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Invisible Eagle
By

Alan Baker
The History of Nazi Occultism

Contents
Acknowledgements Introduction: search for a map of hell 1 - Ancestry, blood and nature The Mystical Origins of National Socialism 2 - Fantastic prehistory The Lost Aryan Homeland 3 - A hideous strength The Vril Society 4 - The phantom kingdom The Nazi-Tibet Connection 5 - Talisman of conquest The Spear of Longinus 6 - Ordinary madness Heinrich Himmler and the SS 7 - The secret at the heart of the world Nazi Cosmology and Belief in the Hollow Earth 8 - The cloud Reich Nazi Flying Discs 9 - Invisible Eagle Rumours of Nazi Survival to the Present Conclusion: the myth machine The Reality and Fantasy of Nazi Occultism Notes Bibliography and suggested further reading Index

The historian may be rational, but history is not. - Louis Pauwels and Jacques Bergier 'I'm a sceptic.' 'No, you're only incredulous, a doubter, and that's different.' - Umberto Eco, Foucault's Pendulum

A. published by Sutton Publishing. London. 1997. 1995.Acknowledgements Grateful acknowledgement is given for permission to quote from the following previously published material: The Coming Race by E. published by Macmillan. Hitler and the Occult by Ken Anderson. 1970. . Material used by permission. Extract from PROJEKT UFO © 1995 W. 1995. Trevor Ravenscroft: The Spear of Destiny (York Beach. London. CA 90291. Psychic Dictatorship in the USA by Alex Constantine. 1995. published by University of Missouri Press.. 1978. and Nazi Survival by Joscelyn Godwin. 1982). Lilburn. published by Prometheus Books. published by Theosophical University Press. California. 1999. E. Amherst. London. Fest. Venice. First published by Boxtree Ltd and reprinted with permission from the author. Explaining Hitler The Search For the Origins of His Evil by Ron Rosenbaum. The Face of the Third Reich by Joachim C. 1999. 1993. Pasadena. The Last Days of Hitler by Hugh Trevor-Roper. 1985. published by I. The Making of Adolf Hitler The Birth and Rise of Nazism by Eugene Davidson. published by Feral House. published by Papermac. Arktos The Polar Myth in Science. Stroud. Harbinson. 1994. New York. B. Georgia. Gloucestershire. Tauris & Co. Symbolism. published by the Nicholas Roerich Museum. Bulwer Lytton. first published by Weidenfeld and Nicolson. The Secret Doctrine by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky. ME: Samuel Weiser. London. #359. The Occult Roots of Nazism by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke. Casebook on Alternative 3 by Jim Keith. published by IllumiNet Press. published by Thames and Hudson. G. Shambhala by Nicholas Roerich. 2532 Lincoln Blvd. New York.

While every effort has been made to contact copyright holders for permission to use other lengthy quotes. . who got the book commissioned. for his indispensable help and advice over the past two and a half years. Julian Alexander. who made its journey to publication a pleasure. appropriate credit will be given in future editions. Many thanks also to my agent. and Kerri Sharp. Should these copyright holders wish to contact the publisher. Lorna Russell. this has not proved possible in all cases. and to my editors at Virgin Publishing.

(2) Hitler's evil is seen by thinkers like Fackenheim as existing beyond the bounds of ordinary human behaviour (however appalling). which deals with Nazi magical practices in a highly sensational way. There is no doubt that the subject of the Third Reich inspires a deep and abiding fascination to this day.' (3) In the post-war years. Davies writes of 'The ideology of "anti-fascism". Other readers may well pause to consider the hideous excesses practised by the Nazis and be dismayed that the defining tragedy of the twentieth century should be trivialised by such an idea. in which the Second World War of 1939-45 is perceived as "the War . and of the virulent brand of fascism which provoked the Second. The industrialised mass murder perpetrated by the Nazis resonated irresistibly through the latter half of the twentieth century. and may dismiss the idea for that reason. evil in some absolute. As the journalist Ron Rosenbaum notes. older readers may be put in mind of the lurid but enjoyable occult thrillers of Dennis Wheatley. the notion is this: that the shocking nightmare of Nazism and the destruction it wrought throughout the world were the result of an attempt by Hitler and his cohorts to contact and enlist the aid of supernatural forces in their bid for domination of the planet. the very existence of this spectrum suggests an extremely uncomfortable question: 'is Hitler on a continuum with previous and successive mass murderers. explicable within the same framework.Introduction: search for a map of hell This book is concerned with one of the most controversial notions of the late twentieth century. one that is so bizarre and appalling in its implications that serious historians have consistently dismissed it as the worst kind of nonsense. morality and altruism. Hitler's ultimate nature can only be completely understood by God. such as Strange Conflict. psychologists and theologians have attempted to understand and explain the frightful aberration that was Nazism. While the numerous reasons why this is far from the truth lie beyond the scope of this book. Put simply. Upon reading this. to them it is so extreme that it transcends the field of behavioural science and enters the realm of theology: in other words. this contributed to the 'Allied scheme of history' in which the West presented (and still presents) itself as the pinnacle of civilisation. on the extreme end of the same spectrum of the human nature we supposedly share with Jeffrey Dahmer and Mahatma Gandhi?" Or is he something else entirely. Ever since Hitler's death in the Fuhrerbunker in 1945. ultimate way? The theologian Emil Fackenheim believes that such was the magnitude of Hitler's crimes that we must consider him as representing a 'radical evil'. with the origin of the awful cruelties perpetrated in its name still the subject of intense debate. In summarising the historiography of the Western Powers. existing outside the continuum of humanity. an 'eruption of demonism into history'. the attitudes that have accompanied the Allied scheme are of extreme importance with regard to our continuing fascination with the Nazis. Indeed. and is certainly the principal contributing factor to what the British historian Norman Davies calls 'a demonological fascination with Germany'. historians. Davies states: 'Germany stands condemned as the prime source both of the malignant imperialism which produced the First World War. One of the foci around which discussion of Hitler moves is the question of where he stands in the spectrum of human nature.

we shall see that the intellectual fathers of National Socialism. In the course of this book. in subsequent decades. The purpose of this book. beliefs. This point of view is. One can easily imagine the thought processes of the writers who have made these claims: the Third Reich was an atrocious aberration in the history of humanity. the idea of Atlantis as a lost Aryan civilisation. and the magical powers inherent in the very blood of racially pure Germans. transhuman intelligence that chose to exert its influence over humanity through the living conduits of Hitler and other high-ranking members of the Reich.' (4) It is easy to understand.against Fascism" and as the defining event in the triumph of Good over Evil. and to attempt an explanation of the strange attraction they held for their proponents. therefore. That Hitler's immediate subordinates themselves dabbled in occult sciences such as astrology is also beyond doubt. it is perhaps unsurprising that the known history of the Third Reich should have given rise. that occultism is a genuine and useful system with which to apprehend and influence the workings of Nature. Occultism played a significant role in the formation and rituals of the SS. are based on the opposite notion. If we take Fackenheim's belief that Hitler represents an 'eruption of demonism into history'. The concepts. quite literally. of course. and as a salutary lesson regarding the power that myth can exercise over the human mind. While historians have tended to concentrate on the many important economic. Jorg Lanz von Liebenfels and Rudolf von Sebottendorff. and apply it to the subject of Nazi occultism. somewhat less attention has been paid to the Nazis' fascination with arcane and esoteric belief systems. is to attempt to make some sense of the irrational and benighted realms of Nazi occultism and pseudoscience. to the assertion that the Nazis were. Given the human capacity for myth-making. an utter catastrophe even by our usual bloody standards. therefore. however. how such defining events (particularly those separated from us by a mere 55 years) can tenaciously maintain themselves in the public consciousness. his essential attributes and the actions to which they gave rise that took him beyond the continuum of . theosophy. aggressively anti-Semitic Pan-German and volkisch nationalists like Guido von List. attitudes and actions we shall encounter in this book. which can only truly be understood by God. in spite of their undeniable influence upon Hitler and the architects of National Socialism in the years leading up to and including the Second World War. How could it have come about? If Hitler was uniquely evil. cultivated an undeniable and profound interest in occultism. his nature. based on the fact that occultism (however important it may be in the history of the human quest for understanding) is not an accurate way of describing the nature of the Universe. In the decades since the end of the war. and it is also a matter of historical record that the Nazis embraced cock-eyed cosmological theories such as Horbiger's World Ice concept (which provided them with an opportunity to denounce the ideas of the Jewish Albert Einstein). social and historical factors that influenced Nazi ideology. why was he so? What was it in his mind. it becomes clear that the various claims for the reality of genuine Nazi occult power were inevitable. in contact with an evil. some historians have seen Nazi occultism as evidence of the essential irrationality underlying the Third Reich.

The prevalence of the Nazi-occultism idea is such that I considered it worthwhile to attempt an evaluation of it . However. the Hitler .according to various versions. it is for this very reason that the idea of genuine Nazi occult power demands our attention: it has become an important (if unwelcome) aspect of the history of the Second World War and the second half of the twentieth century. to be sure.especially in view of the fact that humanity stands on the threshold of a new millennium more or less intact.without doubt the bloodiest and most violent. and one that. At this point. and in particular at the century that has just ended . Nevertheless. and the report inspired one of the finest history books ever published. I should clarify my reasons for and intentions in writing this book. we will also. this is by no means a bad thing: human beings are not machines. particularly historical truth. Trevor-Roper calmly establishes beyond all reasonable doubt that Hitler did not survive the end of the Second World War. to South America. 'reason is powerless against the obstinate love of fiction'. With the arrival of the year 2000. As a historian and British intelligence officer. the nature of which might best be captured by the British writer Thomas De Quincey's statement that the present is the confluence of two eternities. and even to a monastery in Tibet. the past and the future. it cannot be said with any confidence that science itself has triumphed over mythology. mythology and mystery. In this book. despite the myriad scientific and technological advances that have carried us to this point in our history. When he wrote this. and a worldwide culture based exclusively on hard scientific principles would be intolerable to human nature. (5) However.human behaviour and placed him at the level of the absolute. this inherent need in human beings to mythologise can seriously hinder the quest for truth. Sir Dick White. Trevor-Roper was given the task of establishing Hitler's fate by the then-head of Counter-intelligence in the British Zone of Germany. look back at the thousand years we have just left behind. the idea that an evil external to humanity (a cosmic evil) exists and that leading Nazis actually attempted to make contact with transhuman entities in their pursuit of world domination and the creation of an Aryan super-race maybe seen by many as distasteful in the extreme. In some ways. but somehow managed to escape . He made his report to the Four-Power Intelligence Committee in Berlin on 1 November 1945. the idea that the Fuhrer did not die in the Berlin bunker in 1945. of necessity. comprehensible only to the creator of the Universe? If his evil extended beyond the human. TrevorRoper was referring to the so-called 'Hitler survival myth'. but also the century that saw more and greater scientific advances than any other in the history of our species. As we look with curiosity. which is fascinated by spirituality. and demeaning to the memory of those who suffered and died under Hitler's tyranny. human culture finds itself in an intriguing position. as the British writer Joscelyn Godwin notes. The Last Days of Hitler (1947). is it possible that its origin lay beyond the human? In view of the extreme nature of Nazi crimes. It is an uncomfortable notion. hope and some trepidation to the new century and the new millennium before us. And yet. As the British historian Hugh Trevor-Roper put it. to Antarctica. occupies 'that twilight zone between fact and fiction: the most fertile territory for the nurturing of mythological images and their installation in the collective imagination'.

since the idea of escaping from a final conclusion to the horror of Hitler resonates powerfully with the fact that Hitler himself managed to escape human justice through suicide. determinism. Indeed. the never-ending conflict over free will. in September 1945 no one knew for certain what had happened to the Fuhrer: he had simply disappeared. as noted earlier. the debate that has continued for more than half a century concentrates partly on the question of whether or not Hitler can accurately be described as 'evil'. 'How we think about Hitler and evil and the nature of Hitler's choice is a reflection of important cultural assumptions and divisive schisms about individual consciousness and historical causation..'8 It is important to emphasise that to question the use of the word 'evil' as applied to Hitler is not to minimise in any way the enormity of his crimes (which were inarguably horrific). When Trevor-Roper's final report was delivered. This inability on our part to arrive at a satisfactory explanation for Hitler has been called 'evidentiary despair' by Ron Rosenbaum. However. particularly in far-right and neo-Nazi circles. Surprisingly (indeed. and personal responsibility. 'it doesn't matter what word we choose to apply to Hitler'. the ease with which we seem to be able to answer this question is illusory and. while Bullock states that the more he learns about Hitler.' (7) Of course. to chart the process that took him from unprepossessing Viennese down-and-out to the assassin of European Jewry.' (6) Trevor-Roper's use of the phrase 'a possibility of escaping' is interesting and very significant with regard to the present book. to echo Alan Bullock's 'If he isn't evil. it does not alter the number of people who suffered and died. stating that Hitler had died by his own hand and that all other theories were 'contrary to the only positive evidence and supported by no evidence at all'. particularly from journalists. but they maintained that there was still a possibility of escaping so final a conclusion. the harder he finds him to explain. 'The critics did not indeed deny the evidence that was produced. In the case of the Hitler survival myth. we find ourselves grappling with one of the oldest problems of humanity: the problem of the nature of evil itself. Trevor-Roper still considers Hitler a 'frightening mystery'. our intuitive sense of the existence of evil and the certainty with which we perceive its presence in Hitler is little help . it drew criticism from some quarters. shockingly). As Rosenbaum reminds us. Hitler managed a twofold escape: not only did he elude punishment for his crimes but he has also eluded explanation. Rosenfeld sums up the problem best: 'No representation of Adolf Hitler has seemed able to present the man or satisfactorily explain him. in addressing ourselves to it. as more than one commentator has suggested. that he had somehow managed to escape from the ruins of Berlin as his Thousand-Year Reich imploded to the dimensions of his bunker. they maintained that the body that had been burnt was that not of Hitler but of a "double" introduced at the last minute .. This mythopoeic capacity is brought to bear in the absence of verifiable data. Our first reaction to this might be that it is the easiest question to answer that has ever been posed. there have been many attempts to explain the mind of Hitler. This gave rise to numerous speculations. who is?' Nevertheless. and can still be encountered occasionally to this day.survival myth continued to circulate. who illustrates the concept with comments from historians such as Trevor-Roper. Alan Bullock and the Jewish-studies scholar Alvin Rosenfeld.

According to the Great Abstraction Theory: 'Nothing could have prevented the Holocaust. Although his deeds reached an extreme of awfulness. he committed them in the deluded belief that they were right. it would have been "someone like Hitler" serving as an instrument of those inexorable larger forces. not evil!' (10) (Original emphasis.as simply unbearable . preferring the stricter term 'wickedness' to describe wrongdoers who do evil deeds knowing they are doing wrong. by another defining moment in my encounters with Hitler explainers: my conversation in London with H. Trevor-Roper. The philosophical literature that takes these questions seriously makes a distinction between obviously evil deeds such as mass murder and the not-always-obvious nature of the intent of the doer. which is considered unthinkable by many historians and philosophers.in our search for a definition of it..a human being . it's remarkable to discover how many sophisticated thinkers of all stripes find themselves unwilling to find a principled rationale for calling Hitler evil. That Hitler could have done it out of pure personal hatred. director of the Simon Wiesenthal Centre's Jerusalem headquarters. however delusional. I was drawn to the philosophical literature on the problem of wickedness . is that a single human being wanted to bring about the Holocaust . which places emphasis on profound and inevitable trends at the expense of the activities of single personalities as formulated in the now-unfashionable Great Man Theory.. and the chief Nazi-hunter in Israel. (The reader may ..' (11) (Original emphasis. Rosenbaum informs us that during the course of interviews with many historians. conducted as part of the research for his remarkable book Explaining Hitler: The Search For the Origins of His Evil. R. If it hadn't been Hitler.. I'd asked him the deceptively simple question I'd begun asking a number of Hitler explainers: 'Do you consider Hitler consciously evil? Did he know what he was doing was wrong?' (9)[Original emphasis] Trevor-Roper's answer was an emphatic No: Hitler was convinced of his own rectitude.) The acceptance by many historians of the rectitude argument leads Rosenbaum to a tentative and very interesting conclusion: 'that beneath the Socratic logic of the position might be an understandably human. No one's to blame for the failure to halt Hitler's rise. Rosenbaum also points out that the assumption that Jewish people themselves might be expected to be the first to reject this 'rectitude argument' is also flawed.' (12) The alternative. Zuroff almost shouted: 'Of course not! Hitler thought he was a doctor! Killing germs! That's all Jews were to him! He believed he was doing good. a member of our species. Rosenbaum is instructive on the problems of defining evil in terms sufficiently accurate to allow a serious and rigorous discussion of the primary motivating factors in Hitler's crimes: [I]n the realm of scholarship. he discovered to his surprise that many were reluctant to call Adolf Hitler evil. even emotional. at least in the strict sense of doing wrong knowingly. one of the first and most widely respected postwar Hitler explainers. as evidenced by the statement of Efraim Zuroff. When asked if he thought Hitler was conscious he was doing wrong.) Allied to this is the socalled Great Abstraction Theory of history. knowing exactly what he was doing and how wrong it was. former Regius Professor of Modern History at Oxford. rejection .of the idea that someone could commit mass murder without a sense of rectitude.

SA storm troopers entered the premises and ripped it from the presses.detect a similarity between this notion and the reluctance by some to allow Hitler to be placed within the continuum of human behaviour mentioned earlier. once again. to draw an accurate map of the hell Hitler created on Earth. (13) As we have just seen. Although no copy of the Gerlich report has ever been found. exacted terrible vengeance. Geli Raubal. the lost key to the Hitler psyche. he remains the greatest enigma: any attempt to explain seriously the origin and nature of the evil of the Third Reich must centre on Adolf Hitler . the destroyer of more than six million innocent people? According to Yehuda Bauer.seem to disappear beyond recovery. it has been rightly criticised in some quarters for its implicit removal of Hitler from the position of sole creator of the Final Solution. there have been numerous theories put forward. Yet another theory suggests that the death of Hitler's mother in 1907 was in some way made more painful by the malpractice of her Jewish doctor." (4) This mythology was inspired by real events in Munich in 1933. This resulted in a desire for murderous vengeance against the Jews. for which Hitler. Hitler exterminated the Jews in order to exterminate what he perceived as the poison in his own blood. rumours have been circulating for many years about the ultimate fate of the information with which Gerlich . just as Gerlich's newspaper. Maria Schicklgruber. Eduard Bloch. phrased memorably by Rosenbaum: what made Hitler Hitler? What turned him from an apparently ordinary. In the last analysis. was about to go to press. when Fritz Gerlich. but as the prime mover of Nazism. A place where allegedly revelatory documents . while it is possible in theory to explain Hitler. the desperate search for an adequate explanation of Hitler has resulted in a number of contradictory theories. it may well be too late. Alois Hitler. According to this theory. made a desperate attempt to alert the world to the true nature of Hitler by means of a report of an unspecified scandal.not as a pawn of larger forces. revolving around what Rosenbaum calls 'the lost safe-deposit box. undistinguished human being into the very embodiment of wickedness. the last antiHitler journalist in that city. The deaths of crucial witnesses and the loss of important documents may have resulted in our eternal separation from the means to answer the question. On 9 March.ones that might provide the missing link. resulting in the birth of his father. Interestingly. by a Jew. a founder of the discipline of Holocaust Studies. this search has also generated a mythology of its own. the true source of his metamorphosis . including the suggestion that Hitler's anti-Semitism derived from the unproven seduction and impregnation of his paternal grandmother. All of which brings us back to the central question. Another conjecture has it that Hitler discovered an affair between his half-niece. and that he either drove her to suicide or had her murdered. Of course.) While the implications of the Great Abstraction Theory may serve as a form of consolation (nothing could have prevented the Holocaust from happening: it was the result of uncontrollable historical forces). Der Gerade Weg. and a Jewish music teacher. many of which are built on flimsy evidence.

Waldburg-Zeil allegedly took the report and its supporting documents to his estate north of Munich. for instance. something is missing. who apparently befriended Forster. they represent a kind of epistemological optimism. the account given by a German novelist named Ernst Weiss. the key to which he took to his grave. Forster rewrote the notes in a cipher of his own devising.and talismans against .. but something here on earth. involving documents proving that Geli Raubal was indeed killed on the orders of Adolf Hitler. the historian Professor Karl-Ottmar Freiherr von Aretin. was actually that of Dr Edmund Forster. despite the despairing tone of the safe-deposit-box myths. however. According to von Aretin's son. At least somewhere there's the lost key that could make sense of the apparently motiveless malignancy of Hitler's psyche . fearful of what might happen should they be discovered by the Nazi authorities. For the sake of security. who put them in a safe-deposit box in Switzerland. claimed that the psychiatrist discovered a dreadful secret during the course of Hitler's treatment. Guttenberg was killed following his involvement in the attempted coup against Hitler on 20 July 1944..an otherwise apparently inexplicable malignant evil. according to which the voice Hitler claimed to have heard while recovering from war injuries in a hospital at Pasewalk summoning him to a mission to avenge Germany following her surrender in 1918. he had not told anyone the number of the safedeposit-box account. As an added security measure. Karl Ludwig Freiherr von Guttenberg. at least it exists somewhere. Forster took his Pasewalk case notes to Switzerland and placed them in a safe-deposit box in a bank in Basel. and has generated more than one subsequent controversial claim. (15) Weiss.. . his father gave the documents to his cousin. the unreadable cipher in the lost safe-deposit box is a powerful metaphor for the elusive explanation of Hitler: These lost-safe-deposit-box stories clearly serve as expressions of anxiety about . a secret with the potential to unlock the future Fuhrer's psyche and which Forster took with him when he fled Germany in 1933. a faith in an explicable world. Shortly before his suicide (to which he was driven by the Gestapo). The idea that somewhere in Switzerland there lies a set of documents containing information that might be of some help in explaining the transformation of Adolf Hitler from man to monster is a powerful one. Yes. In fact. There is. Rosenbaum informs us of an alternative version of these events. co-owner of the Munchener Neueste Nachrichten. As Rosenbaum notes. a staff psychiatrist at the hospital. Waldburg-Zeil destroyed them during the war. one of which involves a secret copy of the report that was smuggled out of the premises (along with supporting documentary material) by one Count Waldburg-Zeil. but if we don't have the missing piece in hand.hoped to warn the world of the danger of Hitler. however mundane or bizarre . A missing piece. Forster 'sought to cure Hitler's hysterical blindness by putting him in a hypnotic trance and implanting the post-hypnotic suggestion that Hitler had to recover his sight to fulfil a mission to redeem Germany's lost honor'.. where he buried them somewhere in the grounds. According to Gerlich's biographer Erwin von Aretin.

replaced by ultimate peace and love. Nevertheless. a world of the spirit where their sufferings would be at an end. Indeed. the evidence for Adolf Hitler and other leading Nazis as practising black magicians was decidedly weak. It is a little-known fact that there was an additional battle being waged at the time. something safely containable within the reassuring confines of a box in a Swiss bank. The Spiritualists were in turn aided in their efforts by the white witches who feared that a Nazi invasion of Britain would see their extermination. the witches threw a substance known as 'go-away powder' into the sea. This the Spiritualist community did. Made according to an ancient recipe. just beyond our reach. This came to be known as the Magical Battle of Britain. Something not beyond our ken. in the decades since the end of the Second World War.] (16) If I have relied rather heavily on Rosenbaum's work in the last few pages. something less unbearably frightening than inexplicable evil. an elaborate mythology has developed around this very concept. [Original emphasis. had the effect (so the witches believed) of raising an impassable psychic barrier around the shores of Britain. The Nazis were using (or perhaps being used by) monstrous occult powers. When I began to think about writing Invisible Eagle. magical operations were carried out by covens all over the country. my intention was to attempt an evaluation of the evidence for Nazi involvement with occultism and black magic. Indeed. they hoped to stave off the invasion in the summer of 1940. and later by many others (it is estimated that by 1941 as much as 25 per cent of the British population had some belief in the paranormal). Another coven travelled to the Hampshire coast with the intention of raising a magical cone of power that would turn back the advancing forces of Darkness. this notion first arose during the actual war years and was adhered to at first principally by members of the Spiritualist community. it became evident that the war was very much a war between Good and Evil in the cosmic sense: a battle between the powers of Light and Darkness. while early racist organisations like the volkisch movement and the Pan-Germans were most certainly influenced by occultist notions. and the only way to have even a chance of stopping them was to employ the opposing magical powers of goodness and love.something we can contain in our imagination. In the course of my preliminary reading. has a great deal to do with what we have been discussing in this Introduction: the need . this substance. mainly in the 1960s and early 1970s. however. An interest in occultism and Spiritualism became a great comfort to those who had lost loved ones either overseas or in the Blitz. it became clear to me that. concentrating on the idea of confusing the minds of Hitler's High Command and making them think that to . Travelling to the Kent coast. The reason for this. For many people with an interest in esotericism. the details of which (as lurid as they are unsubstantiated) have been presented in a number of popular books.desperate and perhaps doomed to failure -to arrive at an adequate explanation for the catastrophic wickedness of Hitler and the Nazis. By raising their own occult forces. by Spiritualists giving psychic aid to the brave pilots defending the nation's skies. it seems to me. combined with certain potent magical spells. paying special attention to British pilots fighting in the Battle of Britain. it is because it is of considerable relevance to our concerns in the present book. since it held the potential to establish for them the reality of an afterlife.

I hope. it will also become clear that ideas about the involvement of leading Nazis with occultism and black magic grow more outlandish and less believable. that the latter concept. and the occult societies that were used as conduits for the propagation of racist esotericism and the doctrine of Aryan supremacy. to a great extent. we will examine the origins of occultist belief in Nazi Germany in movements such as volkisch nationalism and Pan-Germanism. by which I mean the belief of occultists and crypto-historians that the Nazis wielded genuine supernatural powers. In Chapter Two. However spurious the ideas that we shall examine in the later stages of this book. and it is an unpalatable but undeniable fact that this speculation forms a significant element in the public attitude to Hitler and the Nazis. I should pause to note that at various points in this book I shall be using two phrases that at first sight might appear to be synonymous but which actually have very different meanings. however. the invasion of Britain was postponed indefinitely. as the reader proceeds through the book. let us now turn to a brief overview of the subjects that we shall be examining in the following pages. The first is 'Nazi occultism'. particularly when presented by writers who have little or no official training in the history of fascism and the Second World War. so they themselves have. (In the autumn of 1940.invade Britain would be too difficult. That said. be a mistake: the various claims made regarding Nazi involvement with the occult have come to occupy a central place in the mythologising of the Third Reich that has developed in the years since the end of the Second World War. the second is 'Nazi occult power'. based as it is partly on verifiable historical data and partly on bizarre and spurious notions that have few claims to historical accuracy. we will concentrate on . the development of the occult-racist doctrine known as Ariosophy. However. The result is that a body of wild historical speculation now exists alongside what we know for certain about Nazi Germany.) At this point. is nevertheless of considerable importance in the mythology of the twentieth century and the manner in which we view reality today. while far less verifiable in historical terms. in Chapter One. With regard to Invisible Eagle. It might therefore appear to the reader that this book itself is only half legitimate. been mythologised by writers in the fields of occultism and conspiracy theory. Thus. by which I mean the Nazi belief in the occult and supernatural. it presents certain problems both for the writer who explores it and the reader who agrees to accompany him or her. at least) their claims to racial superiority. Such a conclusion would. it is essential that we do discuss them in order to gain some understanding of the awful fascination the Third Reich still holds for us. achieved through their alleged contact with transhuman intelligences. the adoption of Theosophical concepts. Just as the Nazis mythologised the history of their socalled 'Aryan' ancestors in order to legitimise (in their own minds. This survey can in many ways be categorised as conspiracy literature. it will become clear that the early sections refer to data that have been verified and are accepted by professional historians. As such. It will become clear in the course of the book.

. I have included this subject because it provides a connection between the alleged occult philosophy of the Third Reich and the sinister but increasingly popular concept of Nazi survival to the present day. Much of the remainder of this book will deal with these notions. along with many of the scientists and engineers who were attempting to put them into practice. Chapter Seven will see us plunging ever deeper into the Absolute Elsewhere. through whom they intended to ally themselves with the powerful race living beneath the Himalayas. I have devoted Chapter Eight to an examination of the radical and highly advanced aircraft designs on which the Nazis were working towards the end of the war. and which were captured. in particular the region of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land (so named by Norwegian explorers) which the Nazis claimed for Germany in 1939 and renamed Neu Schwabenland. Although at first sight it might appear out of place in a book dealing with the subject of Nazi occultism. which appeared to follow their fighters and bombers and interfered with the electrical systems of the aircraft. With Chapter Three. the Holy Lance said to have pierced the side of Christ during the crucifixion and whose possession would enable those who understood its mysteries to control the world. including the theory that the Earth is hollow (a theory that has enjoyed more or less constant currency in certain UFO circles . where we will encounter the fantastic principles of Nazi cosmology. These glowing balls of light were known as 'foo fighters'. In Chapter Four we will travel to Tibet to examine the curious notion that the Nazis were in contact with certain high lamas. Chapter Three. Chapter Five will be devoted to an examination of one of the most enduring myths regarding Nazi occult power: that of Hitler's quest for the so-called Spear of Destiny. which centred on the idea of a lost Aryan homeland in the far North. one might say). and will examine the occult origin of the swastika. will introduce us to the mysterious Vril Society and its use of a vast and hidden power known as 'vril' and said to be wielded by a race of subterranean superhumans. In Chapter Six we will chart the origins and ritual practices of the SS and attempt to establish how much of what has been written regarding its use of black magic is true. and that the Third Reich survives today in the icy fastnesses of the North and South polar regions. It is certainly beyond dispute that both Allied and German air crews encountered highly unusual aerial phenomena over Europe in the form of small (three.the bizarre mythology adopted by the Nazis. we find ourselves departing from this path of respectability and entering what the French writers Louis Pauwels and Jacques Bergier call the Absolute Elsewhere: an intellectual realm of extreme notions that is the equivalent of Godwin's 'twilight zone between fact and fiction'. not through any misguided belief in their veracity but rather in an attempt to establish the reasons for their inclusion in the mythology that has been imposed upon the history of the Third Reich in the last five decades. The first two chapters contain information that is historically verifiable and accepted by serious historians. Others (including certain neoNazi groups) have suggested in all seriousness that some UFOs are actually operated by Nazis and are powered by vril energy.the fringe of the fringe. therefore.to four-foot diameter) illuminated spheres. It has been suggested by a number of researchers and commentators that modern sightings of UFOs (unidentified flying objects) may be due to the development by America and Russia of captured Nazi secret weapon designs. by the Allies in 1945.

Finally. we can identify the pernicious esotericism of the Nazis themselves and the revolting cruelties it engendered. in combination with the attempt to enlist the Nazis' quest for genuine supernatural power to explain the motivations of Hitler and the Third Reich. perhaps more accurately. has resulted in an elaborate mythological system that has had a definite influence upon our attitude to the practice of official secrecy and the putative abuses of political and economic power in the post-war world. and on the other.were it not for the atrocities committed in their name that have irreparably demeaned our species. in the Conclusion we will attempt a summing up of the material we have covered. By the end of the book. And we will see how the frightful and irrational concepts of Nazi mysticism and pseudoscience have survived to the present day to cast a fearsome shadow over the future.In Chapter Nine we will examine the notion of Nazi survival in various secret locations. I hope to make it clear that the history of Nazi occultist beliefs. we will of necessity be exploring concepts from which most academics would turn away with the utmost disdain. the modern mythological system that has developed in the years since the end of the Second World War. and which has Nazi occultist beliefs as its starting point. the Fourth Reich) is alive and well and continuing its quest for world domination. We will look at claims and beliefs that most rational people would find it hard to accept anyone could seriously entertain . which has it that the Third Reich (or. Readers will find themselves embarking on a journey into realms both outre and unsettling. The structure of belief we will be discussing is thus twofold: on the one hand. .

with 35 monarchies and four free cities. Nassau. Hesse. the margraviates of Istria and Moravia. intellectual rationalism and rapid industrialisation occurring at the time. cultural and economic conditions prevalent in Prussia and Austria in the second half of the century. who had hoped for a consolidation of these small monarchies into a politically unified Greater Germany. the administrative separation of Hungary from Austria. Carinthia. Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke. the kingdoms of Bohemia. Bismarck considered Austria a potential future ally and so avoided unnecessarily weakening the state. Carniola Salzburg and Styria. Dalmatia and Galicia-Lodomeria. settling for the annexation of Hanover. .1 . and its replacement with the North German Confederation under the sole leadership of Prussia. and Austria with a number of German states. Frankfurt and Schleswig-Holstein. including Bavaria. They included: Austria. Prussia was allied with Italy. Its main organ was a central Diet under the presidency of Austria.Ancestry. Nevertheless. and lasted from 1815 to 1866. the archduchies of Lower Austria and Upper Austria. using the dispute over the administration of Schleswig-Holstein as a pretext. (These moderate peace terms were to facilitate the Austro-German alliance of 1879. with its multitude of national and ethnic groups. it consisted of a union of 39 German states. As a step towards the ascendancy of Prussia over Austria and the unification of Germany under Prussian dominance. Austria in the late 1800s was the product of three major political changes: 'These changes consisted in the exclusion of Austria from the German Confederation. Saxony and Hanover. and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy in the "Austrian" or western half of the empire. A look at the political divisions within the empire will give some idea of the extent of its multiculturalism. The defeat of Austria was an additional blow to German nationalism: Austrian Germans found themselves isolated within the Habsburg Empire. the duchies of Bukovina. the establishment of the confederation failed to meet the aspirations of German nationalists. However. As noted by the British authority on the history of the Third Reich. The war notwithstanding. Austria was excluded from German affairs in the Treaty of Prague (23 August 1866)." The German Confederation had been created by the Congress of Vienna to replace the Holy Roman Empire. In this conflict. the origins of the Nazi fascination with occult and esoteric belief systems can be traced to the political. in which arcane and esoteric concepts might be expected to be far removed from the complex political processes. Wurttemberg. Otto von Bismarck provoked the Austro-Prussian War in June 1866. Prussia easily overcame Austria and her allies. also known as the Seven Weeks' War.) The war resulted in the destruction of the German Confederation. blood and nature The Mystical Origins of National Socialism Historical Perspective We must begin our journey in the convulsed but well-mapped territory of nineteenthcentury Europe.

However. As noted by the American historian Steven W. Tyrol and Vorarlberg. each ruling half of a twin country united only at the top through the King-Emperor and the common Ministries of Foreign Affairs and of War'. (4) The Ausgleich resulted in aspirations towards autonomy among a number of groups within the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Slovaks. Romanians. 'The former revolutionaries [of 1848] . In practice the three 'master races' . Germans. Bosnia-Hercegovina. the Magyars in Hungary could hold down the Slovaks. Lombardy (transferred to Italy in 1859). their desires for autonomy were constantly frustrated by the Hungarian determination to preserve the political structure established by the Ausgleich. the crownland of Austrian-Silesia. fears that the supremacy of the German language and culture within the empire would be challenged by the non-German nationalities resulted in a conflict of loyalties between German nationality and Austrian citizenship.the Germans. According to Goodrick-Clarke: . The largest and most restless minority consisted of about 6. The second major change was the Ausgleich ('Compromise') of 1867. and the Poles in Galicia could hold down the Ruthenians (Ukrainians). The administrative structures were so tailored that the German minority in Bohemia could hold down the Czechs.were encouraged to lord it over the others. and the town of Trieste. Croats. (3) However. Slovenes and Italians. the Ausgleich only served to make matters worse: There was no chance that the German-speaking elite could impose its culture throughout Austria. (2) As Goodrick-Clarke states. according to Norman Davies. German nationalism had been frustrated on two main occasions in the first half of the nineteenth century: at the Congress of Vienna in 1815.5 million Czechs living in Bohemia. This in turn resulted in the emergence of two principal nationalist movements: volkisch nationalism and the Pan-German movement. Montenegrins and Albanians) who had taken advantage of the Turkish decline to establish their own states. inspired by Slavs in the Ottoman Empire (including Serbs. the empire as a whole was home to eleven major nationalities: Magyars. Serbs. So pressures mounted as each of the excluded nationalities fell prey to the charms of nationalism. and after the revolutions of 1848. Tuscany (transferred to Italy in 1860) and Venetia (transferred to Italy in 1866). Moravia and Austrian Silesia. Modena (transferred to Italy in 1860). and the Galician Poles . Sowards. let alone extend it to the whole of the Dual Monarchy. 'Austria was a Slav house with a German facade'. Poles. Romanians.the counties of Gorizia-Gradisca. After all.German and Magyar . Czechs. and Croats. whereby the Habsburgs set up the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary.became de facto "peoples of state". Ruthenians. the Magyars. The intention was to curb the nationalist aspirations of Slavs in both states. which we will discuss a little later.

The position of German nationalists in Austria-Hungary was henceforth problematic. This tendency had begun in the late eighteenth century. In 1867 the Hungarians were granted political independence within a dual state. who were blamed for the collapse of traditional values and institutions. volkisch nationalism and Pan-Germanism. An idealized image of medieval Germany was invoked to prove her claim to spiritual unity. Racial thinking facilitated the rise of political anti-Semitism. Racism indicated that the Jews were not just a religious community but biologically different from other races.As a result of this slow progress towards political unification. these anti-modernist sentiments resulted in the rejection of both liberalism and rationalism. they were also noble. The Darwinist idea of evolution through struggle was also taken up in order to prove that the superior pure races would prevail over the mixed inferior ones. blond-haired. when writers of the pre-Romantic Sturm und Drang movement had expressed the common identity of all Germans in folk-songs. itself so closely linked to the strains of modernization. even if there had never been political unity. linguistics and Darwinist evolution to 'prove' the superiority of the German race. when Bismarck consolidated the ascendancy of Prussia through the military defeat of Austria. (6) The idealised. quasi-medieval Germany suffered under the programme of rapid modernisation and industrialisation undertaken by the Second Reich. romantic image of a rural. forcing her withdrawal from German affairs. (7) The Volkisch Movement and Pan-Germanism As mentioned earlier. honest. The . the foundations of their mystical unity had become threatened. the fears and aspirations of German nationalists led to the formation of two highly influential movements. Their programme proposed the secession of the German-settled provinces of Austria from the polyglot Habsburg empire and their incorporation in the new Second Reich across the border. A set of inner moral qualities was related to the external characteristics of racial types: while the Aryans (and thus the Germans) were blue-eyed. customs. Feelings of conservative anger at the disruptive consequences of economic change could find release in the vilification of the Jews. Hopes for a Greater Germany had been dashed in 1866. while paradoxically hijacking the scientific concepts of anthropology. In addition. who saw their traditional communities destroyed by the spread of towns and industries. tall and wellproportioned. Germans increasingly came to conceive of national unity in cultural terms. and literature. Such an arrangement was ultimately realized by the Anschluss of Austria into the Third Reich in 1938. This emphasis on the past and traditions conferred a strongly mythological character upon the cause of unification. For many. (5) He goes on: The exclusion of Austria from the new Prussian-dominated Reich had left disappointed nationalists in both countries. and courageous. The growth of the Pan-German movement in Austria in the following decades reflected the dilemma of Austrian Germans within a state of mixed German and Slav nationalities.

expressed through the appreciation of prehistoric monuments. as many as 150.) The ideas of the volkisch movement were propagated through educational and defence leagues called Vereine. the latter a prototype of the Jewish stereotype that would be later used in National Socialist propaganda. published in Innsbruck by Georg von Schonerer (1842-1921). one of the most virulent of which was the satirical illustrated monthly Der Scherer. According to the historian of Nazism. The main principles of volkisch thought were the importance of living naturally (including a vegetarian diet). everything international was inferior and to be rejected. who represent the Volk. whom Davidson describes as 'anti-Catholic. and in religion. although it re-emerged in 1894 as the Bund der Germanen. in fact. was the German. while clerical anti-Semites linked them with volkisch . the ancient Teutonic gods.intention of the volkisch movement was to raise the cultural consciousness of Germans living in Austria. The word volkisch is not easy to translate into English. The culture-bearing Volk of the world. such was their popularity. incomparably superior among the races. especially Jewish influences. the impersonality. The Vereine were particularly popular amongst young people and intellectuals. but a Volk was an organic unity with a common biological inheritance. anti-Semitic. Goodrick-Clarke estimates that by 1900. a Jew and a priest are sitting on a mound of writhing people. and often ludicrous'. (As more than one commentator has noted. Anton Langgassner founded the Germanenbund. there is a distinct and rather sinister similarity between these principles and those of the modern New Age movement. the followers of the volkisch movement: believed the troubles of the industrial order . a leader in the movement. the ruthless speculators .the harshness. the only proper function of a German state was to administer on behalf of the Volk.' (10) Jews were consistently attacked from two directions: volkisch anticlerical groups linked them with the reactionary Church. A sound economy would be based on agriculture rather than on industry with its international. at Salzburg under the banner of Germanic Volkstum (nationhood). (9) The antiCatholic and anti-Semitic articles in Der Scherer were accompanied by drawings of fat priests and big-nosed Jews. and an understanding of astrology and cosmic cycles. In 1886. (8) [Original emphasis. and a Germanic society unsullied by inferior. containing as it does elements of both nationalism and a profound sense of the importance of folklore. particularly by playing on their fears for their identity within the provinces of mixed nationality in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. while another shows the Devil in Hell. that an unsettled Austrian government dissolved the Germanenbund in 1889. Eugene Davidson.] Volkisch ideology was propagated through a number of racist publications. with a sign saying: 'Spa for Jews and Jesuits.000 people were influenced by volkisch propaganda. foreign intrusions. a federation of Vereine. to the German community. therefore. Nations might endure such foreign elements. In one picture. an awareness of the wisdom of one's ancestors.would only be exorcised by a return to Ur-Germanism. a German God would have to replace the Jewish God. the sharp dealing.

In the same year. defended anti-Semitism as no more than healthy self-preservation. while another. when Schonerer was convicted of assault after barging into the offices of Das Neue Wiener Tageblatt and attacking the editor for prematurely reporting the death of the German emperor. By this time. and have extended their pernicious influence through various right-wing groups active today. these views would survive Nazism. Pan-Germanism operated in a more political context. which called for the incorporation of German Austria into the Bismarckian Reich. . Schonerer followed a progressive Left agenda for about five years.' (13) Georg von Schonerer's involvement with Pan-Germanism transformed it from a nebulous 'cult of Prussophilia' into a genuine revolutionary movement. Jahn. advocated German national unity. and two years later the Austrian premier. wrote in 1906 that the goal of the Jew was world domination. Schonerer had identified an additional enemy in the Catholic Church. the Linzer Post. before making demands for a German Austria without the Habsburgs and politically united with the German Reich.. the parish priests formed a network of effective propagandists in the country. When the Austrian government decided in 1895 that Slovene should be taught in the German school at Celje in Carniola. which he regarded as inimical to the interests of Austrian Germans. Following his election to the Reichsrat in 1873. beginning with the refusal of Austrian Germans to accept their exclusion from German affairs after the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. The result was that the Pan-Germans. 'The episcopate advised the emperor. Graz and Prague. 'This cult of Prussophilia led to a worship of force and a contempt for humanitarian law and justice. political democracy and social reform: its essential characteristic was racism. international rulers of financial and intellectual life'. Wilhelm I. followed a strategy of blocking all parliamentary business. ruled that all officials in Bohemia and Moravia should speak both Czech and German (thus placing Germans at a distinct disadvantage). the volkisch Deutsche Tiroler Stimmen called for the extermination of the Jewish race. which in turn led to violent public disorder in the summer of 1897. These groups advocated kleindeutsch (or 'little German') nationalism. Die Tiroler Post. Jews were therefore seen as 'either godless socialists or capitalist exploiters . 'that is. Schonerer's Pan-Germanism was not characterised merely by national unity. (14) The Pan-German movement experienced something of a setback in 1888. One Catholic paper. (11) As we shall see later. As Goodrick-Clarke notes. which were inspired by earlier German student clubs (Burschenschaftern) following the teachings of Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (1778-1850). (12) If the volkisch movement attempted to raise German national and cultural consciousness. a purveyor of volkisch ideology. lost his title of nobility (15) and was deprived of his political rights for five years.heathenism. the flames of nationalism were once again fanned throughout the empire. the idea that blood was the sole criterion of all civil rights'. Count Casimir Badeni. identity and romantic ritual. He was sentenced to four months' imprisonment. together with the democratic German parties.. and the hidden. The movement originated among student groups in Vienna.

(21) . How many diseases must owe their origin to the Jewish virus! Only when we have eliminated the Jews will we regain our health. but also by the introduction in 1907 of universal male suffrage. not only by the Badeni language decrees. in which he had described the 'naked struggle for dominance between the zoological species "Man" ' and 'the lowest form of organic life [microscopic organisms]'. Hitler would later express his own anti-Semitism in these biological terms. The struggle in which we are now engaged is similar to the one waged by Pasteur and Koch in the last century. Schonerer believed. Wilhelm Bolsche. those who were politically motivated felt religion itself to be irrelevant. was taken up at the turn of the twentieth century by German propagandists who claimed that Germans could defend their race and culture only by remaining racially pure. By the turn of the century. and warned of its eventual submergence by non-Aryans. Carinthia and Vienna between 1899 and 1910. the Protestant Church itself was rather dissatisfied with Los von Rom. This could only exacerbate the growing German-Slav conflict within the empire. This notion. had written a book entitled Vom Bazillus zum Affenmenschen (From the Bacillus to the Apeman). (18) For that matter. and those who merely wanted to defend German cultural and political interests within the Habsburg empire.000 Protestant conversions in Bohemia. along with the ideas about biological struggle of Social Darwinism. (20) This 'struggle for dominance' was to have a profound effect upon the development of German anti-Semitism in the early years of the twentieth century. by a movement for Protestant conversion. (19) The volkisch nationalists and Pan-Germans found further inspiration in the work of the zoologist Ernst Haeckel who. who saw it as 'a variation of old-time clericalism'. On one occasion in 1942. in order to deprive Jews of all human attributes. Pan-Germanism could be divided into two groups: those who. and felt that its profound connection of religion with politics would make religious people uneasy. for instance. wanted political and economic union with the Reich. Arthur de Gobineau had written an essay on the inequality of races. In 1853-55. like Schonerer. Seven years earlier. Styria.' (16) The association of Catholicism with Slavdom and the Austrian state could further be emphasised. which we will discuss later. this was the origin of the slogan 'Los von Rom' ('Away from Rome'). Hitler said: The discovery of the Jewish virus is one of the greatest revolutions the world has seen. These interests were perceived as being radically undermined. Haeckel's colleague. By the same token. and was one of the main factors in the emergence of the racist doctrine of Ariosophy. (17) although it was not at all popular among either the volkisch leagues or the Pan-Germans. founded the Monist League to spread his racist interpretation of Social Darwinism.and the Christian Social party had deprived him of his earlier strongholds among the rural and semi-urban populations of Lower Austria and Vienna. in 1906. The movement claimed approximately 30. in which he had made claims for the superiority of the Nordic-Aryan race.

between two antithetical principles. yet it must he viewed in the context of a much wider occult revival that had been taking place in Europe for about one hundred years. When the library was destroyed by fire. and it was this ' union that the term 'gnosis' signified . which originated in the eastern Mediterranean more than 1.German Theosophy The revival of Germanic mythology and folklore in Austria in the last two decades of the nineteenth century was of enormous importance to the development of Nazi esotericism and cosmology. contains two basic tenets. matter and material creation had to be transcended in order to attain union with a greater and truer god. The Tabula smaragdina or Emerald Tablet is said to contain the most comprehensive summation of Egyptian philosophy. buried in a secret desert location by initiates. and also contain discourses on the evolution of the human soul. which they called 'Hermetic'. Certain aspects of reality are repudiated as unreal. The ancient wisdom of Hermes is said to reside in 42 books. often a conflict. be defined thus: Dualism. It was subsequently to surface again in Persia. or evil. (22) The second tenet concerns the evil of matter: Matter was rejected as intrinsically evil. Gnosticism (gnosis simply means direct knowledge). it is worth pausing to consider the meanings of these concepts. To the Greeks. however. the surviving fragments of which are known as the Hermetica. The central concepts of what would become Western occultism. was deemed to be the handiwork of a lesser and malevolent god. (23) Hermeticism derives from Hermes Trismegistus ('the thrice-greatest Hermes'). the phenomenal world. whose domain was pure spirit. who believed that it was encoded with the mystical secrets . presupposes an opposition. In consequence. two antithetical hierarchies of value. under a teacher known as Mani. according to Michael Baigent and Richard Leigh. At this point. such as Gnosticism. Hermeticism and the Cabala.. two antithetical realities. the god of wisdom and of literature. Material creation. Christianity is. between spirit and 'unregenerate nature'. or inferior. In dualism. In its distinction between soul and body.. in effect. according to legend.500 years ago. which can. this 'scribe of the gods' was author of all sacred books. and was of central importance to the alchemists. Hermetic works such as The Divine Pymander and The Vision describe the means by which divine wisdom was revealed to Hermes Trismegistus. as the word itself suggests. the name given by the Greeks to the Egyptian god Thoth. certain aspects or orders of reality are extolled over others. had been largely banished from Western thought by the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century. [Gnostic] thinking had probably originated in the similar dualism of Persian Zoroastrianism. some fragments were saved and. as practised by early Christian heretics. most of this wisdom was forever lost. The books of Hermes were written on papyrus and kept in the great library of Alexandria. The first is dualism. and to be called Manicheism. dualist.

(24) The occult revival in Europe came about primarily as a reaction to the rationalist Enlightenment and materialism of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The primary document of Cabalism is the Sefer Yetzirah (Book of Creation). an event which seems to have contributed to her waywardness and powerful sense of individuality. who was martyred by the Romans. when Helena was eleven. seals and demonology. which was possibly written in the third century by Rabbi Akiba. Hermes Trismegistus is said to have been the greatest philosopher. Vice-Governor of Yerevan in the Caucasus. Baron von Hahn. The marriage failed after only a few weeks and Helena left her husband with the initial intention of returning to her father. the unspeakable name of God. The prime mover behind Theosophy was Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831-1891). a romantic novelist and descendant of the noble house of Dolgorouky. Cabalism came to form a principal foundation of occultism. it is likely that the writings attributed to him were actually the anonymous works of early Christians. God is referred to as Ein-Sof (without end). However. At seventeen she married Nikifor Blavatsky. given to Adam by angels and handed down through the ages. and 23 years her senior in July 1848. In the West. a soldier and member of the lesser Russian-German nobility. a body of teachings developed by the second-century sage Rabbi Simeon bar Yohai during his meditation in a cave near Lod. The third element in the threefold foundation of Western occultism was the Cabala. However. Between 1280 and 1286. Israel. thereby to elevate all other souls in the Universe.525 books on the principles of nature. This lamentably but necessarily brief look at its esoteric origins brings us to the emergence of Theosophy in the 1880s. she suddenly decided instead to leave her family and country behind. and as such cannot be represented or known by fallen humanity. both of whom were associated with the spirits of the dead. Translated from the Hebrew as 'that which is received'. with its magical amulets and incantations. king and priest. by which our fallen species may find its way back to God. Madame von Hahn died in 1842. A composite of the Egyptian god Thoth and the Greek god Hermes. Christian occultists focused on the Tetragrammaton YHVH. It is centred upon the Zohar. In the Zohar. According to the Sefer Yetzirah. led a somewhat unsettled life: the baron's regiment was constantly on the move. and Madame von Hahn. the mystical system of classical Judaism. The human goal is to realise a union with God and. God created the world by means of 32 secret paths: the ten sephirot (or emanations by which reality is structured) and the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet. through which it was possible to gain power over the entire Universe. and its concentration on the power inherent in the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Hermes Trismegistus was the personification of universal wisdom. and was also a somewhat prolific writer. Her parents. the Cabala is founded on the Torah (Jewish scriptures) and is a kind of map. the Spanish Cabalist Moses de Leon wrote the Sefer ha-Zohar (Book of Splendour). being credited with 36. the primary document of classical Cabalism. boarded a steamer on .of the Universe. since all of reality is connected.

at which he seems to have excelled. Although she may have had an allowance from her father. gaining a position as Agricultural Editor of the New York Tribune. Olcott became Blavatsky's devotee and publicist. From then until 1875. and is the number of years required for initiates into occult mysteries to complete their apprenticeship.the Black Sea and headed for Constantinople. Blavatsky earned a comfortable living as a medium. much of which originated with Blavatsky herself. she wandered through Europe. an exposition of Egyptian occultism that.000 unacknowledged quotations. she claimed. Its effect . Blavatsky had been intrigued by the articles she had read in the Daily Graphic. and established a law practice there in the late 1860s. (27) Central to the mythos Blavatsky constructed for herself was her experience of living and travelling for seven years in Tibet. Blavatsky observed the enormous popularity of Spiritualism. When the war ended. and also as an assistant to the famous medium Daniel Dunglas Home. for the acceptance of occultism (hidden laws of nature) to be accepted by orthodox science. contradiction and legend. She had arrived with no money and had to live in a hostel for working women. Asia and the Americas. only falling on hard times when the nationwide interest in Spiritualism began to wane. and had decided to cultivate Olcott's friendship. she also supported herself in a variety of ways. when she founded the Theosophical Society. This is pretty much all that is known with any certainty about this period in her life: the rest is a confusing jumble of rumour. he became interested in Spiritualism. Greatly impressed with her apparent mediumistic skills. On 14 October 1874. in particular the theories on evolution and natural selection of Charles Darwin. in which he fought as a signals officer in the Union Army. had been dictated to her by spirits via a form of automatic writing. essentially. Vermont.) (28) She made the rather astonishing claim that she had . including those occurring on the Eddy farm at Chittenden. As his interest in the subject grew. Perhaps unsurprisingly. whose New Jersey family claimed descent from the pilgrims. with one critic identifying more than 2. doing menial jobs such as sewing purses. Olcott seems to have been rather dissatisfied with his lot: his marriage was not happy. she met Henry Olcott (1832-1907). until the outbreak of the Civil War. Apparent financial difficulties forced Olcott to take up farming in Ohio. Olcott met Blavatsky at the Eddy farmhouse during one of his many visits there. At about this time. the book was fiercely attacked in scholarly circles both for intellectual incompetence and out-and-out plagiarism. (26) In spite of a fair degree of success in his profession. Olcott began to investigate individual cases of alleged psychic manifestations. In 1877. and eventually he divorced his wife. His investigation of the events at Chittenden (which included spirit materialisations) were written up as articles for a New York paper.was to soothe the minds of those whose religious faith had been undermined by scientific rationalism. a piano teacher in London and Paris. (The number seven is of considerable magical significance. During a trip to the United States in 1873. Olcott headed to New York to study for the Bar. and which argues. the Daily Graphic. (25) For the next 25 years. Blavatsky published Isis Unveiled. In search of some form of intellectual diversion. including as a bareback rider in a circus.the book sold widely .

Humanity as we know it is descended from these remote ancestors via a series of so-called 'root races'. However. Needless to say. Unfortunately for Blavatsky. She and Olcott enjoyed a warm reception from various members of Indian society. and seen by Blavatsky in a monastery hidden far beneath the Himalayas.studied with a group of Hidden Masters in the Himalayas. Russian and British patrols that were in the area at that time. Emma Coulomb and her husband. It is. but for now let us return to Madame Blavatsky. Comprising two main sections. Blavatsky left India and settled in London. The new headquarters included a shrine room in which the Hidden Masters would manifest in physical form. The Stanzas tell how the Earth was colonised by spiritual beings from the Moon. however. near Madras. but had elected to remain on Earth to guide humanity towards the same goal. succeeded in finding these 'Hidden Masters'. while Blavatsky and Olcott were away touring Europe. P. Hume. (29) One of the Tibetan adepts with whom Blavatsky studied was named Master Morya. a logical choice in view of the emphasis placed on eastern philosophy in Isis Unveiled. Master Morya was a member of the Great White Brotherhood of Masters. through which the 'Masters' appeared. Lack of space prevents us from going too deeply into the contents of The Secret Doctrine. In 1882. when the Coulombs' revelations of trickery came to light. Suffice to say that at the beginning of the Universe. under whose guidance she had reached the highest level of initiation into the mysteries of the Universe. Sinnett and the statesman Alien O. We shall have a good deal more to say on the Great White Brotherhood in Chapter Five. including the journalist A. they moved the society's headquarters to Adyar. extremely unlikely that a single white woman with a considerable weight problem and no mountaineering experience could have made the arduous trip up the Himalayas. Injured by the scandal and with her health failing (she would later die of Bright's Disease). In 1879. who had managed the household but been dismissed after repeatedly attempting to secure financial loans from the society's wealthy members. The Secret Doctrine is allegedly a vast commentary on a fantastically old (several million years) manuscript called The Stanzas of Dzyan. decided to take their revenge by publishing letters said by them to have been written by Blavatsky and which contained instructions on how to operate the secret panels in the shrine room. written in the Atlantean language Senzar. She actually met him at the Great Exhibition in London in July 1851 (although she claimed to have met him in visions on numerous occasions previously). the book is nothing less than a history of the Universe and intelligent life. The Secret Doctrine (published in 1888). where she began work on her second and (it is generally acknowledged) greater book. Blavatsky decided to go to India. it was at this time that the Society for Psychical Research (SPR) decided to investigate the mediumistic claims of Theosophy. immortal. 'Cosmogenesis' and 'Anthropogenesis'. incorporeal beings who had achieved ultimate enlightenment. the SPR issued a scathing report on Blavatsky and her claims. and done so without being spotted by the numerous Chinese. with the Theosophical Society not doing particularly well at recruiting converts. the divine being differentiated itself .

suffered a Fall from divine grace: after dividing into two distinct sexes. Through reincarnation. the second race were the Hyperboreans. this miscegenation resulting in the birth of soulless monsters. the third root race were the Lemurians.) Each of these cosmic rounds saw the rise and fall of seven root races. Their technology was also highly advanced. is clearly based on the value of authority and hierarchy. exotic and long-lost locations. and will rise again through the last three. who possessed highly advanced psychic powers and mediumistic skills. The only section of that society to remain pure was the elite priesthood. The Universe experienced a fall from divine grace through the first four rounds. and was based on the application of a universal electro-spiritual force known as Fohat . along with Blavatsky's own claim to hidden occult knowledge. whose miscegenation caused their Fall from divine grace. the Atlanteans built huge cities on their mid-Atlantic continent. such as Master Morya and Koot Hoomi. heading for spiritual salvation and ultimate unity with God. This was to result in a catastrophic war that led to the destruction of Atlantis. humanity in its present form is the fifth root race of Earth. the Hidden Masters or Mahatmas of Tibet. The fourth root race were the Atlanteans. whose destiny mirrored exactly that of cosmic evolution. As mentioned earlier. who lived on a now-sunken continent in the Indian Ocean. Theosophy placed a heavy emphasis on the importance of reincarnation and the concept of hierarchy. Unfortunately for the Atlanteans. they began to breed with beautiful but inferior races.into the multitude of life forms that now inhabit the cosmos. who had the misfortune to occupy the lowest point in the seven-stage cycle of humanity. it seems. before the process begins again. (The reader may thus find it a considerable relief that we have a long period of spiritual improvement ahead of us. Indeed. which is itself passing through the fourth cosmic round. fifteenfoot-tall brown-skinned hermaphrodites with four arms. while feeling assured that their souls were on a definite upward trajectory. the Lemurians. Gigantic like the Lemurians and physically powerful. For this reason. although they were intelligent and powerful. divine unity. The subsequent history of the Universe passed through seven 'rounds' or cycles of being. This concept. from which we today are descended. with the first four descending from the spiritual into the material and the last three ascending once again. until it is redeemed in ultimate. which eventually . was the Aryan race. According to Blavatsky. (30) The fifth root race. (We would perhaps be well advised to resist the temptation to compare this scheme with the similar-sounding Big Bang/Big Crunch theory of universal evolution proposed by modern physicists: there is little else in the Stanzas that orthodox science would find palatable.) The first root race were completely noncorporeal Astral beings who lived in an invisible land. the movement's followers could imagine themselves to have participated in the fabulous prehistory of humanity in a variety of magical. they were also possessed of a childlike innocence that made them vulnerable to the attentions of an evil entity that corrupted them and caused them to turn to the use of black magic. who lived on a lost polar continent (we will examine the important concept of Hyperborea in detail in the next chapter). were enlightened beings who had decided to remain on Earth to guide the rest of humanity towards spiritual wisdom. to the vril force (see Chapter Four).similar. Of equal importance to the cosmic scheme were hierarchy and elitism. this value is illustrated by the fate of the Lemurians.

