customer to have the test at a special tap position,
the test is performed at main tap, maximum and minimum tap positions, each phase being tested at a
different tap position.

In the small inductance, low voltage windings of high power transformers, sometimes the half time-
value can not reach the time stated in the standards. In such cases, the half time-value can be
increased by connecting an appropriate resistance between untested windings and earth. According to
IEC 60076-3 standard, this resistance should be choosen such that, the voltage of these terminals in
reference to earth should not be more than 75 % of the test voltage of these terminals and maximum
resistance value should be 500 O.


















Figure 11.3: Lightning impulse test connection diagram


Although changing according to place of use and aims, the most popularly used voltage divider is
“resistance damped capacitive voltage divider”.

Non-inductive, pure ohmic resistance is used for measuring impulse currents. Their values usually
range from 0,1 O to 20 O.

Coaxial cables are used to transfer the measurement signals to measurement equipment (digital
measuring system).

If chopped-wave is to be used, a chopping device is added to the impulse circuit. In impulse voltage
circuits generally a multiple chopping device is used.

At first, an oscillogram defining a voltage form at 50% of the test voltage is used. After the form stated
in the standards is obtained, a low amplitude “reference impulse” with 50% of the test voltage is
applied and then “full impulse” at 100% value with number and order stated in the standards is
applied.

The amplitude values of the applied voltages are determined at a digital measurement system through
a “voltage divider”. Also, the oscillograms of the applied voltage change through time and changes of
capacitive current flowing from tested winding to earth or from un-tested winding to earth are recorded.
M.H.
A B C
a b c
N
M.H.
R
w
Impulse generator Transformer under Test Measuring hardware
R
S

R
P

C
S

Measuring
hardware
R
w
M.H.

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shall be modifications to this document.

Transformer Tests
Page : 28


The most popular and useful methods defined in the standards for evaluating the impulse voltage tests
is matching of the oscillograms. This means, the low amplitude (%50......%75) reference wave and full
amplitude (%100) wave oscillograms should match without any difference.

The arrangement of the test circuit, the effects caused by external interferences and/or earthing
arrangement can sometimes cause mismatching of the oscillograms. These should not be considered
as fault.

Some of the connection circuits used in lightning impulse test are given in figure 11.4.











































Figure 11.4: Impulse test connection examples for single and three phase transformers


1W
1V 1U
1V
1U
R
m

M.H.
2V
2U
R
2V
1.1
R
W
2.1
2
1.1
R
W

2.1
1N
1U
1V 1W
M.H. M.H. M.H.
R
m

R
m
R
m
R
m

M.H.
R
m
1.1
R
W

2.1
R
W
R
W

M.H.
1U
1N
1V 1W
1U
1V
1N
M.H.
R
m

M.H.
R
m
1U
1W
1V
1U
1W
M.H.
M.H.
R
m
R
m

1V 1W
R
W1
R
W1
M.H.
R
m
R
W2
R
W2
R
W2


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Transformer Tests
Page : 29


The time differences of the impulse generator stages can cause high frequency oscillations in the first
parts of the impulse wave front.

Small differences of the cutting time can cause deviations (changes) on the wave after cutting. These
should not be taken as fault conditions.

If impulse voltage is required at the technical specifications, impulse applying to this point is given in
standards in two ways:

a) Applying a voltage to the parallel connected line terminals which will cause the defined impulse
voltage amplitude at the neutr point.

b) Applying the defined impulse voltage directly at the neutr point.

As defined in paragraph “b”, when an impulse is applied at the neutr point, a voltage form with longer
front time (up to 13 uS) is allowed in IEC 60076-3 standard.






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Transformer Tests
Page : 30


12- Switching Impulse Voltage Test

The switching impulse test is applied to confirm the withstand of the transformer’s insulation against
excessive voltages occuring during switching. During switching impulse voltage test, the insulation
between windings and between winding and earth and withstand between different terminals is
checked..

The switching impulse voltage is generated in conventional impulse voltage generators at the
laboratories. The polarity of the voltage is negative and the voltage waveform should normally be T
1
/
T
d
/ T
2
20/200/500 uS /figure 12.2) according to IEC 60076-3.

Due to over-saturation of the core during switching impulse test, a few low amplitude, reverse polarity
(e.g. positive) impulses are applied after each test impulse in order to reset the transformer core to it’s
starting condition (demagnetised). By this way, the next impulse voltage waveform is applied

The tap position of the transformer during test is determined according to test conditions (see section
5)

The on-off impulse voltages are applied to each high voltage terminal sequentially. Meanwhile, the
neutral terminal is earthed. The windings which are not under test are left open (earthed at one point).
This connection is simlar to the induced voltage test connection. The voltgae distribution on the
winding is linear like the induced voltage test and the voltage amplitudes at the un-impulsed windings
are induced according to the turn ratio. Meanwhile, necessary arrangements should be made since
the voltage between phases will be 1,5 times the phase-neutral voltage.

The test circuit connections of three phase transformers depend on; structure of the core (three or five
legged), the voltage level between phases and the open or closed state of the delta winding (if any).

At first, a voltage with 50 % decresed value is used at the tests, then impulse voltages at full values
and at numbers given in standards are used. The peak value of the voltage is measured. The change
of the voltage waveform and winding current are measured with a special measuring instrument and
recorded. The negativities in the transformer during the test are determined by comptring the voltage
and current oscillograms. The sudden collapses of the voltage (surges) and abnormal sounds show
deformation of the insulation in the transfomer. The deformation of the voltage waveform and increase
in noise due to magnetic saturation of the core should not be considered as fault.




A B C















Figure 12.1: Switching on-off impulse test connection diagram
H.D.
a b c
N
H.D.
R
R
Impulse generator Transformer under Test Measuring Hardware
R
S

R
P

C
S

Measuring
Hardware
H.D.

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Transformer Tests
Page : 31


Switching Impulse Voltage Waveform :

Front : T
1
≥ 100 µS = 1,67 T
90% value : T
d
≥ 200 µS
Time for cutting the axis : T
2
≥ 500 µS






























Figure 12.2: Switching impulse voltage waveform




T
1
= 1,67 T
T
2

T
d

T
1

O
1

t
%30
Voltage
%90
%100
Current
t

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Transformer Tests
Page : 32



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shall be modifications to this document.

13- Measurement of dissipation factor (tan o) and capacitance

The capacitance and dissipation/loss factor (Tan o / cosm ) measurement are made to determine the
insulating condition of the transformer’s both winding to earth and between the windings, and to form
a reference for future measurements during operating the transformer.

There is a small amount of insulating loss in all insulators used in transformer applications at normal
operating voltage and frequency. In appropriate insulators, this loss is very small. This loss changes in
direct proportion with the “ square “ of the applied voltage. The insulator and equivalent diagrams are
given in figure 13.1.













Figure 13.1 a) Insulator b) equivalent circuit c) vector
diagram


As seen in figure 13.1, the angle o ’between the total current “ I ” and capacitive current “I
C
” allows to
make evaluation about the loss properties of the insulator

The loss angle o , depends heavily on the thicknness of the insulating material and surface condition,
structural property of the insulator, type of the material, (humidity, foreign materials/particles, air gaps,
etc. which cause ionisation the insulating material).

The conditions which increase the power losses of the insulator also decrease the insulation strength.
For this reason, loss angle measurement is a very valuable criteria for evaluating the insulation
material at a defined operating frequency. Periodical measurements made during operating are also
important to show the general condition of the insulating material. In this way, it is possible to gather
information about aging of the solid insulating materials and degradation of the oil.

The active loss of the measurement circuit can be calculated according to below equation:

P= U·I·Cos m = U
2
. C. ω.tan o
( it is accepted that in very small angles, Cos m will be equal to tan o )


Capacitance, tan o, active loss and Cos m can be measured by bridge methods at defined voltages or
by a “power factor” (Cos m) measuring instrument.

The measurement is made between windings and between the windings and the tank. During the test,
the temperature of the transformer should also be recorded and corrected in accordance with the
reference temperature.

The loss factor depends heavily on temperature. For this reason, in order to make comparisons later,
it has to be converted to reference temperature (for example 20°C reference temperature ) by a
coefficient.
C
U R
G
=
1
I
a) b) c)
V
I
I
I
c
I
R

o

V
1
= U
V
2
= 0
I
C
I
R
Transformer Tests
Page : 33


Correction equation :

F
20
= F
t
/ K

F
20
: loss factor at 20 ° C temperature
F
t
: loss factor value at t measuring temperature
K : correction factor is given in the table.

Since extreme humid, rainy and cold conditions shall effect the results of the transformer negatively,
measurement should be avoided


Table
Measurement
temperature
[ ° C ]
Correction
factor [K]
Measurement
temperature
[ ° C ]
Correction factor
[K]
10 0,80 45 1,75
15 0,90 50 1,95
20 1.00 55 2,18
25 1,12 60 2,42
30 1,25 65 2,70
35 1,40 70 3,00
40 1,55
Note : Only for trans. With mineral
oil









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Transformer Tests
Page : 34


14- Measurement of zero sequence impedance(s)

The aim of the test is to measure the properties of the mains system transformer in case of
unsymmetrical loads and to make required calculations.

By definition, the zero impedance “Z
0
” ; is three times the impedance measured by forcing a current
at the rated frequency between parallel connected phase terminals and star point, in star or zigzag
connected windings as seen in figures 14.1 and 14.2.

Z
U
I
o
o
= · 3 O/phase

Zero impedance is used in short-circuit protection and earth short-circuit current calculations.



A
N
C
B
n
c
b
a
A V
I
U
0
I / 3
I / 3
I / 3 I

G













Figure 14.1:No-load zero impedance measurement connection diagram


The zero impedance depends on the connection of the transforrmer and structural property of the
transformer. The zero impedance consists of R
0
real and X
0
imaginary parts. Here, since R
0
<< X
0
,
R
0
is negligible. In this case, the zero impedance equals zero reactance.

Zero imopedance can only be measured in windings with star point taken out. Measurement is made
at the rated tap position and with the active part assembled in the tank. The zero impedance of delta
connected windings and windings with the star point not possible to take out, is infinite in magnitude.

If the other winding of the transformer is delta connected or if there is a delta connected balance
winding, the star point of the star (or zig-zag) connected winding can be loaded with maximum rated
current during Z
0
impedance measurement. Meanwhile, it is seen that the U
0
test voltage is 15% to
27% of the rated phase-neutr voltage of the transformer. In cases where there is no counter magnetic
current, for example in start-star connected, three legged transformers with no balancing winding, this
test current should be maximum 0,3xI
N
in order to avoid excessive heating of the constructive parts.

In transformers with both windings star connected and the star points taken out, there are two different
zero impedances.

1 ) No-load zero impedance Z
00

While one of the star connected windings is measured, the ends of the other winding is kept open.
Figure 14.1

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Transformer Tests
Page : 35



2 ) Short-circuit zero impedance Z
0K


While one of the star connected windings is measured, the ends of the other winding and the
star point is short-circuited. Figure 14.2


















Figure 14.2: Short-circuit zero impedance measurement Y-Y winding



The zero impedance can also be expressed as percentage. In this case;


z Z
I
U
o o
N
N
= ·


z
0
= relative zero impedance (%)
I
N
= Rated phase current (A)
U
N
= Phase-neutral rated voltage (V)
Z
0
= Zero impedance (O / phase)



A
N
C
B
n
c
b
a
I
I / 3
A V
U
0
I / 3
I / 3 I

G

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Transformer Tests
Page : 36


15- Determination of sound level

Aim of measurement; To confirm that the sound (noise) level of the transformer and related
equipments meet the customer’s demands and/or standards

Explanations about transformer noise is given in IEC 60076-10.

Main causes of a transformer noise is explained below :

1) Core noise ; caused by the magnetic forces between magnetositriction and core sheet steel

2) Noise of the transformer’s load (current) ; caused by current passing in the windings, and by
electromagnetic forces formed at the magnetic screenings at the tank walls..

3) Noise of the cooling equipments ; caused by fans and pumps of the cooling system.

An effective and important noise source is the core of the transformer. The noise of the core depends
on the magnetic property of the core material (sheet steel) and flux density. The sound frequency is
low (twice the rated frequency). The magnetic forces formed in the core cause vibration and noise.

The load noise occurs only on the loaded transforrmers and is added to the no-load (core noise ). This
noise is caused by the electromagnetic forces due to leakage fields. The source of the noise are tank
walls, magnetic screenings and vibrations of the windings.

The noises caused by the core and windings are mainly in the 100-600 Hz frequency band.

The frequency range of the noise ( aerodynamic/air and motor/bearing noise ) caused by cooling fans
is generally wide. The factors effecting the total fan noise are; speed, blade structure, number of fans
and arrangements of the radiators. The pump noise is not effective when the fans are working and it’s
frequency is low.

During noise measurements below precautions are very important to ensure the accuracy of the
results :

- The transformer should be placed in a room with minimum echo properties. It should be placed
on a base with no direct vibrations or should be placed on wheels. All mechanical
components/equipments on the transformer should be fixed to avoid vibration with the
transformer.

- During measurement, the transformer should be supplied at rated voltage and rated frequency.

Microphone positions :

If the height of the transformer under test is less than 2,5 m, the microphone position should be at half
height.. If the height of the transformer is more than 2.5 m, measurements should be made at 1/3 and
2/3 heights.

If only the cooling equipments are operating, the microphone position is; at half height for cooling
equipments which are taller than 4 m, at 1/3 and 2/3 height for cooling equipments which are shorter
than 4 m height.

Measurements should be made all around the transformer. There should be maximum 1 m distance
between two measurements.

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Transformer Tests
Page : 37



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shall be modifications to this document.

The distance of the microphone from the main radiating surface :

a) If the coolers of the transformer are not operating or if the coolers are more than 3 m away from
the transformer, the microphone should be 0,3 m away from the main radiation surface.

b) If the transformer cooling system is operating (while the pumps and fans are working), the
microphone should be 2 m away from the main radiation surface. The transformer is energised as
below ;

1. only the transformer is energised. The cooling equipments and oil circulation pumps are out of
service.
2. transformer is energised. The cooling equipments and the oil pumps are in service.
3. transformer is energised. The cooling equipments are out of service, oil pumps are in service.
4. transformer unenergized, cooling equipment and any oil pumps in service.

