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ABSTRACT

Tessellation and polyhedral are two types of art. Tessellations have been around for centuries and are still quite prevalent today. However the study of tessellations in mathematics has a relatively short history. In 1619, Johannes Kepler did one of the first documented studies of tessellations when he wrote about the regular and semi regular tessellation, which are coverings of a plane with regular polygons. Through history, polyhedral have been closely associated with the world of art. The peak of this relationship was certainly in the Renaissance. For some Renaissance artists, polyhedral simply provided challenging models to demonstrate their mastery of perspective. For others, polyhedral also were symbolic of deep religious or philosophical truths. For other artists, polyhedral simply provide inspiration and a storehouse of forms with various symmetries from which to draw on. This is especially so in twentieth century sculpture, free of the material and representational constraints of earlier conceptions of sculpture. In this assignment, we are going to provide two models of polyhedral and two designs of tessellation for each member. Besides that, we are ordered to provide the notes of both. In this report, we also will show the procedures or steps to create the models. The explanations comprised here are so helpful. Hopefully the whole contents of this particular assignment could help those deeply want to know about polyhedral and tessellation.

KERJA KURSUS PENDEK

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NUMERICAL LITERACY

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POLYHEDRAL 2.1 NOTES OF POLYHEDRAL

A polyhedron (plural polyhedra or polyhedrons) is often defined as a geometric solid with flat faces and straight edges. The word polyhedron has slightly different meanings in geometry and algebraic geometry. In geometry, a polyhedron is simply a three-dimensional solid which consists of a collection of polygons, usually joined at their edges. The word derives from the Greek poly (many) plus the Indo-European hedron (seat). A polyhedron is the three-dimensional version of the more general polytope (in the geometric sense), which can be defined in arbitrary dimension. The plural of polyhedron is "polyhedra" (or sometimes "polyhedrons").

A convex polyhedron can be formally defined at the set of solutions to a system of linear inequalities.

KERJA KURSUS PENDEK

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NUMERICAL LITERACY

2.1.1 DEFINITION Any polyhedron can be built up from different kinds of element or entity, each associated with a different number of dimensions: 3 dimensions: The body is bounded by the faces, and is usually the volume enclosed by them.

2 dimensions: A face is a polygon bounded by a circuit of edges, and usually including the flat (plane) region inside the boundary. These polygonal faces together make up the polyhedral surface.

1 dimension: An edge joins one vertex to another and one face to another, and is usually a line segment. The edges together make up the polyhedral skeleton.

0 dimensions: A vertex (plural vertices) is a corner point. -1 dimension: The nullity is a kind of non-entity required by abstract theories.

A defining characteristic of almost all kinds of polyhedra is that just two faces join along any common edge. This ensures that the polyhedral surface is continuously connected and does not end abruptly or split off in different directions. A polyhedron is a 3-dimensional example of the more general polytope in any number of dimensions.

KERJA KURSUS PENDEK

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NUMERICAL LITERACY

2.1.2 TYPES OF POLYHEDRAL There are three types of common polyhedral which are platonic solid or known as regular polyhedral, prisms and pyramids.

2.1.1.1

Platonic Solid or Regular Polyhedral

There are only five regular polyhedral known to mathematics as the Platonic Solids which are; tetrahedron (four equilateral triangles); hexahedron (aka cube, six squares); octahedron (eight equilateral triangles); dodecahedron (12 pentagons); and icosahedrons (20 equilateral triangles).

KERJA KURSUS PENDEK

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NUMERICAL LITERACY Types of Platonic Solid Tetrahedron • • • Cube • • • Octahedron • • • Dodecahedron • • • Icosahedrons • • KERJA KURSUS PENDEK Characteristics Four faces Four vertices Six edges Six faces Eight vertices Twelve edges Eight faces Six vertices Twelve edges Twelve faces Twenty vertices Thirty edges Twenty faces Twelve vertices Thirty edges • 5 .

2.2 Prism A prism is also a polyhedron.1. it also implies that every vertex is regular). which means the cross section will be polygon ( a straight-edged figure). That is mean. For example. There are two kinds of prism which are regular prism and irregular prism. It has no curve sides. A regular prism is when the cross section is regular or in the other words. Below are the examples of regular prism: 1) Regular Prism Types of Regular Prism Triangular Prism Cross-section KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 6 .1. it will call Platonic Solids or Regular Polyhedral if it is vertextransitive. a cylinder is not a prism.NUMERICAL LITERACY As a conclusion. all sides will be flat. A prism has the same cross section all along its length. And the irregular prism is when the edge lengths of a shape not equal. it is a shape with equal edge lengths. A prism is named according to the shape of its base. edge-transitive and face-transitive (this implies that every face is the same regular polygon.

NUMERICAL LITERACY Square Prism Cube Prism Pentagonal Prism 2) Irregular Prism KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 7 .

3 Pyramid A particularly popular polyhedron is the pyramid.1.NUMERICAL LITERACY These models are called irregular prism because the pentagon is not regular in shape. 2. there are three possible pyramids which are triangular pyramid. square pyramid and pentagonal pyramid. If we restrict ourselves to regular polygons for faces. Types of Pyramids Triangular Pyramid Base Square Pyramid KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 8 . All the pyramids are named after the shape of their base.1. the models are still known as prism and polyhedral. But.