(31) As we have already noted. who had also led a highly eventful life in Europe and the Americas. vegetarianism. Theosophy was particularly readily accepted in Germany and Austria.including herbal and natural medicine. However. and included contributions from scientists.' (32) Interest in Theosophy increased in Germany with the founding of the German Theosophical Society on 22 July 1884 at Elberfeld. Hubbe-Schleiden. As such it was firmly Theosophical in tone. a devotee of occultism who had corresponded frequently with the famous French occultist and magician Eliphas Levi (Alphonse Louis Constant) (c. As an antidote to the fears and uncertainties of modern life. 'This movement represented a middle-class attempt to palliate the ills of modern life. the paranormal. for many people in Europe and America. such as evolution. when the Theosophists left India following the Coulomb scandal. (33) Another great populariser of scientific occultism in Germany was Franz Hartmann (18381912). Hartmann remained there until 1885. Blavatsky and Olcott were staying there at the home of Marie Gebhard (1832-1892). at least. was instrumental in gathering the isolated Theosophists scattered throughout Germany into a consolidated German branch of the society. Theosophy was appropriate to the mood of Lebensreform and provided a philosophical rationale for some of its groups. HubbeSchleiden also did much to increase occult interest in Germany through the founding in 1886 of his periodical Die Sphinx. Hartmann went on to found the occult periodical Lotusbluthen (Lotus Blossoms). doctor. A variety of alternative life-styles . As Goodrick-Clarke notes.. which ran from 1892 to 1900 and was the first German publication to feature the swastika on its . a scholarly blend of psychical research. it was well suited to the German protest movement known as Lebensreform (life reform). their faith in the existence of some form of spirituality in the cosmos) while simultaneously accepting the validity of new theories. Its first president was Wilhelm HubbeSchleiden. nudism and self-sufficient rural communes were embraced by small groups of individuals who hoped to restore themselves to a natural existence . scientific rationalism. the central tenets of Theosophy offered a way for people in the late nineteenth century to maintain their religious faith (or. So impressed was Blavatsky with him that she appointed him acting president of the Theosophical Society while she and Olcott travelled to Germany to start the branch there. archaeology and Christian mysticism from a scientific viewpoint.retired to the wondrous city of Shambhala in what is now the Gobi Desert (more of which in Chapter Four) and which is linked with the Hidden Masters of Tibet.. following a number of careers such as soldier. deriving from the growth of the cities and industry. Hartmann was converted to Theosophy after reading Isis Unveiled and decided to travel to Adyar to meet Blavatsky and Olcott in 1883. historians and philosophers. that threatened to undermine their previously held world view. coroner and mining speculator. rapid industrialisation and urbanisation presented another threat to their long-established way of life. 1810-1875). who had travelled extensively throughout the world and was a keen advocate of German colonial expansion abroad. Already interested in Spiritualism. then a senior civil servant at the Colonial Office in Hamburg.

cover.) The increased public interest generated by this periodical prompted a number of German publishers to issue long book series dealing with a wide range of occult and esoteric subjects. including the Association for Occultism. This combination of culture and spirituality was expressed most forcefully through the doctrine of Ariosophy. The public interest in occultism quickly grew in Vienna. By 1902. scientific rationalism and rapid industrialisation and the threat they appeared to pose to traditional 'natural' ways of life was palliated not only by occultist notions of the centrality and importance of humanity within the wider cosmos (of the essential meaningfulness of existence). but was replaced by a new society founded in Berlin in August 1896 as a branch of the International Theosophical Brotherhood in America. a Theosophical Publishing House was founded at Leipzig by Hugo Vollrath. which already had its own tradition of esotericism and interest in paranormal phenomena. New occult groups were founded. German Theosophy. a disciple of Hartmann's. . (35) In fact. which had its own lending library. we will examine it in detail in the next chapter. became far better coordinated under the two main centres at Berlin and Leipzig. it was in Vienna that the seeds of Germanic occult racism were most liberally sown. but also by the volkisch ideology that assured Germans of the value and importance of their cultural identity. (34) (In eastern mysticism. the Sphinx Reading Club and the First Viennese Astrological Society. who founded the monthly Metaphysische Rundschau (Metaphysical Review) and who would later publish the works of the Ariosophists (whom we shall meet shortly). which had hitherto suffered from internecine rivalry. with Hartmann as president. The German branch of the society had been dissolved in 1885 when the Theosophists left India.) The Theosophical Publishing House produced a large number of occult magazines and book series. the swastika is a symbol with many positive connotations. possibly to counter the new influence in occult circles of Theosophist Rudolf Steiner. Also on the executive committee was one Paul Zillmann. The public disquiet at economic change. in competition with other publishers such as Karl Rohm. (Steiner would later leave and form his own Anthroposophical Society in 1912. whose mystical Christian stance did not endear him to Annie Besant whose own outlook was firmly Hindu. which originated in Vienna. In 1906. including the work of Annie Besant and Charles Leadbeater who took over the Theosophical Society on Blavatsky's death in 1891. Johannes Baum and Max Altmann who had turned their attention to this potentially lucrative field.

intellectual and military estates within the Germanic nation. and in 1907 a List Society was formed to provide financial aid in his researches. both of whom added the undeserved particle 'von' (denoting nobility) to their names. List dreamed of the reunification of Austria with Germany. a name derived from his spurious interpretation of a Teutonic myth. Blavatsky's ideas were hijacked and warped by German occultists and it should be remembered that neither of these two would have advocated the violence and suffering that would later be perpetrated by the Nazis: indeed. an interest that included the mystical significance of the swastika which he identified (at least in terms of its power and significance) with the Christian Cross and the Jewish Star of David. whose hierarchy he came to call the Armanenschaft. (As with the philosophy of Nietszche. did not find particular favour with the Imperial Academy of Sciences in Vienna. Mannus. List also wrote novels about the ancient Teutons and the cult of Wotan.) The two principal personalities behind Ariosophy were Guido von List (1848-1919) and Jorg Lanz von Liebenfels (1874-1954). to 'Armanen'. A journalist by trade. The word Armanenschaft derived from List's Germanisation of Hermiones. Mannus had three sons. Born in Vienna to a prosperous middle-class family. we shall examine the origin and meaning of the swastika in the next chapter. including an exposition on the Aryan proto-language.) By 1902. which returned without comment a thesis he had sent. the anti-Semitic elements in German and Austrian society began to take note. List decided that these names referred to the agricultural. the intellectual or priestly estate. With no scholarly evidence to back him up. after whom the ancient German tribes were named: Ingaevones. List had devoted much thought to the nature of the proto-Aryan language he believed was encoded in the ancient runes. Nietszche disavowed anti-Semitism and called German nationalism an 'abyss of stupidity'. . Nevertheless. as a result of a period of enforced inactivity following a cataract operation that left him blind for eleven months. and hated both Jews and Christians for the attacks he perceived them to have made upon German culture. Hermiones and Istaevones. According to the Roman author Tacitus in his Germania. and enabled the German Volk to trace their ancestry back to the splendour and racial purity of the ancient Teutons and their cult of Wotanism. the Teutons believed that their people were descended from the god Tuisco and his son. spirituality and territorial rights. List claimed that the profoundly wise Armanenschaft was the governing body of the ancient society. List's spurious historiography and archaeology provided a pseudo-scientific basis for both racism and extreme nationalism. (As indicated earlier. His occult-racist-mystical theories.Ariosophy The bizarre theories of Ariosophy constituted a mixture of racist volkisch ideology and the Theosophical concepts of Madame Blavatsky. (36) List's codification of his beliefs regarding the ancient and racially pure Teutons led to a profound interest in the symbolism of heraldry and the secrets allegedly contained in the runic alphabet.

The Eddas were composed of songs. In Norse legend. This cyclical cosmology was a primal law and represented the presence of God in Nature. we have almost no record of the myths and beliefs of the ancestors of the Germans and Anglo-Saxons. demons. to rage) was the god of war. Norway. healing abilities and control of the elements. 'List attributed a specific individual rune to each of Wotan's verses. which proceeded through a series of transformations: 'birth'. he was bound by its laws and thus required to live in harmony with the natural world.The cult of Wotan arose primarily from List's beliefs regarding the religious practices of the ancient Teutons. We should know practically nothing of the old German beliefs if 'popular' tales and epics had not preserved much that pertains to secondary divinities. Since Man was part of the cosmos. Hence they scarcely alluded to pagan myths except to condemn them. (37) [Original emphasis. the thunder-god. (38) since he was the first to link the runes of a certain written series with Wotan's runic spells. were actually chronicles of the myths of the ancient Germans. Typical mottoes were: "Know yourself.' (40) List also utilised Theosophical concepts in his development of Wotanism. For instance. monks and clerks who. 'being'. According to conventional studies of mythology: For the Germanic tribes of the West. the Eddas. have given us a complete picture of German mythology in the early centuries. then you know everything!" . and which in modern German is wuten. from the eighth century. whom dead heroes met in Valhalla. and who related the eighteen runic spells that held the secrets of immortality. Latin historians like Caesar and Tacitus had at their disposal only second-hand information and they attempted to explain Teutonic religion in terms of Roman religion. Goodrick-Clarke describes List as 'the pioneer of volkisch rune occultism'. In fact.. the ancestors of the Germans and Anglo-Saxons. In List's view. 'death' and 'rebirth'. had they wished to. documentary sources of information are sparse. giants and spirits of all sorts. 'A close identity with one's folk and race was reckoned a logical consequence of this closeness to Nature.] In the Eddas. Woden received the name Mercury and Tiw [the sky-god] was called Mars. invincibility in battle. whom he considered to have been persecuted by Christians in early medieval Germany.. These occult meanings and mottoes were supposed to represent the doctrine and maxims of the rediscovered religion of Wotanism. became for them Jupiter tonans. It was Wotan who gained an understanding of the runes after being wounded by a spear and hanging from a tree for nine nights. manuals of poetry and works of history telling the story of the ancient Teutonic pantheon of gods and the numerous secondary divinities who were their cohorts. in particular those of Max Ferdinand Sebaldt von Werth who wrote extensively on Aryan sexuality and . the Old Norse poems of Iceland. the runes are not only a system of writing but also possess an inherent magical power. and "Man is one with God!" ' (39) The central tenet of Wotanism was the cyclical nature of the Universe. But their chief concern was to save souls. Denmark and Sweden. Donar. adding occult meanings and a summary motto of the spell. The missionaries. pursued their work of conversion and were at the same time the first to write the German language could. Wotan (whose name derives from the word in all Germanic languages meaning fury.

let us turn our attention to the other principal personality in Ariosophy. Asgard. and male and female.racial purity. List published an article in the Viennese occult periodical Die Gnosis that drew heavily on this idea. which also corresponded to a single theosophical round. List's young follower Jorg Lanz von Liebenfels. that List appropriated and corrupted to denote the unconquerable and racially pure Germanic hero.000 years). his body was raised from the sea and formed the earth. (42) These realms lie at the centre of the Nordic creation myth. List identified the four rounds of fire. Aryan superiority could therefore only be achieved through a union of racially 'pure opposites'.000. and that its fundamental nature was one of the interaction of opposites. the first living being and the father of all the giants. In his Die Ursprache der Ario-Germanen (The Proto-Language of the Ario-Germans) (1914). the ArioGermans were the fifth race in the present round. In September 1903. the Hindu symbol of the Sun. since he occupied the 'zenith of multiplicity at the outermost limit of the cycle'. water-giants and mankind'. In this scheme. Niflheim. and claimed that the prehistoric megaliths of Lower Austria were actually Atlantean artefacts. formed to the north of the abyss. (44) List was a fervent believer in the lost civilisations of Atlantis and Lemuria. Theosophical concepts also formed the basis of his Die Religion der Ario-Germanen (1910). (41) List was also heavily influenced by legends of lost civilisations and sunken continents. water and earth with 'the mythological Teutonic realms of Muspilheim. there was nothing but a vast. At the dawn of time. such as matter and spirit. such as the fabled lands of Atlantis and Lemuria. air. When Ymir. Midgard. and by the theosophical writings of Madame Blavatsky. Wanenheim and Midgard. For now. Wotanist doctrine held that the natural evolutionary cycle of the Universe was from unity to multiplicity and back to unity. yawning abyss. was slain in battle. The phases of this cosmology were illustrated with variations on the swastika. The second stage (multiplicity back to the unity of the godhead) was represented by clockwise and upright symbols. while to the south formed the land of fire called Muspilheim. air-gods. which were tenanted respectively by fire-dragons. referring to ancient Aryan cosmology and sexuality. the preceding four corresponding to the mythical Teutonic giants. he included a chart comparing the geological periods of Earth with a Hindu kalpa (4. and in the next.320. The first stage of this evolution (unity to multiplicity) was represented symbolically by anticlockwise triskelions and swastikas and inverted triangles. We will have much more to say on the Ariosophist belief in lost civilisations later in this chapter. He went so far as to compare the Wotanist priesthood with the hierophants of Blavatsky's The Secret Doctrine. Sebaldt believed that the Universe was whisked into being by the god Mundelfori. who founded the notorious anti-Semitic hate . (43) According to List. a realm of clouds and shadows. the Ario-German was seen as the highest possible form of life. in which he devoted considerable space to the Hindu cosmic cycles which had inspired Blavatsky's concept of 'rounds' or cosmological cycles.

Like his mentor List. it is worth looking very briefly at the history of the Knights Templar and how their rise and fall influenced Liebenfels's Weltanschauung (world view). Liebenfels had established the racist periodical Ostara (named after the pagan goddess of spring) that called repeatedly for the restoration of the 'blond race' as the dominant force in the world. and the destruction of socialism. democracy and feminism. According to Goodrick-Clarke: In 1913 he published a short study. who were consumed with lust for 'blonde' women and who were bent on the corruption of human culture. In AD 1118. (47) At this point. He was obsessed with the idea of a Manichaean struggle between the 'blond' race (characterised by creativity and heroism) and the dark 'beast-men'. such romances were significant in their painting of the Grail Knights as searchers after sublime and eternal values: this view provided a powerful antidote to the hated modern world with its rampant industrialisation and materialism. Liebenfels had a middle-class Viennese upbringing. This interest was fuelled by the medieval Grail Romances.sheet Ostara and created the Order of the New Templars in 1907. and Liebenfels developed a fantasy in which these knights became champions of a racist struggle for a Germanic order that would enjoy a hegemony over the Mediterranean and the Middle East. Two years earlier. a knight from Champagne named Hugh of Payens persuaded King Baldwin I of Boulogne (whose elder brother. perched on a cliff on the shores of the River Danube between Linz and Vienna. To Liebenfels and many of his contemporaries. which perhaps naturally resulted in an intense interest in the Order of the Knights Templar. The Order of the Knights Templar became one of the most powerful monastic societies in twelfth-century Europe. The most renowned and applauded Order in Christendom at the time of the Crusades was undoubtedly the Knights Templar. the forced sterilisation or extermination of inferior races. This could only be achieved through racial purity. and monks. had captured Jerusalem nineteen years before) to install . Liebenfels chose as a headquarters for the Order of the New Templars a ruined castle. As GoodrickClarke notes. and came to symbolise the Christian struggle against the infidel. The Templars had become the key historical agent of [Liebenfels's] sexo-racist gnosis before 1914. Godfrey. which were at the time enjoying a widespread popularity due to their treatment by Richard Wagner in his operas. Burg Werfenstein. and it is likely that his adult desire to identify with the aristocracy derived from similar fantasies. noblemen. His decision to enter the Cistercian noviciate owed much to these sentiments. which he would later deny in favour of an imagined aristocratic background. The quest of the 'Templeisen' for the Grail was a metaphor for the strict eugenic practices of the Templar knights designed to breed god-men. in which the grail was interpreted as an electrical symbol pertaining to the 'panpsychic' powers of the pure-blooded Aryan race.' (46) Liebenfels's fantasies also included holy orders. Liebenfels had been drawn since childhood to 'the Middle Ages and its pageant of knights. (45) These racist concerns led Liebenfels to conceive the bizarre notion of founding a chivalrous order based on the monastic and military orders of the Crusades.

decided to use these rumours in an attempt to engineer their downfall. On 13 October. and had branches throughout Europe and the Middle East. Lord. This led to jealous rivalries. and during the Crusades rumours began to circulate that the Templars were not the pious Christian knights many believed them to be. and the clerics. he seized their Temple in Paris and arrested the Grand Master. Their battle standard was a red eight-pointed cross on a black-and-white background. (51) The vast wealth that the Templars were to acquire was partly the result of the Order's exemption from local taxes. coupled with their ability to levy their own taxes on the community. near the site where King Solomon's Temple had allegedly once stood in the Holy Land. sed Nomini Tuo da gloriam' ('Not for us. heavily in debt to the Templars. drawn from the bourgeoisie. (50) It is believed that the Templars took their inspiration from the Hospitallers. practising horrendous black magic rites involving sodomy. (53) Jacques de Molay was promised life in prison if he made a public confession of the Order's crimes. and various other crimes. relying on donations from the pious even for their clothes. their battle cry was 'Vive Dieu. in return for the money Philip claimed was owed by the Templars. all of noble birth. The Order later comprised three classes: the knights. who protected Catholic pilgrims in Palestine and pledged themselves to a life of chastity and poverty. non nobis. bestiality and human sacrifice. and for this he was burned at the stake. and 140 Templars. Jacques de Molay.a sign of their poverty (at least in their early days). and from Pope Honorius II. and transferred its properties to the Hospitallers. Saint Amour' ('God Lives. Pope Clement abolished the Order in 1312 at the Council of Vienne. property (with over seven thousand estates in Europe) and power. Domine. (48) Choosing the name Militia Templi (Soldiers of the Temple). all run from their headquarters in Paris. However. of despising the Pope and the Catholic Church. this was apparently not the end of the Knights Templar: there have been persistent rumours that those Templars who managed to evade capture fled to Scotland disguised . (52) Over the next century and a half. not for us. The Order initially derived its power from St Bernard of Clairvaux. King Philip IV of France. the Templars amassed a truly staggering amount of wealth. the former mosque al-Aqsa.Payens and eight other French noblemen in a wing of the royal palace. who officially recognised the Templars as a separate Order in 1128. who were chaplains and performed non-military tasks. The Templars honoured their vow of poverty for the first nine years of their existence. Instead. others suspected them of actually worshipping the demon Baphomet. which their enemies claimed were centred upon their worship of Allah. the sergeants. Attention was focused on their secret rituals. the design was retained for decades after the Order had become one of the richest of the time. (49) they vowed to defend the mysteries of the Christian faith and Christians travelling to the holy places. The Seal of the Templars showed two knights riding on a single horse . but to Thy Name give glory'). head of the Cistercian Order. and their motto was 'Non nobis. he made a public proclamation of the Order's innocence of all crimes with which it had been charged. whom he subjected to horrible tortures in order to secure confessions. who were grooms and stewards. In 1307. Saint Love'). Philip persuaded Pope Clement V to authorise the seizure of all Templar properties.

the first dealing with the origin of humanity in a race of beast-men (Anthropozoa) spawned by Adam. Liebenfels believed that the only way for Germans to reclaim their ancient godhood was through the enforced sterilisation and castration of 'inferior races'. which held that they were not really gods at all. Two years before he founded the ONT. who in turn seems to have been inspired by Theosophy. Before disbanding. They were routinely reported in the press. (57) Liebenfels based this declaration in part on the work of the zoologist Wilhelm Bolsche (1861-1939). and the foundation of racist Utopias in the underdeveloped parts of the world'. which at that time had a powerful hold on the public imagination. the Templars at this meeting allegedly created the Order of the Rose-Croix. thus ensuring a wider audience for Liebenfels and the racist ideas presented in Ostara. It has also been suggested that a Templar named Geoffroy de Gonneville received a message from de Molay shortly before his death and took it to a group of Templars meeting in Dalmatia. (54) To Lanz von Liebenfels. Liebenfels divided his book into two sections. (58) . until their telepathic sense organs became atrophied as the pineal and pituitary glands of modern humanity. Membership of the ONT was naturally restricted to those who could prove that they were of pure Aryan blood and who would vow to protect the interests of their (racial) brothers. In his warped and bizarre view of antiquity. The message stated that the Order would be revived in 600 years' time. (55) For this reason. (56) The early activities of the ONT revolved around festivals and concerts. Using the Old and New Testaments as departure points. Liebenfels had published a book with the incredibly odd title Theozoologie oder die Kunder von den Sodoms-Afflingen und dem Gotter-Elektron (Theo-zoology or the Lore of the Sodom-Apelings and the Electron of the Gods).as stonemasons and created the society of Freemasons. beauty-contests. He described the Order as an 'Aryan mutual-aid association founded to foster racial consciousness through genealogical and heraldic research. Through the millennia. but higher forms of life (Theozoa) who possessed fantastic mental faculties including telepathy (which was actually the transmission of electrical signals between the brains of the Theozoa). these god-men gradually lost these faculties through miscegenation with the beast-men of Adam. with hundreds of guests being shipped in by steamer from Vienna. Liebenfels decided to resurrect the Order in the form of his Ordo Novi Templi (ONT). At any rate. Liebenfels applied these discoveries in his description of the gods. Liebenfels utilised new scientific discoveries such as radiation and radio communication. or Rosicrucians. the corruption of 'ario-Christian' civilisation and the disorder of the modern world. As Goodrick-Clarke notes. The word 'theo-zoology' was arrived at through the amalgamation of JudaeoChristian doctrine and the principles of the then-burgeoning field of life-sciences. the brutal suppression of the Knights Templar and the appropriation of their wealth and property represented the victory of racial inferiors over a society of heroic men. The result was racial chaos. to prevent the pollution of pure Aryan blood.

The second section of Liebenfels's book concerned the life of Christ (whose powers were once again electrical in nature) and the redemption of the Aryan people, who had been corrupted by the promiscuous activities of the other races of Earth. This idea of the Aryan struggle against the pernicious vices of other races in effect replaced the traditional Judaeo-Christian concept of the struggle between good and evil. Liebenfels argued for the most extreme measures in the pursuit of Aryan re-deification: since the poor and underprivileged in society were identified with the progeny of the inferior races, they would have to be either exterminated (by incineration as a sacrifice to God), deported or used as slave labour. This constituted the inversion of traditional Judaeo-Christian compassion for the poor, weak and handicapped in the new form of Social Darwinism, with its central tenet of survival of the fittest at the expense of the weakest. These horrific methods of ensuring the survival of pure-blooded Aryans proposed by Liebenfels would, of course, become hideous reality in the Third Reich. Although List's and Liebenfels's ideas were inherently hateful and violent, they remained just that: ideas. Many of their followers became more and more restless and dissatisfied with their lack of action against the perceived threat to the Aryan race from the various inferior beings with whom they were forced to share their nation, in particular the Jews, who were blamed for the perceived evils of urbanisation, industrialisation and the threat to the traditional rural way of life of the Aryan peasant-hero. Many came to believe that the time for scholarly theorising was past, that the time for direct action had come.

The Germanenorden
In May 1912, a meeting was held at the Leipzig home of Theodor Fritsch. At this meeting were approximately twenty prominent Pan-Germans and anti-Semites. Their purpose was to found two groups to alert Germans to the dangers to small businesses they perceived as arising from the influence of Jewish business and finance. These groups were known as the Reichshammerbund and the Germanenorden (Order of Germans). Born on 28 October 1852, Fritsch, the son of Saxon peasants, had trained as a milling engineer, and had edited the Kleine Muhlen-Journal (Small-Mills Journal). In common with other activists of the time, his anti-Semitism arose principally from a fear of rapid industrialisation, technology and mass production, driven by international Jewish influence, and the threat it posed to small tradesmen and craftsmen. In spite of his political leanings, Fritsch decided against becoming a candidate for either of the two German anti-Semitic parties, the Deutsch-Soziale Partei and the Antisemitische Volkspartei, which had been established at Bochum in 1889, since he did not believe that anti-Semitism would prove successful in parliament. As Goodrick-Clarke notes, Fritsch's 'conviction in the ineffectiveness of parliamentary anti-Semitism proved to be correct. When more than one party existed after the Bochum conference, their competition led to a reduction in the number of successful anti-Semitic candidates at the Reichstag elections.' (59) In addition, the merging of the two parties in 1894 as the Deutsch-Soziale Reformpartei resulted in a significant reduction in anti-Semitism in favour of 'an appeal to more conservative and middle-class economic interests'. (60)

At this time, in the mid-1860s, racist writers such as the French aristocrat Comte Vacher de Lapouge and the Germanised Englishman Houston Stewart Chamberlain were influenced by biology and zoology, and were concentrating more on 'scientific' studies of race (although they were, of course, nothing of the kind). It was these writers who identified the Jews as the greatest threat to the supremacy of the Aryan race, and attempted to back up their ideas with reference to physical characteristics such as hair and eye colouring, and the shape of the skull. (61) For de Lapouge, Jews were more pernicious than any other race because they had insinuated themselves so completely into European society, (62) while Chamberlain in particular did much to popularise mystical racism in Germany. According to Stanley G. Payne: Beyond the Aryan racial stereotype (tall, blond, blue-eyed) [Chamberlain] affirmed the existence of a special 'race soul' that created a more imaginative and profound spirit in Aryans and produced a 'German religion', though the latter was still (in part) vaguely related to Christianity. The ultimate anti-Aryan and most bitter racial foe was the Jew. Chamberlain combined Social Darwinism with racism and thus emphasized an endless racial struggle on behalf of the purity of Aryanism and against Jews and lesser peoples [including Slavs and Latins], virtually creating a scenario for race war. (63) In order to fulfil his ambition to create a powerful anti-Semitic movement outside the ineffectual parliament, Fritsch founded a periodical called the Hammer in January 1902. By 1905, its readership had reached 3,000. These readers formed themselves into Hammer-Gemeinden (Hammer-Groups), changing their name in 1908 to Deutsche Erneuerungs-Gemeinde (German Renewal Groups). '[T]heir membership was interested in anti-capitalist forms of land reform designed to invigorate the peasantry, the garden city movement, and Lebensreform.' (64) The Reichstag elections of January 1912 saw a humiliating defeat for Conservatives and anti-Semites, who lost 41 of their 109 seats, while the Social Democratic Party increased their seats from 43 to 110. (65) In the Hammer, Fritsch favourably reviewed a violently anti-Semitic book entitled Wenn ich der Kaiser war! (If I were Kaiser!) by the chairman of the Pan-German League, Heinrich Class, and decided that the time was right to act in the formation of an anti-Semitic organisation that would not be subject to the control or influence of any party. As already stated, at the meeting in Fritsch's Leipzig home on 24 May 1912 two groups were established: the Reichshammerbund, which combined all existing Hammer-Groups, and the Germanenorden, whose secret nature reflected the conviction of anti-Semites that Jewish influence in public life could only be the result of a secret international conspiracy and as such could only be combated by a quasi-Masonic lodge whose members' names would be withheld to prevent enemy infiltration. (66) Germanenorden lodges were established throughout Northern and Eastern Germany that year, and called for the rebirth of a racially pure Germany from which the 'parasitic' Jews would be deported. By July, lodges had been established at Breslau, Dresden,

Konigsberg, Berlin and Hamburg. By the end of 1912, the Germanenorden claimed 316 brothers. (67) The main purpose of these lodges was to monitor Jewish activities; in addition, lodge members aided each other in business dealings and other matters. The Germanenorden was heavily influenced by the doctrines of Ariosophy. Any German wishing to join the order was required to supply details of hair, eye and skin colour, and also had to prove beyond any doubt that they were of pure Aryan descent. Anyone suffering from a physical handicap - and for that matter, anyone who looked 'unpleasant' was barred from membership. Ariosophy also inspired the emblems used by the Order. According to Goodrick-Clarke: 'From the middle of 1916 the official Order newsletter, the Allgemeine Ordens-Nachrichten, began to display on its front cover a curved-armed swastika superimposed upon a cross ... Although the swastika was current among several contemporary volkisch associations in Germany, it was through the Germanenorden and the Thule Society, its successor organization in post-war Munich, that this device came to be adopted by the National Socialists.' (68) The initiation rituals of the Germanenorden were somewhat bizarre, to say the least. Initiation would take place in the ceremonial room of the lodge, where the blindfolded novice would encounter the Master, two Knights in white robes and horned helmets, the Treasurer and Secretary with white Masonic sashes, and the Herald, who stood at the centre of the room. 'At the back of the room in the grove of the Grail stood the Bard in a white gown, before him the Master of Ceremonies in a blue gown, while the other lodge brothers stood in a semicircle around him as far as the tables of the Treasurer and Secretary. Behind the grove of the Grail was a music room where a harmonium and piano were accompanied by a small choir of "forest elves".' (69) Upon commencement of the ceremony, the brothers sang the Pilgrims' Chorus from Wagner's Tannhauser, while the brothers made the sign of the swastika. The novice was then informed of the Order's world-view, and the Bard lit the sacred flame in the grove of the Grail. 'At this point the Master seized Wotan's spear and held it before him, while the two Knights crossed their swords upon it. A series of calls and responses, accompanied by music from Lohengrin, completed the oath of the novices.' (70) With the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the Germanenorden began to suffer problems, both with membership and finance. Many members of the Order were killed in action, and the Order's chief, Hermann Pohl, feared that the war would ultimately result in its destruction. At that time, Pohl's leadership abilities were coming under attack from several high-ranking members who were becoming tired of the emphasis he placed on ritual and ceremony of the type indicated above. On 8 October 1916, representatives of the Berlin lodge suggested that Pohl should be relieved of his position, to which Pohl responded by declaring the formation of a breakaway order, the Germanenorden Walvater of the Holy Grail. The original Order was then headed by General-major Erwin von Heimerdinger. (71) Following the schism of 1916, the Germanenorden became seriously weakened, with many members confused as to its status (many assumed that it had been disbanded).

However, the end of the war in November 1918 saw attempts to revive its fortunes and influence. Grand Master Eberhard von Brockhusen believed that the Order would benefit from a constitution, which he succeeded in establishing in 1921, 'which provided for an extraordinarily complex organization of grades, rings, and provincial "citadels" (Burgen) supposed to generate secrecy for a nationwide system of local groups having many links with militant volkisch associations ..,' (72) In the post-war period, the Germanenorden's verbal violence was transformed into murderous activities against public figures. The new Republic was, of course, despised as a symbol of defeat, and it was the Germanenorden that ordered the assassination of Matthias Erzberger, the former Reich Finance Minister and head of the German delegation to Compiegne (one of the so-called 'November criminals') (73) who had signed the armistice. His killers, Heinrich Schulz and Heinrich Tillessen, had settled in Regensburg in 1920, where they met Lorenz Mesch, the local leader of the Germanenorden. Since they had become interested in volkisch ideology after the end of the war, and were heavily influenced by its propaganda, the Order chose them to assassinate Erzberger, which they did in August 1921. From 1921, the Germanenorden became the focus for right-wing and anti-Semitic sentiments in the hated Weimar Republic. When Rudolf von Sebottendorff joined Hermann Pohl's breakaway Germanenorden Walvater in 1917, the seed of the legendary Thule Society was sown.

The Thule Society
The mythology surrounding the Arctic realm of Thule has its origins in another myth, that of Atlantis. Although the 'lost continent' of Atlantis was held for centuries to have existed in the Atlantic Ocean 'beyond the Pillars of Hercules' (according to Plato in two of his dialogues, the Timaeus and Critias), this view was challenged in the late seventeenth century by the Swedish writer Olaus Rudbeck (1630-1702) who claimed that the lost civilisation, which had conquered North Africa and much of Europe 9,000 years before, had actually been centred in Sweden. This curious notion was taken up in the mid-eighteenth century by a French astronomer and mystic named Jean-Sylvain Bailly (1736-1793) who came to the conclusion that the great achievements of civilisations such as Egypt and China were the result of knowledge inherited from a vastly superior antediluvian culture that had resided in the far North. According to Bailly, when the Earth was younger, its interior heat was much greater, and consequently the North Polar regions must have enjoyed a temperate climate in remote antiquity. Combining this idea with his belief that such climates are the most conducive to science and civilisation, Bailly identified Rudbeck's Atlanteans with the Hyperboreans of classical legend. The placing of this high civilisation in the far north resulted in the Nordic physique (tall, blond-haired and blue-eyed) being seen as the ultimate human ideal.

having failed to complete his studies at the Berlin-Charlottenburg Polytechnic. Sebottendorff made his way first to Egypt and then to Turkey. ancient wisdom. Sebottendorff had originally intended to be an engineer. Sebottendorff. Liebenfels founded the ritualistic and virulently racist Order of the New Templars. a lost continent he called Arktogaa (from the Greek. In 1900. It was in response to one of these advertisements that Rudolph von Sebottendorff met the leader of the Germanenorden. By 1916. At their meeting in Berlin in September of that year. the origin of the anthropoid apes could be explained as the result of bestiality committed by the Third Root Race of humanity with monsters. These ideas found favour with Guido von List. As we have already noted. all three added the particle 'von'. whose aim was to counter what its members saw as the corruption by Jewry of German public life that was clearly the result of a secret international conspiracy. who was instrumental in the development of the volkisch movement. As Joscelyn Godwin observes in his study of Polar mythology. who developed the notion that humanity was descended from a series of 'Root Races' that had degenerated throughout the millennia from a pure spiritual nature to the crude and barbarous beings of the present. And what is more tempting. publishing a newsletter and placing advertisements in newspapers inviting men and women 'of pure Aryan descent' to join its ranks. than to put oneself at its aristocratic summit?' (74) As we have seen. to their otherwise undistinguished names. As we saw earlier. 'One of the hallmarks of master-race philosophy is that no one is known to have embraced it who does not consider himself a member of that race. however. Hermann Pohl. and thus having little chance of qualified employment in Germany. meaning 'northern earth'). like Liebenfels a native of Vienna. and that this knowledge could only be regained . claiming that the non-Aryan races were the result of bestiality committed by the original Aryans after their departure from the paradise of their northern homeland. a fashionable Bavarian spa. According to Blavatsky. Arktos (1993). astrology and earth energies. he decided to go to sea. which had the dubious distinction of serving as the prototype for Heinrich Himmler's SS (Schutzstaffel). in 1907. suggesting noble descent. vegetarianism.The origin of the Nazi concept of Thule and the Thule Society can be traced to Guido von List. and an abortive career as a gold prospector in Western Australia. where he immersed himself in a study of the Turkish people and cultivated an intense interest in occult science and ancient theocracies. having once adopted the belief that one's own race is chosen by Nature or God for pre-eminence. List had already played a crucial role in the founding of the secret. quasi-Masonic Germanenorden. now married. The Germanenorden was still active during the First World War. this movement was characterised by a love of unspoiled Nature. Sebottendorff learned of Pohl's conviction that contamination by other races (particularly Jews) had robbed the Aryan race of its knowledge of magical power. after service on a number of steamships. Liebenfels in effect hijacked this concept and twisted it in the most appalling way. Liebenfels was an avid student of Madame Blavatsky. had settled in Bad Aibling. Jorg Lanz von Liebenfels and Rudolf von Sebottendorff (1875-1945).

on 30 April. Sebottendorff added sports features to attract a more youthful. appalled at the prospect of the Kaiser abdicating. while Sebottendorff extended its influence from the upper and middle classes to the working classes via the use of popular journalism. In the place of our princes of Germanic blood rules our deadly enemy: Judah. In 1918. Our Order is a Germanic Order. the Thule Society. (76) The Thule Society continued to meet at the Hotel Vierjahreszeiten. we do not know yet. It was Nauhaus who suggested that the name of the order be changed from Germanenorden to Thule Gesellschaft (Thule Society). (75) The ceremonial foundation of the Thule Society took place on 17 August 1918.. according to Goodrick-Clarke. and soon became an invaluable colleague in the Bavarian recruitment campaign for the Germanenorden. which had served as a Red Army post for the previous two weeks. in 1918. On his return to Bad Aibling. the most bitter need. loyalty is also Germanic. Nauhaus shared Sebottendorff's intense interest in the occult. dear and valuable to us.through racial purity. Four days later. it is coloured red. held a meeting on 9 November 1918. On the eve of the Armistice that signalled German defeat in the First World War. The hostages included Walter Nauhaus. a time of danger [. published in Munich and called the Beobachter. working-class readership for the anti-Semitic editorials that had been carried over from the paper's previous proprietor. [. its blade surrounded by oak leaves.. The society met at the fashionable Hotel Vierjahreszeiten in Munich.) On 26 April 1919.. From today on our symbol is the red eagle..] I am determined to pledge the Thule Society to this struggle. Franz Eher. in order. Countess Hella von Westarp (secretary of the society) and Prince Gustav von Thurn und Taxis (who had many relatives in the royal families of Europe). But we can guess. the Munchener Beobachter und Sportblatt became the Volkischer Beobachter. in rooms decorated with the Thule emblem: a long dagger. What will come of this chaos. Sebottendorff met an art student named Walter Nauhaus who had been badly wounded on the Western Front in 1914 and had been invalided out of the war. superimposed on a shining. He achieved this by purchasing for 5. Sebottendorff immediately set about organising a recruitment campaign for the Germanenorden in Bavaria. Renaming the paper the Munchener Beobachter und Sportblatt.000 marks a minor weekly newspaper. the hostages were shot in the cellar of the Gymnasium as a reprisal for the killing of Red prisoners at . A time will come of struggle. In order to depict the eagle's capacity for self-immolation by fire.] And the eagle is the symbol of the Aryans. which warns us that we must die in order to live. seven members of the Thule Society were captured by Communists and taken to the Luitpold Gymnasium. curvedarmed swastika. to 'spare it the unwelcome attentions of socialist and pro-Republican elements'. (In 1920. not to mention the revolution in Bavaria which had seen the seizure of authority by the Soviet Workers' and Soldiers' Councils. at which Sebottendorff made an impassioned exhortation to his fellow Thuleans: Yesterday we experienced the collapse of everything which was familiar. which would later be the official newspaper of the Nazi Party.

With these magical powers once more at their fullest. and discussed such topics as the defeat of Germany and the Jewish enemy. the workers' ring became the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (German Workers' Party) (DAP) on 5 January 1919. In February 1920. (78) . the Aryan would hold complete sway over the processes of nature. with the aid of White troops entering the city on 1 May. Gorsleben became Gauleiter of the South Bavarian section of the Deutschvolkischer Schutz. This small group met every week throughout the winter of 1918. Gorsleben fought first in a Bavarian regiment and then in a unit attached to the Turkish army in Arabia When the war ended he went to Munich. During an eventful three years. Through his periodical Deutsche Freiheit (German Freedom) -later renamed Arische Freiheit (Aryan Freedom) . Gorsleben was exposed to Pan-German nationalism and succeeded in tracing his ancestry back to a fourteenth-century noble family in Thuringia. he supported it.und Trutzbund. The Edda Society As we saw earlier in this chapter. and that all subsequent offspring. The killing of the Thule Society members had the effect of catalysing a violent popular uprising in Munich that. who had an intense interest in volkisch ideology. His name was Adolf Hitler. and Lorenz Mesch. the Germanenorden chief who had been instrumental in the assassination of Erzberger. even if conceived with a racial equal. who would later edit the Nazi organ Der Stunner. ensured the demise of the Communist Republic. would likewise be tainted. an anti-Semitic group that was competing with the early Nazi Party. a playwright-turned-journalist who was born in Metz and grew up in Alsace-Lorraine (annexed by the German Reich in 1871). where he became involved with the Thule Society and right-wing politics.Gorsleben disseminated his occult racist ideas. drafted new regulations for the committee. to form a workers' ring. List's occult-historical system was elaborated upon by Rudolf John Gorsleben (1883-1930). At the instigation of Anton Drexler. He formed associations with right-wing figures such as Julius Streicher. In 1918. Instead. the party had already been infiltrated by an army spy whose orders had been to monitor its activities. Sebottendorff had succeeded in extending the journalistic influence of the Thule Society to the working classes by asking a sports reporter on a Munich evening paper. the DAP was transformed into the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP). Guido von List and his followers believed that the Icelandic Eddas were chronicles of the ancient Aryans.Starnberg. (77) At the outbreak of the First World War. By that time. and would thus be in a position to dominate and rule the world. Karl Harrer. which centred upon the concept of racial purity and the reactivation of the occult powers that every Aryan possessed but which had become atrophied. and soon became its President. in which people's loyalties were divided between France and Germany. He reiterated the volkisch notion that racial mixing was not only detrimental to the superior partner but also that a female could be tainted merely by intercourse with a racial inferior. In this environment.

numbers and gods. and changed its name from Arische Freiheit to Hag All All Hag. which he considered to be three-dimensional projections of the runes. In addition. Gorsleben was perhaps the first occultist to promote the magical significance of crystals. (79) Bulow also took over the running of Gorsleben's periodical. Marby subscribed to a similar theory to that espoused by Liebenfels: namely. the zodiac. the Edda Society was taken over by Werner von Bulow (1870-1947). not all rune scholars subscribed wholeheartedly to the racist. anti-Semitic interpretation of the Eddas. In Marby's opinion. In November 1925. When Gorsleben died from heart disease in August 1930. (80) Although he lacked the virulently racist outlook of the other volkisch occultists of the period. an associate of Karl Maria Wiligut. and then to Flossenburg and Dachau. the Universe was awash with cosmic rays. one rune occultist.With regard to the Eddas. the essentially electrical nature of the cosmos. Gorsleben founded the Edda Society in the medieval town of Dinkelsbuhl in Franconia. In addition. Friedrich Bernhard Marby (1882-1966). stating in an article in Hagal that the rise of Nazism was occurring in accordance with universal laws. By far the most powerful was the asterisk-like hagall rune. Hagal also included material on the ancestral clairvoyant memories of Wiligut. which were felt to be of extreme significance to an understanding of the ancient occult heritage of the Germanic people. since within it could be found hidden all the other runes. it nevertheless declared its allegiance to National Socialism in 1933. Interestingly. The treasurer of the society was Friedrich Schaefer. and sent first to Welzheim concentration camp. For example. the spirit of every human individual can be correlated to a specific type of crystal that can be apprehended through the faculty of mediumship. and was only freed when the camps were liberated by the Allies in April 1945. inspired (as noted earlier) by the recent discovery of radiation and the new uses to which electricity was being put. of Norse mythology. According to this theory. via the runes. Although the primary intention of the Edda Society was to conduct research into the ancient Aryan religion through the interpretation. the beneficial influences of these rays could be increased by adopting certain physical postures in imitation of rune-forms (a practice with an obvious similarity to yoga). . In his paper Der eigene Weg (established 1924) and his book series Marhy-Runen-Bucherei (begun in 1931). synthesised rune scholarship with astrology after encountering the writings of Guido von List. who had designed a 'world-rune-clock' which illustrated the correspondences between the runes. which could be both received and transmitted by human beings. He was denounced as an anti-Nazi by the Third Reich in 1936. Gorsleben believed that the Scandinavian runes contained an inherent magical power that provided those who understood their significance with a spiritual conduit through which could flow the force that drives the Universe itself. Marby emphasised the health benefits gained from meditation on the runes. who would come to exert a great influence upon Heinrich Himmler. and then Hagal. the history of the lost Atlantean civilisation and the numerous prehistoric monuments of Europe.

we will find ourselves traversing the icy fastness of the far North. as well as an ancient sea in what is now the Gobi Desert. Hyperborea and Ultima Thule. Georg Lomer (1877-1957) trained as a physician.indeed. all the way back to the lost realms of Atlantis. Sebottendorff and their followers. The volkisch occultists hoped. Kummer was denounced by Wiligut. Like Marby. During these rituals. . Having completed our survey of Germanic occultism as developed and practised around the turn of the twentieth century. and through racial segregation and later genocide re-establish the global hegemony of the Aryan Superman. far from the orthodox view of humanity's entire history. For people like List. at which point we will have prepared ourselves for the harrowing journey into the nightmarish world of Nazi occultism itself. 1899) founded a rune school called 'Runa' at Dresden. to forge a magical and cultural link with these lost times. We shall also reacquaint ourselves with Madame Blavatsky and her theories of the Root Races of humanity. By 1925. rural ways of life and the brutalisation of their ancestral homelands) but in the resurgence of ancient Aryan culture and the maintenance of racial purity. the names of runes were called out and rune shapes were traced in the air as an aid to the magical process.In 1927. Runa concentrated on the practice of ritual magic. In the following chapter. For the Aryans were heirs to a fabulous mystical legacy stretching far into prehistory. From out of the mists of time shone this lost Golden Age of giants and god-men endowed with fantastic. which will require us to travel far from Germany in the inter-war years . we shall be able to identify the mythological origins of volkisch occultism in the legends of the lost Aryan homeland. urbanisation and international finance (which they saw as causing the destruction of traditional. superhuman abilities but who had been subsumed through miscegenation with inferior races . We are about to enter the strange realm of crypto-history.and were now gone. Lemuria. resulting in a synthesis of pagan Germanic mysticism with astrology. and. Liebenfels. the future of humanity lay not in industrialisation. we must now leap back several thousand years into the past and turn our attention to that lost Golden Age itself. we will have examined the origins. Lomer essentially used occult materials to illuminate the forgotten Aryan heritage. including the drawing of magic circles containing the names of the Germanic gods and the use of traditional magical tools such as candelabra and censers. (81) Other occultists were more concerned with astrology and more overtly paranormal (in today's parlance) subjects than rune occultism. particularly the use of dream symbolism and palmistry in the diagnosis of illness.' (82) The defining element in the occultism practised in Germany and Austria in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was the perceived evil and corruption of the modern world. Siegfried Adolf Kummer (b. but after encountering Theosophy turned his attention to alternative methods of medicine. weakness and decadence. who considered their methods disreputable. Lomer had added astrology to his occult interests. through their activities. by the end of the chapter. As Goodrick-Clarke observes: 'In common with the other post-war Aryan occultists. particularly that of the despised Weimar Republic with its stench of defeat. In this way. mystical significance and ultimate corruption of the swastika.

that origin being Mount Ararat on which Noah's Ark made landfall after the Deluge.2 . with their Asiatic Researches. The German Romantics were greatly attracted to Oriental philosophy and mysticism. This idea made sense even to those scientists of the Enlightenment who rejected biblical authority. biblical tradition had been assumed to be the ultimate authority on the origin and history of humanity. lying hidden somewhere in the far northern latitudes. surely more learned. of course. The French Encyclopedists had set the precedent of contempt for the Hebrew scriptures as a source of accurate information. sons of Noah. Arthur Schopenhauer and Richard Wagner found in the Orient a system of philosophy and historiography that allowed them to abandon the unsatisfactory world view of Judeo-Christianity. Godwin asks. the sacred text of the ancient Persians. allied with this admiration for the Orient was a rediscovery of the German Volk. Thinkers of the calibre of Goethe. (3) . then they would be forever free from their Semitic and Mediterranean bondage. the Goths. and to many minds philosophically and morally superior to that of Moses. too. which they considered to be the cradle of humanity and the origin of the highest human ideals.Fantastic prehistory The Lost Aryan Homeland As we have seen. Nietzsche. had revealed another world. was not an invention of the Nazis but had a rich provenance not only in the tradition of Western occultism but also in the burgeoning science of anthropology. the pre-Christian Teutonic tribes whose descendants.) (1) Until the Enlightenment. in particular the Zend-Avesta. The problem faced by the German Romantics was how to forge a historical connection between themselves and the Orient. If the Germans could link their origins to India. concerning the early Teutons: But where had those noble and gifted tribes come from? Were they. since mountainous regions would have provided the only possible protection against natural disasters such as the putative prehistoric flood. or dared one sunder them from the biblical genealogy? The time was ripe to do so. had brought about the final destruction of the decadent Roman Empire. (2) As Joscelyn Godwin notes. (Indeed. the idea of a fabulous and mysterious homeland of the Aryan people. the very concept of an 'Aryan Race' owed its existence as much to philology as any other branch of enquiry. The British School of Calcutta.

Schlegel solved this problem by supposing that the ancient Indians had travelled to the far north as a result of their veneration for the sacred mountain. trace the origin of their languages to Sanskrit. (2) This race had come from the high plateaus of Asia. the ideas of Charles Darwin were hijacked at this time by the proponents of Aryan racial superiority. in order to establish and strengthen the link between the Germans and the Orient. and Celts. Darwin's assumption that evolution through natural selection would necessarily result in gradual improvements to each species was inverted by Aryan racism. According to the historian Leon Poliakov. At that point. Schlegel took the word 'Aryan'." (4) This historical scheme was added to by other thinkers such as the anti-Semitic Christian Lassen. the language of classical Hinduism. meaning honour. and connected it spuriously with the German word Ehre. an ancient western Asian country in what is now northern Iran) and applied to the ancient Persians. plans were being laid in some quarters for the biological 'improvement' of the human race back in the late nineteenth century. before setting off to populate Europe and Asia. There had dwelt together the ancestors of the Indians. to be replaced by Sanskrit. Germans. Instrumental in the forging of this link was the classical scholar Friedrich von Schlegel (1772-1829).' (5) As we noted in Chapter One. which they believed to constitute the spiritual centre of the world. by 1860 cultivated Europeans had come to accept that there was a fundamental division between Aryans and Semites. like the Indians and Germans. Slavonians. who attempted to establish a historical and cultural contact between the Indians and the Scandinavians through which the Scandinavian languages could have been influenced by the Indian. which is the proper definition of the term). and the concept of the survival of the fittest was readily applied to the interaction between racial groups (however spurious and misguided this system of grouping might have been). which maintained that the White Race had long ago reached perfection and was being corrupted and undermined through miscegenation with inferior races. who claimed that the Indo-Germans were inherently biologically superior to the Semites. which had already been borrowed from Herodotus (who had used the word Arioi to describe the people of Media. It was actually Schlegel who coined the term 'Aryan' in 1819 to denote a racial group (as opposed to a group of people speaking the Proto-Indo-European language. Godwin expresses this dogma in straightforward terms: ' (1) Europeans were of the Aryan Race. The French writer Ernest Renan believed that selective breeding in the future would result in the production of 'gods' and 'devas': . Italians. Hebrew had to be abandoned as the original language of humanity. the word 'Aryan' came to denote the highest.Of course. As Godwin informs us. Greeks. The philologist Max Muller would later urge the adoption of the term 'Aryan' instead of 'Indo-Germanic'. Persians. Meru. purest and most honourable racial group. since the latter term did not include other European peoples who could.

this strongly suggested the preservation of the ancient knowledge of a hitherto unknown Nordic civilisation. one third with Venus and one third in Hades with Persephone. members of this civilisation moved from northern Asia to India. Bailly equated the details of the Phoenix's death and rebirth with the annual disappearance of the Sun for 65 days at 71° North latitude. this assertion was supported by the similarity of certain legends in later cultures living far from each other: for example. Bailly thus concluded that Janus was actually a northern god who had moved south with his original worshippers in the distant past. The eighteenth-century polymath Jean-Sylvain Bailly (1736-1793) had already done much of the groundwork for a radical re-interpretation of humanity's origin with his highly original combination of Eastern mysticism and astronomy. These ideas corresponded somewhat with the work of one Comte de Buffon. One could concentrate all the nervous energy in the brain . this was ample justification for his own ideas concerning the Arctic region as the cradle of humanity.. or how botanists make hybrids. For Bailly. If one dislikes such myths. (8) To Bailly. who was required by Jupiter to spend one third of each year on Mount Olympus. the god of time. The reason for the southerly migration of this first civilisation became obvious: since temperate climates are the most . According to Bailly. Bailly also cited the legend of Adonis. After the Flood. who had concluded in 1749 that the Earth had formed much earlier than the Christian date of 4004 BC (although Buffon's date of 73. the proponents of Aryanism turned away from the heat of the biblical Mesopotamian Eden and looked instead to the cool and pristine fastness of the Far North. China and India were actually the heirs of a far older body of knowledge. who is represented with the number 300 in his right hand. Chaldea.083 BC is still quite far from the Earth's actual age of approximately 4. with the 300 days of daylight and 65 days of darkness each year in the far northern latitudes). the legend of the Phoenix. the ancient cultures of Egypt. For Bailly. it is through Germany that it will come. (7) Bailly believed that it was this ancient culture that invented the zodiac in around 4600 BC.. Bailly connected this legend with conditions in the geographical area at 79° North latitude. and therefore placed the first human civilisation in the far northern latitudes. It seems that if such a solution should be at all realizable on the planet Earth. and the number 65 in his left (corresponding. (6) The Polar Paradise In their desire to rediscover the ultimate mythical and cultural roots of their self-designated master race. an Asgaard. possessed in the distant past by a long-lost superior culture living in the antediluvian North. Buffon made the logical suggestion (within his scheme of creation) that the polar regions would have been the first to cool sufficiently to allow the development of life. of course. which had been encoded in numerous legends passed down to subsequent cultures. which is found both in Egypt and in the Scandinavian Eddas (discussed in Chapter One). might be reconstituted in the center of Asia. where the Sun disappears for four months (one third) of the year. In support of his theory.A factory of Ases [Scandinavian heroes].000 million years). He went on to compare the Phoenix with the Roman god Janus. one should consider how bees and ants breed individuals for certain functions.

the Aryan tradition influenced the great civilisations of Egypt. If. One can imagine the sense of anticipation felt by the inhabitants. however. (9) The idea of a polar homeland for humanity was also elaborately developed by the Indian Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856-1920) who wrote an epic work.000 years. The Aryans were forced to leave their homeland as the environment grew steadily colder and more hostile. Spencer in his book The Aryan Ecliptic Cycle (1965). (12) According to Spencer.' and the 'Dawn of Many Days' preceding the rising of the sun. while in prison in 1897 for publishing anti-British material in his newspaper. describing a complete circle once every 26. or. during the Interglacial Age. to the Pre-Buddhistic period in 1400-500 BC. Spencer was able to date with considerable accuracy the events described in the Zoroastrian scriptures.) According to Spencer. its axis also rotates. such as the Thirty Dawn-Sisters circling like a wheel. The rotational axis of the Earth is not perpendicular to the plane occupied by the Solar System: instead. The Arctic Home in the Vedas. the migration to northern Europe and Asia in 8000-5000 BC and the composition of the Vedic hymns. intellectual and scientific advancement. describing as they did a realm inhabited by the gods where the sun rose and fell once a year.628 BC. Lemuria and the culture occupying what is now the Gobi Desert. the advent of the Ice Age that scattered the Aryans from their pleasant homeland was just one of a number of global catastrophes that proved the downfall of at least three other ancient civilisations: Atlantis. The Kesan. . (10) Tilak's reading of the ancient Vedic texts supported his assertion of a prehistoric homeland in the far north. Spencer set the date for the first appearance of the Aryans in the polar regions at 25. Godwin has this to say regarding Tilak's interpretation of the Vedic hymns: The hymns are full of images that make nonsense in the context of a daily sunrise. through its destruction in the last Ice Age. in which he examines the Zoroastrian scriptures in much the same way that Tilak examined the Vedic texts. Sumer and Babylon. as the wheeling light became ever brighter and the long winter's night came to an end.000 BC. Due to gravitational forces from the Sun and the Moon. the axis of the Earth's rotation 'wobbles' very slightly. Spencer compared events in the scriptures with the various positions of the sun during the precession of the equinoxes. it describes a circle. it is tilted at an angle of 23 1/2 0. and enormous reptiles began to appear." Tilak's ideas on the origin of humanity were further developed by the Zoroastrian scholar H. from its origin in the Arctic around 10. they fall perfectly into place. Published in 1903. S. (How the reptiles themselves could have withstood the cold is another matter.) In this way. (At this point. India and China were reached.conducive to social. to be more precise. they are applied to the Pole. Tilak's book concentrates on the age and original location of the Indian Vedic civilisation. The light of the sun circling beneath the horizon would be visible for at least thirty days before its annual rising. it clearly became necessary to move away gradually from the polar regions as they became too cold and the temperatures in the southern latitudes cooled from arid to temperate. we should pause briefly to examine this phenomenon. the loss of the Arctic traditions around 3000-1400 BC. As the planet rotates. The migration was finally complete when Chaldea.

Blavatsky claimed that the gigantic continent of Lemuria actually existed. But as the sequence of the Continents is made to follow the order of evolution of the Races. from . but. nor yet a land in the neighbourhood of Scythia and the Danube. to the great civilisations of the Middle and Far East. even now. Blavatsky continues: The land of the Hyperboreans. that was the home of the first human and also of 'the last divine mortal'. was neither an ideal country. If their teaching followed the appearance of the Continents in their geological and geographical order. almost coeval with it. It was a real continent. the god of light. whom we met in Chapter One. were the traditions of the ancients to receive more attention than they have hitherto. who loved to slumber heavily on the chain of Mount Riphaeus. The Fourth Continent was Atlantis. The famous island of Plato of that name was but a fragment of this great Continent. The 'Second Race' refers to one of the Root Races. the frozenhearted god of snows and hurricanes. (13) [Original emphasis. who claimed to have consulted a fantastically old document entitled the Stanzas of Dzyan while in Tibet. it is Europe and Asia Minor. in frequently garbled form. the favourite abode of Apollo. its highest points now forming islands in the Pacific Ocean. nor have its sorry remains more than one night and day during the year. said the Greeks. and comprised the whole of what is now known as Northern Asia'.] The Third Continent was Lemuria (so called by the zoologist P. an eternal place unencumbered by the sometimes violent fates reserved for other continents. as surmised by the mythologists. Blavatsky evokes images of cataclysmic seismic shifts in the land mass of the Earth: The Fifth Continent was America. According to Blavatsky. then this classification would have to be altered. which are generally referred to by the Indo-Aryan Occultists as the fifth. Sclater in reference to a hypothetical sunken continent extending from Madagascar to Sri Lanka and Sumatra). 'It would be the first historical land. The nocturnal shadows never fall upon it. our remote ancestors occupied a number of lost continents. for it is the land of the Gods. The Second Continent was Hyperborea. and its inhabitants are his beloved priests and servants.From Hyperborea to Atlantis The great Russian occultist Helena Blavatsky. had considerable information to divulge on the nature of the lost civilisations whose philosophy and knowledge were passed down.' (14) In her description of the Fifth Continent. a bond-fide land which knew no winter in those early days. This may be regarded as poetised fiction now. the first of which she describes as 'The Imperishable Sacred Land'. as it is situated at the Antipodes. but it was poetised truth then. the country that extended beyond Boreas. L. 'the land which stretched out its promontories southward and westward from the North Pole to receive the Second Race.

into the formation of new universal 'continents. like Blavatsky (whom he nevertheless considered a charlatan). (15) Blavatsky claimed to have read in the Stanzas of Dzyan that the Earth contained seven great continents. changed entirely the face of the map of Europe. and was followed by the submersion of Plato's little Atlantic island.then it must be conceded that the mountain does not exist anywhere on the physical Earth. claimed to have received his information from hidden Oriental sources. Plaksha. Salmali.960 years (or half of one precessional cycle). Krauncha. after the future cataclysms. refers to the geographical names given (i) to the dry lands covering the face of the whole earth during the period of a RootRace.000 miles .800 years ago in the Hyperborean land of Tula (Thule).000 years ago. although its origin is placed much more recently. Blavatsky drew on a huge number of religious texts. Along with the later Atlantean civilisation. which lasted for 12. (We will have more to say of Mount Meru in Chapter Four. Kusa. from Jambu down to Pushkara. or the White Island. This has led Orientalists to speculate that the White Island and Mount Meru are situated in what might best be described as another dimension occupying that same space as Earth and which is visible (and reachable) to beings possessing a sufficiently advanced spirituality. a greater or smaller region of dry land surrounded with water. in one sense. Hyperborea was the origin of all religious and spiritual tradition in our own modern world. she calls them Jambu.the first to the fifth. which speak of a land called Svita-Dvipa (Hyperborea). the present cycle of humanity began a mere 64. before the formation of the Straits of Gibraltar. Guenon's Hyperborea is very similar to Blavatsky's. each continent being. including the Hindu Puranas. 'four of which have already lived their day. [Original emphasis. The Secret Doctrine takes no account of islands and peninsulas. the fifth still exists.) If we accept the attributes given to Mount Meru in the sacred texts of the Hindus . . but that each name.. Europe must be called the fifth great Continent. at the centre of which is Mount Meru. our Aryan Root-race. There was a time when the delta of Egypt and Northern Africa belonged to Europe. Saka and Pushkara. Since the day of its earliest teachings and the destruction of the great Atlantis.] (16) Aside from the Stanzas of Dzyan. and a further upheaval of the continent. the face of the earth has changed more than once. although in symbolic terms: 'It seems from his essays on symbology that Guenon did not regard Meru as an actual mountain situated at the North Pole. According to Guenon. The last serious change occurred some 12. but rather as a symbol of the earth's axis that passes through the pole and points to the Arktoi.including its height of 672. and (ii) to what remained of these after a geological [cataclysm]: and (iii) to those localities which will enter. in general. and two are to appear in the future' In The Secret Doctrine. the spiritual centre of the world. She continues: We believe that each of these is not strictly a continent in the modern sense of the word. (17) The legendary realm of Hyperborea also formed a centrepiece in the writings of the French occultist Rene Guenon (1886-1951) who. Guenon also wrote of Mount Meru.. which he calls Atlantis after its parent continent. nor does it follow the modern geographical distribution of land and sea.' [or] peninsulas .

who summarises the development of Guenon's work by Jean Phaure. This was followed by the period from 17. It is for this reason that their remains have never been discovered. This age lasted from Leo to Sagittarius. which lasted for one full precessional cycle (25. the early Earth and its fabulous primordial inhabitants were not solid. he cites the case of certain Tibetan adepts who are able to live quite happily in the frigid Himalayan regions with little clothing.920 years) beginning with the Age of Leo. This period includes our own history. Phaure has no problem with an incarnated humanity living in the Arctic.the constellations of the Great and Little Bears. we can look to Godwin. and capitalism. from Taurus.480 BC.480 BC and AD 2000 is the Iron Age (Kali Yuga). which lasted for half of one precessional cycle. intellectual (hence "Jewish") phenomenon. corporeal entities. according to Guenon. As the researcher Peter Levenda observes: 'Modernism in general was seen as being largely an urban. the Bronze Age (Dvapara Yuga). In support of this. and suggests that they were able to do so with the aid of a spiritual energy source unknown to our own narrow. taking Darwin's theories regarding natural selection and the survival of the fittest and applying them to the concept of a spiritual struggle between the races of Earth (resulting in the Aryan race). This was the period before the descent into matter.' (21) The doctrines of the Theosophists successfully fused science and mysticism.880 to 17.440 years. The cycle ends with the Millennium and the beginning of the Age of Aquarius. the colonisation of other parts of the world by Atlantean refugees. and from Scorpio to Gemini.the ancient and fantastic civilisations.)' (18) At this point. we should pause to consider a question that may have occurred to the reader: assuming the existence of the prehistoric Root Races of humanity. materialistic science. and this included science.800 BC. Then came the period from 36.480 years. The period between 4. which lasts for 6. and included the descent into matter. This age saw the fall of Atlantis around 10. why have none of their remains ever been discovered and excavated by archaeologists and palaeontologists? Apart from the obvious but not particularly satisfactory answer that the vast majority of the Earth's fossil record has yet to be discovered. when Paradise existed. (22) Levenda continues: . (19) For a basic chronology of the Earth according to this system. Between 62. sophisticated. lasting 19.440 to 4. the Industrial Revolution. Blavatsky and the other Theosophists. it should be remembered that. through Aries to Pisces. the origins of the Aryan race and that race's position of high nobility .880 BC was the Golden Age (Krita Yuga). It also saw the rise of Hyperborea and the other continents of Lemuria and Mu. but were composed of a rarefied spiritual substance that only later descended into the material state. the Silver Age (Treta Yuga). which was a necessary component in the evolution of the spirit.440 BC.000 and 36. the biblical Flood and the invention of writing. (20) It is easy to see how the central tenets of Theosophy . technology.were attractive to the German occultists and nationalists who so hated the modern world of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. (Guenon also claimed that the inclination of the Earth's axis at 23 1/2° was a result of the Fall of humanity.

a believer in Spiritualism who would do much to promote the anti-Semitic falsehoods contained within the document. Communism and international commerce had been successfully infiltrated and taken over by the Jews. all of these and more can be found both in Blavatsky and in the Nazi Party itself. And it was a follower of Blavatsky who was instrumental in introducing the Protocols of the Elders of Zion to a Western European community eager for a scapegoat. which formed a principal basis for his own anti-Semitism: To what an extent the whole existence of this people is based on a continuous lie is shown incomparably by the Protocols of the Wise Men [Elders] of Zion. The Protocols indicated that Democracy. the superiority of the Aryans (a white race with its origins in the Himalayas). The best criticism applied to them. the document purported to be the minutes of a meeting of the putative secret Jewish world conspiracy.. (27) Hitler's reference to the Frankfurter Zeitung is especially interesting and ironic. Hitler himself came to believe wholeheartedly in the veracity of the Protocols. (24) Produced in St Petersburg in 1902 and translated into German in 1919. What many Jews may do unconsciously is here consciously exposed. it appeared. It is completely indifferent from what Jewish brain these disclosures originate. was approaching the fulfilment of its goals. in view of the startling and intriguing suggestion made by that paper's Munich correspondent. For once this book has become the common property of a people. the Jewish menace may be considered as broken. Der .. von Sebottendorff. They are based on a forgery. Heiden began reporting on Hitler's activities in 1921. (26) Information regarding the Protocols was initially provided to the press by a Madame Yuliana Glinka. the cosmic truths coded within pagan myths . all commerce. when Hitler took power in 1933.It should be remembered that Blavatsky's works . The rationale behind many later Nazi projects can be traced back -through the writings of von List. appear to be the result of prodigious scholarship and were extremely convincing in their day.. all of the arts and media'. And that is what matters. the Frankfurter Zeitung moans and screams once every week: the best proof that they are authentic. who 'had "infected" all governments. In his biography of Hitler. the anti-Nazi Konrad Heiden. specifically in the ideology of its Dark Creature. and von Liebenfels . A caste system of races. the importance of ancient alphabets (notably the runes). after all. (23) It will be remembered that the notorious document known as the Protocols of the Elders of Zion was an anti-Semitic forgery created by the Okhrana (the Czarist secret police) and occultists in St Petersburg and Paris to discredit the enemies of Rachkhovsky. Blavatsky who pointed out the supreme occult significance of the swastika. Heiden was forced to flee to France. the SS. It was. however. Anyone who examines the historical development of the last hundred years from the standpoint of this book will at once understand the screaming of the Jewish press. an 'initiated' version of astrology and astronomy. so infinitely hated by the Jews. (25) a conspiracy that. the head of the Okhrana in Paris.to ideas first popularized by Blavatsky.. the important thing is that with positively terrifying certainty they reveal the nature and activity of the Jewish people and expose their inner contexts as well as their ultimate final aims. As is well known. is reality.

