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"CQDI:: BY54

Visvesvaraya Technological Univergty 'B..E. Blctechnolngy-V Semester.
Il'ffMUNOLOG\,r

___

'

Max Marks: 100 'Time: 3 Hours. Model Question Paper

.IRUCTIO~S: , .Az""!C any five fu II questions,'iil All full Quelitigns carry equal marks. )

. ..aplainjnnate iinmuni~' ,. c... K iU ashort note on Thymus gland.>" , l
._yQrat, fie Immunoglobulins? b. 'Write a short note 'on' ijJa d3"1'e~. ',/

~JIM

account of barriers to classical cpm:;'~ente.h.way1:..'-/"/';o
E.'_' .. --' .. _.

=..,.~ .. --' .. - ---

'5

marks

marks

, . 5 marks
representetionof'Jg'G
\.;?
7

)

Give.schematic

'10 marks

, 'HU' III; A .... 0
A

. 5 marks
,

'

'.

'

"

'/

5 m arks

' .

,"

pj6scrlbe in detail-the mechanism of action of Cytotoxic Tcellv':

. ~te

Sr ''kite a short note on opsonisaion.>

a short

Iomaks

note on T cell recep~'Oj:S.://' . ......
.

, ·5 marks
5 m arks
10 marks

",.

a 3ive an account on typesof conventional vaccines.Discuss and disadvantages. . . , b. Write short notesen _ ,~lil,anized

a Describe in detail immunoinvasive mechanism of tumors. k~/ b, Explain host Vs Graft reaction. . a. What is autoimmunity? Write an account of any two autoimmune . in hwnans.,·,· . ' .'. /b. Explain the Immunological aspects of AIDS ..x> ' "

,'10 marks
disorders lOtuitrks

lO,ma_rk~ .

'their advantages ,10 marks

'ant~bodies. .

'~ymes (caalytic antibodies). . . ~5x2-10 marks """". a Discuss the methodology of production of high titre polyclonal antibodies. _;X , , , . 10 marks
..

~ Q~ethe'principle

of~

, '.' , "",' .

8) .

~plain ,the principle and assHyS. /' ," ,b. Write.an ote on
~

any two types

. ....

' ' :5

5 marks

mBrlts

of enzyme linked immunosorbant 10 marks
,
,

i) Irurn uuoelectronruicroscopy.
peket .immuno

electroph~resis/~
/.

'5luarks 5 marks

Fifth Semester B.E. Degree Examination, Dec 081 Jan 09 Immunotechnology

-

Max. Marks: 100

Note: Answer anyFIV~ full questions, selecting at least TWO from each part. PART~A ~tite
~

-

(10 Marks) (10 Marks)
(to Marks)

the distinguishing fe~tures of innate and adaptive immunity. \. 'how the cells and organs are necessary for immune response,

-;

.. EXplain
..
~

the structure of-various classes of Immuneglobilins. Write the concise note on: i) Production monoclonal

of

antibodies --i~-ceU
(10 Marks) (10 Marks) (10 Marks) , (1:0Marks) (10 Marks)

r

a. -BricOy explain the steps involved in th~mechanism ofT - cell activation. IL Write the explanatory notes o~ :
~
~F.xpIain

p~senting

c~.lls _ ii)

~c

complex.

tbe general

~'be

properties and functions of cytokines. the ~~lous types of hypersensitivity ..
_ PART..:..B

._ . EXPlain_the treatment and experimental-therapeutic approach "for autoimmunediseases,
-- .

f\

(10 Marks)' ~"

II:. Write a note on:

i) Rheumatoid arthritis . ii) .Mechanism of AIDS.

(lOMarks) ---;r--

-"::---EXphiin'die methodsinvolved
.

a. DesCn~ the various steps involved in mechanism of graft rejection. ,~,_,.".'.
in.the
'

tissue-typing for the "detection. of Hl.Auntigens.
..
.~~~

_. (10 r,1~rks).
(02 Marks)

.

_

c.. Write any four immuno suppressive drugs.

... Ddioetbe cxa~pk:s-

term vaccine, Explain the various' types of vaccines 'withhe"Ip -of suitable

C. Explain the general characteristics and applications of stem cells to immunology.(08
tr' ,'hat are catalytic antibodies? - .'.

.

(10 Marks) Marks) (1)2 Marks)

~ritc the principle and applications of.Radio Immuno Assay technique. '_-WJilca note on following with respect to immunodiagnosis. electrophoresis i~stern blot analysis iii)~nofluorescence_

(08 Marks)

G
t

VUOWlO

"
(12 Marks)

.

.

*****

Fifth Semester B.E Degree Examination, Dec. 07 I .Jan, 08 Immunology
s.; .

Max. Marks

Note: AI,s .... any FWEflll/ questions. -er
hat is acquired immunity?

ununity,
.

.-.
,
.~-'

With suitable example, explain different types of ac

(lOr

efine an antigen. Write an account on qualities that determine antige~,icitY:-Qi (lOr
.

..

r

escribe the mechanism of maturation and activation of Bvlymphocyte. ith illustration, explain the' typical structureof an ~antibody, . . .,
.

• . (10

r

(1011

rite an account on antigen presenting cells ..Add a note on mechanism of phagocyte (plain the process of a-ctivation of CD4 + and CDg+ T cells. hat is hypersensitivity? Write an account on delayed type hypersensitivity, tplain the role. of cell mediated immune response in graft rejection.

(10 ~

(to ~

(10 l'

(I 0 ~

efine autoimmunity .. Explain
.

the" role of molecular

mimicry and J fLA' haploty]

toimmunity. rite an account on immune response to tumors, . escribe how genetically engineered antibodies are produced. ·rit~notes productionof subunit vaccines.

(10 ~ (I0 ~

on

(10 .~

(I U -"
.

lye an account of immunofluorescene .

and its application in immunocytochemistry. (lo~ hat is precipitin reaction? Explain any two precipitin.tests.. (]O r
esent an ~CCOililt on principles ~rid· application of r~di()ilnin~~l~ as~ay.-· .. cplain ELISA technique and its application.

. -..

.

~

(10 ~ (10 r

*****

. I. :NEWSCI-IE~?: I
Fifth Semester ~.E~ Degree Examination, Biotechnology . Immunology
e: 3 hrs.]
~
.

Dec.06/J~ln.07

[Max ..Marks: 1

. Define Immunity. Explain different types of Immunity. (10 Ma t.. Name various types of phagocytes and explain functions attributed to·them.(1 0 M~ ~ .
. . .

Note: l.Allsrver all)' Fivefullquestions. .

~. How 'are the monoclonal antibodies produced? What is their role in irnrnunotherap
.' .

(10 1\1.

). Explain the mechanism of antibody class .switching.
1.

(10M:

Describe the effectors T - lymphocytes involved .in cell-mediated immunity, A

note on their fu~~tions.· ~ Describe Anaphylaxis,
D.iSCll~S
.

'

(10 M (10 M (10 l\1 (101\1

~. Discuss cytokines, Explain biological functions of II...- 1. ' .

b.·
a.

types of stem
.

cells and their applications.
. ..' .

Define: Autoimmunity. Explainany two types ofmechanisms

.

of autoimmuniiy.
(10 M

..a.

b. Explain r\IDS related.immunological disorders.
Explain recombinant vector vaccines .. . ..
.

(IO~)
(10 IV (10 J\

11. Give an account of Ivfl-IC class I and class II autrgens.

~

~rO\\1
~ -tt.G
",.,,--

.'

'.

.'

-,.

.

.'.

.. '

are polyclonal antibodies
.. . '.' ....

produced?
.

Addanote
. .'.

on-their characterlzanon.
'001\

What is agglutination reaction? EXJ11ain any two agglutination tests. ivc

(10

l'

of Western blot and its applications. h. Explain sandwich ELfS.t\ and its applications:

an account
.

-

(10 ~
·(10

r

[NEWSC~ME
-

I

.I

Fifth Semester B.E. Degree Examtnaffon; July 2006 'Biotechnology

I,mmunology
Time: 3hrs.]
[Max. Marks: 100 .Note.e 1. Answer any FIVE questions in fILII •
(10 M ..d~!l , (10 l\larks

.L4~~Write short notes on. the different cells of immune responsiveness .. ... h .r~Explain in detail, the role of thymus in immune system, " ..
..

. ~/

.-

What are heptanes? 'Write

.,...

itLdewil

.~

.

the induction of humoral immune response .

=,_

... ~-.

'-(10 Marks

/~Explain the process and the mechanism of 'Recombination theory of immunoglobuln ,.' germ line gene rearrangement' (10 Marks 3 a. What is cell-mediated immune responsiveness? Explain in detail the induction of Tc cell mediated immune response. .: , '. (10 M~r~s h. ~xplain the role of H~-D gene product in immune recognition and induction () Immu~e responsiveness. ' ,( 10M arks -~. What is hypersensitivity? Discuss in detail the type IV hypersensitivity.
(10 Marks
..-..1111!!1":""

'Explain the basis' of _MHC-I in' the rejection immunosupressors? Mention any three of them. ' .

of, transplantation.

What art
(10 Marks;

5~

',' ~

What is' autoimmune disorder? Explain; Discuss. any four t})les Of .•iI!!!~i~~l!~ disorder. ',. . _ ",(10 Marks) WOtri-a-riote on:,~~~~arid'itsdlefap-x'-'" ( I 0 ,,',arks 1

6 ~bat is a Vaccine? Discuss different types of Vaccines. Emphasize on the advantage ". of subunit recombinant vaccine over traditional vaccine, . - (10 Marks) ~xplain differ~nt types Antigen; antibody interactions. \Vritein detai_linullullc . electro-phoresis. :', '. (10 f\h rl cs)

of

_'~'"

_r'

~

__

-:---

'

~Exp~ain,
9#

the process of production of the monoclonal antibodies?

Writeubout

their

applic at lOllS. . , _>tf,'~xplain antigen? Explain the process of purification of antigen.

(10 Marks)

(10 Marks) '
(l6 I\t arks) (10 M.u'ks)

*****

lYlodel Question Paper for V Semester B E·
GENETIC
"&.c : 3 M.

BIOTECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING AND APPLICATIONS
Max. Marks:

ior

L

Note: - 1) Answer any Five Full Questions. . 2) Write neat diagrams wherever necessary ._ What are vectors? Discuss with one example each, how Plasmid fiom phage vectors in their structure and utility. ' b. Write short notes on: 1. Cosmids

vectors

diffe

(Q8..M:tfk,,)

-

-1

~t ~e restriction endonucleases? Disc~s diff~rent typ~s witi: an.,·~Il1PhaSi~ type-I on restrictron endonucleases. Add a note 011 their role in-Genetic Engineering. {10 Marks) VExpJain the role ?ffollowing enzymes in Gene Cloning: ' / " 1. Ligases .

y-

2. Yeast Artificial Chromosomes 3. ExpressionVectors.

,,(12

M:II:i\sl

2. Polymerases
1

(1(, tv[;u"f(Si

YDefine eDNA. Briefly describe the procedure for the construction: of eDNA library. _L . .. . ". (12 Marks) ...Jk" Describe the steps ill isolation and purification of plasmid DNA. (08l\1arks)

--

4. /

_..JCR

What is Polymerase chain Reaction? Briefly explain th~ meckmism and steps involved in Add a note on its appli~ations. ', (12 Marks)

yWri!e a short notes on:

.
.

(OS rvInrks]

5.

G) Discuss
YWrite

1.. Southern Blotting. <!) Site directed mutagenesis. the applications of Recombinant.DNA

two suitable exanlples.,

te~hnology in crop improvcmcnrwith a,I1~ " (08,l\'fnd;_';J'_

a short notes on:
L Structure of Ti 'plasmid 2. Edible vaccines through Genetic Engineering. ' , , ~ Cry Proteins. " , " . (12

Marks)

6.

.

r9 examples.·'
~rite

"Gene transfer in animals has yielded pofen.t~a~~e~~efits~'-Discuss ·:wit~. ny two _sui~aQle a

. .'.. , short notes on:

. ' . , .. '. "

.