The outer colour of the entire model will be the same as the outer colour of the Preliminary bases.2. the procedure also have diagram and picture in order to simplify others to create these polyhedral too. this model combines two standards bases.2.NUMERICAL LITERACY Pentagonal Pyramid 2. 2. Use 12 sheets of fairly sturdy paper.1. the Waterbomb base and the Preliminary base. we will show the procedures or steps to make the models and also a brief explanation about the both models.2 DESIGNS OF POLYHEDRAL In this assignment. Besides. 2.1 PROCEDURE KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 9 . to form a rigid modular construction. For this part.1 SPINNER (OCTAHEDRON) One of many wonderful designs by the late Lewis Simon. we had created two types of polyhedral.

Step 3: Allow the Waterbomb base to reform. Open out one of each base slightly. locking the sheets of paper together. and allow the Preliminary base to wrap around the outside of the Waterbomb base. lining up the creases in the two bases. Step 2: Mountains fold each of the four corners of the Preliminary base inward.NUMERICAL LITERACY Step 1: Fold six Waterbomb and six Preliminary bases. two sheets folded as one. over the outer raw edges of the Waterbomb base. Repeat for remaining bases. the the KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 10 .

until the two edges of what were the Preliminary bases meet. as shown. forming a triangular section in the centre. but underneath the raw edge created by the Preliminary base.NUMERICAL LITERACY Step 4: Join any two units together by slipping the raw (Waterbomb) point of the first unit over the raw point of the other. KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 11 . Blow hard against the top point of the model and the spinner will really spin. holding firmly. Step 5: In the same way. join adjacent points of the first two units into similar points of a third unit. Step 6: Add the final units in the same way the last unit is the most difficult to achieve. To activate the model place the points of the completed spinner into the centre of your palms. Push in all the way.

To construct this model.NUMERICAL LITERACY 2. we used 21cm x 21cm colour papers in order to construct the model. Besides.1. to construct this octahedron we need to cut 12 pieces of square paper and in order to construct this model.2. we had constructed the octahedron. we made 6 units of module and join it together.2 DESCRIPTION ABOUT THE MODEL For the first model. KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 12 .

hopefully this model is helpful to use in any condition as an art material. y. the model named as Spinner. teachers can do origami for this model to use in the class. It is because the model is easy to be spin. It is suit to be placed anywhere except in the toilet. And of course the colour itself can make the watcher feels happy due to the colouring style. Octahedron See the octahedron rotating around the x. The most appropriate place to be shown is on the table especially on the study table. They love to spin and play with because it is easy to hold and not too hard. this model also suitable to be a decoration element. Besides. KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 13 . So. So.NUMERICAL LITERACY Actually. z axis. It also was functioning as a toy for kids. It is because the pattern and shape are suitable to be laid on.

each with 4 edges meeting Edges: 12 Dihedral angle: 109°28' The Symmetry Surface Area KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 14 .NUMERICAL LITERACY Properties of the Octahedron • • • • Faces: 8 triangles Vertices: 6.

= r√2. Then the area of one triangle is (a × h) / 2. where h = √[a² .(a/2)²]. by the Pythagoras Theorem.NUMERICAL LITERACY Let r = the distance from centres to one vertex. And the area of the octahedron is 8 × the area of one triangle. The volume of one pyramid = (base area × height) /3. In the case of the regular KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 15 . The length (a) of edge. Volume The octahedron can be divided into two pyramids.

• Number of vertices in an octahedron = 6 KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 16 . the base area = a². i. V = (√2 / 3)a³ Introduction to regular octahedron: In geometry. The properties and Cartesian coordinates of a regular octahedron are given below in detail.e. And so.NUMERICAL LITERACY octahedron. the volume of the octahedron = 2 × the volume of pyramid. A regular octahedron is a Platonic solid composed of eight equilateral triangles. four of which meet at each vertex. A regular octahedron is shown in the below figure. an octahedron is a polyhedron with eight faces.. (Source: Wikipedia) Properties and Cartesian of Regular Octahedron: • Number of faces in an octahedron = 8. it has 8 equilateral triangular faces. An octahedron is the three-dimensional case of the more general concept of a cross polytope.

0). as here.NUMERICAL LITERACY • • • Number of edges in an octahedron = 12 An octahedron is a regular convex deltahedron. The area and volume of regular octahedron is explained below with examples which help you to learn more about regular octahedron. ±). say 4 x 4cm/ 11/2 x 11/2in. for a practice version. 4} In octahedron. 0).2. ±1. 2. makes attractive earrings. This modular design is very original.2 JAPANESE BROCADE (HEXAHEDRON) This design. (0. so begin with this colour face down. featuring curved surfaces. 2.2.2. Only one shows on the finished unit. the vertices has the cartesian coordinates of (±1. An octahedron has a Schlafi symbol of {3. 0. 0. by Minako Ishibasi. which seem to create the illusion of rings encircling the central cube shape.1 PROCEDURE Step 1: KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 17 . Two squares each of three different colours can also be used. begin with six squares of fairly sturdy paper. when folded from extremely small squares. (0.

Step 4: Fold all four corners inward to lie on the horizontal quarter creases. to establish the centre line.NUMERICAL LITERACY Begin by folding the square in half in one direction. Two of these creases will already have been made. Fold the left vertical edge downward to lie on the lower edge. KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 18 . Step 3: Unfold the paper completely. Step 2: Fold the right vertical edges upward on a diagonal crease to lie along the upper edge. Fold upper and lower edges into meet this crease.