Heiden argues that Hitler did not merely adopt the counterfeit Jewish conspiracy as his vision of the world. it is worth introducing the idea at this point. In spite of its proclamation of the supremacy of the Aryan race (not to mention Madame Glinka's unfortunate promotion of the Protocols). he adopted the tactics falsely attributed to Jews by Czarist forgers as his own .) (30) Nevertheless. the theory that German scientists were responsible for the wave of UFO sightings in the late 1940s (and perhaps still are responsible for such sightings today). and hence Nazi Germany. it was Indian politics. and Blavatsky herself did not become overtly involved in politics (29) (Indeed. In Besant's case. we must return briefly to Blavatsky and Theosophy in order to address the implication that the movement possessed fascist elements. and Grafting his own successful conspiracy to rule the world. the Nazis would later attempt to exploit Indian nationalism and the desire for home rule by claiming a similarity of ideals and objectives between Indian nationalism and National Socialism. some of Blavatsky's followers. and Adolf Hitler. however. most notably Annie Besant (1847-1933). became active in politics. Before moving on. was that the secret of that rise lay in Hitler's adapting the modernized Machiavellian tactics attributed to his archenemy. the Elders of Zion. which will deal with Nazi cosmology and the belief in a hollow Earth. This will have special significance in the last three chapters of this book.and used them with remarkable success. subverting the institutions of the state. along with all other organisations showing any resistance whatsoever to Hitler.Fuehrer. were the creation of a counterfeit. As Levenda notes. and it was under her presidency after Henry Olcott's death in 1907 that the Theosophical Society became an important element in the Indian Nationalist Movement. Theosophy was not inherently fascist. a connection which is summarised by Rosenbaum: Heiden's stunning conjecture. A success that made Hitler himself a kind of creation of a counterfeit.] (28) I hope the reader will forgive this seeming digression from the subject we were discussing: while the apparent influence of the Protocols on Hitler may seem a long way from the lost Aryan homeland of the prehistoric north. written in exile and published in 1944. this demonstrates quite convincingly the power and influence that bizarre falsehoods can have over the collective psyche of a people. which deserves attention because of his intimate acquaintance with the Hitler Party from the very beginning of the Fuhrer's rise. Theosophy would later be attacked and suppressed by the Nazis. not only because it was a supporter of Blavatsky who promoted the Protocols in western Europe but also because it is of profound importance to the rest of our study. although it had inspired a large number of German occultists and nationalists at the turn of the century. and the persistent rumours regarding the survival of key Nazis in a hidden Antarctic colony. and putting them to his own use in manipulating the media. [Original emphasis. If Heiden was correct in his conjecture. (31) . Heiden suggests a profound connection between Hitler and the Protocols.

Jewish and Masonic threat. an organisation called the Nordic Society was established at Lubeck by Alfred Rosenberg (1893-1945). Antarctica and Tibet (the Tibetan expeditions will be examined more closely in the next chapter). the sea of blood into which already many people have dived!' (34) Rosenberg explained his Thulean mythology in his book Der Mythus des 20. The society counted among its members representatives from Norway. and sailed on for six more days. before encountering a frozen sea. they make it probable that the North Pole has wandered. had little time for paganism. who.Iceland and Antarctica It is a matter of historical record that the Nazis mounted expeditions to Iceland. Jahrhunderts (The Myth of the Twentieth Century). and must feel obliged to this common destiny. Sweden. This link with the lost Aryan homeland prompted an intense interest in the possibility of discovering further clues to their remote history. (33) According to Peter Levenda. On 22 August 1938. the Volkischer Beobachter carried an article on one of the Nordic Society's meetings. He then claimed to have reached the land of Thule. the Nazi concept of Thule can be traced to Guido von List. whose remains we can see today in Greenland and Iceland. among the caves and prehistoric monuments of the island. indeed. He reached Scotland. and that a much milder . who conceived of it as the ancient homeland of the Aryan race. The true reasons for these expeditions. editor of the Volkischer Beobachter and later Reich Minister for the occupied eastern territories.) (32) The volkisch fascination with the Scandinavian Eddas led von Sebottendorff to conclude that the supposedly long-vanished land of Thule was actually Iceland. however. Rosenberg explains the basis of his belief in an ancient Aryan homeland in the north: The geologists show us a continent between North America and Europe. (At some time between the third and fourth centuries BC.) (35) In the first chapter of the book. Jorg Lanz von Liebenfels and Rudolf von Sebottendorff. They tell us that islands on the other side of the Far North (Novaia Zemlya) display former tide marks over 100 metres higher than today's. once in power. Thulean or otherwise. at which Rosenberg was quoted thus: 'We all stand under the same European destiny. described it as 'stuff nobody can understand'. have been the subject of considerable debate throughout the decades since the end of the war. Finland. philosopher. who were drawn together in order to defend the Nordic nations against the Soviet. which may have been Iceland. Pytheas of Massilia undertook a voyage to the north. probably reaching the North Shetland Islands. the Nazi mystic. to their very origin. Denmark and Iceland. As we have already noted. (Hitler himself. published in 1930. because finally the existence of the white man depends altogether upon the unity of the European continent! Unanimous must we oppose that terrible attempt by Moscow to destroy the world. or perhaps Norway. despite the fact that it was widely considered to be appallingly-written nonsense. which was a massive best-seller in Germany.

along with the forgetting of myths and legends and the lack of belief in a 'transcendent nature'. A variety of other tasks . on which a creative race raised a mighty. should be considered as additional assignments. Levenda has retrieved numerous documents regarding these missions. who was looked upon with a mixture of amusement and contempt by most of the leading Nazis. After describing the lamentable rise of materialism that drew people from rural areas to the city (and gave an unfavourable impression to good German visitors!).climate once reigned in the present Arctic. For the work in question only the summer is appropriate. almost as far from Reykjavik as the barren coast section. . The possible tasks of an Iceland research trip with a cultural knowledge mission are greatly variegated. was not involved with the actual expeditions sent there. a feat accomplished by the hand of man. wide-ranging culture. one must reckon that occasionally several rainy days can occur. wood-carving. the doctor continues: Every year that we wait quietly means damage to a number of objects. In only a few years has the natural look of the country. The ship connections are such that it is perhaps only possible to go to and from the Continent once a week. addressed to the Ahnenerbe from a Dr Bruno Schweizer. Therefore it remains for us to select only the most immediate and most realizable. It seems not impossible that where the waves of the Atlantic Ocean now crash and pull off giant icebergs. weaving and dyeing. All this allows the ancient legend of Atlantis to appear in a new light. and other objects become ruined for camera and film due to newfangled public buildings in the modern style. Rosenberg. They were authorised by Heinrich Himmler under the auspices of the Ahnenerbe . contains a proposal for a research journey to Iceland. Furthermore. revealed its open countenance to man and has fundamentally changed from mountainsides and rock slabs to manicured lawns. once a blooming continent rose out of the water. and sent its children out into the world as seafarers and warriors. All this means a minimum period of from 5-6 weeks for the framework of the trip. But even if this Atlantean hypothesis is not thought tenable. nurseries and pasture grounds. one has to assume that there was a prehistoric northern center of culture. delaying thereby certain photographic work... the months of June through August. which since the Ur-time has remained mostly untouched in stone and meadow. in desert and untamed mountain torrents.the SS Association for Research and Teaching on Heredity. that is. power stations and factories emerge and the density of the traffic in Reykjavik corresponds with that of a European city. spinning. Dr Schweizer goes on to bemoan the loss of ancient agricultural techniques such as forging. the city itself expands with almost American speed as roadways and bridges. some of which he includes in his fascinating study Unholy Alliance (1995). One of these documents. (36) Despite these assertions concerning the great secrets of a long-vanished Aryan civilisation that might be found in Iceland. and is dated 10 March 1938: From year to year it becomes more difficult to meet living witnesses of Germanic cultural feelings and Germanic soul attitudes on the classical Icelandic soil uninfluenced by the overpowerful grasp of western civilization.

proved too expensive. the Swiss explorer Wilhelm Filchner. who had already led an expedition to Tibet in 1903-05. The expedition reached the Weddell Sea in December 1911. Another expedition was mounted in 1925 with the polar expedition ship Meteor under the command of Dr Albert Merz.000 square kilometres. On 17 December 1938. which had been prepared for the expedition in the Hamburg shipyards at a cost of one million Reichsmarks. an aircraft carrier that had been used since 1934 for transatlantic mail delivery. the Passat and the Boreas. Two groups would then embark on a land journey and attempt to meet at the centre of the continent. In mid-February 1939. which almost certainly would not have remained in the museums for very long! German interest in Antarctic exploration goes back to 1873. . Less than 60 years later. The expedition's ship was the Schwabenland. Germany wanted a foothold in Antarctica. containing lakes and sparse vegetation. The Schwabenland. and dropped several thousand drop-flags (metal poles with swastikas). took more than 11. The expedition geologists suggested that this might have been due to underground heat sources. for that matter. which were launched from its flight deck by steam catapults and which made fifteen flights over the territory which Norwegian explorers had named Queen Maud Land. one to enter the Weddell Sea and one to enter the Ross Sea. The Deutschland was a Norwegian ship specifically designed for work in polar regions. when Eduard Dallman mounted an expedition in his steamship Gronland on behalf of the newly founded German Society of Polar Research. both for the propaganda value of demonstrating the power of the Third Reich and also because of the territory's strategic significance in the South Atlantic. Ritscher was surprised at the findings of the expedition. The aircraft covered approximately 600. and so a single ship. ice-free areas. the Deutschland. This plan. Perhaps the most surprising discovery made by this expedition was a number of large. and was acquired with the help of Ernest Shackleton. and was renamed Neu Schwabenland. planned to lead two expeditions to Antarctica with the intention of determining if the continent was a single piece of land. were apparently abandoned with the outbreak of war. Filchner's plans called for two ships. These plans. however. (37) As Levenda wryly observes. the 'investigation of museum treasures'.Thus the recording of human images (race-measurements) and the investigation of museum treasures are considered to be additional assignments. an expedition was despatched under the command of Captain Alfred Ritscher to the South Atlantic coast of Antarctica and arrived there on 19 January 1939. particularly the ice-free areas. was used. Otto Nordenskjold and Fridtjof Nansen. In the years running up to the Second World War. and immediately began to plan another journey upon his arrival home. however. it is not clear how the people of Iceland would have reacted to the taking of 'race measurements' or. was equipped with two Dornier seaplanes. the Schwabenland left Antarctica and returned to Hamburg.000 photographs of the Princess Astrid and Princess Martha coasts of western Queen Maud Land. The area was claimed for the Third Reich.

it was used as the emblem of the British War Savings Scheme. Harbinson: Throughout the war. which we will discuss in depth in the final chapter of this book. However. primarily in the fields of comparative ethnology and Oriental studies. According to Godwin: 'So innocent were the "good luck" associations of the swastika that during World War I. The Swastika In antiquity. At the close of the war selected Nazi scientists and SS troops fled to Antarctica . It has been suggested. To the observer in the Northern Hemisphere. orthodox history gives way to strange rumours and speculations regarding the true reason for the Third Reich's interest in Antarctica. also known as the Great Bear. Assyria and Phoenicia led the ethnologists to believe that the swastika was an Aryan sun-symbol. the Germans sent ships and aircraft to Neu Schwabenland with enough equipment and manpower (much of it slave labour from the concentration camps) to build massive complexes under the ice or in wellhidden ice-free areas.At this point. they were identical to the symbol. The word 'swastika' comes from the Sanskrit: su (Greek eu. this constellation appears to rotate around Polaris.' (42) The swastika appears in two forms: left-handed and right-handed. the shape of the swastika derives from the constellation Arktos.. being used from the Bronze Age onwards on objects of every kind.. meaning 'to be') and the suffix ka. in 4000 BC. If the positions of Arktos in relation to Polaris are represented in pictorial form (corresponding to the four seasons). According to the novelist and UFO researcher W. (39) The symbol means 'good luck' (the Sanskrit-Tibetan word Swasti means 'may it be auspicious'). (40) The swastika gained in importance in European culture in the nineteenth century. meaning 'good'). while others prefer to . The absence of the symbol from Egypt. It is for this reason that the swastika (aside from denoting good fortune) has been used to represent the Pole. for instance. Chaldea. confusion quickly arises when one is faced with the question of how to define 'left' and 'right' with regard to this symbol. that the 1938-39 expedition had been to look for a suitable ice-free region on the continent that could be used for a secret Nazi base after the war. the result is highly suggestive of a swastika. appearing on coupons and stamps.' (38) Such speculations properly belong to the field known as 'Nazi survival'. asti (Greek esto. the swastika was a universal symbol. let us place them aside and turn our attention to another important element in the concept of a lost Aryan homeland: a symbol that once signified good fortune but was irreparably corrupted by the Nazis. the Plough and the Big Dipper. Some occultists and historians favour a definition based on the direction taken by the arms as they extend outward from the centre. Therefore. the Pole Star (an effect caused by the rotation of the Earth). (41) Madame Blavatsky saw the significance of the symbol. and incorporated it into the seal of the Theosophical Society to signify the harmony of universal movement. A. and which now signifies nothing but terror and death. According to Joscelyn Godwin.

has another explanation of the left.define left' and 'right' in terms of the apparent direction of rotation. according to Brissaud. Each swastika variant has been taken to mean different things by writers on the occult. symbolising creation. The confusion arises from the fact that a swastika whose arms proceed to the left appears to be rotating to the right. such as the Frenchman Andre Brissaud who says that the counter-clockwise-spinning swastika represents the rotation of the Earth on its axis and is the 'Wheel of the Golden Sun'. while the right-handed (counter-clockwise-turning) symbol . evolution and fertility. where both Nicholas Roerich and Anagarika Govinda observed that the swastika of the ancient Bon-Po religion points to the left. apparent rotation to right / Swastika with arms extending to right. representing man's quest for power in opposition to Heaven. the Buddhist one to the right. 1917). the ancient decorative swastikas show no preference whatsoever for one type over the other.and right-handed swastikas: the left-handed (clockwise-turning) symbol represents the migration of the ancient Aryan Race from its homeland at the North Pole. whom we shall meet again in the final chapter. (44) Swastika with arms extending to left. and vice versa.and righthanded swastikas.the one used by the Nazis represents the destiny of the Aryans to return to their spiritual centre at the South Pole. Now it is true that the Bon-Pos perform ritual . esotericist and Hitler apologist Miguel Serrano (b. The clockwise-spinning swastika is. Godwin continues: Whatever the validity of these theories. apparent rotation to left After informing us of the complexities attached to the interpretation of left. the 'Wheel of the Black Sun'. The place where the left-right distinction is supposed to be most significant is Tibet. (43) The Chilean diplomat.

. (46) Here again. for two reasons. In addition. We can speculate that Hitler had chosen to reverse the cross because of the connotations of black magic and evil in Krohn's cross and for the purpose of evoking the positive images of good luck. the Buddhists clockwise. since the apparent rotation is counter-clockwise. However. or that evil was an attractive concept for him is ridiculous. just like the ones on the Bon-Pos' ritual scepter. But the root of the problem is probably the inherent ambiguity of the symbol itself. As the journalist Ken Anderson notes: 'What we are dealing with is subjective definition . the swastika gained popularity among German anti-Semitic groups through the writings of Guido von List and Lanz von Liebenfels. (45) As we saw in the first chapter.. the Nazi swastika could be said to be right-handed because the hooked arms extend to the right. Hitler decided to reverse the design. In view of the fact that he took most of the credit for the design himself. that he was acting correctly in exterminating the Jews and the other groups targeted for destruction by the Nazis. spiritual evolution. their equivalent of the Buddhist vajra. who took the symbol of good fortune and universal harmony and used it to denote the unconquerable Germanic hero. but his interpretation is almost certainly correct. we must remember that Hitler himself had very little time for occult mumbo-jumbo. all of the submissions included a swastika. it could be said to be left-handed. making the swastika counter-clockwise. Firstly. Was the Nazi symbol right-handed (traditionally denoting good) or left-handed (denoting evil)? In one sense. symbolising evil and black magic. As might be expected. which makes the left-handed swastika appear to be rotating to the right.circumabulations counter-clockwise. The one Hitler finally chose had been designed by Dr Friedrich Krohn. when Hitler called for suggestions for a banner. and right-handed if (as in Buddhism) it symbolizes the course of the sun. harmony and spirituality. one of the most terrifying and baffling aspects of Adolf Hitler is that he did not consider himself 'evil': as Trevor-Roper states.) Anderson gives the impression of having his tongue slightly in his cheek. neglecting . and was certainly not the practising black magician many occultists claim him to have been (more on this in Chapter Five). As we noted in the Introduction. conversely. the design incorporated a clockwise-turning swastika. According to the occult historian Francis King. Hitler himself makes no mention of such an alteration in his repulsive Mein Kampf. a dentist from Sternberg. we encounter the problem of defining what is a right-and left-handed swastika. and secondly. but almost all the Buddhist iconography collected by Thomas Wilson shows left-handed swastikas. the idea that Hitler considered himself 'evil' (as he would have had to have done in order to take the step of reversing a positive symbol to a negative one). Hitler was convinced of his own rectitude. the counter-clockwise orientation of the swastika used as a banner by the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) has also aroused considerable controversy in occult and esoteric circles. and vice versa. symbolising good fortune. for his fledgling party!' (47) (Original emphasis. One can only say that the swastika should perhaps be left-handed if (as in Bon-Po) it denotes polar revolution.. etc.

.as Leader . I was obliged to reject without exception the numerous designs which poured in from the circles of the young movement .. and a black swastika in the middle. a flag with a red background. After long trials I also found a definite proportion between the size of the flag and the size of the white disk.. a white disk. had laid down a final form. (48) The reader will notice that Hitler says the submission he received that was quite close to his own had only one fault: the swastika had curved legs. after innumerable attempts. was quite close to my own. Actually.not some unidentified occultic myth. as well as the shape and thickness of the swastika.. but rather balance and aesthetic value'. (49) . since after all it was possible that another should produce one just as good or perhaps even better. I myself . and. Anderson is undoubtedly correct when he states that 'the major importance of the decision [was] .did not want to come out publicly at once with my own design. incidentally. he would surely have explained the reasons for his making such a fundamental alteration to the design of the NSDAP banner: . a dentist from Starnberg [sic] did deliver a design that was not bad at all. meanwhile.even to mention Krohn's name.for a man who prided himself on being a thwarted artist of great merit . having only the one fault that a swastika with curved legs was composed into a white disk I myself.

Hitler himself) escaped from the ruins of Berlin and continue with their plans for world domination from some hidden headquarters. these theories can surely have little to do with known reality. unseen. according to some. dangerous and. it has come to occupy a central position in the dubious study of Nazi occult power and so demands a chapter of its own. their lives bought with scientific and military knowledge that the American government desperately wanted. (1) Serious historians (at least. The Vril Society. those who deign to comment on the subject at all) regard the material we shall be examining for the rest of this book with contempt . by the majority.A hideous strength The Vril Society We have now reached the point in our survey of Nazi involvement with the occult where we must depart from what is historically verifiable and enter an altogether more obscure and murky realm. Much of what follows may well strike the reader as bizarre and absurd in equal measure. so the story goes. Project PAPERCLIP proves that some senior elements of the Third Reich did indeed survive in this way. and yet. it must be said. a place that Pauwels and Bergier call the 'Absolute Elsewhere'. for the rest of this book. of fevered imaginations) will be found unsettling hints of a thread running through the collective mind of humanity in the late twentieth century ominous. But what was the strangely named Vril Society? The first hint of the Vril Society's existence was discovered in a scene that would not have been out of place in one of Dennis Wheatley's occult thrillers. we shall concentrate on the elements of Nazi occultism that find no home in orthodox history but that nevertheless stretch their pernicious tentacles through modern popular and fringe culture and refuse to vanish in the glare of the light of reason. too. our departure point into the Absolute Elsewhere. At first sight. a group of battle-weary Russian soldiers were making their cautious way through the shattered remnants of Berlin. mopping up the isolated pockets of German . And yet. were it not that there is so little evidence for its influence over the activities of the Third Reich. As we shall see. In spite of this. amongst the notions we are about to address (products. apparently. might seem to have been better placed in the first chapter. as we shall see. our place in it and the unstated intentions of those who rule us.3 . On 25 April 1945. the idea that the American Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) could have smuggled many personnel from Nazi intelligence and the German secret weapons programme into the United States in the post-war years might likewise seem outlandish until we remember that this. not without good reason.and. The world view of those who subscribe to the idea of genuine Nazi occult power includes a number of outrageous conspiracy theories that revolve around the claim that many leading Nazis (including. is a documented historical fact. the 'twilight zone between fact and fiction' can produce significant shifts in our collective awareness of the world. So.

such as magnetism. (2) What were Tibetans doing in Nazi Germany towards the end of the Second World War? The answer to this question may be found in a curious novel entitled The Coming Race by Edward Bulwer-Lytton (1803-1873). plays. These people consider that in vril they have arrived at the unity in natural energetic agencies. Bulwer-Lytton wrote on many themes. for there is no word in any language I know which is an exact synonym for vril. with the result that today his books are extremely hard to find and his work is seldom . One of the Russians. that he should have turned to the subject of Utopian science fiction with The Coming Race. and is based on the application of a force known as 'vril'.taught in universities in the English-speaking world. The Russians' assumption that the bodies were those of soldiers was quickly dispelled when they realised that the dead men were all Orientals. who was from Mongolia. identified the men as Tibetans. Unfortunately. except that it comprehends in its manifold branches other forces of nature. It was also evident to the Russian soldiers that the men had not died in battle but seemed to have committed suicide.if at all . the narrator asks about the nature of the vril force. social satire. Over the following week.resistance that remained in the heart of the Third Reich. hundreds more Tibetans were discovered in Berlin: some of them had clearly died in battle. It is perhaps unsurprising. ostentation and eccentricity attracted a good deal of hostility from the press and this has damaged his subsequent literary reputation to a disproportionate extent. explores a mine in an unnamed location and discovers a vast subterranean world. to which. Befriended by a young female Vril-ya named Zee. first Baron Lytton. his reputation for vanity. I should call it electricity. and the dead man in the centre of the group was wearing a pair of bright green gloves. Once tenants of the Earth's outer surface. and which Faraday thus intimates under the more cautious term of correlation: . with a seventh corpse in the centre. In this novel. the soldiers made a surprising discovery. politics. a traveller and adventurer of independent means. inhabited by a superior race of humans called the Vril-ya. published in 1871. in a state of constant readiness against the threat of ambush. A prolific and very successful writer (his output included novels. including romance. like the ones discovered by the Russian unit. galvanism. while others had committed ritual suicide. in our scientific nomenclature. differing names are assigned. All were dressed in German military uniforms. the narrator. In a ground-floor room of one blasted building. The soldiers moved carefully from one wrecked building to another. (3) Throughout his career. &c. Lying in a circle on the floor were the bodies of six men. essays and poetry) Bulwer-Lytton was considered in his lifetime to be one of the greatest writers in the English language. the Vril-ya were forced to retreat underground by a natural catastrophe similar to the biblical Flood many thousands of years ago. melodrama and the occult. which has been conjectured by many philosophers above ground. therefore. Their technology is far in advance of anything to be found in the world of ordinary humanity. history. Therewith Zee began to enter into an explanation of which I understood very little.

that they are convertible. Thus in politics.though originally not only of our human race. to them. including the minds and bodies of others.. no insignia of higher rank were assigned to it. above ground . or. in other words. or directed . as seems to me clear by the roots of their language. The vril force is most often applied through the use of a device known as the Vril Staff which. Democracy and free institutions are. the narrator learns of the system of government by which the Vril-ya live. in common. like the vril force itself. as well as to enhance the telepathic and telekinetic potentials of the human mind.' says that illustrious experimentalist. and has in the handle several stops. (5) During his protracted stay in the subterranean realm. There was . and possess equivalents of power in their action. On the other hand.viz. It was based upon a principle recognised in theory. or springs by which its force can be altered. . keys..by one it can rend the rock.. modified. or against its gradual abuse of the powers accorded to it. was apparently very complicated. by another it can exercise a certain influence over minds'. Although their society is entirely free of crime or strife of any kind. The government of the tribe of Vril-ya .by one it affects bodies.'I have long held an opinion. which can be used to control the physical world. that the object of all systems of philosophical thought tends to the attainment of unity.. if there were any guarantees for its continuance. all Vril-ya are trained in the application of vril.' (4) According to Zee. 'for fear of some terrible accident occasioned by my ignorance of its use'. as it were. requiring no preponderant degree of energy or intelligence. They are ruled by a single supreme magistrate who abdicates the position at the first sign of advancing age. into one another. that the various forms under which the forces of matter are made manifest have one common origin. they consider strength and force to be among the finest virtues.) The Vril Staff 'is hollow. even republican writers have agreed that a benevolent autocracy would insure the best administration. by another disperse the vapour . descended from the same ancestors as the great Aryan family.. merely the crude experiments of an immature culture. are so directly related and mutually dependent. by another it heals . The supreme magistrate was not distinguished from the rest by superior habitation or revenue. but. in this society nothing to induce any of its members to covet the cares of office.so that by one process it destroys. or the ascent through all intervening labyrinths to the simplicity of a single first cause or principle. No honours. I believe. though little carried out in practice. (6) After a number of adventures in the subterranean world -and a great many conversations with its denizens -the narrator comes to the following conclusion regarding the ultimate origins of the fantastic Vril-ya race: [T]his people . the duties awarded to him were marvellously light and easy. 'almost amounting to a conviction. with many other lovers of natural knowledge. requires many years to master. really very simple. (The narrator is not allowed to hold one. and the triumph of the strong over the weak to be in perfect accordance with Nature.

powers surpassing our most disciplined modes offeree. which for some years met . social and political. we read: [T]he more I think of a people calmly developing. have suggested that The Coming Race revealed too much of the subterranean world.' (9) Some writers. There is much to be learned from the substrata of our planet. according to their myths and their history. Upon his return home. passed through phases of society familiar to ourselves. he describes the book as 'one of the hardest to find of all books of mysticism'. the narrator begins to ponder the wonders he has beheld far below the surface of the Earth. according to their own traditional persuasions of their ultimate destiny. including Alec Maclellan. in regions excluded from our sight and deemed uninhabitable by our sages. It is she who leads him back to the mine shaft through which he first entered the realm of the Vrilya. This uneasiness. the narrator is nevertheless terrified by their power and the ease with which they wield it. author of the fascinating book The Lost World of Agharti (1996). Aid comes in the unlikely form of Zee. who has fallen in love with him and has attempted to persuade him to stay.the more devoutly I pray that ages may yet elapse before there emerge into sunlight our inevitable destroyers. should he have angered them at any time. Indeed. and once again hints at the possible dreadful fate awaiting a blissfully unaware humanity at the hands of the 'Coming Race'. for he wrote to his friend Hargrave Jennings in 1854: 'So Rosenkreuz [the founder of the Rosicrucians] found his wisdom in a secret chamber. So will we all. He was greatly interested in the Rosicrucians. and virtues to which our life. discovered in a secret underground chamber. coupled with his natural desire to return to the upper world and the life with which he is familiar. . they would.from which in varied streams has flowed the dominant civilisation of the world. In the final chapter. and having. they would have had no compunction in turning their Vril Staffs on him and reducing him to cinders. regarding the ultimate secrets of the Universe. (8) It is an assumption of many occultists that The Coming Race is fact disguised as fiction: that Bulwer-Lytton based his engaging novel on a genuine body of esoteric knowledge. the powerful occult society which arose in the sixteenth century and which claimed to possess ancient wisdom. prompts the narrator to begin seeking a means of escape from the subterranean world of the Vril-ya. and was as a result suppressed in the years following Bulwer-Lytton's death in 1873. (10) and informs us of his own search for a copy. (7) Although greatly impressed with the knowledge and accomplishments of the Vril-ya. destroy and replace our existent varieties of man. . but who nevertheless understands that an unrequited love cannot result in happiness for either of them. becomes antagonistic in proportion as our civilisation advances.had yet now developed into a distinct species with which it was impossible that any community in the upper world could amalgamate: And that if they ever emerged from these nether recesses into the light of day. implying at one point that. There is some evidence that Bulwer-Lytton believed in the possibility of a subterranean world.

His knowledge of the Far East earned him a posting as military attache in Japan.with no success. and the 'Master Magician of the Nazi Party'. Pauwels and Bergier have this to say: Beings intermediate between Man and other intelligent beings from Beyond would place at the disposal of the [Thule Society] Initiates a reservoir of forces which could be drawn on to enable Germany to dominate the world again and be the cradle of the coming race of Supermen which would result from the mutations of the human species. Haushofer. and their leaders would be men who knew everything. what were they doing there? It seems that the connection was none other than the Bavarian Karl Haushofer (1869-1946) whose theories of Geopolitics gave rise to the concept of Lebensraum (living space). where his great intelligence ensured a rapid rise through the ranks. (12) Haushofer was also apparently a firm believer in the legend of Thule. which had once been the centre of an advanced civilisation possessed of magical powers. nobility and greatness of the world. After leaving university. While doubtless an intriguing piece of stage-setting on Maclellan's part. deriving their . What is the connection between Bulwer-Lytton's strange novel and Nazi Germany? If there really was a large colony of Tibetan monks in Berlin in the 1940s.an anti-Semitic journalist and playwright who influenced Hitler's racial attitudes and introduced him to influential social circles after the First World War . The present author searched for some months for a copy of The Coming Race. from the Soviet Union. the rarity of the book can surely be accounted for by the unjust waning of Bulwer-Lytton's posthumous literary reputation (mentioned earlier). and that it was the Indo-Germanic race which guaranteed the permanence. before finding an extremely affordable paperback edition in a high-street bookshop. was first suggested by Louis Pauwels and Jacques Bergier in their fascinating but historically unreliable book The Morning of the Magicians (which served as the model for a number of subsequent treatments of Nazi occultism in the 1960s and early 1970s). Connecting this legend with the Thule Society. primarily. where he began to develop his lifelong interest in the Far East. which Hitler maintained would be necessary to the continued dominance of the superior Aryan race and which he intended to take. with secret knowledge of powerful trans-human entities. The idea that Haushofer was an occult adept. he entered the German army. One day her legions would set out to annihilate everything that had stood in the way of the spiritual destiny of the Earth. to commit suicide in accordance with the time-honoured ceremonial. While in Japan. According to Pauwels and Bergier: [Haushofer] believed that the German people originated in Central Asia. along with Dietrich Eckart (1868-1923) . Haushofer is said to have been initiated into one of the most important secret Buddhist societies and to have sworn. the lost Aryan homeland in the far north. (11) Haushofer excelled at Munich University.is frequently described by believers in genuine Nazi occult power as a practising black magician. if he failed in his 'mission'.

Haushofer proclaimed the necessity of 'a return to the sources' of the human race . Pamir. some going to the extreme North of Europe. As the result of a catastrophe. (17) . There is no doubt that Hitler occupied his time in Landsberg judiciously. Turkestan. and others towards the Caucasus. After the end of the First World War. Rudolf Hess). who has perhaps conducted more research into primary German sources than any other writer in this curious field. He divided his time between teaching and writing and founded the Geopolitical Review in which he published his ideas on Lebensraum.. Haushofer returned to Munich. possibly of an atomic nature. and whoever had control of them controlled the whole world. (16) According to Pauwels and Bergier and other fringe writers. The Thule Society was dissolved in 1925 when support had dwindled. conjure up notions of uniting in the Reich what came to be described as Volksdeutsche (ethnic Germans) scattered throughout eastern Europe'. (14) Nevertheless. These countries constituted. Gobi and Thibet. Adolf Hitler read and was influenced by Haushofer's books on geopolitics (he had already been introduced to Haushofer by the professor's student assistant. and became the magic centre of the Nazi movement. he had heard stories of a powerful civilisation living beneath the Himalayas: Thirty or forty centuries ago in the region of Gobi there was a highly developed civilization. the central core.. The Scandinavian god Thor is supposed to have been one of the heroes of this migration. which could 'both justify territorial conquest by evoking the colonizing of Slav lands by Teutonic knights in the Middle Ages and. emotively. Gobi was transformed into a desert. where he explained his geopolitical theories and described his travels through India in the early years of the century. reading widely in several fields. While in India. in his opinion.strength from the very fountain-head of energy and guided by the Great Ones of the Ancient World . states that the claims regarding the secret guiding power of the Thule Society are 'entirely fallacious. where he gained a doctorate from the university. (15) While incarcerated in the fortress of Landsberg am Lech following the failure of the Munich Putsch in 1924. though not for the sake of education so much as to confirm and clarify his own preconceptions. and the survivors emigrated.. that it was necessary to conquer the whole of Eastern Europe. Haushofer's alleged skill in the Black Arts has become an important link in the Nazi occult chain as described by writers on such fringe subjects. Haushofer visited Hitler every day in Landsberg. It would seem that it was under the influence of Karl Haushofer that [the Thule Society] took on its true character of a society of Initiates in communion with the Invisible.. . Goodrick-Clarke. (13) Serious historians such as Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke take issue with the claims of Pauwels and Bergier and the later writers who reiterated them.' He goes on to assure us that 'there is no evidence at all to link Haushofer to the group1.in other words. (He later said that Landsberg was his 'university paid for by the state').

(These names have many different spellings: for Agartha. The subterranean humanity was nonsense. having failed in his mission. Pauwels and Bergier could learn nothing more from him about this mysterious society. I am not joking. (19) Although they apparently interviewed Ley. the spelling favoured by Orientalists. Vril was not. to amass their colonial empire. which guarded their homes and were referred to as lares. was an essentially correct description of the race of Supermen living far beneath the surface of the Earth and corroborated much of what the professor had himself learned while travelling in Asia.and which was more or less localized in Berlin. who kept it as a State secret. As Joscelyn Godwin informs us.. Haushofer informed him. Haushofer committed suicide on 14 March 1946. the Vril Society (also known as the Luminous Lodge) was formed by a group of Berlin Rosicrucians including Karl Haushofer. there is only one primary source of information on the Vril Society: Willy Ley.. Possibly it had enabled the British. The first of these centres was called Agartha. In 1947. one of which followed the path of spirituality. Such a group actually existed. that is what I was told with great solemnity and secrecy. devoted its spare time looking for Vril. Surely the Romans had had it. and that Karl Haushofer was intimately connected with it. They knew that the book was fiction. (Joscelyn Godwin kindly reminds us of the unreliability of the splendid Pauwels and Bergier: although they cite Jack Fishman's The Seven Men of Spandau with regard to Haushofer's connection to the Vril Society. the secret of Vril could be found by contemplating the structure of an apple. they later discovered that the group actually called itself the Vril Society. Ley writes: The next group was literally founded upon a novel. I use the simplest. which. enlightenment and meditation while the other followed the path of violence and materialistic power. the other Shambhala. For reasons which I failed to penetrate. and he 'began to yearn for the day when he might establish for himself the actuality of the secret civilization beneath the snows of Tibet . sliced in halves. however. 1925. Bulwer-Lytton had used that device in order to be able to tell the truth about this 'power'. Following a description of Ariosophy. According to Alec Maclellan. Fishman actually makes no such reference.' (18) In the following year. for Shambhala.) (20) Pauwels and Bergier go on to inform us that. No. inclosed [sic] in small metal balls. in accordance with his pledge to his masters in the . they even got out the first issue of a magazine which was to proclaim their credo. Yes.) We shall return for a closer look to the realms of Agartha and Shambhala in the next chapter. Bulwer-Lytton's novel apparently galvanised Hitler's imagination. a German rocket engineer who fled to the United States in 1933 and followed a successful career writing popular science books. That group which I think called itself Wahrheitsgesellschaft -Society for Truth .After the cataclysm that destroyed the Gobi civilisation. among the many books Hitler read while languishing in Landsberg was Bulwer-Lytton's The Coming Race. the survivors migrated to a vast cavern system beneath the Himalayas where they split into two groups. their convictions were founded upon BulwerLytton's 'The Coming Race'. Ley published an article entitled 'Pseudoscience in Naziland'.

Proponents of genuine Nazi occult power have repeatedly pointed to the mystical elements in Hitler's conversations as relayed by Rauschning. It seems that on one occasion. The conversations recorded by Rauschning have served as source material for many writers on the Third Reich. In fact. (26) As the story goes. Ley's reference to 'contemplating the structure of an apple. also known as the Akashic Records: a subtle form of energy said to surround the Earth. overseeing the organization of the searches himself. I have seen the vision of the new man . who says that he repeatedly had the feeling that Hitler was a medium. after coming to power. in an effort to determine whether the author himself had visited the realm of the Vril-ya.' (25) To his credit. In addition. does not cite Rauschning's book anywhere in his monumental study. which bears some resemblance to Reichenbach's Odic force. including serious ones. (24) citing Hermann Rauschning's famous book Hitler Speaks A Senes of Political Conversations with Adolf Hitler on his Real Aims (1939). as Godwin reminds us. Once again.' (23) Maclellan also states that Hitler believed unequivocally that 'certain representatives of the underground super-race were already abroad in the world'. (21) the Theosophists were themselves interested in the concept of the vril force. the truth is somewhat different: Haushofer did not commit ham kin but died from arsenic poisoning on 10 March. According to Maclellan: 'The first expeditions were dispatched purely under the auspices of the Luminous Lodge. In spite of the sober research of writers like Goodrick-Clarke and Godwin. While serious .secret Japanese society into which he had been initiated. Hitler ordered a number of expeditions into German. and to the Astral Light. in spite of the widespread interest it stimulated. Swiss and Italian mines to search for the entrances to the cavern cities of the Supermen. possessed of supernatural powers. beginning in 1926. Hitler took a more direct interest. Hitler Speaks has not stood the test of time as an accurate historical document. the idea of an immensely sinister and powerful Vril Society secretly controlling the Third Reich has lost nothing of its ability to fascinate. in which is preserved a record of every thought and action that has ever occurred. Ian Kershaw. Hitler actually met one of the subterranean Supermen. He is even said to have ordered research to be conducted into the life of Bulwer-Lytton.fearless and formidable. Many still maintain that Haushofer introduced Hitler to the leader of the group of Tibetan high lamas living in Berlin. He is here! Now are you satisfied? I will tell you a secret. Maclellan states that this was more than likely a deranged fantasy on Hitler's part. Rauschning claims that Hitler confided to him: The new man is among us. Indeed. but later. However. sliced in halves' (thus revealing the five-pointed star at its centre) echoes Rudolf Steiner's suggestion in Knowledge of Higher Worlds and Its Attainment. I shrank from him. and that this man knew the locations of the hidden entrances to the subterranean realms of Agartha and Shambhala. one of the foremost authorities on Hitler and the author of Hitler 1889-1936: Hubris (1998). a man known only as 'The Man with the Green Gloves'. and states that it is 'a work now regarded to have so little authenticity that it is best to disregard it altogether'. (22) These rumours doubtless gave rise to the famous legends about Hitler's obsessive search for the entrances to the inner world. Rauschning's very description should be treated with extreme caution: it should be noted that.

such was their weariness. I saw that I was in a spacious. How far did it reach into the rocks? I wondered. 20. which gave off a pungent smell. They attended to the wounds of their comrade and fell asleep. occult writers have frequently made reference to the Nazi Tibet Expeditions. The peasant told the Resistance men that the cave contained pits. Dr Horak decided to take a sample of the wall. fiery impact. but not so much as a splinter fell from the substance. and was also haunted. pockets of poison gas. who accidentally discovered a strange tunnel in Czechoslovakia in October 1944. put it into the mountain? Was it man-made? And was it at last proof of the truth in legends .of long-lost civilisations with magic technologies which our rationale cannot grasp or believe?' (28) No one else. 'The bullet slammed into the substance of the walls with a deafening.' he wrote. Only a small welt appeared. but kept well away. Having just survived a skirmish with the Germans. Dr Horak stated that he and two other Resistance fighters found the tunnel near the villages of Plavince and Lubocna (he is quite specific about the location: 49. 'Sparks flashed.' Dr Horak then returned to his comrades and told them about the apparently man-made tunnel. Maclellan cites the testimony of one Antonin Horak. Once again. which is in itself enough to give pause to the cautious. he decided to do a little exploring inside the cave. The following day. black shaft formed by cliff-like walls.7 degrees east). has explored this tunnel since Dr Horak in 1944. curved. there is an interesting event on record that Maclellan quotes in his The Lost World of Agharti and that illustrates the frustrating nature of the 'twilight zone between fact and fiction' in which we find ourselves when discussing Nazi occultism. Horak's curiosity got the better of him and. 'Lighting some torches. The floor in the incline was a solid lime pavement.writers ignore these rumours. he came to a section that was completely different from the rest of the cave. In his article. Who. an expert speleologist and member of the Slovak Uprising. or what.2 degrees north. . 'I sat there by the fire speculating. The peasants who lived in the region obviously knew of its existence. allegedly an attempt to locate and make contact with a group of high lamas with access to fantastic power.like Plato's . there was a roaring sound. Pauwels and Bergier have plenty to say on this subject. but was unable to make any impression with his pickaxe. apparently.' (27) The tunnel stretched interminably into the distance. This they had no intention of doing. and warned them against venturing too far inside. while he waited for the injured man to recover enough strength to travel again. In addition to the stories of Nazi mine expeditions in Central and Eastern Europe during the Second World War. Presently. He took his pistol and fired at the wall (surely an unwise thing to do. given the risk of a ricochet and with German soldiers possibly still in the vicinity). about the length of half my finger. Dr Horak kept quiet about the discovery until 1965. when he published an account in the National Speleological Society News. He led them to an underground grotto where they could hide and rest. the three men (one of whom was badly injured) asked a local peasant for help.

which describes an expedition to East and Central Tibet from 1934-1936. In addition to being an SS officer. and his SS file. Philadelphia. the shape of hands and feet. the members of the 1938-1939 expedition displayed a somewhat prurient fascination with intimate practices: the film-maker Ernst Krause.20 JULY The Tibet Expedition of Dr Ernst Schafer. Shigatse. is presently on its return trip to Germany. He discovered a wealth of material. the expedition was not so much concerned with contacting Tibetan representatives of the subterranean super-race as with cataloguing the flora and fauna of the region (an activity of little military value to the Third Reich. Born in Cologne on 14 March 1910 into a wealthy industrialist family. The following year.) (31) When not cataloguing flora and fauna (and spying on teenage girls). and embarked on his first expedition to Tibet in 1930 under the auspices of the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia when he was only twenty years old. one part explorer and one part scientist: a Nazi Indiana Jones'. and even took plaster casts of Tibetans' faces. he joined the American Brooke Dolan expedition to Siberia. the colour and shape of eyes. clippings from several German newspapers. Ernst Schafer attended school in Heidelberg and Gottingen. Schafer noted height and weight. which during its expedition through Tibet stayed a long time in Lhasa and in the capital of the Panchen Lama. DC. (29) As Levenda demonstrates. running to many hundreds of pages. the return march of the expedition was hastened in order to secure . finally reaching the rank of Sturmbannfuhrer in 1942. Schafer was 'a man of many parts: one part SS officer and one part scholar. (Indeed. He became a member of the SS in mid1933. the members of the expedition managed to conduct other research. for instance. China and Tibet. Der Neue Tag published the following article: SACRED TIBETAN SCRIPTURE ACQUIRED BY THE DR SCHAFER-EXPEDITION ON NINE ANIMAL LOADS ACROSS THE HIGH-COUNTRY (SPECIAL) FRANKFURT . On 21 July 1939. which included an exhaustive study of the physical attributes of the Tibetan people. his correspondence. Schafer was also a respected scientist who published papers in various journals. until he began to search for references in the microfilmed records in the Captured German Documents Section of the National Archives in Washington. (30) Schafer was also deeply interested in the religious and cultural practices of the Tibetans. dealing with the work of Dr Ernst Schafer of the Ahnenerbe.The American researcher Peter Levenda experienced a similar scepticism with regard to the supposed Nazi-Tibet connection. and the official SS-Tibet Expedition of 1938-1939 under his leadership. Since the monsoons began unusually early. These documents included Dr Schafer's personal notebooks. As Levenda wryly notes. took great care to record his observation of a fifteen-year-old Lanchung girl masturbating on a bridge beam. such as the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences. including their sexuality. which accounts for the difficulty Schafer occasionally had in securing funding for his trips).

along with cult objects. About 50 live animals are on the way to Germany. Also especially extensive are the zoological and botanical collections that the expedition has already shipped. But for now. Dr Schafer was also able. with its alleged attempts to contact (and enlist the aid of) a mysterious group of vastly powerful Eastern adepts. valuable geographical and earth-historical accomplishments were made. With regard to the expedition itself. so that the unimpeded return of the expedition out of Tibet with its valuable collections was guaranteed. we must ourselves embark on a journey to Tibet. while numerous other live animals are still with the expedition. the remainder of which they will bring themselves. The zoological collection includes the total bird-fauna of the research area.the shipment of the precious collections. Levenda suggests that the Tibet Expedition of 1938-1939 attempted to prove the pseudo-scientific World Ice Theory of Hans Horbiger. which required nine animal loads to transport. This bizarre theory will be discussed in detail in Chapter Seven. With the help of the regent of Lhasa it was Dr Schafer who also succeeded in obtaining the Kangschur. known in some quarters as 'the Phantom Kingdom'. Difficulties encountered due to political tensions with the English authorities were eliminated due to personal contact between Dr Schafer and members of the British authorities in Shangtse. To examine the origins of this idea. in part. The expedition has singularly valuable scientific research results to inventory. An extensive herbarium of all existing plants is also on its way. In addition to outstanding accomplishments in the areas of geophysical and earth-magnetic research they succeeded in obtaining an extra-rich ethnological collection including. (32) Levenda informs us that he was unable to discover the fate of the Kangschur. let us return to the concept embodied in the rumours about the Vril Society. while it must be conceded that it had very little to do with the occult or magical ambitions of the Third Reich. 108-volume sacred script of the Tibetans. although he suspects that it was taken to Vienna. it is possible that the 'earth-magnetic' and 'geophysical' experiments had a firm foundation in a very shaky theory. the extensive. the 'core document' of Tibetan Buddhism. Furthermore. many articles and tools of daily life. to Germany. a hitherto unknown wild goat. to bag a Schapi. . for the first time.

ruled by Hsi Wang Mu.000 years. (3) . and Tomas speculates that the Gobi Desert may at one time have been an inland sea with accompanying fertile land. Before we address the Third Reich's alleged interest in Agartha and Shambhala. The Land of the Immortals The writer Andrew Tomas spent many years studying the myths and legends of the Far East. In this way.4 . Hsi Wang Mu. which refer to Nu and Kua. and was displaced with the fall of Atlantis around 10. and have come to occupy an important place in twentieth-century occultism and fringe science. Only the most wise and virtuous of human beings are permitted to visit the garden and eat the fruit. The Kun Lun Mountains hold a very important place in Chinese mythology.800 BC (see Chapter Two). while remaining hidden from the vast majority of humanity who are unworthy of its secrets. which appears only once every 6. according to Thulean mythology. until. and his book Shambhala: Oasis of Light is an eloquent argument in favour of the realm's actual existence. we may chart the course of its warping and degradation as it was fitted into the Nazi scheme of crypto-history. is said to live in a nine-storeyed palace of jade. that is. it might seem strange in the extreme that the architects of the Third Reich would be interested in a region that many consider to be the spiritual centre of the world. we remember that. who is also called Kuan Yin. In the book. the Queen Mother of the West. has nevertheless been the primary force controlling the destiny of the planet.The phantom kingdom The Nazi-Tibet Connection At first sight. it is essential that we pause for a (necessarily brief) examination of the role of Shambhala in Tibetan mysticism. since it is in this range that the Immortals are believed to live. Since then. Tomas cites the ancient writings of China. the goddess of mercy. forbidding place should serve as the Chinese Garden of Eden rather than more hospitable regions such as the Yangtse Valley or the province of Shantung. the spiritual centre. Surrounding this palace is a vast garden in which grows the Peach Tree of Immortality. the 'Asiatic prototypes of Adam and Eve' and their birthplace in the Kun Lun Mountains of Central Asia. (1) The two hidden realms of Agartha and Shambhala constitute the double source of supernatural power emanating from Tibet. (2) As we shall see later in this chapter. this centre was once the Aryan homeland in the Arctic. the Gobi is a prime candidate as a site for one of the ancient and unknown civilising cultures whose wisdom has been passed down through the ages. It is something of a mystery-why such a desolate.

. where Cacella lived for 23 years until his death in 1650.. and it is said to lie in a region north of the Himalayas. recorded the existence of Chang Shambhala. claimed that Chang Shambhala lay between 45° and 50° north latitude. The writer Victoria Le Page describes this wondrous realm thus: . whether the ancient Chinese believed that the Immortals could travel in space in their physical bodies or by projecting their minds. since it is based on an acceptance of the plurality of inhabited worlds in the Cosmos. as described to them by the lamas of Shigatse. The most famous of these searchers is surely the great philosopher Lao Tzu (c. but which are not made of flesh and blood: they are the 'mind-born' gods whose bodies are composed of elementary atomic matter. Ancient Chinese texts are replete with legends regarding the attempts of many people to cross the Gobi Desert to the Kun Lun Mountains. which differentiates the abode of the spiritual adepts from the town called Shamballa. beyond the river Syr Daria. a Hungarian philologist named Csoma de Koros. this is still a remarkable concept to entertain. The people of India also believe in a place of wisdom and spiritual perfection. the Gobi Desert is the floor of what was once a great sea. in Tibet. According to Indian tradition. [S]omewhere beyond Tibet. In that place. a sacred zone whose inhabitants secretly guide the evolution of life on Earth. there lies an inaccessible paradise. among the icy peaks and secluded valleys of Central Asia. which allow them to live anywhere in the Universe. which contained an island called Sweta-Dvipa (White Island). Stephen Cacella and John Cabral. which is said to stand at the centre of a lake of nectar.The Immortals who aid Hsi Wang Mu in her attempts to guide humanity towards wisdom and compassion possess perfect. author of the book of Taoist teaching Tao Te Ching. who is said to have made the journey across the Gobi towards the end of his life.. a place of universal wisdom and ineffable peace called Shambhala . even at the centres of stars. (5) Legends of a hidden spiritual centre. two Jesuit missionaries. The great Yogis who once lived there are believed to live still in the high mountains and deep valleys that once formed the island of Sweta-Dvipa. The Vatican archives also contain many reports made by Catholic missionaries concerning deputations from the emperors of China to the spiritual beings living in the mountains. As Tomas notes. ageless bodies. This island has been identified by Orientalists with the Isle of Shambhala of Puranic literature. sages have existed since the beginning of human history in a valley of supreme beatitude . India. north of Benares. so the legends say. are widespread in the ancient cultures of the East. and to live on the planets of other star systems. In the seventeenth century.) (4) Nearly 200 years later. and are said to be able to travel anywhere in the Universe. These beings possess bodies that are visible. they call it Kalapa or Katapa. 6th century BC). It is inhabited by adepts from every race and culture who form an inner circle of humanity secretly guiding its evolution.. who lived for four years from 1827-30 in a Buddhist monastery in Tibet. (Chang Shambhala means Northern Shambhala.

W. the sun always shines. Having said this.that is sheltered from the icy arctic winds and where the climate is always warm and temperate. The concept of the hidden spiritual centre of the world is to be found in Hinduism. the Shambhalic tradition is enshrined within the Kalachakra texts. in the 1960s. who search for it risk an icy grave) where want. the gentle airs are always beneficient and nature flowers luxuriantly. The case was investigated by a Dr Raynor Johnson who. Once there she would join other people in dance exercises which she later recognised as being similar to the dervish exercises taught by George Gurdjieff. The inhabitants possess both supernatural powers and a highly advanced technology.) While some esotericists believe that Shambhala is a real place with a concrete.C. As with the Grail. and they devote their time to the study of the arts and sciences. Shambhala is also called 'Olmolungring' and 'Dejong'. wrote that at the age of 21 she began to attend a place she came to know as 'Night-School'. physical presence in a secret location on Earth. (6) Only the purest of heart are allowed to find this place (others. Shambhala might be considered as a state of mind. gathered together several hundred first-hand accounts of mystical experiences. (It is unlikely to be found at Koros's map coordinates. which are said to have been taught to the King of Shambhala by the Buddha before being returned to India. what might be called another dimension of space-time coterminous with our own. where she was taught spiritual lessons from a great book of wisdom. L. she graduated to a different class. shamanism and other ancient traditions. evil. It was only years later. Shambhala maybe a state within ourselves. the location of which she had no idea. Victoria Le Page cites a particularly intriguing case in her book Shambhala: The Fascinating Truth Behind the Myth of Shangri-la. others prefer to see it as existing on a higher spiritual plane. that she realised the true location of Night-School must have been Shambhala. when L. in which we may gain an insight into the higher spirituality inherent in the Universe. less idealistically motivated.C.W. began to take an interest in mystical literature.C. Alternatively. there has been a great deal of speculation as to the exact whereabouts of Shambhala. it should be noted that there are certain cases on record in which Westerners have experienced visions of a place bearing a striking resemblance to the fabled Shambhala. had other visions in which she saw what appeared to be a gigantic mast or antenna. Taoism.W. The base of this antenna was in the Pamirs or Tien Shan Mountains. At night she would fly in her sleep to this place. legend-haunted place. and who was referred to simply as L.C. violence and injustice do not exist. extending from Earth deep into interstellar space. as distinct from the mundane world of base matter in which we normally exist. (7) As might be expected with such a marvellous. comparable to the terms in which some consider the Holy Grail. After several years. Buddhism. In the Bon religion of preBuddhist Tibet. regions which are traditionally associated with . L. It involved a young Australian woman who claimed to have psychic abilities. In Tibetan Buddhism. their bodies are perfect.W.

C. 'she believed souls from other systems in space could enter the earth sphere by the same route. and would extend a branch or 'pseudopod' in response to a single thought. The spiritual being who was guiding her explained that the earth was in the process of being purified. and he found himself unable to return to his motherland. poet. and saw that it was a pillar of energy whose branches were actually paths leading to other worlds. .one of the many experiences that seem to offer strange and puzzling connections between apparently disparate elements of the paranormal and that make it such a complex and fascinating field of human enquiry. She was taken towards this antenna by an invisible guide. Roerich's profound interest in Buddhist mysticism led to his proposing an expedition in 1923 that would explore India.W. notably Nicholas Roerich (1874-1947). This interest led in turn to a lifelong fascination with art. P. Mongolia and Tibet. The shrine was consecrated in August. dedicated to Shambhala. Russia in 1874. and perhaps the most famous and respected of the esotericists who brought news of this fabulous realm to Westerners. with the ceremony witnessed by a number of invited lamas. (10) After attending the St Petersburg Academy of Fine Art. mystic and humanist. and several Mongolian guides in the Shara-gol valley near the Humboldt Mountains between Mongolia and Tibet. The Roerich Expedition of 1923-26 was made across the Gobi Desert to the Altai Mountains. However. he won a prize for his design of a new church. Rene Guenon. we may turn our attention to the work of the others. Roerich had just built a white stupa (or shrine).C. It was during this expedition that Roerich's party had a most unusual experience . Louis Jacolliot.Shambhala. This branch then became a 'trajectory of light' along which the soul would travel. marked by geometrical figures such as circles. triangles and squares. Since we have already spent some time with Madame Blavatsky.. Saint-Yves d'Alveydre and Nicholas Roerich. the Russian Revolution occurred while he was on a visit to America. Roerich went to Paris to continue his studies. other dimensions and other regions of this Universe. also maintained that the antenna could be controlled directly by the mind of the voyager. in the words of K. (8) L. through which. Born in St Petersburg. in her case. he became 'possessed of a burning desire to get at the beautiful and make use of it for his brethren'. (9) Our knowledge of the Shambhalic tradition in the West has come mainly from Orientalist scholars such as Helena Blavatsky. She also witnessed the apparent falling of a cluster of 'stars' that represented the arrival of 'high souls [that] were now coming down to help in the special event'. In 1906. Nicholas Roerich came from a distinguished family whose ability to trace its origins to the Vikings of the tenth century inspired his early interest in archaeology. Roerich had set up camp with his son. In addition to the antenna serving as a gateway for souls from Earth to travel to other times and places. Dr George Roerich. In the summer of 1926. who wrote a monograph on Roerich in 1935. and was also rewarded with the position of Director of the Academy for the Encouragement of Fine Arts in Russia. carrying their own spiritual influences with them'.W. artist. Tampy. this 'antenna' was nothing less than a gateway to other times. she found herself in China 30 years in the future. and that a 'great rebirth' was about to occur. According to L.

of which Roerich was a highly respected member. Many years after the casket was discovered. This. the chest contained four sacred objects. he notes that the more one examines them. (11) In commenting on the ubiquity of subterranean legends. including the Chintamani stone. for in that direction lay Shambhala. The Chintamani stone is said to come from one of the star systems in the constellation of Orion. probably Sirius. five strangers visited King Tho-tho-ri Nyan-tsan to explain the use of the sacred objects. Later. The Caves Beneath the Himalayas The concept of a subterranean realm (which we will discuss in much greater detail in Chapter Seven) is common throughout the world's religions and mythologies. meaning that the lords of that realm approved of his mission of exploration. The main body of the stone is always kept in the Tower of Shambhala. the lama told him that he was guarded by the King of Shambhala. Rigden Jye-Po. the party watched as a large black bird wheeled through the sky above them. but that he was protected by a 'Radiant form of Matter'. the greater the conviction that they are all 'but chapters from the one story'. was not what astonished them. According to tradition. the sacred object was a fragment of the Chintamani stone. high up in the cloudless sky. a chest fell from the sky in AD 331. Veering sharply to the south-west. Astonishingly. With regard to the present study. one of the lamas turned to Roerich and informed him that the fabulous golden orb was the sign of Shambhala. although small pieces are sometimes transferred to other parts of the world during times of great change. but many writers on esoteric subjects have claimed that he was on a mission to return a certain sacred object to the King's Tower at the centre of Shambhala. Roerich was asked by another lama if there had been a perfume on the air. It is rumoured that the fragment of Chintamani which Roerich was returning to the Tower had been in the possession of the League of Nations. we can identify a powerful antecedent to the legends and rumours still extant today in the mythology of Tibet. the stone is said to have been brought to Earth originally by an extraterrestrial being. As the Mongolian guides shouted to one another in the utmost excitement.Two days later. The exact purpose of this expedition (aside from exploration) was never made entirely clear by Roerich. Roerich describes his attempts to understand the origins of underworld legends 'to discover what memories were being cherished in the folk-memory'. When Roerich replied that there had been. (12) An examination of the . for far beyond the black bird. that the black vulture was his enemy. In his 1930 book Shambhala. the great mass of which lies in the Tower. however. The lama added that anyone who saw the radiant sphere should follow the direction in which it flew. According to Andrew Tomas. they clearly saw a golden spheroidal object moving from the Altai Mountains to the north at tremendous speed. the golden sphere disappeared rapidly beyond the Humboldt Mountains.

illuminated by artificial light. Roerich reports that the hoofs of their horses sounded hollow upon the ground. if your thoughts are similarly high and in contact with these holy people. very ancient money. Other members of the caravan called to Roerich: 'Do you hear what hollow subterranean passages we are crossing? Through these passages. too.folklores of 'Tibet. has departed underground'. was told by lamas in Mongolia of fabulous civilisations existing before recorded history. Poland. Persia. they fell prey to marauding bands of warriors. Mongolia. as though they were riding over immense caves. the Altai Mountains are the dwelling place of the Chud. the Ural. they have found a subterranean passage to the subterranean kingdom. (17) .) The caravaneers continued: 'Long ago people lived there. To Ossendowski's astonishment. In many places. but nobody could even remember a time when such money was in usage here. Central Asia is home to legends of an underground race called the Agharti. people who are familiar with them can reach far-off countries. France' (13) will yield tales of dwellers beneath the earth. Hungary. Roerich's guide continued that at certain times the Chud could be heard singing in their underground temples. the local people can even guide the curious traveller to cave entrances in isolated places. (16) Dr Ferdinand Ossendowski. Turkestan. Elsewhere in the Altai Mountains. However.' (15) In the region of Nijni Novgorod there is a legend of a subterranean city called Kerjenetz that sank into a lake. In Roerich's time. Caucasia.' (14) (The significance of this claim will become more apparent in Chapter Seven. because only sinners are upon earth and the pure and courageous people pass on to something more beautiful. which are said to lead to the hidden world of the subterraneans. his companions replied: 'Yes. those who built these monuments. In Shambhala. Roerich states that the name 'Chud' in Russian has the same origin as the word 'wonder'. To the people of the Himalayas. At our bazaar such people come with strange. the lamas claimed that when the homelands of these civilisations in the Atlantic and Pacific were destroyed by natural cataclysms some of their inhabitants survived in previously prepared subterranean shelters. the Russian steppes. China. Roerich's party went on to discover four more groups of menhirs. Germany. Altai. Andrew Tomas speculates that the Celtic legend of 'the Lordly Ones in the hollow hills' is a folk memory of the survivors of the destruction of the Atlantic continent.' When Roerich asked if he. although now departed. and could only escape by leaving their fertile valley and departing into the earth to continue their civilisation in subterranean realms. His guide through the Altai Mountains told him that the Chud were originally a powerful but peaceful tribe who flourished in the area in the distant past. on the way to Khotan. local people still held processions through the area. taking the form of a square outlined by large stones. Kashmir. now they have gone inside. and several tombs. whom we shall meet again in a little while. are not to be found anywhere on the Earth's surface: 'all which has disappeared. Lithuania. Siberia. Only rarely do some of them appear again on earth. could see such people. during which they would listen for the bells of invisible churches.

he was invisible. and is said to be covered with rubies. India. they intermarried with kings and queens from the surface world. Although born in Vitebsk. Serpent-like and extremely intelligent. Louis Jacolliot (1837-1890). Poland. The priests of Asgartha then managed to form an alliance with the victorious Aryan Brahmins. The Realm of Agartha Despite its inclusion in many popular books on Eastern mysticism. Jacolliot wrote a number of books on the relationship between Indian mythology and Christianity.000 years later. emeralds and diamonds. where the Brahmatma lived in an immense palace. such as the Book of Historical Zodiacs. the Nagas live in vast caverns illuminated by precious stones. he spent most of his early life in Russia. The inhabitants of this region speak of large lotus flowers floating on the surface of the Manasarawar Lake in the western part of the Tsang Po Valley. and only appeared to his subjects once a year. Jacolliot stated that this high prehistoric culture existed long before the Aryans. Radiant figures have also been seen near this extremely cold fresh-water lake. Able to fly. one of the many variations on the name. Interestingly. He returned to Europe in 1900 and gained a doctorate in Paris in 1903. For much of the 1890s. Asgartha was destroyed by the brothers Ioda and Skandah. which resulted in the formation of the warrior caste of Kshatriyas. In fact. attending the University of St Petersburg. About 5. legends tell of a race of beings called the Nagas.300 BC. which stretch for hundreds of miles inside the mountains. developing his interest in and knowledge of Buddhist mysticism. Although reptilian. Asgartha was a prehistoric 'City of the Sun'. while another French writer. (21) Ferdinand Ossendowski (1876-1945) was another early writer on the legend of Agartha. who came from the Himalayas. He . Their capital city is called Bhogawati. before returning to Russia and working as a chemist for the Russian Army during the Russo-Japanese War of 1905. was writing at the same time about a city of Asgartha. who allowed him to consult various sacred texts. 'Asgaard'. (20) Asgartha existed in India in 13. He was allegedly told the legend of Asgartha by a group of local Brahmins.In India. According to Jacolliot. the Nagas have human faces and are incredibly beautiful.000 BC. (19) A magistrate in Chandernagor. Eventually driven out by the Brahmins. although they remain shy of surface dwellers and keep well away from all but the most spiritually advanced. (18) Tomas writes that many Hindus and Tibetans have entered the caves of the Nagas. Renan placed his Asgaard in Central Asia. he travelled extensively in Mongolia and Siberia. the brothers travelled north and later gave their names to 'Odin' and 'Scandinavia'. who conquered Asgartha around 10. was first used by the French writer Ernest Renan in the 1870s. home of the Brahmatma. the visible manifestation of God on Earth. Although clearly inspired by Nordic mythology. the name 'Agartha' is unknown in Asiatic mythology.

the knife of the shepherd cutting the sheep's throat falls from his hand. Ossendowski was startled when his companions suddenly halted and dismounted from their camels. 'Only one man knows his holy name. Thus it has always been whenever the "King of the World" in his subterranean palace prays and searches out the destiny of all peoples on the earth. the marmots did not run and the dogs did not bark? The air trembled softly and bore from afar the music of a song which penetrated to the hearts of men. chanting: 'Om! Mani padme Hung!' Ossendowski waited until they had finished praying before asking them what was happening. the rapacious ermine ceases to stalk the unsuspecting saiga. before being taken prisoner by the Russian Government for his anti-Tsarist activities. Intrigued by this reference.' (23) Several months later. Some of the inhabitants of these regions are extremely strange: one race has two tongues. Ossendowski met an old Tibetan. . while continuing across Mongolia with some guides left behind by Tushegoun Lama (who had since gone his own way). Prince Chultun Beyli. The Mongols began to pray. While in Mongolia. Only one man now living was ever in [Agartha]. and he wrote of their adventures in his best-selling book Beasts. living in exile in Mongolia. he said. animals and birds alike. Tushegoun Lama told Ossendowski of the subterranean kingdom of Agartha. enabling them to speak in two languages at the same time. They can cultivate crops due to a strange light that pervades the underground realm. a priest named Tushegoun Lama who claimed to be a friend of the Dalai Lama. until the Bolshevik Revolution forced him to flee Russia with a small group of fellow White Russians. All living beings in fear are involuntarily thrown into prayer and waiting for their fate. home of the King of the World. including tortoises with sixteen feet and one eye. Ossendowski made the acquaintance of a fellow Russian. The inhabitants owe allegiance to the 'King of the World'. Men and Gods (1923). At such a moment the wolf that is stealing up on the sheep arrests his stealthy crawl. extends throughout all the subterranean passageways of the world. which immediately lay down. The wind did not blow and the sun did not move.then became president of the 'Revolutionary Government of the Russian Far East'. Together they travelled across Siberia and into Mongolia. That is I. Agartha. the frightened herd of antelopes suddenly checks its wild course. This is the reason why the Most Holy Dalai Lama has honoured me and why the Living Buddha in Urga fears me. Earth and sky ceased breathing. One of the Mongol guides replied thus: 'Did you not see how our camels moved their ears in fear? How the herd of horses on the plain stood fixed in attention and how the herds of sheep and cattle lay crouched close to the ground? Did you notice that the birds did not fly. I am no monk. for I shall never sit on the Holy Throne of the highest priest in Lhasa nor reach that which has come down from Jenghis Khan to the Head of our Yellow Faith. But in vain. (22) After two years' imprisonment in Siberia. Ossendowski asked his friend for further information on this mysterious personage. There are also many fantastic animals. So it was just now.' (24) Later. he taught physics and chemistry in the Siberian town of Omsk. who furnished him with more details of the subterranean realm of Agartha and the King of the World. I am a warrior and avenger.

about whom very little is known save that he left India at the time of the Sepoy Revolt of 1857 and worked as a bird-seller at Le Havre. he was able to visit . When he blessed the people with a golden apple surmounted by the figure of a lamb. when the Olets destroyed Lhasa. but that they never spoke about what they had seen there. In them. The King's influence on the activities of the world's apparent leaders was profound. who provided him with yet more information on the King of the World. He replied that very many had. In the town of Urga he met an old lama. This is the reason for the magical skills of the Olets and Kalmucks. wherever the eyes of the "King of the World" rested'. who possess fantastic power. Ossendowski was approaching the Chinese border. Sharif claimed that the original language of humanity. the crippled freely moved and the dead arose. the deaf heard. the legend of the King of the World would serve as the inspiration for one of the most enduring technological myths of the twentieth century. (As we shall see in Chapter Seven. but if they displeased God.At this point. the Holy Panditas.) The legend of Agartha was discussed at length by another writer. The throne on which the King of the World sits is itself surrounded by millions of incarnated gods. which is the name of an ancient Holyman who lived more than 300. He continued that. and who would easily be able to incinerate the entire surface of the Earth. the first man to know God. somewhat in the way that the Potala palace of the Dalai Lama in Lhasa is surrounded by monasteries and temples. one of their detachments found its way into the outskirts of Agartha. the dumb spoke. whose marriage into money enabled him to indulge his yearning for mystical understanding. Although he was unable physically to visit Agartha. If their plans were pleasing before God. the 'blind received their sight. d'Alveydre found an ingenious alternative: through disengaging his astral body. called Vattan or Vattanian. (25) He wore a white robe and a red tiara with strings of diamonds that hid his face. the self-educated Christian Hermeticist Saint-Yves d'Alveydre (1842-1909). a lama named Turgut. His power came from the 'mysterious science of "Om"'. The King's palace is surrounded by the palaces of the Goro. It was his intention to take a train to Peking. then the King of the World would help them to realise them. then the King would surely destroy them. When Ossendowski asked him if anyone had ever seen the King of the World. the old lama replied that during the solemn holidays of the ancient Buddhism in Siam and India the King appeared five times in a 'splendid car drawn by white elephants'. In 1885 he began to take lessons in Sanskrit from one Haji Sharif (1838-?). Sharif refers to the 'Great Agarthian School' and the 'Holy Land of Agarttha' (one of the many alternative spellings of the name). told him that the capital of Agartha is surrounded by the towns of the high priests and scientists. where they learned some of the lesser mysterious sciences. Another of Ossendowski's informants. derived from a 22-letter alphabet.000 years ago. should humankind be unwise enough to declare war on them. (26) Ossendowski then asked the lama how many people had been to Agartha. from which he might find passage to the West. (27) The manuscripts of d'Alveydre's lessons are preserved in the library of the Sorbonne in Paris.

