C S IRQ

'~. ,

TE~CHER'S GUIDE

I ISSUE

74 JULY 2011
In this issue
Engage your students with hands-on science activities,
• • Crystals close up Sky' in a bottle Bendy light

Connect Scientrifflc to literacy in your classroom,
• Visual literacy: Awesome auroras • Research: Animal facts • Writing: Twisting tongues • Vocabulary: Nifty houns

National Science Week 13 - 21 August 2011
!'

Extend your knowledge of topics in this issue,
• Stinky plants • M is for monotreme • Resisting resistance

National Science Week is an opportunity to celebrate Australian science. There will be over 1000 event? across Australia, including open days, science shows, hands-on demonstrations and online activities. Visit the National Science Week website www.scienceweek.qov.au to find out about activities in you r req ion. _. It is the lnternational Year of Chemistry, and the schools theme for National Science Week 201 is 'React to Chemistry'. Your school should have received your National Science Week resource book from the Australian Science Teachers Association, packed' full of classroom activities, photographs and websites to help engage your students on the topic of chemistry.

r

TEACHER RESOURCES
CSIRO Education offers support to teachers to help make science and maths even more fun and engaging! Our resources provide inspiration for teachers, new ideas for the classroom and free or _low-cost programs and workshops, For a list of . : resources visit: www.csiro.au/resources/Teachers.html

July 2011

I

Scientriffic

Teacher's

Guide

I

www.csiro.au/scientriffic

I St

1

SWITCH ON YOUR STUDENTS WITH THESE GREAT ACTIVITIES

:Crystals close up
CURRICULUM LINKS
and predicting; investigation methods, fair testing, using equipment, analysing results and reflecting on methods. Science understanding: chemical sciences, years 1,2,3 and 6 •

ACTIVITY
You will need
Pipe cleaners Borax • Salt Sugar Water Kettle Three tablespoons Tea towel or paper towel Three pencils Three heat resistant glass jars Fishing line Scissors requires the use of boiling water. Remind students to take care when pouring and using boiling water or to ask an adult to help. Take care when handling Borax and wash hands thoroughly after use.

hanging too low, students can loop the line a few times over the pencil to shorten it. 10. Have students cover the jars with a piece of paper towel or tea towel. 11. Get students to leave their solutions overnight. The next day, tell them to observe the jars without moving them and record their observations on part B of the handout. 12. Ask students to repeat their observations daily over a period of at least a week. Remind them not to disturb the jars.

Science inquiry: questioning

AIM
Students will learn about crystal nucleation by growing and comparing crystals, using salt, sugar and borax dissolved in water' They will extend their knowledge of the topic by designing and canying out their own experiments on crystal growth.

Extending the investigation
1 3. Ask students to think of an aspect of the experiment they would like to investigate further. Tell them to write their idea as a question. Some possible topics include: What happens to crystal growth material (solute) to the water? What happens water? • if I add more

Caution - this experiment

if I use less material in the

READING AND INTRODUCTION
1. 2. As a class, read thepoem 'Snow crystals' on page 3 of ScientrifficTssue 74.

Ask students to think of different examples of crystals. 3. Encourage students to use scientific vocabulary. Write the following terms on the board:' Crystal Solution Dissolve Undissolved Evaporation Ask students if they know the definitions of any of these words. Have them share their knowledge with the class and look up any of the terms that are unfamiliar. Write down and discuss the students' definitions.

What to do Growing the crystals
1. 2. Have each student cut a pipe cleaner into three equal pieces. Students should cut three equal lengths of fishing line. These should be at least as long as the height of the jar.

How does temperature affect crystal growth? Can I make crystals using other types of powders/materials? What happens liquid? if I replace water with a different

Can I change the colour of the crystals by adding food colouring? Can I use other materials to grow the crystal on instead of a pipe cleaner? 14. Tell students to record their investigation question and plan their experiment in part C of the handout. 15. Have students complete their experiment share their findings with the class. and