Step 7: Peel back the inner vertical edge of the flap folded in step 6. on an existing parallel crease. while at the same time folding up the lower edge. Step 6: Fold the lower right flap inward on existing crease. This perform on both a swivel and a squash fold. Step 8: KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 19 . made in step 2.NUMERICAL LITERACY Step 5: Hold the upper and lower edges into lie along the horizontal quarter creases. also on the existing crease.

and allow the flap folded in the step 9 to tuck in behind it. Flatten the model once more.NUMERICAL LITERACY Step 7 completed. Step 9: Repeats step 6-7 for the top left flap. Step 11: Step 10 completed. Step 10: Pull out the lower border. KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 20 .

and fold each of sharp points to obtuse angles of the parallelogram. KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 21 . the Step 13: Allow the flaps folded in step 12 to be unfolded slightly.NUMERICAL LITERACY Step 12: Turn the model over. to rest at right angles to the central squares shape. Make five more identical units. as shown.

NUMERICAL LITERACY Step 14: To assemble. piece. the the way KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 22 . Step 15: Continue by adding a third unit. all the around the model. slide the point of any one unit under the central section of another unit as shown. assembling the central cube piece by If holding with two units of three different colours. All units are joined in the same way. you should add unit of same colours opposite each other.

allowing them project upward slightly and form circular “bands” around the model. Step 18: Finally. squeeze together the four that appear on each of the six of the central cube. flaps faces to the KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 23 .NUMERICAL LITERACY Step 16: Under construction. Step 17: Assembly finished.

That is why we decided to choose it and felt happy after finished it. it can be folded.2. in our cube design. we used colour paper. It looks like a flower when it is opened.2 DESCRIPTION ABOUT THE MODEL The second model is the cube or hexahedron. the model have an ecstatic value on it.NUMERICAL LITERACY 2. KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 24 . the name was given for the model is Japanese Brocade. Actually. And our cube also can transform to another shape.2. To make this cube. Whether it is interesting to watch or vice versa. That’s meant. It shapes like cube and clearly can be seen as cube after done. but the most important thing is the shape of the models. almost any type of paper can be used. But. We wonder how they got the name. As long as the paper is square.

Three edges join at each corner to form a vertex. It is because it is look more natural and peace.NUMERICAL LITERACY The model is appropriate to be placed anywhere. we felt closer to nature. Even animals also make the flower as a part of their life. it will become more priceless. KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 25 . So. Moreover. which are also sometimes referred to as the Platonic solids. The cube can also be called a regular hexahedron. It is one of the five regular polyhedrons. we thought that we have to expose a natural phenomenon for this assignment. if we are great in colouring. Hexahedron Cube A cube is a region of space formed by six identical square faces joined along their edges. Finally. Perhaps. we can teach students the hexahedron origami so that they know how to make friend with nature in order to save our world from being destroyed. All people love flower.

Edge A line segment formed where two edges meet.NUMERICAL LITERACY Parts of a cube Face Also called facets or sides. so each face has four equal sides and all four interior angles are right angles. A cube has 12 edges. cutting through its interior. Face Diagonals Space Diagonals Face diagonals are line segments linking the opposite corners of a face. Vertex A point formed where three edges meet. for a total of 12 in the cube. A cube has 8 vertices. all 12 edges are the same length. KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 26 . Because all faces are squares and congruent to each other. A cube has 4 space diagonals. In the figure above. Space diagonals are line segments linking the opposite corners of a cube. A cube has six faces which are all squares. Each face has two. drag the 'explode' slider to see the faces separated for clarity.

A = 6s2 because there are six faces Each edge is perpendicular to the adjacent edges.NUMERICAL LITERACY Properties of a cube Volume The volume is s3 where s is the length of one edge. 8 vertices. and 12 edges. the cube does not have the least number of faces or vertices. Of the Platonic solids. area of each face = s2 Each face is a square of side length s. but it is surely the simplest by any other measure. this page will not waste too much effort on tedious derivations of obvious measures. Three faces meet at each vertex. In the following. we consider a cube of edge length s. The Cube The cube might also be called a regular hexahedron. Surface Area The surface area of a cube is 6s2. For that reason. KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 27 . where s is the length of one edge. so this follows from the definition of the diheral angle. It has 6 square faces.

The cube is the dual of the octahedron. so s is the diameter of the inscribed sphere. V = s3 Other Properties The cube has 48 symmetries. One other Platonic solid can be found inside the cube. A cross-section of a cube can be an equilateral triangle.NUMERICAL LITERACY The distance between two opposite faces can be measured along an edge. a square. The inradius must be half of that. Pick four of the vertices and fit a tetrahedron. or a regular hexagon. KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 28 . and vice verse. Connect the centres of the adjacent faces of a cube results in an octahedron.

which in KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 29 .1 NOTES OF TESSELLATION In Latin. tessella is a small cubical piece of clay.0 TESSELLATION 3.NUMERICAL LITERACY A planar projection of a cube can be a square or a regular hexagon. square. 3. The word "tessella" means "small square" (from "tessera". stone or glass used to make mosaics.

Tessellations are tiling of the same shape. Often the special shapes that tessellate are actually based on transferring a section of a tessellating shape from one side to another so that the area is conserved. In geometrical terminology a tessellation is the pattern resulting from the arrangement of regular polygons to KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 30 . it is called a semi-tessellation. When two regular shapes are used together to cover space. Tessellations are important as they form the basis of area measurements. they are needed to make walls and floors of buildings. Triangles and quadrilaterals can tessellate as well as other shapes. These are often called nibble tessellations and they were used as starting points in Escher’s art. 3. It corresponds with the everyday term tiling which refers to applications of tessellations. The tiles join together without gaps or overlaps and with a pattern that allows the tessellation to continue in both directions infinitely. they are found in nature. Tessellations work because angles at a point add up to 360°. Certain regular polygons will tessellate and other special polygons will also tessellate. and they can be used effectively in artistic creations.1 DEFINITION A tessellation is called when a shape created is repeated over and over again covering a plane without any gaps or overlaps. Many cultures have developed interesting tessellating and other patterns. often made of glazed clay.1.NUMERICAL LITERACY its turn is from the Greek word for "four"). they are called semi-regular tessellations. If two shapes are used.

