This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Radar (3D-CAR) – ROHINI / REVATHI
CAR would be a stand-alone all weather 3D surveillance radar. This CAR is known as ROHINI in army and REVATHI in navy. The radar operates in Sband ( 2 – 4 GHz) and is capable of Track-While-Scan [TWS] of airborne targets up to 130 Kms, subject to line-of-sight clearance and radar horizon. The radar employs Multibeam coverage in the receive mode to provide for necessary discrimination in elevation data. It employs 8 beams to achieve elevation coverage of 30° and a height ceiling of 15 Kms. The antenna is mechanically rotated in azimuth to provide a 360° coverage. To get an optimum detection performance against various classes of targets, different Antenna Rotation Rate [ARR] of 7.5 & 15 RPM modes are planned to be implemented and these are selected by the operator.
The unique feature of the radar is, its operation is fully automated and controlled from a Radar Console with sufficient menus, keys and hot keys. It is also supported by a tracker ball/mouse. Rohini is an offshoot of the fully and successfully developed and demonstrated radar called as 3D Central Acquisition Radar (3D-CAR). Rohini is designed to play the role of medium range surveillance radar mounted on a mobile platform. The radar carries out detection, tracking and interception of targets with an RCS of 2m2 upto 130 Kms in range. The antenna is rotated mechanically in azimuth to provide for coverage of 3600. To achieve a higher range, the radar is capable of being operated at a lower ARR of 7.5 RPM against the normal ARR of 15 RPM. Rohini is provided with all terrain mobility and various modes of
transportation. To achieve this goal a versatile mobile platform is developed. This product is fitted on a TATRA class of vehicle.
CAR has the following subsystems
a) Multi-beam Antenna system b) Transmitter c) Receiver d) Signal Processor e) Radar Data Extractor f) Radar Data Processor g) Radar Controller h) Radar Console i) Electronic Equipment Cabin j) Data centre k) Mobile Power Source l) IFF System The Multibeam antenna system for Rohini is planned to be realized to have 360° Coverage in Azimuth and 30° Coverage in elevation. The antenna will have a wide beam in transmit mode and eight simultaneous narrow beams in receive mode to give 30° Coverage in elevation. The requirement of Transmitter is to amplify the pulsed RF signal from 1W to 140kW while maintaining the phase noise (additive noise) to –60dBc/Hz at 100Hz away as demanded by the system. The antenna can be manually positioned at different look angles in steps of 0.50, covering – 2 degrees to +1 degree from normal position. In the receive mode the eight beams cater for a height coverage of greater than 15 Kms. The IFF antenna is placed atop the main antenna
LAN interfaces are used to communicate with external systems. High-speed data transfer of target parameters can be done. This helps in data remoting upto a distance of 500 mtrs that can be extended with suitable repeaters.
The Radar Console is a local display. The color display has features for
monitoring of radar performance, the radar output selection for radar modes of operation. Interfaces to radar control signals are built-in. The Radar generates different videos viz., Analog and Digital videos at the Receiver and Signal Processor.
The Data centre is required to provide basic functions like viewing of the air picture, remote operation of radar, and radio communication. At the same time the cabin provides shelter for the operators, with reasonable level of comfort and, protected against heat, rain and dust. Data Centre also referred to as Operator’s workstation, is one of the three vehicles forming the Rohini configuration. Data centre has to meet the functional, operational, electrical and environmental requirements set by the user. The high power RF, low power RF, antenna, signal and data processor and a monitor console are all integrated into the sensor vehicle. This can, if needed, provide autonomous radar functionality. Data Centre will be separated from the sensor by maximum of 100 mts. The two are connected for exchange of data and control messages. Mobile power source is required to provide the main supply to Radar Sensor and Data Centre for electronic and mechanical units of Radar including air conditioning units. The total power requirement for both vehicles is approx. 60KVA. The radar normally operates at 15 RPM to get the optimum detection performance up to 150 Km against fighter class of aircraft. 7.5 RPM mode will be selected for getting higher detection ranges against larger crosssection targets [up to 200 Km]. 15 RPM mode is specifically provided, where faster update is needed. The Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) system is a good example of a secondary radar system that is in wide use in the military environment. A great deal of valuable information can be provided to the secondary radar by. the target’s transponder. The transponder provides an identifying code to the
secondary radar that then uses the code and an associated data base system to look up aircraft origin and destination, flight number, aircraft type and even the numbers of personnel onboard. This type of information is clearly not available from a primary radar system
Antenna Elevation coverage Antenna
Up to 50°
Up to 30°
< 2400 kg.