'(08

Marks)

.'

a) Calcium phosphate' precipitation. b) Microinjection. .. ", .,.
.~
7_ ~

'

,

(06 Marks)

Briefly discuSs about Expression of novel proteins in Bacteria.

(06 Marks) ,

What is Gene therapy? Describe the principles in in-vivo and ex-vivo gene therapy.

..

~ /'

Discuss the application of Gene therapy in the treatment of cancer.

(10 Marks)
(10 Marks) ,

Discuss the issues involved in prevention of tissue and orgari graft rejection, b_ Write a Short notes on:
1. Humanized Antibodies. _r. Gene therapy of SCID
(1 0 i\1~'rks)

Fifth Semester B.E. Degree Exarmnanon, lJeC.UO/JaU.U7 Genetic Engineering and Applications
:31asMax. Marks: 100

Note: Answer any FIVE full questions.
PART-A · &plain the process of creating recombinant DNA molecule under in vitro conditions.
(10 Marks)

• Write the procedure for screening the r-DNA when pUC 18 is used as a vector and it's signifiCance. (10 Marks) · Describe the procedure for the isolation of pure plasmid DNA using Ethidium Bromide Cesium chloride density gradient centrification nlethod.· (10 Marks) t. Write the procedure for the isolation and purification of plant or animal tissue genomic

DNA.
L.

.
in details· the working principle of Polymerase
..

(10 Marks)

Explain

Chain Reaction and' it's
(10 Marks) . (10 Marks)

...,tications.
L L L

Bncidate the role of restrictiori enzymes and ligases in genetic engineering. Disam -

any two methods for creating. direct mutagenesis under in vitro conditions. . -.
. . .• -

_flO Marks) (10 Marks) '

Write methods involved in screening of cDN A library and explain any two methods.

PART-B L Elucidate the technique involved in design of T, plasmid based vactors in Agrabacterium mediated gene transfer plants. . (IO Marks) ~_ Explain microprojectile bombardment method and it's applications in gene transfer .

in

.... ·(05 Marks)

c., Briefly discuss. the .rnethod for. the .Transformationofplant applications.

.chloraplast..Listout

any, tWQ
(05 Marks)

._ What are the essential techniques employed for marker assisted selection for breeding animals. Add a note on the genetic improvement of livestock. .... .. (10 Marks) b_ Elaborate various strategies involved in engineering of plants. for resistance to abiotic stress in the process of increasing crop yield. (10 Marks) .. DcscnDe biotechnological process involved in the production of monoclonal antibodies.
(10 Marks)

JL V
<.

_

Wrile notes on: i) Oraring of oil spills. ia1 Engineering micro-organisms for antibiotic production.

(to Marks)
(12 Marks)
(08 Marks)

",'.;,,', DcsClibe the techniques of genetherapy with reference to cancer treatment. ...... Iight the challenges and future of gene therapy.

I
TJIIle:3 hrs.]

NEW

SCHliME

I
[Max. Marks:l00
,
,

Fifth Semester B.E. Degree Examination, Dec. 06 I Jan. 07 . -. Biotechnology Gene'tic Engineering and App~ation
.Note : , 'Answer
J
(IllY

FIVE fut! questions.

Give a concise, account ,of the construction and features of plasmid vectors' employed in genetic engineering.' . . -. .' (10 Marks] . b. Explain salient features of genetic code. (04l\:Hu-ks) c. Describe how lambda phase is tailored in to a cloning vector. ' (06 Marks) a
a. Discuss

1

the types, features and functions of DNA modifying recombinant DNA techniqtle., b, Vlrite notes on : i) Type IT restriction endonuclease ii) Ligases as molecular suitc~er.
a. Explain principle and sequential steps involved in theisolating a note on caesium, chloride purification. '

enzymes used in
(1-0 h'larks)

(10 Marks)

]

of plasmid DNA. Add
(OS l\I~rks)

b. Describe the technique ofconstructing 'eDNA library. c, Explain immuno screening of genomic library.
.
'

'. (&6

Marks)

(06' Marks)

4 ..- -a~' Describe DNA amplification technique. Add a note on the types ofPCR. '- (10 Marks) h. Elucidate the technique ofnucleic acid hybridization and its applications .. ,(10 .Marks] 5
3_

Describe the general- features expression of virulence genes.

or Agrobacterium
,

.

'

Tiplasmid.

Add a note on -the
(1.0 Marks)
:'

b. . Writenotes.on r. " .

, , .. _

i) Micro projectile gene transfer , ii) Application s of transgenic plants. 6

..".

.

-

(IOMar((s~

a.v Explain the strategies involved in the production of transgenic' animals. List out its, applications in pharmaceutical field. (J 0 'M:ul{s) b. Elucidate the technique for the production of recombinant protein in bacteria, .
(to Marks)

1

a. ··G~n~ therapy is boon to mankind". Justify the role of gene therapy in the treatment of cancer. (12 Marks) b. Explain the efficacy of gene therapy for combating SCID, (08l\1arks)
1-

Describe

b.

how arterial clot is removed by plasminogen strategy, Elucidate {he phenomenon of organ graft rejection. Highlight note on stem cells and its significance.

..

(06l\1arlis)
011

Its prevenuve
(08l\1ark)
(06l\1arks)

measures. c. Give an explanatory

.....

ie: 3 hrs.

Fifth Semester B.E Degree Examination, Dec. 07 I Jan. 08 • Genetic Engineering and Applications . ~
. . .

Max. Marks: 100

Note: 1. Answer any FIVEful1 questions. 2. Write diqgrtlms wherever necessary.

a.

Define vector. Briefly describe the features of one plasmid and one phage vector of Escoli.
(lO Ma r ~.

b. Write short.notes on: i) 'Expression vector. ii) Posmid vector
iii) iv) a, Yeast episomal vector Shuttle vector.
(10 Mark~

All recombinant DNA research is. developed. from the ability to cut DNA molecules an join DNA' fragments. Write a note to describe such enzymes. (10 Mark h. Explain the role of the following in gene cloning i) Terininal deoxynucleotidyl transference ii) Reverse transcriptose (10 Mark

a .. Define C-DNA. Explain the strategy. for preparing ·CDt.JA·for specific MRNA using peR
, . (to Mark
(10 Marl.! (04 Marl,

h. Explain thestrategy

for the isolation of a desired DNA from a genomic library.

a. Describe -comparlson between peR and gene cloning. b ... Describe', the-methods for labeling nucleic acids .. .c. Explain: mutagenesis in vivo:
. .

(08 Marl (08 1\1a.-1

a.. Describe asexual methods of gene transfer in plants. . ' (to Mart .h, Describe the organization of Ti plasmid with special reference to its T-DNA and , . regulon.· . (IU Mal-i
':

.

-

. .: .

.'

. ..'

..".

"'.:

."

.-

.'

~
"

·a. Describe g.ene transfer using particle bombardment. "h. Discussthe role of gene transfer in : i) BT cotton ·c. Write short. notes on; i) Golden· Rice ii). Edible vaccine. a.

(06 M:u·

ii) Antisense technology.

(08 Mar
(06 i\lii r

Define gene therapy. Briefly describe the various approaches advantages and limitations. h. Explain SeD as immunodeficiency desease in human beings.

for gene therapy, tJ
(JO Mat
(10 Mal (10 Mal <10 Mal

a. What are humanized antibodies? Explain its lise in therapy: fur breast cancer. b. Describe therapies to prevent graft rejection.

Fifth Semester B.E. Degree Examination, Dec.06! Jan.07
Bio- Technology

. Bio.. nformatics l
Time: 3 hrs.] Note: 1. Answer any FIVE full questions.
1
a. Define entropy _ with regard' to biological ..information. Discuss. the .relevance of . Shannon's formula to biological data. Comment on the advantages of biological-data redundancy. _ (12 Marks) ..

b. Qualitatively explain the: applications to the analysis of DNA sequences, 2

of Markov chains and Hidden Markov models
(08 Milrks)'_

a. Substantiate the need for curation ·and annotation of databases, with typical examples..
(06 Marks)

b. Describe

the -salient features'. of 'structure databases.

Highlight

the importance

'of

SCOP, CATH and PROSITE data~ases towards prediction exercises.
.3 Write short notes on: .

(14 Marks) .

a. GCG Wisconsin package .. b. GenBank flat file. c. Entrez. d.' Fasta format. 4

(66.Marks) (06 Marks) .:

. (04l\1~rl's) . ".
(04 Marks)

a. With-examples,

illustrate as to how dot-plotscanprovide a visual representation of" . sequence alignment. Explain: the significance of changing .the stringency for match - .: and window size during dot-plot analysis.'. . (07 Marks_) h. With suitable- examples describe 'the difference between "Global" and "Local" . alignment. Explain the parameters, i) Percentage similarity ii) E-value and iii) Score,' considered during validation of pair-wise- alignments' using: word-based 'methods. _(10 Marks).

c. Determine the optimal alignment for the below two DNA .sequences, i) GGGATATCC and _ii) GATTC, . .Using thescore table provided below: . Comment on the final score.

(03 Marhs)

Sl. No.

Parameter
Identity Mismatch Gap creation Terminal gap or mismatch

Score +!O
-9 -50

t
2 3 4

o

5

a.

What is PSI-BLAST? Explain the relevance of PSI-BLAST in similarity searching exercises. (06 Marks) h. What are PAtvl matrices? Discuss thesignificance of PAM I, PAtv1l20 and PAM2S0
matrices during sequence comparison.
(06 I\l~u'l.;~)

.

c. Discuss the advantages of multiple sequence comparison, Write a note on CLLJSTAL \V.

alignment over

pi.llr-wisc

sequence
(UMi\Lul~)

D -4"'Io •• 4'"'''''' _ _-_

,"0.-

,.,....~rI P,; ~ r·_ n -- - - .. -

,..

o"· ·-_· "'I'.lIl

n

, .. _

... --_ _ _...

n_
Q Q

a
I

Experiment - ,\_ ........... ...-.~..;,/ (,)0 l\./b~b.:' _ .......... _........ Minor Experiment _ (15 Marks) Flowchart - (07 Marks) -. Viva - (08 Marks)
\,bi'--'Ir ....... _J-"
_>40'

.

.. ,.

List of Major experiments:

1 -Sequen -.~ h. c.
:,.;................ ""

..."",.

ce analvsis: --J Sequence retrieval in FAST A format - (041vfarks) BLAST - (08 Marks) ?v1SA - (ub Marks)
c.l.! !~ ...

2. .Pattern searching: a. Sequence retrieved in FAST A format for anyone of the following motifs: (051v1~ks)

i, Zinc finger motif (ID - Q02084) ii... AT? binding motif iii. Greek key motif iv. . Gonadotropin. releasing hormones signature. Etc.,
h. Retrieval of 5 best homologues for the given sequence - (05 Marks) c.rvfSA~ (05 Marks) . ·d. PROSf~ (Comment-on results) - (OS Marks)

Ust

or Minor

experiments;

1. PUBl\ffiD search (Journal search - Abstract and Full text search). Q Information related to major experiments . , o Searches related to three different topics (05 marks each) .,. - 2. Pairwise analysis' (Retneval-·05 Marks, Process - 05 Marks and Comment - 05 Marks) o Retrieve homologous sequences (preferably with 60-80% similarity) '. Q·Perfonn pairwise. analysis (Both local and global) and comment .' 3. . Visualisation. of Protein structure (Retrieval - 05 Marks, Visualisation - 05 Marks (_:.< and Comment - 05 Marks) .
.:

a Retreival of structures
o
:1

Visualisation and comment on structural features

RNASE-~ Myoglobin, Leucine Zipper protein, etc., 4. Primer design

a Designing of primers for the given two sequences (10 Marks)
o Comment on parameters and results (05 Marks)

Page 1 of2.

a. Highlighting the importance of phylogenetic analysis, comment on the relativ

tree-building methods adopted during analysis of sequences. (0 b.. Draw the other possible rooted and umooted trees for the four taxa A, B, C, ~

oftarious

.