Only two copies survived: one that he kept himself and one that was hidden by the printer. D'Alveydre states that. With regard to their exact location. and occasionally send emissaries. Ossendowski denied the charge vehemently. As we have seen. Mission de I'lnde. including the means by which the living may communicate with the souls of the dead. Guenon's work would later be heavily criticised by his translator Marco Pallis. he destroyed the entire edition of the last work. who wrote of the Vril-ya in his fictional work The Coming Race (discussed in the previous chapter). and claimed that there were many tales of subterranean realms told throughout Central Asia. and their frequently contradictory nature does nothing to help in an understanding of their possible influence on the hideous philosophy of the Third Reich. Others maintain that they are altogether more rarefied places. and Guenon had allowed himself to enter the realms of the sensational. palaces. about 3200 BC. existing on some other level of reality but apparently coterminous with our physical world. The Agarthians possess technology that was impressive in d'Alveydre's day. A certain amount of controversy arose when Ossendowski published his Beasts. Mission des Juifs and Mission de l'Inde). The realm of Agartha was transferred underground at the beginning of the Kali-Yuga. cities lying miles underground with houses. They know everything about the surface-dwellers.the fabulous realm in spirit form (see pages 108-110). The legends surrounding the realms of Agartha and Shambhala are confusing to say the least. In fact. on the grounds that Ossendowski's sources were unreliable. (29) The Nazis and Tibetan Mysticism. Mission des Ouvriers. Childress offers a short summary of their many possible locations: 'Shambhala is . His astral adventures resulted in a series of books (Mission des Souverains. the true rulers of the world. although many millions of students have tried to possess the secrets of Agartha. streets and millions of inhabitants. for fear that he had revealed too many secrets of Agartha and might be made to pay for his transgression with his life. Men and Gods: it displayed such similarities to d'Alveydre's work that he was accused by some of plagiarism only imperfectly masked by an alteration in the spelling of Agartha. Agartha contains many libraries in which all the knowledge of Earth is recorded on stone tablets in Vattanian characters. Interestingly. some writers claim that Agartha and Shambhala are physical places. Rene Guenon defended Ossendowski. (28) He might well have been concerned. and claimed never to have heard of d'Alveydre before 1924. who called his book Le Roi du Monde (The King of the World) 'disastrous' in conversation with Joscelyn Godwin. which he published at his own expense. including railways and air travel. for Mission de I'lnde contains a detailed account of Agartha. which lies beneath the surface of the Earth somewhere in the East and is ruled over by an Ethiopian 'Sovereign Pontiff called the Brahmatma. very few have ever succeeded in getting further than the outer circles of the realm. d'Alveydre speaks of the Agartthians as being superior to humanity in every respect. Like Bulwer-Lytton.

When he discovered that the food he was being given contained human flesh.' (30) Adding to this confusion is the frequently made assertion that the two power centres are opposed to each other. or even in Northeast Nepal beneath Mount Kanchenjunga. and Shambhala following the left-hand path of evil and darkness (a dichotomy also expressed as spirituality versus materialism). His companion added: 'Anyone who would find out where it leads to and what it is used for would have to die. (31) Although apparently outlawed by Tibetan Buddhists. who followed the way of violence and materialism. perhaps near the Shigatse Monastery. He was told by an initiate that the shaft was 'immeasurably deep' and that only the highest initiates knew where it ended.sometimes said to be north of Lhasa. and the Shambhalists.' (32) Illion claimed to have gained access to a subterranean city inhabited by monks. who followed the way of spirituality. possibly in the Gobi Desert. There have been a number of rumours concerning practitioners of black magic operating in Tibet and referring to themselves as the Shambhala or the Agarthi. and other times it is said to be somewhere in Mongolia. who relates in Le Roi du Monde how the ancient civilisation in the Gobi Desert was all but destroyed by a natural cataclysm. There followed the formation of two groups: the Agarthi. One writer who claimed to have encountered them was a German named Theodore Illion who spent the mid-1930s travelling through Tibet. with Agartha seen as following the right-hand path of goodness and light. he decided to make a break for it and fled across Tibet with several of the monks after him. whose claims we shall examine in greater detail in the next chapter. including telepathic hypnosis and mediumship. and the 'Sons of Intelligences of Beyond' retreated to the caverns beneath the Himalayas and re-established their civilisation. Agharta is said to be south of Lhasa. or else in northern Tibet. The schism between Shambhala and Agartha is described by Rene Guenon. an opposing view that holds that Agartha is a place of evil and Shambhala the abode of goodness. he managed to escape from Tibet and returned to the West with his bizarre and frightening tale. After several weeks on the run. Guenon claimed (as would Illion several years later) that the denizens of the subterranean world sought to influence the lives and actions of the surface dwellers through various occult means. he describes how he discovered a deep shaft in the countryside. Occasionally it is said to be in Sri Lanka. he was rewarded only with silence. he dropped several stones into it and waited for them to strike the bottom. needless to say. One of the most vocal proponents of this idea was the British occult writer Trevor Ravenscroft. There is. In his book Darkness Over Tibet (1937). (33) There have also been persistent rumours that the Nazi interest in Tibet (itself a documented historical fact) was actually inspired by a desire to contact the black adepts of Shambhala and/or Agartha and to enlist their aid in the conquest of the world (see Chapter Three). Childress finds it intriguing . Wishing to gauge its depth. whom he later found to be 'black yogis' planning to control the world through telepathy and astral projection. Both have been located inside the hollow earth [see Chapter Seven]. possibly in the Changtang Highlands. they are said to continue their activities in secret.

(We have already noted that the much-quoted Hermann Rauschning is considered by some serious historians. the . claimed to have met with Martin Bormann in Morocco the previous year. that magazine's publisher. the French writer. (34) This crypto-historical scenario continues with Hitler making the acquaintance of a mysterious Tibetan monk who told him that Germany could conquer the world by forging an alliance with the 'Lords of Creation'. lush valley in the high mountains with a tall. At the Valley of the Immortals. Like in the Kun Lun Mountains. Bormann informed Kaerner that Hitler was alive in a Tibetan monastery. Agharta and Shambhala have a cache of fantastic inventions and artifacts from distant civilizations in the past. such as Ian Kershaw.) As is so often the case in the field of occultism. ornate solid jade tower from which a brilliant light shines. soon after the publication of Illion's book Darkness Over Tibet. the claims of crypto-historians regarding Nazi involvement with the black magicians of Tibet suffer from a paucity of hard evidence in the form of documentation and testimony from surviving witnesses. There is. In contrast to the Valley of the Immortals in the Kun Lun Mountains. As Childress notes: Shambhala draws strong similarities to the Land of the Immortals (Hsi Wang Mu) in that it is said to be a wonderful. discovering the bodies of several Tibetan monks. and suggests that their true objective was to make contact with the occult groups. the cave communities with their incredible sights were part illusion.that Hitler sent expeditions to Tibet in the late 1930s. it is claimed by the crypto-historians that Hitler was flying out of the city's Tempelhof Airfield to a rendezvous with the U-boat (possibly U-977) that would take him either to Argentina or Antarctica. a variation on this theme that has the Fuhrer escaping to Tibet to be hidden by those whose alliance he had sought. who were at war with the Buddhists of Tibet. however. according to some. Nicholas Roerich also mentions the occultists of the ancient Bon religion. as we saw in Chapter Three). While the victorious Russians were picking their way through the ruins of Berlin (and. to be extremely unreliable. and that one day he would be back in power in Germany! In addressing the question of whether such black magicians really lived (or still live) in Tibet. According to an article in the May 1950 issue of the proNazi Tempo Der Welt. Karl Heinz Kaerner. explorer and authority on Tibetan mysticism Alexandra David-Neel (1868-1969) describes an encounter with a man who could hypnotise and kill from a distance. (15) While certainly intriguing. it is unlikely that any person not chosen specifically by those who are the caretakers of this repository would be allowed inside Nor would those who had entered (such as possibly Nicholas Roerich) ever reveal the location or what they had seen there. perhaps there really were ancient artifacts of a time gone by watched over by Ancient Masters. If the story is to be believed (which would be extremely unwise). Childress reminds us that in her book Initiations and Initiates in Tibet. Yet. say Illion and Ravenscroft.

.way is left open to those who are quite content to rely on spurious sources and hearsay in their creation of a tantalising but incredible vision of history. and it is to his claims that we now must turn. One of the most famous of these crypto-historians is Trevor Ravenscroft.

and spent four years in German POW camps after allegedly participating in an attempt to assassinate Field Marshal Rommel in North Africa in 1941. the Nazis were. (1) . whatever its merits or demerits. The Spear of Destiny is still in print today and. which led him to study the legend of the Holy Grail 'and to research into the history of the Spear of Longinus and the legend of world destiny which had grown around it'. made up of those who really know? An order: a brotherhood of the Knights of the Holy Grail. around the Holy Grail of Pure Blood' . it remains one of the most important texts in the field of Nazi occultism.and have attempted to use this statement as a point of connection between the Nazis and the occult. According to this scheme of history. the book chronicles the early career of the man who would stain the twentieth century with the blood of millions and whose name would become a synonym for cruelty of the most repulsive kind: Adolf Hitler. Entitled The Spear of Destiny. quite literally.'Shall we form a chosen band. it has been left largely to writers on 'fringe' subjects to push the envelope (wisely or otherwise) and claim that the Nazis were motivated by genuine occult forces: in other words. but how useful is it as a means to explain the loathsome existence of Nazism? The Holy Lance and its Influence on Nazi Occultism In 1973 Trevor Ravenscroft. Hailed by some as a classic of occult history and derided by others as no more than a work of lurid fiction.Talisman of conquest The Spear of Longinus As we noted in the introduction. This is certainly an intriguing notion. Perhaps unsurprisingly. a number of writers on the occult have turned their attention over the years to the baffling catastrophe of Nazism and have added their own attempts to explain the terrifying mystery of its true origin by attempting to fit Nazi Germany into an occult context. While imprisoned.5 . these writers have paid close attention to an intriguing statement Hitler is known to have made . He made three escape attempts but was recaptured each time. that there actually exist in the Universe malign. published a book that would cause more controversy than any other dealing with the subject of Nazism and that is still the subject of heated debate today. historian and veteran of the Second World War. (It should be noted here that. to make such a claim for a book is by no means equivalent to defending its historical accuracy. nonhuman intelligences that seek ways to influence the destiny of humanity for their own ends and that used the Nazis as conduits through which these influences might work. practising Satanists and black magicians. Ravenscroft claims to have experienced a sudden apprehension of 'higher levels of consciousness'. Although serious historians accept that occult and folkloric concepts played a significant role in the development of Nazi ideas and doctrine. such is the murky and bizarre nature of this field.) Ravenscroft was a Commando in the Second World War.

that whoever possessed it and understood the powers it served. and Caiaphas. Ravenscroft decided to call on Stein at his home in Kensington. Gaius Cassius. The legend grew around it. which asserts that the medieval Grail Romances and their description of the quest for the Holy Grail Veiled a unique Western path to transcendent consciousness'. gaining strength with the passing of the centuries. The hours were passing and this presented the excuse they needed. He rode his horse towards the Cross and thrust his spear into Jesus's torso. but merely a heretic and potential usurper of their own power. Isaiah had prophesied of the Messiah. 'A bone of Him shall not be broken. he came to be revered as a great hero and saint by the first Christian community in Jerusalem. Stein had emigrated from Germany to Britain in 1933. entitled The Ninth Century World History in the Light of the Holy Grail (1928). A convert to Christianity. they petitioned Pontius Pilate for the authority to break the limbs of the crucified men so that they should die before dusk on that Friday afternoon. the aged advisor to the Sanhedrin. (3) Ravenscroft informs us that. (2) When the Temple Guard arrived to mutilate the bodies of Christ and the two thieves. by rights. and a prime witness of the shedding of the Blood of the New Covenant for which the Spear became the symbol . 1891). were intent on mutilating the body of Christ to prove to the masses of the people that Jesus was not the Messiah. which prevented him from battle service with his Legion. (4) It was clear to Ravenscroft that Dr Stein had conducted his historical research along rather unorthodox lines.. His association with Ravenscroft came about as a result of a book Stein had written. Cassius decided to protect the Nazarene's body in the only way possible. An Austrian Jew. between the fourth and fifth ribs. who had performed a martial deed out of the compassionate motive to protect the body of Jesus Christ. For Annas was an authority on the Law. the man who should have written The Spear of Destiny (and would surely have done so. the High Priest.The spear in question is the one said to have been used by the Roman centurion Gaius Cassius to pierce the side of Christ during the crucifixion. The flowing of the Saviour's blood completely restored the centurion's sight. relying on occult methods of mind expansion to apprehend data rather than the more traditional means of consulting extant medieval texts. Cassius was present. held the destiny of the world in his hands for good or evil. so he was sent to Jerusalem to report on events there. When the Nazarene was crucified. In view of his own experience of higher levels of consciousness. and the Jewish Law decreed that no man should be executed on the Sabbath Day. Cassius suffered from cataracts in both eyes. and his resulting fascination with the Grail legends.' Annas.. Straightaway. . Ravenscroft was greatly impressed by the book. became known as Longinus The Spearman. had he not died in 1957) was a Viennese philosopher and wartime British secret agent named Walter Johannes Stein (b.

leather-bound copy of Parsival whose pages were covered with annotations in a minute script. was Ricilda the Bad. compulsory course on German literature at the University of Vienna. Stein wrote down the words he had been speaking and. by the 'almost insane worship of Aryan blood lineage and Pan-Germanism'. to discover that he had been reciting whole tracts of the .. one August morning in 1912 in a dingy bookshop in Vienna's old quarter. found them to be virtually identical. who served as models for the characters in the romance. grandson of Charlemagne. To Stein this strongly implied the existence of some preternatural mental faculty. His subsequent researches into the Grail Romances led to his discovery. the annotations represented the workings of a brilliant but utterly hideous mind. on comparing them with von Eschenbach's romance. adding that he believed a similar faculty had inspired Wolfram von Eschenbach to write the great Grail romance Parsival (c. For instance. One night. According to Stein. a kind of 'higher memory' that could be accessed under certain circumstances. The Grail king Anfortas corresponded to King Charles the Bald.superstitions as loathsome and ludicrous as the Yiddish rites of circumcision. he became more and more uneasy at the nature of the annotations. where he began to pore over its pages As he read. alongside the verses describing the Grail Procession and the Assembly of Knights at the High Mass in the Grail Castle. yet obviously spurned the Christian ideals of the [Grail] Knights and delighted in the devious machinations of the Anti-Christ. romantic verses in a sort of pictureless dream!' (6) This happened three times in all. and Klingsor. the Chancellor to the Frankish Court.. Cundrie.' (8) To Stein. Ravenscroft voiced his belief that Stein had utilised some transcendent faculty in his research for The Ninth Century.. he had a most unusual extrasensory experience: 'He awoke . the sorceress and messenger of the Grail. It suddenly dawned on him that he was reading the footnotes of Satan! (7) Stein was repelled yet fascinated by the vulgar racial fanaticism displayed in the annotations. 1200). von Eschenbach based Parsival on the key figures of the ninth century. (5) Stein had first read Parsival while taking a short. was identified as Landulf II of Capua who had made a pact with Islam in Arab-occupied Sicily and whom Ravenscroft calls the most evil figure of the century. of a tattered. Stein bought the book from the shop assistant and took it to Demel's Cafe in the Kohlmarkt. the fantastically evil magician who lived in the Castle of Wonders. Parsival himself corresponded to Luitward of Vercelli. a mind that had inverted the traditional idea of the quest for the Grail as a gradual and .. there appeared an entry written in large letters scrawled across the printed page: 'These men betrayed their pure Aryan Blood to the dirty superstitions of the Jew Jesus .During this meeting. This was no ordinary commentary but the work of somebody who had achieved more than a working knowledge of the black arts! The unknown commentator had found the key to unveiling many of the deepest secrets of the Grail.

) Pretzsche showed Stein some of Hitler's other books. 'The Spear appeared to be some sort of magical medium of revelation for it brought the world of ideas into such close and living perspective that human imagination became more real than the world of sense. which included works by Hegel. (9) Having failed to gain entry to the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts and the School of Architecture. and growing more and more embittered and consumed with an increasing sense of his own destiny as dominator of the world. turning it into its antithesis: the opening of the human spirit. Stein glanced up for a moment through the cafe window and found himself looking into a dishevelled. When Stein left the cafe late that afternoon. he heard a tour guide explaining to a group of foreign politicians the legend associated with the Lance of St Maurice: that it was actually the spear that Gaius Cassius had used to pierce the side of Christ during the Crucifixion. and that whoever succeeded in understanding its secrets would hold the destiny of the world in his hands for good or evil. an extremely unsavoury-looking man named Ernst Pretzsche. Chamberlain. The apparition was shabbily dressed and was holding several small watercolours that he was trying to sell to passers-by. and redeemed them with money earned from selling his paintings. the British fascist and advocate of German racial superiority who frequently claimed to be chased by demons. by the time Stein found the annotated copy of Parsival Adolf Hitler had already paid many visits to the Weltliches Schatzkammer Museum (Habsburg Treasure House) in Vienna. After inviting Stein to come and consult him on esoteric matters at any time (which Stein had no intention of doing. Hitler was extremely irate when Stein walked up to him and told him of his interest in the annotations in the copy of Parsival he had bought. Pretzsche told him that Hitler pawned many of his books in order to buy food. literature and philosophy. Nietzsche and Houston S. to the power and influence of Satan himself. While sheltering from the rain in the Treasure House one day. He cursed Pretzsche for selling one of .' (10) Intent on meeting the man who had written so perceptively and frighteningly in the battered copy of Parsival. such was the loathsomeness of the man). According to Ravenscroft.immensely difficult awakening to wider spiritual reality. the shop assistant had made a mistake in selling Parsival to Stein. In the conversation that ensued. Stein returned to the dingy bookshop and this time encountered the owner. Shaken by what he had read in the annotated pages of the book. (Apparently. Pretzsche maintained that he was a master of black magic and had initiated Hitler into the dark arts. Pretzsche gave him Hitler's address in Meldemannstrasse. It was only then that he realised that the signature on the watercolours was the same as that on the copy of Parsival he had bought: Adolf Hitler. which held the Lance of St Maurice (also known as Constantine's Lance) used as a symbol of the imperial power of Holy Roman emperors at their coronations. arrogant face with demoniacal eyes. he bought some watercolours from the down-and-out painter and hurried home. through the use of black magic. Hitler had thrown himself into an intense study of Nordic and Teutonic mythology and folklore. German history.

While the Viennese people cheered the German forces' arrival. (13) Jews of all ages. when Hitler arrived in Vienna to complete the Anschluss of Austria. whether they were religious or not. was but a pale foreshadowing of the horrors to come. others were forced to dance on Torah scrolls. once Stein had told him of his own researches into the Holy Grail and the Spear of Longinus.000 people dismissed from key ministries in the Austrian Government. the two men responded to it in very different ways. As they stood before the display.the books he had pawned. the water they were given was mixed with acid that burned their hands. were ordered to scrub anti-Nazi slogans from the streets. They decided to pay a visit to the Schatzkammer together to look at the Holy Lance. the Jews and opponents of the Nazi regime faced a persecution that. a man over whom some dreadful magic spell had been cast. it seemed to him that Hitler was responding in a way which was diametrically opposite to his own. The very space around him seemed enlivened with some subtle irradiation. One message above all seemed to be inspired by the sight of this Spear which held within its central cavity one of the nails which had secured the body of Jesus to the Cross. the deportation of Jews to the concentration camps would begin. With him were Heinrich Himmler and Wolfram Sievers. apparently regarding the young university student as a possible ally in the Pan-German cause. evoking responses of reverence.' A call from the Immortal Self of Man resounding in the darkness of confusion and doubt within the human soul: Through Compassion to Self-Knowledge. However. humility and love. In less than a month. . His face was flushed and his brooding eyes shone with an alien emanation. Seventy-six thousand people were arrested when the Nazis arrived. (12) The inscrutable occult processes that were set in motion by Hitler's discovery of the Holy Lance were consolidated on 14 March 1938. His whole physiognomy and stance appeared transformed as if some mighty Spirit now inhabited his very soul. Hitler (according to Ravenscroft) went to the Habsburg Treasure House to claim the Holy Lance. (11) As Stein glanced at his companion. whom he ordered to leave him alone with the object of his diabolical desire. creating within and around him a kind of evil transfiguration of its own nature and power. It was a message of compassion which had been so wonderfully expressed in the motto of the Grail Knights: 'Durch Mitleid wissen. He was swaying on his feet as though caught up in some totally inexplicable euphoria. Hitler became more amicable. Adolf Hitler stood beside him like a man in a trance. Hitler's SS Death's Head squads and members of the Hitler Youth urinated on Jews and forced them to spit in each other's faces. For some moments [Stein] was almost overcome by the powerful emotions which filled his breast and flowed like a river of healing warmth through his brain. a kind of ghostly ectoplasmic light. with a further 6. while utterly appalling. (14) While these atrocities were being perpetrated.

purporting to be the weapon of the Roman Centurion Longinus.. it is difficult to disagree with his judgement. we must therefore turn our attention to the problems inherent in Ravenscroft's account.] . it would have been a rather stupid decision to hide the lance in Vienna. where it was last mentioned in his hands at the famous battle of Unstrut in which the Saxon Cavalry conquered the marauding Magyars.. Whatever Hitler's visions on this occasion. the 'Fowler'. . the lance had been smuggled out of Nuremberg and hidden in Vienna to keep it out of the French dictator's hands. Napoleon could have acquired it at any time. while holding it in their possession. historical records prove that the lance was taken from Nuremberg to Vienna in 1800 and placed in the museum on full display. as Anderson comments. Had he wanted the lance. which were scattered around the palaces. was the very one used by the Roman centurion to pierce the side of Christ? We are told that Hitler found little difficulty in sorting out the merits of the various Spears. This Spear.' (17) However. since the French had already occupied the city the previous month. including Napoleon Bonaparte. (19) [Emphasis added. which. To be sure. And what of the spear itself. . it was more than a quarter of a century since he had last seen it. For instance. Stein and The Spear of Destiny. 'Why would anyone want to smuggle anything into an occupied city if the purpose in so doing was to keep it out of the hands of the head of the occupying force?' (18) Moreover. who had demanded the lance after the Battle of Austerlitz of December 1805. the Spear of Longinus had been the inspiration of his whole life and the key to his meteoric rise to power. This view is also taken by the Australian author and journalist Ken Anderson. had apparently been traced by numerous historians right through to the tenth century to the reign of the Saxon King Heinrich I. claims Ravenscroft. (16) and in spite of the breathless praise it has received from occult writers and reviewers over the years. we are told in Spear that the Holy Lance had been prized by many great warriors through the centuries. 'Just before the battle began. and nearly thirty years since he first beheld it and heard of its unique legend. and. cathedrals and churches of Europe . dating back to the Third Century.Although . inaugurated the Atomic Age by dropping their atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. the scene of the German Fuhrer standing there before the ancient weapon must be regarded as the most critical moment of the twentieth century until the Americans claimed the Spear in Nuremberg in 1945. whose book Hitler and the Occult (1995) is a powerful and well-argued critique of Ravenscroft. of Hitler's desire to claim this allegedly most powerful of magical talismans. (15) Problems with Ravenscroft's Account Joscelyn Godwin has called The Spear of Destiny 'a bloodcurdling work of historical reinvention'. museums. Adolf Hitler was excited to find one Spear which appeared to have been associated with a legend of world destiny throughout its entire history. these problems are manifold and display clear inconsistencies both with what we know of the history of the Third Reich and the wider context of European history. as he learned it from Stein. For the rest of this chapter.

When Jerusalem fell to the Persians in AD 615. It was captured by the Turks in 1492. who sent it as a gift to Rome. (20) The existence of a lance which was supposedly used to stab Christ is first recorded in the sixth century by the pilgrim St Antonius of Piacenza. the sword of Constantine the Great was sent by Hugh the Good.' (23) And in fact.' (Athelstan [895-940] was the grandson of Alfred the Great. or Constantine's Lance. although its authenticity has never been established beyond doubt.) According to William of Malmesbury. first mentioned in the sixth century. The shaft of the lance was sent to Jerusalem in about AD 670 by the Frankish pilgrim Arculf. the shaft of the lance was captured by the victors. a question will doubtless have occurred to the reader: how could a weapon dating back only to the third century have been used to pierce the side of Christ? It is a question Ravenscroft does not answer. who claims to have seen it in the Mount Zion Basilica in Jerusalem. (24) Anderson spots a crucial mistake in this account of the lance (and one which certainly casts doubt on Stein's unorthodox methods of historical 'research'. This lance is known as the Lance of St Maurice. we do not have the unique facility Ravenscroft had [i. turning up in Constantinople. such a task lies well beyond the scope of this book also. (21) However. More than six centuries later.At this point. However. while the lance-head was saved and taken to Constantinople where it was incorporated into an icon and kept in the Santa Sophia Church. which was made in the eighth or ninth century. King of the Franks. 'by means of a unique method of historical research involving "Mind Expansion" was able to discover Heinrich had sent the lance to the English King Athelstan. and only reappears in history in the late ninth century. Ravenscroft says Hitler's henchman SS head Heinrich Himmler put the finest scholars in Germany to work on bridging the gap but they were unable to do so. He goes on: Besides. he was the first ruler of all England. It was subsequently returned as a gift for Otto's wedding to Athelstan's sister Eadgita. (25) . Dr Walter Stein. to King Athelstan to persuade him to give his daughter's hand in marriage. is not the one Hitler found in the Habsburg Treasure House. (22) Anderson writes: 'It would take much research to examine each one of Ravenscroft's claims concerning the possessors of the Maurice Lance and its affect on them and on world history.) Stein 'found' that the lance was present at the Battle of Malmesbury in which the Danes were defeated on English soil. archaeologists have established that this lance. The lance-head disappeared (and was possibly destroyed) during the French Revolution. techniques of psychic mind expansion] in tracing its owners where there is no written record. for example its progression from the time it left the hands of Heinrich I and turned up many years later in the possession of his son Otto the Great. Crowned King in 925.e. the point found its way into the possession of the French King Louis and was taken to the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris. It has remained in St Peter's since then. Ravenscroft's mentor.

Anderson reports that when he made enquiries of former Commando Sergeant Jack Terry. and the two men remained friends and colleagues from then until Stein's death. London. Rather. Bill. in which he claims to have been taken prisoner by the Germans after the attempted assassination of Rommel. Six months later. the ex-soldier insisted that Ravenscroft was not a member of the party. Bill Ravenscroft stated that his brother met Walter Stein not by paying an unannounced visit to his Kensington home but rather through Stein's wife.It so happens that historical inaccuracies are also to be found in Ravenscroft's account of his own exploits in the Second World War. escaping three times but each time being recaptured.' Although the raid on Rommel certainly took place on 13-14 November 1941 (with all but two of the party being captured). Trevor learned of Stein's impressive library through Yopi and was given permission by her to consult the books in the library in order to complete The Spear of Destiny. He was subsequently taken prisoner of war on an unspecified date. Paying Stein a visit in Kensington. (27) 'In any case Ravenscroft's service record shows he was "missing at sea" on 24 October 1941. and also of his belief that Wolfram von Eschenbach had employed the same talents in composing his Grail romance Parsival in the twelfth century. Trevor Ravenscroft makes no mention . England just after the war. Ravenscroft himself died of cancer in January 1989 in Torquay. He then trained as a commando and joined the Special Services. well before the raid. I don't know a single letter of the alphabet. A few years after the war.' Ravenscroft says that the reason Eschenbach was stressing that he did not know a letter of the alphabet was to make it clear that he had not gathered the material for the book from his contemporaries.' (28) There also appear to be inconsistencies in Ravenscroft's account of how he came to meet Walter Stein. (26) According to the cover blurb on various editions of The Spear of Destiny: 'He was captured on a raid which attempted to assassinate Field Marshal Rommel in North Africa and was a POW in Germany from 1944 to 1945. in December 1939. he was saying his so-called Grail romance was an 'Initiation Document' of the highest order. traditional folklore. in January 1995. Ravenscroft quoted to Stein this extract from Eschenbach's work: 'If anyone requests me to [continue the story] let him not consider it as a book. he received his commission in the Royal Scots Fusiliers. (29) Stein was impressed enough by his visitor's argument that he invited him to stay to lunch. Ravenscroft informed him of his belief. Yopi. (30) According to Bill Ravenscroft. Ravenscroft read Stein's book World History in the Light of the Holy Grail and came to the conclusion that much of the material in the book had been accessed by Stein through occult means of mind expansion. A former King's Own Borderers officer. Ravenscroft attended Repton Public School and then Sandhurst Military College. England. Born in 1921. Ravenscroft is not mentioned in records as being present in the 28-man team who conducted the operation. perhaps similar to those he himself had employed while a prisoner of war. or any existing written work. while Trevor Ravenscroft was teaching at the Rudolf Steiner school in East Grinstead. Anderson interviewed Ravenscroft's brother.

the fifteenth. the tumultuous jubilation of the crowds reached near-delirium.. not on a 'reviewing stand' in front of it. And yet there are more problems with this pivotal point in the book. locked into an irrevocable collision course with disaster..the same parade which Ravenscroft says Hitler attended before going on to . and then go out onto the balcony of his hotel suite several times at the insistence of the Viennese people? (36) In spite of this.. on 14 March and the mass welcome in the Heldenplatz took place the next day . there are also photographs to prove that Hitler faced the Viennese crowds from the balcony of the Hofburg. he 'left the Ring to drive directly to the Imperial Hotel where the most luxurious suite in the city awaited him'. then there is a further problem: Hitler stayed in Vienna less than twenty-four hours! He was not there on the night of the fifteenth. Anderson asks: why? 'Was Bill's memory of events incorrect? Was it because the symbiotic relationship that supposedly developed between Trevor and the man he claims was his mentor never happened?' (31) If The Spear of Destiny is to be believed. Ravenscroft has Hitler leaving the Imperial Hotel 'long after midnight' to head for the Habsburg Treasure House and the Holy Lance. then stand in full view outside the Hofburg. Hitler refused an invitation for a tour of the city. when he stood on the balcony of the Hofburg and announced to hundreds of thousands in the Heldenplatz the "greatest report of a mission accomplished" in his life .whatsoever of Yopi in his book. the moment Hitler entered the Habsburg Treasure House upon the annexation of Austria in 1938 and stood before the holy artefact he had coveted for so long humanity in the twentieth century was lost. (34) Arrangements for a civic dinner and reception were cancelled because Hitler was 'terrified that an attempt would be made to kill him' (35) and remained in his suite. How could the citizens of Vienna have known that the ecstasy on the face of Adolf Hitler was the twisted ecstasy of revenge!' (32) Joachim Fest. After attending a military parade at the Maria-Theresa monument at two o'clock that afternoon ..m.' (33) If Fest's academic credentials are insufficient. If Ravenscroft has meant us to understand that the rally in the square he speaks of was on the fifteenth. why did he arrive in Vienna in an open car that passed through the cheering crowds. Ravenscroft goes on to claim that after reviewing the Austrian SS and giving his permission for the founding of a new SS regiment. Ravenscroft writes: 'When Hitler was driven down the Ringstrasse to the Ring and on to the Heldenplatz to the reviewing stand in front of the Hofburg. Hitler arrived in Vienna at 5 p. Instead. Anderson asks a pertinent question: if Hitler was terrified that an attempt would be made on his life. one of the greatest authorities on Hitler and the Third Reich offers a slightly different account of the Fuhrer's moment of triumph at the 'reunion' of Germany and Austria: 'All the aimlessness and impotence of those years were now vindicated. According to Anderson: . all his furious craving for compensation at last satisfied.

Before moving on.and considerable evidence that he wasn't. be apparent from this all too brief overview of the problems inherent in The Spear of Destiny that. (Eckart. Alfred Rosenberg and Rudolf von Sebottendorff were said to have conducted horrific seances.Hitler flew out in his Junkers aircraft as the twilight settled on an enervated Vienna. there is no evidence that Hitler himself was an occultist . (37) It is also difficult to imagine how Hitler could have left his hotel and gone to the Treasure House without being seen by anyone in the seething crowds that remained in the streets. while the book may be a fascinating . as a serious historical work it is completely unsatisfactory. the use of occult techniques to enhance the powers of the mind and thus gain access to historical information that has not been preserved in any conventional way. in which a naked female medium exuded ectoplasm from her vagina and through whom contact was established with the seven Thulist hostages who had been murdered by the Communists in April 1919. believing its revelations regarding Hitler and the Holy Lance to be accurate. conceivable that Trevor Ravenscroft was well aware that he was penning a work of almost total fiction. this is mere conjecture and is absolutely not proven. however. in the Dennis Wheatley mould of occult ripping yarns. While it is of course beyond question that the Nazi Party arose out of the National Socialist German Workers' Party. of course. The ghosts predicted that Hitler would claim the Holy Lance and lead Germany into global conflagration. for instance. we must say a few words about the claims of many occult writers that Hitler was involved in black magic practices.read. Speer. recalls Hitler's contempt for the woolly-headed mysticism of Heinrich Himmler: . it must be said that the only things in the Habsburg Treasure House Hitler coveted were the Habsburg Crown Jewels (which were sent to Nuremberg immediately following the Anschluss). Even assuming that he wrote the book in good faith. It would surely have been easier for him to order the Holy Lance to be brought from the museum to his hotel suite. It is. (39) It will. one hopes. In the final analysis. it is crippled by the research methods on which he appears to rely: namely.) (40) There is no evidence whatsoever to link Hitler directly with black magic practices of any description. (38) On reflection.the Imperial . which in turn began as the Thule Society (a group founded on occult and racist principles). Hitler was motivated more by financial than occult concerns. we must dismiss The Spear of Destiny on the grounds that when information gathered through psychic processes conflicts with what has been established through documentary evidence or the testimony of first-hand witnesses we have no serious alternative but to abandon it in favour of what can be verified by those who do not possess these psychic talents. as the transfer of Austrian gold and currency reserves to Germany amply demonstrates. not to mention the Austrian gold and currency deposits that would aid a German economy stressed by preparations for war. having been initiated into the dark arts by Dietrich Eckart and Karl Haushofer.if somewhat lurid .

(44) As we have just seen. Himmler was another matter entirely. (41) Hitler was also scornful of Himmler's attempts to establish archaeological links between modern Germans and the ancient Aryan descendants of Atlantis: Why do we call the whole world's attention to the fact that we have no past? It isn't enough that the Romans were erecting great buildings when our forefathers were still living in mud huts. We really should do our best to keep quiet about this past. and it is to him that we must now turn our attention.What nonsense! Here we have at last reached an age that has left all mysticism behind it. Himmler's beliefs about the original prehistoric Germanic race were considered absurd by both Hitler and Goebbels. To think that I may some day be turned into an SS saint! Can you imagine it? I would turn over in my grave . The Fuhrer had never had his horoscope cast. and now he wants to start all over again. the propaganda minister. According to the former Office of Strategic Services (OSS) officer Walter Langer: All of our informants who have known Hitler rather intimately discard the idea [of Hitler's belief] as absurd. those who subscribed to occultist or pseudo-religious notions were indeed something of a laughing stock in the high echelons of the Third Reich. some time before the war. All we prove by that is that we were still throwing stone hatchets and crouching around open fires when Greece and Rome had already reached the highest stage of culture. . Instead Himmler makes a great fuss about it all. We might just as well have stayed with the church. this too is completely fallacious. now Himmler is starting to dig up these villages of mud huts and enthusing over every potsherd and stone axe he finds. he at once discovered kinships between Japanese and Teutonic cults and called upon scientists to help him trace these similarities to a racial common denominator.' (43) As for the belief that Hitler was deeply interested in astrology and kept in constant touch with astrologers who advised him on the various courses of action he should take.. forbade the practice of fortune-telling and star-reading in Germany. At least it had tradition. The present-day Romans must be having a laugh at these revelations.. for example. 'When. but in an indicative move Hitler. (42) In truth. while Hitler was contemptuous of mysticism and pseudoreligion. the Japanese presented [Himmler] with a samurai sword. They all agree that nothing is more foreign to Hitler's personality than to seek help from outside sources of this type.

Wiligut saw action against the Russians in the Carpathians and was later transferred to the Italian front. the one exception is a man named Karl Maria Wiligut (1866-1946).Ordinary madness Heinrich Himmler and the SS Many writers on the occult have suggested that the notorious SS (Schutz Staffeln or Defence Squads) was actively engaged in black-magic rites designed to contact and enlist the aid of evil and immensely powerful trans-human powers. the Viennese occult underground began to buzz with rumours concerning Wiligut and his alleged possession of an 'ancestral memory' that allowed him to recall the history of the Teutonic people all the way back to the year 228. Although his studies in mythology had led him to join a quasi-Masonic lodge called the Schlarraffia in 1889. by the summer of 1917.6 . it nevertheless holds some attraction for those struggling with the terrible mystery at the heart of Nazism. we must pause to examine the life and thought of Wiligut. who had also published Guido von List. stresses that although volkisch occultists such as Guido von List and Lanz von Liebenfels undoubtedly contributed to the 'mythological mood of the Nazi era' (with its bizarre notions of prehistoric Aryan superhumans inhabiting vanished continents). Wiligut was discharged from the army in January 1919. a book of his poems entitled Seyfrieds Runen was published by Friedrich Schalk. While conventional historians are contemptuous of this notion. joining the 99th Infantry at Mostar. Herzegovina in late 1884 and reaching the rank of captain by the time he was 37. 'they cannot be said to have directly influenced the actions of persons in positions of political power and responsibility'. The Man Behind Himmler Wiligut was born in Vienna into a military family and followed his grandfather and father into the Austrian army. however. In 1903. writing poetry with a distinctly nationalistic flavour. (2) During the First World War. Wiligut does not seem to have been active in the volkisch or Pan-German nationalist movements at this time.000 BC. he maintained his interest in literature and folklore. Throughout his years in the army. one of the very few serious historians to have explored the subject of the occult inspiration behind Nazism. he had reached the rank of colonel. At around this time. and the reasons for his intellectual hold over the leader of the most powerful organisation in the Third Reich. . therefore. (1) As Goodrick-Clarke concedes. who have come to believe that only a supernatural explanation can possibly shed light on the movement's origins and deeds. after nearly 35 years of exemplary service. who exerted a profound influence upon Reichsfuhrer-SS Heinrich Himmler. Decorated for bravery and highly thought of by his superiors. Before turning our attention to the SS itself. in order to secure the domination of the planet by the Third Reich. Goodrick-Clarke.

and that the Germanic god Krist had been appropriated by Christianity. all of whom he held responsible for Germany's defeat in the First World War. Willy Thaler. including giants and dwarves. first to the Faroe Islands and then to Russia. an opposing group of Wotanists challenged this hitherto universal Germanic faith. the Earth was originally lit by three suns and was inhabited by various mythological beings.According to Wiligut. . Czepl paid several visits to Wiligut at his Salzburg home in the winter of 1920. Wiligut claimed that his family line included such heroic Germanic figures as Armin the Cherusker and Wittukind. (6) In Wiligut's view. when the religion of Krist was established. and various members of the Order of the New Templars (ONT). Baldur-Chrestos. This placed a great strain on his relationship with his wife. he was confined there until 1927. near Detmold. Malwine. His home life continued to deteriorate. the world was convulsed with warfare until Wiligut's ancestors. For many tens of thousands of years. Three thousand years later. and it was during these visits that Wiligut claimed that the Bible had been written in Germany. and crucified the prophet of Krist. who nevertheless managed to escape to Asia. (4) The Wiligut family itself was originally the result of a mating between the gods of air and water. the Freemasons and the Jews. his astonishing clairvoyant ability was the result of an uninterrupted family lineage extending thousands of years into the past. and in later centuries fled from persecution at the hands of Charlemagne. who in any event was not particularly impressed with his claims of prehistoric greatness for his family.500 BC. Goodrick-Clarke has identified the source of this information about Wiligut as Theodor Czepl. thus destroying the male line of the family. until 12. He claimed to have been initiated into the secrets of his family by his father in 1890. until his violence. Certified insane.000 BC. His already somewhat precarious mental health was further undermined when his infant son died. (3) According to Wiligut's view of prehistory. brought peace with the foundation of the 'second Boso culture' and the city of Arual-Joruvallas (Goslar. forcing the followers of Krist to establish a new temple at Exsternsteine. the chief shrine of ancient Germany) in 78. who knew of Wiligut through his occult connections in Vienna. The following millennia saw yet more conflicts involving various now-lost civilisations. The Wotanists destroyed Goslar in 1200 BC. the victimisation of his family that had been going on for tens of thousands of years was continuing at the hands of the Catholic Church. As Goodrick-Clarke notes: 'It will be evident from this epic account of putative genealogy and family history that Wiligut's prehistorical speculations primarily served as a stage upon which he could project the experiences and importance of his own ancestors.' (5) In addition. the Adler-Wiligoten. which included Wiligut's cousin. Peter Levenda makes the salient point that Wiligut's 'cross-eyed thesis' was based on a spurious amalgamation of genuine cultural traditions (such as those described in the Eddas) and Theosophical belief systems that have little or no provenance in the actual history of mythology. threats to kill Malwine and bizarre occult interests resulted in his being committed to the mental asylum at Salzburg in November 1924.

along with the Catholic Church. even the Ahnenerbe came to think of him as a crackpot who understood nothing of scholarly prehistorical research (quite an indictment. crosses. with its romantic castles and the mist. and other symbols). Unfortunately for Kirchhoff. including the ONT and the Edda Society. until the outbreak of the Second World War forced him firmly into the background. runes. Himmler was profoundly affected by the atmosphere of the region. When Kirchhoff accused them. a German crypto-historian and List Society member named Gunther Kirchhoff (18921975) who believed in the existence of energy lines crossing the face of the Earth.In spite of this. would make one further important contribution to Himmler's SS. (10) In spite of this. of conspiring against him. on the other hand. the Ahnenerbe responded by describing his work as 'rubbish' and him as a 'fantasist of the worst kind'. he returned to Westphalia in November and viewed the Wewelsburg castle. (7) Wiligut joined the SS in September 1933. One such dissertation concerned a detailed survey undertaken by Kirchhoff and Weisthor in the region of the Murg Valley near Baden-Baden in the Black Forest. After exhaustively examining 'old halftimbered houses. (8) As if his own ravings were not enough.(and myth-) shrouded Teutoburger Forest. architectural ornament (including sculpture. Wiligut's introduction to Heinrich Himmler came about through the former's friend Richard Anders. Wiligut maintained contact with his colleagues in various occult circles. Weisthor introduced Himmler to another occultist. inscriptions. Although at first belonging to the . He was made head of the Department for Pre. Himmler continued to instruct the Ahnenerbe to take seriously Kirchhoff's unscholarly rantings. His work evidently met with the satisfaction of the Reichsfuhrer-SS. where he was charged with the task of recording on paper the events he clairvoyantly recalled. Five years after his release from the asylum. who gave instructions to the Ahnenerbe (the SS Association for Research and Teaching on Heredity) to study them. Wiligut decided to move to Germany and settled in Munich. which he appropriated in August 1934 with the intention of turning it into an ideological-education college for SS officers. who had contributed to the Edda Society's Hagal magazine and who was now an officer in the SS. using the name 'Karl Maria Weisthor'. and natural and man-made rock formations in the forest'. (9) the two occultists concluded that the region had been a prehistoric centre of the Krist religion. There he was feted by German occultists as a fount of priceless information on the remote and glorious history of the Germanic people. Weisthor. which implied a racial purity going back much further than 1750 (the year to which SS recruits had to be able to prove their Aryan family history). Weisthor took it upon himself to forward a number of Kirchhoff's essays and dissertations on ancient Germanic tradition to Himmler. While travelling through Westphalia during the Nazi electoral campaign of January 1933. coming from that particular organisation). who promoted him to SS-Oberfuhrer (lieutenant-brigadier) in November 1934. After deciding to take over a castle for SS use. coats-of-arms.and Early History in the SS Race and Settlement Main Office in Munich. Himmler was greatly impressed with the old man's ancestral memory.

The ring design was based on a death's head. Weisthor worked with the author and historian Otto Rahn (1904-1939).they said . which was a study of the Albigensian Crusade. and the design for the SS Totenkopfring. This belief arose from their conviction that all matter was the creation of an evil deity opposed to God. Germanic mantras designed to stimulate ancestral memory . indeed. Thus they claimed that the dead would not be physically resurrected (since the body was made of matter and hence evil) and that procreation itself was evil. a war between the Roman Catholic Church and the Cathars (or Albigensians). 'After all.' (12) In recognition of his work. in view of his own conviction that a major confrontation between East and West was inevitable -even if it were still a century or more in the future. which they equated with the 'excesses of the Jewish financiers that . In 1933. In 1935." and purity -particularly of the blood as the physical embodiment of spiritual "goodness" . Catharism held a particular fascination and attraction for Himmler and other leading Nazis. who had a profound interest in medieval Grail legends and the Cathar heresy.. it was Weisthor who influenced the development of SS ritual (which we shall examine later in this chapter) and who designed the SS Totenkopfring that symbolised membership of the order.Race and Settlement Main Office. As Levenda notes. corresponded extensively and oversaw numerous meetings. Rahn published a romantic historical work entitled Kreuzzug gegen den Gral (Crusade Against the Grail). during which Weisthor travelled widely. (13) The Cathars were eventually destroyed by Catholic armies on the orders of Pope Innocent III in the first decade of the thirteenth century. the double sig-rune of the SS and a hagall rune. In addition..was an issue of prime importance to the SS.had brought the nation to ruin during the First . Weisthor was promoted to SS-Brigadefuhrer (brigadier) in Himmler's Personal Staff in September 1936. that Christ was exclusively a being of spirit who had never been incarnated in human form. Weisthor moved to Berlin. an ascetic religious sect that flourished in southern France in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. the Wewelsburg castle was placed under the control of Himmler's Personal Staff in February 1935. Himmler found this particularly interesting. Eyewitnesses recollect that this was a period of great activity. (11) Weisthor's inspiration for this prediction was a Westphalian legend regarding a titanic future battle between East and West. It is likely that Himmler's view of the Wewelsburg castle was influenced by Weisthor's assertion that it 'was destined to become a magical German strongpoint in a future conflict between Europe and Asia'. and included a swastika. While in Berlin. the very word "Cathar" means "pure. Weisthor continued to produce examples of his family traditions such as the Halgarita mottoes. The Cathars believed that the teachings of Christ had been corrupted by the Church -and.' (14) Just as the Cathars had despised the materialism of the Catholic Church. since it increased the amount of matter in the Universe and trapped souls in physicality. where he joined the Reichsfuhrer-SS Personal Staff and continued to advise Himmler on all aspects of his Germanic pseudo-history. so the Nazis despised Capitalism. According to Goodrick-Clarke: 'Besides his involvement with the Wewelsburg castle and his land surveys in the Black Forest and elsewhere.

In May 1935. Also at this time his psychological history -including his committal for . Himmler and other captured Nazi leaders killed themselves rather than permit the Allies to do the honors for them. Rahn joined Weisthor's staff. which was an account of his research trip to Iceland for the SS. In April 1936. [L]ike the Cathars whom they admired. and it's entirely possible that. (16) The thesis of Rahn's book was that the Cathar heresy and Grail legends constituted an ancient Gothic Gnostic religion that had been suppressed by the Catholic Church. Levenda makes another interesting point about the Nazi fascination with Catharism: [T]he Cathars were fanatics. joining the SS less than a year later.World War and the depression that followed'. for they must have known that their Quest was doomed to failure from the start. Rahn resigned from the SS for unknown reasons. Rahn lived in Berlin and his book and his continued researches into Germanic history came to the attention of Himmler.. with their contempt for the way vital spiritual matters were commercialized (polluted) by the Establishment. From 1933. self-poisoning or strangulation by one's fellow Cathars. It is perhaps inevitable that the Cathars should have made a sacrament out of suicide. . (15) The Cathar belief that the evil god who had created the material Universe was none other than Jehovah provided additional common ground with Nazi anti-Semitism. lay a similar death wish. he was promoted to the rank of SS-Unterscharfuhrer (NCO). including personality changes that resulted in heavy smoking and alcohol consumption. they had serious side effects. after which he was allowed to pursue his writing and research full time. There was something madly beautiful in the way they were immolated on the stakes of the Inquisition. Hitler was surrounded by the suicides of his mistresses and contemplated it himself on at least one occasion before he actually pulled the trigger in Berlin in 1945. and with their passion for 'purity'. the Nazis saw in suicide that consolation and release from the world of Satanic matter promised by this most cynical of Cathar sacraments. In February 1939. professing their faith and their hatred of Rome until the very end. They must have wished for death as a release from a corrupt and insensitive world. beginning with the persecution of the Cathars and ending with the destruction of the Knights Templar a century later. Known as the endura. This was followed by four months of military service with the SS-Death's Head Division 'Oberbayern' at Dachau concentration camp. willing to die for their cause. One possible reason is that his health was badly failing. it involved either starving oneself to death. at the root of Nazism. His second book. sacrificing themselves to the Church's onslaught they enjoyed the always-enviable aura of spiritual underdogs. Luzifers Hofgesinde (Lucifer's Servants).. The Nazis could identify with the Cathars: with their overall fanaticism. Ritual suicide was also practised by the Cathars. (17) As with Rahn's resignation from the SS. was published in 1937. the reasons for Weisthor leaving the organisation are uncertain. although he was given powerful drugs intended to maintain his mental faculties. and subsequently died from exposure the following month while walking on the mountains near Kufstein.

police work and teaching". was born in Munich on 7 October 1900. In February 1939.which had been a closely guarded secret became known. Elsa Baltrusch. After serving very briefly at the end of the First World War. fairhaired and blue-eyed). (18) Although the old occultist was supported by the SS during the final years of his life. (20) As Joachim Fest notes: 'No doubt it would be going too far to see in the son's early interest in Teutonic sagas. and its chief. and this hampered his family's initial intention that he should become a farmer. and then took command of the Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei or Secret State Police). the daughter of a West Prussian landowning family. criminology and military affairs the beginnings of his later development.000 in the next four years. he was sent by the British occupying forces to a refugee camp where he suffered a stroke. At the end of the war. his influence on the Third Reich was at an end. Himmler joined Hitler's NSDAP. causing considerable embarrassment to Himmler. three inches). this time to a small SS house in Carinthia where he spent the remainder of the war with his housekeeper. (23) Himmler took control of the party's police functions in April 1934. It was led by the psychopathic Reinhard Heydrich. he moved again. A fine example of the Germanic type (tall. and thus applied suitably authoritarian principles on his own family. Weisthor's staff were informed that he had retired because of poor health. but the family milieu. After their release. who would become most closely associated with the terror of the SS and an embodiment of evil second only to Adolf Hitler himself. she was also seven years older than Himmler and is said to have inspired his interest in alternative medicine such as herbalism and homeopathy. Himmler's father was the son of a police president and had been a tutor to the princes at the Bavarian court. Ernst Rohm. In 1926 he met Margerete Boden. a member of Himmler's Personal Staff. but such were Himmler's organisational skills that he increased its membership to over 50. and then to Baltrusch's family home at Arolsen. 'the only top Nazi leader to fit the racial stereotype of being tall (six feet. On 3 January 1946. his health finally gave out and he died in hospital. but found it to be too far away from Berlin and he moved to Goslar in May 1940. and married her two years later. When his accommodation was requisitioned for medical research in 1943. SS units were instrumental in Hitler's Blood Purge of 30 June 1934. At that time the organisation had barely 300 members. and that his office would be dissolved. with its combination of "officialdom.' (21) Himmler was not blessed with a robust physical constitution. He was given a home in Aufkirchen. he and Baltrusch went first to his family home at Salzburg. manifestly had a lasting effect on him. (19) Heinrich Himmler The man who was so deeply impressed with the rantings of Wiligut. In 1931 he established a special Security Service (SD) within the SS. Nevertheless. the ideal of the noble peasant remained with him and heavily influenced his later ideology and plans for the SS. the brown-shirted and sadistic militia of the early Nazi Party. which saw the end of the Sturmabteilung (SA).insanity . which would oversee political intelligence. and blue-eyed'. . blond. (22) Himmler was appointed head (Reichsfuhrer) of the SS on 6 January 1929.