Before starting the measurement procedure, the back ground noise level of the measurement room
should be determined. If there is more than 8 dB (A) difference between back ground noise level and
transformer noise level, no correction of the transformer’s noise level is required.

If the difference is between 3 dB (A) and 8 dB (A), a correction is required according to standards. If
the difference between the back ground noise level and transformer noise level is less than 3 dB, a
measurement is not necessary.

The correction factor for the back ground noise level’s effect on transformer’s noise level according to
IEC 60076-10 standard is given in below table and equations:

Difference between the back ground
noise and the transformer noise
bgA pA0
L maximum L ÷
Difference between back ground
noise before measurement and back
ground noise after measurement
bgA bgA
L last L first ÷
comment
≥ 8 dB - Measurement OK
< 8 dB < 3 dB Measurement OK
< 8 dB > 3 dB Measur.must be repeated
< 3 dB - Measur. must be repeated

A- The average sound pressure level corrected by weight is calculated according to below equation :

K -
bgA
L 0,1
10 -
pA0
L 0,1
10 log 10
pA
L

=


The ambient correction value “K “ depends on the properties of the materials around the noise source
and the sound absorbtion properties of the measurement room and calculated as below :
]
A/S
4
+ [1 log 10 = K

A = α S
v
bgA
L : the smaller of the average back ground noise levels
pA0
L : average measured noise level
K : ambient noise corection factor
Transformer Tests
Page : 38


S : Main propagation area at measurement distance
α: average sound absorbtion coefficient (see IEC 60076-10 table 1 )
S
V
: all surface of the test room including ceiling, floor and walls


Factors effecting the measurement results :

1. Internal effects about the structure of the transformer ( measuring frequency, flux/induction
at the core, mass, sheet steel quality of the core and operating type )

2. External effects :

- ( measuring distance ) is one of the main factors effecting the noise level. According to
acoustic laws; the sound pressure level decreases in linear proportion with the square of
the distance “ d “ from the defined source (equivalent centered sphere ). For example,
if the sound level is measured in 2m, sound level in a “d” distance is ;


L
p(d )
= L
p ( 2m )
– 20. log ( d / 2 ) here ; d should be taken in meters.


- The sound level changes by the square of the frequency :


L
p ( f )
= L
p ( 50 )
+ 20. Log ( f / 50 )


For example, if a 60 Hz transformer is measured at 50 Hz, below value should be
added to the noise value at 50 Hz ;

∆L
p
= 20.log ( 60 / 50 ) = 1,6 dB should be added.

- For measurements made at voltages other than rated voltage, the noise pressure level
is corrected according to the equation below:

∆L
p
= 40.log ( U
anma
/ U
t es t
)

For example, If a 420 kV rated voltage transformer is supplied with 410 kV voltage, the
below value is added to the measurement results.

∆L
p
= 40.log ( 420 / 410) = 0,42 dB ≈ 0,5 dB


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shall be modifications to this document.

Transformer Tests
Page : 39




























Figure 15.1: Microphone locations for measuring noise level in transformers with cooling equipment
mounted on the tank

























Figure 15.2: microphone locations for measuring noise level in transformers with a seperate forced air
cooling equipment closer than 3 meters.

1- Horizontal air cooling
2- Natural cooling
3- Dome
4- Tansformer tank
5- Cable box
6- Measurement profiler
7- Sound propagation surface
8- Tap changer
9- Vertical forced air cooling
h- Tank height
x- Measurement distance
D- Microphone distance

4 7
h
1
9
2
6
7
X
5
3
8
D
X
D
< 3m
2
3
1 4
h
1- Sound propagation surface D- Microphone distance
2- Measurement profile
x- Measurement distance
3- Transformer tank
h- Tank height
4- Forced air cooling

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Transformer Tests
Page : 40



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shall be modifications to this document.

16- Measurement of harmonics of the no-load current

They are measured to use whenever necessary during the operating of the transformer.

In general, the ratio of harmonic currents in the rated current is less than 1%. The amplitude of the
harmonics component depends on the property of transformer’s core material, induction degree, core
design, connection of windings and impedance of the transformer’s supply circuit.

The measurement of current and voltage harmonics are done during the no-load losses and currents
measurement (section 4) by the same test connection. The measurement circuit connection diagram is
given in figure 16.1.

The supply voltage of the transformer at the test laboratory should be sinusoidal. Beause of the
possible defects in the no-load cuurent, the supply voltage may devaite from sinus wave. To avoid
this, the test generator and the connections of the test transformer should be appropriate and should
make sure that they are at the lineer operation area of their magnetic characteristics. The
measurement currents and voltages are connected to the analyser through measurement current and
voltage transformers. Because of this, the operation areas of the measurement transformers should
also be linear. By this way, the measurement transformers will not produce harmonics.

The measurements are repeated for each of the three phases. The measurements are usually made
at the strongest harmonics (3., 5., 7., and 9.).

The effective value of the no-load current:


I
eff i
i
n
=
=
¯
2
1
I
. Here I
i
: Values of harmonics currents






















1- Power supply 5- Harmonics Analyser / Power Analyser
2- Supply (intermediate) Transformer 6- transformer under Test
3- Measurement Current Transformers 4- Measurement Voltage Transformers

Figure 16.1: Harmonics measurement connection diagram
W
A A A
A

B

C
a


b


c
W W
n

3~
A A A
W
6
v
v
v

N
1
2
3
4
5
Transformer Tests
Page : 41


17- Measurement of insulation resistance

The insulation resistance measurements are made to determine the insulation conditions of the
transformer's windings to earth, between windings and to form a reference for future measurements
during operating.

During measurement the currents (charge, absorbtion and leakage currents) flowing in the resistance
formed by the insulator are measured. This current changes heavily according to humidity of the
insulator, foreign materials in the insulator and temperature.

By comparing the results obtained in insulation resistance mesurements with periodical
measurements, the insulation condiitons can be evaluated. For comparison they have to be at the
same temperature (e.g. 20°C reference temperature).

In insulation resistance measurements about the insulation state of the transformer, “the method of
variation of resistance by test period” is one of the best methods to apply since it is simple and
accurate.
The insulation resistance is measured with a measuring instrument. The test voltage is “direct voltage”
and can be between 1000 V d.c. and 5000 V.d.c.

The measuring points are "between the windings and between winding and tank", the hard to measure
places can be connected to the “Guard” circuit of the instrument to have more accurate results.The
temperature and humidity during test should also be recorded.

The values at 15th sec, 30th sec, 45th sec and 60th sec and 10th min. after the voltage is applied,
should be recorded. Also, the ratio of insulation resistance in 60th sec ( R
60
), to insulation resistance
in 15th second (R
15
) can be given as absorbtion ratio in the test report. Also, the ratio of the value in
10th minute to value in 1st minute can be given as “ polarisation index ( PI ) “.

The correction factor of values (by multiplying) measured in transformer oil temperature according to
20 °C reference temperature is given in below table:

A B C N

T
a b c
n

G
+


M : D.C. Power Supply ( Megger )
G : Guard / Shield end
T : Transformer tank
M





Figure 17.1 : Measuring insulation resistance in a YNyn0 transformer

Measuring
Temperature
° C
Correction
factor
Measuring
Temeperature
° C
Correction
factor
-10 0,13 35 2,80
-5 0,18 40 3,95
0 0,25 45 5,60
5 0,36 50 7,85
10 0,50 55 11,20
15 0,75 60 15,85
20 1,0 65 22,40
25 1,40 70 31,75
30 1,98 75 44,70


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shall be modifications to this document.

Transformer Tests
Page : 42


Power Transformers Test Laboratory I ( OSB Lab. I )

ROTATING MACHINES

Generator I : S = 10.000 kVA synchronous
U = 6.000 V
I = 962 A
f = 50-60 Hz

Motor I : P = 2500 kW Asynchronous

Generator II : S = 3.000 kVA synchronous
U = 6.000 V
I = 289
f = 100-180 Hz

Motor II : P = 1000 kW Asynchronous


TEST TRANSFORMERS and REACTOR

Transformer : S = 15.000 kVA
U = 6.000(6.600) / 2.028 -111.500(122.300) V
I = 1443 A / 975........78 A
f = 50-180 Hz

Reactor : S = 3.000(4.500 ) kVAr
U = 6.000(6.600) V
I = 285 ( 428 ) A
f = 100-180 Hz


COMPENSATION CAPACITOR BANKS

A total of 151,2 MVAr with 252 groups of each 600 kVAr with rated voltage 12 kV capacitors.

Total Rated power : 151.200 kVAr


INDUSTRIAL VOLTAGE TEST EQUIPMENTS

HV. Series Resonant System : U = 600 kV( 2x300 kV), 1- Phase
S = 2.400 kVA
I = 4 A (2xparalel 8 A ) f= 50 Hz
Manufacturer: Hipotronics

Capacitive Voltage-Divider : 800 kV/0,1 kV 50÷180 Hz
Yapımcı firma: Hipotronics

Peak-Voltmeter : U U
eff
/ 2 ÷ Voltmeter
Class 0,5 50÷180 Hz
Manufacturer: Hipotronics

HV Filters : 70 kV, 50 A, 3 pcs
Manufacturer: ISOFARAD


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shall be modifications to this document.

Transformer Tests
Page : 43


TRANSFORMER LOSS MEASURING SYSTEM

Current Channels : 5 ÷ 4.000 A / 5 A
Class 0,1, 100 kV, 50/60 Hz-150 Hz
Manufacturer: Haefely, TMS 580

Voltage Channels : 100 ÷ 100.000 V/100 V
Class 0,1, 50/60 Hz-150 Hz
Manufacturer: Haefely TMS 580

IMPULSE VOLTAGE TEST EQUIPMENTS

Impulse voltage generator: Number of stages : n = 12
Max. Stage Voltage : U = 200 kV
L
Max. Total Voltage : U= 2400 kV
Max. Total Power : W= 240 kJ
Cap. of each stage : C= 1 uF
Manufacturer : Haefely

Multiple Chopping Device: 12-stage
Capacitance : 7200 pF/Stage
Lightning Impulse Voltage : ±2400 kV
Manufacturer : Haefely

Voltage Divider: R-Damped- Capacitive Divider
Lightning Impulse Voltage : ±2400 kV
Switching Impulse Voltage: ±1300 kV
Capacitance : 350 pF
Manufacturer : Haefely

Digital Impulse Meas. System : High Resolution Impulse Analysing System 4 Channels
Accuracy : ±1%
Type : HIAS-743
Manufacturer : Haefely

MEASURING BRIDGES and MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

Schering Measuring Bridge : Type : 2801
Accuracy : 0,5%
Capacitance : 0...... 10 uF
5
tan o : 0...... 350%
Manufacturer : TETTEX

Press-Gas Capacitor: Capacitance : 50 pF
Voltage : 400 kV a.c.
Manufacturer : TETTEX

Turn Ratio Measuring Instrument: Type : TR-MARK II R
Accuracy : 0,05%
Measuring range : 0,8.........13000
Manufacturer : RAYTECH

Resistance Measuring Instrument: Type : WR 100-R 2
Accuracy : 0,1%
Measuring range : 10
-6
10
5
O
Manufacturer : RAYTECH

This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. A.Ş. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. There
shall be modifications to this document.

Transformer Tests
Page : 44


Digital Thermometer: 20 Channels programmable
Type : 2620
Manufacturer : FLUKE


Partial-Discharge: Frequency : 0,1 kHz ÷ 10 MHz
Measuring Instrument Measuring range : 0,1 pC.......100000 pC
RIV : 850 kHz and 1 MHz
Type : ICMsys8
Manufacturer : Power Diagnostix


Insulation-Resistance: Voltage : 5000 V. d.c.
Measuring Instrument Measuring range : 15 TO
Type : MIT 510
Manufacturer : MEGGER


Sound Level: Measuring instrument : type 2250 B
Measuring Instrument 1/3-1/3 oktav filtre : type BZ 7223
Microphone : type 4189
Calibrator : type 4231
Manufacturer : BRUEL & KJAER

Vibration Measuring Instrument: Measuring range : 1 – 1000 ms
-2
, 10 Hz.......1 kHz
Type : 5500
Manufacturer : METRIX INSTRUMENT CO.

Loss Factor: Measuring range : 0 ÷ 12 kV
Measuring Instrument Type : M2H-MCM
Manufacturer : DOBLE Engineering Company

Ossiloscope: 4- Channels
Type : 2014
Manufacturer : TEKTRONİX

Corona Detector: Type : ULD-40
Manufacturer : HOTEK


Thermal Camera: Type : Ti 25
Manufacturer : FLUKE










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shall be modifications to this document.

Transformer Tests
Page : 45


Power Transformers Test Laboratory I (ASB Lab. I )

ROTATING MACHINES

Generator : S = 330 kVA synchronous
U = 500 V
I = 381 A
f = 50 Hz

Motor : P= 300 kW Asynchronous

Generator : S= 500 kVA synchronous
U= 800 / 1400 V
I = 361 / 206
f = 150 Hz

TEST TRANSFORMERS

Transformer : S = 4700 / 1000 / 4700 kVA
U = 34500 / 800-1400 / 64000 V
I = 79 A / 721........412 A / 42 A

COMPENSATION CAPACITOR BANKS

A total of 22,5 MVAr with 45 groups of each 500 kVAr with rated voltage 6 kV and total of 22,5 MVAr
with 90 groups of each 250 kVAr with rated voltage of 3 kV capacitors.

Total Rated power : 45.000 kVAr


REACTORS

Reactor I : S = 3x(24-240) kVA; 50 Hz;
U = (200-800 V-∆) (200√3-800√3 V-Y)
I = 120-2080 A

Reactor II : S = 1000 kVA; 150 Hz;
U = 800 V
I = 722 A


INDUSTRIAL VOLTAGE TEST EQUIPMENTS

H.V. Test Transformer : U= 350 kV/0,4 kV, 1- Phase
S= 75 kVA
I= 0,2 A/ 188 A f= 50 Hz
Manufacturer: Messwandlerbau-Bamberg

Capacitive Voltage-Divider : 350 kV/0,1 kV 50÷200 Hz
Manufacturer: Messwandlerbau-Bamberg

Peak-Voltmeter : U U
eff
/ 2 ÷ Voltmeter
Class 0,5 50÷200 Hz
Manufacturer: Messwandlerbau – Bamberg


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shall be modifications to this document.