4. of Beams Transmitt er Receiver / Exciter Signal Processor 8+1 TWT based 3.3. TWT based 3.3% Duty Digital IF / Digital IF/DDS DDS Software Software Changes are Changes incorporated. Weight No.Indigeno are us SHARC boards incorporate d. 5. .3% Duty 7+1 6.
TRANSMITTER OF REVATHI/ ROHINI” ”3D-CAR – .
SALIENT FEATURES OF THE REVATHI / ROHINI RADAR • • • • • • • MANUAL / REMOTE OPERATION SECTOR BLANKING FACILITY FOR FULL 360 DEG AZIMUTHS USE OF 1.SCOPE: The transmitter of CAR is capable of delivering RF peak power of greater than 140 KW and RF average peak power greater than 4 KW. The transmitter is planned to be realized as production version M/S BEL Bangalore based on transfer of technology (TOT) from LRDE.5KW SSPA FOR FAIL SAFE MODE OF OPERATION MODULAR DESIGN APPROCH FOR EASE OF MAINTAINABILITY HVPS: IGBT BASED FULL BRIDGE RESONANT CONVERTER USING PHASE MODULATION TECHNIQUE FDM: SOLID STATE SWITCHING CPC: MICROCONTROLLER BASED PROTECTION . The transmitter uses fully indigenous technology established by LRDE for 3D CAR programme.
CONFIGURATION OF TRANSMITTER: • CONTROL RACK – MONITORING PANEL – CONTROL PANEL – SYNOPTIC PANEL – CPC – INVERTER • HIGH VOLTAGE RACK – FDM – COLLECTOR ASSEMBLY – CATHODE ASSEMBLY – BLOWER UNIT – HEATER UNIT • MICROWAVE RACK -TWT -RF PLUMBING -RF DRIVE UNIT -SSPA -ION PUMP CONTROLLER REQUIREMENTS: .
a failsafe mode of delivering 2 KW of peak power to antennae. .10A TWT POWER SUPPLIES CONNECTION DIAGRAM The requirement is to amplify the pulsed RF signal from 1W to 140 KW while maintaining the phase noise (additive noise) to 60 dBz/Hz at 100 Hz away as demanded by the system. In addition.ION PUMP -10V.-600 +800 RF IN RF OUT LIQUID COOLING -45kV.18kW 3kV.5kW 33kV. RTS -400 is the TWT based transmitter capable of delivering 140 KW of peak and 4 KW of average. in case of liquid coolant as redundant measure.
while maintaining phase noise performance of –60dBc/Hz at 100Hz away from carrier.1.1 ph I/P 3 Ch LiqIn LIQUID COOLING UNIT 3 Ch LiqOut Liq Cool OK Dehydrator RTS-4000 Wave-guide Switch RF OUT 3 ph I/P I/P RF IN Solid State Power Powe State Amplifi Amplifier r er Fig 2. based on TOT from LRDE. The . M/s. USA as final power amplifier.2.0KW (average) in t he frequency band of 3. BEL Bangalore is realizing the transmitter.1 to 3.5 GHz. The input output diagram of the transmitter is shown in fig 2. The transmitter is capable of delivering RF power of more than 140 kW (peak) and 4.1 General Block Schematic of the Transmitter for the Radar ‘REVATHI’ TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS: The Transmitter for 3D Surveillance radar “REVATHI” is a Coherent Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) type employing Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) Type VTS – 5754 D2 of M/s CPI.
electrical specifications of the transmitter are: .