On top of his many other functions he was thus in charge 'of all military transport.000. now in addition became chief of the Replacement Army. the supply of food. who had meanwhile also become Reich Minister of the Interior.000 and which later became the Waffen-SS (Military SS). legislation and general administration. SS membership had reached nearly 240. as well as those of agrarian and population policies. blueeyed) and had to be able to trace their Aryan ancestry at least as far back as the year 1750. (25) . the following of orders and administrative detail existed alongside an idealist enthusiasm for utopianism. Fest: [T]he aims of the enormous SS apparatus were . as its status increased following the Nazi rise to power. which numbered 200. scientific and technical spheres. Initially. ideological. and the following year saw the formation of the Verfugungstruppe (Action Groups). the three major concentration camps in Germany were staffed by the SS Totenkopfverbande (Death's Head Units). especially in the Eastern zones. This process received its initial impetus following the so-called Rohm Putsch. By 1937.Members of the SS were required to correspond to special racial criteria (tall. surveillance of the troops. The SS now pushed its way into 'the centre of the organizational fabric of the Wehrmacht'. mysticism and the occult. it attracted more members from the upper class. military. clothing and pay to the troops. (24) The Ahnenerbe and the Rituals of the SS It has been said of Himmler many times that his personality was a curious mixture of rationality and fantasy: that his capacity for rational planning. and care of the wounded'. military censorship. the intelligence service.. Fundamentally there was no sphere of public life upon which the SS did not make its competing demands: the economic. undermined them. which gradually penetrated existing institutions. By the end of 1938. This development found its most unmistakable expression in the hierarchy of the Senior SS and Police Commanders. comprehensive and concerned not so much with controlling the state as with becoming a state itself. This combination of the quotidian and the fantastic led to Himmler's conception of the ultimate role of the SS: 'his black-uniformed troops would provide both the bloodstock of the future Aryan master-race and the ideological elite of an everexpanding Greater Germanic Reich'. the considerable independence that Himmler's corps of leaders enjoyed vis-a-vis the civil or military administration was a working model for a shift of power planned for the whole area of the Greater German Reich after the war.. a figure that would later rise to approximately one million. and finally began to dissolve them. and Himmler. however. The occupants of the chief positions in the SS developed step by step into the holders of power in an authentic 'collateral state'. the SS membership included approximately 44 per cent from the working class. According to the historian Joachim C. and it moved towards its completion after the attempted revolt of 20 July 1944. blond.

on January 16. (28) It is possible that Hedin may have met Karl Haushofer (whom we discussed in Chapter Three) while in the Far East. This was the first voyage of a man who would travel through most of Asia. The Ahnenerbe was the Ancestral Heritage Research and Teaching Society. which included the establishment of the SS officers' college at the Wewelsburg castle in 1933. and was initially an independent institute conducting research into Germanic prehistory. Moreover.From 1930. according to the records of the Nuremberg Trial of November 1946. (30) . he established the Ahnenerbe with the Nazi pagan ideologue Richard Walther Darre. Hedin's old stomping grounds). Mongolian) Research and Expeditions was formally inaugurated in Munich with 'great pomp. Hedin's voyages and tales of fabulous Asian cities did much to consolidate the European and American publics' fascination with the mysterious Orient . the Humanities chairman of the Ahnenerbe who carried the SS rank of Oberfuhrer. there was a Sven Hedin Institute for Inner Asian Research in Munich that was part of the Ahnenerbe and as late as 1942 Hedin himself (then about seventy-seven years old) was in friendly communication with such important Ahnenerbe personnel as Dr Ernst Schafer from his residence in Stockholm. with its staff holding SS rank. (26) Born in Stockholm in 1865. the Deutsche Akademie and the Ahnenerbe. Himmler concentrated on the formulation of his plans for the SS. In fact. Both organisations conducted field research at Dachau concentration camp. (27) Levenda writes: There is evidence to suggest that the Ahnenerbe itself was formed as a private institution by several friends and admirers of Sven Hedin. and whose exploits would be recorded in the book My Life as an Explorer (1925). was also acting president of the Deutsche Akademie. 1943.e.' a ceremony at which Hedin was in attendance as he was awarded with an honorary doctorate for the occasion.' (29) Indeed. Two years later. whose director was Wolfram Sievers. it would actually be odd if the two hadn't met. archaeology and occult mysticism. including Wolfram Sievers (who would later find justice at the Nuremberg Trials) and Dr Friedrich Hielscher who. were run along very similar lines. 'Given Haushofer's excessive interest in political geography and his establishment of the Deutsche Akademie all over Asia (including China and India. Hedin left Sweden at the age of twenty and sailed to Baku on the Caspian Sea.a fascination that had already been kindled by Madame Blavatsky and the Theosophical Society. It was subsequently incorporated into the SS in April 1940. had been responsible for recruiting Sievers into the Ahnenerbe. the Sven Hedin Institute for Inner Asian (i. including the worldfamous Swedish explorer Sven Hedin. Dr Walther Wust. Levenda thinks it likely that the inspiration for the Ahnenerbe came from a number of German intellectuals and occultists who had subscribed to the theories of the volkisch writers of the late nineteenth century. as well as from the adventures of a number of explorers and archaeologists. since Hedin was an occasional ambassador for the Swedish Government and Haushofer was a German military attache.

for instance.as the Fuhrer and at least nominally in charge of the direction the new state religion would take . As we have seen. The walls were to be adorned with their coats of arms.) (34) Besides Christmas. influenced Himmler's choice of . and another ceremony for the summer solstice. cause for this switch of gift-giving to the summer solstice is the death of Hitler's mother on the winter solstice and all the grief and complex emotions this event represented for Hitler. Each member of Himmler's Inner Circle of Twelve had his own room. a god who robbed Hitler of his beloved mother? It's worthwhile to note in this context that for a national 'Day of the German Mother' Hitler chose his own mother's birthday. The focal point of Wewelsburg. and members were actively encouraged to break with the Church. (33) Inside the dining hall. and pagan myths. as we saw earlier in this chapter. answerable only to the Fuhrer himself. Himmler's own quarters were dedicated to King Heinrich I. (32) although he also claimed to have had conversations with Heinrich's ghost at night.Himmler's vision of the SS required its transformation from Hitler's personal bodyguard to a pagan religious order with virtually complete autonomy. a winter solstice ceremony was designed to replace Christmas (starting in 1939 the word 'Christmas' was forbidden to appear in any official SS document). although a high proportion lacked these -as of course did Himmler himself . the Saxon king who had battled Hungarians and Slavs and of whom Himmler was convinced he was the reincarnation. (A possible.would have wanted to remove every vestige of 'Christmas' from the pagan winter solstice festival. which included attempts to communicate with the spirits of dead Teutons and efforts to influence the mind of a person in the next room through the concentration of willpower. evidently owing much to the legend of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. (31) Beneath the dining hall was a circular room with a shallow depression reached by three stone steps (symbolising the three Reichs)..they were assisted in the drafting of designs by Professor Diebitsch and experts from the Ahnenerbe. the coat of arms of the deceased 'Knight' of the SS would be ceremonially burned. As a means of denying his grief? Or as an act of defiance against the god whose birth is celebrated on that day. weddings and christenings were also replaced by pagan rituals. It's understandable that Hitler . In this place of the dead. New religious ceremonies were developed to take the place of Christian ones. There was no place for Christianity in the SS. near Paderborn in Westphalia and close to the stone monument known as the Exsternsteine where the Teutonic hero Arminius was said to have battled the Romans. Gifts were to be given at the summer solstice ceremony rather than at the winter solstice . though by no means documented.. Himmler chose as the headquarters for his order the castle of Wewelsburg. which was dedicated to an Aryan ancestor. Himmler and his Inner Circle would perform various occult exercises. was a great dining hall with an oaken table to seat twelve picked from the senior Gruppenfuhrers.

It is always Mary who treads on original sin. At the Battle of Hastings the flag of the Saxons shows a golden serpent on a blue field . continuous journey that lasted for whole days and which only ended on St John's Day. in my earliest childhood days . '"Rome and Judah" shamelessly exploited the suffering of their own .. the Festival of the Summer Solstice. The meticulous work of Peter Levenda in unearthing previously unpublished documents from the period allows us to consider the pagan world view of the Ahnenerbe and the SS. as demonstrated by a letter from a man named von Motz to the head of the Ahnenerbe. (36) As Levenda notes. these motifs are common in the volkisch underpinnings of Nazism.. E. [They are] like giants from a prehistoric world which. to see those ancient 'Holy Stones' and to celebrate there. (35) The town of Paderborn itself also had considerable pagan significance. the custom was to undertake a long. created victory monuments for them. the artist that created the Mary Statue must have been a Protestant. Muller originally published in a monthly journal called Lower Saxony in 1903. It is well known that Rome and Judah.Wewelsburg as the SS-order castle. which is quoted in Levenda's hugely informative book Unholy Alliance: I am sending to you now . The files of the Ahnenerbe contained an article by A.. with the serpent.. Maybe these can appear in one of the next issues of [the official SS magazine] Schwarze Korps in order to show that it is to some extent a favored practice of the church on images of its saints and so forth to illustrate the defeat of adversaries by [having them] step on them. being stepped on [by the saints]. during the furious creation of the Earth.. In addition. thought of as an archetype of evil in Christianity. six photographs with explanatory text. These depictions are quite uncommonly prevalent. as the symbol of original sin. The Mary Statue at Paderborn was erected in the middle of the past century in the courtyard of the former Jesuit College.. Now these pictures appear to me particularly interesting because the serpent refers to an ancient symbol of Germanic belief.. This is for me completely proven because the face in the moon-sickle in every case represents Luther.. Many of our Volk are known to have preserved the pagan belief and its rituals. The referenced essay also mentioned that there are depictions of the serpent's head. with the sunrise. and I remember that some sixty years ago. were placed there by God as eternal monuments . considered sacred by the Aryans. preferring thus to take advantage of their own victims. As professor Alois Fuchs related several times before in lectures concerning the Paderborn art monuments. Wolfram Sievers. which describes the celebration of the summer solstice at the Exsternsteine monument near the Wewelsburg in the mid-nineteenth century.

From 1943 onward. filthy. When the reality of the Third Reich's defeat finally overwhelmed his fantasies and sent them to oblivion. including Celtic studies. In addition. even then. the rituals surrounding the Exsternsteine monument. Scandinavian mythology. the Theosophists and the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn were being suppressed. and in the spring of 1945 he entered into secret negotiations with the World Jewish Congress. the Ahnenerbe received its official status within the SS in 1940. in all seriousness. barbaric murder industry. runic symbolism. with the express purpose of proving the historical validity of Nazi paganism. Like their master. Its more than 50 sections covered every aspect of occultism and paganism. when it became obvious that Germany would lose the war and the 'Thousand-year Reich' would become dust. an order that was not followed). the Ahnenerbe was given free rein to pursue its own line of mystical and occult enquiry.rational. and an archaeological research group that attempted to prove the geographical ubiquity of the ancient Aryan civilisation.' (37) As we have noted. Such was his 'divorce from reality'. obedient and totally desirous of security on the one hand. since it was this organisation that commissioned the unbelievably hideous programme of 'scientific research' on living human subjects. that it did not occur to him that any Gestapo member would be arrested on sight by the Allies. Himmler maintained loose contacts with the Resistance Movement in Germany. Himmler adopted perhaps the worst false identity he could have chosen: the uniform of a sergeant-major of the Secret Military Police. (38) Himmler's actions at this time indicate what Fest calls 'an almost incredible divorce from reality'. for which there could be no defence'. non-Aryan suicidal tendencies among the oppressed populations of Europe). (By September 1944 he had already given orders for the murder of Jews to be halted. that he might lead a post-war Germany in an alliance with the West against the Soviet Union. The collapse of this SS ideal 'left only a senseless. many SS men took their own lives in 1945.people by depicting them as heroes or as vanquishers of evil through their agonies (thus reinforcing weak. (39) He even assumed. immersed in the spurious fantasy of Aryan destiny on the other was demonstrated most powerfully in the final phase of the Nazi regime. This indeed occurred on 21 May 1945. and while other occult-oriented groups such as the Freemasons. one example being his suggestion to a representative of the World Jewish Congress that 'it is time you Jews and we National Socialists buried the hatchet'. the World Ice Theory of Hans Horbiger (which will be discussed in Chapter Seven). appalled less at Himmler's betrayal of Hitler through his attempts to negotiate with the Allies than at his betrayal of the SS itself and of the ideals that had given meaning (at least to them) to the destruction they had wrought upon their six million victims. a division of the Gestapo. and the idea of disguise and escape finally presented itself to him. (40) . in order to offer a more 'presentable' face to the Allies. The mental ambiguity of Heinrich Himmler . at the door of the Ahnenerbe must lie the ineradicable iniquity of the medical experiments conducted at Dachau and other concentration camps.

have come to occupy a central position in the fields of ufology. which would be developed and accepted in the twentieth century by people such as Peter Bender. otherwise the northern and southern oceans would be still and would thus become stagnant. he believed that the movement of water through the body of the Earth was analogous both to the recently discovered circulation of the blood and to the animal . Kircher draws on the theories and speculations of various medieval geographers about the unexplored north and south polar regions. Dr Heinz Fisher and many members of the German Admiralty. The origin of this curious notion. fringe science and Nazi-survival theories. if utterly flawed. however. may be considered both the most ridiculous and the most sinister yet. He claimed that the polar vortices must exist. who maintained that 'at the North Pole there is a black rock some 33 leagues in circumference. As we shall see in this chapter. releasing noxious vapours that would prove lethal to life on Earth. who speculated on conditions beneath the surface of the Earth in a treatise written in 1665 entitled Mundus Subterraneus (The Subterranean World). later. (1) Having entered this whirlpool. oceans and even other planets and stars . beneath which the ocean flows with incredible speed through four channels into the subpolar regions. can be traced back to the seventeenth century and the writings of the Jesuit Athanasius Kircher (1602-1680). contemporary belief in genuine Nazi occult power) for the first time. the realm we are about to enter. Kircher paid particular attention to the thirteenth-century friar Bartholomew of England. As Joscelyn Godwin notes. and is absorbed by an immense whirlpool'. We have already examined a number of esoteric concepts that may be more or less unpalatable to the modern mind. the Hollow Earth Theory may well prompt a sigh of exasperation. but rather is a hollow bubble. In addition. In this work. by the philosophers and pseudoscientists of the Third Reich. conspiracy theory. the most bizarre is surely the idea that our planet is not a sphere floating in the emptiness of space.The secret at the heart of the world Nazi Cosmology and Belief in the Hollow Earth For readers encountering the field of Nazi Occultism (and its unholy spawn.existing on the inside.7 . the waters then travel through a myriad 'recesses' and 'channels' inside the planet and finally emerge in the ocean at the South Pole (the continent of Antarctica had yet to be discovered). the concept of the hollow Earth -and the related notion of vast. the relevance of these subjects to the belief systems that define late-twentieth-century popular occultism may come as a surprise to many readers.people. inhabited caverns within a solid Earth . buildings. with everything . Indeed. continents. since it constitutes both a synthesis and a further development of the strange ideas promulgated by the volkisch occultists and. Kircher's justification for his ideas was ingenious. The Provenance of the Hollow Earth Theory Of all the strange and irrational beliefs held by the Nazis.

digestive system, with elements in sea water extracted for the production of metals and the waste voided at the South Pole. (2) This likening of the Earth to a single, living entity will doubtless call to mind certain New Age concepts, in particular the so-called 'Gaia Hypothesis'. (While New Ageism might appear to be nothing but benign, concerned as it is with the spiritual evolution of humanity, it does contain certain aspects that are more sinister and potentially dangerous.) The seventeenth-century writer Thomas Burnet (1635?-1715) also suggested that water circulated through the body of the Earth, issuing from an opening at the North Pole. In 1768, this idea was further developed by Alexander Colcott, who added an interesting and portentous twist: Godwin suggests that he may have been the first to theorise that, once inside the Earth, the water joined a vast, concave ocean - in other words, that the Earth was actually a hollow globe. (3) In the eighteenth century, the Hollow Earth Theory carried far more intellectual currency than it does now: even the illustrious Sir Edmund Halley (1656-1742), discoverer of the comet that carries his name, proposed in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of 1692 that the Earth was a hollow sphere containing two additional concentric spheres, at the centre of which was a hot core, a kind of central sun. The Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) concurred and, indeed, went somewhat further, stating that there 'was a center sun inside the Earth's interior, which provided daylight to a splendid subterranean civilization'. (4) The apparent credibility of these theories resulted in a brand new subgenre of fantastic literature. Godwin provides a brief rundown, based on the work of the French author Michel Lamy, of the most significant of these tales: While medieval theology, as celebrated in Dante's Divine Comedy, had found the interior of the earth to be a suitable location for Hell, later writers began to imagine quite the contrary. The universal philosopher Guillaume Postel, in his Compendium Cosmographicum (1561) and the topographer Georg Braun, in his Urbium praecipuarum totius mundi (1581), suggested that God had made the Earthly Paradise inaccessible to mankind by stowing it beneath the North Pole. Among the early novels on the theme of a Utopia beneath the surface of the earth are the Chevalier de Mouhy's Lamekis, ou les voyages extraordinaires d'un Egyptien dans la Terre interieure (Lamekis, or the extraordinary voyages of an Egyptian in the inner earth, 1737), and Ludvig Baron von Holberg's Nicholas Klim (1741), the latter much read in Holberg's native Denmark. Giovanni Jacopo Casanova, the adventurer and libertine, also situated Paradise inside the earth. In Icosameron (1788), a work supposedly translated by him from the English, he describes the twenty-one years passed by his heroes Edward and Elizabeth among the 'megamicros,' the original inhabitants of the 'protocosm' in the interior of our globe. One way into this realm is through the labyrinthine caves near Lake Zirchnitz, a region of Transylvania. The megamicros issue from bottomless wells and assemble in temples, clad in red coats. Their gods are reptiles, with sharp teeth and a magnetic stare. (5) The

literature of the Romantic era, needless to say, is rich in fantasies of polar mysteries and lands within the earth. The best known works are probably George Sand's Laura ou le voyage dans le crystal (Laura, or the voyage in the Crystal); Edgar Alien Poe's The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym; Alexander Dumas's Isaac Laquedem; Bulwer Lytton's The Coming Race [see Chapter Three]; Jules Verne's Voyage au centre de la terre (Voyage to the Centre of the Earth) and Le Sphinx des glaces (The Sphinx of the Ice). Novels by later and less distinguished authors include William Bradshaw's The Goddess of Atvatabar (1892), Robert Ames Bennet's Thyra, a Romance of the Polar Pit (1901), Willis George Emerson's The Smoky God (1908), and the Pellucidarian stories of Edgar Rice Burroughs, creator of Tarzan. (6) In view of the exciting potential of the Hollow Earth Theory, not to mention the literary vogue for such romantic fictions, it was only a matter of time before someone had the bright idea of actually searching for the entrances to the mysterious world apparently lying beneath humanity's feet. Such a man was John Cleves Symmes (1780-1829), who spent a good portion of his life trying to convince the world not only that the Earth was hollow, but that it would be worthwhile to finance an expedition, under his leadership, to find a way inside. 'I Declare the Earth is Hollow ... ' A native of New Jersey, Symmes enlisted in the United States Army where he distinguished himself for bravery in the French and Indian Wars. Evidently a man of considerable personal integrity, he married a widow named Mary Anne Lockwood in 1808, and ensured that her inheritance from her husband was used to raise her five children (he had five of his own). In 1816, he retired with the rank of Captain and became a trader in St Louis. (7) Two years later, Symmes first announced his beliefs to the world, thus: CIRCULAR Light gives light to discover - ad infinitum St Louis, Missouri Territory, North America April 10, AD 1818 To all the World: I declare the earth is hollow and habitable within; containing a number of solid concentric spheres, one within the other, and that it is open at the poles twelve or sixteen degrees. I pledge my life in support of this truth, and am ready to explore the hollow, if the world will support and aid me in the undertaking. Jno. Cleves Symmes Of Ohio, late Captain of Infantry. N.B. - I have ready for the press a treatise on the principles of matter, wherein I show proofs of the above positions, account for various phenomena, and disclose Dr. Darwin's 'Golden Secret.'

My terms are the patronage of THIS and the NEW WORLDS. I dedicate to my wife and her ten children. I select Dr. S.L. Mitchell, Sir H. Davy, and Baron Alexander Von Humboldt as my protectors. I ask one hundred brave companions, well equipped, to start from Siberia, in the fall season, with reindeer and sleighs, on the ice of the frozen sea; I engage we will find a warm and rich land, stocked with thrifty vegetables and animals, if not men, on reaching one degree northward of latitude 82; we will return in the succeeding spring. J.C.S. (8) Of all the academic societies in America and Europe to which Symmes sent his circular, only the French Academy of Sciences in Paris bothered to respond - and that was to say, in effect, that the theory of concentric spheres inside the Earth was nonsense. Undaunted by the total lack of academic interest in his ideas, Symmes spent the next ten years travelling around the United States, giving lectures and trying to raise sufficient funds to strike out for the interior of the planet. He petitioned Congress in 1822 and 1823 to finance his expedition, and even secured 25 votes the second time. (9) Ultimately, the strain of constant travelling and lecturing took its toll on Symmes's health. He died at Hamilton, Ohio on 29 May 1829. His grave in the Hamilton cemetery is marked by a stone model of the hollow Earth, placed there by his son, Americus. Symmes's theory of the hollow Earth is described principally in two books: Symmes's Theory of Concentric Spheres (1826) by James McBride, and The Symmes Theory of Concentric Spheres (1878) by Americus Symmes. (10) (Symmes himself wrote a novel, under the pseudonym 'Captain Adam Seaborn', entitled Symzonia A Voyage of Discovery, published in 1820.) As Martin Gardner notes, in these books, 'Hundreds of reasons are given for believing the earth hollow - drawn from physics, astronomy, climatology, the migration habits of animals, and the reports of travelers. Moreover, a hollow planet, like the hollow bones of the body, would be a sturdy and economical way for the Creator to arrange things.' (11) As we have noted, the Hollow Earth Theory attracted the attention of many writers of fiction. Aside from the best-known mentioned above, a number of minor authors explored the topic. In 1871, for instance, Professor William F. Lyon published The Hollow Globe, or the World's Agitator or Reconciler that included many bizarre speculations on open polar seas, the electro-magnetic origin of earthquakes (which were thought impossible unless the world were hollow) and the theory of gravitation (which needed considerable reworking in view of the drastically reduced mass of a hollow planet). The text of the book was apparently received during mediumistic trances by a Dr Sherman and his wife, with Professor Lyon transcribing the material. Among the many curious revelations in this book is the 'great fact that this globe is a hollow or spherical shell with an interior as well as an

exterior surface, and that it contains an inner concave as well as outer convex world, and that the inner is accessible by an extensive spirally formed aperture, provided with a deep and commodious channel suited to the purposes of navigation for the largest vessels that float, and that this aperture may be found in the unexplored open Polar Sea'. (12) The Reverend Dr William F. Warren, President of Boston University, published his book Paradise Found in 1885, in which he argued for the origin of the human race at the North Pole. While Warren did not claim that the Earth was hollow, his book nevertheless added to the speculation on the significance of the polar regions, and the idea that the solution to the mystery of humanity's origin might lie there. (13) In 1896, John Uri Lloyd published his book Etidorhpa (the title is 'Aphrodite' reversed). One of the strangest books on the subject, Etidorhpa tells the story of one Llewellyn Drury, a Mason and seeker after mystery, who encounters a telepathic humanoid creature without a face. The creature takes Drury into a deep cave in Kentucky, and the two emerge on the inner surface of the Earth, where the adventurer is taught to levitate beneath the rays of the central sun. (14)

A Single Bubble in Infinite Nothingness
In 1870, perhaps the strangest of all alternative cosmological theories was formulated by Cyrus Teed: the theory that not only is the Earth hollow but we are the ones living on the inside. Born in 1839 in Delaware County, New York, Teed received a Baptist upbringing. After a spell as a private with the United States Army, he attended the New York Eclectic Medical College in Utica, New York. (Eclecticism was an alternative form of medicine that relied on herbal treatments.) It seems that Teed was greatly troubled by the concept of infinite space, which he could not reconcile with the well-ordered Universe of the Scriptures. While he accepted that the Earth was round (he had little choice, since it had been circumnavigated), he found the notion of a ball of rock floating endlessly through an infinite void so unsettling that he set about attempting to formulate an alternative structure for the observable Cosmos. The answer apparently came to him in a vision in his alchemical laboratory in Utica at midnight one night in 1869. A beautiful woman appeared before him, telling him of the previous lives he had lived, how he was destined to become a messiah, and about the true structure of the Universe. Under the pseudonym Koresh (the Hebrew for Cyrus), Teed published two works: The Illumination of Koresh: Marvellous Experience of the Great Alchemist at Utica, N.Y and The Cellular Cosmogony. In his splendid book Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science, Martin Gardner summarises the key points of Teed's outrageous cosmology: The entire cosmos, Teed argued, is like an egg. We live on the inner surface of the shell, and inside the hollow are the sun, moon, stars, planets, and comets. What is outside? Absolutely nothing! The inside is all there is. You can't see across it because the atmosphere is too dense. The shell is 100 miles thick and made up of seventeen layers.

it is true. for instance) were couched in impossible-to-understand terms such as 'cruosic force'. a small communal society. Thousands of people will dematerialize. (16) Teed's scientific pronouncements were combined with apocalyptic religious elements.. With his medical practice facing ruin and his wife already having left him. Similar experiments had been conducted the previous year on the surface of the Old Illinois Drainage Canal. but according to Teed. This will be brought about through the direction of one mind. He likened himself '(as does almost every pseudo-scientist) to the great innovators of the past who found it difficult to get their views accepted'. The moon is a reflection of the earth.they extended a straight line for four miles along the coast only to have it plunge finally into the sea [thus proving the Earth to be a concave sphere]. 'coloric substance' and 'afferent and efferent fluxions of essence'. where he settled in 1886 and founded first the College of Life and later Koreshan Unity. (17) Unfortunately for Teed. the nature of which Teed worked out in great detail by means of optical laws . seems to be convex. as demonstrated in the following prophetic announcement: We are now approaching a great biological conflagration. his revelations did not prove of any great interest to the natives of Utica. who took to calling him the 'crazy doctor' and sought their medical advice elsewhere. the Christ and Son of God. on the Gulf Coast of Florida. the laws of which are known only to one man. the biune offspring of the Lord Jesus. he was a spectacular success (he is said to have earned $60. seven metallic ones. From this conflagration will spring the sons of God. which sought to impose its erroneous view of reality on a 'credulous public'. Its rotation causes our illusory sun to rise and set.Teed calls the device a 'rectilineator' .The inner five are geologic strata. under which are five mineral layers. This man is Elijah the prophet. . The heavenly bodies we see. the Shepherd of the Gentiles and the central reincarnation of the ages. A sun at the center of the open space is invisible. and beneath that. the only one who has a knowledge of the law of this bioalchemical transmutation. The change will be accomplished through the formation of a biological battery. Using a set of three double T-squares . and the planets are reflections of 'mercurial discs floating between the laminae of the metallic planes'. (15) As Gardner observes. are not material. The central sun is half light and half dark. The earth. Teed was undoubtedly a pseudo-scientist and displayed all the paranoia and obfuscation associated with that fascinating and infuriating group. Such an experiment was actually carried out in 1897 by the Koreshan Geodetic Staff. but merely focal points of light.. His explanations of the structure of the Universe (the ways in which planets and comets are formed. ordained of God. but a reflection of it is seen as our sun. through a biological electro-magnetic vibration. (18) He was particularly popular in Chicago. As a travelling orator. you will always encounter the earth's upward curvature.000 in California alone). There are photographs in later editions of the book showing this distinguished group of bearded scientists at work. therefore. he bitterly attacked orthodox science. it is all an illusion of optics. In addition. If you take the trouble to extend a horizontal line far enough. Teed decided to take to the road to spread his curious word.

This will become especially apparent when we examine the corollary to the Hollow Earth Theory which. let us return to the status of the Hollow Earth Theory at the opening of the twentieth century. Florida. but for now. He referred to the town as 'the New Jerusalem'. developed through the combination of Eastern mysticism (see Chapter Four) with Hollow Earth beliefs. together with the perceived involvement of the Nazis in their development. The actual number who arrived was something of a disappointment. (19) Teed died in 1908 after being beaten by the Marshal of Fort Meyers. They dutifully held a prayer vigil over his body. unsurprisingly. there are many people who still fervently believe that we are living on the inside of a hollow sphere. We will examine these subjects. male and female alike. He was finally interred in a concrete tomb on an island off the Gulf Coast. The idea that the planet is honeycombed with vast cave systems. did not take place. nevertheless. Their strange ideas notwithstanding. As Teed's body started to decompose. clandestine alien occupation of our planet. and built a town called Estero. awaiting the event that. in Germany a theory comparable to Teed's was developed by an aviator named Peter Bender. and told his followers to expect the arrival of eight million believers. and resulted in a frighteningly paranoid and bizarre scenario that includes the machinations of a secret. for want of a better expression. refusing to be banished to the realm of the defunct and disproved. romance and air of fantastic mystery ensured it a place in the hearts of those who felt dismayed by the arrogance of orthodox science. Although Bender himself would die in a Nazi prison camp. and attempts to perfect mind-control of Earth's population. one-world government. we might term the Subterranean Cavern Theory. The Hollow Earth in the Twentieth Century Instead of going the way of other strange notions about the nature of the Universe and collapsing in the face of empirical science. not to mention the arrogance of the world's leaders. conspiracy theories and 'proofs' of the secret nefarious activities of governments. including some naval leaders who thought that it might be possible to spy on British naval movements by pointing their radar beams up! As with the more conventional (!) Hollow Earth Theory. As we shall see. In 1921 a hurricane swept the tomb away: Teed's body was never found. its elegance. which is no bad thing. its very simplicity enabled (and still enables) believers to use it as a template for all manner of esoteric 'truths'. the happy. being closer to 200. the members. efficient and hard-working community seems to have functioned extremely well. He had claimed that after his death he would be taken up into Heaven with his followers. his Hollow Earth Doctrine (Hohlweltlehre) found many followers in the Third Reich. were treated as equals. the Hollow Earth Theory survived the end of the nineteenth century. (20) As we shall see shortly. . in spite of its utter erroneousness. many of which are inhabited by highly advanced beings and monstrous creatures.In the 1890s. predicted that it would become the capital of the world. a little later. the county health officer arrived and ordered Teed's burial. Teed bought a small piece of land just south of Fort Meyers. Indeed.

(24) Pauwels and Bergier offer a revealing snapshot of their behaviour: . (23) Although ridiculed by astronomers in Germany . the central sun was 600 miles in diameter. Like Symmes. where it was seen as a brilliant refutation of the orthodox materialistic science personified by the Jewish scientist Albert Einstein. are phantoms. with the aid of airships.400 miles wide. posters and circulars. Vegetable and animal life are evident in the New World. and the planetary shell was 800 miles thick. There are openings at the northern and southern extremities. or WEL) of Hans Horbiger (1860-1931) amply demonstrates how outrageously inaccurate cosmological models can be used for political and propaganda purposes. according to the rocket scientist Willy Ley (whom we have already met in Chapter Three and will meet again in the next chapter).the World Ice Theory was to gain a fanatical following in Nazi Germany. The polar openings were 1.900 miles from the inner surface of the Earth. as we shall see later in this chapter. The Poles. the openings would be proved to exist. In the interior are vast continents. issuing leaflets. (22) Of course. and not points on the Earth's surface. Horbiger's World Ice Theory While not proposing that the Earth is hollow. According to Gardner. The only major alteration Reed made to earlier versions of the theory was to reduce the size of the openings at the North and South Poles to a few hundred miles instead of several thousand. which the Viennese mining engineer wrote in collaboration with an amateur astronomer and which Martin Gardner calls 'one of the great classics in the history of crackpot science'. akin to some semi-tropical paradise. This refinement notwithstanding. mountains and rivers.and by just about everyone else in the rest of the world . so long sought. and it is probably peopled by races unknown to dwellers on the Earth's surface.The first important book of the twentieth century to deal with the theory was The Phantom of the Poles by William Reed. The Key to World Events. This book was the first serious attempt to gather evidence for a hollow Earth. Reed reiterated the beliefs of earlier theorists: 'The earth is hollow. the 'phantom' of the title being a reference to the poles' existence only as locations in space. the words of one famous explorer who flew over the poles have been twisted by hollow Earth believers to imply things he never intended. Like Reed and others before him. The reason for this was that expeditions had been pushing further and further into the polar regions. Have the Poles Really Been Discovered? The book contained the now-famous illustration of the Earth with half of its northern hemisphere cut away to reveal the continents and oceans within. without success. although. supporters of this theory acted very much like a miniature political party. Indeed. he attempted to gather sufficient funds for an expedition. Gardner believed that conditions within the Earth were extremely pleasant.' (21) In 1913. the World Ice Theory (Welteislehre. oceans. published in 1906. the advent of routine manned flight proved his theory wrong. and publishing a monthly journal. William Gardner published his book A Journey to the Earth's Interior or. At the end of A Journey to the Earth's Interior. and its surface was 2. Gardner wrote of his hope that one day. without finding any evidence of vast openings into the Earth's interior. Such was the case with Horbiger's Glazial-Kosmogonie.

with the arrival of the . tracts were distributed and meetings organized. When the moon reached a certain distance from the Earth. with all of the planets falling into the Sun.' Businessmen and heads of firms before engaging an employee made him or her sign a declaration saying: 'I swear that I believe in the theory of eternal ice. Eventually. is not the only satellite that the Earth has had: there have been at least six others. As the tertiary moon drew closer. it was able to preserve a record of the moon's cataclysmic collision with the Earth in the form of myths and legends. membership subscriptions. space is not a vacuum but is filled with hydrogen. Luna. As they head inexorably towards their parent star.[Horbiger] seemed to have considerable funds at his disposal. smaller planets occasionally are captured by larger worlds. a gigantic. believing that they held the key to the way in which the Universe functions. you and your like will be begging in the gutter. With the moon gone. The Austrian engineer's theories were taken up and developed after his death by a British mythologist named Hans Schindler Bellamy. Humanity was forced by the resulting planet-wide glaciation to live in mountainous regions on either side of the girdle tide. Bellamy concentrated his research on the period in which the pre-Lunar moon orbited Earth: since humanity was present at this time. recruiting offices.' (25) Horbiger was deeply fascinated by the origin and behaviour of moons. its gravitational field pulled the world's oceans into a 'girdle tide'. too. all of which crashed into the Earth. followed by bombardments of gigantic rocks and boulders as the moon finally disintegrated. (26) Martin Gardner provides us with an admirably condensed summary of his odd beliefs. However. its scarred and pitted surface apparently giving rise to the legends of dragons and other flying monsters. causing them to spiral in gradually towards their parent body. the planet's stronger gravitational field tore the satellite apart The result was planet-wide rains and hail storms (all moons having thick coatings of ice on their surfaces). Myths and Man based on the World Ice Theory. the girdle-tide of water collapsed. According to Horbiger. When astronomers met in conference their meetings were interrupted by partisans shouting: 'Down with the orthodox scientists!' Professors were molested in the streets. the directors of scientific institutes were bombarded with leaflets: 'When we have won. the Earth recovered from its titanic bruising. becoming temporary satellites. The walls were covered with posters. causing massive geological upheavals. For example. and this period of tranquillity gave rise to the legends of a Golden Age and earthly Paradise. and engaged propagandists and volunteers from among the Hitler Youth. the newspapers filled with announcements. He launched a campaign. he maintained. raised belt of water rising up from the equator. resulting in the Biblical Deluge. its orbital velocity increased until it was circling the Earth six times every day. is the ultimate fate of the Solar System. who wrote a book entitled Moons. and operated like a party leader. our present moon. As it spiralled closer and closer to the Earth. which has the effect of slowing down celestial bodies in their courses. This. with an information service. Bellamy refers to this satellite as the 'tertiary moon'. so Horbiger believed.

Luna. and Genesis a description of the Earth's recovery following the collision. The Universe. writing in the 1950s. by his very life. Horbiger claimed that Luna is covered with a coating of ice 140 miles thick. the famous 'canals' on Mars (now known to be an optical illusion) are. Of course. cracks on the surface of a 250-mile-deep frozen sea on the Martian surface.. and that ice also covers Mercury. was packed with gigantic blocks of ice. and also spiral into the Sun. The Fuhrer. about 13. not hundreds of millions of stars as the doctored photographs of orthodox astronomy implied.present moon. has proved how much a so-called 'amateur' can be superior to self-styled professionals. Just as it needed a child of Austrian culture . was actually a ring of enormous blocks of ice. The Phantom Universe The island of Rugen in the Baltic was the site of one of the most bizarre and misguided strategies of the Second World War. Fisher ordered the radar . the blocks of ice also encounter resistance from the hydrogen with which space is filled. The Milky Way. the Atlantean civilisation was destroyed in this cataclysm. it needed another 'amateur' to give us complete understanding of the universe. and the World Ice Theory was eagerly embraced and disseminated by the Propaganda Ministry Willy Ley records some of the statements made by representatives of the cult of WEL in its literature: Our Nordic ancestors grew strong in ice and snow. Horbiger maintained. so it needed an Austrian to cleanse the world of Jewish science. causing sunspots when they hit. with earthquakes. (28) He was certainly correct..comets being. in Horbiger's warped cosmology.500 years ago. belief in the World Ice is consequently the natural heritage of Nordic Man. for instance. Like moons. and the theory that they are the result of cometary impacts . an expedition under the leadership of the infra-red ray specialist Dr Heinz Fisher and equipped with state-of-the-art radar sets landed on Rugen and began to make a series of observations.Hitler! -to put the Jewish politicians in their place. In fact. However. it is difficult to resist the temptation to note the recent discovery of large ice deposits at the lunar poles. He also believed that the Book of Revelation is actually a historical account of the destruction of the tertiary moon. According to Bellamy. and Horbiger was certainly incorrect. In April 1942. the action of which accounted for the majority of astronomical events. gigantic lumps of ice . the fact that a theory was idiotic was no barrier to its success in the Third Reich. Venus and Mars. axial shifts and glaciation disfiguring the face of the planet. of course. (27) Gardner. chaos reigned once again. For his own part. ends his discussion of Horbiger with the amusing comment (from our present perspective) that 'the Cosmic Ice Theory will find disciples until the first spaceship lands on the cratered surface of an iceless moon'.

because the concave curvature of the Earth would facilitate long-distance observation by means of infra-red rays.both infinitely smaller than the orthodox astronomers think. with points of brilliant light which we mistake for stars. Pauwels and Bergier nevertheless make a good point in their occult classic The Morning of the Magicians when they note that if our modern civilisation is unified by anything. above our heads the atmosphere stretches to 45 miles. beyond which there is a hard vacuum. The rulers of Germany and officers of the Admiralty and Air Force High Command believed that the Earth is hollow. There are only the Sun and the Moon . can be traced to 1918 and a young German aviator. We are all alone. This is the entire Universe. The reason for this peculiar experiment was to prove that the Earth is not a sphere floating in space but is actually a bubble set in an infinity of rock. Kuiper of the Mount Palomar Observatory. It is night over a part of this concave Earth when the blue mass passes in front of the Sun. Peter Bender. Bender developed and 'refined' the theory (if such a term can be used) into what he called the Hohlweltlehre (Hollow World Theory). it is a mass of bluish gas. Gardner who had claimed that the Sun is actually inside the Earth on whose surface we are kept not by gravity but by the pressure of sunlight. adhering to its concave sides.in other words. They thought this would be useful for locating the whereabouts of the British Fleet. (31) The origin of this idea.. (33) . It is one of the many indicators of the baffling and terrifying perversity of the Nazis that so many of them believed in this ridiculous inversion of reality: The defenders of the Hollow Earth theory. a position they maintained for several days.. it was hoped that the beams would be reflected back from objects at some distance along the internal surface of the bubble. The sky is in the middle of this globe. which is a globe of blue gas containing the shining points of light astronomers mistake for stars. surrounded by rock. who wrote several articles on the Hollow Earth Theory: 'High officials in the German Admiralty and Air Force believed in the theory of a hollow Earth. who organized the famous para-scientific expedition to the island of Rugen. It was also hoped that the radar would provide Fisher's team with an image of the British Fleet at Scapa Flow. believed that we are living inside a globe fixed into a mass of rock extending to infinity.' (30) Although they are not the most reliable of sources.sets to be pointed at an angle of 45° into the sky. with solar radiation keeping everything pressed to the concave surface. (32) Bender claimed that the hollow bubble of the Earth was the same size as we believe our spherical Earth to be. At the centre of this vacuum there are three objects: the Sun. This theory of Bender's became popular round about the 1930s. also enlisting the strange ideas of Marshall B. the Moon and the Phantom Universe. (29) According to Professor Gerard S. who came upon some old copies of Cyrus Teed's periodical. as applied in Nazi Germany. it is by the fundamental agreement we reach over cosmology . Beneath our feet is an infinite mass of rock. and the shadow of this mass on the Moon produces eclipses . With the radar pointed upwards at a 45° angle. we are at least able to agree that the Earth is a near-spherical object drifting in an immense void several billion light years in radius. The Sword of Fire. which are less curved than visible rays.

Horbiger's Welteislehre. in 1912.a Ford Tri-motor monoplane. and in the final chapter of this book. He learned to fly in the First World War. Following the war of 1914-1918.not to mention the theory that UFOs are man-made and are based in Antarctica . conducting observations of the weather and aurora. Byrd enrolled at the United States Naval Academy at the age of twenty. Byrd remained alone in a meteorological hut some 120 miles into the Antarctic interior. Byrd was asked by Roald Amundsen what his next objective would be. a miserable failure. via Newfoundland and the Azores. he conducted a number of experiments in flight over water and out of sight of land (and thus without any landmarks by which to navigate). Admiral Byrd's exploits in the fastness of the South Polar regions have become the stuff of legend. As we shall see in this section. Virginia in 1888. with its equally ridiculous doctrine of the eternal conflict between ice and fire in an infinite Universe. The Second Byrd Antarctic Expedition (1933-1935) was.The Rugen experiment was.Byrd became the first explorer to combine aerial reconnaissance with ground surveys (making his expedition more important than that of Sir Hubert Wilkins. Byrd had been appointed navigator on the proposed transpolar flight from Alaska to Spitzbergen of the US Navy dirigible Shenandoah. Upon their return to New York. won the day. For most of the winter of 1934. in 1926. a Fokker Universal and a Fairchild K3 monoplane . of course. not only in the history of the exploration of our world but also in the fields of ufology. His response was matter-of-fact: to fly over the South Pole. These observations . thanks to the continuing American fascination with polar exploration. crypto-history and paranoiac conspiracy theory. and retained a love of and fascination with flight for the rest of his life. (34) Seven years later. and received his commission four years later. but the flight was cancelled by President Coolidge. The trip was made by the US Navy Flying Boats NC1. NC3 and NC4 (the NC4 being the first plane to complete the flight. Byrd's first Antarctic Expedition (1928-1930) was the first to utilise aircraft. Byrd. Born into an illustrious family at Winchester. With his three planes . privately financed. using various scientific instruments such as bubble sextants and drift indicators. aerial cameras and snowmobiles. The Nazi hierarchy turned their backs on the Hohlweltlehre and on Peter Bender himself. who was sent to his death in a concentration camp.than the great Arctic and Antarctic explorer Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd and Floyd Bennett became the first men to fly over the North Pole. The Much-abused Admiral Byrd Few twentieth-century personalities have been more closely connected with the Hollow Earth Theory . His pioneering work with this aspect of navigation led to his being appointed by the US Navy to plan the first transatlantic flight in 1919. who had flown in Antarctica ten weeks previously). in May of that year). like the first.

) Before we meet these three fascinating characters. Roosevelt wanted two bases to be established: East Base would be set up near Charcot Island or Alexander I Land. but financed by the US Government. 13 ships and 10 caterpillar tractors. with additional mapping to be undertaken on the west coast of the Weddell Sea between Cape Eielson and the Luitpold Coast. The blame can be laid firmly at the doors of three central figures in the Hollow Earth debate: Amadeo Giannini. and nearly cost Byrd his life: he was rescued from the hut by other expedition members when he fell victim to carbon monoxide poisoning. have become central in the argument for a hollow Earth and which are still cited by proponents of this bizarre theory. take place: we have already seen that he was not in the Arctic in 1947 but in Antarctica. also known as 'Operation Highjump'. and the establishing of two bases 1. in the Panama Canal Zone.600 miles apart by air. the North Star.a voyage that did not. In addition. which was received by Byrd five days later on board his ship. Its objectives were contained within an order from President Roosevelt in November 1939. 33 aircraft. Since Operation Highjump has become one of the most notorious and significant events in the crypto-history of post-war Nazi activities.were the first of their kind. The principal objective of the expedition was the mapping of the Antarctic coastline between meridians 72°W and 148°W. The United States Antarctic Service Expedition (1939-1941) was led by Byrd. and was designed to offer US personnel experience of operating in polar conditions. The claims arise from certain comments made by Byrd about the North Polar regions. The expedition was a great success. The project was one of the first military events of the Cold War. Operation Highjump deployed 4. That area beyond the Pole is the centre of the great unknown. tidal and magnetic surveys. (Giannini got around this inconvenient fact by claiming that Byrd made a secret trip to the Arctic in 1947. numerous scientific observations were made on the summit of the Antarctic Peninsula. Byrd reportedly said: 'I'd like to see that land beyond the Pole. In February 1947. For now. biological. in fact.' This was followed by his mythical . with most of the mapping (700 miles of coastline) being achieved. we must pause to consider their claims that. All three made astonishing claims regarding Rear Admiral Byrd's voyage over the North Pole in 1947 . The bases were evacuated with the outbreak of the Second World War. regardless of their veracity. during which Byrd returned to active service as the Chief of Naval Operations.700 men. cosmic ray. Raymond Bernard and Ray Palmer. including seismic. and also saw the first use of helicopters and icebreakers in Antarctica. we must leave an in-depth examination for the final chapter. let us turn our attention to the reasons for Richard Byrd being so closely identified with the concept of a hollow Earth. West Base would be built near King Edward VII Land or on the Bay of Whales. In the early post-war years. Byrd contributed to the organisation of the US Navy Antarctic Developments Project of 1946-1947. auroral.

(36) Upon his return. Describing his flight beyond the South Pole on 16 February 1947 he wrote: 'We flew to approximately latitude 88°30' south.. these statements were a godsend: apparently corroborative testimony from a highly respected explorer. resembling a mammoth. a strange . (37) For believers in the hollow Earth. Then we made approximately a right-angle turn eastward until we reached the 45th east meridian. The interpretation was straightforward: the Earth really does have a vast opening at each Pole. did Rear Admiral Byrd say? In extracts from his journal. lumbering through the undergrowth! (35) Nine years later. Byrd stated that the expedition had 'opened up a vast new land'. the curvature of which was so gradual that Byrd did not realise he was well on his way into the inner Earth.700 miles (2. published in the National Geographic magazine of October 1947.. Byrd is said to have made similarly monumental discoveries during a United States expedition to Antarctica. during which they 'accomplished a flight of 2. forests. precisely.' Did Byrd claim to have flown 1.A.' Did Byrd report seeing on his journey. the 'great unknown' and the 'land beyond the Pole' are merely descriptions of those parts of Antarctica that had yet to be explored. (39) Harbinson continues with his sweeping away of the nonsense that has developed around Byrd's exploratory flights: [W]hat. an estimated 100 miles [160 kilometres]. he is said to have reported by radio that he saw vast areas of ice-free land with mountains. The 'enchanted continent in the sky' was none other than the fabulous Rainbow City. in January 1956. Shortly before his death in 1957. leading to the hollow interior. which took him 1. and it was into these openings that Byrd had flown. The 'vast new land' was actually the lip of the South Polar opening. there is absolutely no evidence that the Earth is a hollow globe. and penetrated a land extent of 2.750 kilometres) beyond the North Pole in February 1947? No. On the other side of the Pole we are looking into that vast unknown area we have struggled so hard to reach. which is 400 miles west of the South Pole. rivers and lush vegetation. in the undergrowth. The Pole is approximately 2500 feet [760 metres] below us. when we turned again. we are circling the South Pole . (38) As the more responsible commentators on this subject state (often with noticeable relish). the 'enchanted continent in the sky' was 'no more than a description of a phenomenon common in Antarctic conditions: the mirage-like reflection of the land below'. home of the hidden supercivilisation that operated the UFOs. lakes. Byrd referred to 'that enchanted continent in the sky.700 miles beyond the North Pole. this time on the way back to Little America. not ice and snow. He even saw a large animal. During this flight.flight in that year. As W. he wrote: 'As I write this.300 miles beyond the Pole'. land of everlasting mystery'. but land areas consisting of mountains. green vegetation. forests. lakes and rivers: and. and the statements attributed to Rear Admiral Byrd do not refer to journeys (witting or unwitting) into the Polar openings.700 miles from the base at McMurdo Sound. Harbinson and Joscelyn Godwin state.

According to his journal: 'Altogether we had surveyed nearly 10.900 square kilometres] of "the country beyond the Pole". in confusing and badly written prose. Giannini stated: 'It must be conceded that the land beyond to which Admiral Byrd referred had to be land beyond and out of bounds of theoretic Earth extent. Giannini spent many years attempting to gain both official recognition for his theory from orthodox scientists and astronomers and adequate funds to mount an expedition to the Polar regions to prove it. Byrd. had managed to reach the lands connecting this world to the next. The theory was bizarre even by the standards of the Hollow Earth thinking that had spawned Bender's Hohlweltlehre. Byrd's flights served as the inspiration for ever more elaborate variations on the basic Hollow Earth theme. his argument concerning what he called the 'Physical Continuity of the Universe'. Again like Symmes. Indeed. As we shall now see. in spite of the fact that those voyages. Giannini was the first to quote the great explorer's words about the 'land beyond the pole' and the 'great unknown'. and also. epoch-making as they were.000 square miles [25. according to David Hatcher Childress. If it had been considered part of the mathematized Earth it would not have been referred to as the "center of the great unknown. According to Giannini. In Giannini's view.animal that resembled a mammoth? No. who had had a kind of extrasensory revelation about the structure of the Earth and the surrounding Universe while walking through a forest in New England in October 1926. The Hollow Earth theory is no exception.' (40) It is a fundamental feature of 'paranormal' debate that believers will always find a way around sceptics' arguments. he was frustrated in both endeavours.000 and that set out. that sceptics will always find a way to rubbish the evidence provided by believers. . there was no observable feature of any significance beyond the Pole. revealed little more than ice. Like Symmes before him. and Rear Admiral Byrd's voyages of Polar discovery continue to be presented as incontrovertible proof of the existence of the Polar openings and the fabulous lands and creatures within. Amadeo Giannini and the Physical Continuity of the Universe The first writer to appropriate Rear Admiral Byrd's polar experiences (real or otherwise) in support of his own cosmological theories was Amadeo Giannini. of course. in flying beyond the Poles. As was to be expected. although it is somewhat disappointing to report. There was only the rolling white desert from horizon to horizon. In 1959 he produced a book entitled Worlds Beyond the Poles that was published by the New York vanity publisher Vantage Press at a cost to Giannini of $3. it is a considerable leap of logic to take a poetic description of an unexplored land and claim that it connotes a hollow or infinitely extensive planet. our belief that the Earth is a sphere floating in space is the result of an optical illusion: the Earth is actually physically connected to the rest of the Universe at the Poles." (41) As we have already noted.

Under his editorship. a failed spinal operation left him with a hunchback. Over the next few years.) Palmer organised the first-ever science fiction fan club. Campbell's Astounding Science Fiction. (The term 'pulp' comes from the low-grade paper on which these popular magazines were printed. Pennsylvania in 1907. Born in Berwick.Ray Palmer. particularly the fantastic romances that were becoming increasingly popular in the 1920s and 1930s. and it did not escape his notice that Amazing always seemed to jump in circulation whenever it featured a story about Atlantis or Lemuria. which earned him a somewhat dubious reputation. and by that criterion Amazing was doing just fine. editing pulp magazines and founding Fate. this led him to become something of a loner. It has to be said that life did not deal him the best of hands: at the age of seven he was run over by a truck and his back was broken. he found the answer in the form of a strange letter from a man named Richard Shaver. (43) After graduating from high school he worked for a . and this. with a voracious appetite for reading. Palmer noticed that his readers seemed fascinated by the idea of lost civilisations -not to mention the paintings of nubile young women in skintight costumes that frequently graced the magazine's covers. the world's longest-running journal of the paranormal. the first of its kind. This led Palmer to wonder how best he might capitalise on this curious interest among his readers. As a child. However. van Vogt. but Palmer turned it around with an emphasis on romantic. Richard Shaver and the Horror Beneath Our Feet Anxious that his revolutionary theory should reach as wide an audience as possible. in 1930. he had had two imaginary companions. writing science fiction stories. suspenseful and picaresque adventures.E. Palmer was also a great fan of Hugo Gernsback's pulp science fiction magazine Amazing Stones. two years later. Born in Milwaukee. combined with a growth-hormone deficiency. the Science Correspondence Club. This sexual imagery. Understandably enough. Richard Sharpe Shaver was very fond of playing pranks on people. the magazine was in serious difficulties. he wrote a number of stories for the pulps before becoming editor of Amazing Stories in 1938. At that time. and founded the first SF fanzine. who became more real to him than the living people around him. the success or failure of magazines depends very much on their performance at the news-stands. In late 1943. Wisconsin in 1910. the magazine's circulation rose by several tens of thousands. Giannini sent a copy of Worlds Beyond the Poles to the man most likely to give it a sympathetic reading: Raymond Palmer. resulted in an adult height of just four feet. (42) The principal reason for the improvement in the fortunes of Amazing Stories was Palmer's knack of spotting what his reading public wanted and giving it to them. The Comet. which published the technology-orientated fiction of people like Robert Heinlein. Isaac Asimov and A. seemed to Palmer a potentially lucrative mixture. in spite of criticism from many of the 'hard' SF fans who later deserted him for John W. combined with cosmic mysticism. one good. the other evil. Palmer would become something of a Renaissance man in the fields of the bizarre and unusual.

He continued in this job for about a year until he suffered heat stroke.ro man tic 'science of man life patterning by control. Shaver received another blow when his wife Sophie died in a mysterious accident in her apartment (they were living separately at the time). as Childress notes. (46) For the next few years. In 1936. Shaver moved back to Pennsylvania and married for a third time. lost the power of speech and was admitted to the Ypsilanti State Hospital for two weeks. In 1933. too. The marriage was shortlived. After several years of work with the Mantong language. was dead). These six letters could thus be used as a key to unlock the hidden meanings in words. and Shaver took a job as a welder in Highland Park. his wife leaving him when she found papers indicating that he had been in a sanitarium. Shaver travelled around North America. to whom he had been very close. Shaver wrote the following letter to Amazing Stones in September 1943: Sirs: Am sending this in hopes you will insert it in an issue to keep it from dying with me. It would arouse a lot of discussion. Entitled 'The True Basis of Today's Alphabet' and written by a man named Albert F. the article claimed that there were six letters in our alphabet that represented concepts in addition to sounds. died. Yeager. claiming that he understood the hidden concepts behind all the letters of the alphabet. he came across an article in Science World magazine. Shaver joined a communist group called the John Reed Club (named after the American correspondent who had reported on the Russian Revolution). (44) Like just about everyone else. but managed to eke out a living as a part-time art instructor at the Wicker Art School. In response to this article.meat packer and then a tree surgeon before moving to Detroit and enrolling in the Wicker School of Art. In February 1934. He called this conceptual language 'Mantong'. The language seems to me to be definite proof of the Atlantean legend. His brother's death affected Shaver very badly and he became increasingly depressed and paranoid. finding the odd job here and there and marrying again.' Trocadero . Michigan. Shaver's brother Tate. However. They had a daughter the same year. (45) as a known communist. A great number of our English words have come down intact as romantic . While Shaver returned to his welding job. claiming that people were following him. Am sending you the language so that some time you can have it looked at by someone in the college or a friend who is a student of antique times. supplementing his meagre income by going to a park and selling sketches of passers-by for 25 cents each. Shaver fell on hard times with the arrival of the Depression. Shaver wrote to Science World.t ro see a dero -'good one see a . their daughter went to live with Sophie's parents (who apparently told her that her father. Shaver may well have been genuinely under surveillance. Shaver married a fellow art student named Sophie Gurivinch who had come originally from Kiev in the Ukraine. In 1930.

(also used DE) Disintegrant energy. It is an immensely important find.(used as TE) (the most important symbol. remains as credit word) U.Human (some doubt on this one) I .(used as AR) Horror (symbol of dangerous quantity of dis force in the object) S .Animal (used AN for short) B .Kinetic (force of motion) L .Energy (an all concept.often command) C .Zero (a quantity of energy of T neutralized by an equal quantity of D) (48) .S. Spore.Why Z .Self.bad one' .who thinks it is a mistake. Barto.Man N .See D .Will X .Life M . and will perhaps put me right in your thoughts again if you will really understand this. the force is T.(see G) (same as generate) K . Force of growth (the intake of T is cause of gravity. Pennsylvania (47) Enclosed with this letter was the Roman alphabet together with its associated Mantong concepts.Be (to exist . origin of the cross symbol) Integration. will you? It really has an immense significance. I need a little encouragement. A little study reveals ancient words in English occurring many times.Vital (used as VI) (the stuff Mesmer calls animal magnetism. It is too deep for ordinary man . Seed O . Detrimental (most important symbol in language) E .(SIS) (an important symbol of the sun) T .Child.You V . which Childress reprints in his excellent book Lost Continents and the Hollow Earth: A . suggesting the god legends have a base in some wiser race than modern man.applied now to theatre. This is perhaps the only copy of this language in existence and it represents my work over a long period of years. but to understand it takes a good head as it contains multi-thoughts like many puns on the same subject.Power Q .Orifice (a source concept) P . tic meant science of growth.Fecund (use FE as in female . -R.Generate (used GEN) H .Quest (as question) R . sex appeal) W . Shaver.Conflict (crossed force lines) Y . I can't. It should be saved and placed in wise hands. Ego (same as our I) J . including motion) F .fecund man) G .

Perhaps if readers interested were to apply his formula to more of these root words. sex. He realised that one of the welding guns was somehow allowing him to read the thoughts of his fellow workers in the . was intrigued and decided to publish both the letter and the accompanying alphabet in the December 1943 issue of Amazing Stones. Alongside Shaver's material was a caption that read: 'We present this interesting letter concerning an ancient language with no comment. In each case. as we shall see shortly. Palmer wrote to Shaver asking for more information on the Mantong language and how his understanding of it had developed. Childress supplies a number of examples. that is. however. dismissing Shaver as a crackpot. The word BAD. Encouraged by this response. Shaver painted a terrifying picture of a world honeycombed with vast caverns and tunnel systems containing enormous cities and advanced technology. The reader will note that in both of these examples. while the historical and linguistic fantasising of the Edda Society and its members became one of the motivators of racial hatred.By applying these strange hidden meanings behind the letters of the alphabet. however. meaning unpleasant. Shaver's writing style. a hidden history of humanity was to be discovered by careful examination of the components of written language . and Palmer decided to rewrite 'A Warning to Future Man'. the Edda Society and Karl-Maria Wiligut in the runes of Norse mythology (see Chapters One and Six). for instance. we will [sic] be able to discover if the formula applies . It must be added. destructive and detrimental.000-word manuscript evocatively entitled 'A Warning to Future Man'. can be interpreted as 'Be a de'. associate editor Howard Browne. Shaver's letter landed on the desk of Amazing's. it is worth noting a peculiar similarity between Shaver's strange interpretation of the alphabet and the spurious power and significance perceived by Rudolf John Gorsleben. turning it into a 31. violence and high adventure.' (50) Palmer proved more perspicacious than his colleague Howard Browne: the December issue prompted hundreds of people to write in claiming that the Mantong alphabet really did release the hidden meanings of words. Perhaps unsurprisingly.000-word story which he retitled 'I Remember Lemuria!' and published in the March 1945 issue of Amazing Stones. Palmer felt that this was the circulation-booster he had been looking for: the article detailed the hidden history of the Earth. but we need only detain ourselves with a couple. (49) Palmer. that in Shaver's case the result was harmless. Shaver responded by sending a 10.with the aid. the letter D (DE) is used. was not as impressive as his subject matter. if somewhat lurid entertainment. lost continents. complete with ancient spacefaring civilisations. LADY is interpreted as 'Lay de'. to be a destructive force. Shaver's awareness of this world had begun while he was a welder in Highland Park in 1932. he threw it into his waste basket as soon as he had finished reading it. one can perceive even stranger hidden meanings behind various words. of an overheated imagination.. (51) In this story and the many others that followed it (all of which were billed as true). except to say that we applied the letter-meaning to the individual letters of many old root words and proper names and got an amazing "sense" out of them. however. The letters D and T were of great importance to Shaver.. At this point. a complimentary term meaning to allay depression.

the penetray. This word is a contraction of 'abandondero'. These subterranean realms shielded the entire Titan and Atlan population. Hence the deros were. Eventually. 'te' denoting positive or constructive energy. and is based on the Mantong words 'de' (meaning negative or destructive) and 'ro' (meaning subservient). According to the thought records. Needless to say.' (52) This realisation proved too much for Shaver: he quit his job and embarked on the aimless wanderings through North America mentioned earlier. The tero. As if this were not bizarre enough. Some of them moved to the surface (the reader will not be surprised to learn that these were the ancestors of Homo sapiens). literally. They lived in great caves far beneath the surface. Their immortality under threat. The Earth was then colonised by two spacefaring civilisations. producing harmful radiation. are locked in a constant struggle with their unpleasant cousins. which could broadcast three-dimensional images. used to observe events from vast distances. During this time he was tormented by invisible. the telesolidograph. 'The voices came from beings I came to realize were not human. the stim-ray. positive energy. and the telepathic augmenter or telaug.000 years ago.000 years ago Lemuria/Earth was abandoned in favour of younger star systems. de or dis. when the Sun's outer shell was destroyed and it entered its current phase. formative energy in Shaver's dualistic world view. . seemed conscious of the fact they were evil.' (53) The Atlans and Titans called the Earth Lemuria. the largest of which would dwarf New York or London. This disintegrant energy is the opposite of t or te. in which they built fantastically huge cities. who possessed marvellous technological devices 'such as the ben-ray. who somehow managed to avoid contamination by the Sun's radiation. called d. which broadcast healing energies. the Titans and the Atlans. the underground cities did not prove a permanent solution and 12. however. the integrative. Since this star burned coal(!). deleterious rays projected at him by the evil subterraneans. or integrative ro. it radiated clean. the Sun was originally a huge planet whose coal beds were ignited by a meteor strike. The group to which Shaver's exotic girlfriend belonged are known as the 'tero'.creatures that apparently had the power to kidnap surface people and subject them to unthinkable tortures in their secret underground caverns. However. he was contacted by a beautiful young woman named Nydia who was a member of another subterranean group opposed to the evil ones. some 50 billion individuals. they became lovers and with her help Shaver was able to gain entry into the underworld and access the 'thought records' that contained the fantastic history of the Earth. he also began to pick up the thoughts of evil creatures living far underground . and lived in Utopian bliss until 20. transforming it into a star. controlled by negative forces. which prolonged and heightened sexual pleasure. while the ones who remained in the subterranean realms degenerated into a race of disfigured. which transmitted thought. (54) Many Lemurians had already fallen victim to the debilitating effects of the Sun's harmful radiation and were forced to remain on Earth. idiotic and very malicious beings known as the 'dero'. These alien minds I listened to seemed to know that they had great power. not normal modern men at all.factory. the Atlans and Titans excavated gargantuan caverns and tunnels far below Lemuria/Earth's surface.

[M]y friend has a hole the size of a dime in his right biceps. used as slave labour or eaten. Some even claimed to have visited the cavernworld itself. read in part: For heaven's sake drop the whole thing! You are playing with dynamite. Vast numbers of surface worlders . and wrote to Palmer to tell him so. One letter. Shaver's claims sound very much like he was suffering from this condition: the voices in the head experienced in connection with a mechanical device (the welding gun) are classic symptoms. but rather on the astral plane.According to Shaver. I have two 9-inch scars on my left arm .you. Although fundamentally stupid and brutal. the phrase 'paranoid schizophrenia' will surely have suggested itself to the reader. sexually abused. My companion and I fought our way out of a cave with submachine guns. at their Pennsylvania home. While he invariably supported Shaver. and most certainly Richard Shaver . me. As Bruce Lanier Wright wryly notes: 'If you doubt this. virtually all of which maintained that something sinister and terrifying really was going on beneath the Earth's surface. numbering thousands of letters. many of which were from people claiming to have had bizarre experiences with the denizens of the fabulous subterranean world. there is no doubt that many thousands of people were deeply affected by 'the Shaver Mystery'. Many had tales of encounters with strange people who may have been deros. you may be suffering from brain damage.500 per month during and after. . paranoid schizophrenics 'commonly believe a death ray is causing health problems. or causing them to hear voices'.. Palmer did make the perhaps inevitable claim that he himself had heard the voices of the cavern dwellers while visiting Shaver and his last wife.. (56) While the above may or may not be true (Childress suggests that Palmer himself may have fabricated it). as is the belief that unpleasant influences are being projected at the victim through air ducts. and yet it falls far short of explaining why the number of letters to Amazing Stories jumped from 50 per month before the Shaver Mystery to 2.. but we are not crazy. [D]on't print our names. How we don't know. However. To be sure. while others complained that they. pipes and so on. destroying their brain. the fiendish. But we both believe we know more about The Shaver Mystery than any other pair .' (55) The response to 'I Remember Lemuria!' was astonishing. It was scarred inside.have been slyly lobotomised by rays projected from the caverns. Not only did the March 1945 issue of Amazing sell out but Palmer received a torrent of mail. As Peebles notes. By now. the dero nevertheless know how to use the fabulous machinery left behind by the Lemurians and are able to spread evil and destruction throughout the world by means of dis rays. and take them into their cavern cities where they are tortured. too. from an ex-Air Force captain. were hearing bizarre voices in their heads. sadistic and perverted dero kidnap thousands of hapless surface-dwellers every year. he also suggested that the dero caverns might not exist as physical locations in this dimension.. We are not cowards. Dorothy. (57) This sounds remarkably like what the hapless Shaver was apparently going through. Palmer himself was reluctant to commit himself on the veracity of Shaver's claims.