Transformer Tests
Page : 46


TRANSFORMER LOSS MEASURING SYSTEM

Current Channels : 5 to 4.000 A / 5 A
Class 0,1, 100 kV, 50/60 Hz-150 Hz
Manufacturer: Haefely, TMS 580

Voltage Channels : 100 to 100.000 V/100 V
Class 0,1, 50/60 Hz-150 Hz
Manufacturer: Haefely TMS 580


IMPULSE VOLTAGE TEST EQUIPMENTS

Impulse voltage generator: Number of stages : n = 10
Max. Step Voltage : U = 200 kV
L
Max. Total Voltage : U= 2000 kV
Max. Total Power : W= 200 kJ
Cap. of each step : C= 1 uF
Manufacturer : Passoni+Villa

Multiple chopping device: 8-stage, Dry Air Pressurized
Capacitance : 6000 pF/stage
Lightning Impulse Voltage: ±1800 kV
Manufacturer : Passoni+Villa

Voltage Divider: R-Damped-Capacitive Divider
Lightning Impulse Voltage : ±2000 kV
Switching Impulse Voltage: ±1450 kV
Capacitance : 400÷1600 pF
Manufacturer : Passoni+Villa

Digital Impulse Measuring System: Digital Data Acquisition Analysis System
Accuracy : ±1%
Type : SDA-C
Manufacturer : Passoni+Villa

MEASURING BRIDGES and MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

Schering Measuring Bridge : Type : 2801
Accuracy : 0,5%
Capacitance : 0...... 10 uF
5
tan o : 0...... 350%
Manufacturer : TETTEX

Press-Gas Capacitor Capacitance : 50 pF
Voltage : 400 kV a.c.
Manufacturer : TETTEX

Turn Ratio Measuring Instrument: Type : TR-MARK II R
Accuracy : 0,05%
Measuring range : 0,8.........13000
Manufacturer : RAYTECH

Resistance Measuring Instrument: Type : WR 50-R 2
Accuracy : 0,1%
Measuring range : 10
-6
10
5
O
Manufacturer : RAYTECH

This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. A.Ş. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. There
shall be modifications to this document.

Transformer Tests
Page : 47


Digital Thermometer: 20 Channel programmable
Type : 2620
Manufacturer : FLUKE

Power Measuring Unit: Wide Band Power Analyser
(Wattmeter-Voltmeter- Type : D 6000 T
Ampermeter) Accuracy : 0,1%
Manufacturer : NORMA

Partial-Discharge Measuring Instrument::Frequency : 0,1 kHz ÷ 10 MHz
Measuring range : 0,1 pC.......100000 pC
RIV : 850 kHz and 1 MHz
Type : ICMsys4
Manufacturer : Power Diagnostix

Insulation-Resistance Measuring Instrument: Voltage : 5000 V. d.c.
Measuring range : 15 TO
Type : MIT 510
Manufacturer : MEGGER

Insulation-Resistance Measuring Instrument:Voltage : 5000 V. d.c.
Measuring range : 10 TO
Type : BM 21
Manufacturer : MEGGER

Noise Measuring Instrument: Measuring instrument : type 2230
1/3-1/3 octave filter: type ZF 0020
Microphone : type 4155
Calibrator : type 4230
Manufacturer : BRUEL & KJAER

Vibration Measuring Instrument: Measuring range : 1 , 10 Hz.......1 kHz 1000
2
..... ms
÷
Type : 5500
Manufacturer : METRIX INSTRUMENT CO.

Loss Factor Measuring Instrument:Measuring range : 0 ÷ 12 kV
Type : M2H
Manufacturer : DOBLE Engineering Company

Ossiloscope: 2- Channel
Type : 2012
Manufacturer : TEKTRONİX

Corona Detector: Type : ULD-40
Manufacturer : HOTEK


Thermal Camera: Type : Ti 25
Manufacturer : FLUKE







This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. A.Ş. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. There
shall be modifications to this document.

Transformer Tests
Page : 48


Distribution Transformers Test Laboratory II ( ASB Lab II )

TEST TRANSFORMERS

Transformer : S = 315 kVA
U = 400 / 400-3600 V
I = 455 A / 455.......51 A

Rotating Transformer : S = 160 kVA
U = 380 / 760 V
I = 243 A / 455.......122 A

Frequency Converter : Güç = 300 kW
U = 400 V
Frequency = 50-150 Hz

COMPENSATION CAPACITOR BANKS

A total of 720 kVAr with 12 groups of each 60 kVAr with rated voltage 0,5 kV capacitors.

Total Rated power : 720 kVAr

MEASURING TRANSFORMERS

Precision Current Transformers

3 pieces Current transformers: 5-10-25-50-100-250-500 A /5A
10 VA, Class 0,05, 3,6 kV, 50/60 Hz
Manufacturer: EPRO

Precision Voltage Transformers

3 pieces voltage transformers : 400-1000-2000-3000 V/100 V
10 VA, Class 0,05, 50/60 Hz
Manufacturer: EPRO

INDUSTRIAL VOLTAGE TEST EQUIPMENT

H.V. Test Transformer : U= 100 kV/0,4 kV, 1- Phase
S= 100 kVA
I= 1 A/ 250 A f= 50 Hz
Manufacturer: BEST

Capacitive Voltage-Divider : 100 kV/0,1 kV 50÷200 Hz
Manufacturer: Messwandlerbau-Bamberg

Peak-Voltmeter : U U
eff
/ 2 ÷ Voltmeter Digital
Class 0,5 50÷200 Hz
Manufacturer: Messwandlerbau – Bamberg

AC Voltage Test Instrument : Type : 3158
Measuring range : 0.........6 kV
Manufacturer : HIOKI

HV Filter : 70 kV, 50 A, 3 pcs
Manufacturer : ISOFARAD

This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. A.Ş. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. There
shall be modifications to this document.

Transformer Tests
Page : 49


This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. A.Ş. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. There
shall be modifications to this document.


MEASURING BRIDGES and MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

Turn-Ratio Bridge: Accuracy : ±0,1%
Voltage : 220 V a.c.
Measuring range : 1.........1000
Manufacturer : Hartmann+Braun
Turn Ratio Measuring Instrument: Type : PWR 3
Accuracy : 0,1%
Measuring range : 0,9.........1000
Manufacturer : SCHÜTZ

Resistance Measuring Instrument: Type : MRC 6100 N
Accuracy : 0,1 %
Measuring range : 10 10
6 2 ÷
....... O
Manufacturer : SCHÜTZ

Resistance Measuring Instrument: Type : WR 50-R 2
Accuracy : 0,1%
Measuring range : 10
-6
10
5
O
Manufacturer : RAYTECH

Digital Thermometer: 20 Channel programmable
Type : 2620
Manufacturer : FLUKE

Power Measuring Unit: Wide Band Power Analyser
(Wattmeter-Voltmeter- Type : D 6000 T
Ampermeter) Accuracy : 0,1%
Manufacturer : NORMA

Voltmeter, average-value: Digital,
Type : D 4045
Accuracy : 0,1%
Manufacturer : NORMA

Insulation-Resistance
Measuring Instrument: Voltage : 5000 V. d.c.
Measuring range : 500 GO
Type : BM 11 D
Manufacturer : MEGGER




Litterature :

- IEC Standards 60076 Power Transformer– all parts
- The Testing of Transformer ( Transformatör Deneyleri – Haluk Odoğlu)

Transformer Tests
Page : 1

Introduction :
The methods used during tests and measurements of the Power Transformers, test and measurement circuits, calculations and evaluation criterias are included in this manual. At the end of this manual, BEST Balıkesir Transformer Factory laboratory hardware and measurement and test equipments are listed. For insulation levels of transformers, electrical characteristics and evaluation, please refer to national and international standards and customer specifications. Tests and evaluation definitons are listed below:

Routine Tests :
Page 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Measurement of winding resistance Measurement of voltage ratio and check of phase displacement Measurement of short-circuit impedance and load loss Measurement of no-load loss and current Dielectric tests Separate source AC withstand voltage test Induced AC voltage test Partial-discharge measurement Tests on on-load tap-changers 2 4 7 10 12 14 15 18 21

Type Tests :
10. Temperature-rise test 11. Lightning-Impulse tests 22 26

Special Tests :
12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Switching impulse voltage test Measurement of dissipation factor (tan ) and capacitance Measurement of zero sequence impedance(s) Determination of sound level Measurement of harmonics of the no-load current Measurement of insulation resistance 30 32 34 36 40 41 42

List of tests and measuring equipment of the testing laboratory

Prepared by :

Haluk Odoğlu

June 2009 ( 3 th Edition )

This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. A.Ş. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. There shall be modifications to this document.

Transformer Tests
Page : 2

1- Measurement of winding resistance
Measurement is made to check transformer windings and terminal connections and also both to use as reference for future measurements and to calculate the load loss values at reference (e.g. 75C) temperature. Measuring the winding resistance is done by using DC current and is very much dependent on temperature. Temperature correction is made according to the equations below:

R2  R1 

235  t 2 235  t1

(for copper)

R2  R1 

225  t 2 225  t1

(for aluminium)

R2 : winding resistance at temperature t2,

R1 : winding resistance at temperature t1

Because of this, temperatures must be measured when measuring the winding resistances and temperature during measurement should be recorded as well. Winding resistances are measured between all connection terminals of windings and at all tap positions. During this, winding temperature should also be appropriately measured and recorded. The measuring current can be obtained either from a battery or from a constant(stable) current source. The measuring current value should be high enough to obtain a correct and precise measurement and small enough not to change the winding temperature. In practice, this value should be larger than 1,2xI0 and smaller than 0,1xIN, if possible. A transformer consists of a resistance R and an inductance L connected in serial. If a voltage U is applied to this circuit;

The value of current measurement will be : L/R ratio.

i

R  t U (1  e L ) . Here, the time coefficient depends on R

As the measurement current increases, the core will be saturated and inductance will decrease. In this way, the current will reach the saturation value in a shorter time. After the current is applied to the circuit, it should be waited until the current becomes stationary (complete saturation) before taking measurements, otherwise, there will be measurement errors. Measuring circuit and performing the measurement The transformer winding resistances can be measured either by current-voltage method or bridge method. If digital measuring instruments are used, the measurement accuracy will be higher. Measuring by the current-voltage method is shown in figure 1.1 In the current – voltage method, the measuring current passing through the winding also passes through a standard resistor with a known value and the voltage drop values on both resistors (winding resistance and standard resistance) are compared to find the unknown resistance (winding

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Transformer Tests
Page : 3

resistance). One should be careful not to keep the voltage measuring voltmeter connected to the circuit to protect it from high voltages which may occur during switching the current circuit on and off.

a A
DC
Source

A B V C N b c

Figure 1.1: Measuring the resistance by Current-Voltage method
The bridge method is based on comparing an unknown (being measured) resistor with a known value resistor. When the currents flowing in the arms are balanced, the current through the galvanometer will be zero. In general, if the small value resistors (e.g. less than 1 ohm ) are measured with a Kelvin bridge and higher value resistors are measured with a Wheatstone bridge, measurement errors will be minimised.

R1
G R

R2

a
G

Rx

Rx

R3

R4

b RN
A

R

rN RS
Figure 1.2: Kelvin bridge

R’3

Figure 1.3: Wheatstone bridge

The resistance measured with the Kelvin Bridge;

Rx  RN 

R1 R2

( R1 = R3 ve R2 = R4 )

The resistance measured with the Wheatstone Bridge;
a b

Rx = R

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Transformer Tests
Page : 4

2- Measurement of voltage ratio and check of phase displacement
The no-load voltage ratio between two windings of a transformer is called turn ratio. The aim of measurement is; confirming the no-load voltage ratio given in the customer order specifications, determining the conditions of both the windings and the connections and examining the problems (if any) The measurements are made at all tap positions and all phases. Measurement circuit and performing the measurement 2.1 Turn Ratio Measurement

The turn ratio measurement can be made using two different methods; a. Bridge method b. By measuring the voltage ratios of the windings a). Measurement of turn ratio is based on, applying a phase voltage to one of the windings using a bridge (equipment) and measuring the ratio of the induced voltage at the bridge. The measurements are repeated in all phases and at all tap positions, sequentially. During measurement, only turn ratio between the winding couples which have the same magnetic flux can be measured, which means the turn ratio between the winding couples which have the parallel vectors in the vector diagram can be measured. (fig 2.1, 2.2, 2.3). In general, the measuring voltage is 220 V a.c. 50 Hz. However, equipments which have other voltage levels can also be used. The accuracy of the measuring instrument is ≤ 0,1%.
1 2

~
220 V U1 U2
3

1 3

Transformer under test Zero position indicator

2 Transformer with adjustable range (standard)

U1 Applied voltage to the bridge and HV winding (220 V, 50 Hz)

U2 Induced voltage at the LV winding Figure 1-1: Bridge connection for measuring the turn ratio
Theoretical turn ratio = HV winding voltage / LV winding voltage The theoretical no-load turn ratio of the transformer is adjusted on the equipment by an adjustable transformer, it is changed until a balance occurs on the % error indicator. The value read on this error indicator shows the deviaton of the transformer from real turn ratio as % .