~

o
8.
Fig. Q6 (b)
.
.

.c, Write notes on: .i). Fold assignments of orthologous sequences. ii) GENSCAN4

(06

a. . Explain the need for primer design using bioinfonnatics tools. Describe the ... criteria adopted to~ design of primers, (10 b.· What are restricCion maps? Explain restriction mapping in a suitable software: .a note on its significance. . .. {10
..
.

a. Discuss the roles ofESTs in geJ10D1e sequencing efforts. . (06 b. Explain the significance of bioinformatics approaches towards genome m

..

.

efforts.
C.

..

. (07.
of clustering algorith
(07

Write a note on DNA chips and the relevance corresponding data analysis,

.

..

.. .~

.:.

-

.--11 .. 1

~lnSSler B.E. Degree examination. January/February 2006
BIo Technology

.

.

BIoInformafics
Tme: 3 hts.) (Max. Marks : 100

Note: ANwar :.ny FIVE1uII-queslions. 1. (a) Explainthe correfations
(b)

derived be1ween information based on Shannon's fomula.

1heory and molecular biology

-

(10 Maries)
rtiOdels .with ·their (10 Marks)

QooIi1affvely describe Markov' chains and hidQen Markov applications tooncilysis of DNA sequences: ' ' ..

. 2.

Ca) With relevant

examples discuss the vcdous primary and secondary databases. . (8 Madcs)

(b) Explain the salient features of

Pfam and' PROSITE databases

struc1ure databases.
In" biointOrmatics

exercises.

Discuss the Importance of.SCOP, (12 MatkI)

3...
/' , _)IJ'

Write short notes cn :
(0) GCG· Wisconsin package
.
'

(5 Marks)'

Genbankflat

f!Je

(S Modes)
(5 Maries)

(e)

PSI - BlAST .
databases explain .the,conStruction of PAM

(d) Medical

::_.(S Mqrks)

A.

(0) QualitotiveJy

andBlOSUMmatriCes.

.

Disci ISS their· .
'(8 MadeJ)

.

appUcations.
(b)

What are global and local atign~nts
'0 visUal representaHon

? Descnbe as

of sequ(#)ce similarity.

pfots can proVide Mention. itslimftofiQns. (12~) . "... ~. _.
.,.
"

to how' dot

.

5..

(a). Briefly

.trees.

discuss the various tree-building rnetnods,
~

Comment

on rooted and unrooted .' .- (12Marb)
.

.

(b) Discuss the me~.of

alignment· with

multiple sequence alignmenf methods over pair-wise sequence regard to' phYlogenetic analysis. . (8 Marks)
.

-

.

.

6.

(0) Describe file various predictive

genome sequences.

methods towards ..

detection .

of func1ional genes in / (10

Martcsf

.,

Oisct rss the popuk:ir methods protein sequences. databases and web-based

tor

prediction

of secondary

structural elements in (1 0 ~arks)

,,,,7.
,

tal What are restriction mops? _ Iliso ISS the bioInformatics

ExPlain their Importance. Mention the utilities of tools towards generation of restriction maps. (10 Marks) towards design of prfmeri.

tools and their approaches

(19 Marks)

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HT56 Model Question Paper for VSelllester B E
BIO TECHNOLOGY Time; 3 hrs.

BIOINFORMATICS

Note: - .1. Answer any 5 Questions.
a.

Max. Marks: 100

b. c.
a. b. c. a. b. c. a. b. c.
L-

Explain how information in DNA is transmitted to the information in proteins. (OSMarks) Define Ergodic process and Markov chains, give relevant Examples for each. (10 Marks) Define Entropy and how Shannc's formula is applicable to biological information .
. (OSMarks)

What is the need for biological database? How do you classify these databases? Explain
. What are the features of "Genbank flat file"? Bring out the differences between PDB andMMDB contents. Explain different structure file formats.
with examples.

-

.

(OS'Marks)

(05Marks) structural ·database in terms of its _ (10 Mar~) .

Explain the features of SEQ package. _ Marks) (OS Explain the features ofENT & EZ as a tool for sequence retrieval. . '(10 Marks) What is the need for specialized databases? Explain with example. . (05 Marks) What are the methods used for pair wise alignment sequences? Discuss relative merits and demerits' in each of these methods. -(US Marks) Which are the widely used programs for database similarity searching? What factors influence the search? (1 0 Mar~) What is the significance' of Lowcomplexityregions? (OS Marks)

of

L

...

What is a substitution matrix? Explain different types of substitution matrices. available alOng with their construction. (10 Marks) What is a Hidden Martov Model? (os Ma,~~)

.

.

.

Writ~ a note on multiple sequence alignment.:

-..

(OS Marks)

deridogrnms.· .. (10' Marks) Describe the methods for detecting functional sites in DNA usingpredictive.methods.:
..

What is 'phylogenetic analysis? Describe various tree-building methods to. arrive at
..

...

(OS Macks)

'Explainthe secondary structure and:foldit~g cl~sses.-·

-.

-

(OS'Marks)

Explain the' bio informatic~ approaches towards .design of .. rimers and factors that p
influence the design.
(10 Marks)

Write a short notes 011 DNA chips. (05 Marks) Explain the role of genomics 'research in pharaceutical industries and agricultural sector.
. (OS Marks)

FxpIain how biomolecular cryptology can be used for protein structure prediction.
(OS Marks)

....
D-

do JOU predict antigenic sites and metabolic pathways? ws wythe,. the bioinformatics tools' can replace wet lab experiments,

(10 Marks) (OS Marks)

j.

Fifth Semester B.E. Degree Examinatron, Bioinformatics
e: 3 hrs.

Vec UlSI

Jan

U~

Max. Marks: 100

Note: Answer any FIVE full questions, selecling at least TWO from each part .
. PART-A ~\Vhat are primary databases? Write a note on Genbank flat file: (06 Marks) h. Explain the salient fearures of PDB flat file. Highlight the importance of SCOP; Pfam and CA TH databases in Bioinformatics exercises. . (10 Marks) ~ss the importance ofKEGG database. (04 Marks) ~Iain the p~ameters percenta?e id~ntity~ percentage sin1ilarity,E - value and Gap penalty scores In the context of pair .: WIsealignments, (08l\farks) ~i~tively describe as to how Dot :- plots provide a visual representation of sequence similarity, ". . . .. (04 Marks) ~ a note on PSI.- BLAST. . (04 Marks) LJliswss th~ practical ~spects of multiple sequence alignment. (04 Marks) .a.---Highlighting the importance of phylogenetics, comment on the relative merits of various . tree - building metliods adopted towards analysis of sequences. (06 Marks) ~the four taxa P, Q, R;S draw the possible rooted trees. (04 Marks) ~a note on Fitch - Margoliash algorithm. . ... ·(04 Marks) ~ tree ~onsideringt~e foll~)\vi~g table of distances between five separate . sequences, calculating the branch lengths. (06 Marks)
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a. Describe in detail the protocol adopted towards the prediction of 3D geometries of proteins using homology modeling approaches. (10 Marks) b. \Vrite notes on: i) Fold assignments of orthologous sequences ii) GENSCAN.
(to Marks)

PART-B restriction maps? Explain their importance. Mention the utilities of databases and .m - based tools towards generation of such maps, with a typical map. (08 Marks) .. Highlight the need towards insilico primer design, discussing the approaches followed in \ Wieb - based tools. (06 Marks) c.. For the following output from a web - based tool, write the forward and reverse primers. CGmment on its T m and % GC content. (06 Marks) 10f2 • ~are

Fifth Semester B.E. Degree Ex amin aficu, June / July 08 Bioinf{.)rmatics
ne: 3 hrs.
Note:

C.'\---

Max. Marks: 100

-

Answer any FIVE full questions.

,a. Explain Shannon's formula and its application to molecular biology data. Discuss the relevance of biological data redundancy in information analysis. (10 Marks) b.. Write short notes on the following with reference to biological data analysis; i) Ergodic process Ii) Hidden Markov Models, (10 Marks) What are primary and secondary databases? Discuss with examples. -b, Explain the importance of the following databases in bioinformaticsexercises: i) ~fMDB ii) dbEST, iii) 01'ATht

a

(08 Marks) (12 Marks)

a, Explain-the features of the tools: (any two)' available in GCG package towards sequence . companson. (08 Marks) D. Discuss the features of a PDBflat file. (08 Marks) c. Write a Dote on structure visualizationtools, available over the 'web.",,' (04 Marks) a \\'hat is 'Entrez? Describe its various features. .(06 Marks) b. Qualitatively explain _ 'construction of' PAM and' BLOSUM matrices. Discuss their the .applications in sequence alignments. ' ' '(08 Marks) c. Using the .look up table provided be 10\\', derive the possible local, global and optimum " "alignment for the following two strings: , (06 Marks) i) AITGCATICG ii)ATGCATGG; SI.No. Parameter Score i) Identity +10 __ .---ii) Mismatch -5 Gap' Creation' iii) , -20 .., , -.J ' iv) Gap 'Extension -2 ' ': v), Terminal Mismatch
"

",

"

a. Discuss the merits of multiple sequence alignment over pair-wise sequence comparison. Write a note on CLUST ALW. " (06 Marks) h. What is phylogenetic analysis? 'Briefly explain the various distanc~~based and characterbased methods towards tree-building exercise, , (06 Marks) c. Calculate the numberof bifurcating unrooted trees possible, if the number of taxa being analyzed are ten. , t (02 Marks) cL By the method of UPGMA, derive the tree and their' branch lengths using the following distance matrix: (06 Marks)

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2006

__
TIme; 3 hrs.)

BioTechnology
.

Bioinformatics
(Max.Marks: 100
FIVE full questions.

Note: Answer any 1..

(a) Explain the :correlanor rs derived between information theory and molecular biology

. based on Sl:lannon's formula.' (b)

'.

.

(10 Marks) Markov models with their (10 Mark~) .
datqbases.
(8 Marks)

Quolitatively descnoe Markov cholns .ond hidden : .oppflcotlons to. onolysts of DNA sequences.
relevant examples discuss the various primary
....

'2.
::_-'

-(0) Wth ".

and secondorv

(b) Explain the salient features of structure databases. Discuss the irnportonce of SCOP . .Pfom and PROSITEdatabases in bioinformatics exercises. . (12 Marks)

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.

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on :
.r· ..,'
'

(0) GCG

Wisconsin package
.

(b) Genbarik flat file ." .,,..
(c)

.,.
.

(5 Marks) (5 Morks) (5 Marks) (5 Marks)

PSt - BlAST

(d) Medical

dotoboses
explain the· construcnon

.;'

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'.

.

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.

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..

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--

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.

.

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. (8 'Marks)

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:'.' . ...

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.

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Comment

....

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"

(12 Marks)

(b) Discuss the merits of multiple sequence alignment methods . ang.~menf -with regard to phylogenetic analysis. .
."

over pair-wise
.' . of functional

sequence

(8. Maries).

.

6.. «I)

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metho.ds

towards detection
"

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(b) Discuss the

for prediction

of

secondary

protein

structural elements in (10 Marks)

7.

(a) What are restriction maps? Explain their importance. Mention the utilities of databases and web-based tools towards generation of restriction maps. (10 M.orks) Discuss the bioinformatics tools and their approaches towards design of primers.
(10 Marks)

(b)

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-

EI8miDatio~, Dec.061 -.-Jan.07 . Bio- Technology' .

Bio-Informatlcs
Time: 3 hrs.] Note: 1.Answer any FIVEfuO qu¢ons.
1

[Max. Marks: 100

Define entropy with regard to biological information, Discuss the relevance of Shannon's formula to biological data. Comment on the advantages of biological data redundancy. . (12 Marks) b. Qualitatively explain the applications of Markov chains and Hidden Markov models to the analysis of DNA sequences. (08 Marks) . a. Substantiate the need for curation and annotation of databases, with typical examples.
.. (06 Marks)

a

-2

b. Describe the. salient features of structure databases, Highlight the importance of

SCOP, CAm and PROSITE databases towards prediction exercises. 3 Write short notes on: a GCOWISCOnSinpackage. b. GenBank flat file. c. F..ntrez. d. Fastaiormat. a

(14 Marks)

(06 Marks) . (06l\farks) (04 Marks) (04 Marks)

-..