Shaver maintained that the deros and teros did not live on some astral plane but were solid.' (60) This was not the end of the Shaver Mystery. Palmer and R. S. decided that enough was enough. the journal included reprinted material by Shaver. Shaver's group in January of 1945. . Marcoux. (61) The Hollow Hassle was published by Mary Le Vesque between 1979 and 1983 and featured a regular column by the Rev Charles A. At the end of 1948. In the August 1981 issue of The Hollow Hassle he wrote (in typically muddled syntax): 'My experiences in the cavern world began at a very young age with astral experiences in the caverns ever since my birth. and I am one of the few original members left. (Palmer left Amazing in 1949 to concentrate on his new publication. a fascinating and colourful character who claimed to have hunted the deros during his many cave explorations. Subtitled 'The Only Source of Post-Deluge Shaverania'. and in other worlds from other dimensions too. I joined R. Edited by Dennis Crenshaw. and brought the resolution before the Society for the Suppression of Vice. However. the Ziff-Davis Publishing Company. Despite its huge popularity with the readers of Amazing Stones. in addition to news clippings and conspiracy theories. the Shaver Mystery prompted a powerful backlash among diverse groups. For his part. such as the time they apparently interfered with Toronto's car while it was parked on a steep hillside and he was standing in front of it (Toronto barely managed to avoid being run over and killed). Wright notes that Palmer's relations with ZiffDavis had become rather strained. and that the cavern world was a real place. am the only original member who does.) (59) According to Jim Probst in his book Shaver: The Early Years: 'The Queens Science Fiction League of New York passed a resolution that the Shaver stories endangered the sanity of their readers.' (62) The Hollow Earth Insider ran for a few years in the early 1990s. which published Amazing. A fan conference in Philadelphia was rocked by threats to draw up a petition to the Post Office. (58) Palmer would later claim that the Shaver Mystery had been suppressed by a publisher 'too sedate' for material of this nature. such as government (and dero) mind control. in spite of the fact that Shaver's 'revelations' had virtually doubled its readership and enabled it to move from quarterly to monthly publication. Richard Toronto published Shavertron between 1979 and 1985. As Childress notes. and the Shaver Mystery was dropped from the magazine. possibly as a result of his launching Fate magazine." and as far as I know.Palmer claimed that he heard five disembodied voices discussing the dismemberment of a human being in a cavern four miles below. A. it would later inspire a number of people to start their own publications. however. I still "SEARCH FOR THE PORTALS. including hard science fiction fans who objected to a pornographic fantasy being marketed as truth (and who organised a campaign to boycott the magazine) and various occult groups who criticised Palmer for releasing information that would surely prove lethal to anyone inexperienced or foolish enough to attempt an exploration of the caverns. flesh-and-blood beings. the magazine reported on the continuing activities of the nefarious dero. asking that Amazing Stories be banned from the mail.

a modern mythology that served a number of functions. the Environmental Science Service Administration of the US Department of Commerce made public a collection of photographs taken by their weather satellite ESSA7 in November 1968.they had simply not been photographed. Palmer himself was a . an absolutely extraordinary image: an enormous dark area where the Earth's North Pole should have been. it is surprising that so many writers still cling to it with such misguided tenacity.) Palmer made a last effort to perpetuate the Shaver Mystery in the early 1960s with The Hidden World. When Palmer saw the photographs. rather than single exposures. this explanation has not dissuaded certain sensationalist writers from citing the ESSA-7 pictures. (63) There is perhaps some truth in Peebles's assertion that the Shaver Mystery constituted. an answer to the question of why there was so much evil and suffering in the world. in effect.and from an official source . The true reason for the dark area in the photographs was nowhere near as romantic and exciting as the Hollow Earthers would have their readers believe. He died of a heart attack in 1975.that there was indeed a gigantic opening at the North Pole. of course. at last. with an accompanying article stating that here. as conclusive proof that the Earth is hollow. Palmer continued to publish journals. The ESSA-7 photographs were actually photomosaics containing many hundreds of elements. he had no hesitation in reproducing them in his magazine Flying Saucers. leading to the hollow interior of the planet. the area at and immediately around the Pole had not been included in these photomosaics . Unfortunately. positive attributes of the American Way.the concept of mind control was central to the Shaver Mystery and adds the intriguing speculation that Shaver himself may well have been a victim. an exciting corollary to the perceived menace of Communism: a new enemy whose very existence could be used to define the contrasting. and for the rest of his life tried in vain to persuade various scientists that they constituted final proof of the reality of the cavern world. and thus showed up as dark areas on the images. and which is still cited as proof that we are indeed living on the surface of a hollow sphere. at first sight. and. (We will take a closer look at the subject of mind control in the next chapter. Unfortunately. He died in 1977. In view of the ease with which this 'evidence' can be dismissed (and has been by a number of the more responsible commentators on this subject). a trade paperback series that contained reprints of the original Shaver stories. Due to the satellite's orbital trajectory. including escapism from post-war reality and the incipient threat of the Cold War. although none even approached the success of Amazing Stories and Fate. was the proof . we must pause to examine what Palmer and many others considered to be the most impressive evidence for the Hollow Earth Theory. together with yet more tales from people claiming to have encountered and been victimised by the fiendish deros. The Hidden World was not particularly successful and publication ceased in 1964. even to this day. Shaver himself claimed to have discovered pictorial records of the Titans and Atlans hidden within the rocks and stones of the Wisconsin prairies in the 1950s. Several of these photographs contained. In 1970. Before we continue.

His father's occupation as a doctor perhaps had something to do with the boy's intense fascination with sexual reproduction and the male and female reproductive anatomy (he was particularly interested in menstruation). but most were vessels piloted by the denizens of the cavern world. . Palmer and others about the strange and frightening drama constantly being played out beneath our feet. which has become intimately connected to the idea of Nazi survival. Siegmeister moved to Florida in 1933 where he published a newsletter entitled Diet and Health. Palmer instantly provided the answer to the puzzle: some of the UFOs were indeed alien spacecraft. In the pages of Fate magazine. cryptohistorical inferences. which came to the world's attention with Kenneth Arnold's sighting of nine crescent-shaped objects over Mount Rainier in Washington State on 24 June 1947. the Shaver Mystery has come to define the Hollow Earth Theory in the twentieth century and now occupies a central position in the complex network of rumours. This was further illustrated by his reaction to the rise of the UFO mystery. although he also went under other names. Raymond Bernard and the 'Greatest Geographical Discovery in History' Perhaps the most famous of all books published on the subject of the hollow Earth is entitled (unsurprisingly) The Hollow Earth and is subtitled (unbelievably) 'The Greatest Geographical Discovery in History'. speculations. Arnold's sighting was followed by a torrent of reports of strange objects flitting through the skies.clever manipulator (if that is not too strong a word) of the public need both for escapism and for an explanation of the violence and evil that seemed to characterise life on Earth (it was all the fault of the deros). Siegmeister was born in New York in 1901. in the next chapter. (64) After completing his education at Columbia University and New York University (he gained a bachelor's degree from Columbia in 1924 and a master's degree and doctorate from NYU in 1930 and 1932). through which he promulgated his opinions on the benefits of raw food and a healthy lifestyle. for reasons that will become clear.) Whatever the underlying truth (if any) of the claims of Shaver. anomalous events and genuine government violations of public trust that constitutes modern conspiracy theory. Its author was yet another colourful and far from trustworthy personality named Walter Siegmeister. (We will look much more closely at the UFO mystery.

chief of the German Police (The Trustees of the Imperial War Museum.Heinrich Himmler (1900-1945) Reichsfuhrer-SS. London) .

(1831-1891) founder of the Theosophical Society (Fortean Picture Library) .Madame Blavatsky.

Thule Society emblem (David Hatcher Childress) .

Plastic swastika badges. Each depicts the use of the swastika in antiquity - a subject dear to Himmler's heart (Robin Lumsden)

Runic symbols used by the SS. For a complete guide to runic symbols as used by the SS, see Robin Lumsden's Himmler's Black Order 1923-1945 (Sutton Publishing)

Karl-Maria Wiligut-Weisthor in 1936 (Kreismuseum Wewelsburg)

Various views of the 'totenkopf or death's head ring, displaying runic symbols (Robin Lumsden)

This oak shield, carved with runic symbols, was typical of the wall decorations hung in Wewelsberg castle (Robin Lumsden)

1936 (The Trustees of the Imperial War Museum.Hitler speaking in the Reichstag (The Trustees of the Imperial War Museum. London) . London) A Nazi rally.

a place of mythological significance in Aryan history (Karl Aarsleff/Fortean Picture Library) A pseudo-pagan solstice celebration 1937. sponsored by the SS and held in the Berlin Olympic Stadium (Robin Lumsden) . Germany .The Externsteine in the Teutoburger Wald near Paderborn.

Hitler in 'blood banner' ceremony. This was always done by Hitler who held a corner of the banner in his hand and joined this with the banner that was to be dedicated. in this case a Standarten-fuhrer of the S. A feature of Nazi rallies was the dedication of new standards.A. London) . He then shook hands with the senior officer of the escort. (The Trustees of the Imperial War Museum.

author of The Coming Race (Mary Evans Picture Library) .Edward G.L.E. Bulwer-Lytton (1803-1873).

Pulp science fiction writer Richard Shaver's Hidden World series (Fortean Picture Library) .

Map of the mythical realms of Agharta and Shambala (SpiritWeb) .

German scientist Neupert's illustration of the 'hollow earth' 1935 (Mary Evans Picture Library) .

Rear Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd (1888-1957) flew Over the South Pole on 29 November 1929 with three companions and Igloo his pet terrier (Fortean Picture Library) Emblem of the Deutsche Antarktische Expedition 1938-9 (David Hatcher Childress) .

Antarctic topography as surveyed by the Nazis (David Hatcher Childress) .

Nazi Germany's wartime rocket chief Walter Dornberger seen here on the left with Werner von Braun in 1944 (David Hatcher Childress) Dornberger in 1954 after entering the United States under Project Paperclip. He went on to emerge as senior executive of the Bell Aerosystems Division of Textron (David Hatcher Childress) .

' (David Hatcher Childress) .Viktor Schauberger (1885-1958). Austrian inventor of a number of 'flying discs' who supposedly worked on a top secret project in Texas after the war. On his death bed he said over and over: 'They took everything from me. I don't even own myself.

Nichols 1991) .Artist's impression of a Schriever flying disc (© Lee Krystek 1998) Artist's impression of the Bellonzo Schriever-Miethe Disc (® James H.

entitled Are You Being Poisoned lay the Food You Eat? and Super-Health thru Organic Super-Foods. Siegmeister fled the United States and the legal action with which he was threatened. Siegmeister. and together they conceived the idea of creating a new Utopia and a 'super-race' somewhere in the jungles in the east of the country. Clements. and de Souza by claiming that he was in contact with the Atlanteans. just before the destruction of their continent.see Chapter Eight). (65) The new Utopia. There he met a friend. continued his promotion of a healthy diet by selling health foods and two books he had written. (66) Upon his return to the United States. now using the name Dr Robert Raymond. he moved to Brazil and bought a large plot of land with the intention of continuing his efforts to create a super-race. AB. (67) While in Brazil. leaving him a substantial amount of money. So outlandish were Siegmeister's claims of miraculous powers and meetings with Tibetan masters on Equadorian mountains (many of which appeared in the American press) that he was forbidden from using the US Mail Service and deported by the Equadorian Immigration Department. and it also transpired that Marian Windish was already married. but who was actually 70) at the Theosophical Society Headquarters in Sao Lourenco. now under the name Dr Uriel Adriana. Wierlo also accused Siegmeister of faking an ability to walk on water by means of a series of supports just below the surface. however. Huguenin claimed that the UFOs were the handiwork of an ancient civilisation (Huguenin claimed they were the Atlanteans) that had built them 12. and went to Equador in 1941. John Wierlo. (68) Siegmeister also claimed to have met an Atlantean woman (who looked like an eighteen-year-old. Huguenin who seems to have held a high position in the Brazilian Theosophical Society.R. Commander Paulo Strauss and Professor Henrique de Souza. the 'Eve' would be a 24-year-old woman named Marian Windish. The reason UFOs were being seen by so many surface dwellers was that the Atlanteans were concerned at humanity's use of nuclear energy (concerns that were also attributed to the so-called 'Space Brothers' by the American contactees of the 1950s . Some Atlanteans escaped the cataclysm by taking their craft through the Polar openings and reestablishing their fabulous civilisation in the inner Earth. which he again wrote under the pseudonym Raymond Bernard. C. MA. de Souza told Siegmeister that Brazil contained a number of tunnels leading down to the . At one of these meetings. he warned of a coming nuclear war. In common with Shaver.000 years ago. Siegmeister came across an odd book entitled From the Subterranean World to the Sky by one O. PhD. a hermit who had apparently lived for two years in the Equadorian jungle. were also actively promoting in Brazil the idea of the hollow Earth: Strauss by lecturing widely about a UFO base called Agharta. He then began travelling again throughout South America. from which a few people would be saved by extraterrestrials who would take them to Mars.After a disastrous business partnership with a confidence trickster named G. selling his books through mail order. When his mother died in 1955. In his 1955 book Escape From Destruction. during which they sold useless. At this time. who had moved from America the previous year. The 'Adam' of this scheme would be Wierlo (by all accounts an impressive example of manhood). waterlogged land to people wishing to grow crops. two Theosophist friends of Huguenin. was not to be: Wierlo later claimed that he had no intention of creating a super-race.

which was largely a rewrite of Flying Saucers from the Earth's Interior and also borrowed heavily from Reed. giant fruits. Sol-Mar and Zola described the inner Earth as a paradise with a perfect climate. In 1964. Gardner and Giannini. who lived in a city called Masars II. Eventually. In addition. Missouri. Siegmeister went into creative overdrive. the region in which the famous explorer Colonel Percy Fawcett disappeared in 1925). Fawcett was still alive and well in an Atlantean city. and who wished to live at Siegmeister's Brazilian colony. The book sold well. who was a member of an organisation called UFO World Research based in St Louis. but unfortunately Siegmeister did not live to enjoy its success: he died of pneumonia in 1965. At this time. and where the people grew to over 12 feet tall. he managed to find a New York publisher for his last book. Siegmeister was one of the first writers to suggest that the US and Soviet Governments were secret allies in the face of the potential threat posed by the Inner Earth civilisation. it is distinguished by its lengthy treatment of the idea that the governments of the world are well aware of the 'fact' that UFOs are spacecraft. who claimed to have visited the inner Earth on board a UFO. however. a claim that has become an integral part of modern conspiracy theory. Dr Marlo claimed to know two beings called Sol-Mar and Zola. Marlo tantalised Siegmeister with promises of a meeting with SolMar and Zola . containing articles about Rear Admiral Byrd's flights and the Hollow Earth Theory. Not only is that country a hot spot for UFO activity and encounters with apparent 'aliens'. although he was prevented from leaving in case the surface dwellers forced him to reveal its whereabouts. (71) Siegmeister's greatest legacy.inner Earth (Childress notes that one of the tunnels was supposed to be in the Roncador Mountains of the Matto Grosso. George Marlo. (70) For the next few years. Siegmeister never found any of the tunnel entrances. we may cast a glance at some of the reports that have recently been coming out of Brazil concerning some rather unusual discoveries. When some friends in America sent him a copy of Ray Palmer's journal Flying Saucers. particularly around the town of Joinville about 190 . 1960. The Subterranean World and Flying Saucers from the Earth's Interior.meetings that were always unavoidably postponed for various reasons. For instance. Dr. it also contains possibly more subterranean tunnel networks and entrances to the inner Earth than any other country. (69) According to de Souza. Although he claimed to have made many trips into the Roncador Mountains. writing Agharta. Before moving on. The Hollow Earth. must be the identification of Brazil as the most significant location in the mythology of the hollow Earth. and that they come from the inner Earth (it was one of the first books to pay serious attention to this idea). the Brazilian organisation Sociedade de Estudos Extrater-restres (SOCEX) has spent the last few years investigating claims that an elaborate tunnel network exists in the mountains of Santa Catarina and Parana States. Siegmeister received a letter from one Ottmar Kaub. underneath South Africa. Kaub was writing on behalf of the organisation's leader. beautiful birds with 30-foot wingspans. Siegmeister realised that Marlo was lying about his contacts with the Inner Earthers and decided to continue his researches alone. Although The Hollow Earth contains a great deal of material from earlier writers.

Lost Continents and the Hollow Earth. that by the end of the Second World War the Nazis had begun to develop aircraft and weapons systems radically in advance of anything in use elsewhere at the time. that Nazism as a potent political force did not cease to exist with the defeat of the Third Reich but continues in one or more secret locations. who described an opening leading to a tunnel system near the small mountain town of Sao Tome das Lettres. and some say they have heard singing. 250 miles south-west of Sao Paulo. north of Sao Paulo.miles south-west of Sao Paulo (which. who has written many books on the more unorthodox aspects of archaeology and who offers an account of one such adventure he undertook in his fascinating and informative study of the Shaver Mystery and the Hollow Earth Theory. While legends of tunnels beneath South America have existed ever since the Spanish conquest of the continent. This will become especially apparent as we conclude this chapter on the hollow Earth and subterranean civilisations with a look at the tunnel system that is said to exist beneath South America. together with about twenty others. the men found themselves in a small underground city. still exerting a powerful influence on world events. in which they discovered a staircase leading further underground. Many people have reported UFOs in the area. the latter an unsafe extrapolation based on rumour and hearsay) have merged into one another to such a degree that a clear line of dichotomy between the two has become virtually impossible to define. to the owner as he told a strange story of a man-made tunnel extending far into the earth. and in a local restaurant they listened. In South America we find the nexus of the ideas we shall be discussing in the last two chapters of this book: firstly. is an important centre of UFO activity and of the belief in powerful subterranean civilisations is of considerable significance to the present study. was Siegmeister's base of operations in Brazil). and secondly. Marli translated the restaurant owner's Portugese: . the voices apparently coming from underground. where they remained for five days with its 50 inhabitants. Childress travelled to the town with Marli. Some modern explorers even claim to have visited them. oddly enough. referring to the mysterious places where the Incas were said to have hidden most of their gold. As with most aspects of what may broadly be termed 'the paranormal'. named Marli. there is some evidence for their actual existence. the concepts of Nazi occultism and genuine Nazi occult power (the former a verifiable historical fact. and indeed the rest of South America. Chief among these is David Hatcher Childress. (72) In another SOCEX report. Childress describes how he followed a lead provided in a letter sent to him by one of his South American readers. Descending the staircase. the claim that Brazil. two men entered a tunnel near the city of Ponta Grossa. (73) While these stories may be taken with a large grain of salt (their protagonists are invariably referred to by pseudonyms or just initials).

and was extremely tall. the answers to these questions evaded the small party: after an hour. They had arrived in the room by one of the tunnels. . This man claims that the tunnel goes all the way to Peru. and they were not equipped for a lengthy exploration. This man claims that he went completely under South America. using it as their base. Although the group did not encounter any fabulous wonders of the subterranean realm. gradually sloping tunnel that was dug into a red. '. turned back to the large room. clay-type dirt. This room had four openings to four tunnels. Cuzco or the Atacama Desert? (75) In the event. the very existence of the tunnel proves that the legends associated with South America have some basis in fact. since the tunnel seemed to continue endlessly on. they arrived at a point where the floor dropped approximately one metre. and decided that this was a convenient place to turn back. yet.and around the world in the distant past? Or was it some bizarre subterranean road that linked up with other tunnels in the Andes and ultimately could be used to journey safely to such places as Machu Picchu. It was not the smooth. here at Sao Tome das Lettres.' (74) The restaurant owner went on to tell how he himself had encountered a strange man near the tunnel entrance one morning. We were descending down into the earth in a wide. Eventually they returned to the surface. After travelling for four days through the tunnel the team of Army explorers eventually came to a large room deep underground. laser-cut rock walls that Erich von Daniken had claimed to have seen in Equador in his book Gold of the Gods. 'They stayed in the room for some time. each going in a different direction. searching for an elusive vein of gold or merely red clay for the long-gone ceramic kilns? Was it an elaborate escape tunnel used in the horrific wars that were said to have been fought in South America . but it was just as incredible. Why would anyone build such a tunnel? Was it an ancient mine that went deep into the earth. [T]here is a man here in town who claims to know the tunnel and claims that he has been many weeks inside the tunnel. to Machu Picchu in the Andes. The man was dressed in traditional Andean Indian clothes. Marli and a fellow explorer named Carl Hart went to the tunnel entrance with the intention of exploring as far as they could. It wouldn't have taken some space-age device to make this tunnel.. He continues: I was amazed at this ancient feat of engineering. across Brazil and to Machu Picchu. As soon as he saw the restaurant owner. it was clearly a colossal undertaking. Childress goes on to report that the following morning he. but after following each for some time.'The Brazilian army went into the tunnel one time to find out where it ends. just simple tools.. and attempted to explore each of the other three tunnels. approximately seven feet. the man walked away without saying anything.

many of which were held by the Nazis themselves and many by certain writers who have. as well as by those with an interest in the more unusual German weapons designs of the Second World War. there is some evidence to suggest that the truth may be far more sinister and frightening. quite literally. Most (if not all) serious historians would throw up their hands in horror at the very mention of such a seemingly ludicrous idea.The cloud Reich Nazi Flying Discs So far in this book we have looked at some extremely strange notions. We now come to a subject that. these radical aircraft designs must have been captured. by odd cosmological concepts and the hidden legacies of fabulous. . what is more. This evidence. and yet the suggestion has been frequently made that the UFOs (unidentified flying objects) first reported in the late 1940s were the products of experimental aircraft designs that were developed towards the end of the Second World War. copied and further developed by the victorious powers. practitioners of Black Magic. at first sight. over the years. Hitler himself) were able to escape the ruins of the Third Reich and continue their nefarious plans for world domination in the icy fastnesses of the Arctic and Antarctic. might seem somewhat out of place in our survey.8 . particularly when one considers the associated claims that. and. concerning the story of the Knights Templar following their suppression) can also be applied to the Nazis themselves and their awful legacy of racial hatred. long-vanished civilisations. attempted to prove that the Third Reich was ruled by men who were. As will surely be apparent from the material we have examined so far. Those researchers who have uncovered this evidence. since sightings of UFOs are still reported today by thousands of people around the world. not least because it encompasses several additional fields of arcane knowledge and speculation. In fact. by Eastern mysticism and the Hollow Earth theory. We have already seen how the Nazi elite were fascinated by the concepts of the Holy Grail and the Knights Templar. that some UFOs may even be piloted by escaped Nazis operating out of one or more hidden bases. and whom we shall meet in this chapter. they suggest that many leading Nazis (including. according to some accounts. While many would think that this legacy is confined to the demented ravings of a few groups of neo-fascists in Europe and America. the Nazi occultist idea is both bizarre and complicated. In addition. the notion of the secret transmission of esoteric information through history (as discussed in Chapter Three. points to the possibility that some extremely advanced aircraft designs did actually reach the prototype stage in 1944 and 1945. which has been gathered and presented over the years by investigators of the UFO phenomenon. have also taken the logical next step of suggesting that the Americans and Russians captured a number of designs at the end of the war and continued their development throughout the post-war years.

we can look very briefly at one of the classic UFO sightings from the early days of modern ufology. Oregon. . It is certainly true that approximately 95 per cent of sightings can be attributed to stars. In this realm. The UFO mystery has never gone away. we must return to Pauwels's and Bergier's 'Absolute Elsewhere'. the idea that some of them are actually technological devices (called by some 'X Devices'. cut from the body of humankind? To deal with these questions. USA.45 on the evening of 11 May 1950. yet there remains the tantalising five per cent that cannot be explained so easily. The first person to suggest that mysterious objects and lights in the sky might be machines from another planet was probably the great American anomalist Charles Fort (1874-1932). In order to illustrate this fact. Mrs Trent had been out feeding their rabbits when she noticed the UFO. once again.) At about 7. after all. The claims about the survival of the Nazis are connected to all these fields. extending from the upper surface of the object is a curious structure reminiscent of a submarine conning tower. following the famous sighting by pilot Kenneth Arnold over the Cascade Mountains in Washington State on 24 June 1947. the truth of the matter is more subtle and complex. science and occultism meet. which is offset slightly from the vertical axis. The photographs show a circular object with a flat undersurface and a bevelled edge. however. although that term is now obsolete) is relatively recent. they are still the subject of intense debate and I believe it is more prudent to choose a sighting that has stood the test of time and is still regarded as almost certainly genuine. we must.and spacecraft? Could some of them belong to a hidden 'Fourth Reich' that represents a cancer that was not. aircraft and so on. Mr and Mrs Paul Trent watched a large object fly over their farm near McMinnville. as do theories of vast historical conspiracies and outrageous cosmological speculations. She called her husband.Could there possibly be any truth to these incredible speculations? Could UFOs actually be man-made air. and depend to a great extent on the use of highly advanced technology and resources by secret forces. While sceptics would argue that the reason for this is a mixture of wishful thinking. meteorites. enter the curious realm of crypto-history. where the line between reality and fantastic rumour becomes blurred and indistinct. The Mystery of the UFOs Although human beings have been seeing strange things in the skies since the dawn of history. it is now more deeply ingrained in the public consciousness than ever before. in short. it was not until the late 1940s that the idea began to gain a wider currency. and the 'flying saucer' can truthfully be described as one of the great cultural icons of the twentieth century. the misidentification of mundane phenomena and out-andout hoaxes. planets. (Although there are many impressive sightings from the 1990s. and has certainly never been explained to universal satisfaction: indeed. satellites. who was able to take two black-and-white photographs of it.

silvery object was tilted slightly as it moved across the sky in absolute silence. This case is just one of a large number of sightings of highly unusual. which it considered to be of no interest to science. apparently intelligently guided objects. tens of meters in diameter. There are. seen both in the skies and on the ground. they mentioned the incident to only a few friends. hoaxes. and physical. Jung. the photographs appeared in Life magazine and became world-famous. more credence is given to an alternative theory known as the Psycho-social Hypothesis. that have been occurring for decades. The most widely accepted theory is. (2) In the 50 or so years since the Trents had their strange encounter. (1) A week later. of course. disk-shaped. illusions or misidentifications of ordinary phenomena. the psycho-sociologists see such encounters as similar to waking dreams that fulfil an undefined psychic need. after which Hartmann concluded: This is one of the few UFO reports in which all factors investigated. who examined UFOs in his book Flying Saucers A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Sky (1959). (To Jung. the Extraterrestrial Hypothesis (ETH). which holds that genuine UFOs are spacecraft piloted by explorers from another planet. they waited until they had used up the remainder of the camera's film before having the UFO photographs developed!). aside from the sceptical notion that all are. flew within sight of two witnesses. This theory has the greatest currency in the United States. widely despised) Condon Report produced by the US Air Force-sponsored Colorado University Commission of Enquiry. which suggests that encounters with UFOs and 'aliens' may be due to subtle and ill-understood processes occurring within the mind of the percipient. The Condon Report (named after the enquiry's leader. and presently was lost to view. of course. the McMinnville UFO sighting was investigated by William K. The photographs were submitted to extremely rigorous scientific analysis. the photographs have been repeatedly subjected to more and more sophisticated analyses. silvery. without exception. Seventeen years later. However. although there are some physical factors such as the accuracy of certain photometric measures of the original negatives which argue against a fabrication. news of the sighting quickly spread to a reporter from the local McMinnville Telephone Register who visited the Trents and found the photographic negatives under a writing desk where the Trent children had been playing with them. appear to be consistent with the assertion that an extraordinary flying object. The Trents later said that they had felt a slight breeze from the underside of the UFO. metallic. the respected physicist Dr Edward U. However. geometric. psychological. It cannot be said that the evidence positively rules out a fabrication. In Europe. the report contained a number of cases that it conceded were not amenable to any conventional explanation. and have passed every test. Inspired by the Swiss psychoanalyst Carl G. Hartmann and was included in the famous (and. One of these cases was the McMinnville sighting. the circular shape of the UFO suggested a . various theories to account for these sightings. in the UFO community. Condon) was dismissive of the UFO phenomenon.The bright. The Trents sought no publicity following their sighting (in fact. and evidently artificial.

Kenneth Arnold's 1947 sighting of nine anomalous objects flitting between the peaks of the Cascade Mountains was not the first twentieth-century UFO encounter. partly in order to give the German pilots better aim but mostly in order to blind the enemy tail gunners in their turrets. During the last year of the war the Germans also sent up a number of radio-controlled bright objects to interfere with the ignition systems of our engines or the operation of the on-board radar. They caused frequent alarms and continual nervous tension among the crews. the officer said to the New York press: 'It is quite possible that the flying saucers are the latest development of a "psychological" anti-aircraft weapon that the Germans had already used.lights that would suddenly catch the target. a circular symbol identified by Jung as one of the archetypes residing in humanity's collective unconscious. They seem to be radio-controlled from the ground. Renato Vesco (a pioneer of the Nazi-UFO hypothesis) and David Hatcher Childress cite the testimony of a former American flying officer who had worked for the intelligence section of the Eighth Air Force towards the end of the war. there's fire. Pilots have been encountering this eerie weapon for more than a month in their night flights. and based on plans captured by the Allies in the ruins of Nazi Germany at the end of the Second World War. all of which are beyond the scope of this book. It was well known that the German night fighters had powerful headlights in their noses or propeller hubs . it is actually well worth examining the evidence for 'Nazi flying saucers'. On 2 January 1945. The Foo Fighters Although it set the stage for the drama of modern ufology. Wishing to remain anonymous. Outlandish as it may sound. mysterious Foo fighter' balls which race alongside the wings of Beaufighters flying intruder missions over Germany. thereby lowering their efficiency. that they are actually living beings indigenous to interplanetary space. the Nazis have thrown something new into the night skies over Germany. No one apparently knows what this sky weapon is. Allied pilots on night-time bombing raids over Europe frequently reported strange flying objects. In all probability . including the idea that they are time machines from the future.) The aircrews suspected that the objects might be some kind of German secret weapon. During night missions over western Germany I happened to see on several occasions shining discs or balls that followed our formations. 'Where there's foo. These objects were christened Foo Fighters'. has been put forward by a number of writers and researchers. In the closing stages of the Second World War. (3) In their book Man-Made UFOs (1994).) There are a number of secondary theories for UFOs. after a catchphrase in the popular Smokey Stover comic strip. so official intelligence reports reveal. that they originate in other dimensions of existence and so on. The 'balls of fire' appear suddenly and accompany the planes for miles. represented by the mandala. meaning fire.' ('Foo' was also a play on the French word feu.psychic need for wholeness and unity. The idea that UFOs are man-made. the New York Herald Tribune carried the following brief Associated Press release: Now. It is the weird. it seems.

and one pilot feared that his B17 Flying Fortress would be destroyed on contact with the objects. Schlueter suggested that they might be stars. Schlueter radioed the American ground radar station. For instance. glanced out of the cockpit and noticed about ten glowing red balls flying very fast in formation. to which the station replied that nothing was showing on their scope. For example.who was an outspoken believer in alien craft during the 1950s -flatly denied this and said that Treasury approval for such a minor exercise at a time when Britain was fighting for its survival would have been ludicrous. one inch thick and about three inches in diameter. disc-shaped and spherical objects that were highly manoeuvrable. checked his own . informing them that they were being chased by German night fighters. many aircrews reported events that were not so easy to explain. However. Lieutenant Edward Schlueter of the 415th US Night Fighter Squadron was flying a heavy night fighter from his base at Dijon towards Mainz. allegedly. Schlueter's radar observer. Vesco and Childress are not forthcoming with a detailed reference for this statement. there was.' (4) Unfortunately.' (6) Some encounters undoubtedly had mundane explanations. The British UFO investigators Peter Hough and Jenny Randies make the interesting point that the Second World War saw more people in the skies than any other prior period.American scientists picked up this invention and are now perfecting it so that it will be on a par with the new offensive and defensive air weapons. On 23 November 1944. 'However. 'Air Chief Marshal Sir Victor Goddard . Lieutenant Fred Ringwald. coupled with the obvious interest the objects showed in Allied aircraft. strongly implies that they were built specifically to interact in some way with those aircraft. As is so often the case with the UFO mystery. They were floating gently down through the air directly in the path of the American aircraft. genuine sightings generated various rumours of official interest in the phenomenon. (7) Nevertheless.' write Hough and Randies. which advocates of the Nazi-UFO hypothesis hotly dispute: for them. Twenty miles from Strasbourg. Germany on 14 October 1943. pieces of metal foil released by German Aphrodite balloons to confuse radar by returning false images. an Air Force intelligence officer who was on the mission as an observer. the bomber cut through the cluster of discs and continued on its way undamaged. which were silver in colour. flight crews of the American 384th Squadron observed a large cluster of discs. but this explanation was proved wrong when the objects approached the plane. and that it was therefore no great surprise that UFOs should have been spotted in abundance. Meiers. Lieutenant Donald J. a secret British government investigation into the Foo Fighter reports called the Massey Project. this statement carries the implication of a likely nonhuman origin of the objects. glowing. It is quite possible that encounters such as this were actually with 'chaff. including the harassment of their aircraft by small. (5) Of course. during a bombing raid on a factory at Schweinfurt. the large number of Foo Fighter sightings.

Howard W. The pilots who actually encountered the objects were unimpressed with Blakeslee's solution: most of them had been flying for a number of years. According to Blakeslee. and the fire seemed to go out.m. the report reads: At 0600.000 feet altitude. The foo fighter was still right on the tail of the aircraft as both passed into the distance. however. they realised it was neither of these things: the object was a silvery ball hugging the bomber.which resulted in many jokes at the pilots' expense. who submitted a flight report on their mission of 22 December 1944. They leveled off and stayed on the tail of our plane. Nevertheless. In part. science editor of the Associated Press. which was desperately trying to evade it. although they seemed to have lost interest in the American aircraft and glided off into the night towards Germany. Then they thought it might be a flare caught up in the slipstream of the aircraft. Hough and Randies cite a report from a former prisoner of war at the Heydebreck camp in Upper Silesia. near Hagenau. a subsequent malfunction in the plane's radar system forced it to return to base. two very bright lights climbed toward us from the ground. pilots who saw the Foo Fighters decided not to include them in their flight reports. until they were lost to sight. and the men gazed in horror at what seemed to be fire pouring from its rear end. and knew St Elmo's Fire when they saw it. spontaneous lights produced by an electrostatic discharge on the fuselages of the Allied aircraft. (8) Upon the objects' departure. The Foo Fighters were something entirely different: the light they produced went on and off at intervals that seemed to be related to their speed. In an encounter of 27 November 1944 over Speyer. They were under perfect control.500 feet above their fighter. (12) No Allied aircraft were ever brought down by Foo Fighters (which seemed more content to . forcing the crew to abandon their mission. the fighter's radar began to malfunction. they reappeared. on 22 January 1945 a number of men were being paraded by the Germans before being marched away to evade the liberating Russian Army. Then they turned away from us. flying at about 18. claimed that the mysterious Foo Fighters were nothing more than St Elmo's Fire. An official report was made . (10) The Foo Fighters were not only witnessed by air crews. their shape was often clearly discernible as either discoid or spherical.the first of its kind . They were huge bright orange lights. (11) On 1 January 1945. and they were frequently reported as spinning rapidly on their vertical axis. The radar station in the sector replied that there was nothing else there. Poland. A bomber appeared overhead. pilots Henry Giblin and Walter Cleary reported a large orange light flying at 250 mph about 1. at 10. Finally. Schlueter then decided to make for the objects at full throttle.scope. (9) After the 27 November encounter. this explanation also accounted for the fact that the Foo Fighters did not show up on radar. On my tail all the time. Less than two minutes later.000 feet. The response from the Foo Fighters was instantaneous: their fiery red glow rapidly dimmed. At 3 p. Blakeslee. This self-imposed censorship was broken by two pilots named McFalls and Baker of the 415th. They stayed there for two minutes. but could detect nothing unusual.

Press this afternoon announces one such missile fell in Stockholm suburb 2:30 this afternoon. Sweden and Denmark (and were later reported as far afield as Morocco and India). strange unidentified aerial objects invaded the skies over Finland. (15) Ghost Rockets Over Scandinavia In the two years between the end of the Second World War and the Kenneth Arnold sighting. Missile observed by member Legation made no sound and seemed to be falling rapidly to earth when observed. One landed on beach near Stockholm same afternoon without causing any damage and according to press fragments are now being studied by military authorities. and it was known that German scientists were desperately trying to develop a ballistic missile that could hit America. Local scientist on first inspection stated it contained organic substance resembling carbide. Defense staff last night issued communique listing various places where missiles had been observed and urging public report all mysterious sound and light phenomena. He reported hearing 'a strange sound. near the eastern edge of the Pfalzerwald. Member of Legation saw one Tuesday afternoon.pace them and interfere with their radar). and so it was considered likely that the objects were dangerous German secret weapons. No sound of explosion followed however. Eyewitness reports state missiles came in from southerly direction proceeding to northwest. During past few days reports of such objects being seen have greatly increased. Military Attache is investigating through Swedish channels and has been promised results Swedish observations. which then published the personal opinions of several US Intelligence officers that the Foo Fighters were radio-controlled radar-jamming devices sent up by the Germans. Nicknamed 'Ghost Rockets' because of their long. once again from the 415th Squadron. character or purpose of missiles but state definitely they are not launched by Swedes. like the "backwash of invisible planes"'. Swedes profess ignorance as to origin. several Foo Fighter stories were leaked in December 1944 to the American Legion Magazine. perhaps a radical development of V-weapon technology. these objects were reported to perform astonishing manoeuvres such as diving and climbing rapidly at enormous speeds. (13) Vesco and Childress go on to cite the testimony of another (unnamed) B-17 pilot who decided to intercept a Foo Fighter and succeeded in getting within a few hundred yards of the shining sphere. According to Vesco and Childress. saw five orange balls of light flying in a 'V formation in the distance. (14) The last reported encounter with Foo Fighters occurred in early May 1945. A pilot. The V-ls were already causing carnage in London. dated 11 July 1946: For some weeks there have been numerous reports of strange rocket-like missiles being seen in Swedish and Finnish skies. (16) The British UFO investigator Timothy Good cites the following confidential Department of State telegram from the American Embassy in Stockholm. Six units Atlantic Fleet . thin profile and occasional fiery exhaust. Norway.

By far the most likely explanation was that it was a meteor. what conceivable purpose could it serve the Russians. captured German weapons technology at the end of the war. Both the Americans and Russians. was that [the Ghost Rockets] were long-range flying bombs being flown by the Russians over Sweden as an act of intimidation. among them Professor R. reported the object as well to the east. his account of his involvement with British Scientific Intelligence between 1939 and 1949. at very much shorter range. For myself. If missiles are of Soviet origin as generally believed (some reports say they are launched from Estonia). purpose might be political to intimidate Swedes in connection with Soviet pressure on Sweden being built up in connection with current loan negotiations or to offset supposed increase in our military pressure on Sweden resulting from the naval visit and recent Bikini [atomic] tests or both. This interpretation was accepted by officers in our own Air Technical Intelligence. Jones. to fly it in great numbers over Sweden. Even if the Russians had achieved a reliability as high as 99 per cent . (Actually. First. A number of British scientists were sent to Sweden to examine the Ghost Rocket reports. where the object appeared to have dashed about at random over the whole of southern Sweden at speeds up to 2. perhaps as far east as Finland. wherever he was. (17) The suspicion voiced in this telegram that the Soviets might be responsible for the Ghost Rocket sightings was natural enough. and the fantastic speeds that were reported were merely due to the fact that all observers had seen it more or less simultaneously. Professor Jones writes of the fears that the rockets were Russian: The general interpretation . given that the Cold War was then just getting under way. who worked out the performance of the bombs from the reported sightings in one of the incidents. so that any attempt to draw a track by linking up observations in a time sequence was unsound.under Admiral Hewitt arrived Stockholm this morning.) The fact that both the United States and the Soviet Union carried out extensive experiments with captured Nazi technology will gain yet more significance as we examine the claims of the Nazi-UFO proponents. V. if they indeed had a controllable flying bomb. of course. a German V-2 rocket had already crashed in Sweden in the summer of 1944. (18) Professor Jones considered it extremely unlikely that the Ghost Rockets could be Russian missiles based on German V-2 designs: he stated that the rockets seen over Scandinavia had more than twice the range of the V-2..000 mph. but that they had varying errors in their watches. In Most Secret War. I simply asked two questions. What the officers concerned failed to notice was that every observer. the then Director of Intelligence of Britain's Air Staff and scientific advisor to Section IV of MI6.. and it was assumed by many in authority that the Russians were experimenting with V-l and V-2 rocket designs. an increase in performance that was too great given the short time since the capture of the German designs. without doing any more harm than to alert the West to the fact that they had such an impressive weapon? My second question followed from the first: how had the Russians succeeded in making a flying bomb of such fantastic reliability? The Germans had achieved no better than 90 per cent reliability in their flying bomb trials of 1944.

some Ghost Rocket sightings remained puzzling. (20) When he telephoned the head of chemistry at the RAE. the Swedish Government concluded in October 1946 that.000 reports of Ghost Rockets they had received.' (21) Nevertheless. via the Swedish General Staff and the British Air Staff. serious historians treat claims of fantastic advances in Nazi technology with the utmost disdain. could not be either natural phenomena or the products of imagination. I therefore said that I would not accept the theory that the apparitions were flying bombs from Russia until someone brought a piece into my office. (19) Professor Jones goes on to relate an amusing incident that followed his challenge. the scientists who analysed the fragments claimed that over 98 per cent of their mass consisted of an unknown element. capable of travelling not only through our atmosphere but also in outer . and had quickly concluded that they were lumps of coke. The London Daily Telegraph. Indeed. Since there had been allegedly hundreds of sorties. to the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE) at Farnborough. which published the photograph on 6 September 1946. which many professional scientists admit (however reluctantly and anonymously) constitute a puzzle worthy of serious investigation. When the Swedish authorities examined the photograph. the chemist literally gasped. of the 1. 'No one had stopped to look at the material. opined that a new method of propulsion was being tested. their technological innovations did not extend much further than that. (22) For their part. none of which looked as if it had ever been associated with a mechanical device'. 'four or five irregularly shaped solid lumps. enquiring whether they had thought to test for carbon. Jones had already seen the samples. Ghost Rockets and UFOs. the remaining 20 per cent. and they had failed to test for carbon. (23) Radical Aircraft Designs: Feuerball and Kugelblitz The conventional view of history is that. this still meant that one per cent of all sorties should have resulted in a bomb crashing on Swedish territory. there ought to be at least several crashed bombs already in Sweden. The other lumps had similarly innocent explanations. One of the objects was photographed near Stockholm by a Swede named Erik Reuterswaerd. in an effort to get the analysis made quickly. while the Germans possessed some remarkable and deadly weapons such as the V-l.over their much longer ranges. 80 per cent could be attributed to 'celestial phenomena'.) Nevertheless. the V-2 and the jet-engined Messerschmitt ME-262 fighter. they stated. (We have already quoted Professor Jones's assertion that the Nazi flying bomb trials of 1944 were only 90 per cent reliable. When a substance that had allegedly fallen from a Ghost Rocket was collected and sent. we must now examine the claims of some UFO researchers that the wonderful devices seen so frequently flitting through the skies are actually machines based on Nazi designs for ultra-high-performance disc-shaped craft. they concluded that the object's trail was not issuing from its rear but was actually enveloping it. and yet nobody had ever picked up a fragment. we must ask the question: are they right to do so? Having looked briefly at the mystery of the Foo Fighters.

and was so even during the Second World War. However. the technological principles behind these craft were. we must press on through that weird realm. this ionisation would produce powerful electrostatic and electromagnetic fields that would interfere with its H2S radar. Vesco is quite certain that the origin of the UFOs still seen today by witnesses all over the world can be placed firmly in Nazi Germany in the early 1940s. this device could short-circuit the target aircraft's ignition system. Luftwaffe scientists in Oberammergau. Vesco investigated UFO sightings for the Italian Air Ministry. more or less resembling the shell of a tortoise. This short range. Bavaria conducted extensive research into an electrical device capable of interfering with an aircraft engine up to a distance of about 100 feet. Through the generation of intense electromagnetic fields. Renato Vesco is a pioneer of the Nazi-UFO theory. attracted by their exhaust flames.space. but history is not'. In the 1960s. also flat and circular. that is. and was powered by a special turbojet engine. he studied aeronautical engineering at the German Institute for Aerial Development and during the war was sent to work at Fiat's underground installation at Lake Garda in northern Italy. divided between the United States and the Soviet Union at the end of the war. since we are already deep within the Absolute Elsewhere. (26) The fiery halo around the craft's perimeter was generated by a combination of the rich fuel mixture and chemical additives causing the ionisation of the atmosphere around the Feuerball. he believes. As we have already noted. Indeed. the book examines in great detail the possible technology behind the UFOs and reaches the astonishing and highly controversial conclusion that UFO technology (seen in terms of the perceived flight characteristics of the objects) is well within the capabilities of human science . (24) In 1971. these researches yielded a by-product that was put to use by Albert Speer and the SS Technical General Staff. he published the seminal work on the theory of manmade flying saucers. These plans were still only on the drawing board by the end of the war. it then automatically followed enemy aircraft. Radio-controlled at the moment of take-off. They produced a device capable of 'proximity radio interference' on the delicate radar systems of American night-fighters. (25) Thus a highly original flying machine was born. entitled Intercettateh Senza Sparare (roughly translated as 'Intercept Without Firing'). The reader who baulks at this idea may well be further outraged by the claims made by some that the Nazis themselves succeeded in building prototypes of these machines. it was circular and armored. so the weapon was never put into production. In addition. and approached close enough without collision to wreck their radar gear. causing total loss of power. bearing in mind Pauwels's and Bergier's perceptive assertion that 'the historian maybe reasonable. As it approached the target aircraft. 'Since a metal arc carrying an oscillating current of the proper frequency -equal. Hence it was named Feuerball (Fireball). Nevertheless. with both superpowers going on to develop and refine the designs for their own ends. It was unarmed and pilotless. however. According to Vesco. was considered impractical for a successful weapon. whose principles of operation recalled the well-known aeolipile of Hero. so they attempted to increase it to 300 feet. A graduate of the University of Rome. which generated a great halo of luminous flames. to the .

A. he began to toy with the idea of an aircraft that could take off vertically. (28) In fact.frequency used by the radar station . contact would be made between it and the aluminium sheet. By June the following year. According to one (unnamed) witness who saw them being test-flown. cupola-shaped cockpit'.can cancel the blips (return signals from the target). which were vulnerable to enemy bombing. the Feuerball was almost undetectable by the most powerful American radar of the time. the halo produced by the engine gave the impression of an enormous size. Schriever was transferred to the BMW plant near Prague. Harbinson also took as the title for his excellent five-novel series inspired by the Nazi-UFO theory). In mid-1944. Should a bullet pierce the armour. (30) In 1952. His hopes were to be quickly realised. Vesco calls the Kugelblitz (Ball Lightning) automatic fighter 'the second authentic antecedent [after the Feuerball] of the present-day flying saucers'. activating a vertical maximum acceleration device and taking the craft out of weapons range in a matter of seconds. thus eliminating the need for runways. a former Luftwaffe engineer named Rudolph Schriever gave a series of interviews to the West German press in which he claimed to have designed an aircraft strikingly similar to Vesco's Kugelblitz. they built an even larger. and the first example of the 'jet-lift' aircraft. Together. Underneath its armoured outer shell. in daylight the craft looked like shining discs spinning on their vertical axes. in addition to an ingenious feature that would ensure a quick escape in the event of an attack by Allied aircraft. The ring contained 'adjustable wing-discs which could be brought into appropriate position for the take-off or . and work immediately began on a full-size fifteen-foot version. The German disc programme went under the title 'Project Saucer' (which W. Czechoslovakia. featuring a domed pilot's cabin sitting at the centre of a circular set of multiple wings driven by a turbine engine mounted on the disc's vertical axis. In 1941. and at night like huge burning globes. which had the effect of unnerving Allied pilots even more.' (27) Vesco goes on to state that this night-time visibility had an additional advantage for the Feuerball: in the absence of daylight. the pilots refrained from firing on them for fear of being caught in a gigantic explosion. each Feuerball contained a thin sheet of electrically insulated aluminium. (29) The Feuerballe were constructed at the Henschel-Rax aeronautical establishment at Wiener Neustadt. hoping that the mechanical principles could be applied to a much larger offensive saucer-shaped aircraft. despite its night-time visibility. Schriever had been an engineer and test pilot for the Heinkel factory in Eger. Dr Giuseppe Belluzzo. Schriever's disc consisted of 'a wide-surface ring which rotated around a fixed. As the Feuerballe approached. Hermann Goering inspected the progress of the Feuerball project on a number of occasions. piloted version of the disc. the devices did carry an explosive charge that would destroy them in the event of capture. another engineer named Klaus Habermohl and an Italian physicist from the aeronautical complex at Riva del Garda. he had built and test-flown a working model of his design. thus closing a circuit. According to the military historian Major Rudolph Lusar. where he was joined by an engineer from the rocket site at Peenemunde named Walter Miethe.

however. Moreover. but that the Wehrmacht had destroyed most of the plans in the face of the Allied advance.horizontal flight'.' (36) Whether this bizarre form of propulsion is workable is. Heinrich FleiBner. (32) Also known as the V-7. of course. and reached a speed of 1. another man claimed to the German press that he had worked on Project Saucer. where the disc project continued under Soviet control. can cause levitation. the finished disc was ready for test-flying early in 1944. the Austrian inventor Viktor Schauberger. disc-shaped aircraft that had been built at Peenemunde from parts manufactured in a number of other locations. the Americans seem to have taken many of Schauberger's documents at the end of the war.218 mph. Once again. open to debate. (33) On 2 May 1980. While Vesco concedes that the hard evidence for a German flying-disc programme is 'very tenuous'. designed a number of disc-shaped aircraft for the Third Reich between 1938 and 1945. 'a build-up of energy results. According to Harbinson. (34) Nevertheless. This craft and the technicians who built it were apparently seized by the Russians and taken to Siberia.' (35) According to Vesco. Los Angeles. with immense power. According to Schriever. this machine was said to have climbed to a height of 37. which. In spite of Schriever's claim. told Neue Presse magazine that he had been a technical consultant on a jet-propelled. California on 28 March the following year and registered with the United States Patent Office on 7 June 1960.600 feet in just three minutes. as both sides already had jet-powered aircraft in production and operational service by the end of the war. 'The notes and drawings for FleiBner's flying saucer. Schriever and his colleagues fled as the BMW plant was taken by Czechoslovakian patriots. (31) The Model 3 flying disc had a diameter of 138 feet and a height of 105 feet. Vesco continues: These plans must obviously have gone beyond normal jet aircraft designs. then 76 years old. Renato Vesco states that a highly advanced supersonic disc-shaped aircraft called the Kugelblitz was indeed test-flown near the Nordhausen underground rocket complex in February 1945. first registered in West Germany on 27 March 1954. were assigned to Trans-Oceanic. before Rudolf Schriever died some fifteen years after the war he had become convinced that the large numbers of post-war UFO sightings were evidence that his designs had been built and developed. he notes that 'the senior official of a 1945 British technical mission revealed that he had discovered German plans for "entirely new and deadly developments in air warfare" '. Schauberger supposedly went to America in the . but was destroyed by its builders to prevent it from falling into the hands of the advancing Allies. with the Russians taking what was left and blowing up his apartment when they had finished. some material did reach both America and Russia. The saucers were powered by what Schauberger called 'liquid vortex propulsion': 'If water or air is rotated into a twisting form of oscillation known as "colloidal".' he said. FleiBner also claimed that Goering had been the patron of the project and planned to use the disc as a courier plane. after being kidnapped by the Nazis.

there is no proof of this. to which Kammler replied that he was about to disappear for an indefinite length of time. (As Jim Marrs notes. However. 500 technicians and engineers were placed on a train along with 100 SS troops and sent to a secret Alpine location in Bavaria. Hans Kammler had decided to use V-2 rocket technology and scientists as bargaining chips with the Allies. the answer may lie with SS Obergruppenfuhrer Dr Hans Kammler. and their relatively small number prevented them from having much success against the Allied advance. Everything. and was given its first powered flight in August 1941. On 2 April 1945. this strategy would subsequently be copied by the CIA in America. until we pause to consider the possibility that he possessed plans for a technology even more advanced than the V-2. the Me 163B. however. or an extension of it. until mid-1944. (41) In view of the undoubted advantage he held when it came to negotiating for his life with the Allies. (38) Hans Kammler If the Germans did succeed in producing a piloted flying disc.) (40) By the end of the war. the Me 163 could only remain in a combat situation for 25 minutes. the Me 163s were so fast that the Allied air gunners had no chance to deal with them. making it independent of the state budget. have the capability to produce a UFO or the clout to deal from a position of strength with one of the Allied nations?' (42) Although it is assumed that Kammler committed suicide when about to be apprehended by the Czech resistance in Prague. I don't even own myself. A second version. who towards the end of the war had access to all areas of secret air-armaments projects. although this unspecified project was apparently not particularly successful. This was the last anyone saw of Hans Kammler. nearly twice as fast as the average speed of a fighter aircraft at that time.' (37) There is no doubt that radical aeroform designs were being tested at this time. The design was not perfected. Schauberger died in 1958. was built with a more powerful motor. What really happened to Kammler? In the final . Hitler approved this proposal early in 1944. It achieved speeds of over 600 mph. reportedly saying on his deathbed: 'They took everything from me. Kammler's disappearance is something of a puzzle.1950s to work on a top secret project in Texas for the US Government. 'Did the Reich. when approximately 370 were built and deployed throughout Germany in a last-ditch attempt to thwart the Allied forces. For example. Two days later. the Messerschmitt 163A was powered by a liquid-fuel Walter rocket. along with Wernher von Braun (who would later head NASA's Apollo Moon programme) and Luftwaffe Major General Walter Dornberger (who would later become vice-president of the Bell Aircraft Company in the United States). (39) Heinrich Himmler planned to separate the SS from Nazi Party and state control through the establishment of a number of business and industrial fronts. von Braun requested permission from Kammler to resume rocket research. what became of it? As several researchers have noted. Kammler worked on the V-2 rocket project. The RAF and USAAF air crews who encountered them commented in their reports on how fast and dangerous these craft were: on many occasions. for most of which time it was unpowered.

only eight years after the end of the war. survived the end of the war and escaped to an unlikely location. even revolutionary ones. Roe company (AVRO-Canada) at its facilities near Malton. while many highly advanced weapons designs were on the drawing board. also including flying discs..chapter. and referred to it as a gyroscopic fighter. (44) Less than two weeks later. along with many other high-ranking Nazis. however.. the Minister of Defense Production. is still in the beginning phase of research and it will be a number of months before we are able to reach anything positive and seven or more years before we come to actual production. nothing with the design or performance characteristics of flying saucers was ever built in Nazi Germany.' (45) This statement was followed by two months of silence. who asked for clarification from the Canadian Government. Howe. the AVRO President. the Toronto Star added that the flying disc was constructed of metal. in 1953. screened-off area of the AVRO plant. after which press interest was fired to an even greater degree by another revelation in the Toronto Star of 21 April: Field Marshal Montgomery . when a brief report . with a revolving gas turbine engine. A statement was released.. with some actually being put into limited production in the final months of the war. This understandably provoked a sudden and intense interest in the subject from other members of the press. Ontario. declaring: 'The Defense authorities are examining all ideas. apparently leaked by a well-informed source within the company. we will examine the theory that he.' (43) On 16 February 1953. the machine would have a top speed of 1. wood and plastics. A guide who accompanied Montgomery quoted him as describing it as 'fantastic. told the Canadian House of Commons that the government was studying new fighter-aircraft concepts 'adding weight to reports that AVRO is even now working on a mock-up model of a "flying saucer" capable of flying 1500 miles per hour and climbing straight up in the air'. the Canadian Toronto Star announced that a flying saucer was being developed by the A. on 27 February.D. Crawford Gordon. V. (46) On 24 April. C. The Avrocar The opinion of orthodox history is that. Jr. The prototype being built is so revolutionary that when it flies all other types of supersonic aircraft will become obsolescent.. And yet. became one of a handful of people ever to see AVRO's mock-up of a 'flying saucer. Security precautions surrounding this super-secret are so tight that two of Montgomery's escorts from Scotland Yard were barred from the forbidden. Little more was written in the Canadian press until 1 November. This is all that AVRO-Canada are going to say about this project.' . that have been suggested for the development of new types of supersonic aircraft. wrote in the company's journal: 'One of our projects can be said to be quite revolutionary in concept and appearance.' reputed to be capable of flying 1500 miles an hour. This.500 mph.. According to the report.

to hover in mid-air and to move at a speed of about 1850 mph. The aircraft that will be built for the U.. This astonishing craft is the brain child of the English aeronautical engineer John Frost. The Department of Defense will make every effort within the bounds of security to keep the public informed of these developments so they can be recognized for what they are . of Canada. including military officers and scientists. on 3 December 1954. however. its top speed did not exceed 1430 mph. Once again. which could result in disc-shaped aircraft somewhat similar to the popular concept of a flying saucer . The Air Force will fly the first jet-powered vertical-rising airplane in a matter of days. Two years ago he had designed and submitted to American experts an aircraft which was called the Flying Manta because of its behavior on take-off.. and persistent rumours that the US military had become involved. it would be capable of performing all the maneuvers that flying discs are said to be capable of. In addition. Nearly a year later.S. was yesterday shown to a group of twenty-five American experts. and under certain conditions could give the illusion of the so-called flying saucer. the first of this type that Frost has designed. C. in Malton. on 25 October 1955. however. We have another project under contract with AVRO Ltd. the Canadian Defense Ministry suddenly announced that the project was to be abandoned on the grounds that the technology required to make it work was too expensive and speculative. M. they are direct-line descendants of conventional aircraft and should not be regarded as supra-natural or mysterious . but it could not take off vertically. who stated enthusiastically: This is a ship that will be able to take off vertically. such as the AVRO project. Frost. their VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) capabilities making them ideal for forested and snow-covered terrain.. (48) These high hopes for US-Canadian flying discs were dashed when.... however. it was decided not to build it. It more or less resembled the present disc. Air Force is not..' (47) This $200 million-dollar prototype was also known as the AVRO Omega. The Manta had interested the American General Staff.. Vesco quotes an unnamed press source. Canada. While some of these may take novel forms. US Air Force Secretary Donald Quarles made an intriguing statement through the Department of Defense press office. V. We are now entering a period of aviation technology in which aircraft of unusual configuration and flight characteristics will begin to appear . there followed a period of official and press silence on the matter.. but in view of these operating deficiencies. I think we must recognize that other countries also have the capability of developing . the highly secret aircraft in whose existence few believe.appeared stating: 'A mock-up of the Canadian flying saucer. The press claimed that the Canadian Government planned to deploy squadrons of flying saucers for the defence of the far north of the country. probably because its shape was more like the Greek letter than a perfect circle. who worked for the large de Havilland factory in England during the war and who later went on to A. Vertical-rising aircraft capable of transition to supersonic horizontal flight will be a new phenomenon in our skies. broken only by the revelation that the project's principal designer was the aeronautical engineer J. Roe. That is.

perhaps of unconventional shapes. Having looked at the idea that UFOs are man-made aircraft inspired by designs developed by Nazi scientists in the Second World War.) This has naturally led the majority of UFO researchers and investigators to conclude that UFOs are . on the pretext of the diminished air threat from Russia which had only a limited number of intercontinental bombers. we now find ourselves confronting material that would. on the grounds that it was unlikely that the design could ever be made to work successfully. dated 19 October 1955. According to the memorandum. 'is reported to have obtained his original idea for the flying machine from a group of Germans just after World War II. renamed the AVRO-Car. it was announced that the US Department of Defense would be withdrawing from the AVRO-Car project. be sufficient to make the Nazi-UFO theory completely untenable. It became clear.vertical-rising aircraft.' (50) Just over a year later. E. This decision resulted in 10. John Frost.. However. Chief of the Applied Science Division. the designer of the AVRO-Car. prompting an official statement that 'even for this type of VTOL plane . we are satisfied at this time that none of the sightings of so-called 'flying saucers' reported in this country were in fact aircraft of foreign origin. which may lend weight to this idea. Tests with a full-scale model have been made at the large forty-by-eighty-foot wind tunnel at the Ames Research Center. and this includes reported encounters with and descriptions of UFO occupants. however. most of them specialists working on the saucer project. The lamentable story of the AVRO-Car (and its illustration of the problems besetting discshaped aircraft) has done nothing to dissuade Nazi-UFO proponents from maintaining that their basic thesis is correct. Its performance was less than impressive: it managed to do little more than hover a few feet above the ground. the principal problem is low-speed stability. However. take into account all the available evidence. The Soviets may also have obtained information from this German group'. (51) The Problem of the UFO Occupants Any theory of the origin of UFOs must.000 people being laid off. Office of Scientific Intelligence. some UFO occupants are described as being completely human-looking but they seem to be very much in the minority. that the various problems inherent in a circular aircraft of this type are not insurmountable. we meet a variety of creatures that are anything but human. It was not until August 1960 that American authorities decided to allow the press to see the prototype of the AVRO-Car. the AVRO company was in fact going through something of a bad patch following the cancellation by the Canadian Government of the contract for the CF-105 Arrow heavy bomber. (49) Quarles's surprising statement notwithstanding. belonging to NASA. British ufologist Timothy Good quotes a CIA memorandum from W. of course. For as soon as the UFO lands and opens its hatches. (To be sure. but they were not completely successful. at first sight. Lexow..

Telling his friends to remain behind. is almost certainly coincidental. as we shall see. Adamski. Adamski's claims suffered from egregious scientific inaccuracies. sandy-coloured hair and blue eyes. If it had not been for the repeal of Prohibition. he told his friends. a description which resulted in their being classified as 'Nordic' aliens. When the ship's single occupant appeared. he had secured a special licence from the government to make wine for religious purposes (he had founded a monastery in Laguna Beach). a self-styled philosopher and mystic. people all over the world have claimed to have encountered an astonishing variety of creatures linked with UFOs on the ground. During this period. this description has obvious and sinister connotations but. since they form the backdrop to an increasingly popular conspiracy theory regarding Nazi activities in the post-war period. They were almost invariably described as being tall and strikingly attractive. When we examine reports of encounters with UFO occupants (particularly since the early 1960s). In the 1950s and 1960s these people were known as 'contactees' and. Before proceeding. In common with the other contactees. with long.) The most famous of the 1950s contactees was George Adamski who. in which witnesses are taken from their normal environment against their will and are forced to interact in various ways with apparently non-human entities. (52) The contactee claims of the 1950s are rightly regarded as extremely dubious by most ufologists. Adamski was able to communicate with him through a combination of hand signals and telepathy and learned that the Venusians (together with other intelligent races throughout the Solar System) were deeply concerned at humanity's misuse of nuclear energy (a theme that would be repeated again and again by the contactees). according to their testimony. with the result that he claimed to have made 'enough wine for all of Southern California'. (In the present context. in the decades since there have been a number of contact claims that demand more serious attention. Before dealing with this problem.extraterrestrial devices. it is necessary for us to look briefly at some of the most impressive reports. In Adamski's case. encountered a man claiming to come from Venus. . where he witnessed the landing of a disc-shaped 'scout craft'. Adamski drove into the desert. was running a hamburger stand a few miles from the Mount Palomar Observatory in California when he had his encounter. 'I wouldn't have had to get into this saucer crap'. we see that the defining characteristic reveals itself to be what has come to be known as 'abduction'. this difficulty was somewhat compounded by a comment he made to two followers regarding Prohibition. on 20 November 1952. not least of which was the utter inability of all the other planets in the Solar System to support intelligent humanoid life. let us illustrate it by examining briefly some of these alleged contacts with UFO occupants. Over the decades since the modern era of ufology began with the Arnold sighting in 1947. He was having lunch with several friends near Desert Center when they allegedly saw a gigantic cigar-shaped object in the sky. humanity had nothing whatsoever to fear from the ufonauts. however.