Deviation 

measured

turn ratio   expected turn ratio  expected turn ratio

 %100

This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. A.Ş. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. There shall be modifications to this document.

in addition to measuring the turn ratio. The connections about the alternating current method are detailed in standards. An example of this method is shown on a vector diagram below. The phase angle between the high voltage and the low voltage windings varies between 0 and 360 . the HV winding is represented as 12 (0) hour and the other windings of the connection group are represented by other numbers of the clock in reference to the real or virtual point.5 . in order to be Dyn 11 group . the input and output windings of a multi-phase transformer are connected either as star ( Y ) or delta ( D ) or zigzag ( Z ). By using such instruments. A. 12 1 11 A 2 The order of the measurements: 1). or digital instruments which are manufactured for this purpose can be used in the voltage ratio measurement method. Determining the connection group is valid only in three phase transformers. AC) is measured 3).Ş. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. For example. same principles will be helpful.A short circuit is made between C and n 4). same principles can be used and also for determining the other connection groups.3 phase voltage is applied to ABC phases 2).c > AB > B. checking the connection group or polarity is possible by using a voltmeter. If the vector directions of the connection are correct.voltage between phases (e. The method of comparing the vector couple voltages also allows measuring the angle (phase slip) between vectors at the same time The no-load deviation of the turn ratios should be 2. The high voltage winding is shown first (as reference) and the other windings follow it.2 Determining the Connection Group ≤ % 0. also determining the connection group (with three phase measuring instrument) and measuring the currents during measurement are also possible. A. Representing as vectors. This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. in Dyn 11 connection group the HV winding is delta and the LV winding is star and there is a phase difference of 330 (11x30) between two windings.g. the bridge can be balanced. There shall be modifications to this document. Taking the other phases as reference for starting. The voltages at the winding couples to be measured. . While the HV end shows 12 (0). the LV end shows 11 o’clock (after 330). Also. Depending on the type of the transformer.voltage between B and b is measured 5).b correlation has to realized.Transformer Tests Page : 5 b).voltage between A and c is measured B i III n I ii II 6 4 a 3 a' c' n' C b' n c b iii Figure 1-2: Connection group representation and measuring As seen from the vector diagram. can be measured at the same time and the ratio can be determined. Direct current or alternating current can be used for this check.

Ş.Transformer Tests Page : 6 Group I II Connection III I III II i iii ii Connection Connection 0 i Yy 0 ii iii Dd 0 Dz 0 I II III I III II i iii Dy 1 Yz 1 1 Yd 1 i ii iii ii I I II III 5 III Yd 1 i ii iii ii I II III I III ii i I II III I III i II iii Dy 5 Yz 5 i 6 i Yy 6 ii iii II iii Dd 6 Dz 6 1 Yd 11 i A iii II Dy 11 Yz 11 iii ii The table is formed based on IEC 60076 and the idea that the winding directions of the HV and LV windings are same Figure 2. There shall be modifications to this document. A.3: Some of the connection groups according to IEC 60076-1 standard This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. . It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission.

The short-circuit voltage is an important criteria especially during parallel operations of the transformers. These values are recorded and guaranteed to the customer and important for operational economy. The short-circuit loss is composed of. core pressing arrangements. A. If the adjusting range is more than 5%. in addition to the rated value.Current Transformers 4. Measuring circuit and performing the measurement: 3 A B C a b c N 6 3 1 2 4 n C A A A A v v v W W W W 5 1. is called short-circuit loss.Supply (intermediate) Transformer 3.Measurement of short-circuit impedance and load loss The short-circuit loss and the short-circuit voltage show the performance of the transformer. is the voltage applied to the primary winding and causes the rated current to flow in the winding couples while one of the winding couples is short circuited. There shall be modifications to this document.Compensation Capacitor groups Figure 3. The active loss measured during this.Power supply 2.Transformer Tests Page : 7 3.Transformer under test C. Short-circuit voltage. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. “Joule “ losses (direct current/DC losses) which is formed by the load current in the winding and the additional losses (alternating current/AC losses) in the windings.Power Analyser 6. The short-circuit loss is a data which is also used in the heat test.1: Short-circuit losses measurement connection diagram This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. . the losses are repeated for the maximum and minimum values. tank walls and magnetic screening (if any) by the leakage (scatter) fluxes.Ş.Voltage Transformers 5.

current and short-circuit losses of each phase should be measured during measurement. The voltage. Before beginnig to measure. to IEC) Short-circuit voltage : At measuring temperature (tm) ukm  100  Ukm UN % uRM  100  Pkm SN % “ohmic/DC ” component. In order to avoid increasing the winding temperature by the applied current. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. Pk  PDC  R tR  t m tR  75 2 2 tR : 235 oC for Copper ( acc. the current has to be at the value of IN or close to this value as far as possible. This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. A. 75C ) stated in the standards and evaluated. .RYG + I2 . Direct-current loss = at measuring temperature tm PDC = 1. the measurement has to be completed in a short time and the measuring current has to be kept between 25%.Pdc.Ş.g. In this way. maximum and minimum ranges. The direct-current/DC losses on the winding resistances.Transformer Tests Page : 8 In general.( I1 . to IEC ) 225 o C for Aluminium ( acc. AC / Additional losses = at measuring temperature tm Pac = Pkm. In cases where the power supply is not sufficient enough to supply the measurement circuit.RAG ).. During measurement. have to be corrected according to this reference temperature. compensation to meet the reactive power has to be made using capacitors. the HV windings of the transformer are supplied while the LV windings are short-circuited. The short-circuit voltage Ukm and losses (Pkm ) which are found at the temperature which the measurement was made.. The losses have to be corrected based on reference temperature (e. the transformer winding/oil temperature has to be stabilised and the winding/oil temperature and winding resistances have to be measured. u xm  u 2 km  u 2 RM % “inductive /AC” component At reference (75C) temperature: uR  100  Pk SN  % uk  u 2R  u 2 xm  % The short-sircuit losses and short-circuit voltage measurements. while the resistance values are RYG and RAG (phase to phase measured resistances) are as follows . the measurement errors due to winding temperature increase will be minimised.5.100% of the rated current. There shall be modifications to this document. calculations and corrections have to made at rated. Losses at reference (75C ) temperature: t  75C t t  PAC  R m .

u.. E ( % ) = + 0. the short-circuit voltage and shortcircuit losses for the rated current value are calculated as follows. correction has to be made to according to below equations: Short-circuit voltage : Uk  Ukm  Here : Ukm : short-circuit voltage at fm measured frequency Uk : short-circuit voltage at fN rated frquency Pac : additional losses at fm measured frequency fN fm Short-circuit loss : Pk  PDC  PAC  ( fN 2 ) fm Pk : short-circuit losses at fN rated frequency This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. tg  . the power factor (Cos ) will be very small (Cos : 0... i : Current transformer phase error u : Voltage transformer phase error When the measurement transformer phase errors are stated in minutes. In this case..  cos  δ   Here  = i . Measuring circuit and error correction equations : Pkd  Pkm  1  ( E(%) 100 ) Pkd : Pkm : Corrected loss Loss read at the Wattmeter E ( % ) : Total error E(%) = E( % ) + Ei ( % ) + Eu ( % ) E( % ) : Measurement error Ei ( % ) : Current transformer turn ratio error Eu ( % ): Voltage transformer turn ratio error  cos  Eδ (%)  1    100 . For this reason. A...Transformer Tests Page : 9 Since the circuit forming the measurement in high power transformers and reactors are inductive. or angle = 1...0291.01 . 0. 10 minutes)..003. . If the measurement current is different than rated current “ IN ”. (i – u ).Ş. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. the measurement results have to be corrected by a multiplier. the errors in measurement current and voltage transformers will be very high. There shall be modifications to this document. Uk  Ukm  IN Im Pk  Pkm  ( IN 2 ) Im Ukm : Measured short-circuit voltage Pkm : Measured short-circuit losses UK : Short-circuit voltage at the rated current Im : Measured test current Pk : Short-circuit losses at the rated current When the transformer short-circuit losses and the voltage are measured at a frequency which is different than the rated frequency.

The measured losses depend heavily on the applied voltage waveform and frequency.Power supply 2.Current Transformers 5. As long as the transformer is operated.Transformer under test 4. For this reason. dielectric losses at the insulating material and the copper losses due to no-load current.Power Analyser 6. the measurements are made while the supply voltage is increased at equal intervals from 90% to 115% of the transformer rated voltage ( UN ) and this way the values at the rated voltage can also be found. A. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission.Supply (intermediate) Transformer 3. no-load losses are very important for operational economy.Transformer Tests Page : 10 4. The no-load loss and current measurements of a transformer are made while one of the windings (usually the HV winding) is kept open and the other winding is supplied at the rated voltage and frequency. So. .Measurement of no-load loss and current The no-load losses are very much related to the operational performance of a transformer. During this test the no-load current (Io) and the no-load losses (Po) are measured. only the iron losses are considered in determining the no-load losses. There shall be modifications to this document. The last two of them are very small in value and can be ignored.Voltage Transformers 4-1: Connection diagram for measuring no-load losses This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri.Ş. Normally. iron losses at the core of the transformer. No-load losses are also used in the heating test. these losses occur. Measuring circuit and performing the measurement: 3 a A B C 3 b c 1 2 4 n 6 N A A A A v v v W W W W 5 1. For this reason. No-load losses and currents: The no-load losses of a transformer are grouped in three main topics. the waveform of the voltage should be very sinusoidal and at rated frequency.

f + k2 .) value and the average (mean) value of the voltage are different. the shape of the wave is considered as appropriate for measurements. . Before the no-load measurements.Ş. During measurements. there is no need for correction. if there is less than 3% difference between the effective (U) value and the average (U’) value of the supply voltage. the measured no-load losses have to be corrected by a calculation. The no-load currents are neither symmetrical nor of equal amplitude in three phase transformers. in cold oriented sheet steel. the effective (r. If the readings of both voltmeter are equal. f 2 At 50 Hz and 60 Hz. The eddy-current losses should be corrected according to equation below. P1  k  P2 Here: P1 = P2 =0.  U  During no-load loss measurement. Sometimes one of the wattmeter values can be 0(zero) or negative (-). the wattmeter readings on each of the three phases may not be equal. The phase angles between voltages and currents may be different for each of three phases. the P0 no-load loss becomes: P0  Pm . To do this. the effective value of the no-load current of the transformer is measured as well. This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. For this reason. f 2 Here : U k   U'  2 P1 : The hysteresis loss ratio in total losses (Ph) = k1 . the core has to be demagnetised. In this case. P1= P2 =% 50. There shall be modifications to this document. In this way. the supply voltage U´ is supplied to the transformer by the average value voltmeter. the foreseen induction is formed and as a result of this. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. f P2 : The eddy-curent loss ratio in total losses (PE) = k2 . Pm  Po  (P1  k  P2 ) Pm : Measured loss P0 : no-load losses where the voltage is sinusoidal P0 = Ph + PE = k1 . evaluation is made according to the average of the thre phase currents. it has to be supplied by a voltage value (increasing and decreasing between the maximum and minimum voltage values for a few minutes) higher than the rated voltage for a certain time and then the measurements can be made. Pm = P0. If the supply voltage is different than sinusoid. A.s. the transformer might have been magnetised by direct current and it’s components (resistance measurement or impulse tests).5. the hysteresis losses are measured correctly. Here  U  U  d . According to IEC 60076-1. So. in three phase transformers. In general.( 1+d ).m.Transformer Tests Page : 11 In general according to the standards. For this reason.

Transformer Tests Page : 12 5 .Ş. Unless otherwise requested by the customer.5 Um  170 170  Um  300  300 tests Lightning impulse ( LI ) type ( note 1 ) routine routine routine Switching impulse ( SI ) na na routine ( note 2 ) routine Long duration AC ( ACLD ) na ( note 1 ) special routine routine Short duration AC ( ACSD ) routine routine special ( note 2 ) special Applied voltage test routine routine routine routine Winding structure Note 1 : In some countries.  Partial discharge measurement : to confirm the “partial dicharge below a determined level” property of the transformer insulation structure under operating conditions. both between the phases and through the winding. the SI test is not applied. the following test are performed in the following order (IEC 60076-3) :  Switching impulse test : to confirm the insulation of the transformer terminals and windings to the earthed parts and other windings. Note 2 : If the ACSD test is defined. and to confirm the insulation strength in the windings and through the windings. A.5 kV applied as routine test and the ACLD test is applied as routine or type test.  Induced AC voltage test ( short duration ACSD and long duration ACLD ) : to confirm the insulation strength of the transformer connection terminals and the connected windings to the earthed parts and other windings.  Lightning impulse test : to confirm the transformer insulation strength in case of a lightning hitting the connection terminals. According to standards. Maximum operating voltage Um kV uniform insulated uniform and gradually insulated Um  72.5 72.Dielectric tests The following insulation tests are performed in order to meet the transformer insulation strength expectations. . It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. The transformer insulation levels and the insulation test to be applied according to IEC 60076-3 is shown in the below table. There shall be modifications to this document. in transformers with Um  72. This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri.  Separate source AC withstand voltage test : to confirm the insulation strength of the transformer line and neutral connection terminals and the connected windings to the earthed parts and other windings. the transformer windings are made to meet the maximum operating voltage Um and the related insulation levels.

1 times the full wave value (10% higher). and if no agreement is made with the customer. For transformers with the high voltage winding Um > 72. Repeating the dielectric tests : If no modification is made in the internal insulation of a transformer. only maintenance is made. tests are repeated always with 100% of the original values ( IEC 60076-3 section 9 ). . the ratio between the tap changer’s optimum tap position and the windings shall be such arranged that. or if insulation tests are required for a transformer which is in operation.Transformer Tests Page : 13 In case of a transformer with one or more than one gradual insulation. the lowest Um voltage winding reaches the most appropriate value. the switching impulse test is determined according to the maximum Um voltage winding. The foreseen test voltage can not be reached in lower Um voltage windings. test is performed with test voltages at 80% of the original test values. In this case. the lightning impulse (LI) test is a routine test for all windings of the transformer. For new transformers with factory tests completed. if foreseen by the induced voltage test. the long duration induced voltage test ( ACLD ) is always repeated with 100% of the original value. If chopped wave is requested during ligthning impulse ( LI ) test. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. A. the peak value of the chopped wave is 1. This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri.5 kV. This is acceptable ( IEC 60076-3).Ş. However. There shall be modifications to this document.