With examples, illustrate as to how dot-plots can provide' a visual 'representation of sequence alignment Explain the signifiCance of changing the stringency for match and-window size during dot-plot analysis. (07 Marks) b. Wi~ suitable .exampl~ describe the difference" between "Global" and "Local" alignment' Explain the parameters, i) Percentage similarity ii) E-value and iii). Score, considered during validation of pair-wise alignments using word-based methods.
, (10 Marks)

c. Determine the optimal alignment for the below two DNA sequences, i) GGGATATCCand .. ' .. ' ii). GATTC> , .' . Using the score table provided below: . Comment on thefinal score, Parameter Score SI. No. ~ Identity +10 1 Mismatch 2 -9 ~ Gap creation 3 -50 TennUuUgapornllsma~h 0 4

. (03 Maries)

.

~ ~ Cr'1,0t 1C c

~~(\11C--

a. What is PSI-BLAST? Explain the relevance of PSI-BLAST in similarity searching

c:xacises, (06 MArks) .._ What are PAM matrices? Discuss the significance of PAM I , PAM120 and PAM250 " 'lias during sequence comparison. (06 Marks) rt Co Di"i$S the advantages of multiple sequence alignment over pair-wise sequence

~It:,
,

~

_",1Irison. WriteanoteonCLUSTALW.~

I : '\ .

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Fifth Semester B.E Degree Examination, Dec. 07 / Jan.

OM

Bioinformatics
me: 3 hrs.
Note: Answer any FIVEflll1 questions.
a.Explain redundancy concept with reference to Biomolecules. Add a note on its application. . (10 Marks) h. Wille short notes on: i) Markov chain ii). Entropy and its application to biology.
(to Marks)

Max. Marks:lOO

a. What are primary databases? Explain with examples and add a note on Gen Bank flat file.
h. Write notes on: i) Medical database ii). Tools for structural visualization, a. What are structural databases? Writea comparative noteonPDB and IvfMDB: (10 Marks) h. :ExpJain Seqlab. Write a note on sequence alignment tools available in GeG, Wisconsin package. (10 Marks) a.' 'Explain in detail various methods of aligning sequences. Add a note on BLAST programe.
(10 Marks)

(12 Marks) . (08 Marks)

h. 'Write critical notes on: i) low - complexity regions (LCR). . ii) For the following pair of sequencecalculate the total score and align them locally and globally. (match score = 5, mismatch score = .,. , gap penalty::::_ 4), ·Seq 1: AT TO C T. A ; Seq 2: AT T (iCA. 3
(IO.I\llarl\s)

S

a. b.

Explain maximum parsimonyme.hod
. Irce

lor phyilogenetic analysis and lise ofu}is!ilelhoo in

'building. ... . (On Marlu) i) Using Ft\l algorithms, calculate the distances 3, h, c and 'draw a phyllogenetic tree.

Given: a
. ii)Appiy

+ b = 22 ; a + c = 39 and b + c = 41.
UPG'MA method

to calcuiate
A
A C --.-_._ D

the distance
B .3C 7 6 _.1-.

for the following four taxes and draw
(12 Marks)

a tree.

_.

B -

-

I

D ._ 8 7 3
.-

. '4 t r cc.

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._

A.7

TQc

6

a. lnsilco gene prediction via Bioinfonnarics has led to the discovery of several unknown itr~dhidden genes : comment' ' ..'.. '. (10 Marl{s)

b: What are the different methods, available for predictingprotein
7

structures? Write a

i'1()IC

a.
. b.

8

a.
h.

on tools for protein secondary structure prediction. (10 .M~.;lis) What are the different parameters required tor primer designing? Add a note on' Primer .design tools .. ' .. (10 Mad~s) Write notes un: i) Gene construction KIT ii) Vector NTl. (W Marks) What is polymorphism? Explain SNP and its role in pharmacogenomics. (10 Marks] Write a note on: i) EST. ii) From the given band pattern develop-a map for 4 clones
A, B, C, D.
Clvn.:s-..j. ~A

(10 Macks;

I
I

Band pattern

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Bio- Technnlogy

-

Bio-Informatics
[Max. Marks: 100

Note: 1. :4nswer any FIVEfull questions.

:-·-redUndancy.

t.

J-

a

' ,. (12 Marks) h. Qualitatively explain the .applications of Markov chains and Hidden Markov models

Define entropy with regar~t to biological information, Discuss the relevance of Shanrion's formula to biological data. Conunent on the advantages of biological data

to the analysis of DNA sequences, . SubstantiaJthe

(08 Marb)

,

~

f!' "3

"=~. _-~

17' -

~/. jf

Describe

the salient features of structUJ;e databases. Highlight the importance of SCOP, CATH.and PRO SITE databases towards prediction exercises, , (14-Marks)

--

~eed for cl!fIi?on and annotation of databases, with

typical examples,
(06 Marks)·

'Write short notes on:

-' .¥'
4
a.

¥OCO

GenBankflat file. c. Entrez.

Wisconsinpackage.

··(06Marks) (06 Marks)
. {64M~rks)

~F~foimat.

(04 Marks)

With examples, illustrate -as to how dot-plots can provide a visual representation of sequence aligriment. Explain the significance of changing the stringency for match . and window size during dot-plot analysis. . «()7Marks) h. With suitable-examples- describe the difference between "Global'tand "Local" alignment. Explain the parameters, i) Percentage similarity ii) Esvalue and iii) Score,
considered

during validation of pair-wise -alignments using word-based methods. , , _ (to Marks) . . . c. Determine the optimal alignment for the below two DNA sequences; ~i) GGGA TA and . _ ii) GA TIC. ~ ---- _-, z .; - t1Sing the score table provided below: _;. - ' - -, --

rcc

}

Comment on the final score.

- - S1. . No.
1

(03Mar~) .

Parameter :
,

Score
....
,

2
3 4

Identity Mismatch Gap creation
Terminal gap or mismatch

+10

,
I

-9
-50 0

5-

What is PSI-BLAST? Explain the relevance of PSI·BLAST in similarity searching exercises. (06 ftfarks) D. What are PAM matrices? Discuss the significance of PAMl, PAM120 and PAM250 matrices during sequence comparison. (06 Marb) C. Discuss the 'advantages of multiple sequence alignment over -pair-wise sequence comparison. Write a note on CLUSTALW. (08 Marks)

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Fifth Semester B.E. Degree Examination, Biotechnology Bio-Informatics
oe: 3 hrs.]
a
"

.

July 2007

" ' [Max. Marks: 10C

Note: ,Answer any FIVE full questions.

Explain the concepts of entropy and information with res~ct to biological sequenc data. , (10 Marlc b. Describe Markov chains and hidden Markov models. .Add a note on their applicatior to DNA and protein sequence data analysis. ' (10 Mark a With the help of an illustration, explain the GenBank flat file'. ,(10 Marlc b. .Write an account' on" Protein -Data Bank. Briefly explain the rDB structurefil format, (06 Marlc c. State the salient features of any protein 3D structure visualization software. (04 l\Jarlc Write notes on the- following: a ,GCG Wisconsin package. , b~ Entrez. ' .'c. Reference databases. 'a . Write a detailed account BLAST. _ b. Give a comparison of PAM .and BLOSUM matrices. c. Explain sequence analysis and its significance. a. Give an.account of the methods of building phylogenetic b. Explain the methods of evaluation of phylogenetic trees. c. Write a short note on'PHYLIP.
,' " .
,

(08 Marks (06 MarJe (06 Mark, (12 Mark, (04 Marlc (04 Marlo

on

trees.

(lOMarID

(06 Marlc
(04 MarJc

a. Discuss the approaches for detection of functional sites in a DNA sequence.
' " .(08Mar~

'b~ Explain the' computational tooi~'-for ~'prediction"of physical properties of protein based on protein sequence data., (07 'Mit'rlU C. Write a note on the foldclasses ofproteins.(05 Marks
.
.

a. What are restriction maps? Describe the bio-informatics tools for generation ~ restriction maps. (10 Marlo b. Discuss the points to be considered for design of primers for peR and sequenciru Add a note on the computational tools for design of primers. (10 Marlo

- ...

"

,

approaches for prediction of tertiary structures of proteins. b, Write short notes on:
a, Discuss the

(10 Marlo

i) 0)

Expressed sequence tags. DNA chips.

(10 Marks

Fifth Semester B.E. Degree .Examination, January/February
Bio Technology

2006

Bioinformatics
(Max.Marks; 100
Answer any FIVE fuN questions.

Tme: 3 tvs.}

Note:

1.

(0) ExplaIn the correlations derived between

. based on Shannon's formula.
Qualitatively

information theory o~d molecular biology .. , (10 Marks)

(b)

describe Markov· 'chains .Ond hidden· Markov rrooes With· ~ir· applications to anafysfsof DNA seqUences.' , (10 MaJks)
Wdh relevant exa~nples discussthe various primaty and secondary databases.
(8 Maries)

~.leO

jbJEXpIain fhe salient features of struc1ureootobcses.Dlscuss the importance of secp, ,
. Ptam and

PROsITE databases in bioinfomlaffcsexerasas.
on: '

. '·.(12MatJcs)

.3.
~

.'lIme short notes
9» .Genbank
~ PSI-BLAST flat file

GCG Wisconsin package

(5 Marks)

(5 Mar!<s) .
(5 Marks)

{cO Medical databases

(5Mcirks)

J..- (G)
. J.b)

appficaflons.
avisuaf

QuOrttoftvely explain the, constnicnon of PAM and BLOSUM matrices. Discuss,their

..

.'

(8 Mark,)

What are gloOoI andloc(]l.oUgn.:nents.? Describe cs to how dot ~(ots can provide
representonon

o'f seqoonce.simiiarffy.'MenflOn

its fin:llfdfibns; .' (12 Marks) ,." '

--6:.

Jp) Briefly discusS the various tree-building methods. Comme-nton rooted and unrooted frees. . .,. .(12 Marks)

,Ib) Discuss the merits of multiple sequence alignment methods over per-wise sequence alignment with regard to phylogenetic analysis. (8 ·Marks)

6.

(a)

Describe the various predictive methods towards detection of functional genes in -:

genome sequences. Discuss the popular methods for prediction protein sequences.

(10 Marks)'

.,. (b)

of secondary structural elements in
(1 0 Marks)

J.

(Q) What are restriction maps?

Explain their Importance.· Mention the utilities of databases and web-based fools rowords generation of restriction mops, (10 Marks)
. (10 Mark$)

..8S) Discussthe bloinformatics tools and 1heir approaches towards design of onrnors.

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Fifth_S_emester B.E. Degree Examination, July 2UU7 . Biotechnology . Biosensors and Bioinstrumentation
re: 3 hrs.]

-

[Max. Marks: 100 . Note: 1. Answer any FIVEfull questions.

2. Draw neat sketches wherever necessary.
(06 Marks) (06 Marks) . (08 Marks) . (to Marks)

a . With neat block diagram, explain a generalized instrumentation system. b. Briefly explain the use of eROs, energy meters and ·multimeters.
c. Explain the principle, construction, working and advantages. ofa . .'

LVDT.

With neat schematic diagram, explain anyone type.~f~pectrophotom~ter.· b.. What is chromatography? Explain a HPLC with neat schematic diagram..
a. Write a note on bio assay design' and implementation.

a

(to Marks) .
(06 Marks)

b. Explainthe following assays: i) Scintillation proximity assay . ii) Reporter geneassay .
,.

. (14 Marks)

.a. With an example; explain management and .service issues. of a centralized robotics.
.

..

-

b. Explain bar-code .technology. .. c. How data managementand tracing takes place in adata base system? Explain
. .

(07 Marks) (08 Marks) (05 Marks)

Explain one each type of a direct ·and "indirect method of Blood . . measurement." .. ",".". .:". .. . . . b. What is a pacemaker? Explain any one ~e of pacemaker.
8..