8.2 % (max). . Duty: T on / T on + T off = 3.
11. 10. Protection: crow bar protection technique is used. This method involves grounding the power by using and gate and a triode. RF drive power level: (It has to be passed through this power level . Blanking (screening of particular area from where a lot of energy is coming): Sector blanking facility for full 360 degree azimuth.9.5 DBM to 13 DBM. before passing through TWT ) : . .
NO 1. HOT STAND BY: high voltage applied. TRANSMISSION: RF power delivered to antennae / matched load. COLD STAND BY: only LVPSU. no RF and no grid pulsing required. Full power mode: full RF power delivered to antennae (120 KW peak) Reduced power mode: The transmitter is operated at 1/ 10 of its full power based on selection of the user. QUANTITY TEMPERATURE( centi grade) HUMIDITY ALTITUDE( meters) in OPERATING . OFF: all subsystems switched off. 2. Fail safe mode: A power of 1 KW peak at required duty is delivered to antennae through Solid State Power Amplifier when liquid cooling fails.30 to 70 95% RH at 40 degrees 9100 - MODES OF OPERATION AND CONTROL: The transmitter is designed to operate in the following modes defined as adequate controlled states. . No high voltage applied. TWT heater and grid bias are switched on.20 to 55 95% RH at 40 degrees 4160 NON OPERATING .ENVIRONMENTALSPECIFICATIONS: S. 3.
DIMENSION AND WEIGHT: Over all size of the transmitter (excluding liquid cooling unit) HEIGHT: 1800 mm. high transmitter heat loads is Dematerialized water / Glycol to catch for operation power circulator RF dummy load and high voltage power supplies and forced air-cooling for all other sub-assemblies. GENERAL COOLING REQUIREMENT: The system is a forced liquid-to-air type. a dry air with low dew point and dust particles should be applied for wave-guide .TRANSMITTER CONTROL:Local: To control through control panel on the transmitter. Remote Control: to control from the operator console through control interface RS 422. WIDTH: 1800 mm DEPTH: 800 mm. The primary coolant used for circulation through this The transmitter employs liquid cooling for TWT. Independent of air-cooling. used for cooling systems of the SBand Transmitter. from -20°C to 55°C. Weight of the transmitter (including liquid cooling unit) should not exceed 1200 kg.
Forced air – cooling is employed to other components using the ambient air properly filtered to ensure dust – free air.5 kW of peak power to antenna. 3. High Power Ferrite Isolator and high voltage power supplies are cooled with de – ionized water and ethylene glycol mixture (50: 50). FUNCTION 1. The Transmitter amplifies the pulsed RF signal from 1W to 120 kW while maintaining the phase noise (additive noise) to -60 dBc/Hz at 100 Hz away as demanded by the system. Liquid cooling distribution is realized in such a way that the liquid cooling unit will have a minimal pressure on the connections.5754 D2 of M/s CPI. General design of the cooling is worked out in such a way that the temperature rise for outlet coolant is around 10°C than the inlet. 2 It employs a Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) Type VTS . A dry air with low dew point and dust particles is applied for wave guide channel. as a stand by option. In addition. The TWT. USA as final power amplifier. The isolator protects the transistor power amplifiers against .pressurizing and for TWT. Low power amplifier stage (RF Driver) amplifies pulsed RF signal from 1 mW (0 dBm) to 3 .4 W which is necessary to drive the TWT amplifier. in case of failure of liquid coolant. to ensure fail-safe mode of delivering 1. a Solid State Power Amplifier (SSPA) is provided. The total heat load on liquid to air cooling unit is 25kW and for forced air cooling 3 kW. This is followed by an isolator. The RF Driver stage uses a Pin attenuator transistor followed by power amplifiers to amplify RF signal from 0 dBm to 37 dBm.