60 Hz transformers can also be tested at 50 Hz. Test circuit and performing the test 1 4 5 A B C a b c  N Vef Û 8 2 A V 3 6 7 1.Peak value voltmeter (Peak value/ 2. (Section 7).Adjustable voltage transformer 3. Test period is 1 minute.Test transformer input voltage voltmeter 5. other windings. The shape of the voltage should be single phase and sinusoidal as far as possible. The insulation tests of the input terminals (phase inputs) of the gradual insulation windings is completed during induced voltage test.Test transformer 6. The secondary windings of bushing type current transformers should be connected together and earthed. malfunctions.Current transformer and ampermeter 4. This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. This test is applied to the star point (neutral point) of uniform insulated windings and gradual (nonuniform) insulation windings. Non-tested windings. . In this way.1: Separate source AC withstand voltage test connection diagram During the Separate source AC withstand voltage test.Separate source AC withstand voltage test The aim of this test is to check the insulation strength between the windings and earthed core. Every point of the winding which test voltage has been applied is accepted to be tested with this voltage. operational mistakes and transient events. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. the terminals of the non tested windings should be connected together as groups. the insulation strength of the transformer is tested against excessive voltages due to operational system instabilities. Meanwhile. The test voltage should be read from voltmeter as peak value divided by 2 .Effective voltage voltmeter 2) 8.Transformer Tests Page : 14 6. The test voltage is measured with the help of a voltage divider. tank and the core should be earthed. the frequency of the test voltage should be equal to the transformer’s rated frequency or should be not less than 80% of this frequency. with foreseen test voltage.Transformer under test Figure 6. There shall be modifications to this document. All the terminals of the winding under test should be connected together and the voltage should be applied here. construction pieces and the tank. The current should be stable during test and no surges should occur. In this way. A.Ş.Capacitive voltage divider 7.

the induced voltage tests are classified as short duration or long duration and according to the operation voltage being less or more than 72.Current trans. partial-discharge measurement is not mandatory. The test voltage value is choosen according to the Um’ value of the winding with highest operating voltage.1: Induced AC voltage test connection diagram This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. the tap position of the transformer under test should be appropriate. Another method is to measure the test voltage with a peak-value measuring instrument at the measuring-tap end of the capacitor type bushing (if any).Synchronous generator 2. Test connection W c C B A 5 N 1. Three phase. However in transformers bigger than 72. In transformers with the highest operation voltage less than 72. Normally the test voltage is twice the rated voltage. type and special tests are performed accordingly. The value of the test voltage (between phases and between phase and earth) is measured at the LV side on an accurate voltage transformer. voltage collapses or extreme increases in the current has occurred. Since the test voltage will be much higher than the transformer’s rated voltage. Test period which should not be less than 15 seconds. normally the test voltage is applied to the low voltage winding. in order to avoid oversaturation of the transformer core.Test transformer 3. and ampermeter 4.5 kV. . During test. The test voltage can either be measured on a voltage divider connected to the HV terminal or on a voltage transformer and voltmeter which have been set together with this voltage divider at the LV side. This voltage should not be more than the test voltage. As seen in table at section 5. Short duration induced voltage test ( ACSD ) : a) Uniform insulated windings The test connection of a transformer is the same as operating connection. A. symmetrical voltage is applied to the transformer under test. is calculated according to the equation below.Transformer Tests Page : 15 7. 120 seconds x ( Rated frequency / Test frequency ) The test is accepted to be succesful if no surges. There shall be modifications to this document. and voltmeter 5. Meanwhile the other windings should be left open and earthed from a common point. partial-discharge measurement during induced voltage tests is mandatory. the test frquency should not be less than twice the rated frequency value.5 kV. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. To be safe.Transformer under test G 3~ 1 2 V U b a A N 3 V 4 Figure 7.Ş. Other windings should be kept at a test level closest to their own operation voltage. in IEC 60076-3 standard.5 kV.Induced AC voltage test The aim of this test is to check the insulation both between phases and between turns of the windings and also the insulation between the input terminals of the graded insulation windings and earth.Voltage trans. Different routine.

Ş.Capacitive voltage divider 1 N V 6 Figure 7. Test period is as explained above.1. So. In transformers with Um > 72.5 kV. This test is performed as explained in section a) above. The test is repeated for each phase.U m / 3 Figure 7. normally partial discharge measurement is not performed. In three phase transformers. 2 In phase – phase test. The single phase voltage application should be U  1. and voltmeter 5. Um in phase-phase test and as U   . normally this test is performed together with partial discharge test. .3  U m phase – phase C A : 5 minutes B : 5 minutes C : test period D :  minutes E : 5 minutes Um : maximum operation voltage B A U2 1. the partial–discharge voltage level is taken as U2 = 1.Transformer Tests Page : 16 In transformers with Um < 72. Together with partial-discharge measurement.Current trans.5 kV . A. phase—earth strength test. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission.Voltage trans.2: Test period voltage-time diagram b) non-Uniform insulated windings There are two different methods for three phase transformers: 1.3: Single phase induced voltage test in non-uniform insulated windings connection diagram This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. There shall be modifications to this document.1.5 U m / 3 in phase – earth test.Transformer under test 6.3  U m / 3 phase – ground ve U 2  1.3 . W c b a A V 3 4 5 N C B A G 3~ V U 2 1. The voltage levels and application periods are given in figure 7.  U m /  in phase-earth test. Only phase – earth test is applied to single phase transformers.U m / 3 D E U1 U2 1. U2 = 1. the test voltage is applied to the phase terminals as single phase. The measurement and evaluation levels for partial discharge are: U 2  1. inter-phase strength test while the star point is earthed. the induced voltage test and the voltage test applied to the phase terminals are considered to be performed together. Together with partial-discharge measurement. Um in partial – discharge measurement. In such transformers. The voltage level to be applied is given in standards..Synchronous generator 2.2 below. and ampermeter 4.3 . 2. the foreseen test voltage is applied once to each HV input.Test transformer 3. In transformers with Um = 420 ve 550 kV and test value is 460 kV and 510 kV.

g. abnormal sound.3 is given for a transformer with HV neutral point insulated according to 1/3 test voltage. star point if they are star connected and from any terminal or from power supply if they are delta connected. IEC 60076 – 3 ).7 U m / 3 and U  1.4 . smoke. In three phase transformers. C A : 5 minutes B : 5 minutes C : test period D : 60 minutes for Um300 kV E : 5 minutes Um : Maximum voltage 30 minutes for Um <300 kV operation 1.U m / 3 A Figure 7. or symmetrically as three phase connection. partial-discharge measurement is made. This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. voltage-time diagram In all voltage steps of the test.1. gas bubbles during test. Long duration induced voltage test ( ACLD ) : For uniform and gradual insulation windings. The voltages according to earth should be as. The test application period and values are given in figure 7. the other windings are earthed from. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. The star point (if any) is earthed during test. A. it is applied either to terminals respectively as single phase connection.1.4: Long duration induced voltage test. The details of partial-discharge measurement are explained in section 8. U  1. . There shall be modifications to this document.Ş. The details about evaluation of test and partial-discharge measurement results are given in standards ( e. The test is accepted as succesful if there are no test voltage collapses. a sudden increase in test current.Transformer Tests Page : 17 The test connection in figure 7.5  U m / 3 and partial-discharge measurement should be made at all 1 2 HV line terminals.U m / 3 B A U2 U1 U2 D E 1.

Partial-discharges are electrical arks which form the surges between electrodes of any area of the insulating media of a transformer between the conductors. The following conditions can be determined during partial-discharge measurement. U voltage drop. A. average value of apparent partial-discharge current. impulse count within a time unit. Although these discharges have small (weak) energy. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. Z C2 A Z A U : Applied Voltage Z : Impedance of the supply circuit C1: Capacitance of the discharge part C2: Capacitance of the discharge part and serially connected insulator C3: Capacitance of the other parts of the insulator R1: Discharge resistance C2 U C3 C2 C1 C3 U C3 U1 DG i1( t ) C1 B DG: Discharge gap R1 a) b) Figure 8. This load is called apparent load and given in pC (Pico-Coulomb) units.Transformer Tests Page : 18 8. This forms a measurable “q” load at the measuring impedance.1 a) simple schematics of an insulator with gas gap b) equivalent circuit This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. These discharges may occur in air bubbles left in the insulating media. the impulses forming on the discharge point cause a U voltage drop at the transformer line terminals. To define the partial-discharge strength at a pre-defined voltage - How Partial-Discharge occurs and measured magnitudes : The structure where a partial-discharge occurred in an insulating media is shown in the simplified figure 8. partialdischarge power. partial-discharge start and cease voltages can also be determined. There shall be modifications to this document. deformation and tear of the insulating material. the thermal energies due to these discharges can cause aging. As seen on the simpliified diagram.1. To determine whether a partial-discharge above a certain value has occurred in the transformer at a pre-defined voltage To define the voltage values where the partial-discharge starts by increasing the applied voltage (partial-discharge start voltage) and the value where the partial-discharge ceases by decreasing the applied voltage (partial-discharge cease voltage). During measurements.Partial Discharge Measurement It aims to measure the partial discharges which may occur in the transformer insulation structure during test.Ş. gaps in the solid materials or at the surfaces of two different insulators. .

Ş. When the power system is connected (supply generator switch is closed). level and measuring intervals are given in the induced voltage test section. . complete measurement circuit should be calibrated. The voltage application period. These steps are repeated at all terminals of the transformer to be measured at no-voltage. Calibrator is connected to the test material in parallel. Before starting to measure. There shall be modifications to this document. The calibrator produces a q0 load with a predefined value. the calibration generator is taken away from the measuring circuit. This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. For this. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. K : correction factor q0 : load at the calibrator K = q0 / q0m q0m : load read at the measuring instrument Application of the test After the calibration operations are completed.2: Partial discharge measuring connection circuit The measurement circuit in figure 8. This value which is considered as the base noise (interference) level of the measuring system should be less than half of the guaranteed partialdischarge level.measuring impedance 7.Transformer Tests Page : 19 Measuring circuit and application Partial-discharge measurement structure of a transformer and related circuit in accordance with IEC 60270 is explained below.selective switch 8. A. The q0 load produced in the calibrator is read at the measuring instrument.2 is formed according to Bushing-tap method stated in standards. Voltage level The voltage is substantially increased up to the level stated by the specifications and in the meantime the partial-discharge values at the predefined voltage levels are measured at each measuring terminal and recorded.calibration generator 7 Figure 8.measuring instrument and ossiloscope qo. a calibrator (Calibration generator) is necessary. qo A a  1 2 G b F c Zm Z Zm Zm Z Zm m B C 5 4 V 12345supply generator supply transformer test transformer voltage transformer and measuring circuit filter 3 N 6 8 6. the voltage level will be too low (remenance level).

partial-discharge level stays approximately stable. . q = K . It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. Increasing the test voltage causes almost no partial-discharge level change. This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. In addition to the measured partial-discharge level. the below conditions should also be considered in transformers:    Partial-discharge start and cease voltages are above the operating voltage. and real apparent partialdischarge value for each terminal is found. A. the partial-discharge value read at the measuring instrument is multiplied with the predefined K correction factor.Ş.Transformer Tests Page : 20 After the transformer is energised for measuring operations. qm qm K q : load read at the measuring instrument : correction factor : Real apparent load Evaluation The test is considered to be succesful if the partial-discharge value measured at the transformer’s measuring terminals is lower than predefined values or values stated in the standards and no increasing tendency is observed during test. Depending on the test period. There shall be modifications to this document.

operate the tap changer 8 times through the whole adjustement range When there is no voltage at the transformer.On-Load Tap Changer Tests After the on-load tap changer is mounted on the transformer.Ş. . There shall be modifications to this document. operate 10 times 2 taps at both sides of the rated tap position This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. a) b) c) d) When there is no voltage at the transformer.Transformer Tests Page : 21 9 . the below listed tests are applied at 100% rated auxiliary voltage (excluding item b). It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. operate the tap changer once through the whole adjustment range at the 85% of the auxilary rated voltage When the transformer is at no-load condition. operate the tap changer once through the whole adjustment range at rated voltage and frequency When one of the windings is short-circuited and the other winding is loaded with rated current as far as possible. A.

There shall be modifications to this document.θa ∆θw = θw .Temperature-Rise Test Temperature-rise test is a type test. θo θci θo Top oil exit θo θg θhs θwmax C LV HV Ave. A. Wind. The oil and winding temperatures are tested whether they are in accordance with both standards and technical specifications or not. A simplified temperature distribution is shown in figure 10-1.Ş.temp Bottom oil inlet. Bottom of wind. θco θa θo θw θwo θ Temperature rise θo ∆θo θa θw ∆θw θci θco θwmax C = Maximum oil temperature (under cover) = Maximum oil temperature rise ∆θo = Ambient temperature = Average winding temperature = Average winding temperature rise = Input temperature to cooler = Exit temperature from cooler = Maximum winding temperature = Cooler = Average oil temperature = Temperature difference between winding and oil = Average oil temperature rise = Hot . θo θw Av. The connections during test.spot temperature = θo . It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission.1: Simplified temperature distribution of a transformer This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri.Transformer Tests Page : 22 10. technical specifications of test and measuring instruments are explained in section 3 load losses and section 2 measuring winding resistances. Oil temp.θa θoavg ∆θwo ∆θoavg θhs Figure 10. .