Tessellations of 3D shapes are a way of considering volume. square. The square tessellations can be folded up into one of the five platonic solids which is cube. see the diagram below. This works for the triangle. These three tessellations have interesting features. Tiles with certain designs can be tessellated to produce a myriad of interesting patterns and continuous curve designs.1. For example.2. For hexagons. it cannot fold up KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 3. octahedron and icosahedrons. Since the regular polygons in a tessellation must fill the plane at each vertex.1 Regular tessellations Regular tessellations are made up entirely of congruent regular polygons all meeting vertex to vertex. TYPES OF TESSELLATION There are three types of tessellation which is regular tessellations. semiregular tessellations and non-regular tessellations.NUMERICAL LITERACY cover a plane without any interstices (gaps) or overlapping.2 31 . The patterns are usually repeating. and hexagon and this is the reason only they can tessellate the Euclidean plane. There are only three regular tessellations which use a network of equilateral triangles. Tessellations of 2D shapes are a way of considering area.1. For the triangular tessellations. Example: Curve design. the interior angle must be an exact divisor of 360 degrees. squares and hexagons. it can be folded up into three of the five platonic solids which are tetrahedron. 3.

Rules of regular tessellations : o The tessellation must tile a floor (that goes on forever) The tiles must be regular polygons and all the same Each vertex must look the same. For vertex. there will always be gaps no matter how there are arranged. dodecagons (twelve sided figures). decagons (ten sided figures) or dodecagons (nine sided figure) or pentagons (five sided figures). if one were try to create a regular tessellation on a plane with other shapes such as octagons (eight sided figures) . Example: Regular tessellations.NUMERICAL LITERACY on itself into a 3D object without the introduction of key shapes such as the triangle or the pentagon. we need to use regular polygons that add up to 360. By the same token. o o o KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 32 .

octagons and dodecagons.NUMERICAL LITERACY What is a vertex? • Where all the “corners” meet (90 + 90 + 90 = 360) Example 1: Hexagon Example 2: Triangle 3.2 Semi-regular tessellations A semi-regular tessellations is made of two or more regular polygons. There are only eight semi-regular tessellations which comprise different combinations of equilateral triangles. hexagons. The pattern at each vertex must be the same. squares.1. KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 33 .2.

3. 3.3 3.NUMERICAL LITERACY Example 3: Triangles and hexagons.1. Example 4: Octagons and triangles.3 Non-regular tessellations or demiregular tessellation There are also “demiregular tessellations. for example the hexagonal KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 34 .1.2. These types of tessellations are those in which there are no restrictions on the order of the polygons around vertices. but mathematics disagree on what they actually are. The rotation operation can be applied to all polyiamonds which do not possess circular symmetry. Some people allow shapes (not just polygons) so you can have tessellations like these: Example 5: Curvy shapes Example 6: Eagles 3.1 BASIC OPERATIONS IN CREATING TESSELLATIONS Rotation Rotate the polyiamond in the plane.1.

One side of a square can be changed and this change can be rotated 90° to an adjacent side. as if being viewed in a mirror.3.1.NUMERICAL LITERACY hexiamond. Start with a square and change one of the sides. The reflection operation is limited to polyiamond which are enantiomorphic. trace the change and rotate the change to the remaining sides as shown below. KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 35 . This same change can be rotated 180° and 270° so that it appears on all sides. From the picture. 3. An enantiomorphic polyiamond is one which cannot be superimposed on its reflection. we see that tessellation are same shape but have been turned or rotation. Each rotation requires that the center of rotation be the vertex between the source side and the destination side.2 Reflection Reflect the polyiamond in the plane. which remains unchanged following rotation through 60 or multiples thereof.

Sometimes. a shape does not change when it is reflected.3 Translation The transformation that changes one of these shapes into any other one in the set is called a translation. from one position to another.3. This property is called line symmetry. it need concepts of direction. forwards and backwards. left. Slide the polyiamond along the plane. Example of translation is: KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 36 . The translation operation can be applied to all polyiamond. such as up. To describe such as translation. right. The example is: 3. This is sliding without turning.NUMERICAL LITERACY its mirror image.1. down.

Every single member will create two types of tessellation which is simple and complex. The procedure and short explanation also had been note here.2.NUMERICAL LITERACY 3. . we are going to show various designs of tessellation.2 DESIGNS OF TESSELLATION In this section. I had done the tessellation by using the basic shape of square. Let figure out how my tessellation had been finished.1 MUHAMMAD AMIR AL-HAFIZ PROCEDURE OF MY TESSELLATION (A) For my presentation tessellation. I had draw a square shapes like this: KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 37 . Step 1: First. For my presentation I had done by using a computer.

I had made the reflection to the shape. Then I get the new shape just like above. image KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 38 .NUMERICAL LITERACY Step 2: Then I continue it by cut the shade region. STEP 3 For next step.

NUMERICAL LITERACY object line of reflection new shape STEP 4: Then. I had made the same reflection to the new shape. object line of reflection new shape image STEP 5 KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 39 .

I had made the same reflection to the new shape. object KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 40 .NUMERICAL LITERACY Then. object line of reflection image STEP 6 Then repeat 5 until get shape like below . STEP 7 Then reflect the shape in the step 6.

NUMERICAL LITERACY line of reflection Image STEP 8 Repeat step 7 until get the full tessellation. KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 41 .

KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 42 .NUMERICAL LITERACY STEP 9 Colour the tessellation.

the new shape was reflacted to the below for a several time. from that the shape was reflect to the side. also beautiful and simple. KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 43 . Then. From square. blue. many people use my tessillation desing as a wraping paper. Again. For example combination colour.The desing also look like a islamic desing. Last but not list. green. I get a new shape. To get the full tessillation. It also look moden desing. Then I get a real shape of my tessillation. My desing also are used at the mouque as the decoration of the wall. I cut the shade region. This is all about my tessillation. Then I colour it. and purple. For your information. This tessillation also can become more beautiful if you made a combination of colour. The step was repeted for few time. if you are interested in a dising of shape you can made my tessillation as a wallpaper to the laptop or computer. from here the shape was reflect to the below. yellow. Then I get a new shape.NUMERICAL LITERACY EXPLAINATION OF MY TESSELLATION (A) The basic shape of my tessillation is square. My shape of the tessellation just look like a star. This dising.

Let figure out how my tessellation had been finished. For my presentation I had done by using a computer.NUMERICAL LITERACY PROCEDURE OF MY TESSELLATION (B) For my presentation tessellation. I had done the tessellation by using the basic shape of square. I had draw a triangle shapes like this: Step 2: KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 44 . Step 1: First.

Object Point of rotation Image Then I get the new shape just like above. I had made the same a 90º unticlock wise rotation to the color shape KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 45 .NUMERICAL LITERACY Then I continue it by made a 90º unticlock wise rotation to the basic shape. STEP 3 For next step. I had made the same a 90º unticlock wise rotation to the color of shape . Image object STEP 4: For next step.

I had made a reflection to the new shape. KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 46 .NUMERICAL LITERACY image Object STEP 5 Then. STEP 6 Then repeat 5 until get shape like below .

object line of reflection image STEP 8 Repeat step 7 until get the full tessellation KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 47 .NUMERICAL LITERACY STEP 7 Then reflect the shape in the step 6.

NUMERICAL LITERACY KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 48 .

KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 49 .NUMERICAL LITERACY STEP 9 Colour the tessellation.

Last but not list. many people use my tessillation desing as a wraping paper. It also look moden desing. if you are interested in a dising of shape you can made my tessillation as a wallpaper to the laptop or computer. The desing also look like a islamic desing. This dising. green. Then I get a new shape.NUMERICAL LITERACY EXPLAINATION OF MY TESSELLATION (B) My shape of the tessillation just look like a star. then to the below. also beautiful and simple. blue. To get the full tessillation. yellow. For example combination colour. The step was repeted for three time. and purple. the new shape was reflacted to the right side. This tessillation also can become more beautiful if you made a combination of colour. Then I colour it. It was create by a rotation 90º anticlock wise of the triangle. This is all about my tessillation KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 50 . For your information. My desing also are used at the mouque as the decoration of the wall.

I had made some reflection to get the diamond and stripe. There are some steps to form this tessellation look like diamond and stripe. Step 1: This is the basic shape of this tessellation. Step 2: [ line of reflection ] From the basic shape. I had made a reflection to get the second shape.2 MUHAMMAD RIDHUAN PROCEDURE OF MY TESSELLATION (A) This first tessellation usually can be finding in ‘batik’ design or wood craft and others. this tessellation must be arranged properly to make sure the line are correct to another. KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 51 . This step I repeat for several times to form such a line.NUMERICAL LITERACY .2. From this shape. But. to get this shape.

NUMERICAL LITERACY Step 3: [ line of reflection ] In this step. I had made reflection from the upper shape to get the bottom shape. This reflection had form a diamond shape as shown. Step 4: KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 52 .

EXPLAINATION OF MY TESSELLATION (A) KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 53 . There are diamond and stripes as shown. Some colours are used to make a different between the shapes to another.NUMERICAL LITERACY [ diamond shape ] [ stripe ] This is my tessellation after had arrange from the reflection process.

Now a day. ‘Rumah Kampung’ usually arranges their wall that had built from wood. Sometimes they used this arrangement to make their building look familiar. But this color most suitable if use to design batik craft and not too suitable for house. It is because the stripe produces really very beautiful if the colors are truly matching. Then this basic shape is reflecting to its side and its bottom to build some design like diamond and stripes. From this arrangement we can see the design likes a line. more color need to use to show the different between another. Usually. To make like stripe. if we see at the new building. The diamond shape clearly can be seeing between the basic shape and the reflection shape at the bottom reflection.NUMERICAL LITERACY This tessellation is form from the basic shape that shown in procedure. there are some traditional craft on their built. Some of them are using wood. PROCEDURE OF MY TESSELLATION (B) KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 54 . we can see this design at batik craft and wood craft.

I also use the reflection technique to get another shape. But I had use circle in both triangles’ angle. In the square there are six triangles that form one one square at the center. Step 2: [ line of reflection ] KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 55 . Comes from the square as the basic shape.NUMERICAL LITERACY This second tessellation most referred to simple tessellation. The step in making this tessellation is shown below. Step 1: The basic shape is square.

Step 4: KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 56 . I had used the reflection technique to get another shape. Step 3: [Line of reflection] From step 2. I made once the reflection to the bottom. I used the color to show the shapes that are form from this reflection process.NUMERICAL LITERACY Second step.