.

.'

~

Pressure (BP) . (l{) Marks) .
(10 Mar.ks)

a. What is lung-volume? Explain a method of measuring it. (07 Marks) b.' What is the need of tests of respiratory mechanism? Explain any one type. (07 Marks) c. Explain with a schematic diagram an anesthesia machine: (06 Marks) Explain the role of optical fibres as bio-sensor applications. Explain any two types of chemical fibrosensors. (10 Marks) b. With neat diagram, explain an ion-selective FET sensor. (10 Marks) Write short notes a Blood-glucose sensors b. Biosensors in clinical analysis c. BIACore-optical biosensor. a

on :

(07 Marks) (06 Marks) (07 Marks)

*****

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Fifth Semester B.E. Degree Examination, Dec.06/Jan. 07 Biotechnology' Bioinstrumentation and Biosensors
[Max. Marks: 100

ime: 3 hrs.] Note: Allswer
·0"),

FIVE questions ..

Define the following: i) Accuracy and Precision iii) .Reproducibility _ ii) Speed of response . " : . iv) Passive transducer- . (04 Marks) b. "'hat is piezoelectric effect? With a schematic diagram and equivalent circuit explain the construction and working of piezoelectric transducer. (08 Marks) c. With schematic diagram explain the construction and working of linear and angular' type digital displacement transducer. , (OSMarks)
a.

b.

Discuss- the principle, construction, working and characteristics of resistance temperature detector: . (lU Marks) State the Lambert's :linv'and Beer's Law'. Derive an expression for sample.absorbance based on Beer's law. List lh~ f~ctors affecting and deviating the, Beer's. law. (10I\1a rk .s) of chromatography and liquid chromatography. .. (0-1 !Had.:s) With a 'schematic diagram explain 'the principle; construction and working of H P Lt.', Define fluorescence and explain how it occurs. With a schematic diagram explain the construction and working of single beam fluorescence spectrophotometer. (OSl\'lal'ks)
,. (08 l\Jadi.s)

a,

Deline ch{omato~ap.hy.· Give' general classification

h. c.

a.Witl1. a A9'-",Cha.tt~e~crib~· the. compound preparation strategy used . .to -prepare. compound collections for high throughput screening (HTS). . ' (10 Marks) h. Write a short note on schedulingin HTS.· (04 l\l.u'ks) c _ List the database architectures commonly used to screen the data. Briefly explain the structure of flat HIe database system, : (06 i\l,,!'l{s)
~ 3.

b.

c.

List the different methods of blood pressure measurement. With a schematic diagram explain the principle and procedure of blood pressure. measurement by sphygmomanometer. (Uo :\Ltrl.:s) ~tentivn the different types of blood flow measurement techniques. With a block diagram explain the principle and working of electromagnetic blood flow meier. ~entlon its disadvantages, (OS t\brks) \\"h31 is fibrillation? How it can be corrected? Draw the circuit diagram of DC

de iibn Ilator.
6

(O-t

j\

larks)

a. Define the following i) Expiratory reserve volume
b. With « schematic diagram explain the principle, type of spirometer

ii) Inspiratory capacity,
(02 :\Iar-ks)

construction

and working of basic
(08 Marks] Confd",

J

Fifth Semester B.E. Degree Examination, Dec. 07 J Jan ..08 Biosensors and Bioinstrumentation
'5..

Note: Answer ailY FIVE full questior :!~.-....
-

Max. Marks: 1

19rant..·

.plain .the functions of all elements of an instrumentation system with the. help 01

--

..

".

(lO Ma rl : '. . (04 ·Marl (06 Mar!

.plain ohms law and Kirchoffs 18Vf. hat are transducers? Classify them.

iumerate the principle and instrumentationofdouble beam florimeter. (08 Mar iscuss "the principles of GC and HPLC.:Expl~in the instrumentation of I-IPLC and Jplications. '. . .(08 Mar efine electrophoresis and write' a note on its. appl ications. (04 ·Ma r
'rite short notes on ) Centralized data base i) Robotics. xplain validation and commissioning Ieart may be considered as atwo
ystem.
.

(JO J\lal

required for maintenance of instruments.
. .

(I01\iil;

stage' puinp. Explain ~.with respect to cardiovasci . .'

(10 Mal

~xplain anyone' method in detail.

What are the different methods by which the measurement-of
system .. '

blood- flow rate is do
(IO Mal .

Explain in detail the physiology ofrespiratory

Explainmass spectroscopy method ofdetectionof

various componentsof
. .......

{lOMa]

gas.

(10

M:al

ite short

notes ·on ~ ..

-.

Ventilators Nebulizers Defibrillators Pace makers.

..

.

.

'..'...

(20

M"a

What is a biosensor? Enumerate different applications ofa biosensor. . Explain the role of biosensors in non invasive method of blood gas monitoring. \\'hat is a biochip? Explain with reference to a DNA micro array. Explain with diagram BIA core optical biosensor.

(10 M~

(lO 1\<1,
(10 Mi (to M.

II

I.

""·isveSt'artlJ'aTecknoiogical
BIO INSTRUMENTATION

lTnr.'ersifJ' B.E Biotechnology - \7 Semester
AND BIOSENSORS

MODEL QUESTION PAPER Cede: BT 53 Max. Marks: 100 . Time: 31

.. cCiODS: I_)Answer auy FlVEruU

questions, ii) All qUestioBS' carry equal marks .
.
'

/

~Explain Static & Dynamic characteristics ofmeasuring instnunents. '(10 A{~ks) _" ~DeCIDe Transducer & Explain the principle & working ofL VDT pressure . Traosducer or Piezoelectric Transducer, . ._/. .'. .' (lO,~~arks)

Define Beer Lemberts Law & Explain with neat diagran & applications ·OfUV '. : . Spectrophotometer. /. . . . (101\.farks) .
, Define Electrophoresis &, explain different techniques used for Blectrophoresis. ./ . . Or . ..: (10 Marks). Ex~lain v.~tb~lock Diagran of a microprocessor based sc~in8d~nsitomet~r X
. &,

Its applIcation.

.

".

.

~

Explain with sehemstic diaglall' of double beam fluorimeter /-/" ..(iO Marks) Discuss with block diagram. of aut om at ic gamm a counting system (10 Marks) Write a short notes on (i) Ba- code technology, (iijCentralized data base.(l 0 Maks) (i) Wh. are the factorsfor thesuccessful integration of Assays . . (5 M.ns) (ii) Explain in detail data base ,system . -. (S Marks) ~lain with nea diagram of the Heart /_." .(10 Marks) . - Or .
. .
,/

Explain with ueatdiagran of a cadiovascular circulation / Explain different metho~ used for measuringBlood fl01N ~eter (djn~cl'~ mdirect)·{~O
Explain different paraneters used for determ ination of lung volume~ & capacitance. /
. .... .' _(10Marks} i) Explain diiTerent methods for measuring gaseous exchange & diffusion .' . .

ilWrite' a short notes (a) Ventilators '(b) R:espirat~[~.:.., .(10 marks) Vb. are the principles used for Biosensordevelopmentv.> ~ (10 Marks) . te a biochemical principle used forglucose analysis & describe amperometric Biosensc - ~--, . ~ ice. / " _. (1 0 Marks) xplain i~n ·s?IectiveFE"fsensors & ~_Qt!jn.yasive. blo~d gas.monitoringsensors
. .. .

on

(10 ~

tplain with diagram BrA core optical Biosensor .

<.10 l\-{ :;tIk~)'

Fifth Semester B.E. Degree Examination, Dec.08/Jan.09 Biosensors and-Bioinstrumentation r.ae: 3 hrs.
Max. Marks: 100

Note: Answer any FIVEful1 questions, selecting

at least TWO questions from each part.
PART-A 1 a
b. c. 1

Draw the basic block diagram of an Oscilloscope and explain the functions of each block.
. (07 Marks) (07 Marks) (06 Mark.s) (04 Marks)

What is LVDT? Describe its working principles. Mention its applications. Explain the principle of operation of a digital time measurement.

a
b.
c.

Draw and explain action potential waveform.

Briefly discuss different biomedical signals, giving examples. (06 Marks). What ·is the difference between unipolar and bipolar lead configuration? Discuss different bipolar limb lead configurations of an EeG system.. (10 Marks) Discuss the importance of blood flow in the body. Explain theprinciples of electromagnetic induction in blood flow meter. What is fibrillation? Explain the working ofD .. . defibrillator unit. C
(OS Marks). ·(07 Marks) (08 Marks)
·(06 Marks)

3

a
b.

c.
4

Define the following terms with regard to breathing mechanism. (i) Tidal volume . (ii) Inspiratory reserve volume (iii) Vital capacity. . b. Draw the diagram of ventilator and describe its actions. . c. - With· a neat block diagram explain the working of a heart-lung machine.

a

(06 Marks) . (08 Marks)

S

a.

What- is an analytical

PART ., B· . instrument? With a suitable diagram explain the working of
With a neat schematic, explain . (10 Marks) the working of gas
·(10 Marks)

spectrophotometer. b. What is. chromatography? .chro:rmltography. . 6

a. b.

Explain ih~ principle of scintillation proximity .assay. .. (10 Marks) What is a Bar code? Namedifferent types ofbar code readers. EX121ainanyone type of reader in detail. O~ Marks)
(10 Marks) (10 Marks)
(20 Marks)

7

a. Explain different types of drive systems used in Industrial Robots. b. With a neat schematic explain four common robot configurations.
".'rite short notes on: L BioMEMS b. Electro chemical sensor c. Optical Biosensor cl. Pace maker.
,
v

,

* * * * '"

r ~ ..~ ......~JK-

........... ..'·'·'··6..~ ,c.,

........ _

B. E. Biotechnology.

V Semester'.

---J
l\'lax 1tlarks: 100 Tim e: 3 Hours.

Subject: Biosensors andlSiolDstrumeatad:..n
E: BT 53 )ICJdel Qu~iOil Paper - I

llONS ,a

r five full

neat

block _9iagram
'

questions. All full Questions carry equal marks.

of

an

instrumentaion

system and explain the functions of
,,(10)

.detail,
1 suitable

/'

reotiae chemical & physical bonds jn materials. <: ,
aMOS structure and explain its operations. "- ' ", m,ent -1-·' , ss any two blood Pressure sensors commonlyused
I

examples. enumerate the concept of at IC:b1 three Transducer classiflcetions (5) ---!lily ratio \\betstone bridge consists of three resistances of 120 ohm and a resistive stn ge of 120 ohm under no strain. A strain is, having a Iiritit of 25 rnA as maximum CUffe ~ioe the Dlaxinlum voltag¢ of_bridge ex~itation .1£ the straing,m.ige is boadedn du..e. find the unbalance bridge output when Etress'applied is 100 kgfcm2 gauge facto, Mmg'&modulus 2·106kg(cm2", (10) ,i1feteotiate between GC and HPLC. /', ', _ (05) Vhat'is pH? Describe any tWO tYPes OtpH meter in detaiL' /' (10) ~rie a Dote on Bioinstrumentaion validaioJL.(05 NIlat critical input parameters are to be considered for the design of a bioassay? (OS: Vhai is scintillaioncountei-? Explain the.working principle. 'j", " (10) B8l is Electrcphoresis? Explain any one type. 't// (5J ~8t is Bsrcode Technology? Explain anyone, type , (19) liscuss the contribution of Robotics in collecting, processing, storing and 'retrievi lical data , (lg) Xplain any three concepts used in fhe development ofbiolh?n~()rr;: (O.5~ rrie anole on commercial applic~ioDS of'Biosensors, /' '.'. (05J c)- List in detail the various milestones' in the life of commercial biosen~or. \\~ , cautions are suggested and what criteria are applied at each ~age. (10)
!" -' • .---"'. •

(05:

(05:

the significance

~. Ion selective

PET: and write in 'detail its. .applicability

.