3 to 4 W) is given to the input of TWT. H-bends and straight sections are used. collector voltage and current. Synoptic Panel consists of LEDs. flexible sections. a video signal is generated to cut off the RF drive through control and protection circuit. High power RF plumbing components are connected at the output of TWT. detection and indication of errors. which is used for measuring the transmitted and reflected power. 6. is used to show the value of cathode voltage & current. They also show the fault. Three Phase power supply is passed through an EMI/EMC Filter unit to reduce EMI/EMC interference. The RF Driver output (approx. Grid + ve and -ve voltages and RF . The sampled output of the DC is used for monitoring the input RF signal to the TWT. mounted on Synoptic panel. 5. To connect all the components in the required form. in the transmitter. The TWT output is given to an arc detector followed by a ferrite circulator. a RF switch and an attenuator to cater for the three transmission modes. The output of the DDC is given to Antenna. which amplifies the pulsed RF signal from 3 Watts to a level of 120 to 185 kW at the TWT output. The output of Ferrite Circulator is given to High Power Dual Directional Coupler (DDC). 7. E-bends. All these are achieved by dedicated hardware and software.excessive reflections from TWT. The Ferrite circulator is used to protect the microwave tube against Collector Supply failure /damage due to reflected power in case of excessive VSWR at Antenna input port. LEDs are used to show the status of the transmitter. If reflected power exceeds the specified limit of 2:1 VSWR. 4. The signal is thereafter passed through a DC. if any. continuous monitoring and interlocking of various parameters. It also displays the Filament voltage and current. The output of filter unit is given to Power Distribution unit to distribute power to various units of the transmitter. The LCD display. Control and Protection Circuit ensures the sequential switching ON of the transmitter. switches and LCD display.
high Voltage Power supplies and RF dummy load are cooled with de-ionized water and ethylene glycol mixture (50:50). High Voltage Power Supply unit (HVPSU) is used to supply high voltage to collector and cathode of the TWT. The Floating Deck Modulator (FDM) unit generates filament voltage with surge current protection and also generates grid +ve and grid -ve voltages. Power Supply Unit (PSU). The . control lamps. Forced air-cooling is employed to cool other components using ambient air which is filtered to ensure dust free air. 12. The Dry Air unit ensures that the wave guide is at all times pressurized and dry. Switching of grid voltage as per pulse width and PRF requirements are also provided by FDM. 9. At the upper part of each unit. control and measurement connectors.Power Ferrite Isolator. above the door.forward power. Cooling Unit is used to cool the various components of the transmitter. The TWT. and Control Unit (CU). 10. Transmitter pulse input. All racks have front doors properly gasket for protection against EMI. CBs and high voltage meters are placed. hour meters. The output of the Inverter unit is given to HV rack for generation of Cathode and Collector voltages of the TWT amplifier. High 11. General Mechanical Design The transmitter consists of three metal racks containing respectively three functional units: Microwave Unit (MU). 8. The Inverter unit converts the incoming ac supply to DC and then converts the DC to high frequency AC (Pulse width controlled square wave) operating at 20 kHz. slip panels containing RF input.
Transmitter is housed in 3 separate racks. High voltage rack Consists of all high voltage components and FDM capacitor. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF HIGH VOLTAGE RACK . Control Rack Consisting of Monitoring and Diagnostics circuits. Control Circuits. 3. microwave plumbing components. Microwave Rack consists of TWT. 2. SSPA and RF driver. 1. Power distribution along with line filter unit and high voltage inverter unit.
The transmitter consists of the following racks: HIGH VOLTAGE RACK: It consists of FDM. cathode and .