Ask students to tie one end of each fishing line to a pencil. Tell them to tie the other end to a piece of pipe cleaner. 4. Have students complete part A of the handout with their predictions. 5. Boil water using the kettle and carefully half-fill each jar. 6. Get students to add three tablespoons of borax to the first jar and stir well until it dissolves. Tell students to continue adding one spoon of borax at a time until no more can be dissolved, giving them a saturated solution. Ideally, there should be a very small amount of undissolved borax at the bottom of the jar. Count how many spoons were needed. 7. Have students repeat steps 5 and 6 using the sugar and salt in the two remaining jars. Note that the amount of material (solute) needed to make a saturated solution will vary for the borax, sugar and salt. Not much borax is needed to make a saturated solution, whereas a lot of sugar is needed to make the same volume of water saturated. 8. In part B of the handout, ask students to record how many spoons were needed of each substance to make the solution saturated. Tell students to place the pencils across the top of the jar so that the pipe cleaner is fully submerged in the solution without touching the bottom of the jar. If the pipe cleaner is

3.

What's happening?
Crystals are solids that are made up of regular, repeating patterns of connected particles. Crystal nucleation (crystal growth) occurs when the particles that are dissolved in the solution begin to join together to form a larger unit, sometimes called a protocrystal. The smaller individual units are attracted to the bigger unit, making each protocrystal grow bigger until it no longer remains dissolved and falls out of the solution to form the crystals you can see on the rough surface of the pipe cleaner. Not surprisingly, using different types of saturated solutions results in different shaped and sized crystals. The rate at which they grow also varies. Students should have observed that Borax crystals grew the fastest, whereas big sugar crystals often take days to form. There are a number of reasons why a crystal won't form properly or at all. Too much solute often results in crystals forming on the undissolved material at the bottom of the jar. Conversely, if the solution isn't saturated, crystals will take much longer to form or may not form at all. Impurities in the solution or on the jar can also stop crystals growing.

9.

2

St

I

www.csiro.au/scientriffic

I

Scientriffic

Teacher's

Guide

I July

2011

Sky in a bottle
CURRICUlYM AIM
; Students will recreate the meteorological , conditions that make the daylight sky blue and the sunset red. They will use this information to question and predict how the sky might 100k on other moons and planets,
I

ACTIVITY
You will need Torch Two tall jars or a small fish tank Water Milk powder Teaspoon

LINKS
Foundation, 1, 3, 5

Science understanding:

What to do
1. Fillthe two jars or the small fish tank with water. 2. Add a small pinch (the size of a couple of rice grains) of milk powder to each jar, or half a teaspoon if using a fish tank. Mix thoroughly with a teaspoon, or by shaking. 3. Shine a torch through one of the jars, or across the width of the fish tank. What colour would you say it is closest to? 4. Place the second jar in front of the first, and shine the torch through both of them, or down the length of the fish tank. Is the colour now slightly different? Note: It doesn't require much milk powder to get this effect. Ifthe light passing through the one jar or across the tank doesn't have a blue tinge to it, try tipping out half of the water and topping it up again. What's happening? Shining a light through the one jar or across the fish tank will make the white light of the torch look slightly blue. Adding a second jar, or shining it down the length of the tank, will make it a

READING AND INTJ~ODUCTION
1. Ask students to describe the sky at different times of the day. Alternatively, as an extension, invite students to bring in photographs or pictures of the sky at different times of the day, especially beautiful sunrises or sunsets. 2. Ask students to create explanations for what they think makes the sky different colours. Encourage them to dj$CUSS their peers' explanations. 3. Read 'Somewhere over the rainbow' on page 14 of Scientriffic. Discuss the explanation for the colour of the sky with the students before presenting them with the following demonstration. Alternatively, ifyou have enough materials, it can be presented to the class as an activity

little more yellow or even slightly pink. Ifthe milk powder is white, where do these two colours come from? This is called the Tyndall effect, and it is a similar phenomenon that explains why the sky is blue. White light from the torch, and from the Sun, is a mix of different coloured light rays. A 19th century scientist named John William Strutt determined that there was a relationship between a ray's colour (or wavelength) and how likely it would be that a tiny particle would scatter it. He determined that shorter wavelengths, like those that we see as blue and violet colours, will be diffracted and scattered by many of the particles you'd find in the atmosphere. Longer wavelengths, like reds and oranges, aren't scattered as much. In this case, the milky water will look slightly blue around the edges of the torch's light because the light's blue wavelengths are scattered out of the beam. With two jars, most of these shorter blue wavelerjqths are being scattered so much that very few of them reach your eye, giving the light the slightly dirty yellow look of the longer wavelengths. Similarly, as light from the Sun hits our atmosphere it encounters tiny particles made up of materials such as dust, pollen and soot. The blue rays scatter out of it, leaving the bright (if slightly yellowish) sunlight. At sunrise and sunset, the Sun's light has to pass through more of the atmosphere, therefore hits more suspended particles. With all of the blue rays scattered, red and yellow light dominate. Ask the students to explain what they would expect the daytime sky to look like on the surface of the Moon, which has only the thinnest atmosphere. What aboutpn Mars, which is thicker than the Moon's, but thinner than Earth's?