It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. In multiple winding transformers. the resistance value at exactly the opening moment of the circuit is found.Transformer Tests Page : 23 a) Performing the test During this test make sure that the transfomer is away from especially outside effects (hot or cold air flows). the cooling system is shut down temporarily for a while to shorten the 1st step of the test for a few hours. the supply is stopped and the circuit is opened (this step is called the 2nd step of the test) and after the circuit is opened. the fans and pumps are kept running (if any) ( according to IEC 60076-2 ). during resistance measurement. After the supply current is stopped. A. and then by extrapolation of the resistance-time curve. The transformer is loaded with a total calculated from no-load and load losses. The winding temperature is also measured and recorded before starting the test (cold resistance). the temperature increase test is made at the highest loss and current ranges. while the transformer is cold (windings are cold and in balance). all oil temperatures and ambient temperatures are measured. . During this. thermometers are placed in the thermometer pocket on the transformer cover. the temperatures at these thermometers are measured and recorded. the transformer is placed at the tap position where maximum losses occur. The power. This step is called 1st step of the test. resistance is measured quickly and the cooling curve of the winding is formed. The maximum current and voltage values during supply are as follows. if the power of one of the windings is equal to the total power of other windings. PK = Load loss Temperature rising test is performed in two steps: 1) Supplying with total losses ( 1st step of test ) : The step where total losses are supplied is continued until the difference between the top oil temperature rising and the ambient temperature becomes saturated ( is continued until the difference between top oil temperature and ambient temperature stays below 1C for 3 hours ). Before starting the test. 2) Supplying with rated current ( 2nd step of test ) : After the top oil temperature rising is saturated. Since the transformer temperature risings and ambient temperatures should be recorded during test. the supply values of the transformer. Supply Current: I Here : b  IN  Po  P k P k Supply Voltage: U U  b k Po  P k P k IN = Test current (the current at the tap which the test is performed). Whenever appropriate. Unless otherwise requested by the customer. the transformer is loaded with IN (the current at test tap position) current for 1 hour.Ş. To reach the operating condiitions. After this 1 hour period. At this condiditon it is supplied with enough current and voltage to cover the short-circuit losses and no-load losses at this tap position. all oil temperatures and ambient temperature should be measured at appropriate time intervals. P0 = No-load loss . This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. Meanwhile. at the cooler inlet and exit and 1 or 2 meter away from the transformer. There shall be modifications to this document. voltage and current (which should be recorded during test) measuring principles are the same as section 3 measuring load losses. the loading should be made with the total windings’ loss.

The heating of the winding is calculated with the below equation. θ oavg 1  θ   (θ  θ ) o 2 ci co average oil temperature ∆θo = θo .. R θ  2 (235  θ )  235 2 R 1 1 θ2 : Temperature of the winding when the circuit is opened θ1 : Average oil temperature at he beginning of test (cold case) R2 : Resistance at temperature θ2 ( hot case ) R1 : Resistance at temperature θ1 ( cold case ) Not: For aluminium winding. 1 – 2 meter away from the transformer and at half height of the coolers... After this time.0 ∆θon = temperature rise at total losses Pn ∆θom = temperature rise at test losses Pm ( at measuring losses) d) Measuring the temperature rise of the winding After the oil temperature has reached saturation. This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. If during the test.8 ( natural cooling. the air temperature around the transformer should be taken as ambient temperature. the transformer under test can not be supplied with enough current to cover the total losses due to insufficiency of the laboratory power supply. power <2500 kVA) For ON. The cooling media is measured in the thermometer pocket at the cooling water inlet. to operating state. the transformer is loaded with IN rated current for 1 hour. This time is considered to be necessary for adapting the balance condition between winding and oil. According to standards. There shall be modifications to this document. the oil inlet-exit temperature difference is measured at inlet-exit pipes near transformer tank.9 OF. 225 should be used instead of 235. the difference (test losses being not less than 80% of the total losses) shall be calculated as below.cooling 1. The cooler ambient temperature (cooling air or water temperature) is measured every ½ or 1 hour and recorded and is used in average temperature rise calculations at the last quarter of the test. Measuring is performed in oil inside a container which has a 2 hour time-constant. P  Δθ  n Δθ on om  P  m     X X = for distribution transformers 0.θa average oil temperature rise The cooler inlet and exit temperatures are measured by thermometers insulated against ambient air and placed at the cooler pipes. the forced air inlet should be measured as ambient temperature. A.Ş. If the transformer is being force cooled (by fans). air temperature is measured by 3 thermometers or thermo elements distributed around the transformer. The containers should be protected against extreme air flow and heat waves. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. And for OD. The containers should be placed at three sides of the transformer. the loading is finished and the circuit is opened and the resistance of the winding is measured for some time to form the cooling curve. The difference between maximum measured temperature and ambient temperature is ∆θt . In a transformer with seperate cooler.Transformer Tests Page : 24 b) Measuring the ambient temperature (cooling air or water temperature) In air cooled transformers. . c) Calculating the temperature rise of the oil The top oil temperature can be measured in the thermometer pocket which is on the transformer cover.cooling 0.

Transformer Tests Page : 25 Supplying with IN rated current for one hour is defined as 2nd step of the test.at the circuit opening moment from cooling curve ) : average oil temperature after supplying with ( 2nd step of the test) IN for 1 hour . Winding hot-spot temperature rising is calculated a below: θhs= θo +Khf .6 OD cooling = 2. θy (IN ) temperature The difference between the winding and oil temperatures at the 2nd step of the test: When the difference betwen the oil and winding temperatures ∆θsy. ∆θwo Khf : hot – spot factor Hot – spot factor. if the test frequency is different than rated frequency. the difference between winding and oil temperatures ∆θwo can be corrected as below: I Δθ woN  Δθ wom   N I  m     y ∆θwoN : winding-oil temperature difference at rated current ∆θwom : winding-oil temperature difference at test current y. However. there is no need to make a correction (the required load to heat the oil is defined with total losses). The oil temperature will decrease a little during this time.1 for distribution transformers and 1. is added to the θy. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. correction has to made according to below equation : 2 f Pdc + N f Pac m Im = IN Pdc + Pac Im : test current IN : rated current Pdc : direct current loss fN : rated frequency fm : test frequency Pac : additional loss This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri.0 A maximum temperature formed at any part of the winding insulation system is defined as “ hot–spot temperature “ and this value is a parameter showing the heat load limit of the transformer. The relation between the winding and average oil temperature should be calculated according to below equation. it can be taken as 1. ∆θs average winding temperature is found: ∆θw = ∆θwo + ∆θo In cases where IN rated current can not be reached due to insufficiency of the laboratory supply..Ş. which is in pargraph c) (supplying with total losses). : temperature difference between the winding and the oil : winding temperature ( temp.. the calculation of oil heating is made according to the method in item c). A..exponent : ON and OF cooling = 1. When the transformer is loaded with total losses at the 1st step of the test. There shall be modifications to this document.3 for power transformers ( according to IEC 60076-2 ). . So: ∆θwo ∆θwo θ2 θo (IN ) = θ2 - θo (IN ) . for loading with rated current for 1 hour at the 2nd step of the test.

1 : Full wave lightning impulse V 1. these tests are defined as type or routine test depending on the operating voltage levels..6 S for chopped wave at the tail.7 U0 D O’ Tc 0.Lightning Impulse Test Impulse test are applied to transformers to confirm their withstand against atmospheric lightnings and transient extra voltages during switchings. Other than this shape which is defined as full wave (Figure 11.2 ± 30 % / 50 ± 20% μS ”. the chopping time should be (Figure 11.9 U(t) B T1 = 1.0 0. Impulse voltages are formed by an "impulse voltage generator" at laboratories. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission.5 A U0 0. in general.Ş.Transformer Tests Page : 26 11.9 0..1). the impulse wave is defined as negative (-) polarity in many standards and it's shape at the line terminal should be as “ Tfront / T tail =1. Power transformers used in high voltage networks have to face atmospheric discharges (lightnings).3 T1 = 1..0 0. A.3 A t (s) Figure 11. There shall be modifications to this document. For oil type transformers.7 U(t) B E C 0. This value can reach a few times of the transformer winding's operating voltage.2 ± 30 % μS T2 = 50 ± 20% μS 0.2: Tail chopped lightning impulse This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri.67 T 0 O’’ T T1 t (s) T2 Figure 11. . As explained in section 5. The amplitudes of lightning excessive voltages always depend on impulse current and the impulse impedance at the place of the lightning. V 1.2) between 2.

This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. a low amplitude “reference impulse” with 50% of the test voltage is applied and then “full impulse” at 100% value with number and order stated in the standards is applied. the test is performed at main tap. the voltage of these terminals in reference to earth should not be more than 75 % of the test voltage of these terminals and maximum resistance value should be 500 . Rw Measuring hardware M. maximum and minimum tap positions. Impulse generator Transformer under Test Measuring hardware Figure 11. an oscillogram defining a voltage form at 50% of the test voltage is used. In the small inductance. if not requested by the customer to have the test at a special tap position. If chopped-wave is to be used. The amplitude values of the applied voltages are determined at a digital measurement system through a “voltage divider”. with number and method defined in the standards/specifications. A. Their values usually range from 0. Coaxial cables are used to transfer the measurement signals to measurement equipment (digital measuring system).Transformer Tests Page : 27 Lightning impulse voltages are applied to each one of the line terminals sequentially.3: Lightning impulse test connection diagram Although changing according to place of use and aims. During test. There shall be modifications to this document. In impulse voltage circuits generally a multiple chopping device is used. the most popularly used voltage divider is “resistance damped capacitive voltage divider”. the oscillograms of the applied voltage change through time and changes of capacitive current flowing from tested winding to earth or from un-tested winding to earth are recorded. low voltage windings of high power transformers.H. a chopping device is added to the impulse circuit. After the form stated in the standards is obtained. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. each phase being tested at a different tap position. a b Rw c M.3 and 11. this resistance should be choosen such that.H. at the amplitude level. . According to IEC 60076-3 standard. Also. In such cases.H. At first. pure ohmic resistance is used for measuring impulse currents. In three phase transformers. the windings which voltage is not applied should be earthed directly or through a small resistance (Figure 11.4).Ş. A RS CS B C N RP M.1  to 20 . Non-inductive. the half time-value can be increased by connecting an appropriate resistance between untested windings and earth. sometimes the half timevalue can not reach the time stated in the standards.

4: Impulse test connection examples for single and three phase transformers This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. . There shall be modifications to this document. RW 1. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission.1 1N 1U 1V Rm M. 1V 1W RW1 1U M.. Rm Rm Rm RW2 RW2 RW2 Figure 11.4. A.1 2.H.1 RW 2 M.H. 2V R M. the effects caused by external interferences and/or earthing arrangement can sometimes cause mismatching of the oscillograms.1 RW 1.H. 1U 2U 1. M.H.. These should not be considered as fault.Ş.Transformer Tests Page : 28 The most popular and useful methods defined in the standards for evaluating the impulse voltage tests is matching of the oscillograms.1 2. 1N Rm Rm Rm M.H.H. 1U RW1 1W 1U 1W M. 1U 1V 1W 1V M. Rm 1V 1V M.. This means..1 RW RW Rm 1W 2.H. 2V M.H.. the low amplitude (%50. Rm Rm 1V 1U 1W 1N M.%75) reference wave and full amplitude (%100) wave oscillograms should match without any difference. Some of the connection circuits used in lightning impulse test are given in figure 11.H.H. The arrangement of the test circuit.H.

Small differences of the cutting time can cause deviations (changes) on the wave after cutting. b) Applying the defined impulse voltage directly at the neutr point.Ş. a voltage form with longer front time (up to 13 S) is allowed in IEC 60076-3 standard. when an impulse is applied at the neutr point. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. There shall be modifications to this document. . As defined in paragraph “b”. A. These should not be taken as fault conditions.Transformer Tests Page : 29 The time differences of the impulse generator stages can cause high frequency oscillations in the first parts of the impulse wave front. If impulse voltage is required at the technical specifications. impulse applying to this point is given in standards in two ways: a) Applying a voltage to the parallel connected line terminals which will cause the defined impulse voltage amplitude at the neutr point. This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri.

A RS CS B C N RP H. the neutral terminal is earthed. Impulse generator Transformer under Test Measuring Hardware Figure 12. The test circuit connections of three phase transformers depend on. The deformation of the voltage waveform and increase in noise due to magnetic saturation of the core should not be considered as fault. a few low amplitude. reverse polarity (e. the insulation between windings and between winding and earth and withstand between different terminals is checked. This connection is simlar to the induced voltage test connection. During switching impulse voltage test.g. The switching impulse voltage is generated in conventional impulse voltage generators at the laboratories. The voltgae distribution on the winding is linear like the induced voltage test and the voltage amplitudes at the un-impulsed windings are induced according to the turn ratio.D. The windings which are not under test are left open (earthed at one point). the next impulse voltage waveform is applied The tap position of the transformer during test is determined according to test conditions (see section 5) The on-off impulse voltages are applied to each high voltage terminal sequentially. Due to over-saturation of the core during switching impulse test. There shall be modifications to this document. The polarity of the voltage is negative and the voltage waveform should normally be T1 / Td / T2 20/200/500 S /figure 12. necessary arrangements should be made since the voltage between phases will be 1. then impulse voltages at full values and at numbers given in standards are used. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. a voltage with 50 % decresed value is used at the tests..D. Meanwhile.2) according to IEC 60076-3. a b R c H.Ş. Meanwhile.Switching Impulse Voltage Test The switching impulse test is applied to confirm the withstand of the transformer’s insulation against excessive voltages occuring during switching. The change of the voltage waveform and winding current are measured with a special measuring instrument and recorded. The negativities in the transformer during the test are determined by comptring the voltage and current oscillograms. The peak value of the voltage is measured. The sudden collapses of the voltage (surges) and abnormal sounds show deformation of the insulation in the transfomer. structure of the core (three or five legged).1: Switching on-off impulse test connection diagram This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri.Transformer Tests Page : 30 12. A. By this way.5 times the phase-neutral voltage. the voltage level between phases and the open or closed state of the delta winding (if any). At first.D. . R Measuring Hardware H. positive) impulses are applied after each test impulse in order to reset the transformer core to it’s starting condition (demagnetised).