Heater unit is used for removing the moisture within the rack. synoptic panel. control panel and monitoring panel. MICROWAVE RACK: it consists of the low power amplifier.AC components probes in cathode and collector are used to get the sample of output voltage and same is used to control the pulse width of the inverter to achieve a regulation of . Wave-guide switch & dummy load Solid state power amplifier (2 kW) for low power transmission mode (e) (f) (g) (h) Protection.2%. FDM is the most important component and it provides the filament supply. It also communicates with the CPC via optical links. monitoring and diagnostic circuits Low voltage supply TWT ion pump supply Resistive TWT anode divider The microwave unit consists of the . high power TWT amplifier. CONTROL RACK: The rack houses the inverter. ion pump supply. Blower unit provides cooling for cathode and cathode assemblies. grid bias and grid positive and negative supply to the TWT. Cathode assembly provides the cathode supply and collector assembly provides the collector supply to TWT. ferrite isolator. following functional assemblies: (a) (b) (c) (d) Low power amplifier [RF drive unit] High power TWT amplifier RF Plumbing. control and protection circuit.collector assembly.. heater and blower unit. and high power dual direction coupler and wave guide channel. The main function of the high voltage rack is to provide high voltage power supply to cathode and collector of the TWT.
carbon resistor block and isolation transformer . Grid positive and grid negative supply card to generate grid bias and grid positive supply. Switch card to switch TWT between + 870 V and – 600 V. FDM transformer. FDM consists of the following: 1. 4. The carbon resistors are mounted on the front of the FDM rack. + 5 V and + 24 V. The FDM sub rack is at a distance of 390 mm from the front. LVPSU to generate all low voltage power supplies like + 15 V. The cooling of entire sub assembly is taken care by mounting blowers at the rear end of the compartment. The isolation transformer is also mounted in front of the carbon resistors. Filament supply and the timer card to generate filament supply for TWT using fly – back converter. 2. The FDM assembly is being locally cooled by fans housed inside. The voltmeters.(i) (j) Microwave power measurement circuits Air cooling components CONSRUCTION OF FDM (Floating Deck Modulator) ASSEMBLY: The FDM assembly is on a space of 420 mm square with a depth of 700 mm. 5. 3. . the Floating Deck Modulator assembly houses FDM. hour meters are fixed on to the front panel of FDM assembly. the FDM assembly is covered on all sides by FRP sheets and also floats on FRP mounts machined suitably for the purpose .
) . 3. All circuits are housed inside an equipotential surface. Generates filament supply for TWT with surge current protection.600 to 1100(adjustable.) 2. Grid negative voltage: . 2. 3. Provides switching function. SPECIFICATIONS OF FDM: VOLTAGE SPECIFICATIONS: Voltage generation: 1. Voltage regulation: 0. Grid positive voltage: 800 to 1100(adjustable.) 4.FUNCTIONS OF FDM: 1. Grid current: 20 mA (adjustable) 6. Filament voltage: 8V to 11V (adjustable. Generates grid bias and the grid positive supplies. Filament current: 10 A with surge current limited to 15 A. All the circuitry necessary to achieve the following functions is floating at the cathode potential of – 45 V DC and needs special consideration in engineering.01% 7.) 5.01% 4. Communication to CPC on optical link. Voltage regulation: 0. (Switching of TWT grid as per pulse width and the PRF requirement.
Short circuit protection. 4 microseconds. (The time taken by pulse to rise) 5) Pulse fall time : < 0. 4 (KHz) 4) Pulse rise time: < 0. 25. PROTECTIONS OF FDM: 1. 7) Drop on the top of pulse :< 1V for 25 microsecs.8.5 microsecs. 1.800 to 1100 pulse. 2) Pulse width: 50. . 3) PRF: . Voltage regulation: 0.1% Switch specifications: 1) Switch output: . (The time taken by pulse to fall.5 microsecs. 2.) 6) Pulse jitter: < 10 nsec.5. Pulse width / PRF PROTECTION. Grid current: 10 mA (adjustable) 9.