8endy light
CURRICULUM LINKS
Science inquiry skills: Questioning and predicting Science understanding: Year 5

What to do 1. Stir the jelly crystals/gelatine and hot water in a jug, using only half the amount of water recommended on the packet so that you make a stiffer jelly. 2. Pour the jelly into your plastic container so that it's between two and four centimetres deep. Leave it to set in the fridge overnight. 3. Tip the container over onto the cutting board and remove the jelly. Hint: Run a knife around the inside edge of the container, then dip the outside of the container into warm water for about ten seconds to loosen the jelly. 4. Use the large drinking glass to press two circles out of the jelly. Lea¢e a five-centimetre gap between the circles. 5. Cut one of the circles in half to provide two semicircles. 6. Cut across the top and bottom of the inbetween section of jelly that separated the circles. This should give you a capital 'I' shape with curved sides. I 7. Cut a rectangle for your third shape. 8. In a dark room, place a comb in front of the torch and turn it on to show students how to produce lines of light. 9. Ask students to draw what they think will happen to the lines as they pass through the sides of their jelly shapes.

What's happening? Light always moves away from its source in a straight line called a 'ray'. One way to make it change course is to put something its path, such as a mirror. The ray will hit the mirror and reflect off it at an angle. Another way to change a ray's direction is to place an object in its path that has a different 'optical density'to the material it's moving through. Optical density describes how easily the particles in a material let light move through them. The light goes from a material with a lower density (such as air) to one with a higher density (such as the thick jelly), it bends in a particular direction. When it moves from higher density to lower density, it bends the other way. The term for bending is 'refraction'. Refraction can be seen most easily as the light hits the flat surface of the rectangular jelly at an angle.

,AIM
Students will construct lenses from jelly to study the bending of light through a medium.

ACTIVITY
You will need Jug Spoon Two packets of jelly.crystals or gelatine (use light coloured or clear jelly crystals) Hot water . Large, shallow plastic container (at least 30 centimetres long) Fridge Cutting board Knife Large drinking glass Torch or other light source Comb Dark room

July 2011

I

Scientriffic

Teacher's

Guide

I

www.csiro.au/scientriffic

I St

3

NAME

Crystals close up
Part A - Predictions What kind of crystals do you think you will form? Predict the colour, shape, size and time you think they will take to form.

Borax
.-, ,

Sugar

Salt

,

,

,

.
\

1

,'.1

-,

"
~I •

"

:.

'Part B - Observations How many spoons

/, did you need to make a saturated solution?

of ea2b substance

Borax

Sugar

Salt

Below, write down how long it took the crystals to form. Also record the size, colour and shape using a labelled diagram.

Borax

Sugar

Salt

,

~
,

Part C - Extension Answer these questions on a, separate piece of paper or in your workbook.


• • •

What question What materials

are you going to investigate?

,

do you n~ed? your experiment?

"

How will you conduct

J

How much time will you need? What do you think will happen? (Do your experiment) What happened? Why?

• •

PHOTOCOPYING PERMITIED FOR PERSONAL, HOME AND CLASSROOM USE, COPYRIGHT © CSIRO 2011

4

St

I

www.csiro.au/scientriffic

I

Scientriffic

Teacher's Guide

I July

2011

NAME

Bendy light
You should have in front of you:

,
,

• .

Acomb A torch,(or another Ijght source) Three je~ly shapes - a rectangle, a semicircle and a curvy '1' shape

..