'They had no reason to say this if it had not been true. and then took us back to the pier. flesh. Many people who are sceptical of UFO and alien abductions state. photographed us. a consultant for the Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO) who also investigated the case. Dr James A. that an advanced spacefaring civilisation would not need to conduct the highly intrusive and traumatic experiments on human beings that their representatives are reported to conduct. The following day. described the UFO occupants as 'automata'.' 'These are reliable people.m. long pointed ears and noses. Jackson County chief deputy Barney Mathis said the men told him they were fishing from an old pier on the west bank of the Pascagoula River about 7 p..' The sheriff said the 'spacecraft' was described as fish-shaped.' Sheriff Diamond said. Harder. I know something did happen to them. Hynek concluded that Hickson and Parker were in a state of genuine fright. were fishing in the river when they witnessed the approach of a UFO. USA. judging from the witnesses' descriptions. The repeated taking of samples of blood. the two men were placed on a table and examined with a device that resembled a huge eye. 45. about ten feet long with an eight-foot ceiling. sperm and ova from unwilling subjects implies a curiously primitive medical technology for beings allegedly capable of building interstellar spacecraft. . The only sound they made was a buzzing-humming sound. no hair. . quite reasonably. 18.. Miss. and Calvin Parker. Allen Hynek. 'The things had big eyes. Two shipyard workers who claimed they were hauled aboard a UFO and examined by silver-skinned creatures with big eyes and pointed ears were checked today at a military hospital and found to be free of radiation. However. They said it moved closer and then appeared to hover about three or four feet above the water.' Inside the UFO. then 'three whatever-they-weres came out. Blue Book. Charlie Hickson. and carried us into the ship. They kept us about twenty minutes. Harbinson. A. the astronomer whose work as a consultant for the US Air Force's UFO investigation project. They left in a flash.' officers quoted Hickson as saying. either floating or walking. Thursday when they noticed a strange craft about two miles away emitting a bluish haze.One of the most famous abduction cases occurred on 11 October 1973 on the shores of the Pascagoula River in Mississippi. They were later interviewed by Dr J. there is an intriguing correlation between the atrocities committed by 'aliens' on their human victims and those committed by Nazi 'doctors' (I use the term loosely) in the concentration camps during the Second World War. or 'advanced robots'. such as W. As we shall see later in this chapter. with an opening for a mouth and hands 'like crab claws. the United Press International news service carried the following report: PASCAGOULA. The occupants were said to have pale silvery skin. turned him from sceptic to cautious advocate of UFO reality. proponents of the Nazi-UFO Theory.

the case came to the attention of the respected UFO researcher Raymond E. When the examination had been completed. the principal elements of which can be listed as follows: (1) the initial appearance of the entities and the taking of the percipient. (3) machine examinations and mental testing. Georgia. While fishing in a boat on East Lake. Jack Weiner asked for his medical records and discovered that the lump had been sent to the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) in Washington. urine and faeces were taken.C. who investigated on behalf of the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON). the men were forced to walk through a circular doorway. One of the most impressive and carefully investigated abduction cases occurred on 26 August 1976. skin. the largest civilian UFO organisation in the world. USA. one type in particular has become more and more commonly reported (particularly in the United States). in which the percipient is sometimes forced to 'mate' with other humans or even with the entities themselves. Fowler arranged for the four witnesses to undergo hypnotic regression to recover their lost memories of the evening. he was told by his surgeon's secretary that it was less costly even though Jack was covered by insurance!' (53) The Pascagoula and Allagash encounters display many of the hallmarks of the typical UFO abduction. watching the object shoot up into the sky. (54) Although an extremely wide variety of 'alien' types has been encountered by people all over the world. At Fowler's request. and samples of saliva. There was nothing left of their blazing camp fire but a few glowing embers. Each of the men (who had promised not to discuss with each other their individual hypnosis sessions) recalled being taken into the UFO through a beam of light. Four art students. they encountered several humanoid entities who forced them (apparently through some form of mind control) to undress and sit in a mist-filled room. implying that they had been away for several hours although they only remembered being on the lake for about twenty minutes. blood. When Fowler telephoned the AFIP for an explanation.. (4) sexual activity. 'When Jack asked why the lump was sent to the AFIP rather than the Center for Disease Control. Once inside. instead of the Center for Disease Control. Charlie Foltz. (2) medical probing with various instruments. Several years later. whereupon they found themselves floating back down to their boat through the light beam. they watched the approach of a large spherical light that frightened them considerably. The so-called 'Grey' is now . Their bodies were examined and probed with various instruments. Fowler. and (5) the returning of the percipient to his or her normal environment. D. The pathologist who examined it had been somewhat mystified and had sent it on for analysis to the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta. sperm. Chuck Rak and brothers Jack and Jim Weiner were on a camping trip on the Allagash River in Maine. they were standing on the shore of the lake. he was told by the public information officer that the AFIP occasionally assisted civilian doctors. The next thing they knew. Fowler later discovered that Jack Weiner had had an 'anomalous lump' surgically removed several years earlier.have suggested that this may be due to an ongoing (and for the moment highly secret) Nazi plot to create a master-race from the raw material of humanity in its present form.

According to David Fishlock: 'Even today there are people who believe that convicts.regarded as the quintessential alien being and is one of the most immediately recognisable images in today's world. vital organs such as the liver. A. in their busy operating theatres. sometimes with three fingers. Indeed. Nazi Cyborgs? Harbinson's thesis. It is clear that any claims of a Nazi origin of modern UFO encounters must take account of the bizarre creatures associated with the discs. as if they had no individual consciousness of their own but were carrying out commands from some higher source. their mouths are usually described as no more than lipless slits. especially the criminal lunatic. Harbinson reminds us of the direction in which medical research was heading more than 30 years ago. chemical. the gruesome details have since come to light in the form of books and articles that describe not only the nature of the experiments conducted but also the frightening attitude of some members of the medical profession. [I]n the Cleveland Clinic's Department of Artificial Organs. electrical. Harbinson may offer a way around this apparent impasse. pancreas. merely small holes where these should be. This problem might seem insurmountable in view of the fact that. and biomedical engineers. and even conscientious objectors. Conveniently within walking distance of the Cleveland Clinic's Department of Artificial Organs are the Neurosurgical Research . with no bone or muscular structure. we can briefly describe the Greys' physical characteristics as follows: they are usually described as approximately four feet tall (although some are as tall as eight feet). In the unlikely event that the reader is unfamiliar with this image. while we may not expect the UFO pilots to be strutting around in black leather trench coats and jackboots. treating us much as we treat laboratory animals. Their hands are long and thin. were. Although this research was at the time highly secret. as well as biochemists and polymer chemists'. almost sticklike. the research undertaken by W.is supported to a certain extent by medical research conducted since the 1960s.' (55) Referring to The People Shapers (1978) by Vance Packard. enthusiastically engaged in 'surgery connected to the development of artificial substitutes for . that UFO occupants may well be cyborgs . and kidneys'. almond-shaped eyes.biomedically engineered amalgamations of human and machine . should be compelled to lend themselves to science. not only medical specialists. but 'mechanical. sometimes with four. likewise. they have been described by some as militaristic and by others as hivelike in their demeanour. However. and more than one abductee has reported the impression that they seem to be made of an undifferentiated material. In addition. with extremely large craniums and enormous jet-black.. the Greys are frequently reported to be rather uncaring in their attitude towards humans. They have no nose or ears to speak of. lungs.. The torso and limbs are described as being very thin. they would surely nevertheless be recognisable as human beings. as well as providing us with some extremely unsettling food for thought.

Fusion of a sort between human and machine has already been achieved. on the other hand. in the possibility of transferring the entire head of one human being to another. Switching human brains from one head to another would be complicated and costly. scientists have progressed well beyond the level of rats. implying that the heads retained some level of awareness. in the form of the so-called Cybernetic Anthropomorphous Machine System (CAMS). stated his belief that man and machine would eventually be linked in such a way that by performing the manoeuvres himself. it would remain so when its head was transplanted to another body.' (56) This procedure was successfully carried out on monkeys at the Cleveland Clinic. but. 'slave' machinery that mimics the movement of its human operators. if a monkey had been aggressive before the operation. almost certainly with some justification. as Packard explains: 'By simply switching heads. through the machine. in which the pilot's helmet is coupled with a servo-system that enables him to aim and fire his weapons automatically by merely swivelling his head until a camera located in his helmet shows the target. with each head apparently retaining its original mental characteristics when attached to its new body. One can be forgiven for wondering what conceivable use such barbaric experiments could possibly have for humanity. such research undoubtedly holds much potential for the enhancement of human beings who will eventually conduct routine work in hostile environments. only a few connections need to be severed and then re-established in the neck of the recipient body. Bradley. In June 1976. Matinian 'reported from the fourth biennial conference on Regeneration of the Central Nervous System that he had succeeded in regrowing the spinal cords of rats'. where great interest was being expressed.Laboratories of the Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital. who developed the idea of cable-less man-machine manipulator systems for the US Defense Department's Institute for Defense Analysis. This concept soon led to the weapon-aiming system devised by the Philco Corporation for the US Air Force. if this is the case. that this area of research must have been continued 'behind closed doors' at military and scientific establishments since then. such as the ocean floor and outer space. and yet even this feat seems not to be outside the bounds of possibility. Of course. While it is mercifully unlikely that head transplants will ever be in vogue. It is surely reasonable to suppose that. (57) Harbinson suggests. at a distance of thousands of miles. According to Harbinson: In an aerospace conference given in Boston in 1966. In other words. (58) In addition. The eyes of the monkeys followed people as they walked past. as far back as 1967. the man would cause them to take place. as early as 1967 US Air Force scientists had succeeded in transmitting thought impulses to a computer using a variation on Morse code composed of long and short bursts of alpha waves (59) (alpha waves are produced by the brain when it is at . engineer William E. the main problem in a procedure of this kind would be the regeneration of the severed spinal cord so that the brain could send nerve impulses to its new body. The unfortunate subjects of these procedures only lived for about one week. a Soviet scientist named Levon A.

and reminds us that 'the US Navy. (60) He adds that the creatures seen in and around landed UFOs could be such cyborgs: human beings radically augmented by sophisticated mechanical prosthetics. we have seen astonishing progress over the last 30 years and it is surely not rash to suggest that we will soon see artificial hearts and other organs routinely replacing those damaged through illness or accident. ready for transplanting when the need arises. with their slit-like and apparently useless mouths. Air Force. in spite of concerns regarding the ethical implications of human cloning. more conspiracy-minded researchers believe that the human types are just that: human .. the lungs of such creatures would be partially collapsed and the blood in them artificially cooled. In the field of organ transplantation. The cyborgs would have no independent will.. This technology has developed to the point where today we have the potential for amputees to control their prosthetic limbs by means of nerve impulses directly from the brain. many people claiming to have encountered UFO crews mention the presence of normal-looking humans alongside the bizarre entities. metabolism and pressure. both physically and mentally. even if not protected by an antigravity (or gravitic) propulsion system. Army and government agencies such as NASA all with top-secret research establishments in the White Sands Proving Ground and similar areas . To a startled. Theoretically. and completely non-functioning. a nightmarish combination of genetically engineered human and highly sophisticated machine. although the public were not made aware of its existence until the late 1980s).that advances in the field of medical and bioengineering research have already extended into the realm of what the public would consider science fiction. Harbinson believes that what the public knows is merely the tip of the iceberg. like an extraterrestrial alien. irrespective of external environmental fluctuations . vestigial noses and thin torsos. even across great distances.have a particular need for advanced man-machine manipulations or cyborgs'. we can begin to see a frightening correspondence with the theoretical human-built cyborg. (61) If we remember the basic description of the Greys noted earlier.. disorientated and terrified UFO witness.. they would not be affected by the extraordinary accelerations and direction changes of their craft. we may also see the day when human organs are produced in the laboratory. Some ufologists suggest that these human types are the Nordic aliens mentioned earlier. such a creature would surely look like nothing on earth . other. In view of the fact that research conducted under the aegis of national security is between ten and twenty years ahead of what is made public at any particular time (work on the Stealth fighter began in the mid-1970s.perhaps likely . by computer-linked brain implants. The cyborgs' respiration and other bodily functions would then be controlled cybernetically with artificial lungs and sensors which maintain constant temperature.rest). in fact.thus. it is possible . Likewise. but could be remote-controlled. Interestingly. these would be sealed . Since this operation would render the mouth and nose superfluous. would look. working alongside the Greys and perhaps forming part of some interplanetary federation.

it is frighteningly practicable. Where is it? In the final chapter of our survey. another possibility. But first. as we shall now see. existing completely independently of any nation on Earth. control emotions (and thus actions). we must look at the history of a subject that most people would assume lies firmly within the boundaries of science fiction and that has no place in the world of everyday experience. it is possible to achieve the coupling of human and machine through what is known as Biological Process Control. interfere with both short-term and long-term memory. and perhaps hostile to all nations and all other humans. and focused. that can couple with the human body in a fashion that will allow one to prevent voluntary muscular movements.beings who are in league with a hostile alien occupation force. Conceivable.but true? These suggestions. protected and highly secret home base. of course. is terrifying. Telemetric Mind Control What is the secret of so-called UFO abductions? Are hostile alien beings responsible. if true. According to the US Air Force Scientific Advisory Board in its 1996 study of weapons technology. based on the information we have just considered. however. New World Vistas Air and Space Power for the 21st Century. It is also conceivable that these humans are members of an ultra-secret group. with whom does their allegiance lie? Why do they abduct what is apparently an enormous number of ordinary humans. who are they? If they place their allegiance with no known nation. or is the solution to the mystery to be found right here on Earth? For a possible answer to these questions. and delete an experience set. and leads us inevitably to the final stage of our journey through the Absolute Elsewhere. 'One can envision the development of electromagnetic energy sources. There is.' Researcher David Guyatt informs us that 'experience set' is jargon for one's life's memories: this technology is quite literally capable of deleting one's memories and replacing them with an entirely new set. The answer. some of whom are never returned? Such an organisation or society could not operate without a well-supplied. (62) . raise a number of serious and difficult questions. shaped. the output of which can be pulsed. produce an experience set. It is conceivable that the humans seen on board UFOs are actually the controllers of the Greys/cyborgs. If the controllers of the UFOs and their not-quite-human crew members really are from Earth. we can attempt to answer one of the questions we have just posed. transmit suggestions. yes . The subject is the control of the human mind from a distance and. produce sleep. we will examine some of the theories that have been put forward to account for the origin and activities of this sinister group of humans.

has been experimenting with Electronic Stimulation of the Brain (ESB) since the late 1940s. Guyatt writes: 'Speaking two years later. a surgeon would equip each child with a socket mounted under the scalp and electrodes reaching selected areas of brain tissue'. (66) The results of the narco-hypnosis experiments suggested that the technique was unreliable (the main intention being to produce a programmable assassin). Perhaps his most impressive experiment was conducted in 1964. at the National Electronics Conference in Chicago. Guyatt informs us that in 1974 neurophysiologist Lawrence Pinneo of the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) developed a computer system capable of reading a person's mind by correlating brain waves on an electroencephalograph (EEC) with specific commands. mental patients and members of ethnic minorities. including prisoners. had stated that 'The ultimate achievement of biocontrol may be man himself. (67) As might be expected. Curtiss Shafer. Cameron established a Radio Telemetry Laboratory in which experiments were conducted .' (63) According to Delgado. many Nazi scientists. directed by Dr Ewen Cameron MD on a grant from the Rockefeller and Gerschickter Foundations. whose citizens' brains would be computer-controlled through the use of implanted 'stimoceivers'. Delgado stated that his experiments "support the distasteful conclusion that motion. One of their experimental facilities was contained within the Allen Memorial Institute. Thirty-four Nazi scientists were sent to Randolph Air Force Base in San Antonio. a neurophysiologist at the Yale University School of Medicine. the CIA has always been extremely interested in the concept of mind control. in 1956. He continued: The controlled subjects would never be permitted to think as individuals. and behaviour can be directed by electrical [means] and that humans can be controlled like robots by push buttons". and greater emphasis was placed on electronic technology to erase a person's personality (a process known as 'depatterning') and replace it with a new personality devised by the experimenter (a technique called 'psychic driving'). The subject's 'sensory perceptions and muscular activity could be either modified or completely controlled by bioelectric signals radiating from state-controlled transmitters'. along with Dr Delgado who was equipped with a remotecontrol handset. (65) Among the horrors perpetrated at Auschwitz and Dachau concentration camps were frequently fatal experiments in mind control. A few months after birth. conducted mainly with hypnosis and narcohypnosis. The animal was then placed in a bullring. with the financial backing of the US Office of Naval Research. clearly in a state of confusion. Texas to continue their narcohypnosis experiments on non-volunteer subjects. (64) Eighteen years earlier. in 1966. As the bull charged him. this would eventually result in a 'psycho-civilised' society. An electronic probe was implanted in the brain of a bull and a small radio receiver strapped to its head. emotion. an electrical engineer for the Norden-Ketay Corporation. Canada. Delgado flipped a switch on the handset and the one-ton animal stopped dead in front of him. the psychiatric division of McGill University in Montreal. engineers and intelligence personnel were secretly taken to the United States in the operation known as Project PAPERCLIP.Those who believe that such technology must still be decades away from perfection may be surprised to learn that Dr Jose Delgado. After the war. doctors. This process was repeated several times. using drugs such as mescaline and various barbiturates.

on non-volunteer subjects. the initial goal of PANDORA was to 'discover whether a carefully controlled microwave signal could control the mind'. or 'depatterning' of a subject's mind and memory. was accomplished with overdoses of LSD. a CIA/Office of Scientific Intelligence programme to develop behavioural drugs for use in 'unconventional warfare'. so-called 'unknown bright objects' that occasionally show up on X-rays and CAT scans of the head are actually alien implants. Amazing Tales interior. The others include: Project CHATTER. which resulted in their subjects experiencing various emotions. Some researchers speculate that the mysterious. The psychotronic heart of the laboratory was the Grid Room. and Project PANDORA. The subject was strapped into a chair involuntarily. over the years. 'Dr Ross Adey (who worked closely with emigre Nazi technicians after WW II) rigged the brains of lab animals to transmit to a radio receiver. with its verticed. hands and legs. the repetition of a recorded message for 16 hours a day. sensations and visions. . Alien implants first came to widespread public attention with the publication of Communion (1987) by Whitley Strieber and Missing Time (1981) by Budd Hopkins. the director of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Project BLUEBIRD. a US Navy programme aimed at the elimination of free will in subjects through the use of drugs and psychology. Mind control researcher Alex Constantine provides us with a glimpse of the nature of these experiments. frequently through the top of the nasal cavity and into the brain but also beneath the skin of arms. Any resistance was met with a paralyzing dose of curare. a wire recorder and radio receivers cobbled together by [Cameron's assistant] Rubenstein. established a number of secret projects to study and experiment with methods of mind control. The notorious MKULTRA behaviour-control programme is merely the best-known of these projects. According to Richard Cesaro. which was established as a result of the Soviet bombardment of the US embassy in Moscow with low-intensity microwaves during the 1960s and 1970s. (68) The CIA has. by force. One of the defining characteristics of alien abduction is the introduction into the abductee's body of one or more small devices. The systematic annihilation. At the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). barbiturate sleep for 65 days at a stretch and ECT shocks at 75 times the recommended dosage. (69) PANDORA was set up to study the health effects of microwave radiation and experimented with the induction of hallucinations and heart seizures. which shot signals back to a device that sparked any behaviour desired by the researcher'. which included depatterning and psychic driving. (70) According to Constantine. using drugs and various forms of electromagnetic (EM) radiation. programmed the empty mind. are inserted into the bodies of abductees for unknown purposes. The subject's brain waves were beamed to a nearby reception room crammed with voice analyzers. Psychic driving. his head bristling with electrodes and transducers. (71) The use of electronic 'stimoceivers' inside the brains of subjects to control thought and behaviour is paralleled by one of the most disturbing aspects of UFO abduction: the socalled 'alien implants' which. it is claimed. CIA researchers conducted further experiments with radio waves.

Indeed. Some investigators. intensive efforts have been made by researchers and investigators to retrieve these objects from the body for scientific study. They concluded that Kille was a paranoid and a mild psychomotor epileptic. Although these ideas might seem rather paranoid and far-fetched. (Supporters of an extraterrestrial origin for implants state. Nevertheless. moreover. fearful of a possible alien invasion of our planet.' (74) In 1966. They have met with a good deal of success. have been inconclusive.. He did not believe her denials. Kille suspected his wife of having an affair with a lodger. the last one raises the intriguing and extremely unsettling possibility that what are assumed by many to be alien implants are actually human implants . the objects (which are typically two or three millimetres in length) have been shown to be composed of earthly materials such as carbon. in this scenario. Upon completion of the experiments. A talented and successful electronics engineer. to show utterly unusual combinations or methods of construction. quite reasonably. Alternatively. it has been suggested by various researchers that they may be tracking devices. silicon. He was referred to CIA psychiatrists for neurological tests. Kille was the co-inventor of the Land camera (named after Edwin Land of the Polaroid Corporation. and a psychiatrist interpreted his resultant anger as a 'personality pattern disturbance'. suggest that the implants are mind-control devices that will be activated if and when the aliens finally come out into the open. by which the 'aliens' can keep tabs on humans they wish to abduct (in much the same way as zoologists tag animals in the wild). Naturally. let us look at the case of an unfortunate man named Leonard Kille. the abductions themselves have nothing to do with alien activity: as the French-American ufologist Jacques Vallee has noted. thus turning what may be millions of humans into a gigantic army of alien-controlled robots. an SEI team buried electrodes in the skulls of Vietcong POWs and attempted to spur them into violence by remote control. they may function as monitors of metabolism and other physical processes within the body. that these substances are common throughout the Universe and that this should not be taken as proof of their earthly origin. with many alleged 'implants' having been surgically removed. one would expect a genuine alien artefact.) While the exact purpose of the implants is unknown.hoaxes. (72) many apparent 'alien abductions' give every indication of being carefully engineered hoaxes . (73) Alex Constantine writes: 'At South Vietnam's Bien Hoa Hospital . even if constructed of materials found on Earth. The results of analysis.electromagnetic microwave devices giving the controllers direct access to the minds of the abductees. oxygen and other trace elements.In the last few years. To illustrate this possibility. the POWs were shot and cremated by a company of "America's best. with no absolute proof of an extraterrestrial origin forthcoming to date. however.." the Green Berets. Kille was admitted to the Massachusetts General Hospital and his wife threatened to divorce him if he did not . not perpetrated by the witnesses themselves but rather by a human agency with access to high technology and vast resources. who founded the Scientific Engineering Institute [SEI] on behalf of the CIA).

ritual and 'alien' outrages and psychotronic forms of political persecution are on the upswing at the hands of the DIA [Defense Intelligence Agency]. the Swedish security service. Naeslund travelled to Indonesia and succeeded in finding a surgeon willing to remove the implants. this has merely resulted in more electromagnetic harassment. Hired guns in media. perhaps. his wife had been conducting an affair with their lodger. FBI.' (77) Constantine believes that UFO activity is conducted by human intelligence agencies: UFOs are strictly terrestrial. Following a routine operation in a Stockholm hospital. although she is rumoured to be still alive. a CIA-trained military officer who decided to do something to help the victims and used her retirement bonus to finance the Electronic Surveillance Project (ESP). being implanted in his brain. (78) [Original emphasis. his doctors were not informed that he had been implanted with electrode strands and therefore assumed that his claims were those of a delusional paranoiac. D. as one UFO abductee recognized. She has not been seen since. (80) . (79) Microwave harassment and mind control experiments are not confined to the United States. According to Constantine. is that "men may become slaves. Although he has made numerous attempts to focus public awareness on his plight and that of others in his position. based in the offices of the Association of National Security Alumni in Washington. (76) When he was transferred to Boston's VA Hospital. The running of the organisation eventually drained all her savings. CIA. In effect. law enforcement and psychiatry protect them by discrediting the victims. He subsequently claimed that he was unable to receive corrective treatment from any doctor in Sweden due to interference from SAPO. however.' The abuse of psychoactive technology is escalating. an ambitious but meticulously concealed. She phoned Julianne McKinney at the [Electronic] Surveillance Project in Washington to report her abduction. In fact. aware that it was government-directed. undeclared war on American private citizens is in progress . NSA [National Security Agency] and other covert branches of government. unbeknownst to the American public. 'Her house is being shot at. and in late 1995 McKinney left Washington. the operation was allegedly halted midway by the CIA. and did divorce Kille after his surgery. Swede Robert Naeslund discovered that he had been implanted with a radio-hypnotic intracerebral control device and had become the target of directed microwave radiation. the target of massive microwave assault. Kille's moods were controlled with electronic stimulation. a psychiatrist wrote in the New England Journal of Medicine.a psywar. 'and they are harassing her viciously. The insertion of these stimoceivers totally disabled Kille and left him terrified that he would be operated on again.' McKinney says. to an authoritarian state".submit to brain surgery.C. 'The "haunting fear" left by Kille's ordeal. (75) The surgery conducted on Leonard Kille consisted of four electrical strands. Recurrent hypno-programmed stalkers. One of their greatest champions was Julianne McKinney (mentioned above).] More and more people in America are coming forward with complaints of psychotronic harassment. 'in 1971 an attendant found him with a wastebasket on his head to "stop the microwaves"'. each containing twenty electrodes.

ultra-secret society . one of whom killed himself by chewing on live electrical wires. blamed on 'frogs'. a digital communications specialist at Marconi. there is much evidence to support these assertions. a low-frequency noise . and who are continuing their pursuit of world domination from the icy fastness of Antarctica. the Pentagon-based research program to explore the psychological effects of frequencies on the electromagnetic spectrum.. Russia or any other country. targeted electromagnetic radiation has been implicated in the deaths of 25 British scientists who were working on secret electronic warfare projects for NATO. home of Marconi. an interest that gestated with participation in Project Comet. was assigned to the secretive Martlesham Heath Research Laboratory under a General Electric contract. . (Another unlikely explanation was given for the 'hum' in Bristol. Taken together. According to Alex Constantine: A pattern to the killings in Great Britain begins with the fact that seven of the scientists worked for Marconi.' (81) In addition. Blame for the sudden outbreak of suicides among Marconi engineers was laid on stress. a subsidiary of General Electric. Marconi was under investigation for bribing and defrauding ministers of government. As we have seen.. including the Strategic Defence Initiative ('Star Wars') in the mid-1980s. Tests revealed microwave radiation up to 100 times greater than background readings taken around the base. it has been claimed that the women who began protesting against the stationing of tactical nuclear weapons at the Greenham USAF base on Greenham Common in 1981 were also the victims of electromagnetic harassment. 'Protestors complained of severe headaches. Alex Constantine and other mind control researchers firmly believe that American and European intelligence services are to blame not only for barbaric mind control experiments but also for staging UFO sightings and 'alien' encounters as a cover for their activities. But Britain's MoD found 'no evidence' linking the deaths. The outrageous suggestion put forward by these researchers is that this society is actually composed of Nazis who escaped from the ruins of Germany at the end of the Second World War. palpitations and other classic symptoms of microwave poisoning. At the time. However. we have also noted that there is evidence to suggest that modern UFOs are based on highly secret designs that were drawn up by Nazi engineers towards the end of the Second World War.) Walsh dropped from his hotel window in November 1985. (82) It has been suggested that these scientists.In the United Kingdom.) Jonathan Walsh. were driven to their deaths through electromagnetic mind control. temporary paralysis. nausea. these claims have led some UFO researchers and conspiracy theorists to turn their backs on the concept of alien visitation and to suggest that innocent people throughout the world are being victimised and abused by a sinister. (GE has long led the field in the development of anti-personnel electronic weapons.a society having little or nothing to do with the United States.

and was fit only for destruction"). Operation Eagle Flight As we have just noted. was at the Hotel Maison Rouge in Strasbourg planning the continuation of Nazi power and ideology. how could it have been built in the first place? And what could be its ultimate aim? Given the enormous power and fantastic technology attributed to it by conspiratologists. what are its (doubtless nefarious) plans for the rest of humanity? In this final chapter. Turkey and Argentina. one of the largest industrial organisations in Europe. we will look at some of the claims concerning Antarctica's hidden residents. Addressing the meeting of Nazi Party officials and German business leaders.' he said. patents. permanent base be constructed and maintained for more than half a century on the most inhospitable continent in the world? For an answer to this question. gold. one of the most important questions raised by the Nazis in Antarctica theory involves finance: how could a large. bonds. his deputy. of course.9 . Sweden.' (2) These steps were implemented under the code name Aktion Adlerflug (Operation Eagle Flight) and resulted in the 'massive flight of money. 'then it had been too weak to face the test of history. Bormann would . Among the questions one feels obliged to ask are: how would such an operation be financed? How could such an elaborate colony remain hidden for the last 55 years? For that matter. Reichsleiter Martin Bormann. a number of problems posed by the idea that the pattern of world events is being controlled by a secret colony of Nazis operating out of an impregnable fortress somewhere in Antarctica. Farben.Invisible Eagle Rumours of Nazi Survival to the Present There are. and at the evidence for the reality of this ultimate conspiracy. stocks. and even technical specialists from Germany'. Spain. Of course. In August 1944. and must take steps to prepare for a postwar commercial campaign which will in time ensure the economic resurgence of Germany. Switzerland. The claims made by conspiracy theorists about ongoing Nazi activity in the present day sound at best like lurid and rather distasteful science fiction. copyrights. Bormann stated: 'German industry must realize that the war cannot now be won. Bormann succeeded in establishing 750 front corporations in Portugal. we must return to the closing months of the Second World War when it was becoming clear to Nazi officials that their 'Thousand-Year Reich' faced imminent destruction. at worst like the ravings of seriously unbalanced minds. while an amphetamine-fuelled Adolf Hitler was venting his contempt for the German people whose incipient defeat had betrayed his vision ('If the German people was to be conquered in the struggle. G. (3) Along with the central Deutsche Bank and the chemical cartel I.

who stated: 'An impossible situation is created when one section of a people favors private property while another denies it. as well as shares in the 750 corporations he helped Bormann establish during the last years of World War II'. I have but one desire. It is not by accident that one man produces more than another. however.' (9) According to investigator Paul Manning. Gerhardt Westrick. who would become US secretary of state under President Dwight Eisenhower. [Farben]. Human beings are anything but equal. Standard Oil of New Jersey (ESSO) secretly sold gasoline to Germany and fascist Spain. Journalist Jim Marrs states that ITT's German chairman. not be a domestic peace unless Marxism has been exterminated. as they keep steady the economic course of the . and later held as much stock in Standard Oil as did the Rockefellers. the concept of private property is rooted in this fact .G. and partner to Dr Heinrich Albert. 25 of the most prominent industrialists in Germany were invited by Hermann Goering to a meeting with Adolf Hitler... Rockefeller and Company. head of I. head of the Ford Motor Co. which continued to trade with Nazi Germany after America's entry into the war. Investment Bankers that provided economic support to the Rome-Berlin Axis. one of which was the partnership established in 1936 between the J.. Manning continues: 'The Bormann organization in South America utilizes the voting power of the Schmitz trust along with their own assets to guide the multinationals they control. and Kurt von Schroder [of the Bank of International Settlements] and the Gestapo in Cologne . Baron Bruno von Schroder in London. was 'a close associate of John Foster Dulles. which had intricate connections to the Nazis and to Chase [National Bank]. 'The shipments to Spain indirectly assisted the Axis through Spanish transferences to Hamburg. This came in the form of connections with banks and businesses dating back to before the war. nephew of John D. A struggle of that sort tears a people apart and the fight continues until one section emerges victorious . Farben.. As far as the economy is concerned. head of counter-intelligence for the Nazi Gestapo.' (5) Another of these connections was with the American International Telephone & Telegraph Corporation (ITT). that it may enter upon a peaceful future . (4) indeed to the financing of the Nazi Party itself following the elections of 1933.. (8) There were also numerous banking connections. On 20 February of that year. There will.' (6) According to former New York Times writer Charles Higham. was president of Chase National Bank for seven years prior to the war.have been unable to achieve this without substantial help from both within and outside Germany. He adds: 'Two ITT directors were German banker Baron Kurt von Schroder and Walter Schellenberg. namely. G. company spokesmen could claim that the oil was coming not from the United States but the Caribbean. in Germany until 1945'.' (7) By changing the country of registration for Standard's tanker fleet to Panama.. and the 700 secret companies controlled in his time by I.. 'The partners in Schroder.. Hermann Schmitz. He held other shares in General Motors 'and other US blue chip industrial stocks. Henry Schroder Bank of New York and several Rockefeller family members to form Schroder.. selling communications and military equipment such as artillery fuses. Standard Oil's Paris representatives were directors of the Banque de Paris et de Pays-Bas. Rockefeller and Company included Avery Rockefeller.

all these witnesses have admitted that the scene was one of great confusion and none of them claims to have seen Bormann's body . perhaps unsurprisingly. One of these witnesses. equivalent to three per cent of America's gross domestic product (GDP) in 1944. Artur Axmann. though by no means certainly. Joachim Tibertius. at the Hotel Atlas. Through processes of investment and money laundering. We pushed on together towards the Schiffbauerdamm and the Albrechtstrasse. According to Trevor-Roper: In 1945 the evidence [on Bormann's fate] was conflicting and uncertain. claimed afterwards to have seen him dead. the idea that the Nazi leaders themselves managed to escape from Berlin during the Allies' final assault.' (10) The financial relationship between the Nazis and the Swiss banks has been well documented. But he had as good a chance to escape as I had. as a wartime intelligence officer.. was charged with the task of establishing the ultimate fate of Hitler and his inner circle. approximately 15 billion Reichsmarks was moved through Switzerland. Such was the balance of evidence in 1945. for his word is unsupported by any other testimony. This being so I came in 1945. On the other hand. it is worth pausing briefly to note the findings of the internationally esteemed historian Hugh Trevor-Roper who. if he wished to protect Bormann against further search. In 1953. which is more than the entire GDP of Switzerland. 'To put this into today's terms. On the other hand. In his favour it can be said that his evidence on all other points has been vindicated.' (13) . According to Tibertius: 'He had by then changed into civilian clothes. in which he claimed to have seen Bormann after the tank explosion. even in 1945 I had three witnesses who independently claimed to have accompanied Bormann in his attempted escape.. Whether we believe Axmann or not is entirely a matter of choice. It is a great economic power whose interests today supersede their ideology.Fatherland. and the value of the Nazi cache that went through Switzerland moves into the region of a trillion dollars. been killed later that night. The Bormann organization is not merely a group of ex-Nazis. Since Bormann played such a large part in planning the continuation of Nazi financial interests and power after the war. Allow for interest. compounded over 50 years. a former SS major. his natural course would be to give false evidence of his death. Several witnesses maintained that Bormann had been killed in a tank which exploded when hit by a Panzerfaust [bazooka] on the Weidendammer Bridge during the attempted breakthrough on the night of 1-2 May. to the only permissible conclusion. made a statement to a Swiss newspaper. viz: that Bormann had certainly survived the tank explosion but had possibly. One of the main characteristics of the Nazi survival theory is. Then I finally lost sight of him. Hitler's deputy and the second most powerful man in the Third Reich. (12) Trevor-Roper adds that by 1956 the situation remained unchanged by new evidence.' (11) Over the years there has been considerable speculation on the fate of Martin Bormann. Der Bund. three percent of America's GDP is $200 billion. Further.

and had not displayed any allegiance to Hitler. the Research and Analysis branch of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). President Harry Truman authorised Project PAPERCLIP. (14) In 1971. which had been dug up in waste ground near the Lehrter Station in West Berlin . In return. it was decided that to send them back to Germany would probably . realizing their victory can no longer be attained. According to conspiracy researcher Jim Keith. Gehlen's claims were refuted in 1972 'when two human skeletons. Background investigations of various German scientists were conducted by the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA). After the end of the war. (17) Keith goes on to quote the minutes of the secret meeting between Bormann and a group of German industrialists. intelligence. a programme to bring selected German scientists to America.. mentioned earlier: 'The [Nazi] Party is ready to supply large amounts of money to those industrialists who contribute to the post-war organization abroad. Following the war. Gehlen stated in his memoirs that during the war he had come to the conclusion that Bormann was actually a Soviet spy. it is equally certain that his brainchild. Dr [Ludwig] Stumpfegger'. are now developing postwar commercial projects. (16) Although it has been established since 1972 that Bormann's attempt to escape from the ruins of the Third Reich ended in death. Operation Eagle Flight. (15) However. 'thanks to his useful experience . so that after the defeat a strong new Reich can be built. military and other scientific information. Hitler's surgeon. Nevertheless. not far from the place where Axmann claimed to have seen the bodies were forensically examined and identified as those of Bormann and his companion in flight. where he had occasionally been seen by reliable witnesses and had recently died'. 'Bormann had sought and found protection in Moscow. both the Americans and the Russians began to search throughout occupied Germany for technical. stated in 1945 that 'Nazi Party members. including one that placed him in Bolivia.' (18) Project Paperclip Those who subscribe to the idea of Nazi survival in the post-war period cite another documented historical fact in support of their theories. the forerunner of the CIA. which found them all to have been enthusiastic Nazis. Another claim came from Reinhardt Gehlen.e. Aside from expertise in their fields. met with considerably greater success. German industrialists and the German military. endeavoring to renew and cement friendships in foreign commercial circles and planning for renewals of pre-war cartel agreements'. the Party demands all financial reserves which have already been transferred abroad or may be later transferred. and the beginning of the Cold War'.. the Bundesnachrichtendienst.i.The absence of concrete evidence for Bormann's death in 1945 spawned a number of claims of his survival. In September 1946. who had been an Abwehr officer during the war and had subsequently become head of the new West German intelligence service. the main requisite for their acceptance for residence in the United States was proof that they had not been active members of the Nazi Party. as Trevor-Roper informs us.

the German submarine U-977 embarked on one of the most remarkable voyages of the Second World War.result in their expertise being exploited by the Soviets and would thus constitute a greater threat to US security than any Nazi sympathies they might have had. of course. with the result that by 1955 more than 760 German scientists had been granted US citizenship. the main headquarters of the Nazi International was . and arrived at Mar del Plata. Argentina nearly four months later. not to mention access to the intelligence agencies of the post-war superpowers and with hidden colonies throughout the world. with an estimated 4.000 Nazis . using different means to destroy the USSR. this 'Nazi International' was in a position to reverse the failure of the Third Reich and finally achieve global domination. Gehlen's organisation was committed exclusively to the security of the ODESSA (Organisation of Veterans of the SS) and other 'rat lines' that had been set up to aid the escape of more than 5. The Mysterious Voyage of Captain Schaeffer On 25 April 1945.000 undercover operatives in the Soviet bloc. One of those who benefited from Project PAPERCLIP was the Abwehr officer Reinhardt Gehlen. Commanded by Captain Hans Schaeffer. ostensibly on the basis of a common interest in a defence against communism. stopped briefly for fuel at Christiansand South the following day. whose insurance policy of microfilming a vast number of documents concerning Soviet intelligence came to the attention of Dulles. The Cold War provided a financial burden which has destroyed Russia and left the United States as the world's biggest debtor nation . (20) In his subsequent interrogation by the Allies. and the Cold War was inevitable. Schaeffer stated that he had . This was done without the knowledge of President Truman.. on 17 August. (19) With secret control of hundreds of billions of dollars in financial and industrial assets. who had been technical director of the Peenemunde rocket research centre.in Antarctica. Gehlen and his cronies seemingly never admitted that Germany had lost the war and simply persisted with Nazi objectives. Jim Keith writes: Once the Gehlen Organisation] was in place.and to set up Nazi colonies throughout the world.. foreseen the devastating results of a Cold War between the US and the USSR. Wernher von Braun. the perceived threat to the United States by the Soviets was aggravated by Nazi intelligence. the submarine left Kiel Harbour in the Baltic. far from being committed exclusively to the protection of the United States and Western Europe. Among these scientists was. However. The Nazis may have.and is .000 intelligence specialists in Germany and more than 4. According to conspiratologists. home of the dreaded V-2 missile that had caused such carnage in London and elsewhere. namely collaboration with the United States and the OSS/CIA. According to conspiratologists. in addition. Gehlen and Dulles formulated an arrangement by which the Nazi and American intelligence apparatus would be combined. OSS Director Allen Dulles ordered the scientists' dossiers to be cleansed of Nazi references.

D. the commander of the U-530. an impregnable fortress.if it existed? It is a matter of historical fact that Nazi Germany maintained an intense interest in the Antarctic continent throughout the war. During his initial interrogation by the Argentine authorities. had been apprehended on the River Plate and handed over to the United States. and had decided to make for Argentina rather than staying in Europe. in the middle of the South Atlantic Ocean'. this time by a special Anglo-American commission composed of high-ranking officers. to finally surface. for they subsequently flew both Schaeffer and Otto Wehrmut. Belgium. the U-977 evaded capture by diving. It is not clear what happened to Wehrmut at this point. to Washington. Schaeffer was asked if he had carried anyone of 'political importance' on the voyage. Schaeffer was then sent back to Germany. The U-977 itself was thoroughly searched and then taken to the United States where it was destroyed under orders from the US War Department. all of sixty-six days later. Harbinson informs us that several weeks later Schaeffer was again interrogated.C. but Schaeffer was taken to Antwerp. The German Navy Admiral Karl Doenitz is reported to have stated in 1943: 'The German submarine fleet is proud of having built for the Fuhrer in another part of the world a Shangri-la on land. Some of Schaeffer's crew opted to return to Germany.. where the interrogations continued for several more months. so the U-977 remained hidden in Norwegian waters until 10 May. (21) Over the next month. He offered his crew the option of being put off the submarine on the Norwegian coast or continuing on with him. where he was interrogated yet again. to which he replied that he had not. (22) On 17 August 1945. but decided to leave his country and return to Argentina. (24) The testimony of Captain Schaeffer served as an early inspiration for the idea that highranking Nazis had escaped the destruction of the Third Reich and were continuing with their plans for world domination in one or more secret locations. and erecting imitation sails and funnel to make it look like a cargo steamer from a distance. past Gibraltar and along the coast of Africa. (23) The English and Americans apparently considered this to be a realistic possibility. It seems that this commission wanted to explore the possibility that the U-977 had transported Hitler and Martin Bormann first to Argentina and then on to a secret Nazi base in Antarctica.heard over the radio that the war had ended several days after leaving Christiansand South. surfacing.' (25) Where was this 'impregnable fortress' . that beautiful. mysterious and hostile place also holds a prominent position in the thoughts of those who subscribe to the Nazi-survival theory. the U-530. via Argentina. when the departing crew members were put ashore near Bergen. in spite of Schaeffer having heard over the radio that the crew of another fleeing German submarine. As we shall now see. Schaeffer and the rest of his crew 'then embarked upon what surely must have been one of the most remarkable naval feats of the war: a journey through the North Sea and English Channel. Schaeffer's voyage suggested to some that the ultimate destination for escaping Nazis was Antarctica. the U-977 put into Mar del Plata. .

in a scientific exhibition in the Hannover Messe Hall.50 Years of Suppression (1994) by Renato Vesco and David Hatcher Childress and which describes how. why there had been so many foreign press reports that the operation had been a disaster. far more sinister purpose. in May 1978. a single-issue tabloid paper called Brisant was being given away at Stand 111. Admiral Byrd later told a reporter (I could find no verification on this) that it was 'necessary for the USA to take defensive actions against enemy air fighters which come from the polar regions' and that in the case of a new war the USA would be 'attacked by fighters that are able to fly from one pole to the other with incredible speed. he also offers evidence of a secret flying-disc base in Antarctica. shortly after his return from the Antarctic. A. that at least four of his airplanes inexplicably disappeared. that it had intended to deal with a secret colony of Nazi survivors in an elaborate underground facility that had been constructed during the Second World War. This paper contained two articles: one on the scientific future of Antarctica. most importantly. the men actually returned to America in February 1947. after only a few weeks. and that while the expedition had gone provisioned for six to eight months. According to Brisant. Harbinson has perhaps done more than any other writer to popularise the idea that the Nazis had developed extremely advanced aircraft designs by the end of the Second World War. however. (26) The article carried a serious and startling implication: that Operation Highjump had been a military invasion force disguised as a training and exploratory group. This operation was ostensibly an exercise in polar combat. according to Brisant.and the United States withdrew from the Antarctic for almost a decade. In its article on Antarctica.but an assault against what. In his novel Genesis (1980) Harbinson includes a lengthy afterword. also known as Operation Highjump (see page 179). why it then divided into three separate task forces and. other. Operation Highjump began approximately one year after the arrival of the U-977 at Mar del Plata. Harbinson writes: That expedition became something of a mystery. conspiracy theorists have suggested another. Argentina.Operation Highjump Between 1946 and 1947. The vast resources placed at Byrd's disposal have suggested to many that the operation was intended as an actual assault force . revealing more about the Antarctic than had ever been known before. and that this invasion force had met its match in the form of a squadron of Nazi-built flying discs based at the colony. Byrd contributed to the US Navy Antarctic Developments Project. Admiral Byrd was ordered to undergo a secret cross-examination . or whom? The British author W. Brisant asked why the Operation Highjump assault force docked near the German-claimed region of Neu Schwabenland on 27 January 1947. In his novel sequence Projekt Saucer and his nonfiction study Project UFO. Rear Admiral Richard E. survival and exploration. and the other on flying-disc technology at the end of the war (see Chapter Eight).' Also. However. mainly foreign reports suggested that such in fact had not been the case: that many of Byrd's men were lost during the first day. which was later reprinted as the introduction to Man-Mode UFOs 1944-1994. Subsequent official reports stated that it had been an enormous success. The reason .

We shall now. there is also a case for saying that this interest is born of a deep and despairing bafflement (see the Introduction). Of course. we have the ingredients of a powerful and enduring modern myth. the claims of the neo-Nazi publication Brisant that such trips included the transfer of flying-disc research teams and disc components. However. turn our attention to the means by which the theory of Nazi survival has been developed. to allow itself time to develop its own flying discs. based upon designs captured at the end of the war. When we add to this the testimony of the captain of the U-977. While it may be argued that our continuing interest in Nazi Germany constitutes an unhealthy fascination with the suffering and terror of an ultimate inhumanity. . therefore. conspiracy theories cannot survive without conspiratologists to conceive and propagate them. the paranoid conspiracy theories that have proliferated in the second half of the twentieth century are based not so much on reason but rather on elaborate extrapolations of puzzling but inconclusive evidence. it is somewhat ironic that the political system that identified the Jews as its scapegoat and moved with such barbarism against them should now be chosen by many conspiracy theorists as the scapegoat responsible for the machinations of a putative 'New World Order'. this suspicion may well have been reinforced by the fact that the volkisch and Pan-German forerunners of the Nazi Party were influenced by occult and mythological belief systems. In the present case. armed with a squadron of flying discs with which to protect themselves. (27) Nazi UFO Bases in Antarctica? Most reasonable people would dismiss as fantastic nonsense the idea that many Nazis fled the ruins of the Third Reich and took up residence in a secret Antarctic colony. Hans Schaeffer (which admittedly may well be false). Indeed. allegedly.for the United States' temporary withdrawal from Antarctica was. combined with the more generalised occult revival occurring throughout Europe in the post-war years. this evidence centres on the undeniable interest the Third Reich maintained in Antarctica throughout the war: German ships and Uboats constantly patrolled the South Atlantic between South Africa and the region of Antarctica containing Neu Schwabenland. I believe it is not going too far to suggest that the elaborate conspiracy theory involving Nazi survival is born of a deeply ingrained suspicion that such wickedness could not have been completely defeated at the war's end. and it is certainly possible that many of these voyages could have included shipments of personnel and supplies for the construction of heavily fortified facilities. and the rumours regarding the disastrous failure of Byrd's Operation Highjump. in which the evils of Nazism did not meet destruction at the hands of the victorious Allies in 1945 but continue to exert a terrible influence over human affairs to this day. It is quite possible that the concept of Nazi survival itself has survived to the present day because of the very extremity of the crimes perpetrated by the Third Reich.

the Yeti and so on. in which he maintains an admirably sceptical standpoint while acknowledging that the notions embodied in popular occultism must be treated with respect. in which I include the scientists -who define our life. The British writer Joscelyn Godwin has produced a splendid. highly informative study of this field in his book Arktos The Polar Myth in Science. He also includes a pertinent quote from the German Pastor Ekkehard Hieronimus regarding popular beliefs: What is going on in the lower reaches of society is probably very much more potent and effective than what happens in intellectual circles. it is quite another to admit of the undying . The things going on in the so-called cultural underground. material has been added constantly to the sinister mythological system built around the idea that the Third Reich continues its activities in a hidden location. As Godwin notes (and as we have discussed in earlier chapters). but one may well ask what collective attitudes are being formed by the currents in the "great puddle" of popular occultism.now in the broadest sense of the term. and Nazi Survival. Symbolism. but it is only one molecule thick.' (29) It is one thing for a collective attitude to admit the possibility of visitation by alien spacecraft. if only for their powerful influence over the public mind. or the so-called subculture. that claims that the ruins of Atlantis have been discovered in the Arctic by a joint French-Soviet research expedition. a report from the 16 April 1991 issue of the London newspaper the Sun. While the vast majority of people seeing this would probably think it interesting but almost certainly spurious.power of an ideology that has already irreparably demeaned humanity and could quite conceivably wreak havoc once again.The Black Order Throughout the post-war period. that it is the intellectuals . (28) Godwin then wryly offers an example of a product of this 'subculture'. We think. the idea is nevertheless firmly embedded in their unconscious. 'One has to be thankful that our tabloids are not proclaiming Aryan supremacy or describing Jewish ritual murder. . This cabal of surviving Nazis is sometimes referred to as the Fourth Reich but more often as the 'Black Order'. uncritical belief in the literal reality of certain occult concepts aided in no small degree the rise of National Socialism.perhaps supernatural . But lately the intellectuals have been rather like a film of oil on a great puddle of water: it shines mischievously and thinks that it is the whole thing. are very strange. or the existence of ghosts or relict hominids such as Bigfoot. I can see quite definite things coming towards us. Those who contend that such a concept can have no place in a rational person's world view are underestimating the subtle power exerted by the strange concepts contained within the field of popular occultism. The 'proof is a photomontage of some Doric columns rising from an icy landscape. of course.

Atlantis. an ex-Waffen-SS officer named Gutmann ('Good man'). India. Wilhelm Landig published a strange novel entitled Gotzen gegen Thule (Godlets Against Thule). and a full-blooded Mexican Indian'. Japanese. which is shaped like a sphere with a rotating circular wing containing jet turbines. It was Uranos's usurping son Saturn who brought upon this originally happy and unified humanity the dubious gift of the egoic state. This base. Wherever they settled . and were forced to migrate southwards. Chinese. The temptations consequent upon this change in the human constitution lead to the loss of primeval unity and. as evidenced by one scene in which a conference there is attended by 'a Tibetan lama. following the end of the war and the defeat of Nazi Germany. however. a Siamese. lord of the cosmic world order and of the primordial Paradise of the Aryan Race. in fact. Recke and Reimer (which Godwin translates as 'Brave Warrior' and 'Poet' respectively) (30). Landig subtitles his novel 'a fiction full of facts' and claims that it contains accurate information on the radical advances in aviation and weapons technology made in the years since the end of the war. situated at the North Pole. The two airmen are sent on a mission to Prague to prevent the disc-plane technology from falling into Allied hands. sometimes . and a Son through whom the will of the Father operates and who is identified with the laws of nature. eventually. even the responsible and sceptical Godwin is willing to concede that this part of Landig's novel may well have a basis in fact (see Chapter Eight). a Black Ethiopian. is a large underground facility possessing highly advanced technology and supplied by powerful allies in the United States.in Europe. Uranos and Saturn seem to be personifications of events in remote antiquity. and elsewhere . and American officers. Persia. which is seen as a Satanic force. a Brazilian officer. Thereupon the warm climate of the secret island of the Hyperboreans was suddenly replaced by bitter winter.they tried to remake their lost Paradise. Gotzen gegen Thule is fundamentally an adventure story that follows the exploits of two German airmen. Arabs. a Venezuelan. Its tradition is 'Uranian. the destruction of Saturn's realm.'Gotzen Gegen Thule' In 1971. the Thulean religion included an unmanifested God beyond space and time. Landig himself identifies the legend of Thule (which in geographical terms is located close to Point 103) with that of the spiritual centre of the world. (32) As Godwin notes. The primordial races of the Arctic and of the Nordic Atlantis both lost their homes. and in their myths and legends cherished the memory of it. solidly anti-racist. known as Point 103. Godwin provides a summary of the Thulean philosophy: The light of Thule comes not from the East but from the North. These ideals are explained by another character. Interestingly enough. (31) Travel to and from this remote and ultra-secret facility is by a highly advanced aircraft called the V7. Point 103 is. Its occupants constitute a force opposed to the Third Reich. Persians. who are sent to a secret German base in the far north of Canada towards the end of the Second World War. Point 103 declares itself independent and continues with its pursuit of Thulean ideals. Indians.' being derived from Uranos. In an echo of the nineteenth-century vogue for presenting fantasy as a 'true story'.

which is another perversion of Buddhist teaching. far exceeding any possible electronic self-steering or radio control. similar to that suggested by Ravenscroft in The Spear of Destiny (see Chapter Five). The regenerated part is expelled by the remaining mother-nucleus as a new energetic circle of light. At night the disks shine in glowing or glossy colors. Through a regenerative process. Juncker ('Aristocrat'). and how his guide stated that the UFO represented the beneficent influence of Rigden-Jyepo. who was watching over them. The international conspiracy against the Aryans is further defined when the characters travel to Tibet and meet another German. were held in slavery by Semitic sorcerers. unity and love. the King of the World. showing on occasion long flames at the edges and red and blue sparks. The optical impressions that eyewitnesses of these Manisolas have had up to now are basically quite uniform. This energy is the fertilising 'force-field of the Aryans'. sun god of the Gauls'). which can grow so strong as to wreathe them in fire. This new circle enters on the same seven developmental stages. Perhaps unsurprisingly. while the expelling maternal element rolls itself into a ball. We then learn of the nature of 'Shambala' and 'Agartha'.called Shambhala. (33) Landig describes in elaborate detail the nature of this phenomenon. (34) Landig goes on to describe how. which is ruled by a great King of Fear. The metallic remains contain particles of copper. described in Chapter Four. Although Point 103 is claimed to be a non-racist society. and remember the time when their ancestors. sometimes with traces of rose-colored smoke which then often condense into grayishwhite trails. corresponding to a birthing technique. like that of a rational creature. the Nordic Atlanteans. which have their seat in Shambala. Through another character. We can look again to Godwin for a good translation of Landig's original: The source of material energies of the left hand. In the daytime they display an extremely bright gold or silver luminescence. The reader will recall Nicholas Roerich's encounter with a golden flying disc. thus destroying the balance between the two. a French collaborator named Belisse ('from Belisane. intelligent bio-mechanical entities with a complex life cycle that begins as a circle of light and continues through a metallic form before reaching the reproductive stage. throughout the ages. which is stolen by Hebrew magicians and stored in the Ark for their own anti-Aryan purposes. which are seen as symbols of spiritual potency. But it is the same seat of Shambala that a part of the western secret brotherhoods and lodges regards . The central point of Gotzen gegen Thule is that the Third Reich arose with the assistance of the twin power centres of Agartha and Shambhala and was defeated when it succumbed to the materialistic attractions of Shambhala. the Thuleans nevertheless consider Israel to be in eternal opposition to their ideals. which then explodes. They are living. (35) who tells them that the Asiatic peoples are waiting for a great warrior who will come from the subterranean realm of Agartha and lead them to domination of the world. is the upper-earth city of power and might. all mythologies refer in one way or another to the Manisolas. a new Manisola grows within the womb of the adult. Most remarkable is their power of reaction against pursuers. the Ark of the Covenant is brought into this bizarre occult adventure and is described as a kind of battery for astral energy to be used in magical operations. which he calls 'Manisolas'.

. that is. Harbinson embarked on a little detective work. he . the Holy Grail. the novel manages to weave together a wide variety of myths. the Hollow Earth.. underworld realm of contemplation and its energies. the . and the international conspiracy to inaugurate a secret One-World Government. Stalin-Dugaschvili! He knew everything. Gotzen gegen Thule contains several statements that mark it out as a work of pernicious historical revisionism. checking the origins of the magazine and discovering that it had been published in West Germany by a company that had since disappeared. Then. Stalin-Dugaschvili had the support of the Lord of Fear and Power against [the] Reich! (36) In the final stages of the novel.. At the proper moment. God. the subterranean realms of Shambhala and Agartha. this center will lead good men against the evil ones. and in their secret way worked against the other men of [the] Reich . it has probably had to isolate itself completely from the world of today'. When they finally return to Germany. And as the Fish Age passes. A. W. (39) Nevertheless. Ernst Zundel and 'Samisdat' The articles in the neo-Nazi publication Brisant did not carry by-lines.. of pure force. All that remains to [the Thuleans] is to constitute a 'Fourth Reich in exile. so St Peter's religious tyranny in Rome will crumble ..' patiently waiting for the Age of Pisces to reach its inevitable end. This Shambala is a searchlight of our will! Then there is the second source: Agartha. Intrigued and unsettled by the strange information they contained. where it was discovered by certain interested parties who saw in it an opportunity to further their own agendas. which 'seems to have forgotten them: they ruefully admit .. (37) Added to the weird flights of fancy. There too is a Lord and King of the World. such as Juncker's claim that the bodies in the liberated concentration camps were actually those of Germans killed in Allied air raids on Munich..as their point of origin. the heroes leave Tibet but are captured in India by the British... and it is firmly connected with Brahytma. Lintec GmbH of Hamburg.. who place them in a prisoner-of-war camp. the 'company was not listed with any of the West German press organizations. And behind these energies which manifest themselves in Shambala stands the Caucasian. UFOs as man-made aircraft. from which come the promises and warnings of a Lord of the World. And that is the king to serve. [T]he men in [the Third] Reich . According to Harbinson. says Landig. the one who will set up our empire and rule over the others . it entered the murky realm of the cultural underground. instead.. he knew the men of the circle in [the] Reich and he played his own cards with them as if they were their own. it did nothing of the kind. and the Jewish Ark will lose its potency. it becomes clear that they will probably never rejoin Point 103.. banner of the Aryans will fly again .. all of which have come to be associated with the concept of Nazi survival: Nordic mythology.. that if it still exists. the inner. nor with any public relations bureau'. (38) Aside from this. who promises his domination. While it might be expected that such a ridiculous and (in its attempt at historical revisionism) morally reprehensible tale would sink into a merciful literary oblivion. joined themselves with the energies of Shambala.

O..999.A. The following selection from the Samisdat article will enable the reader to gain some idea of the nature of Zundel's claims: ACHTUNG! SAMISDAT NEWS BULLETIN SAMISDAT HOLLOW EARTH EXPEDITION $9999. Argentina. now sold out in 5 complete editions. A ticket for the chartered flight would cost $9. "UFOs -NAZI SECRET WEAPON?" was our first title. Venezuela. China. Mexico. Through his many apparent links with surviving Nazis in South America and elsewhere. Persia. SAMISDAT is the only organization making such an effort.a clear indication on the part of knowledgeable UFO researchers and members of the public that they are tired of the 'Junk food' being served up by old-line UFO groups and publications who expound the official CIA-KGB alibi that all UFOs are extraterrestrial. .00 IN SEARCH OF HOLES IN THE POLES SEARCH FOR HITLER'S ANTARCTIC U. It is people like yourself who have made SAMISDAT the most active UFO Organization and publisher on Planet Earth! . 'Mattern Friedrich' and 'Christof Friedrich' are actually pseudonyms for Ernst Zundel. it is massive . Canada. Both books were published by a company called Samisdat Publishers Limited of Toronto. Brazil. What the UFO-watching world wants now is the real meat of the matter . Our discoveries have led us into the production of a number of currently suppressed and sometimes vilified books which are now underground bestsellers. the passengers would discover not only Hitler's Antarctic UFO base but also the entrance to the interior of the planet. Panama. record albums. the Congo. Australia. As Harbinson notes. tape recordings. He also is an advocate (apparently) of the Hollow Earth Theory..S. Your response to our most recent mailout and activities has been most encouraging! We have received orders and enquiries from as far away as Noumea in the South Pacific. Japan. for we have thousands of supporters like yourself who want to know the truth which the saucercharlatans have for 30 years tried to cover up with fairy-tale fantasies of 'little green men'. Zundel 'now runs Samisdat Publishers Limited as a mouthpiece of neo-Nazi propaganda and commercial enterprise.. specializing in the sale of Nazi books.realised that the information contained in the Brisant articles had been culled from two books: UFOs. but we are not alone.. Chile. BASES . photographs. a Canadian resident but German citizen and one of the most outspoken and active of those who deny that the Holocaust occurred. launched from their hidden base at or near the South Pole. Nazi Secret Weapons? by Mattern Friedrich and Secret Nazi Polar Expeditions by Christof Friedrich. (40) Zundel maintains in his books that UFOs are actually Nazi secret weapons. Soviet Satellite countries.F. Our second book.a serious investigation of UFOs whose origins are terrestrial. medals and other Nazi memorabilia'. Easter Island. South Africa. and in his Samisdat newsletter in 1978 advertised an expedition by chartered jet to the South Pole where. he claimed. as well as from every country in Western Europe and almost every state in the U. Not only is this response extensive.