It is a switched mode power supply and topology followed is fly – back converter. 2) FILAMENT SUPPLY AND TIMER CARD – 1 The filament supply is a . Thermal protection. four of which are used to convert the grid positive. The switching device is protected against over currents by . Overload protection 4. The supply operates at a frequency of 25 KHz and PWM scheme is followed for regulation. filament voltage and filament current samples to corresponding frequencies. which are transmitted to CPC (cathode protection card) by optical links and optical receivers to convert light signals to electrical pulses. Voltage too high and too low (window) protection 5. DESCRIPTION OF VARIOUS CARDS USED IN FDM: 1) V TO F CARD: This card contains six V to F converter (AD 650). This consists of four optical transmitters for converting electrical pulses into light signals. grid negative.10 V/ 10 A supply for TWT filament.3.
5) NEGATIVE GRID SUPPLY CARD . . It is also provided with hard current limiting by means of a series limiting resistor which is bypassed by operating a relay after 5 min from initial power on. The supply has electronic current limiting which limits the initial current the TWT initial surge current to 15 A and operates in current control mode until the filament warms up.three of these supplies (+ 15. + 15. The PCB also generates the filament current samples for current control and for transmission to CPC on optical link through V/F Card. The time delay of relay operation is controlled by 555 timer circuit. 100W resistor in series with the filament at power on and passing it by operating a relay after 5 minutes.15. 4) LVPSU CARD It generates all low voltages power supplies like the + 24.pulse to pulse current limiting using a current transformer and current limit comparator of UC 1526. + 5) are generated using the DC – DC converter. + 5 V. the card also generates 115 V DC / 2 A supply . which is used as input for filament and grid fly back converter.15. . The current control feature is available only when this card is operated along with filament supply and timer card – 2 . 3) FILAMENT SUPPLY AND TIMER CARD – 2 This is responsible for the hard current limiting feature which is achieved by inserted 1 ohm.
COLLECTOR ASSEMBLY . the switching device is protected against over currents by pulse to pulse current limiting using a current transformer and current limiting comparator card IC 1526. The supply operates at a frequency of 25 KHz and PWM scheme is followed for regulation. The circuit configuration enables availability of continuous grid – ve at TWT grid even if the bottom switch becomes faulty.550 to . 10 mA.back converter.back converter.The card is capable of generating output voltage of +700 to +1000 V DC . 6) POSITIVE GRID SUPPLY CARD The grid supply is a switched mode power supply and the topology followed is a fly . 25 mA.The card is capable of generating output voltage of . based on input command.650 V DC . 7) SWITCH CARD It uses a fast high voltage switch of BHELKE make to switch the grid between + 870 V and – 600 V at required pulse width and PRF. The supply operates at a frequency of 25 KHz and PWM scheme is followed for regulation. the switching device is protected against over currents by pulse to pulse current limiting using a current transformer and current limiting comparator card IC 1526.The grid supply is a switched mode power supply and the topology followed is a fly .
It consists of a collector transformer. COLLECTOR EHT METER CARD Collector EHT meter card is used to give the sample input to EHT meter and display the differential voltage (collector w. High voltage probe CP2 provides interlock to inverter and to CPC for proper collector. a high voltage moulded diode resistor block. Some high voltage distribution blocks are also used. The two terminal spark gap is for protection of transmitter.002% on pulse to pulse basis. The high voltage compensated probe CP1 is used to get the sample output voltage and the same is used to control the pulse width of the inverted to achieve the required regulation of 0. High voltage CP3 probe gives a sample to collector EH meter card which also takes a sample of cathode voltage to give the metering output for cathode and collector voltage. CATHODE ASSEMBLY The cathode assembly provides .The collector assembly provides 33 KV dc supply required for TWT amplifier.t cathode) as EHT meter. a two terminal spark gap.r. high voltage capacitors. two high voltage DC probes.45 KV DC supply required for the TWT . output received at TP6 and TP7 (GND) is approximately 0 volts which is difference of TP1 and TP3 input voltage. The collector transformer takes 550 volts 20 KHZ inputs from the inverter assembly and gives the required 33 KV DC output. a high voltage AC compensated probe and a collector EHT meter card. When +5 volts is applied at TP1. TP3 and TP4 (GND).