Ş. .Transformer Tests Page : 31 Switching Impulse Voltage Waveform : Front 90% value : T1 ≥ 100 µS = 1.2: Switching impulse voltage waveform This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri.67 T %90 %100 Voltage Current t Figure 12. There shall be modifications to this document. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. A.67 T : Td ≥ 200 µS Time for cutting the axis : T2 ≥ 500 µS T2 O1 T1 Td t %30 T1= 1.

loss angle measurement is a very valuable criteria for evaluating the insulation material at a defined operating frequency. (humidity. For this reason. The conditions which increase the power losses of the insulator also decrease the insulation strength. the temperature of the transformer should also be recorded and corrected in accordance with the reference temperature.Measurement of dissipation factor (tan ) and capacitance The capacitance and dissipation/loss factor (Tan  / cos ) measurement are made to determine the insulating condition of the transformer’s both winding to earth and between the windings. C. ω. the angle  ’between the total current “ I ” and capacitive current “IC ” allows to make evaluation about the loss properties of the insulator The loss angle  .1 diagram a) Insulator b) equivalent circuit c) vector As seen in figure 13. Cos  will be equal to tan  ) Capacitance. and to form a reference for future measurements during operating the transformer. V1 = U I C U I IC V2 = 0 IR 1 R G Ic I  IR V a) b) c) Figure 13. During the test. etc. air gaps.tan  ( it is accepted that in very small angles. it is possible to gather information about aging of the solid insulating materials and degradation of the oil. A. Periodical measurements made during operating are also important to show the general condition of the insulating material. In this way. which cause ionisation the insulating material).1.1.Transformer Tests Page : 32 13. There is a small amount of insulating loss in all insulators used in transformer applications at normal operating voltage and frequency. type of the material. this loss is very small. The measurement is made between windings and between the windings and the tank. The insulator and equivalent diagrams are given in figure 13. For this reason. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. it has to be converted to reference temperature (for example 20 C reference temperature ) by a coefficient. foreign materials/particles. The active loss of the measurement circuit can be calculated according to below equation: P= UICos  = U 2.Ş. in order to make comparisons later. active loss and Cos  can be measured by bridge methods at defined voltages or by a “power factor” (Cos ) measuring instrument. tan . There shall be modifications to this document. . This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. structural property of the insulator. In appropriate insulators. This loss changes in direct proportion with the “ square “ of the applied voltage. depends heavily on the thicknness of the insulating material and surface condition. The loss factor depends heavily on temperature.

With mineral oil This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri.00 1.90 1. .00 Note : Only for trans.18 2.25 1.75 1.70 3. rainy and cold conditions shall effect the results of the transformer negatively.55 Measurement temperature [ C ] 45 50 55 60 65 70 Correction factor [K] 1.12 1. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission.40 1.80 0.95 2. There shall be modifications to this document.Ş.42 2.Transformer Tests Page : 33 Correction equation : F20 = Ft / K F20 : loss factor at 20  C temperature Ft : loss factor value at t measuring temperature K : correction factor is given in the table. Since extreme humid. measurement should be avoided Table Measurement temperature [ C ] 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Correction factor [K] 0. A.

. three legged transformers with no balancing winding. Here. I G U0 A B C N I/3 a b I/3 I I/3 c n A V Figure 14.1:No-load zero impedance measurement connection diagram The zero impedance depends on the connection of the transforrmer and structural property of the transformer. In cases where there is no counter magnetic current. Zo  3  Uo I /phase Zero impedance is used in short-circuit protection and earth short-circuit current calculations. there are two different zero impedances.3xIN in order to avoid excessive heating of the constructive parts. the zero impedance equals zero reactance. the ends of the other winding is kept open. By definition. since R0 << X0. in star or zigzag connected windings as seen in figures 14. In this case.1 This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. Zero imopedance can only be measured in windings with star point taken out.Measurement of zero sequence impedance(s) The aim of the test is to measure the properties of the mains system transformer in case of unsymmetrical loads and to make required calculations.Ş. Meanwhile. the zero impedance “Z0” . If the other winding of the transformer is delta connected or if there is a delta connected balance winding. is infinite in magnitude. is three times the impedance measured by forcing a current at the rated frequency between parallel connected phase terminals and star point. The zero impedance consists of R0 real and X0 imaginary parts. it is seen that the U0 test voltage is 15% to 27% of the rated phase-neutr voltage of the transformer. In transformers with both windings star connected and the star points taken out.1 and 14. R0 is negligible. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. There shall be modifications to this document. Measurement is made at the rated tap position and with the active part assembled in the tank.Transformer Tests Page : 34 14. this test current should be maximum 0. 1 ) No-load zero impedance Z00 While one of the star connected windings is measured. Figure 14. the star point of the star (or zig-zag) connected winding can be loaded with maximum rated current during Z0 impedance measurement. A. The zero impedance of delta connected windings and windings with the star point not possible to take out. for example in start-star connected.2.

Ş.2: Short-circuit zero impedance measurement Y-Y winding The zero impedance can also be expressed as percentage. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. A. In this case. Figure 14.2 I G U0 A B C N I/3 a b I/3 I I/3 c n A V Figure 14.Transformer Tests Page : 35 2 ) Short-circuit zero impedance Z0K While one of the star connected windings is measured. zo  Z o  IN UN z0 = relative zero impedance (%) IN = Rated phase current (A) UN = Phase-neutral rated voltage (V) Z0= Zero impedance ( / phase) This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. . There shall be modifications to this document. the ends of the other winding and the star point is short-circuited.

caused by current passing in the windings. and by electromagnetic forces formed at the magnetic screenings at the tank walls.5 m. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. the transformer should be supplied at rated voltage and rated frequency. A.  During measurement. The noise of the core depends on the magnetic property of the core material (sheet steel) and flux density. This noise is caused by the electromagnetic forces due to leakage fields. magnetic screenings and vibrations of the windings.. There should be maximum 1 m distance between two measurements. If the height of the transformer is more than 2.5 m. Microphone positions : If the height of the transformer under test is less than 2. The sound frequency is low (twice the rated frequency). speed. . The source of the noise are tank walls. measurements should be made at 1/3 and 2/3 heights. There shall be modifications to this document. number of fans and arrangements of the radiators. at half height for cooling equipments which are taller than 4 m. caused by the magnetic forces between magnetositriction and core sheet steel 2) Noise of the transformer’s load (current) .Determination of sound level Aim of measurement. The frequency range of the noise ( aerodynamic/air and motor/bearing noise ) caused by cooling fans is generally wide. The magnetic forces formed in the core cause vibration and noise. the microphone position is. caused by fans and pumps of the cooling system. The factors effecting the total fan noise are. at 1/3 and 2/3 height for cooling equipments which are shorter than 4 m height. All mechanical components/equipments on the transformer should be fixed to avoid vibration with the transformer.Transformer Tests Page : 36 15. blade structure..Ş. the microphone position should be at half height. An effective and important noise source is the core of the transformer. The noises caused by the core and windings are mainly in the 100-600 Hz frequency band. The pump noise is not effective when the fans are working and it’s frequency is low. The load noise occurs only on the loaded transforrmers and is added to the no-load (core noise ). Measurements should be made all around the transformer. Main causes of a transformer noise is explained below : 1) Core noise . To confirm that the sound (noise) level of the transformer and related equipments meet the customer’s demands and/or standards Explanations about transformer noise is given in IEC 60076-10. This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. It should be placed on a base with no direct vibrations or should be placed on wheels. If only the cooling equipments are operating. 3) Noise of the cooling equipments . During noise measurements below precautions are very important to ensure the accuracy of the results :  The transformer should be placed in a room with minimum echo properties.

1 LbgA LpA  10 log 10     -K   : the smaller of the average back ground noise levels L bgA L pA0 : average measured noise level : ambient noise corection factor K The ambient correction value “K “ depends on the properties of the materials around the noise source and the sound absorbtion properties of the measurement room and calculated as below :  4  K = 10 log [1 +  ] A = α S v  A/S   This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. If the transformer cooling system is operating (while the pumps and fans are working).must be repeated Measur. The cooling equipments and oil circulation pumps are out of service. If there is more than 8 dB (A) difference between back ground noise level and transformer noise level. . If the difference is between 3 dB (A) and 8 dB (A). the microphone should be 2 m away from the main radiation surface. transformer is energised. 2. only the transformer is energised. The cooling equipments and the oil pumps are in service. transformer is energised. Before starting the measurement procedure. 3. 1. a measurement is not necessary. 4. the back ground noise level of the measurement room should be determined.10 0. The cooling equipments are out of service. The transformer is energised as below . The correction factor for the back ground noise level’s effect on transformer’s noise level according to IEC 60076-10 standard is given in below table and equations: Difference between back ground Difference between the back ground noise before measurement and back noise and the transformer noise ground noise after measurement L pA0  maximum L bgA ≥8 dB < 8 dB < 8 dB < 3 dB first L bgA  last L bgA - comment Measurement OK Measurement OK Measur. A.Ş. the microphone should be 0. cooling equipment and any oil pumps in service.The average sound pressure level corrected by weight is calculated according to below equation :  0.Transformer Tests Page : 37 The distance of the microphone from the main radiating surface : a) b) If the coolers of the transformer are not operating or if the coolers are more than 3 m away from the transformer.3 m away from the main radiation surface. oil pumps are in service. a correction is required according to standards. must be repeated < 3 dB > 3 dB - A. If the difference between the back ground noise level and transformer noise level is less than 3 dB. no correction of the transformer’s noise level is required. There shall be modifications to this document.1 L pA0 . transformer unenergized. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission.

There shall be modifications to this document. if a 60 Hz transformer is measured at 50 Hz. Log ( f / 50 ) For example. sheet steel quality of the core and operating type ) 2.log ( 420 / 410) = 0.Ş. According to acoustic laws. ∆Lp = 20. If a 420 kV rated voltage transformer is supplied with 410 kV voltage. . ∆Lp = 40.  d should be taken in meters. sound level in a “d” distance is . floor and walls Factors effecting the measurement results : 1. The sound level changes by the square of the frequency : Lp ( f ) = Lp ( 50 ) + 20. if the sound level is measured in 2m. Internal effects about the structure of the transformer ( measuring frequency.6 dB should be added. mass. below value should be added to the noise value at 50 Hz . It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. External effects :  ( measuring distance ) is one of the main factors effecting the noise level. the noise pressure level is corrected according to the equation below: ∆Lp = 40. the sound pressure level decreases in linear proportion with the square of the distance “ d “ from the defined source (equivalent centered sphere ). For example. flux/induction at the core.log ( Ua n m a / Ut e s t ) For example. A.42 dB ≈ 0.Transformer Tests Page : 38 S : Main propagation area at measurement distance αaverage sound absorbtion coefficient (see IEC 60076-10 table 1 ) SV : all surface of the test room including ceiling. the below value is added to the measurement results. Lp(d ) = Lp ( 2m ) – 20. log ( d / 2 ) here .5 dB This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri.  For measurements made at voltages other than rated voltage.log ( 60 / 50 ) = 1.

1: Microphone locations for measuring noise level in transformers with cooling equipment mounted on the tank 3 < 3m 1 4 h D X 2 1.Microphone distance Figure 15.Forced air cooling D.Measurement profile x.Sound propagation surface 8. A.Cable box 6.Transformer tank h. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission.Sound propagation surface 2.Natural cooling 3.Measurement profiler 7.Dome 4.Transformer Tests Page : 8 39 3 5 X D 9 1 7 4 7 6 2 h 1.Measurement distance D.Microphone distance Figure 15. This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri.Tap changer 9.Measurement distance 3.Vertical forced air cooling h. .2: microphone locations for measuring noise level in transformers with a seperate forced air cooling equipment closer than 3 meters.Horizontal air cooling 2.Tansformer tank 5.Tank height 4.Ş.Tank height x. There shall be modifications to this document.

the test generator and the connections of the test transformer should be appropriate and should make sure that they are at the lineer operation area of their magnetic characteristics. induction degree.Transformer Tests Page : 40 16. Here Ii : Values of harmonics currents 3 a b A B C n 6 3 1 2 c 4 N A W W A W A A W v v v 5 1. Beause of the possible defects in the no-load cuurent.Power supply 5.Measurement of harmonics of the no-load current They are measured to use whenever necessary during the operating of the transformer. core design. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. 5.. the ratio of harmonic currents in the rated current is less than 1%.1: Harmonics measurement connection diagram This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. the operation areas of the measurement transformers should also be linear. The effective value of the no-load current: I eff  I i 1 n 2 i .1. the supply voltage may devaite from sinus wave.Ş.Supply (intermediate) Transformer 6.). the measurement transformers will not produce harmonics.Measurement Voltage Transformers Figure 16.. Because of this. The measurement of current and voltage harmonics are done during the no-load losses and currents measurement (section 4) by the same test connection.Measurement Current Transformers 4. The measurement circuit connection diagram is given in figure 16.transformer under Test 3. connection of windings and impedance of the transformer’s supply circuit. and 9. There shall be modifications to this document.Harmonics Analyser / Power Analyser 2. The measurements are usually made at the strongest harmonics (3. 7. By this way. . The measurement currents and voltages are connected to the analyser through measurement current and voltage transformers.. The supply voltage of the transformer at the test laboratory should be sinusoidal. To avoid this. The measurements are repeated for each of the three phases. In general. A. The amplitude of the harmonics component depends on the property of transformer’s core material.

Also. the hard to measure places can be connected to the “Guard” circuit of the instrument to have more accurate results. In insulation resistance measurements about the insulation state of the transformer.g. after the voltage is applied. By comparing the results obtained in insulation resistance mesurements with periodical measurements.40 31. The test voltage is “direct voltage” and can be between 1000 V d.0 1.60 7.75 44. The measuring points are "between the windings and between winding and tank". During measurement the currents (charge.Ş.95 5.Transformer Tests Page : 41 17.75 1. Also. between windings and to form a reference for future measurements during operating.40 1.70 This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. 20C reference temperature).85 11.98 2. The insulation resistance is measured with a measuring instrument. A.c.80 3.20 15.18 0. For comparison they have to be at the same temperature (e. . 30th sec. foreign materials in the insulator and temperature. the insulation condiitons can be evaluated.25 0. The values at 15th sec.36 0. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission.13 0. absorbtion and leakage currents) flowing in the resistance formed by the insulator are measured.1 : Measuring insulation resistance in a YNyn0 transformer Measuring Temperature Correction factor Measuring Temeperature C 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 Correction factor C -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0. the ratio of the value in 10th minute to value in 1st minute can be given as “ polarisation index ( PI ) “. and 5000 V.d.85 22. should be recorded. “the method of variation of resistance by test period” is one of the best methods to apply since it is simple and accurate. The correction factor of values (by multiplying) measured in transformer oil temperature according to 20 C reference temperature is given in below table: N A B C M : D. 45th sec and 60th sec and 10th min.50 0.c. Power Supply ( Megger ) G : Guard / Shield end T : Transformer tank − M ═ + G T n a b c Figure 17.The temperature and humidity during test should also be recorded. to insulation resistance in 15th second (R15) can be given as absorbtion ratio in the test report. This current changes heavily according to humidity of the insulator.C. the ratio of insulation resistance in 60th sec ( R60 ). There shall be modifications to this document.Measurement of insulation resistance The insulation resistance measurements are made to determine the insulation conditions of the transformer's windings to earth.