'

(10)' .
(05)

eribe t~e- operaion of'catheter tip Pressure' Transducer used in the pressure measureme nonary artery_, , ' (05) b help of .simple block diagram, explain the functions of a cardiac catheterizar O'.• '.. ' . .-;" " .', . , , ,'. , ':. " 10) -. 'ith a nea diagram explain determiuetion of lung volumes aut capacities. , (10) short notes on IjInhalaors, II) Ventilators &. Respirators ., (iO).
<. .. • ..': '. , •• '(

.....

UI

L.;n;;IUC;:UCI

D.J!.,.

uegl-ee Examination, July 2006

Biotechnology Biosensora and Blolnstrllmentation
Time: 3 hrs.] [Max. Marks: 100 _ Note: 1. Answer any FIVE full questions. I . a. Draw a 'neat block diagram of an instrumentation system and explain tile functional elements, in detail. (to Marlui) Name a ~).lI s~t'i", and A)!Dam.jc parameters and clarifytheir meanings. .
.... '. .. (06 Marks)

c. In a temperature

measuring set-up using a DC bridge containing one RTD, all bridge arms have 100 ohms resistance at the reference temperature. The' RTD resistanceincreases to l02 ohms fora 10°C rise in temperature. If-the bridge is excited by a 5V DC power supply, find the' bridge unbalance output. .
(04 Marks)
..

2

What is pH? Describe any two types of p(-I meters. _;:b: Explain t.he...&..oncep!__<?! electrophoresis with an example. _.c:··: Discuss any.one type of chronuitograp'hic-set-up. . a. ..

iJf)'

..

.

(10 J\1ari{s) (051\larks) (05 Marks)

. .3

Describe the .details of any one type of a ·bioassay.. (10 Marks) Describe fluorescence, Explain the working of any twotypes of Iluorimeters.
. ', . (I 0 I\-Iark~)

.

4 ",'.1 a. b.

Differentiate . between a machine and a robot. (05 Marks) .. . . Elaborate the .role .of .robots' for· .high· ·throughput.· 'Screening in biotech :laboratories·.·· .. " ... (to·Marks) c. . What is bar-code t~chnology?' . (05 Marks)
.'

5

a.

Define phonocardiography. With the help of a diagram, show that heart sounds are related to.etecrric and mechanical events and mechanical events cardiac .cycle, .: .....~. -.'''--'_"'~-'-.-:--:----:----:-. -----:--.; ' .... :-.. ······-·(I-O·Marks)

of

b. c.

Explain the working of a sphygmom.anometer. Describe the working o~_C,!!~i.~cpac~mak~r requirements.
.

._ (04 Marks) and also it's power and sealing
(06 Marks)

~

.

.

6

a.

Draw a graph between lung volume

versus timearld

'explain the following

terms;
b. c. 7 a_ b_ ii) Residual volume and iii) Tidal volume. (05 Marks] Discuss any two methodsof analyzing the exhaled gas composition.un Ma.·ks) What is the function of Ventilators? Explain. (05 l\1arks)
i) .Total lung capacity.

Clearly define a bio-sensor. What are its classifications? Give suitable examples. . (10 Marks] Explain in detail, the fabrication steps of a micro fabricated biosensor.
·(10 !\la.·ks)

a b_

Draw the cross-section schematic of an ISFET. Explain its working.un
Discuss bri:!!~ the applications of bio-sensors in: {!9'linical (!!}food analysis and Environmental monitoring.

Mari{s) rks)

®

(IOI\· ...

IIh Semester B.E.Degree ExamlnaHon. Janu.ary/February 2006
810 Technology

Bioinstrumentation"
: 3 nrs.)
Nofe:AMwllf any FIVE·full qull$llons.

Biosensors
'(Max.Marks:
.. ~.

100

I. (a) Explain the following:
i) Ii) Ohm's low Dynamic characterisffcsof

a measurement system .. '

-.,(~Marb)
_ _(10 Marica) .

(b), With a neat block diagram,

. applicaffons.'

(e) Define transducers. appficaflon.'

.

explain the worklng prIndpte "

oteRO. ~ntiOn-anyfWo
,

Explain any one fype of straJn ga~g9 transducer wHh , (6 ~)
.

2. (a) Wrth a neat sketch, explain the cons1n.rcffon and.worklng of pH meter.
(b) Exolain with

.

(8 ~cBb)

,
,

necessor'Ydlagrorn
-,

the Geiger Muller counter and Sdnfillaflon counter.
,
-

(12 Marks)

3.f{a) With a block diagram, 'explain the opemnonot gaschromatcgrophy
'" (b) Mention

the different .fluorescence ~~o?s.
.

.

explain any. one.

.

.. (10 Matb) .

-

_ (10 Narks)

4. (a) What are different management
Explain briefly.
(b) Explain thodtfferent

and service issuesof 0- -centralized robotic- HTS? ' " .(10 Ma~) .

'factors tor StJ.q9.~ssftjl.fntegra1ion f o

assays.
. .

(10 Morb) ~
(8 Marks)

S.

(0) With a

neat diagram. .explaIn princIple of opercnon of anaesthesia mochi~~ ,
the working principle
.

(b) Describe

of spirometer
."
;
" '

with o.neot diagram. . - '. '(~M~ (6 Maries) ,
.

-Cel Explain J,u~g VQIl)~.

. 6.

(0) Ust

-too various, factors

ond c,oPOc,lties~ with'sketches. . ..
to be considered In 'the d~sign of

artiflclafttOOrt valVes: '.' .
'(10 Madel) .-

(b) Define heart souoos, Explain different 1ypes of heart soun~ .. ' ,

7.

(a) Define
(b)

biosensor. With a necessary diagram, explain 'the principle of biosensor.
. "

(aMartcs)

What are diffeient methods of immobilizing a bioreceptor? Describe the construction and application.
-'

Explain.

(6 Marks)

~

of amperometric "

biosensor. Also describe Hs operofion -, (6 Marlcl)
(~Marks) , (6 Marks)
(4 Marla)

8.

(0)

Describe the feofures, limitations of chemical fibro sensors.
ISFET sensors? Explain. Mention the different characteristics required in cornmerc'ot sensors.

!b) What do you mean by microfabricated

«")

Cd) Describe the blood glucose monttorfng using bfosensors.

(4 Mgt1cs)

•• * *.

Fifth Semester B.E. Degree Examination, J.Jcc.v I I -'&a .... .Bioprocess a~d Bioreaction Engineering __..
V""

rs.

.

.

Max. Marks: 100

N6te

I

AlIswer-lfny.FIVE

full questions. .

.

Write a temperature dependency term and rate constant from collision theory. (06 Marks) b. TIle activation energy of a chemical reaction is 17982 cal/mol in the absence of a catalyst, and 11980 cal/mol with a catalyst. By how many times will the rate of the reaction will grew in the presence of a catalyst, if a reaction proceeds at 25"C? . (04 Marks) C, . Explain the integrated rate equation for unimolecular, first-order .irreversible reactions in . .
senes.(lO
.

-

Mar~)

a. Write a short note on Damkohler number,
. b. Explain the terms: Order of reaction, Holding

time; Space
AO

.

time and

.

Space velocity.(08 Marks)
no

.

(04 Marks)

. c. An aqueous feed of A and B with 400 11min, C

.=

to be converted
~-';-.'

to product in a plug
'~r
if

40w reactor.
mol·

106 fIllllO/ l
..

and C

= 200 mmol . I

is

The. kinetics of the reaction

~~.'d.'

.1+B 4·R"J .. . .
..

.'

is represented
(08 Marks)

=200C

A

C • (I
B

' ... . Estimate ) .nun.

the volume of reactor for 99% of A tv .

llill~~~·~~~·0! :. I
1UJIlCblOn.·~b.ri~flrexplain
-,.· ..c.:"."·_'

','C', 'E; and ;'F' curves and give the relationship

7.P.F~~u~ts, ":"~A

= KC A'

K·~ O.I·O·~·i~l'l,(10 .carried .is M~rks)

A,."""..,n. tracer test is given below. Calculate the ~:·~!4-+"':,"",,~LI In series model. .·~lO Mal'ks)

';",!,<,!o!'~:~"'''''''';;J.

,

(10 Marks)
.'
.'

_ _

.ina .. ~.
"

J

I

'"_"

batch culture .. fsaccharomyces . o
-,

.

,F

CIJ&l""'''U«''''

.". g (X)'L . ·Ethanol (1»), 0.0

f: .

0,5
r-_~_--t-"~_~:-:-

95 __ .. 85 58

-~.:.

~:.. r...=-~-

-+~_--=1..:..;.0=--__ 2.1

+~

2.5 7;5

a;;;.

10 15

4.8
7.7

.20.0
14.0

20
L--

25 30

•......J..----"-~.c.._

30 12 5 2

9.6
10.4
1. ~:...:...._

·13.0
·J7.S
__

10.7

.....L

.19.0 .... _ , .... __

.

i) By fitting the Biomass data to the logistic equation, co-efficient K. . Ii) . Determine yield co-efficients YP/ and Yy,. . is ,S

determine

the carrying-capacity
(10 1\1:..-1(.,,)

10f2

I

,

,

I

:

• "_

__i._j

Fifth Semester B.E. Degree Examination,
: Sio Technology

January/February 2006

Bioprocess & 8ioreaction Eng_Lneering
rune: 3 hrs.)
(Mox.i\/.2~~S: ~:C.
.
,

---I'Mi'4ote: 1.

1. Answer any FIVE II!JI queslfons.
2. All quemoM catty equat marie$.

(0) In a rate equation

related
(b)

which one is the ternperofure dependency term-arid hO~1 is it to the temperature? Compere 'the same with collision tneorv. (5 Mari<s)
.

-

What ore the .merits and. dernerts Of!Olysisof experimenta~ dota.. .

ot uSing. integraJ

.

and. differential

rnerncdsot.
(5 ".~orks)

(c)

:Fit on nth
method

order rate ·equafion to 1hefollov/ing botch reactor data by diffe:enTioi ' .
.

'. .'Time. t(sec) co~entration. aA (mol/i)
"

U 20 40

to

60 5
.

120 180 300 3 2 ,"1

8

6

..

Determine the order of reaction end rote constant.
.

.

'

,

. ~ .. ~ ...

.

.

2.

(0) Derive the perfo~,§.CIuOtion i) U) For 1st order constant densHy For 1st'ordei'varylng

for a steady state mixed flow reactor

system
~.

volur:ne.system

molfl &0 BQ ·0.01 mol/i) fic~'wV in~o The motedclreccfsfn c. complexmcnner fer whichthe·stochiomefry Is unknown. The oUf1et stream from the reoctor contcn A.. -, S & C (C A 0.02 mol/I, CB =~O~03 ol/l"CO = 0.04 mol/l).Fin~ merota : m of'feaction of A. B & Cfor conditions· wHhin. the reoctc::. ' (10 Ma~ , . . ,.... . 3. (a) For mixed flow .reactors of different sizes in series. explain .: . ,. .'
(b) 11/min of Uquid

o mixed reoctor ofvoluma V=lliter.

cont-;k1tng'A &8

(GAo_ -

o.i

no Mc.cksL

=

I). . To Ii)

finq the conve~

jor Q given system .graphicofly for a give~ conversion graphicaJly.

,

To find the best

system

\Nhat is the general rule for order ot:reacfion. n1
(b) For non-ldeal .

best arrangement
. ,- .

for c

set of ideal
:

reactors. based on (5+5=10Marks)

reoctors, explain the exit ag~ distribution curve (RTD or E cerve). . (5 M<;rrks) method for finding E.
(5 Maries)

(c) Explain the pulse' experimental

4.

(0)

For the growth of biomass, explain th~ Monod growth kinetics taking into. account the effect of endogenous metabolism. [I Mo(l($}
For the growth of filamentous organisms, what do you mean by growth ossccicteo and non-growth associated models in product formation kineiics? (7 iv:::.ks)

(b)

ee) Explain Leudeking-Piret kinetics of product formation.

cc.»: " .. _ v···.... '/

ifth Semester B.E.Degree Examination, January IFebruary 2006
. Bio Technology

Bioprocess & 8ioreaction Engineering .
.

~: 3 hrs.)