HEATER UNIT The heater unit contains four heaters. housed in control rack.amplifier. The droop circuit is used for monitoring the droop voltage on the monitoring panel. BLOWER UNIT The blower unit contains twelve blowers. a three terminal spark gap. a crowbar trigger unit and a droop circuit. each of 250 rating. a high voltage diode block. resistor plate assembly. two high voltage DC probes. a high wattage capacitor. With the help of this unit. The heater unit gets 230 V AC supply as soon as the transmitter is switched on and this supply is cut off automatically after ten minute. The high voltage compensated probe CP1 is used to get the sample output voltage and the same is used to control the pulse width of the inverted to achieve the required regulation of 0. Some high voltage distribution blocks are also used. each operating at 230 volts AC. The . In case of fault CPC gives a control signal to the crowbar trigger unit. moisture is removed before high voltage is applied. a high voltage AC compensated probe.002% on pulse to pulse basis. High voltage CP3 probe gives a sample to collector EHT meter card. It consists of a cathode transformer. which gives a 25 KHz pulse to the three terminal spark gap to switch off the high voltage supply. High voltage probe CP2 provides interlock to inverter and to CPC for proper collector. The cathode transformer takes 550 volts. 20 KHz input from the inverter assembly and give the required 45 KV DC output.
Low Power amplifier stage (RF Driver) amplifies pulsed RF signal from 1mW (0dBm) to 3-4 W.unit is used for cooling of the transmitter. E-bends. Ferrite Isolator is used to protect the microwave tube against failure / damage due to reflected power in case of excess VSWR at Antenna input port. flexible sections. MICROWAVE RACK: It consists of low power Low Power Driver for TWT. Hbends and straight sections are used. DESCRIPTION OF VARIOUS COMPONENTS OF MICRO – WAVE RACK: . necessary to drive the TWT amplifier. Twt is the main power amplifier used in transmitter. traveling Wave Tube (TWT). It amplifies the pulse RF signal from 2W to a level of 125 to 185 KW at TWT output. Ferrite Isolator. High Power Dual Directional Coupler (DDC) is used for measuring the transmit power and reflected power. Dual Directional Coupler and Wave guide Channel. To connect all components in the required form.
necessary to drive the TWT amplifier b) High Power Microwave Stage High Power RF stage consists of: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) Ferrite Circulator Dual Directional Coupler (DDC) High Power dummy load Wave guide channel Wave guide switch Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) TWT is the main power amplifier used in the transmitter. A coupled cavity TWT type VTS – 5754 D2 is selected for this transmitter. Diagram of TWT .a) Low Power Driver for TWT (RF Driver) Low Power amplifier stage (RF Driver) amplifies pulsed RF signal from 1mW (0dBm) to 2 – 4 W.
Ferrite circulator Ferrite circulator is used to protect the microwave tube against failure / damage due to reflected power in case of excess VSWR at Antenna input port. Dual Directional Coupler High Power Dual Directional Coupler (DDC) is used for measuring the Transmit Power and reflected power. The Four port Ferrite circulator type SC3-19 is used as an isolator. video signal is generated to cut-off the RF drive through control and protection unit. . If reflected power exceeds the specified limit of 2:1 VSWR.
This signal is amplified to about 7 times of the input. Transistor Q1 is ON when output at U 2 . Ebends. The signal from crystal detector is given to the input of this card.1 is high. PEAK DETECTOR CARD The function of this card is to detect the peak amplitude of the input signal after amplifying it. which is of the order of mill volts. Wave-guide Channel To connect all the components in the required form. The peak is detected and its output is DC signal in the order of volts. AD847 OPAMP amplifies it to about 7 times.High power dummy load High power dummy load is used to test the transmitter with out connecting the antenna during standalone testing. H-bends and straight sections are used. The DC output corresponding to the peak amplitude of the input signal is measured at J 1 – 9 and GND. Standard W/G sections are being used for this purpose. The output RC time constant is adjusted such a way that the DC value holds . IC 139 is used as a comparator. When pulsed signal corresponding to the duty of transmitter is detected at TP1 and TP2. The card has two peak detector channels. flexible sections.
the output should die down within minimum time and nor should be too small. where in the input will absent. . before the next pulse comes. SIGNAL COMPILER CARD Signal compiler card consist of two 25. that the output DC value droops down from the peak value at a much higher rate.till the next pulse arrives.Pin Male Connector to provide one to one connection between Microwave Rack and CPC. the time constant derived by R5 and C1 should neither be too large. because in case of fault. six 9.pin Female Connector.
Electronic Equipment Cabin (EEC) Electronic Equipment Cabin (EEC) has the following subsystems • • • • • • • • • • • • Transmitter Solid State Power Amplifier (SSPA) Signal Data Processor (SDP) Display Console IFF Master Control Unit (MCU) Deployment Console Unit (DCU) Dehydrator Advance Land Navigation System (ALNS) PC Power Distribution Panel (PDP) EMI Filter .
.Do’s & Don’ts Radar positioning 1. Ground slop should not be more than 4 degree for leveling. Ground should be hard enough to sustain the pressure of elephant legs. 2. Radar should be 500 mtr away from high tension line. Ideally terrain should be with zero obstruction upto 500 mtr radius. If this condition does not meet. Obstruction diagram for short range with the help of Theodolite and visibility diagram for long range to be done with the help of map of concern location. 3. 5. at least area of interest should meet the requirement 4.
PROJECT CENTRAL ACQUISITION RADAR (CAR) UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF: BY: AGARWAL SUBMITTED TUSHAR UPT NO. 634 ECE BEL. . GHAZIABAD GHAZIABAD (070271111) AKGEC.
the student gets the real experience for working in the industry environment. which immensely helps in them in building their career. which means that one get to know the limitation. During this period.PREFACE This six week training program is a part of 4-year B. Practical industrial training mainly aims at making one aware of industrial environment. course. . One also gets an opportunity to see from close quarter that indicates management relation. assembling and manufacturing of equipment. This training mainly involves industrial and complete knowledge about designing. constraints and freedom under which an engineer works. Most of the theoretical knowledge that has been gained during the course of their studies is put to test here.Tech. Apart from this the student gets an opportunity to learn the latest technology.
I offer my sincere gratitude to my guide ________________ for his continuous guidance and support. they proved themselves inspiring.________________ and all the members of C.R radar assembly for helping me throughout my training. The training schedule prepared by them gave me an opportunity to have an insight of working methodology and procedures of BEL. I would like to thank Mr. helpful. TUSHAR AGARWAL . productive and fruitful to me. HR Department for arranging my training for the duration of six weeks._________________ . I would like to thank department of HRD for the cooperation.A. My special thanks to whole staff of BEL for accepting me as a trainee & helping me in Radar assembly.ACKNOWLEGEMENT First of all I would like to express my gratitude to Mr. It will be in debt on my part if I forgot to give my thanks to all those visible and invisible hands that helped me throughout my training period.
TUSHAR AGARWAL. .CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Mr. All his work is genuine and original and was timely completed. student of B. A project on “Central Acquisition Radar (3D-CAR) Transmitter” was assigned to him. GHAZIABAD successfully completed his six weeks training in BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED.Tech (Electronics and Communication). AJAY KUMAR GARG ENGINEERING COLLEGE. GHAZIABAD. In this period he worked hard and made valuable contribution in developing the project.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.