# PC 1431 Experiment P2 (Heat Engine) Calculations and Discussions 1) The Graph Showing Work Done: The P-V graph, is one

where the Pressure is denoted by the y-axis, and the volume by the xaxis. The volume (area x distance) in this case, is actually a measure of the displacement in the piston, brought about by the expansion of the gas. The area is the cross-sectional area of the piston. Work Done = Force x Displacement = (Pressure x Area) x Displacement = Pressure x Volume = Pressure x (Area x Displacement) Plotting the pressure of the piston in the gas, against the corresponding displacement seen in the piston, we get a Pressure Displacement graph. A Pressure Volume graph can be obtained by factoring in the cross-sectional area of the piston, which remains as a constant throughout the experiment. Therefore, the value of the work done is simply the area under the P-V graph. In this case however, the area is enclosed by the P-V graph, so we simply find that area. We could integrate the function, such that we can find the area under the graph, but it is easier to imply find the area enclosed by the graph. The Theoretical Approach to (Useful) Mechanical Work Done: Mechanical work done, can also be interpreted as the gain in total energy of the system, which in this case happens to be the potential energy of the state of the mass. The increase in the height of the mass (or apple) results in an increase in its state of potential energy, which is given by the following equation: Potential Energy = Mass x Gravitational Constant x Height Gain in Potential Energy = Mass x Gravitational Constant x Change in Height = Mass x Gravitational Constant x Displacement = Mechanical Work Done However, we have to bear in mind that this Calculation is prone to error as well. The displacement used in this equation is obtained from the displacement as observed in the P-s graph. The displacement is relatively inappropriate in a sense, with relation to this equation. When we plot the graph, we steer it in a way as to obtain the parallelogram so that it becomes simple to calculate the area under the graph. This is in fact, inaccurate, as the displacement will keep increasing, at a much slower rate, for a certain period, as the volume keeps expanding for that mentioned period. This means that if the apparatus is left alone for a while, the displacement will be larger, hence giving a different result when calculating the mechanical work done on the mass. We will have to bear this in mind when comparing the results later on, in the experiment.

However.0526 Area of Piston = Pie x (0. Human error is bound to be present in this case.0446 0. we have to add and remove the masses in a method so as to get the parallelogram we desire.Approximations: When we look at the graph. and then the other way round.0218 0. but only approximate. However in the experiment.0285 0. Instead.035Kg .0151 0. this is not accurate. In theory. There is also inaccuracy in the top portion of each spike as the air chamber is moved manually.0330 0.0121 0. there is no way of monitoring the time for certain (there is only an acceleration component in pressure: (mass x acceleration / area). by hand. the masses were loaded onto and removed from the platform manually. as the function is hardly linear. the graph has to be plotted with a sense of time . making it very difficult to calculate manually. there is some degree of inaccuracy there. these spikes should be exactly linear. Hence. Lastly. human error is bound bring about some degree of inaccuracy.0371 0. so as to be able to calculate the work done in an easier fashion. Since the graph is plotted for Pressure versus displacement.0399 80 90 deg (maintained at 85 deg) 0.135 Kg 0.0305 0.0225 0.185 Kg 60 70 deg (maintained at 65 deg) Work done (J) Mechanical Work Done (J) Work done (J) Mechanical Work Done (J) 0.0208 0.085 Kg 0. by hand. from the cold reservoir to the hot one. Also. each spike (sharp increase or decrease in Pressure) that can be seen occurs as a result of adding or removing the masses on the platform. 2) Tabulation of Calculations: 0. as the apple simply moves onto the platform and leaves it with little or no energy dissipation.01625m)sq Mass of Piston and Platform = 0. we can use the grid in the graph to calculate the area enclosed by the function.

What could have been done instead was that we could have measured the change in the height of the piston manually. with respect to the displacement of the piston. The displacement. is NOT independent of the work done. but it will also be independent of the values obtained from the graph. This is because we are using the same displacement values from the graph. As mentioned before. thereby making more room for better comparison. Therefore. 4) Comparison of Work Done in Parts II & III: It is quite difficult to draw a parallel between the graphs for the two different sets of temperatures used. The mass is also relatively error free . which is an amount which can be considered negligible in an experiment such as this. one way in which this equation can be more useful. The equation for mechanical work done. caused by the instantaneous change in volume of the gas.Work done is the actual work done obtained from the area under the graph. as can be seen from the table above. This was to ensure that there would be minimal error when comparing the change in volume later on. the work done. this displacement is taken from the x-axis in the graph. The change in volume in the 85 Deg Celsius experiment was greater than the change in volume of the 65 Deg Celsius. 3) Comparison of Work Done and Mechanical Work Done: I can think of only one root to the problem for the equation that gives us the mechanical work done. What makes the two graphs different is the volume obtained after the expansion. As we can observe from the table there are slight variations in the values obtained from work done and mechanical work done. with respect to the variation in the pressure of the gas. In both part II and III. The values of the mechanical work done are all slightly higher. if not. This leads to some inaccuracy. This leaves us with the displacement component. This is simply because there was more energy (in the form of . obtained from the graph. in some of the graphs. Therefore.001m. identical. than the corresponding values for the work done. the values obtained along the y-axis are similar. is definitely larger for a higher temperature. has been plotted such that we are able to obtain an area that is enclosed by the graph on all sides. One reason is that the values obtained in the y-axis are almost identical. and mechanical work done is the amount of work done. while the rest of the variables were kept constant. however. in depicting the actual displacement. The gravitational constant in the equation is error free . This is because the only factor that changes with respect to the y-axis is the mass. There is. There will be human error of course. we ensured that the piston was at the 20mm level before conducting the experiment. as the mass of the piston and the platform is already accurate to 0.

which cannot be obtained from just looking at the graph (which has no definitive method of measuring time against volume or pressure) is actually both useful and important. which will be pivotal in factory or manufacturing setting. the movement in the positive x-direction was much faster in the run with the higher temperature. and the air chamber has been changed from the cold reservoir to the hot reservoir. another factor that can be taken into account. but the expansion in the 85 Deg Celsius run was much faster than the expansion in the 65 Deg Celsius run. This means that when the program was plotting the graph. Information like this.thermal energy) applied to the system. in a much shorter time. There is however. it will cover the same distance that the run with a lower temperature covers. but this one cannot be seen from looking at the hardcopy of the paper. there was more work done on the mass acting on the system. In addition. The faster the mass is able to be displaced to the higher platform the faster the rate of productivity is. because the run with the higher temperature will increase the rate of productivity. the graph experiences and immediate spike and then moves of in the direction of the positive x-axis. Both were ensured to have the same volume of air. This is important. If the gas were to expand faster when a higher temperature is applied on the system. . The rate of expansion of volume of the gas (on the axis that shows us the displacement) is much higher in the experiment in part III then in part II. indicating the expansion of the volume of the gas. if required. as the volume in the run with the higher temperature is greater as well. When the mass has just been placed on top of the platform. it will also be able to cover a larger vertical distance. this in turn implies that the platform rises faster as well. therefore naturally.