NUMERICAL LITERACY So. come from both reflection from step 2 and 3. the arrangement of this tessellation as shown. EXPLAINATION OF MY TESSELLATION (B) KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 57 .

the same techniques are used that is reflection. But may be for a person that obsesses with design like that. Besides. it looks simpler than the first tessellation. There is some basic shape that had been combining together and then reflected to get another shape.2. they used this tessellation design to paint their house or class and others.NUMERICAL LITERACY This tessellation showed more similar like chemical bonding. The arrangement makes this tessellation like wave if using suitable color. . if this tessellation is using for pictures frame in the house. To form this design. I don’t think that this shape suitable for batik handicraft like first tessellation. It had different thinking between another.3 MUHAMMAD AMINUL KHALIL KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 58 . I think. Although this tessellation looks simpler than the first one. That’s why don’t judge the book by its cover. it also quite beautiful. But. this tessellation need more process including in reflection process for side reflection and bottom reflection.

it was shaped become other object. Step 1: First.NUMERICAL LITERACY PROCEDURE OF MY TESSELLATION (A) Tessellation is created when a shape is repeated over and over again covering a plane without any gaps or overlaps. Actually. For this part. So. + Step 3: KERJA KURSUS PENDEK = 59 . I would like to show my work on tessellation. let’s we study how the design work and produced. it had been decorated by using the basic shape of triangle and trapezium. draw a triangle shapes like this: Step 2: Add a trapezium shape at the bottom of the triangle. Then.

+ = Step 4: To form a tessellation. So. object Line of reflection image Step 5: KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 60 .NUMERICAL LITERACY To create something different. do a reflection of the object. it becomes more and multiple. double the object oppositely.

NUMERICAL LITERACY To construct another side of reflection. Let say. the image will become wider when it is translated. and one step down (1. it is translated one step to the right. The image will be seen like: 1 first translation object 2 second translation / image Step 7: KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 61 . 1). object Line of reflection image Step 6: Actually. the image also can be formed to lower side.

NUMERICAL LITERACY Besides. 6 and 7 could be drawn anywhere as long as there has a suitable point. It will be described as rotation clockwise or anti clockwise for 90˚ and so on. the object also can be rotated. line and coordinate placed. The most important thing is the point of the rotation. to form another rules of tessellation. reflection and translation as shown in step 5. the image of the repeated process of the tessellation might cover or occupied the space of the plane as shown like the diagram below: Step 9: KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 62 . Let say. Finally. we rotate the object likes: point of rotation Step 8: The rotation.

EXPLAINATION OF MY TESSELLATION (A) KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 63 .NUMERICAL LITERACY Since a tessellation should be clear and attractive. Colour the whole design properly. try to play with colour to give the impact.

the drawing could be seen alive when combines with the colours. Actually. But. I noticed that the original shape could become other attractive object. I felt the lamp is suitable to be drawn over the plane. But. perhaps it is not suitable to be drawn at the tile especially in toilet because it would be weird and strange. it was clearly seen that the pattern is simple and typical. I hope I can produce more beautiful design one day in order to improve my skills and virtual spatial tense. after alter it to produce something interesting by doing some rules of tessellation like rotation. the design undergoes transformation from a typical shape into marvellous shape. reflection and translation. PROCEDURE OF MY TESSELLATION (B) KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 64 . mat and so on. So. I think this design of tessellation is suit to be placed at wallpaper especially for the wall of brown or pink. It is because.NUMERICAL LITERACY As shown in the procedure before this. the design was started from a triangle and a trapezium to form a lamp or ‘pelita’. after it joined together and also coloured well. wallpaper. It also always been seen at our surroundings like tiles. the art was appeared. Finally. Since the Eid Days just around the corner. The shape will look highlighted with the fantastic colouring on the wall.

NUMERICAL LITERACY For the second design of tessellation. Step 1: First. Make sure it is joined closely. I had created a bit complex to try a new skills plus to test my ability. It was about a bird flying in the air. draw a triangle shapes like this: Step 2: Add up two more triangles at the bottom and above. I emphasized at the head of bird part in the tessellation design. So. But. let’s we try the new one. 1 2 Step 3: KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 65 .

object reflection image reflection Line of reflection Step 5: KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 66 .NUMERICAL LITERACY Now. double the object oppositely or reflect it to form a side of the bird eye. draw two trapezium fit to the below of the triangles formed on step 2 like: + = Step 4: Then.

NUMERICAL LITERACY Then. Put them in the middle to show the shape of bird’s crown and its forehead. Make sure the eyes will be formed. after get the shape of the eyes. object reflection image Line of reflection Step 6: Next. 1 forehead + = 2 bill Step 7: KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 67 . double the eye by doing reflection rules also. add two diamond shape and place them at the bottom and above of the eyes.

The image will be seen like: 1 first translation object 2 second translation / image Step 9: KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 68 . and one step down (1. the image will become wider when it is translated. 1).NUMERICAL LITERACY In the making of tessellation. it becomes more and multiple. So. the head of bird object do a reflection of the object. obejct image Line of reflection Step 8: Actually. it is translated one step to the right. Let say.

Let say.NUMERICAL LITERACY Besides. we rotate the object likes: object point of rotation image Step 10: KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 69 . It will be described as rotation clockwise or anti clockwise for 90˚ and so on. to form another rules of tessellation. The most important thing is the point of the rotation. the object also can be rotated.

Finally. reflection and translation as shown in step 7. the image of the repeated process of the tessellation might cover or occupied the space of the plane as shown like the diagram below: Step 11: KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 70 . line and coordinate placed.NUMERICAL LITERACY The rotation. 8 and 9 could be drawn anywhere as long as there has a suitable point.

Colour the whole design properly. try to play with colour to give the impact.NUMERICAL LITERACY Since a tessellation should be clear and attractive. EXPLAINATION OF MY TESSELLATION (B) KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 71 .

NUMERICAL LITERACY

As shown in figure of the design, the tessellation had formed bird’s head and it seems like flying on the air. The blue colour background of the plane showed the element of cloud. It is clearly to see the arrangement of the birds on the blue air. Actually, I inspired to design this after seeing a bird flying at the hostel. Coincidently, I was struggling to get any idea to create the complex tessellation. So, why not I trying to create a new vision of art like that. Then, I felt so eager to complete my imagination plus I never did something artistic before this. This design is able to be placed at high. For example, it can be hang up at the door to show the movement of the bird perhaps. I think people will attract to watch it many times to get the real meaning of the design. It was so artistic and natural. I hope, I can do more interesting design that can give affective impact or emotions to others so that the value of art would be glowing.

4.0

**REFLECTION 4.1 MUHAMMAD AMIR AL-HAFIZ
**

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On 13 August 2010, I and all my classmates had been given an assignment from our Numerical Literacy lecturer, Pn. Nazimah Binti Abdullah. This assignment is including in the Spatial Sense topic and consisted of two different tasks. In the first task, we have to create a 2-D tessellation design using any suitable tools and give a description of our design and explain how we created the design. We have to do this task, individually. In the second task, in groups of 3, we have to construct physical model of two different types of polyhedral. In order to complete this task, we have to search the internet for information on various types of polyhedral. We also need to give a description of your models and explain how we constructed the models. Basically, when I got this assignment, I was wondering and quiet not understand about what I suppose to create. It is because the words tessellation and polyhedral are new for me. Before this, I am never hear the words of tessellation and polyhedral. I am also did not know the actual feature of tessellation and polyhedral. In order to overcome this problem, I had taken some actions that can help me understand more about tessellation and polyhedral. First, I was listening to the explanation that had been given by Pn. Nazimah about the definition and the features of tessellation and polyhedral. From this explanation, I am already know about tessellation and polyhedral. Besides that, Pn. Nazimah also show us the real model of tessellation and polyhedral and from that I can see the actual features of tessellation and polyhedral that I suppose to construct. Besides that, in order to increase my knowledge and information about tessellation and polyhedral, I had surfed the internet. From the research, I had found many new information about tessellation and polyhedral, their features and the examples of

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tessellation and polyhedral models from all over the world that were very interesting for me. From the information that I got from the lecturer and the internet, I began to create my own tessellation design and polyhedral model. Both of these tasks teach me about the actual meaning of patient and diligence. I have to sacrifice a lot of my time in order to create the tessellation design and construct the polyhedral model. Sometimes, I feel give up to continue this works because they are so complicated. However, when I see the tessellation design and the polyhedral model that I created, I think my efforts had paid off. It is quiet difficult for me to believe that I had created my own design. At the same time, I feel proud of myself because I had successfully overcome my giving up feeling. From this I had learned that, if we want to create something that is good in the future, we must dare to face any obstacles that come. It is because, behind the bad thing, there must be a good thing. Besides that, this task also had give me many information about tessellation and polyhedral. If in the pass I did not know what are tessellation and polyhedral, but from now on, I had know that both of tessellation and polyhedral are the formations that are unique in their features. I also already know the definition of both of the formation and their differences. Lastly, I hope that all the experiences that I gain from doing this project will be useful for me when I become the teacher next time. I am also hope to do the interesting project like this project again and hope that this project will become a guide for everybody to gain more information and knowledge about tessellation and polyhedral. 4.2 MUHAMMAD RIDHUAN

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Firstly, a lot of thank to Allah because giving his chance to finished this assignment in time given successfully. This short term assignment needs to do with group of three. So, I, Amir and Khalil had work on collaboration during the time given in way to finish this assignment. A lot of memory had I written during working towards this assignment. Memory that I hope can be used in school soon. On 13 August 2010, I and all my classmates had been given an assignment from our Numerical Literacy lecturer, Pn. Nazimah Binti Abdullah. This assignment is short term course that including in the Spatial Sense topic and consisted of two different tasks. In the first task, by individual we need to create a 2-D tessellation design using any suitable tools and need to give a description and explanation on how the tessellation are formed. For the second task, by groups of 3, we need to construct physical model of two different types of polyhedral. Basically, when I got this assignment, I was quiet not understand about what I suppose to do. It is because the words tessellation and polyhedral are very new for me although I had studied about translation in secondary school. So, to make sure our assignments are correct, we need to collaborative do some research on that. For both work, to get the description, I had make some research including all source such as internet, book and sometimes by asking our senior. From this, I had decided the best tessellation that I can draw for individual task. Although there are references, to get my best tessellation, I need to draw about ten shapes. These individual tasks really teach me who the patient teachers in teaching are. From the explanation that had been given by Pn. Nazimah also, I had use it to apply in our assignment such as about the definition and the features of tessellation

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we can finished that. So to get this target. I think.NUMERICAL LITERACY and polyhedral. Thank You. It is because I veryvery confident. From this explanation. I got some idea about tessellation and polyhedral. I really very-very happy on our design. when there are good collaborative.3 MUHAMMAD AMINUL KHALIL KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 76 . we need to work more collaborative soon. From zero information about polyhedral. This situation. Pn. Finally. finally in two days. the target of this assignment to add more input to student had reached. 4. Besides that. before this we don’t know anything about this polyhedral. This is because. we can finish the polyhedral model than their team. short rest and others can be my best experiences to me. Other team were jealous with our group because in short time. but with good collaborative. may be in one day two or three model can be finished. That’s all. I hope. from effort that I give as individual such as forget sleeping time. Nazimah also show us the real model of tessellation and polyhedral that had been done by senior and from that I can imagine the actual features of tessellation and polyhedral that we suppose to construct.