1

Shine the torch through the comb directly onto the side of the rectangular jelly. Hold it so the light forms a right angle with the edge of the shape. What happens to the lines of light as they pass inside the jelly? Did they bend? _

Draw what you see:
v

'I-

/-

Move the torch so the lines of light hit the side of the jelly at an angle. What happens to the lines of light as they pass inside the jelly? Did they bend? -----;:

I,

_

Draw what you see:

Repeat this process

with the other shapes.

Draw what happens

to the lines of light:

Can you make up a rule about how light bends as it passes from the air to the jelly?
PHOTOCOPYING PERMITIED FOR PERSONAL, HOME AND CLASSROOM USE_COPYRIGHT © CSIRO 2011

_

July 2011

I

Scientriffic

Teacher's

Guide

I

www.csiro.au/scientriffic

I St

5

I

CONNECTING SCIENTRIFFIC TO LITERACY IN YOUR CLASSROOM

Awesome auroras
POSTCARDS FROM SPACE
Scientriffic pages 14-17' 1. 2. 3.
,',

..:
over the rainbow' on pages f. g. h. i. 8. What causes them? Have you ever seen them? who has? Any other interesting facts? Or do you know someone else

As a class, read 'Somewhere 14-1 7 of Scientriffic,.
';

Put students

into p~irs or small groups.

Make photocopies ~f the two photos below and give a copy to each 'pair. You cah print these for free from the website given. Tell them to look at photo one (the southern lights) first without telling them what it is. Allow students a couple of minutes to 'think-pair-share' about the photo without prompting therrt. Record their descriptions and ideas onto a big sheet of paper. Repeat step four for the second Tell students mean. photo of the northern lights.

Where did you find your information? Ask each pair of students to research either northern or southern lights and answer the questions above. When finished, have each student individually write an information report. Tell them to re-word the questions into subheadings and use them in their report. Get each student to write a poem about auroras. Encourage them to be as creative and original as possible. The poems could be a description of auroras, an imagi!ned or real recount of an experience of seeing one or it could explain some of the facts about auroras.

4.

9.

5. 6. 7. a. b. c. d. e.

the title of the photos questions about

and discuss what they northern/southern lights

Write the following on the board:

What are their official names?
!.

Where can you see them? When can you see them? What colours can they be? How can they move?

10. Remind students of some different styles of poetry, such as acrostic poems, rhyming couplets or quatrains, haiku, diamante etc. Further ideas can be found at: www. kathimitchell.com/poemtypes.html 11. Have students share their poetry with each other. and

12. Ask students to produce a good copy of their poems display them around the classroom.

Southern lights
http:// en. wi ki ped ia. org/wi ki/Fi le:Au roraAustra Iis Display. j pg http://

Northern lights
com mons. wi ki med ia .org/wi ki/Fi Ie: Polarl ich t. j pg

6

St

I

www.csiro.au/scientriffic

I

Scientriffic

Teacher's

Guide

I July

2011

ANIMAL
1.

FACTS
1. 2. 3.

TWISTING

TONGUES

Scientriiiic pages 18-19 Write the words 'animal tongue' on the board. Ask students to think of all the facts they know about the topic. Record their responses. Use the student responses to launch a class discussion. The following questions can also be used to stimulate discussion: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 3. Which animals use their tongues for cleaning? Which animals have a long tongue? Which animals have a short tongue? Do birds have tongues? How do differ~nt animals use their tongue to eat? Which animals don't have a tongue? How do humans use their tongue? What would happen to us if we didn't have a tongue?
i

Scientriffic pages 18-19 Read 'Amazing animal tongues', on pages 1B-19 of Scientriffic. Ask students to think about tongue twisters they know. Encourage them to say them aloud. Give each student a copy of the four classic tongue twisters that are below. named How much wood would a woodchuck chuck If a woodchuck wood? could chuck

2.

There was a fisherman Fisher

Who fished for some fish in a fissure. Till a fish with a grin Pulled the fisherman in. Now they're fishing the fissure for Fisher.