"SECRET NAZI POLAR EXPEDITIONS", is coming up fast and has sold out 2 full editions. Foreign-language translations of these books are selling briskly, and it is becoming obvious to everyone that the media-enforced blockade of the truth has now been broken. Three additional books are currently under production and these will round out our Phase I Publishing Program: "THE CIA-KGB-UFO COVERUP", "THE ANTARCTICA THEORY" and "THE LAST BATTALION". We have also been able to establish research teams in Canada, the U.S.A. and in particular, Germany, whose task it is to rediscover basic wingless flight which brought the original Nazi UFOs into being. Already, these teams have designed and constructed small scale models, some using conventional power and others which have propulsion systems unprecedented in today's aerospace technology. With additional research, we hope to make available several different models in kit form for hobby-builders. Any contributions to these research projects, whether of ideas or money, will be very much appreciated. Checks should be made out to SAMISDAT with the notation "For SAMPROJ R-l" ... For the truly dedicated UFO researcher, SAMISDAT is embarking upon a magnificent and awe-inspiring experience! We are negotiating with several international airlines and chartered air carriers in regard to our planned investigation of the "Inner Earth Theory" coupled with our search for "Hitler's Flying Saucer Bases in Antarctica." Our 'launching pad' for which we are also negotiating will be located in Rio de Janeiro or Buenos Aires. This site will be the gathering place for an International UFO Convention which is scheduled to take place some time in 1979 or 1980. From this convention site, those who are interested and financially able may join Christof Friedrich and members of a speciallyselected SAMISDAT research team on the Antarctic Expedition who will not only search for Hitler's Saucer Bases in German Antarctica, but who will further attempt to settle the controversy about Admiral Byrd's "Flight into the Polar Opening" by actually flying over the South Pole! Our tentative flight path is here shown. It is anticipated that a speciallyprepared, long-range jet will be available for the Antarctic Expedition's polar flight ... SAMISDAT's Antarctic Expedition in Search of Hitler's Flying Saucer Bases and the South Polar Opening into Inner Earth will be the unique event of a lifetime. As only a very limited number of people can be accommodated, our selection standards are of necessity rigorous. The approximate cost per person on this expedition may be as high as $9,999.00. However, the cost could be reduced considerably, provided we are able to raise money from our SAMISDAT SERIES of lectures, tapes, conventions, UFO models and book sales in this interim period. You can help to realize this dream of a lifetime in several ways: (1) You can become one of our book distributors by buying SAMISDAT books and other items at wholesale dealers' prices and then retailing them to friends, colleagues, UFO conventioneers, and visitors to county fairs, psychic fairs and flea markets. By purchasing SAMISDAT titles in bulk, you could easily realize almost a 100% profit on each item sold. This money you could then apply toward your share in the Expedition or use as you see fit.

(2) You can organize a UFO club and hold your own UFO conventions on a profit-sharing basis with SAMISDAT. (3) You can help us find sponsors for the Expedition. (4) If you are rich and conscientious, you can underwrite the whole or part of the Expedition and realize our goal of a lifetime much, much faster. But empty promises and other hot-air products from windbags and do-nothings, however well off, will not serve to waft the Expedition to Antarctica and back. The only thing capable of doing that is cold, hard cash up front. If you've got what it takes and want to put your money to work right away, then please contact us! (5) You can set up your own fund-raising campaign for the Expedition. For details and assistance in regard to these and other ideas, do not hesitate to contact us. These are but a few of the ways in which we can hasten that glorious day when we board our sleek, silvery aircraft and wing our way to Antarctica and beyond - to our rendezvous with history. When we return, we shall have unearthed Inner Earth and/or found evidence of Hitler's UFO Bases - or we shall have gone a long way toward dispelling two of the most tenaciously persistent mysteries of our Scientific Era. (41) The reader will note that Zimdel's apparent intention to launch an expedition to Antarctica could only be realised if readers of Samisdat bought his products 'in bulk' (needless to say, the charter flight to the Antarctic never took place). Zundel's apparently nonsensical claims regarding Nazi UFOs, secret bases at the South Pole and the Hollow Earth hide an altogether more sinister revisionist agenda. In fact, Zundel himself has admitted as much. According to Frank Miele, a member of the Skeptics Society in the United States, who wrote an article on Holocaust revisionism for that society's magazine in 1994, Zundel told him that his book UFOs: Nazi Secret Weapons? (which became an underground bestseller, going through seven printings) was nothing more than a ploy to attract readers. Said Zundel in a telephone conversation with Miele: 'I realized that North Americans were not interested in being educated. They want to be entertained. The book was for fun. With a picture of the Fuhrer on the cover and flying saucers coming out of Antarctica it was a chance to get on radio and TV talk shows. For about 15 minutes of an hour program I'd talk about that esoteric stuff. Then I would start talking about all those Jewish scientists in concentration camps, working on these secret weapons. And that was my chance to talk about what I wanted to talk about.' (42) As one might expect (and hope), Zundel's Holocaust revisionism has landed him in hot water with the Canadian authorities. In 1984, criminal proceedings were initiated against him by the Canadian Government, based on a private complaint made by a Holocaust survivor named Sabrina Citron. Zundel was charged under Section 177 of the Criminal Code of Canada, which makes it a criminal offence to publish wilfully a statement one knows is false and that causes, or is likely to cause, injury to the public interest. Zundel had published two books by other authors: The West, War, and Islam and Did Six Million

Really Die? He was convicted for publishing the latter title and sentenced to fifteen months in jail. The conviction, however, was overturned on appeal and a second trial was ordered. The second trial received massive coverage in the Canadian media, with Zundel calling other leading revisionists as expert witnesses. He was again convicted, but the case was taken to the Canadian Supreme Court, which found that the statute on false statements was an unconstitutional violation of free speech. As Miele ironically remarks, Zundel the Holocaust revisionist found himself 'a civil libertarian hero of Canada'. (43) Notwithstanding this, several Canadian Jewish groups have initiated proceedings against him under Canadian anti-hate laws.

Miguel Serrano and the Glorification of Hitler
The strange and esoteric notions that seem so often to go hand in hand with Holocaust revisionism are most strikingly exemplified by the Chilean diplomat Miguel Serrano (b. 1917), who was Ambassador to India (1953-62), Yugoslavia (1962-64) and Austria (196470). (44) The possessor of a formidable intellect, Serrano wrote on a number of arcane subjects including Yoga, Tantra and other areas of mysticism, as well as a book on his friendships with Carl Jung and Hermann Hesse. He also travelled widely in search of wisdom in India, South America and Antarctica. In 1984 he published a long explication of his mystical and philosophical thought, entitled Adolf Hitler, el Ultimo Avatara (Adolf Hitler, the Last Avatar), which he dedicates To the glory of the Fuhrer, Adolf Hitler'. (45) According to Godwin: We are to understand the title quite literally: Serrano means that Hitler is the Tenth Avatar of Vishnu, the Kalki Avatar, who has incarnated to bring about the end of the Kali Yuga and usher in a New Age. In the terminology of Buddhism, Hitler is a Tulku or a Bodhisattva, who having previously emancipated himself from bondage to the circles of this world has taken on voluntary birth for the sake of mankind. Therefore he is beyond criticism. (46) Serrano believes that Hitler himself is still alive, having escaped from the ruins of Berlin in one of the Nazi disc-planes, and is continuing to direct an Esoteric War from the safety of a secret realm at the South Pole. The background to this scenario involves, once again, the legendary land of Hyperborea and its fabulous inhabitants, with further variations on the theme we have already discussed (see Chapter Two). According to Serrano, the Hyperboreans were originally from beyond our galaxy, arriving on Earth in remote antiquity. Their existence has been suppressed by a monumental conspiracy, which also seeks to misrepresent them as physical 'aliens'; in fact, we only perceive them as 'flying saucers' because we lack the perception to see them as they really are. They founded the First Hyperborea here on Earth, a realm that was not composed of mundane matter but which extended beyond the physical plane of existence created and controlled by the Demiurge, an inferior god whose first experiments in the creation of intelligent life resulted in Neanderthal Man. (47)

The Demiurge instituted a cosmic regime by which all creatures would take the Way of the Ancestors - in other words, they would be reincarnated on Earth indefinitely. This was unacceptable to the Hyperboreans who preferred to take the Way of the Gods, only being reincarnated if they chose. The Hyperboreans possessed the power of Vril (see Chapter Three), which they wielded in their battles with the mechanistic Demiurge. (48) The war between the Hyperboreans and the Demiurge resulted in the founding of a Second Hyperborea at the North Pole, taking the form of a physical, circular continent from which the Hyperboreans began to organise the spiritualisation of the Earth. This would be achieved through the instilling of a single particle of immortality in the Neanderthals and other proto-humans, which would raise them out of their semi-animal state. The Hyperboreans' plans seemed to be going well enough, until they made the mistake of having sexual intercourse with the creations of the Demiurge. This miscegenation was associated with a catastrophic cometary impact that caused the North and South Poles to change position. From that moment on, the Earth became 'the battleground between the Demiurge and the Hyperboreans, the latter always in danger of diluting their blood'. (49) Godwin quotes Serrano thus: 'There is nothing more mysterious than blood. Paracelsus considered it a condensation of light. I believe that the Aryan, Hyperborean blood is that but not the light of the Golden Sun, not of a galactic sun, but of the light of the Black Sun ...', (50) the Black Sun being a symbol not only of the void inside the Hollow Earth but also of the ultimate void from which all creation flows. Serrano claims to have met a certain Master who told him that at a certain point in the practice of Yoga one is able to leave one's body and go through mystical death to reach the Black Sun, the realm occupied by the Hyperboreans beyond the physical universe. However, such a spiritual voyage is not within the capabilities of all humanity - only those 'whose blood preserves the memory of the ancient White, Hyperborean race'. (51) The Jewish people are seen by Serrano as the instruments of the Demiurge (whom he identifies with Jehovah). They constitute an 'anti-race' that is engaged in a gigantic conspiracy involving all the world's institutions, the undeclared enemies of Hyperborean ideals. These ideals gave rise to the Thule Society, which Serrano claims had links with the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn but 'was perverted by the degeneracy of Aleister Crowley and the Jewish Bergsons'. (52) During the earlier part of Hitler's campaigns, according to Serrano, his intention had simply been to reconquer the ancient territories of the Aryans or Hyperboreans. Rudolf Hess's flight to England in 1941 was the last stage of this effort, intended through renewed contacts with the Golden Dawn to unite Germany with her Aryan cousins, the British, and encourage them also to purify their race. But after the apparent failure of this mission, Hitler took up his avataric destiny of total war on all fronts against international Jewry and the Demiurge, attacking them in their most powerful creation, the Communist Soviet Union. (53)

to which one passes as it were with a 'click'. there is nothing to be said. (55) Serrano believes that the Hollow Earth is still inhabited by the First Hyperboreans and that the Nazis found a way through to their realm via the South Pole. emerging in that paradisal land and sea that are no longer here. Ultima Thule. it had a population of some 350. In the context of Guenonian attitudes. The underground city was near the Chilean coastal city of Valparaiso. including the development of disc-planes. the counterearth. all of whom were members of the Black Order and some of whom were Jews who blamed 'their fellows for their "refusal to collaborate" with the evolutionary process'. the Other Earth. (54) As Godwin notes. north of Santiago. or trilocation of space. connecting the Bunker with Tempelhof Airfield where he boarded one of the disc-planes and left the ruins of the Third Reich behind. from which one can continue the war and win it . which offers the account. a bilocation. during the Second World War. to the reader. Hyperborea. The Golden Age.although it must be added that Robin is no denier of the Holocaust. which are nothing if not respectful of the Jewish people and their tradition. and is warning us of the [evolutionary process's] final obscenity. a belief shared (apparently) by the French writer Jean Robin . unless it be that Robin actually accepts his friend's account. as through a black funnel. quoting the Chilean writer thus. of a journey to a subterranean complex made aboard a flying saucer that could pass through solid rock. Robin published his Operation Orth. (57) . Serrano denies that the Holocaust took place (he calls it the 'Myth of the Six Million') on the grounds that the German is heroic but not cruel (cruelty being an attribute of mixed blood). establishing contact with ascended Masters in Tibet and dematerialisation. designed by Albert Speer. so easy and so difficult to attain. the astral earth. hexagonal casket. supposedly given to Robin by a friend..for when this war is lost. this casket also contained the body of the Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg. who saved thousands of Jews from the concentration camps and who mysteriously disappeared at the end of the war. Rather astonishingly. Serrano here enters realms usually identified with the bizarre fringes of ufology and cosmology: Had the German submarines discovered at the North Pole or in John Dee's Greenland the exact point through which one penetrates.As with other revisionists.000. The inner earth. going to connect with the Other Pole. the other side of things.. the other is won. who can only wonder what prompted Jean Robin to present the shocking images of Hitler and Wallenberg reconciled. Hitler himself did not commit suicide but escaped through an underground passage. and the casual dismissal of the Holocaust by the Jews of the Black Order. the Nazis were allegedly concentrating on the perfection of 'magical realism'. In 1989. (56) Robin's story differs from other Nazi-survival myths in that Hitler died in this new Agartha in 1953 and his body was placed in a transparent. Godwin is justifiably nonplussed by this: Operation Orth poses every manner of problem . Indeed. yet exist? An impregnable paradise.

The tale begins on 20 June 1977. when the UK Independent Television Company Anglia transmitted a documentary programme in its highly regarded Science Report series. we must review its principal elements before turning our attention to the Nazi connection and the reasons why.. but this film is transmitted . The question is. Anglia had issued a press release. Since many readers may be unfamiliar with Alternative 3. and the changes in the world's atmospheric conditions. this programme has been acquired for simultaneous transmission in Australia. it is still believed by many to be essentially true. which included the copyright caption: 'Anglia Television . since Alternative 3 was actually nothing more than a cleverly engineered hoax. Anglia hastily issued a statement assuring its viewers that Alternative 3 had. 1977'.m. and secondly because. the drought of 1976. I have decided to discuss it for two reasons: firstly. follow a trail of information and scientific research through England and America. A Cambridge scientist and an ex-astronaut living in unpublicised retirement following a nervous breakdown. As a result of our private screenings a few weeks ago. among other topical subjects. are among the links in their investigations.000. The programme was entitled Alternative 3. and the British TV guide TV Times had this to say about it: 'What this programme shows may be considered unethical. the terrifying conspiracy-to-end-all-conspiracies known as 'Alternative 3' has been implicated by more than one writer in the ongoing saga of ultra-secret Nazi activities. originally been meant as an April Fool's Day joke . Denmark and Iceland and will be seen eventually in the majority of European and Asian markets. some from people who had enjoyed the programme and wanted to know if there was any truth in it but many from viewers who were genuinely frightened by its 'revelations' and who wanted to know what was being done about them. but it is scientifically possible. in fact.' (58) The programme finished at 10p. and also a disturbing rise in the statistics of disappearing people.as evidenced by the closing credits. The programme's theme may seem extraordinary. Canada. stating: A team of journalists investigating.. and from then until midnight and throughout the following day Anglia Television was swamped with telephone calls (10. which come together finally in some strange discoveries about the future of life on Earth and elsewhere in the Solar System. even today. New Zealand. Shortly before the transmission.. it offers us a salutary lesson in how the public can be manipulated by fantasy and propaganda masquerading as fact. as a challenge to those who know the answers to the questions raised to tell the truth.April 1. how far does it mirror the truth? . according to one estimate).Alternative 3 Anyone familiar with the above phrase will surely be wondering what possible significance it can have to the present study.

maybe one comparable with that facing us now . They seem simply to have vanished from the face of the Earth.a massive amount of radiation in the atmosphere. wrote an article in the London Daily Mirror entitled 'WHAT ON EARTH IS GOING ON?' A science programme is likely to keep millions of Britons glued to their armchairs. This idea was rejected on the grounds that it would have replaced one problem with another . there was some cataclysmic disaster . In the book version of Alternative 3. Alabama in 1957. The programme will be screened in several other countries . is an investigation into the disappearance of several scientists. of course.. Three alternatives for survival were suggested. had progressed far beyond our present state of knowledge. allowing the excess heat in the atmosphere to escape into space. 'There is good reason to believe that this world was once more civilised and far more scientifically advanced than it is today. so that by the year 2000 the Earth would undergo a complete environmental collapse. this was the most unrealistic of all the alternatives. Gerstein's description of Alternative 2 takes us right back to the subterranean realms discussed in Chapter Seven.. at which it was agreed that industrial pollution and the accompanying greenhouse effect (caused by high levels of carbon dioxide trapping heat within the atmosphere) was destroying the Earth's biosphere.On the day of the transmission. 'Then.but not in America. Network bosses there want to assess its effect on British viewers. It was suggested that their detonation would blow holes in the carbon dioxide envelope. . wiping out most life (including humanity). Chilling news is read by former ITV newscaster Simon Butler who gives a gloomy report on the future. and that the decline in air quality was irreversible. journalist Kenneth Hughes.. Dr Gerstein claimed to have attended a secret conference in Huntsville. who had gained access to some of the material to be presented. no. in my view.. Alternative 1 called for the deployment of a large number of nuclear bombs in the upper atmosphere.and these highly sophisticated people built completely new civilisations deep beneath the surface of the earth . living millennia before what we call Prehistoric Man. that there is enough atmosphere locked in the soil to support life but . I recognise.. it is argued. ALTERNATIVE 3 . Gerstein is quoted thus: 'Alternative 2.. who described the hideous nature of Alternative 3. The programme's structure centred on a series of interviews with one Dr Carl Gerstein. Our really distant ancestors. was even crazier than Alternative 1.

. The film showed the rocky landscape of Mars. Is that why they took so naturally .. (60) . He added that in 1959 a Russian rocket had exploded on the launch pad. accompanied by Russian and American voices. Gerstein went on to suggest that another rocket might have been sent to Mars. and that its atmosphere might still be locked away in the soil. if you accept the Bible version . However. Brinton claimed..' (59) Thus. Russia . and why the mission had been jointly undertaken by the US and the USSR. oh. could well be Gerstein's Alternative 3. seen from the approaching probe...'There is evidence. making life equally impossible for those living underground.. The implication was of an ultra-secret interplanetary project which. an American voice said: 'That's it! We got it . to suggest that there were once whole cities . Near the end of the footage.who had to start from scratch in a world which had been utterly devastated. Alternative 2 called for the evacuation of the world's elites (the rest would have to take their chances on the surface) into these abandoned cities. Maybe the disaster which drove them there in the first place was followed by the Flood . and that this mission might have been successful. We're on the planet Mars . quite considerable evidence. since the heat from the greenhouse effect would eventually permeate down through the Earth's crust.the real children of Noah.far below the surface.. The implication was that the rocket had been carrying a nuclear device whose detonation would have unlocked the atmosphere on Mars and transformed it into a habitable planet once again. killing a large number of people and devastating the surrounding area.... Remains of them have been found under many parts of the world.linked by an elaborate complex of tunnels . we got it! Boy. so it is said. 'Maybe there's some historical truth in the Biblical story of the great Flood.. there is a green luminescence which replaces the sun as a source of energy . if you like -to living in caves? Then the agonisingly slow process of rebuilding the world started all over again until now we find ourselves in a similar position . The Alternative 3 programme also contained some footage of an alleged top secret unmanned mission to Mars. which called for the evacuation (of the elites. Tim Brinton. China .and we have air!' The presenter of the programme. if they ever take the wraps off this thing.instinctively. this alternative was also discarded. 'And it could follow that the people we think of as prehistoric Men were merely the descendants of a handful of survivors ... it's going to be the biggest date in history! May 22.and they were all trapped and drowned down there. And in this subterranean world. Maybe that's how their civilisations ended .. once again) from Earth to Mars. undertaken by the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962. commented that there must have been a very good reason why the true conditions on Mars were kept from the public. all over the place.and which makes it possible for crops to be grown . Gerstein reiterated the theory that the Red Planet was once inhabited. The only option left was Alternative 3. 1962. Under South America .

. but this is unbelievable . oh.. These hapless victims are referred to as 'superfluous people' by the controllers.. Bravo Tango .. Texas and an astronaut named Bob Grodin was presented in the book: MISSION CONTROL: Could you take a look out over that flat area there? Do you see anything beyond? GRODIN: There's a kind of a ridge with a pretty spectacular ... huh? Bravo Tango .. we've marked it. who see their barbaric treatment as perfectly acceptable. and apparently accounted for the so-called 'brain drain' of the 1960s and 1970s whereby many scientists left Britain. The ingenious makers of Alternative 3 also brought in the NASA Moon flights as more evidence of the conspiracy.. (61) .. the makers of Alternative 3 pointed to the large numbers of people who go missing throughout the world each year. it was suggested that the Apollo astronauts did not stumble upon a derelict alien city but a fully functioning man-made way station for flights en route to the Martian colony. The reader may be aware that the Apollo programme is a firm favourite of conspiratologists. go Tango . The controllers were also interested in recruiting scientists and academics from a wide range of disciplines.. In Alternative 3... yeah .. by a fleet of nuclear submarines stationed underneath the North Polar ice cap. These personnel were called 'Designated Movers'. recorder off .By way of corroborative 'evidence'. We've got it. Interesting. my God! What is that there? That's all I want to know! What the hell is that? MISSION CONTROL: Roger.. ostensibly to take up better-paid posts overseas. immediately .) The entire operation was headquartered in Geneva and was also controlled. Jezebel.. (It was claimed that an investigation of the brain drain had been the original impetus behind the Science Report programme. GRODIN: There's a kind of a light now . MISSION CONTROL (hurriedly): Roger... into mindless slave labourers who are then transported as 'Batch Consignments' to the colony on Mars. suggesting that many are actually being abducted by the Alternative 3 controllers and transformed. with the astronauts bouncing around a sound stage somewhere in Nevada or California... The following transcript of a conversation between Mission Control in Houston. Lose a little communication. Go Tango . Here the controllers ensured the conspiracy's continued secrecy by arranging 'hot jobs' (remote-controlled spontaneous human combustion) for those investigators who got too close to the truth. GRODIN: Yeah ... while others claim that all of the Moon landings were actually hoaxed.. through surgical and chemical means. some of whom maintain that NASA is hiding the discovery of derelict alien cities on the Moon.. in typical James Bond fashion.. select Jezebel.

However. The events occurred in a base inside the crater Archimedes. Having yet to undergo the psychological conditioning that enabled the Designated Movers to accept the concept of slavery. The Archimedes Base is allegedly a large transit camp beneath a hermetically sealed transparent dome. . MISSION CONTROL: Just follow the tracks. . . this time between astronauts Scott and Irwin and Mission Control during their Moonwalk in August 1971. hitting range for 413 . Anderson managed to get 84 slaves aboard a Moon ship and headed for one of the gigantic airlocks in the dome. huh? IRWIN: Right . I can't get over those lineations. That's really spectacular. Here one of the Designated Movers. runs thus: SCOTT: Arrowhead really runs east to west. In this slave village.Another transcript. We're bearing 320. Anderson was appalled and decided to escape with as many slaves as possible and expose the horror of Alternative 3. SCOTT: Talk about organization! IRWIN: That's the most organized structure I've ever seen! SCOTT: It's (garble) .. The airlock was sealed shut and Gowers.. and Alternative 3 is going ahead as planned. we're (garble) . secretly visited a segregated area where the Batch Consignments of slaves were housed.. The resulting explosion tore a hole in the protective shell and the resultant cataclysmic depressurisation killed almost everyone at the base. Anderson encountered a childhood friend. SCOTT: I can't either.. an earlier base in the crater Cassini was redeveloped. Teaming up with a NASA-trained aerospace technician named Cowers. that layering on Mount Hadley. IRWIN: Tracks here as we go down slope. which lies on the western border of the Mare Imbrium.. so uniform in width . we know that's a fairly good run. IRWIN: Nothing we've seen before this has shown such uniform thickness from the top of the tracks to the bottom.. panicked and lost control. As a result of this disaster. IRWIN: They sure look beautiful. sending it crashing into the dome. MISSION CONTROL: Roger. a technician in the main control room saw what was happening and raised the alarm. a marine biologist named Matt Anderson.. who was flying the ship. we copy.. (62) The book version of Alternative 3 also contains an episode described by an inside source calling himself 'Trojan'.

unless ways and means are found to forestall the danger of starvation and misery in time. It is as if the creators of the Anglia Television programme had pre-empted the protagonists of Umberto Eco's novel Foucault's Pendulum.As mentioned. It begins with the rise of human civilisation. Through indiscretion. thinking that they have the Secret. disappeared or otherwise died in mysterious circumstances. In Mein Kampf Hitler wrote: A clear examination of the premises for foreign activity on the part of German statecraft inevitably led to the following conviction: Germany has an annual increase in population of nearly nine hundred thousand souls. the huge number of telephone calls from concerned viewers resulted in a speedy statement from Anglia Television that Alternative 3 had been an April Fool's Day jape and nothing more. In his Casebook on Alternative 3 (1994). This parallel with the missing scientists in the Alternative 3 scenario is an example of Keith's case as presented in his book. In spite of this. word of the protagonists' discovery spreads through the international network of contemporary secret occult groups. Most notable among these is the American conspiratologist Jim Keith (who sadly died in September 1999). and feed it into a computer nicknamed 'Abulafia' (after the Cabalist). In the twentieth century (with which we are primarily concerned in this chapter). . The book's hero. we can see a similar process at work. The difficulty of feeding this army of new citizens must grow greater from year to year and ultimately end in catastrophe. who then hound the intellectuals (literally) to death. Indeed. in which a small group of bored intellectuals working for a publisher of esoteric texts take all the information they can find on secret societies and historical conspiracies. Alternative 3 has taken on a life of its own. offering a kind of template for the suspicions of other writers and conspiracy researchers. its principal elements become recognisable aspects of other conspiracy theories. which from its very inception contained the roots of a powerful and totally unscrupulous elite that has secretly directed the course of history for thousands of years. Casaubon. Jim Keith makes the interesting point that Hitler himself conceived of four 'alternatives' to deal with the coming world of scarcity that he envisaged. With Alternative 3. the participation of several quite well-known actors (one of whom appeared in a dog food commercial before the beginning of the programme!) could mean little else. When the conspiracy is examined closely. he lists more than 30 scientists connected with the Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI) 'Star Wars' anti-missile project who either committed suicide. The basic template of a secret power elite making plans to abandon a dying Earth and colonise Mars offers the basis for a wider and more elaborate scenario. meets his death at the hands of occultists who wish the Secret to remain a secret. The computer then links all of the snippets it has been given into a cogent and internally consistent (although completely fictitious) scenario in which all the secret societies in history have handed down to each other the elements of a fantastic Secret that will give the holder incredible power. the most extreme and barbaric example of this power elite at work was Nazi ideology.

. the natural struggle for existence which leaves only the strongest and healthiest alive is obviously replaced by the obvious desire to 'save' even the weakest and most sickly at any price. 2.. and what is refused to amicable methods.. Following the French example. 3. Produce for foreign needs through industry and commerce. it is up to the fist to take. to the concept of Lebensraum: The acquisition of new soil for the settlement of the excess population possesses an infinite number of advantages. True. thus keeping the nation on a self-sustaining basis. coolly and objectively adopt the standpoint that it can certainly not be the intention of Heaven to give one people fifty times as much land and soil in this world as another. by increasing the productivity of our soil. But beside this.. and this plants the seed of a future generation which must inevitably grow more and more deplorable the longer this mockery of Nature and her will continues.. But only up to a certain limit. 'For as soon as procreation as such is limited and the number of births diminished. and defray the cost of living from the proceeds. time and time again. In this case we must not let political boundaries obscure for us the boundaries of eternal justice. But then the law of self-preservation goes into effect. let us be given the soil we need for our livelihood. Either new soil could be acquired and the superfluous millions sent off each year.. We must . For a certain time it will be possible to compensate for the increase of the German people without having to think of hunger.' (65) The third option refers. or we could 4. of course. and not continuously without end. since the natural laws of Darwinian survival of the fittest would be circumvented.he rejected on the grounds that it could not be sustained indefinitely: 'Without doubt the productivity of the soil can be increased up to a certain limit. (63) Hitler rejected the first of these options on the grounds that the self-limitation of a population through birth control would necessarily result in a weakening of that population. the increase of births could be artificially restricted. we must face the fact that our demands on life ordinarily rise even more rapidly than the number of the population. . they will not willingly do this.. (66) .. particularly if we turn from the present to the future. thus meeting the problem of over-population .' (64) The second option . see proposed and recommended: internal colonisation .of 'internal colonisation' and the increase of resource-yield within Germany .There were four ways of avoiding so terrible a development for the future: 1. A second way would be one which today we. If this earth really has room for all to live in.

police. or at least ex-Nazis. (69) We have already examined the theory of German flying discs in Chapter Eight.. in other words. Germany took this road. Only children could have thought that they could get their bananas in the 'peaceful contest of nations'. who designed much of the hardware for NASA's Apollo programme. without ever having to take up arms. the latter referring to the problems facing humanity as a whole). by friendly and moral conduct and constant emphasis on their peaceful intentions. Keith then quotes a passage from Mein Kampf in which Hitler writes: [T]he folkish philosophy finds the importance of mankind in its basic racial elements.. as well as with the plans of monied elites whose philosophies might better be defined in parapolitical. and noted at the beginning of this chapter that many prominent Nazis were transferred to the United States at the end of the war. until at last the best of humanity.including Wernher von Braun. with other totalitarian control mechanisms of the world. with the intelligence. And so the folkish philosophy of life corresponds to the innermost will of Nature.. since it restores that free play of forces which must lead to a continuous mutual higher breeding. we are familiar with the advanced disk aircraft designs perfected by the Nazis during World War II.. Hitler rejected on the grounds that the survival of the Aryan race would necessarily depend on the activities of other nation states: If . and psychiatric establishments..] Keith considers it highly significant that Hitler should have mentioned domains lying above and outside the Earth. (68) [Keith's emphasis. will have a free path for activity in domains which will he partly above it and partly outside it. having achieved possession of this earth. rather than political terms. With regard to the continuation of Nazi objectives in the post-war years. in view of the events following the defeat of the Third Reich. as they so high-soundingly and unctuously babbled... and also know that the American space program was run by prominent Nazis. In the state it sees on principle only a means to an end and construes its end as the preservation of the racial existence of man. she should at least have clearly recognised that this development would some day .The fourth option. Keith offers the following quote from the Research and Analysis branch of the OSS from 1945: . under Project PAPERCLIP . Nazi interests have also been entwined. since the emergence of the philosophy. with eugenics and genetic research. end in struggle. . Alternative 3. which relied on German interdependence with other nations through international commerce. He continues: Summing up ideas that seem to add up to . mentioned earlier in this chapter. (67) Having made the interesting but rather tenuous connection between Hitler's alternatives and the possible options stated in Alternative 3 (the former referring to Hitler's perception of the problems facing the German people..

are now developing post-war commercial projects. were transferred to a hidden colony in Neu Schwabenland. manned flying discs. which unwittingly supplied the slave labour required for the gigantic construction projects. along with a number of components and scientific personnel. it is probable that their own aerospace research has continued unabated. German capital and plans for the construction of ultra-modern technical schools and research laboratories will be offered at extremely favorable terms since they will afford the Germans an excellent opportunity to design and perfect new weapons. A possibility. but far from the only players in the game of world domination since the end of World War II: one among many heads of the Hydra. is that Alternative 3 is an expression of Nazi occult doctrine and that there is a long term elitist program to abandon Earth and to implement another step in Hitler's "Final Solution". to the point where they have made manned spaceflight safe and routine. German industrialists and the German military. the United States and the Soviet Union were actually the closest of allies: the Cold War was a monumental con on the rest of humanity. German technicians. endeavouring to renew and cement friendships in foreign commercial circles and planning for renewals of pre-war cartel agreements. (70) For conspiratologists such as Keith. Given that colonies of Nazis continue to exist in Antarctica and South America.. cultural experts and undercover agents have well-laid plans to infiltrate into foreign countries with the object of developing economic. German technicians and scientific research experts will be made available at low cost to industrial firms and technical schools in foreign countries. whereby the monied elites of the world would effectively jump ship and establish a human colony on Mars. .The Nazi regime in Germany has developed well-arranged plans for the perpetuation of Nazi doctrines after the war.. realizing that victory can no longer be attained. Nazi party members. . The Nazi survivors. Keith continues: My belief is that the Nazis have been major. one of the main players in this scenario of secret world history. with their Lebensraum relocated to Mars. Far from being mortal enemies. including the Foo Fighters and larger. The discovery that life on Earth is doomed as a result of pollution and overpopulation led to the formulation of Alternative 3. yet at the same time comprises a startling alignment of facts. Some of these plans have already been put into operation and others are ready to be launched on a widespread scale immediately upon termination of hostilities in Europe . which I admit is wild speculation. cultural and political ties. The plans for these machines.' (71) The component strands of Keith's vision of Alternative 3 can be summarised as follows: Towards the end of the Second World War. the Nazis developed radical aircraft designs. all of which seem to be supported by evidence of varying quality. The two operations known as 'Eagle Flight' and 'Paperclip' ensured that Nazi financial interests and espionage respectively were maintained after the war's end. Antarctica in the closing stages of the war. Influential Nazis (possibly including Hitler) have been behind the scenes since the end of . . As Keith himself states: 'One of the difficulties in researching Alternative 3 was that the evidence kept leading me in a direction I wasn't particularly happy to go in: toward the Nazis. saw this as a perfect opportunity to continue with the creation of a master race. the fabric of Alternative 3 can be unwoven to reveal its component strands.

spawning fantastically baroque conspiracy theories that bear scant resemblance to the components from which they arose. While I cannot state with certainty that Nazis are creating the 'real' domination of Alternative 3. interconnected system of rumours -paranormal. that they have constructed or are constructing bases on Mars or the moon to carry the ancient Grail of Aryan racial purity away from what they conceive as a cataclysm-doomed Earth. Indeed. creating and implementing schemes for the ultimate triumph of Die Neuordnung [New Order].the war. .that has grown up around Alternative 3 is perhaps the most extreme expression of the postwar Nazi-survival idea. truths and half-truths can take on an independent life that quickly rages beyond control. Almost all of Hitler's cohorts survived Nuremberg and may have been involved in manipulations including international terrorism and the establishment of drug and arms markets. (72) The complex. I do have to wonder at the logic and symmetry of detail. historical and political . as well as in collaboration with other more 'respectable' networks of world influence. its very extremeness provides a perfect example of the way in which seemingly unconnected mysteries.

there can be little hope of improvement in their ideological progeny.a spectrum that includes the most barbarous of crimes. Lemuria and the mythical island of Thule in the incredibly remote past. Belief in all aspects of the paranormal is extremely prevalent. see Hitler and the Nazis as examples of how. it is only to be expected that many should seek to explain Nazism in terms that transcend the merely human. have a frequently unfortunate habit of generating additional beliefs. and there is little doubt that the principal driving force behind the development of this belief is an attempt to explain the dreadful aberration that was the Third Reich. given the right circumstances. the spirits of the dead. an 'eruption of demonism into history'. The idea of genuine Nazi occult power (as opposed to Nazi belief in that power) seems to have arisen out of our own continuing fascination with the legends in which the volkisch and Pan-German occultists believed so fervently. We have seen that the origins of National Socialism can be traced to volkisch occultists who believed wholeheartedly not only in the existence of a prehistoric Germanic race of superhumans but also that their very superiority had been transmitted through the ages to modern Germans by means of a magically active. in some Outer Darkness eternally forsaken by God. who are inclined to accept the reality of a cosmic evil originating beyond humanity.Conclusion: the myth machine The Reality and Fantasy of Nazi Occultism Occultism is a curious and fecund beast. Rudolf Steiner and others seemed to offer evidence of the existence of a fabulous Aryan race that established great civilisations on the lost continents of Atlantis. and it seems to me that this belief lies at the core of the mythological development of Nazi occultism that has occurred . wicked beyond even the human capacity for wickedness. and given also our quest for an answer to the problem of evil. the initial beliefs were little more than crypto-historical idiocies. This book has been as much a history of belief about Nazi occultism as about Nazi occultism itself. precisely because they promise so much in offering the prospect of a higher meaning to the vagaries of existence. If. this Darkness can enter humanity. Given that human beings have always been fascinated with the occult and the supernatural. The bizarre occult statements of Theosophists such as Madame Blavatsky. the demonic can easily be confused with insanity: one shudders to think of the number of unfortunates throughout history whose madness was mistaken by their fellows for possession by the forces of Darkness. Others. whether it be belief in alien visitation. as in the case of Nazi occultism. dark and demonic forces from beyond the realm of humanity. pure Aryan blood. We noted in the Introduction that some serious orthodox historians place Hitler outside the spectrum of human behaviour . Nevertheless. or technologically advanced prehistoric civilisations such as those of Atlantis and Lemuria. Beliefs. Hitler is seen by them as uniquely evil. and the events to which they give rise.

I consider myself a sceptic. For if the supernatural really exists. while the evidence for his utter contempt for mysticism of any kind (particularly that practised by Himmler in Wewelsburg. But we must not allow ourselves to make any connection whatsoever between Himmler's ideas on the supernatural and the veracity of the supernatural itself. such was Hitler's lack of interest in these matters that he never deigned even to visit Wewelsburg.. over the years. In truth. notably Leni Riefenstahl's virulently propagandist films. those forces exist to be contacted. his sick joke of a Grail castle) is documented time and again. any more than I can say that they do exist. occult-orientated writers have. attempting to contact the souls of long-departed Teutons? The answer to this question is.. This aura appears closer to the experience of occultism than any other major movement in the twentieth century. continually made the same mistake in claiming that. We find no such occult mystique surrounding other aberrations of civilisation . which include Triumph of the Will and Olympia. the illusion is today more pervasive.in the second half of the twentieth century. Note: (*) See the quote from Umberto Eco at the front of this book. of course. might not the Nazis have discovered a way to harness its power to further their dreadful ambitions? The answer to this question must be negative: we have already seen that the evidence for Hitler's initiation into the mysteries of the black arts is non-existent.' To this we might add that the aura of mysticism surrounding the Nazis was enhanced and disseminated throughout German society by means of photography and cinema. However. no one can. and which glorify German-ness and emphasise the inherent superiority of the Aryan race. then? Did he not practise dark rites with his SS Gruppenfuhrers in their Order Castle. With the help of contemporary occult writers. Indeed. [*] and so I cannot say that supernatural forces do not exist. The Nazis were nothing if not masters of self-promotion. Ken Anderson makes an interesting point in his Hitler and the Occult: From early in their rise to power Hitler and his Nazis were enveloped in an aura of mysticism almost despite themselves. yes. Hitler came to personify the invisible structure which became the occult myth dealt with here. . What of Himmler. because Himmler attempted to contact supernatural forces. rather than an incredulous doubter.

Another example of how the Third Reich generated strange rumours can be seen in the concept of the Nazi flying discs. including the Hollow Earth theory. Whatever their veracity. which has stubbornly persisted to this day. Once again. We have also seen how Nazi cosmology. with its utterly insane notions of 'World Ice' and the Earth as a bubble in an infinity of rock. which arose partly from admittedly intriguing (but still inconclusive) evidence. As we noted in the Introduction. but much closer.Just as the early volkisch occultists took various elements of prehistoric mythology to construct a totally spurious history for the Germanic 'master race'. and it is something of a tragedy that they should have been hijacked by Western writers in their quest to connect Nazism with a putative source of genuine occult power in the East. so many occultorientated writers have taken the image of the Nazi black magician and his diabolical allies and with it have attempted to create an equally spurious history of the Third Reich. the quite possibly genuine mystery of the UFOs was 'explained' in terms of the rumours that the Nazis had actually perfected high-performance disc-shaped aircraft. with the passage of time and the deaths of important firsthand witnesses any chance of finding an adequate explanation of Nazism and the horrors it unleashed has now almost certainly been lost. and partly from the unassailable evidence that Nazi scientists were indeed experimenting with radical aircraft designs and weapons systems. The insubstantial edifice of their wild speculations is 'supported' by the incorporation of Eastern mysticism. All of this provides conspiracy theorists with a heady mixture of components with which to construct their nightmarish scenario of hideous clandestine forces maliciously pulling the strings on which we all dance. these myths are exquisitely beautiful and elaborate. We are left with the awful question that will continue to haunt us for as long as we remain human: why? The question is made more awful by the likelihood that the answer lies not in Outer Darkness. after the end of the Second World War they became part of the twentieth-century fascination with alternative cosmologies. not in the 'Absolute Elsewhere'. in that most frightening and ill-explored of realms: the human mind. As we have seen. in addition to the indisputable fact that many Nazi war criminals did indeed escape from the ruins of the Third Reich to take up residence in various South American countries. Thanks to clever manipulators of public opinion such as Ray Palmer. it is clear that the various outlandish claims of Nazi hideouts in Antarctica owe their inception to genuinely puzzling events such as Admiral Byrd's apparently disastrous Operation Highjump. Moreover. what we have here is a classic example of putting two and two together and getting five. this in turn gave rise to the idea that these disc-planes were used by high-ranking Nazis to escape from the Allies during the fall of Berlin. . arose from the grandiose but untenable cosmological theories of previous centuries. with its tales of hidden cities inhabited by ascended masters who are the real controllers of humanity's destiny on Earth. At the risk of offering a cliche.

wellwritten and researched book covering this period. blood and nature 1. 63. a debt which the present author gratefully acknowledges. 829. 9. 8. Ibid. Ibid.med..de/gene/reg/ahel814. Ibid. p. xliv.html 3.... p. p. 12. 8. xvi. 6. Ibid. Anyone attempting to examine the origins of Nazi occultism will necessarily owe a considerable debt to The Occult Roots of Nazism. p. p. Davies 1997. xxii. p. 10. 10. p. it remains the yardstick against which all writing on German occultism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries should be judged. Ibid. xliii. 13. 15 Ibid. 4. p. p. xxii.uni-giessen. Davidson 1997. p. Ibid. 40. 11. p. German Genealogy Habsburg Empire.Notes ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Introduction: search for a map of hell 1. p xxiii. . 16.. p.. p. 3. Ibid. p.. 7. indeed. p 11. 7. 6. 4.Ancestry. 9. xxi. Ibid. p.. Rosenbaum 1999. p. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1 . xxviii. Sowards. p. 14. xlvi.. p. xiii. Goodrick-Clarke 1985. Ibid. 10. 11. 5. p. from the German Genealogy Homepage at: http://w3g. Godwin 1993. Rosenbaum 1999. xv. Ibid. 3. Goodrick-Clarke 1985. xxxv. p.. 14.. Ibid. This is still by far the most level-headed. 5. p. Ibid . 7. Goodrick-Clarke 1985. Trevor-Roper 1995. Ibid. Ibid. 2. Ibid. xxvii. 13.. 5. Ibid. 4. Davies 1997.. 2. 13. 12. Twenty-Five Lectures on Modern Balkan History.

Goodrick-Clarke 1985. 417. 170. 11. pp. 33. p. New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology 1985. 21. 127. 248-9. 50. New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology 1985. 24.. Davidson 1997. p. Goodrick-Clarke 1985. 106. 40. Daraul 1994. pp. p. Goodrick-Clarke 1985. Ibid. 47.. p. p. 12. 22-23. p. 44. 124. p. 39. Wilson 1996. p. 52. 21. 248.. p. Ibid. 12... 108. 95. 49. Goodrick-Clarke 1985. 111. 45. 27.. 50. 55. 170. p. 46. 51.. Ibid. 108. 49-50. 53. 27. Ibid. 416. 59. 42. 18. 19. 43. p. 416. p. 40. Ibid. 50. Goodrick-Clarke 1985. p. 57. p. 109. 23. 31. p. Cited in Maser 1973. p. Ibid. p. 53. 48. Guiley 1991. Ibid. Ibid. Goodrick-Clarke 1985.14. p. 259-60. p. 56. Goodrick-Clarke 1985. 29. p. Guiley 1991. 28. Guiley 1991. p.. Kershaw 1998. Ibid. 32. p. Maser 1973.. Ibid. p. Washington 1996. pp. 37. p. 54. 32. Baigent and Leigh 1997. Ibid. 15.. 54. 41. Ibid. 38. 22. 58. p. 50. p. 25. 22. p. p. Ibid. Daraul 1994. 40. p.. 24. . Baigent and Leigh 1997. 51.. Ibid. 20. p. 23 34. pp. p. 13. 33. Ibid. pp. Runciman 1952. p. p. 26. Ibid. 16.. Kershaw 1998. 25. Ibid. Goodrick-Clarke 1985. 28 36. Ibid. p.. Ibid. 30. p. p. Levenda 1995. 56. p.. 17. Ibid. 35.. 44. 29-31. Ibid.

159. Ibid.. Ibid.. Blavatsky II 1999. Ibid. 157. 8. 80. p.60.. 37.. p. 81. 125. quoted in Godwin 1993. 15. Ibid. p. 10. 67. 78. 145. Ibid. 77. 63. 31. 40. p. Godwin 1993... Ibid. Ibid. p. 137.. p. Ibid. 69. pp. p.. 161-2. Rudolf von Sebottendorff. pp. 2. Ibid. Ibid. Ernest Renan. pp. 155.. 76. p. Godwin 1993. 7. 33. p. Ibid. 71.. p. Ibid.. p. 57. Ibid. Ibid. p.. 161. p. 65. 12.. Quoted in Goodrick-Clarke 1985. 34. 13. Davidson 1997. 127. p. 14. p. Ibid.Fantastic prehistory 1. p. Ibid. Goodrick-Clarke 1985. 7. .. 5. Ibid. p. 79. 1934. Goodrick-Clarke 1985. 162. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 2 . p. 404. 64. 144.. 11. Ibid. 70. 27.. Goodrick-Clarke 1985. 130. 39. 48-9. p. Ibid. Ibid. 30.. Ibid. 6. Ibid. Reves (Dreams). 61.. 66. 40-41. 4. 17. pp. p. 133.. Ibid. 126. 75. 73. p. 8-9. 38. 62.. p. p. Ibid.. 1876. 82. 68. p. p. Payne 1995. p. 129. Ibid.. p.. 128. Ibid. p. Ibid . 20-21. Ibid. p. Bevor Hitler kam (Before Hitler Came). 8. 125.. 9. p. 3. 131. 16. p 32. pp. 29. 72. 74. Godwin 1993. p. Ibid.

Ibid. 38. Anderson 1995. p. 48. 39. 35. 40. Ibid. 30. King 1976. 279. 171-2. 15. 29. p. p. p.18. Speer 1998. 168. 26. p. and so on. 15. 23. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 3 . pp. 43. hugely entertaining (but not terribly reliable) book. Quoted in Levenda 1995. 142-3. Washington 1996. 46. Part Two is entitled 'A Few Years in the Absolute Elsewhere'. 56-57. 2. 31. pp. 22-23. where we encounter the Hollow Earth Theory. 37. 451-2. Ibid. p.. pp. p. To the authors. 28... p. p. pp. Levenda 1995.. Hitler 1998. See The Morning of the Magicians by Louis Pauwels and Jacques Bergier. Ibid. Levenda 1995. 19. 116. a fascinating.. 20. 57. Quoted in Levenda 1995. 22. pp. 148. p. 33. the 'Absolute Elsewhere' denotes the realm of extreme notions. 23. Ibid. 247. Ibid. 147. 21. Ibid. Godwin 1993. 16. p. 24. Ibid. Maclellan 1996. p. 42. and deals extensively with the idea of genuine Nazi occult power. 55. pp. 148-9. 146. 14. 23-24. Rosenbaum 1999. Levenda 1995. Horbiger's World Ice Theory..A hideous strength 1. Godwin 1993. 32. 24. lost prehistoric civilisations. p. Harbinson 1996.. 100-101. 283. pp. . Hitler 1998. p. 22. 27. p. 170. p. pp. 25. p. Quoted in Godwin 1993. 36. 47.. 150. Anderson 1995. p. pp. Ibid 44. 146-7. pp. Levenda 1995. p. Levenda 1995. 47-48. Ibid.. pp. 41. which more or less singlehandedly launched the European occult revival in the early 1960s. 45. Rosenbaum 1999. 143-4. Ibid. Ibid. 34. 49.

.. 5.. 15. p. 22. Ibid. p. p. p. 9. pp. p. p. 11. 20. pp. Le Page 1996. 30.3.. 221. Ibid. 109. p. 10. p. Levenda 1995. 19. 16. 10. 107.. 7. 17. Kershaw 1998. 53. Maclellan 1996. Pauwels and Bergier 1971. 109-110. Ibid. 23. p. p. Quoted in Levenda 1995. 90-98.. 53. Ibid. Tomas 1977.. 111. p. Astounding Science Fiction 39/3 (May). Willy Ley 1947: 'Pseudoscience in Naziland'. p. 32. p. 32. 198. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. pp. p. 120. 248. 72. 13. p. 25-6. 54. 7. pp. Pauwels and Bergier 1971.. Ibid. 240. Quoted in Maclellan 1996. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 4 . 12. Ibid. 90. Ibid. 20. 3. 110. 103. Kershaw 1998. Ibid. Ibid. 5. p. p. p. xiv. See Julian Wolfreys's Introduction to the Alan Sutton edition of The Coming Race.. Bulwer-Lytton 1995. 24. 111. Quoted in Maclellan 1996. 14. Ibid. 26. Ibid. Ibid. 2.. Godwin 1993. 175. Maclellan 1996. p. 6. Quoted in Maclellan 1996. 113-14.. Ibid. 28. 7. Godwin 1993. pp.. p. 8. p. 32n. p. 4. p. 176-7. Ibid. 193. Maclellan 1996. Ibid. 8. p.. 25. 4. 29. 6. 84. pp.. 18. 21. 25. 9. 110-11. Le Page 1996. 4. p. Quoted in Godwin 1993. p. 31.. 26. Ibid. Goodrick-Clarke 1985. 195. 27.. p. . pp.The phantom kingdom 1. p. 173-4. 113. p. 79. p.

5. p. 87. Ibid. p. Ravenscroft 1982. 22. Ibid. (See also Goodrick-Clarke 1985. 64. Ibid. Godwin 1993. 222. 19. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 5 . 80-81. 215. 42-3. p. Ravenscroft 1982. 40. 48. Quoted in Maclellan 1996. 33. 49. Ibid. 21. p. Ibid. 324. 147. Tomas 1977. Maclellan 1996. 31. p. 83-4. 9. 14. p. 15. p. Ibid. 35. 304. Ibid. p. 69. Quoted in Maclellan 1996. 14. 50. p. 12. . 99. 20. 23. 211. p. 27.11. Ibid. Ibid. p. 34. Godwin 1993. 148. p. 29. Ibid. 15. 63-4. Ibid. Ibid. Godwin 1993. 221-2. Ibid. Ibid. xv. pp. p. 323. 32. 24. pp. 47. 212. Ibid. 83. 25. 322. p. xviii. 8. Ibid. 318. 12. Ibid. p. p. p. 28. p. 42. 9. 325. Ravenscroft 1982. p. Ibid. 30.) 6. 16. 64-5. Ibid. pp. Anderson 1995. 18. p. 13. ix-x. 26. 16.Talisman of conquest 1. 327. p. Ibid. p. Godwin 1993. p. 11. 13. p. 63-4. 7. 81. p. pp. Childress 1999. 3. xii. Roerich 1930. Ibid. pp. 2. Childress 1999. 17. Ibid. p. p. 10. pp. Ibid. p. pp. 4. Ibid. Anderson 1995. pp. p. Ibid.

Langer 1972. Ibid. Ibid. p. 177. 26. Ibid. 103-5. Ravenscroft 1982. 20. 32. 39. 80-81. 80. 316. 183. 25. Ibid. 182. Ibid. 21. 224. 325. 36. 23. Ibid. p. p. 40. 149-50. 196. p. 18. pp. p. pp. p. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. 180. 27. 52. p. Ravenscroft 1982. Ibid. 147. p. . 37. p. 88. 31. 151. 148. 42. 86. pp. pp. p. 33. p. p. p. Anderson 1995. p. pp. Ibid. Ibid. p. p. 184. Ibid. 44. 96. Fest 1974. Ibid. pp. See also Ravenscroft 1982. p. pp. 78-9. 35. 34. Levenda 1995. 6. Goodrick-Clarke 1985. 7. 30.. 43. Ibid. Ravenscroft 1982. 11. 5. pp. 181. 19. p. 22. quoted in Anderson 1995. 97. 4. Ibid. Ravenscroft 1982. See also Goodrick-Clarke's essay 'The Modern Mythology of Nazi Occultism' (Appendix E in The Occult Roots of Nazism). 315-16. 10. p. p. 41. 79. 9. 2. Ibid. p. 548-9. 3. 11-12. Ibid. p. his demolition job on such lurid fantasies is as economical as it is eloquent. 81. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 6 . See also Smith 1971.Ordinary madness 1. 28. Speer 1998. p. 185. p.17. 38. Ibid. 195-6. Anderson 1995. p. 49. Ibid. Goodrick-Clarke 1985. 29. 8. 32. Ibid. 85. Ibid. Anderson 1995. 13. Ibid. Ibid. p. p. Ibid. 186. 179. Ibid. 149. 24. p. p.

initie et mitiateur La cle du secret de Rennes-le-Chateau et le tresor des Rois de France. p. p. 27. Ibid. 189. 33. 23. 11.The secret at the heart of the world 1. Gardner 1957.. 37. Ibid. 10. Ibid. pp. 179. Levenda 1995. Payne 1995. 5. Padfield 1990. 194. 178. pp. 173. Levenda 1995. 18. 12. Ibid. 109. 30. 29. Ibid. Ibid. 6. 188. p. 13. Godwin 1993. Ibid. 180-1. Fest 1979. Ibid. 15. Quoted in Godwin 1993. 4. p. 38. Ibid.. p. 248. Quoted in Godwin 1993. 24. 156. p. Ibid. p. p. pp. 159-60. p. p. 9. p. p. p. 17. 31. 108-9. p.. p. 191. 158-9. Levenda 1995. 2. Fest 1979. Ibid. 1984. Paris. pp. 39. 26. Cited in Godwin 1993. Ibid. Fest 1979. p. Ibid. Ibid. 20. Quoted in Levenda 1995. Ibid. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 7 . Goodrick-Clarke 1985. p. 160. p. 28. p. p.. 153. 190. 156. Levenda 1995. 184. p. 155. 35. pp. 154.. 157. 14 Ibid. 117.. Payot. 19. Payne 1995.. . p. 190. Ibid. Childress 1999.. Michel Lamy: Jules Verne. Goodrick-Clarke 1985. Godwin 1993.12. 25. 108. 21.. 3. 106. 187. 40. p. 109-110. 8. 32. 16. Ibid. quoted in Levenda 1995. p. p. Quoted in Levenda 1995. 189. p. 36. p.. 20.. 34. Ibid. 189-90. p. 178. 238.. 22. 375. 107. 7. p. pp. 189. p. Fest 1979.

24. pp. 30. 218. 258. 51. Ibid. Harbinson 1996. p. p. 45. Quoted in Childress 1999. Ibid. Ibid. p. Amazing Stones. Quoted in Childress 1999. pp.. 38. 220. pp. 222-3. p. Pauwels and Bergier 1971. p. 'Thought Records of Lemuria'. pp. 221-2. Ibid. 41. see the polar explorers' Internet pages at http://www. 154. 43. p. from which this account is borrowed. 38. 15. p. pp. . quoted in Peebles 1995. Quoted in Gardner 1957. p. 185. Pauwels and Bergier 1971. p. 26. 48. Ibid. Gardner 1957.. 46. 29. 214. 209. 17.. 14. 14. Ibid. 18. p. Quoted in Godwin 1993. 210.. Childress 1999. Quoted in Childress 1999.south-pole. p. 25. Pauwels and Bergier 1971. p. Ibid. June 1945. 23.. p. 50. 39. 21. Gardner 1957. Godwin 1993. 37. See Bruce Lanier Wright's piece. 26.html. 36-41. 28. 36. 240. 219. Gardner 1957. 24. p. pp. 16. 35. 127 (October 1999). p. 41. p. p. Ibid. Ibid. 52 Shaver. For a detailed description of Byrd's life and expeditions. 'From Hero to Dero' in Fortean Times No. 5. 23-4. 117. 34. p. 32. Harbinson 1996. Giannini 1959. 31. Childress 1999. 211. 38-41. Quoted in Pauwels and Bergier 1971. 20. Childress 1999.. p. 49. 19. 239-40. pp. p. p. 40. Quoted in Childress 1999. Ibid. 42. 22. 223. Ibid.. 27.com/home-page. Childress 1999. p. 33. p. 47. 25. Ibid. 189. p. 188. p. 186.13. 44. 116-7. Gardner 1957. 37. 241. pp.. Ibid. 185-6. Fortean Times 127. Quoted in Childress 1999. 239. p.

p.. Ibid. 46. Vesco and Childress 1994. 80-81. Ibid. 39. 82. 72. Fortean Times 127. p. Cited in Harbinson 1996. 251-2. New York in 1971 under the title Intercept But Don't Shoot. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 8 . Quoted in Childress 1999. pp. Brookesmith 1984. p. Ibid. 81. 65.. 67. 75. Ibid. p. Ibid. Ibid.. 71.. 229. . p. Ibid... Fortean Times 127. 62. The vast majority of this book is actually the work of Renato Vesco. 50.. 3. p. 12. Ibid. 55. Quoted in Childress 1999. 247. Ibid. 83.53. Hough and Randies 1996. The original work was entitled Intercettateh Senza Sparare. 61. p. with a small amount of additional material by David Hatcher Childress. 47. 8. 73. p. 10. pp. Fortean Times 127. 244. Ibid. p. p. pp. 69. p. p. Cited in Sagan and Page 1996. 66. 84. Ibid. pp. p. p. 293-4. p. 57. 74. Ibid. Ibid. p. 56. Childress 1999. pp. 207-8.The cloud Reich 1. Cited in Vesco and Childress 1994. 229. 232-3. 245. 2. 4. 58. 202. 68. 63.. 60. p. 64. 40. 7.. 224. 246. 249. Vesco and Childress 1994. 295. Childress 1999. p. p. Hough and Randies 1996. 45-6. 11. Ibid. pp. 54. p. Quoted in Childress 1999. Peebles 1995. 251.. 6. 59. 6. 5. 41. 79. and was published in an English translation by Grove Press.. Ibid. Quoted in Vesco and Childress 1994. p. 70. p. Childress 1999. 233. Ibid. p. p. 9.

p.. pp. 56. Marrs 1997. 43. Harbinson 1996. Ibid. 20. Ibid. p. 48. Vesco and Childress 1994. 46. 57. 262. p. Ibid. 157. xxviii-xxix. 39. 228.. Ibid. 32. p. p.13. 37. 35. 172. 31. 255-6. 253. p. Ibid. 22. 175. p. Good 1996. p. Ibid. p. p. Peebles 1995. xxxiii. 50. 38. Harbinson 1996. Ibid. 73. Ibid. p. 259-60. 29. Ibid. 70. 511. Ibid. 113n. p. 74. Quoted in Harbinson 1996. Ibid. 252. 27. 51. Vesco and Childress 1994. 244. 30. 113. p. p. p. p. 28. 45. Ibid. 26. 18. 55. Ibid. Ibid. Jones 1998. 53.. 510. 25. p. 82. Ibid. p. 47. Quoted in Harbinson 1996. 252-3. 17. Ibid. 44. 33. 258. p. p. Ibid. 136. 15. 21. 52. Ibid. Ibid. Vesco and Childress 1994. p. 173. 512. pp. 41. p. p. Good 1996. pp. p. 23. 49. 49-236. 16. 34. p. 255. 42. pp. Ibid. p. . Ibid. 85. Ibid.. Ibid. Vesco and Childress 1994. 58. p. pp. Vesco and Childress 1994. 14. 19. 52. p.. 86. xxviii. Hogg 1999. See Jacobs 1994. Ibid. p. Ibid. Ibid. 85-6. 72. 69. 40. 84. 24. 54. Ibid. Ibid. p. 83. Good 1996. 61. 36. p. p. Evans and Stacy 1997. pp. 177.

Constantine 1995. 39. 38.. p. 13. 36-7. 7. Marrs 1997. Ibid. p. Ibid.. p. 11. pp. p. Ibid. 43. Constantine 1995. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 9 . Fortean Times No. Ibid. 17. xii.. Ibid. 67. November 1996. 72. 62 David Guyatt. p. p. 66. Ibid. pp. Quoted in Constantine 1995. xi. Ibid.Invisible Eagle 1. 8. Ibid..59. p. 72. 40. 37. p. Ibid. 37. Higham 1983. 36. Quoted in Marrs 1997. 73. xxxviii. Sid Que. 76. Guyatt. quoted in Marrs 1997. quoted in Guyatt. Fortean Times No. 6. pp. Constantine 1995. p. 113.. Ibid. Constantine 1995. 31-2. p. 61. 15. 79. p. pp. 63. 77. 70. 'Radio Head'. 9. Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) report. Marrs 1997. 16. p. 75.. pp 179-80. Trevor-Roper 1995. 19. World Press Review. 2. Ibid. Guyatt. 74-5. 14. Ibid. Ibid. . vol. 69. xxxvii-xxxviii. p. 73. 2-3. 9. 180. See Vallee 1993. 73.. 5. 71. 26. 65. 41.. p. p. Ibid.. 12. Keith 1994.. p. p.. 4. p. Ibid. 74. Ibid. 35. pp. p. Quoted in Pool 1997. 18. 74. 68. 80. Ibid. Ibid. Trevor-Roper 1995. p. 64. 36.. p. p. Ibid. 30. 4. p. 'Police State of Mind1. p. 11. Quoted in Marrs 1997. 3. no. p. 81. Ibid. 36. 95. 10. 82. 60. 73. Ibid. 78.

30. p. p.nizkor.. available on the Nizkor Website. 221. pp. Ibid. 22. 45. Ibid. 32. 43. Quoted from a reproduction of the Samisdat newsletter. 34.. 31. . p. 70.. 63. Ibid. At the risk of patronising the reader (which is by no means my intention). p. Ibid. 220. Ibid. p. which will immediately set them straight. 41. 44. 49. Godwin 1993. 20. p. Ibid. 219-20. p.. ibid. 70-71. 52. Harbinson 1996. Ibid. 248. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. p. 66. 21. 64. p. 75. p. 50. p. 27. 71. Ibid. 38. Ibid. Ibid. 28. Ibid. 36. The Nizkor Project Remembering the Holocaust can be reached at http://www. Harbinson 1996. Ibid. 51. 23. See 'Giving the Devil His Due: Holocaust Revisionism as a Test Case for Free Speech and the Skeptical Ethic' by Frank Miele. p. 39.. Ibid. 67. p. xv-xvi. 68.. I must state that anyone with the slightest suspicion that the Holocaust did not take place should visit this excellent Website. Ibid.18. 72. p. 219. 47.. Ibid. p. 48... p. Translated by Godwin.. p. 24. 249. pp.org/ 42. 40. 19. Vesco and Childress 1994. Ibid.. 33. 105. 65. 46. 37.. xvi. Ibid. 26.. Ibid. Ibid. One of its laudable objectives is to expose and dismantle the despicable arguments of Holocaust deniers such as Ernst Zundel. Nizkor is an educational organisation dedicated to providing accurate information on the Holocaust and related Holocaust studies. 35. Ibid. Godwin 1993. Marrs 1997. 33. 29.. p. p.. pp. 31.. Ibid. 25. Ibid. Ibid. reproduced on the Nizkor Project website.

p. p. 56. Quoted in Keith 1994. Ibid. 120-6.. p. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Index (Removed) End . 57. p. Fortean Times No. 73. 121 (April 1999). pp... 30-31. 126-7. Watkins and Ambrose 1989. p. Ibid. 153. Keith 1994. 58. 29. 69. Ibid. 63. 99-100. 348. 54. 71. 121-2. p. pp. 72.. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Conclusion the myth machine 1. p. 68. 64. 233. Ibid. 60. 67.. p. p. 207. 62. 66. Ibid. pp.. quoted in Keith 1994... 152-3. 73. p.. Ibid. 61 Ibid. 152. p. 55. pp. pp. Anderson 1995. 70.. Ibid. Ibid.53. 65.. 131. Ibid. Hitler 1998. 106. Keith 1994. 122. 214. pp. 148. Ibid. Ibid. Quoted in Godwin 1993. p. 59. p. 127. p. Ibid.

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