.Transformer Tests Page : 42 Power Transformers Test Laboratory I ( OSB Lab.Phase f= 50 Hz Capacitive Voltage-Divider : Peak-Voltmeter : U / 2  U eff Voltmeter Class 0. There shall be modifications to this document. A.500(122..000(6..000 kVA = 6.. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. Series Resonant System : U = 600 kV( 2x300 kV). Total Rated power : 151..200 kVAr INDUSTRIAL VOLTAGE TEST EQUIPMENTS HV.600) V = 285 ( 428 ) A = 100-180 Hz Reactor : COMPENSATION CAPACITOR BANKS A total of 151. 50 A..500 ) kVAr = 6.1 kV 50180 Hz Yapımcı firma: Hipotronics 1.000 kVA = 6.2 MVAr with 252 groups of each 600 kVAr with rated voltage 12 kV capacitors.000(4. 3 pcs Manufacturer: ISOFARAD HV Filters : This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri.600) / 2.000 V = 962 A = 50-60 Hz synchronous Motor I Generator II : : P = 2500 kW S U I f = 3.5 50180 Hz Manufacturer: Hipotronics 70 kV. S = 2.000 V = 289 = 100-180 Hz Asynchronous synchronous Motor II : P = 1000 kW Asynchronous TEST TRANSFORMERS and REACTOR Transformer : S U I f S U I f = 15.000(6.78 A = 50-180 Hz = 3.Ş.300) V = 1443 A / 975.028 -111. .000 kVA = 6.. I ) ROTATING MACHINES Generator I : S U I f = 10.400 kVA I = 4 A (2xparalel 8 A ) Manufacturer: Hipotronics 800 kV/0.

50/60 Hz-150 Hz Manufacturer: Haefely TMS 580 Voltage Channels : IMPULSE VOLTAGE TEST EQUIPMENTS Impulse voltage generator: Number of stages : Max. of each stage : Manufacturer : n = 12 U L = 200 kV U= 2400 kV W= 240 kJ C= 1 F Haefely Multiple Chopping Device: 12-stage Capacitance : 7200 pF/Stage Lightning Impulse Voltage : 2400 kV Manufacturer : Haefely R-Damped.. System : High Resolution Impulse Analysing System 4 Channels Accuracy : 1% Type : HIAS-743 Manufacturer : Haefely MEASURING BRIDGES and MEASURING INSTRUMENTS Schering Measuring Bridge : Type Accuracy Capacitance tan  Manufacturer : 2801 : 0.1% -6 5 10 10  RAYTECH 5 Press-Gas Capacitor: Capacitance Voltage Manufacturer Turn Ratio Measuring Instrument: Type Accuracy Measuring range Manufacturer Resistance Measuring Instrument:Type Accuracy Measuring range Manufacturer This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri.13000 RAYTECH WR 100-R 2 0. 10 F : 0.000 V/100 V Class 0. Stage Voltage : Max.. 350% : TETTEX : 50 pF : 400 kV a...1.Capacitive Divider Lightning Impulse Voltage : 2400 kV Switching Impulse Voltage: 1300 kV Capacitance : 350 pF Manufacturer : Haefely Voltage Divider: Digital Impulse Meas. Total Power : Cap.Transformer Tests Page : 43 TRANSFORMER LOSS MEASURING SYSTEM Current Channels : 5 ÷ 4.000 A / 5 A Class 0.5% : 0... It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. : TETTEX : : : : : : : : TR-MARK II R 0.1.05% 0. ... There shall be modifications to this document.... A..8. Total Voltage : Max.c... TMS 580 100 ÷ 100.. 100 kV..Ş.. 50/60 Hz-150 Hz Manufacturer: Haefely..

Ş. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission.100000 pC RIV : 850 kHz and 1 MHz Type : ICMsys8 Manufacturer : Power Diagnostix Voltage : 5000 V..... Loss Factor: Measuring Instrument Ossiloscope: Measuring range : 0  12 kV Type : M2H-MCM Manufacturer : DOBLE Engineering Company 4.Transformer Tests Page : 44 Digital Thermometer: 20 Channels programmable Type : 2620 Manufacturer : FLUKE Frequency : 0.. d.. A....Channels Type Manufacturer Type Manufacturer Type Manufacturer : 2014 : TEKTRONİX : ULD-40 : HOTEK : Ti 25 : FLUKE Corona Detector: Thermal Camera: This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. .. Measuring range : 15 T Type : MIT 510 Manufacturer : MEGGER Measuring instrument : type 2250 B 1/3-1/3 oktav filtre : type BZ 7223 Microphone : type 4189 Calibrator : type 4231 Manufacturer : BRUEL & KJAER -2 Partial-Discharge: Measuring Instrument Insulation-Resistance: Measuring Instrument Sound Level: Measuring Instrument Vibration Measuring Instrument: Measuring range : 1 – 1000 ms .. There shall be modifications to this document.1 kHz Type : 5500 Manufacturer : METRIX INSTRUMENT CO..1 kHz  10 MHz Measuring range : 0.1 pC.c. 10 Hz.

It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission.. .Transformer Tests Page : 45 Power Transformers Test Laboratory I (ASB Lab. U = (200-800 V-∆) (200√3-800√3 V-Y) I = 120-2080 A S = 1000 kVA.4 kV..Ş.V.412 A / 42 A COMPENSATION CAPACITOR BANKS A total of 22. 50 Hz.. Test Transformer : U= 350 kV/0.1 kV 50200 Hz Manufacturer: Messwandlerbau-Bamberg Voltmeter Class 0. 150 Hz.5 MVAr with 45 groups of each 500 kVAr with rated voltage 6 kV and total of 22. A..5 50200 Hz Manufacturer: Messwandlerbau – Bamberg Capacitive Voltage-Divider : Peak-Voltmeter : U / 2  U eff This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. There shall be modifications to this document. Total Rated power REACTORS Reactor I : : 45..5 MVAr with 90 groups of each 250 kVAr with rated voltage of 3 kV capacitors. 1. U = 800 V I = 722 A Reactor II : INDUSTRIAL VOLTAGE TEST EQUIPMENTS H..2 A/ 188 A f= 50 Hz Manufacturer: Messwandlerbau-Bamberg 350 kV/0.Phase S= 75 kVA I= 0.000 kVAr S = 3x(24-240) kVA.. I ) ROTATING MACHINES Generator : S = 330 kVA U = 500 V I = 381 A f = 50 Hz P= 300 kW S= 500 kVA U= 800 / 1400 V I = 361 / 206 f = 150 Hz synchronous Motor Generator : : Asynchronous synchronous TEST TRANSFORMERS Transformer : S = 4700 / 1000 / 4700 kVA U = 34500 / 800-1400 / 64000 V I = 79 A / 721.

05% 0.000 A / 5 A Class 0.1.. There shall be modifications to this document..c.1% -6 5 10 10  RAYTECH 5 Press-Gas Capacitor Capacitance Voltage Manufacturer Turn Ratio Measuring Instrument: Type Accuracy Measuring range Manufacturer Resistance Measuring Instrument:Type Accuracy Measuring range Manufacturer This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri.. Total Power Cap. Dry Air Pressurized Capacitance : 6000 pF/stage Lightning Impulse Voltage: 1800 kV Manufacturer : Passoni+Villa R-Damped-Capacitive Divider Lightning Impulse Voltage : 2000 kV Switching Impulse Voltage: 1450 kV Capacitance : 4001600 pF Manufacturer : Passoni+Villa Digital Data Acquisition Analysis System : 1% : SDA-C : Passoni+Villa Voltage Divider: Digital Impulse Measuring System: Accuracy Type Manufacturer MEASURING BRIDGES and MEASURING INSTRUMENTS Schering Measuring Bridge : Type Accuracy Capacitance tan  Manufacturer : 2801 : 0... TMS 580 100 to 100. 350% : TETTEX : 50 pF : 400 kV a... A...... Total Voltage Max. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. 50/60 Hz-150 Hz Manufacturer: Haefely. .1..000 V/100 V Class 0.. 100 kV.. of each step Manufacturer : : : : : : n = 10 U L = 200 kV U= 2000 kV W= 200 kJ C= 1 F Passoni+Villa Multiple chopping device: 8-stage. 10 F : 0.13000 RAYTECH WR 50-R 2 0.5% : 0. : TETTEX : : : : : : : : TR-MARK II R 0. Step Voltage Max..Transformer Tests Page : 46 TRANSFORMER LOSS MEASURING SYSTEM Current Channels : 5 to 4.8.Ş.. 50/60 Hz-150 Hz Manufacturer: Haefely TMS 580 Voltage Channels : IMPULSE VOLTAGE TEST EQUIPMENTS Impulse voltage generator: Number of stages Max..

1% Manufacturer : NORMA Power Measuring Unit: (Wattmeter-VoltmeterAmpermeter) Partial-Discharge Measuring Instrument::Frequency Measuring range RIV Type Manufacturer : 0. A.1 pC.. .1 kHz Type : 5500 Manufacturer : METRIX INSTRUMENT CO.1 kHz  10 MHz : 0. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission.Ş..Transformer Tests Page : 47 Digital Thermometer: 20 Channel programmable Type : 2620 Manufacturer : FLUKE Wide Band Power Analyser Type : D 6000 T Accuracy : 0. d..Channel Type Manufacturer Type Manufacturer Type Manufacturer : 2012 : TEKTRONİX : ULD-40 : HOTEK : Ti 25 : FLUKE Corona Detector: Thermal Camera: This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri... 10 Hz.c..100000 pC : 850 kHz and 1 MHz : ICMsys4 : Power Diagnostix Insulation-Resistance Measuring Instrument: Voltage : 5000 V..... d. Measuring range : 15 T Type : MIT 510 Manufacturer : MEGGER Insulation-Resistance Measuring Instrument:Voltage: 5000 V..1000ms .c.... Measuring range : 10 T Type : BM 21 Manufacturer : MEGGER Noise Measuring Instrument: Measuring instrument : type 2230 1/3-1/3 octave filter: type ZF 0020 Microphone : type 4155 Calibrator : type 4230 Manufacturer : BRUEL & KJAER 2 Vibration Measuring Instrument: Measuring range : 1. Loss Factor Measuring Instrument:Measuring range : 0  12 kV Type : M2H Manufacturer : DOBLE Engineering Company Ossiloscope: 2... There shall be modifications to this document.

..V. 1.6 kV Manufacturer : HIOKI 70 kV..122 A Güç = 300 kW U = 400 V Frequency = 50-150 Hz Rotating Transformer : Frequency Converter : COMPENSATION CAPACITOR BANKS A total of 720 kVAr with 12 groups of each 60 kVAr with rated voltage 0. ......5 kV capacitors.1 kV 50200 Hz Manufacturer: Messwandlerbau-Bamberg Capacitive Voltage-Divider : Peak-Voltmeter : U / 2  U eff Voltmeter Digital Class 0.... Test Transformer : U= 100 kV/0. A.6 kV..Transformer Tests Page : 48 Distribution Transformers Test Laboratory II ( ASB Lab II ) TEST TRANSFORMERS Transformer : S = 315 kVA U = 400 / 400-3600 V I = 455 A / 455. 50/60 Hz Manufacturer: EPRO Precision Voltage Transformers 3 pieces voltage transformers : 400-1000-2000-3000 V/100 V 10 VA..Phase S= 100 kVA I= 1 A/ 250 A f= 50 Hz Manufacturer: BEST 100 kV/0. 3 pcs Manufacturer : ISOFARAD HV Filter : This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. 50/60 Hz Manufacturer: EPRO INDUSTRIAL VOLTAGE TEST EQUIPMENT H... It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission.51 A S = 160 kVA U = 380 / 760 V I = 243 A / 455.05. Class 0. Class 0. Total Rated power : 720 kVAr MEASURING TRANSFORMERS Precision Current Transformers 3 pieces Current transformers: 5-10-25-50-100-250-500 A /5A 10 VA. 3...Ş. There shall be modifications to this document...4 kV. 50 A.05.5 50200 Hz Manufacturer: Messwandlerbau – Bamberg AC Voltage Test Instrument : Type : 3158 Measuring range : 0..

1% Manufacturer : NORMA Digital.. A. There shall be modifications to this document. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission.1% 220 V a.c.Transformer Tests Page : 49 MEASURING BRIDGES and MEASURING INSTRUMENTS Turn-Ratio Bridge: Turn Ratio Measuring Instrument: Accuracy : Voltage : Measuring range : Manufacturer : Type : Accuracy : Measuring range : Manufacturer : 0.. 1.1% -6 5 10 10  RAYTECH 20 Channel programmable Type : 2620 Manufacturer : FLUKE Wide Band Power Analyser Type : D 6000 T Accuracy : 0.1% 0...1000 SCHÜTZ : MRC 6100 N Resistance Measuring Instrument: Type Accuracy : 0.10  Manufacturer : SCHÜTZ : Resistance Measuring Instrument: Type Accuracy : Measuring range : Manufacturer : Digital Thermometer: WR 50-R 2 0..1 % 6 2 Measuring range : 10 ...1% : NORMA Power Measuring Unit: (Wattmeter-VoltmeterAmpermeter) Voltmeter. Measuring range : 500 G Type : BM 11 D Manufacturer : MEGGER Litterature :  IEC Standards 60076 Power Transformer– all parts  The Testing of Transformer ( Transformatör Deneyleri – Haluk Odoğlu) This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri.. average-value: Insulation-Resistance Measuring Instrument: Voltage : 5000 V.c......... ..1000 Hartmann+Braun PWR 3 0. d.....Ş..9. Type Accuracy Manufacturer : D 4045 : 0.