--

(Max,}/.:::~<s:~':'~

Note:

1. Answer any FNE fuJI qU9stiOns.
2. All questioM cony equal marks.

1.

(0) In a rate equation which one is the temperatUre

dependency" term and new is it retC:fted to the" temperature? Compare the same with collision theory. (5 Mark~)

.

(b)

.

What ore the" m~rits end demertts .of ysing. integral and qiffer-entia! rnerncds of
o0olysis ()f exPerimental data. "
(5 ".~~d(~)
..

(c) .Fit nth" order rate equcnon method "
. '. . Time, t(sec)

an

.

to the following batch reactor .doto by d~e:ent:ai
"

Concentration. C A( moi / 1) :

0 20· 40 60 120 ,! 80300 :0:8 c·· 5 3 2 1

Oeterminethe order of reaction and rate constant.

2. ,(0)

Derive the" perfol1llO_nce~t..iOtion .i) .

for a steady state mixed flow reactor

for 1sf order constant densHy system '
For 1sf: order varying. volume system
.
,

Ii)
(b)

_,.
:.

111mln ofliqu1d

.

which .. . B & C

Is unknown·~ The outlet stream from me reactor contcn A• fCA. ~"O·.02 mol/l,.CR - 0.03 molll, Co = O.O.4tnol/lr Find the 'rote of Teoction of A. B.& C for conditions within the reactor. -. . .. ". (10 Mcub)

a mixed reactor

the stochiometry

containing A& B (C,A.Q_~ 0.1 mo!/l &0 BQ ~ 0.01 mol/l) ftc:',:;;;nto i of voluina V= 1 Uter-;- he material reocfs In c cornptex.moroer fer '. T

'. -.

.

.

.

S.

..

.

i'

(0) For

mixed 'flQw reactorS ofdiffererit !o. fi~. ~ 9.~\le~q

sizes in series, explain .: .:" '.' .'
.

i)~

for 9·given system graphically,
..

Ii)'

To find the best system for a given conversion graphically.

- What is ftle general rule for besfdfrangement for a set of ideol reactors, based on order otreocnon, n? .... . "..,.. "(5+5= 10- Marks)
(I»

For non-Ideal

.

-

reactors. explain the exit age distribution· curve (RTD or E curve).

.

~Mg~~
r-..fari<s)

(c) Explain the pulse experimental method for finding E.

(5
.

II.

(0)

For the growth of biomass, explain thE:, Monod growth kinetics taking
"

.

into, account

the effect of endogenous metabolism.
(b)

a Motk$)

For the growth of filamentous organisms. what do you mean by groVJthcssecicrec and non-growth associated models in product formation Idnei.cs? a ;'Y"::;.~s)
(6 .... - .... i,/··'~'-'."

(c) Explain Leudeking-Piret kinetics of product formation.

-

'ifth Semester B.Tech. Degree Examination,
Bio Technology

JUlyJnubl.4~"

_

Bioproce~s& Bioreactfon Engineering
3 hrs.]
(r... tax. Marks :


10n

N-ote: -#,' Answer any FIVE full questions. 2. Use of scientific calculator is permitted.
• (a) -Explain elementary and non-elementary
- _.

.

-.

reactions with s~itabJe examples.
.
.

.

('II; ,,( ...1• .:\

.'

:-.(b) Reaction between ~e solvent at 25°0.

,C6~{02

and methyl

.1."-: l"!t\.I .. "",

iodide is carried out using nitrobenzene

.

(C2H5)2N

+'OH31

[(C2HshNCH2J+.

1
5400 .

The following data. is obtained .. t(sec) CA mol/lit 11.04 x 10-s 9.14 x 10--

1200

., .

. --1800

.- 2400 3

'1.72 x 10-3 5.88 x 10-3 4.42 x 10~3 -,1

.

3600 .

I .

lriitial ooncentration'ofboth

the reactants is 0.0198 mol/lit each. Assume 'tltd( the reaction is second order and calculate i) the reaction rate constant arid l~) :1:1:.e required. for 3Q% and 90% conversion. . . ("to MJr.;~}

..

'

2. (a) Derive the~~,-equation
reaction.

-

.

~:

,\

- .' . . .'

far steady state.plug
..

.

flow reactor for firs:
. ,

-

..'.

(~v'~liKS)
"~.

(:.l:.j ..·-

(b) A homogeneous, liquid phase second 'order ·reaction.is,carried flow' reactor with.SOO/o conversion ... .calculate :. ._ . . .' ~ .
.

out ir.

:_l.,

"