He would chuck, he would, as much as he could, And chuck as much as a woodchuck would If a woodchuck wood. could chuck

Ifstudents don't know the answer to any of the questions or can't think of any examples, encourage them to find the answers in the library or on the internet. Read 'Amazing animal tongues' on pages 1B-19 of Scientriffic. Ask the class to come up with a list of questions about different animal body parts. Ideally, these should be questions to which they don't know the answer. Some examples include: a. b. c. .d. Which animal has the biggest heart? Smallest heart? Heart that beats the fastest? Which animal has the longest legs? Shortest legs? Fattest legs? Which animal has the biggest brain? Smallest? Biggest compared to its size? Which animal has the most hair? Curliest fur? Most colourful fur/feathers?

4. 5.

She sells seashells on the seashore. The shells she sells are seashells I'm sure.

Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked. If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, Where's the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?

4.

Allow students time to repeat these and practice with a partner. Ask them to begin by reading very slowly and clearly. Once they have said a tongue twister correctly, encourage them to increase their speed. Tell students to try writing their own tongue twisters. This can be done individually or in pairs. To help students focus, you can give them a topic or theme. For example, words beginning with the letter T or a tongue twister about a dog. As a further challenge, you could set students the task of writing a tongue twister about tongues!

6. 7.

Telleach student to choose one body part to focus on. Get them to do some research to find the answers to their questions. Encourage students to present their research in a visual and informative way, such as a poster display, slide show, threedimensional model 01' drama performance.

5.

6.

NIFTY NOUNS
Scientriffic pages 22-25 1. As a class, read aloud the article 'Sand sculptures' and the hands-on sand activities on pages 22-25 of Scientriffic. 2. Ask students to reread the articles silently and circle all the words and expressions that contain the word 'sand'. For example: sandstone, sandcastle, black sand, sand grains etc. Listthe words on the board. Tellstudents to group the words. They can use the subheadings below or they can use their own categories: a. b. c. Compound noun - two nouns joined together (e.g. sandcastle) Noun phrase - one noun following another (e.g. sand grains, sand sculpture) Adjective + noun - e.g. black sand

5.

Encourage students to think of how the following nouns are used in a similar way to sand: Wind - windmill, windsurfing, wind farm, wind energy etc. Moon - moonless, moon walk, moon rock, moonbeam, moonlight etc. Water - waterfall, waterbird, waterbed, water bottle etc. Sun - sunrise, sunset, sunshine, sundial, sunbake, sun smart etc.

3. 4.

6. 7.

Ask students to think of other nouns that work in the same way. They can use a dictionary to help them. Have students create noun charts that show the list of related words using the subheadings listed in step 4. These can then be displayed around the room. Have a competition to see who can come up with the most words without a dictionary in a set time (for example 5 minutes) using the noun 'rock' - rock 'n' roll, rocky, rock fall, rock climber, rock pool, rock star, etc. This game can be repeated using different nouns.

B.

9.

July 2011

I

Scientriffic

Teacher's

Guide

I

www.csiro.au/scientriffic

I St

7

I

M IS FOR MONOTREME
Scientriffic pages 12-13. Of all Australia's fascinating animals, its monotremes (the platypus and echidna) are in many ways the most unusual. Although they are classified as mammals, they are so different that they have been given their very own taxonomic branch. Monotremes are warmblooded, have hair, a single lower jaw bone and produce milk, all of which are mammalian features. Yet they also lay eggs and have a single opening for reproduction and the excretion of urine and faeces called a cloaca. These features are very similar to those found in reptiles. Given the unusual mixture of reptilian and mammalian features, it's not surprising that scientists were initially baffled by the echidna and platypus upon their 'discovery' in the late 18th century. The first platypus specimen was sent to England in 1799. Anatomists could not believe that an animal with the bill and webbed feet of a duck and fur of a mammal could be anything but a hoax. In the years that followed, scientists argued about how to classify the platypus and the echidna - a difficult task when so little was known about them. In the 1830s, careful dissections by Richard Owen of the London Royal College of Surgeons confirmed that platypus did indeed have mammary glands. Finally, in 1884, Scottish naturalist William Caldwell came across a female platypus who had freshly laid an egg, which established that the platypus laid bird-like eggs.