We have to create them individually and also give a very brief description for the designs besides explain the procedures or steps of all the designs. Although tessellation is part from mathematical field. Frankly. so I feel nervous before going start do all the projects. after learned from my group members which are Amir and Ridhuan. tiles. The first question required us to create a 2-D tessellation design using any suitable tools. Either it is easy or vice versa. The most important thing I had learned from the tessellation task is the usage of them. it is still have to do properly and patient. it also could be used for decoration. I know I am very poor on that. the question asked to produce two physical models of polyhedral. That is why we can found them on clothes. I feel like it was not too difficult and enjoy doing it as long as we always practice frequently. we need to search the internet to find the information on the various designs of tessellation. To complete this task. The second questions need us to constructs models of two different types of polyhedral. drawing and so on. So. Actually. I found so many beautiful and colourful designs on the internet. there are so many types of tessellation. But. after the great explanation KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 77 . I noticed that it make me more concern about art. But. Secondly. Actually. almost all the designs created in this world comprising tessellation element. I decided to create my own designs even though it was look simple and typical.NUMERICAL LITERACY The task consists of two parts of questions. but I did not feel satisfied if do the same pattern like them. For tessellation as individual task. Even in the toilet. It was proven when I felt eager to complete the designs from the beginning until the last dot. At least. I can be proud of myself. I never heard about polyhedral before this. It is because tessellation is art.

Hopefully. Finally.NUMERICAL LITERACY and lesson from our lecturer. this assignment would help others to know about the art in mathematical lesson. After doing research on the internet. So. But. Moreover. for sure all members of both classes PISPM 2B and PISMP 2C involving together. slowly it comes to my mind and heart. Polyhedral can be built up from different kinds of element or entity. colour also need to emphasize to gleam the models. Because this course work is more to communicative and constructive learning that enable students do it by hands-on. there are so many sources and references in the internet and also for books. But it is still difficult if we did not try to do it and practice. again I would like to thank to all individual person that involved in this project. I had matched with two persons that so creative and good in virtual spatial quotient.0 COLLABORATION RECORD OF COLABORATION KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 78 . Luckily. we found two models of polyhedral that we felt suitable and interesting to be shown. 5. Actually. So. They always help me and teach me how to become softer when work on art. we can do it better. we decided to choose Spinner and Japanese Brocade. Polyhedral is defined as a geometric solid with flat faces and straight edges. we will study the procedure and steps well without feeling confused. Thank you. Lastly. Both are represented types of polyhedral of octahedron and hexahedron respectively. each associated with a different number of dimensions for example 3-D dimension. it is difficult to do but by referring to many sources. That is what we do in the project. Paper folding skills are essential in order to make it perfect. Totally. 2-D dimension and 1-D dimension. it will be seen attractive when shown by 3-D dimension.

Submit the assignment. 6. Search information about polyhedral and tessellation. Discussing all of the outlines to decide the models. Make the models for polyhedral. Discussing with group members to divide the tasks. Print out the assignment.0 REFERENCES 6. Show our polyhedral models to lecturer.1 BOOKS KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 79 .NUMERICAL LITERACY GROUP MEMBERS: i) ii) iii) MUHAMMAD AMINUL KHALIL BIN ZAINI MUHAMMAD RIDHUAN BIN GHANI MUHAMMAD AMIR AL-HAFIZ BIN ZULKIFLI DATE BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DISCUSSION SIGNATURES OF GROUP MEMBERS SIGNATURES OF LECTURER Briefing from Puan Nazimah about assignment.

com/how_5158327_draw-tessellation. Jr.).wikipedia. and L.d. 2010. 2010. Ted Nelson.ehow.html Hatter. Paul Chapman Publishing. Fifth Edition. (n. Retrieved August 17 . Tessellation. G.). 2010. Retrieved August 12. Derek Haylock. from eHOW: http://www. A Conceptual Approach. Inc.html 7.d.NUMERICAL LITERACY Albert B.com/geometry/polyhedron.html Hart. from Math Is Fun?: http://www.com/virtualpolyhedra/pyramids-info. (2004).html ___________. Dipyramids. Understanding Mathematics in the Lower Primary Years. Retrieved August 18. from Virtual Polyhedra: http://www. 2010.georgehart. from Math Is Fun?: http://www.org/wiki/Prism_(geometry) ___________. Pearson. 2010. New York: Mc Graw-Hill Companies. Retrieved August 15. June 2). from Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia: http://en. Polyhedron. 6. and Trapezohedra. Retrieved August 16 . (n. K. (1996).mathsisfun.mathsisfun. John A.com/geometry/tessellation. Pyramids.0 APPENDIX KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 80 . (n. (2003). Mathematics for Elementary Teachers. (2010. How To Draw a Tessellation.). Prism (geometry). W. Anne Cockburn.2 INTERNET ___________. Van De Walle. Sixth Edition.d. Bennett. Elementary and Middle School Mathematics: Teaching Developmentally.

NUMERICAL LITERACY KERJA KURSUS PENDEK 81 .

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