-.

~~~"E·d

i)

The- fracflonz.1 conversio~ if this mixed' flow reactor is replaced by arorher . . mixeaflow reactor havingvolume sixtimes that of the original. .. " . fractional conversion if the origional mixed flowreactor is. ~p'}a~~~·· y 2 b plug .flow reactor o{ .eqtGdsize; All other parameters remain ~nl\e .. (~,~i~" M
. !

-ill..:TIle

3. (a} Explain F, Cand E cmye .:
.' '. '(b). Define dispersionmnnber
(c) . Compare

and explain' its significance in reactor design. '. ~:·-:!.~rks)

constant

..

dilkren:f
-

theOri~s,~;hlch'

'd~~~' the .

temperature dependa, ice vf rate ... .' (S1hlb)

4. (a) Explain ~9IlOd.~el Derive ari expres~.lor

for the growth of biomass. What are its limitations ? mass doubling ~e. . . '(10 Malks

__ VI ..... J..

C"'l,,;~

__ ..

.

:~ : ..;:
~,

-

_

.

~~-

(b) A strain' of mold was

were obtained.

grown in a batch culture on glucose

and the foHcwing

d~tJ.

TIme

Cell~ncentratiOi)

(hi
0

(g /1)
1.25
.

I
r

I

Glucose

cO:lcentratioPt.1

(s/ I)
~"'O ~U

•I

j

s:
16
30
36

245
5.10

97
90.40 48.10 9.38

I

I

:

2200 37.50

-

40 -i)ii)

41.00

0.63

-Whafis

Calctkte"

the maximum
'

growth rate and substrate

yield.

the maximum cell concentration one could expect if 50 g , was used with the same size of inoculum?
. ..

Or gl,!coSt,
I;;)

~t.rki,

5.' (a): Define' yield coefficients based on growth, substrate and product (b) Discuss the importance ofelemental balances in bioreaction.
,

formation

=6 ;,l..i(~l

(c) Clostridium
glucose

ace~butylicum,carries out anaerobic fermentation and' converts into acetone, butanol along with smaller concentrations of butyrate, '.,acetate, etc.' In a {ermen~tion , ,the foUowingproducts were obtained from 100 , moles of glucose ,~~ ~1.2 moles, of NH3 as nitroge~ source. Product formed
,.-__ 'a '.-

.

'

Moles
13
68
22 0.40

,
~'

.

c~>- . ' '.~ (CaIJbO~Nt!J ": ,1 a.,.'i ~~;!Zr-",! (q,H100 'a
: "a

'.,

-1'

••

, •"":~~,:,:,;'-:!i'~~~l
-.
~.

acetone (0386'0) , 1mtyricacid (04HS02) :,~tiS add a(02'H,02) '/- [_.'.'" ~ ,;,OJ';Oj.,. ' , ":'a';::'- 'a~ lu·~,~~iL CO2 ' ,::;~ f.' lW~'~ '.~~;if·:' H2, '
,~ ~. ,., e • ,

14

__

'-

221. 135'
0.70 , "
a'"

(C2H.O) cells." .',',

'"

, " .:
,(lOMuks)

.'

."

.. '

',e1emen~
, ,

,BYa ~~

"

,a;~,nitrogen; ~~~fthe
',' " a''':' J'{ .;._. -.s,.a..

hydrogen and .oxygen balance, determine the
, .

~

(a) ~ ~li4.:-:~~tatio~. over SUbmerged ~tions 'fermentation. .,
(b) Draw'
a

~t are its ad~an~ges 1- Explam the apphcations

and ~dvantages .of solid substrate
(10 M.nks)

to be monitored

a neatSketdi. ttl'" iiilustrial

ferment or and explain the important parameters and controlled during submerged fermentation. (10 Mms)
(6 Mads)

7. (a) Enumerate the major components of fermentation media and explain their
importance; (b) Discuss the kinetics of thermal sterilisation.
(4Mms)

.!

Fi£f-.h Semester B.Tech. Degree Examination, Janua.rflFeoruary
Bioprocess & Bioreacrion Engineering ..

0.3

Bio'.fec hnology
nr.e:
3 hrs.]

.. ...
,~

1. (a) \'Yhat a.PE the differences between biop recess and Bioreacticn engineering? i:X""1-' :.;_' r. ~ briet1y. .' . '.' ~5:;':'r:~~j '(b)Oafsify the chemical reactions intodifferentcategories. be classified W;o .what categ.ot.y? ._, Define the following
i) ii) iii)
.

--

Note: 1. Answer any FIVE full questions. 2. Alissillg data if any 11UIY be suitab iy assumed. 3. Ali-full questions carry equal marks. .
.

.

Biological rc.:c:·:ns·~z.:~

:;~:.~.~::':~: ~.

and. distingu'sh
rate equation /

between the terms ..

Order and rmlecularity.->?" Mechanamand
. .

Half life and doubling time
.
.:

v"'"

k
.

. iv) Integral and differential method of analysis
'..

'

'J/""
(5 M;.i.;(s:

(a~ Discuss ~
(b)

~~6.;~ :~ri~ and
.'

demerits of. Bioconversion process, ..

Describe the phasesof bacteria cell. growth ill a batch bio reactorwitr ..-~-""'~~~::;: ....
graph. ~ ''. -':_'. .'
l'
1.' ". .

.s ~~~:;,..

., ~c)

Explain howa batch. .reactorkineti.: d~ta ~ .

..

be usedfor .clesi@.1!:-:g a. CS~-:~" ..;.:~ ~7:..:.: .

3. (a)
(b)

the causes for non ldealzy inthe reactor operations? E~'i....6...:. y:r: ::'~.' .· them ·in·pracH . .:e?· '. . ;.5.,.;: :Yr.::,;:~!

"Yhat are

..~..

reaction -r A . kG A with k = continuo~ flo~vsteady state reactor. A ~cer testcond~ct~~~;his>·c~.: .' . ., the following data ." . .' .. .'. . . ";';..' ')....'.;
. ", to- \ .._ .... '. ~.

A fust order

O.307'!l-in~e~~;~~~;=-~":bi<
.: :- ~\:, :

, ..'

'.' -

time t, min

o

T racer cone. out put,' gm/Iiter

o-.j. 3' I

I 5 I 10"
5 5 4

i'i

2 . i" .... 0· !

" "\ :.:;.~I .. "'\ '-1_
{

~

Find the fraction of reactant unconverted in the reactor, 'C~'n\p?~:,'~':"~~';\;:,~}(_': ~:"." that of ideal plug flow reactor of the same size,(l2'!/,L::,::J ..' (a) \o\'hat- are the limitations . of equilibrium

do vou overcome?
J

analvsis of biochemical -'.

l'~:~, ..' ',5 -:

l-:.:,.:,'

.

. '.'.~".Lrk.~:

VirvesvartlJ'4 Technological

B. E. Biotechnology _\! Semester,

Universit.J'

BIOPROCESS AND REACTION ENG~l:ERING
:: BT 52

,
lwlODEL QUES'IION PAPER-n

l\la'\: Marks Time: 3H(j

n s:

,-___,.

.nswer any five tull questleas, if) All questions carry equal marks Define rate, order moleculerity, elementay and non elementary reactions In the presen-ce of a hom ogeneous catalyst of given concentration, auqeousa n .verted in tyo product It the'following rates. and CA-81ooe determines this rate.' 1 .2 4 6 7 ·9 12 -fA, mel/lit hr: . .06 0.1 0.25 1.0 2.0 1.1 ed top run this reaction-in a batch reactor at the sane cltalysts concentretion as ( be·above daa, Find the time needed to lower the concentration of A from CAO=
t)

Caf:-2 molllit
~~aine and sketch different types of reactor.

ical industry.. .

-

.

HO\\F

the selection of reactor: isdon

..

\\rha1 is the Q-line?Ho\Y it Bfrects the performance?

Define Dispersion number? HoW is it affects the conversion? The concentntion readings in the followingtable represent a continuous respor Name the various operating modes applied in animal cen culti\l1tioD explain an Discuss the effect oft~peiattir. on conversion for an endothermic reaction .. Briefly ~Xplain structured & un °itructured growthmo~l lvithsuitahle example M.M KiJ;letics Problem . _.. .

10you .evaluate Bioln.8SS produCt fOt;matioD -

Delane yield, maintenance coefficient, seJectivity~ reactivity with suitabJe exam! Gi~ an ~coUQt __ on~.qetic analysis ofmicrobial growth and product fOIlDsti(

With-·anem sketch explain eperation.cf an industrial fennenter

-

Explain-the significance cfmediaformularion, discuss vtrious ingredients and s Name the various types of steriJization·, discuss anyone? . Discuss the various steps involved in migraion of oxygen from bubble to eI1Z}u
cell 0 ". • 0.00.

Explain how mass .transfer. coeflici.ent are eVtilu.ed fer sparged and agitated yes .
.

.

..

'.

_.

-

_-

•••

.

.

-.

'.

'.

"

(\_____ <;Y,,)
Model Question Paper for V Semester BIO PROCESS & llIOn.EACTION
3 brs,

UT

BE

BIOTE.C'II1'\OLOGY

ENGINEERING Max. Marks: i0(1

Note: 1. Answer any-five full questions. 2. All questions carry equal marks. 3. Missing data If any, Carl be suitably assumed.

a) Define the following with examples
(i) Elementary reaction (ii) Non elementary reactions (iii) Mechanism of a reaction (iv)Cheluical reaction rate (v) Order of a chemical reaction b) Discuss the difference between the different theories of reaction rate c) A zero- order homogeneous gas reaction with stichiometry A. ~ rR proceeds in a. constant volume bomb, n=l atm when t = 0 and = 1~5 atm when t=l min. If the same reaction, same feed composition and 'initial pressure ·proceeds 'in constant pressure s,.!t IIp find V' at t=Irnin if V = 12 at t = O. ,I ' a) Describe the basic design equations for a ideal tabular flow reactor and CSTR.·. Compareandcontrast them with respect to performance. , M" A' first order reaction is to be treated in a series of two mixed reactors.' Show that - the total volume of two reactors is minimum whenthe reactors arc equal in size,

n

J

1

1

ft
a)

a) Distinguish between micro fluid and macro fluid. b) .. Derive tbc·'eqt.uition ala-lirst order reaction using the segregation model when RTD , is .equivalent' to ' (i) 'an ideal 'PFR and' (ii) an> ideal CSTR. Compare these __ conversions with 'those obtained from the design equation. What is the, difficulty of culturing animals cells?· Discuss the methods used foi the " cultivatioriofanimals cells. Explain the effect of Temperature and pressure-on the equilibrium conversion of
, exothermic and endothermic reaction ' .. ofa bacteria stepinoopi can be described by the logistic growth' law

. b). 'rhe
rg ..

growth:

~+~gJc<.....
Cm

' ..". .
3

..

,- .: _, (i) The cell growth, is to. be carried out in a 2dm batch reactor. Plot the 'growth .rate and cell concentration (g,tdn13) ~s functions of timeafter inoculation of 0.4 grams of .., , cells into thereactor (ignore the lag period). (ii) The batch vessel in part (i) is to be turned into a CSTR. Derive an equation for he wash out tate. Choose values for the volumetric flow rate of the entering substrate and plot the cell concentration as a function of time after inoculation.

With urn' ' O~5hr" and

= 20g/dnl) The substrate is in' excess.

'Jge No... 2

5.

(0)

1:1 stoch!ometric
i)

colcutcticns

of biologicci reocnons.

V:!)CT

co

yCi...! r':"':?C-' by

One mole of biologicoi rrlo~eria!and respirotion c~_;c1':e::t ~:<Q) Degree of reduction Of substrote. Compute Methane, Gluc~se & Ethorcl,

Ii)

tr 3

degre2

C:

~s::;jctic
(7 ~J
i,

(b) \Vhct is meant

by metabolism. obiigate aerobes, obllgote onoerooer E. ·OGUii aerobes? Give the classification of orqonsms by carbon & energ~/ .corce

(6 M

..

----",:"

(c) Explain the matabotic reaction. the coupling of ATP Qnd other pr-ospnote c pounds. mustrating the concept of common chemical intermed~;:::To.

(7 M(

6.

.

(0).

Discuss the general sequence of events & the main oorcrnetec ~-:!~,~ 20r:t~C in the operation ofbotch fermenter beginn!ng with oeveiopmem of :;:o:::um f!
stock culture.
(7 Me CC~;$t.. .:;:':';';:;~··.c L

.

(b) Explain the
.

important factors to be considered in the design & typical batch. farmenter.
-

(6 Mu!
-.'

(e) .v\"rite a note on operation & applicafionsof
.

.

a

sonq substrate

ferm~rHo::0~
.

n~._
1I¥1,,-,,:

I

(0)

What ore different ·.typesot media based on their cornposinon? \'niU~ Ci€ ~:.factors to be considered while formulating the fermentation mec!u:1"? (1 M.o:l . and

(b) VJntea. note on source of elemental requirements .(C & N) for mec.c

the 'precursorS to-' beodded to the medium. Give some . ..

P;~i2'~i::t:·:
(1··tJku~

excmpf9S.

(c)

.

Into account Contamination probabUityfor ·diffeent products like oiconot ·m:U . rood, - tissue.cuHure, .:waste water treafrrlent' etc, . (6 'Aar~$ ~.-.... . ~.

Discuss the nead for sterilization and. the extent <perte =~~:;::.~c( ste:!iiZCTIr.;n takir.!

-----_"

,

..

(0) Explain

trcnspcrt of oXV~:3r from a gas bubble. f9·lnSIde a cell. What ore different modes of gas~liqui'j conto~t.
varioUs st~!'l~ n.t rA~;~to.~ces in

Wtft\ a schematiC diagram
._..,..' ', '., .

.

.

(5... ;:: 10 Ma::,s; 5

(b) In biologiCal reoctors,

beodded

are the important foctorsoue or removedfrorn a microbial fluid. "

Whof

to wnlcr 'rhe

r.?Gt me.

r~ Morkt;

:c). What IS trte furldament~ ·steadYstate eqUQtion In heat transfer that relotes .totcJ heQt generation or removal rate through some heat transfer surface? What ore various configurations of heat transfer? . .' (5 Marks) . .
.

•••••

, _:."

/

I"''"ln'esvarl9'a Technological li~ersiI;J'
B. E. Biotechnology

.v S... "Ol~;~~er_

BIOPROCESS Al\~ REACTION ENGLl\'"EERING

I CODE: BT S2

I\J:ax Marks: tOO
Tim e: 3110nrs

.... diODS:

.

MODEL QUESTION P APER-I

i) ii)

Answer any five full questions All questions cary equal maks

) Explain elementary and noo elementay reactions with exanples. I) Give the general equation for temperature dependence ofrate constant and compare the related theories )erive the performance equation for ideal batch reactor at constant volume. ) An aqueous feed of A &. B 400 Ipm and 100 mole AI Litre, 200 mole
-rA = 200 CACsmolellitremin

5
5

~Liquid A decomposes by secend order kinetics and in a b~ch reactor SOO/o f A is converted o in a five minute run, Howmuch longer would it take to reach 75% conversion? .10

converted to product in a plug flow reactor. The kinetics of the reaction is represented by, A+B R
) Give ,the general graphical design procedures fcc non .isethermal reactors.

B! litre is to be
10 10 10

10

) What is residence tilDe dlltnDution aad F,C and E curve? . ) ShoW·how the reactiooequilibrium eonstant changes with temperaureand explain the ~ff~ct . temperature eqailibiium conwrSio~ , 10 I) E.'q)lain ,in detail ,the different phases oteel groWth in balch Q11ture ,to )Wde a ado on yield coetttClelil p-edidion ' 5 ) Wde anote on:inainten8llce:toefficient. 'S ~TIle' growth of S. cenMsi., on glucose under anaerobic conditions can be described by ti ~overaIJ ~it\n. . 4Ht2~ + ,lNID --. . ' 0.59 CH1.7~ N0200.4IS + O.43C3Ha~ + 1.54 C(h + ]

on

yield coefficient Y, the product yield coefficient Y ,EtOH, Yc< · .: yCJHlO and Determine the coeffICient p ,' IC •Eaain"e~the paianeten, ,1Wich are to be con~dered. wb~le desi.gning the fennenter. 1(J , Wrle a abort note on achievement and maintenance of aseptic conditions. . :5 •WhIt·..., the majoc panmeten to be controlled in fermentation process? ' ,5 ~ous compOnents of media and write briefly about their importance. 20 •Eqtlaia how, Kravalue is determined by oxygen balance technique. ' ,'. ","'. . .10 ) Detennme K1 for the following conditions lid volume lOlitre~ Vessel di~eter 50- cms~Thrbine im~eller "dianeter 10cm~' Speed 21 min, Air medimn bin~ diffusion coefficient O.S x 10 -5 cm?/sec, Air flow rate - 2 litres! mi lium'density 1.2g1an3,Medium visc~sity'O.Ol gm/an.sec. . .. 10

Det.mme

C2HsOH'+ O.036ILO

the biomass

....... e

Page No ...l

8T52

I:
. Time: 3 hrs.]

USN

I I. I I I I I I· I I

~~~V SCHEME

J

l

I

Fifth Semester B.E.1)egree Examination, Dec.06 / Jall.07 Biotechnology Bioprocess and Bioreaction Engineering
[Max. Marks: 100
Note: 1. Answer 1
lilly

FIVE full questions.

a. Differentiate between: i) Elementary and non elementary reactions ill .Molecularity and order of reaction. b. A reaction with stoichiometric equation, .
·2
-

.(08 Marks)

.!..A + B = R + _!_S has the following rate expression.
2
I
.

s

- ')CO.5 r:> A

C 'B'

.'-

ro/A -I

C" IT

en

lJ..

~

What is the rate expression for this reaction if the stoichiometric equation is written
as

A + 2. B = 2 R + S

c.

Gi ve the explanation for the same. . . . (04 Marks) w-ue a temperature dependency term, rate constant, from Arrhenius law . . ' A reaction will be completed in 30 min at 63°C. But, if the reactionis carried out at .74'C> .it takes 15 sec for. the same result. Find. the activation energy for thisreaction, (Gas constant R = 8.314 J/gmol K) (08l\larks)

2.

.a. Explain the general procedure of finding the rate equation by integral method of analysis for irreversible, unimolecular type 151 order reaction A .--:. Products, both in terms of concentration arid conversion. (lO Mads), ... nd b. It has been assumed that" the reaction A ~ Products is of 2 order. Find from the analysis of following experimental data whether this assumption is correct ornot,
,..--

(10 Marks)

Time, t sec

0 1.0
How

20 8

40 6.

60 .5

120

]80 300
.

I

.:

Concentration CA.mol/lit .
state mixed

.3

') -.J

_.

... ) ..

3.

a.

For

a steady

pertounauce

reactor and 'for t"~t order reaction, derive the equation for a constant volume and varying volume reactor in terms of.
.. (Hli\larl,~)

concentration and conversion: h. .A pure gaseous reactant (CAli = 100 mol/lit) is fed at steadystate obtained.
._----

into a mixed How reactor of volume V = 0.1 litre. For different gas feed rates, the following data were
Volumeu 'ic flow rate. Iit/hr
-

. 0 .5

v,

10.0 85.7

3.0 66.7

].2

Coneen tration C,~moIllit

50

..,

.~-.

-'.1.4

The stoichiometry of tile reaction is 2A--+R ami it is a varying volume re..ctor. i Find a rate equation for this reaction. . (1() Marks)

r: .....

I

...

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