RESISTING RESISTANCE
Scientriffic pages 8-9. Penicillin was hailed as a miracle drug in the early 1940s. Australian scientist Howard Florey and his research team experienced incredible success in the antibiotic's trials. This success continued in the early days of the drug's mass production, with thousands and thousands of people's lives saved. However, as early as the late 1940s, several strains of bacteria began showing resistance to penicillin. Antibiotic resistance is when a strain of bacteria is unaffected when exposed to antibiotics. When a new antibiotic is introduced, there will usually be a small percentage of bacteria which will have resistance to it. The non-resistant bacteria die, leaving the resistant bacteria to multiply. Bacteria can multiply as fast as every ten minutes and they are very efficient at sharing their DNA. This means that they can evolve ,quickly. Scientists attempt to overcome bacteria resistance to antibiotics by continually developing new types of antibiotics. The overuse of antibiotics is the main cause of the increased antibiotic resistance that has been seen around the world. Some strains of bacteria contain genes that are resistant to several types of antibiotics. These are often referred to as 'superbugs'. Many 'superbugs' are new strains of common bacteria such as E. coli, staphylococcus and pneumococcal. Increased antibiotic resistance in some strains means that drugs that once worked well are no longer working as they should, which puts people more at risk of life threa'tening infections such as blood stream poisoning and meningitis.

KEEP A 8,TEP AHEAD OF YOUR STUDENT~ WITH THIS BACKGROUND INFORMATION
, >-

.,,~ 'STINKY RLANTS \
'~Scientriffic'page 4. The delicate perfume of roses and the sweet aroma of jasmine are common scents that can be smelled wafting from,many a garden around the world. A less cdmmon scent is that of the flowering shrub wliite plume grevillea, which is native to Western' Australia. The plant is nicknamed 'old soc~s' 'due to the pungent stink of its spiky-lookinq white flowers, Smellier still are flowers from the genus Stapelia, which are known as 'carrion fl0wers' due to their putrid stench. Some species only flower for one day, once a year, ~Jld use the reeking smell of rotten meat to lure flies to ensure pollination takes place .. Not all unusual-smelling plants are unpleasant. A number of species of plants smell like chocolate. One of these is Berlandiera Iyrata, a yellow vibrant flower which is sometimes called the chocolate daisy as it gives off a strong delicious odour of chocolate. The genus Pelargonium, more commonly known as-scented geraniums, is famous for its huge variety of flower fragrances. Among these are the apricot, peppermint, strawberry, nutmeg, ginger, coconut, apple, pine, rose and lime scented geraniums. www.abc.net.au/gardening/stories/ s889836.htm ' http://news.bbc.c~:uk/2/hi/science/ nature/2566023.stm www.honeysuckle-cottage.com.au/ geraniums.asp

i

e

www.abc.net.au/rn/science/ockham/ stories/s332655.htm http://australianmuseum.net.au/platypus www.cosmosmagazine.com/features/ online/1970/the-platypus-unravelled

r&
~

www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/ bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/ Antibiotic_resistant_bacteria

?open

http:// en. wikipedia.org/wiki/ misuse www.textbookofbacteriology.net/ resantimicrobial_2.html

Antibiotic_

.............................................................................................................................................................................

E
ANIMAL

it out -links to TV's scope
THURSDAY 14 JULY 2011 AT 8 AM
;Ko

SJNSES

ELECTRICITY

THURSDAY 25 AUGUST 2011 AT 8 AM

-Hurnans have five senses _ taste, touch,
smell, hearing and sight _ which enable us to interact with the world. But what about the restpf the animal kingdom? Are bats really blind? How sensitive is a spider? And are eagles really eagle-eyed? www.csiro.au/scope/episodes/e58.htm

Stop and think for a moment about everything you've done today that involves electricity: turned on a light, cooked breakfast, used a computer, made a calion a mobile phone, and watched your favourite television show. Without electricity we'd be, well, literally in the dark. www.csiro.au/scope/episodes/e64.htm

Scientriffic magazine is published six times a year (bimonthly in [anuary, March, May, July, September and November) by CSIRO Education. The guide is written by Catherine Healy and Mike McRae. Correspondence concerning the Teacher's Guide can be sent to: The Editor, Scientriffic, CSIRO Education, PO Box 225 Dickson ACT 2602 or scientriffic@csiro.au.

To order Scientriffic or the Scientriffic Teacher's Guide visit www.csiro.au/scientriffic

or call 02 6276 6643.

8

8t

I www.csiro.au/scientriffic

I

Scientriffic

Teacher's Guide

I July

2011

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful