Engineers' Handbook
Originated Ь у О Н о Labahn
Fourth English edition
Ь у В . Kohlhaas
U. Binder
Е . Bomke
Н . К . Klein-Albenhausen
О . К п б f е l
F. Mechtold
G. Schater
H.-U. Schater
О . Schmidt
G. Schmiedgen
Н . Schneider
Н . Schuberth
Р . Schwake
Е . SteinbiB
Translated Ь у С . van Amerongen from the sixth German edition
CIP-Kurztitelaufnahme der Oeutschen BibIiothek
labahn, Otto:
Cement engineers' handbook / originated Ь у Otto
Labahn. Transl. Ь у С van Amerongen from the
6. German ed. - 4. Engl. ed. / Ь у В Kohlhaas
. . , - Wiesbaden ; Berlin : Bauverlag, 1983.
Ot. Ausg. u. d. Т Labahn, Otto: Ratgeber fur Zementingenieure
ISBN 3-7625-0975-1
NE: Kohlhaas, Bernhard В е а г Ь
First edition Ь у Otto Labahn, 1954
Second revised edition Ь у Otto Labahn, 1965
Third revised and enlarged edition Ь у W. А Kaminsky, 1971
Forth edition Ь у В Kohlhaas and 16 other authors, 1983
© 1983 Bauverlag GmbH, Wiesbaden and Berlin
Printed Ь у Wiesbadener Graphische Betriebe GmbH, Wiesbaden
and Guido Zeidler, Wiesbaden
ISBN 3-7625-0975-1
PubIisher's foreword
Since the pubIication of the first edition of "Cement Engineer's Handbook"
28years ago, this book has gained an estabIished reputation as "Labahn" in the
cement industry. In its conception it has г its original author. In form and
contents it has become an entirely new book, however. This change reflects the
great technical developments that have taken place in cement manufacture in
the г years.
The first edition was, with the exception of the chapter о п quarrying, written
entirely Ь у Otto Labahn. The fully revised fourth German edition of 1970 was
still within the range of one individual author, Wilhelm Andreas Kaminsky, who
undertook the revision. When it was decided to produce the present sixth edition,
it soon emerged from the preliminary discussions that in this age of specializ-
ation the preparation of the new text for а book of this scope would have to Ь е
entrusted to а team comprising authors from а wide variety of technologicai dis-
ciplines associated with cement manufacture.
In this effort we have been fortunate in having had the services of Bernhard
Kohlhaas as editor, co-ordinator and author.
Н е proved indefatigabIe in seeking suitabIe co-authors for this project and he
himself undertook the revision of а number of the manuscripts supplied. These
duties made greater claims upon his time and attention than had been expected.
We а г е indeed grateful to him for his unflagging devotion to the task.
The guiding principle of this new edition is the same as that which Kaminsky
enunciated in the preface to the edition which he had revised:
The subject matter of the book as а whole corresponds approximately to the
range of probIems which concern the engineer engaged in present-day cement
manufacturing practice. The guiding principle remains: to present all that is es-
sential and important in а conveniently assimilabIe form. At the same time, this
approach rules out any very detailed treatment of individual subjects.
Bauverlag GmbH
Biographical notes о п the authors
Ing. Ulrich Binder
Born at Helmstedt in 1946. From 1967 to 1971, studied at the State College for
Constructional Engineering, Huttental-Weidenau, specializing in the process е п
gineering of the rock and mineral products industry. Project and commissioning
engineer with the firm of Gebr. Hischmann, 1971 to 1977. Commissioning
engineer with О & К Orenstein & Koppel AG, Ennigerloh, 1977 to 1981. Since
1981, head of the process engineering, pilot plants and laboratory division of
О & К Ennigerloh.
Address: О & К Orenstein & Koppel AG, Р О В о х 4722 Ennigerloh, W. Ger-
т а п у
Erich Bomke
Born at Beckum in 1923. Studied mechanical engineering and economics at
the Technological University of Karlsruhe. In 1953, full partner and technical
head of the Bomke & В leckmann cement works (Iater renamed Readymix Zement-
werke GmbH & С о KG) at Beckum. Supervisory board member of that с о т р а п у
1974 to 1977. Member of the "Process engi(1eering" committee of the German
Cement Works' Association. PubIications.
Address: Sonnenstrasse 18,4720 Beckum, W. Germany.
Obering. Gerhard Funke
Born at Bremen in 1924. Studied mechanical engineering at the Engineering
College in that city. From 1950, five years' service as production engineer at two
cement works. Head of the air pollution control division in the Research Institute
of the Cement Industry, Dusseldorf, since 1955. PubIications.
Address: Flandrianstrasse 24, 5653 Leichlingen, W. Germany.
Heinrich К К
Born at Gelsenkirchen in 1934. Studied at the Engineering College at Kiel. From
1960 to 1975, staff member and technical head of the pit and quarry engineering
division of а plant engineering firm. Since 1976, partner and technical director
of the engineering firm of IBAU HAMBURG, Hamburg, and its subsidiaries in
Paris and New York.
Address: Leinpfad 33, 2000 Hamburg 60, W. Germany.
Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Dietbert К п Ы е
Born in 1936. Studied science (mineralogy, chemistry, geology), taking doctor's
degree in 1962. Several years as head of department in the construction materials
industry (concerned mainly with cement research and consultancy). From 1969
to 1978, head of the laboratory for constructional chemistry at the University
of Siegen; then, 1978 to 1980, at the Stuttgart University of Technology. Since
1980, head of the laboratory for constructional and materials chemistry at the
Universlty of Siegen (principal fields of work: mineral materials, attack of т а
Biographical notes о п the authors
terials, conservation of buildings); professor at the Universities of Karlsruhe and
Marburg; chairman or member of several working committees; sworn expert
for constructional chemistry (materials, corrosion, conservation of buildings).
Pu Ы ications.
Address: Hermann-Pleuer-Strasse 18, 7000 Stuttgart 1, W. Germany
Obering. Bernhard Kohlhaas
Born at Bad Godesberg in 1911. Studied general electrical engineering. From
1932 to 1954, production engineer, subsequently member of technical central
department of Portland Zementwerke Heidelberg AG; senior executive in 1948
and appointment as chief engineer. From 1954 to 1975, head of the design and
sales department for cement works installations with К Н О Humboldt Wedag AG,
Cologne; appointment to senior managerial status in 1960.
Address: Gartnerstrasse 1, 7290 Freudenstadt, W. Germany
Dr. Mont. Fritz Mechtold
Born at Monchengladbach in 1928. Studied mechanical engineering at the Tech-
nological University of Aachen. Took doctor's degree in mining technology at
the University for Mining Engineering, Leoben. Since 1955, staff member of
AUMUND-Fordererbau GmbH, Rheinberg; now technical director of that firm;
accredited expert о п lifting and handling appliances. PubIications.
Address: Heinrich-Doergens-Strasse 9,4150 Krefeld 1, W. Germany
Dr. П Dieter Opitz
В о at Chemnitz in 1935. Studied engineering materials technology for а time
at the University for Building Construction, Weimar, then graduated in rock and
mineral products technology at the Technological University of Aachen
(Springorm medal). From 1963 to 1973, in the Research Institute of the Cement
Industry, process engineering division, Dusseldorf. Took doctor's degree in the
faculty for mining, metallurgical technology and mechanical engineering. Tech-
nological University of Clausthal (subject: 'The coating rings in rotary cement
kilns") in 1973. Since 1974, head of department for fuel and power in the
technical division of Rheinische Kalksteinwerke GmbH, Wulfrath.
Address: Rheinische Kalksteinwerke GmbH, Wilhelmstrasse 77, 5603 Wulfrath,
W. Germany
Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Gernot Schater
Born at Lubeck in 1939. Studied mining and economics at the Technological
University of Aachen, where hetook hisdoctor'sdegree in economics. Since 1974,
managing director of Beumer Maschinenfabrik KG, Beckum, and of the sub-
sidiaries in the U.S.A. and France. PubIications.
Adress: Beumer Maschinenfabrik KG, Oelderstrasse 40, О Beckum, W. Ger-
т а п у
Biographical notes о п the authors
Dr. г е г nat. Heinz-Ulrich Schater
Born at Bietigheim, Wurttemberg, in 1949. Studied geology at the Technological
University of Clausthal, where he took his doctor's degree. From 1971 to 1974,
engaged in basic geological research; then two years in field exploration of rock
and mineral deposits. Since 1976, with К Н D Humboldt Wedag AG as process
engineer for raw materials preparation and for the geochemical assessment of
raw materials for cement manufacture.
Address: Pastor-Loh-Strasse 3,4018 Langenfeld, W. Germany
Ing. Dietrich Schmidt
В о at Radebeul, Saxony, in 1933. From 1954 to 1960, staff member in the
chemico-mineralogical department of the Research Institute of the Cement п
dustry, Dusseldorf. Then head of laboratory at cement works at Wetzlar and
Hardegsen; studied chemical technology side Ь у side with his professional duties.
Since 1979, works manager of the Hardegsen cement works of Nordcement AG,
Address: А т Sonnenberg 16, 3414 Hardegsen, W. Germany
Obering. Gunter Schmiedgen
В о at Leipzig in 1935. Studied electrical engineering. Since 1955 with the firm
of Siemens, where, since 1972, he has Ь е е п in charge of the department for
process engineering and automation for the cement industry. PubIications.
Address: т Heuschlag 21,8520 Erlangen, W. Germany
Dipl.-Ing. Horst Schneider
Born at Schlaney in 1925. Studied mlnlng engineering at the Technological
University of Aachen, 1949 to 1954. Then а п assistant in that University's Institute
for Preparatory Processing, Coking and Briquetting. From 1959 to 1961, head of
the cement department in the experimental division of Friedr. Krupp Maschinen-
und Stahlbau, Rheinhausen. From 1961 to 1969, scientific staff member in the
department for plant engineering in the Research Institute of the Cement п
dustry, Dusseldorf. Then technical director of the engineering firm of Gebr.
Hischmann, 1969 to 1977. Since 1977, technical director of О & К Orenstein
& К о р р е AG, Ennigerloh. PubIications.
Address: О & К Orenstein & К о р р е AG, Postfach 25, 4722 Ennigerloh, W. Ger-
т а п у
Dipl.-Ing. Bergassessor Hermann Schuberth
Born at Kulmbach in 1934. Studied mining at the Clausthal Academy of Mining.
Major government examination 1962. Since 1963, with Rheinische Kalkstein-
werke, Wulfrath, initially as assistant to the works management, then in charge
of opencast mining and preparation engineering; senior departmental head for
processing and planning, also acting works manager, in that firm since 1974.
Address: Metzgeshauser Weg 21, 5603 Wulfrath, W. Germany
Biographical notes о п the authors
Obering. Paul Schwake
Born in 1924. Studied mechanical engineering at the Government School of
Engineering, Konstanz. From 1949 to 1957, designer with а firm at Krefeld. Since
1957, designer and development manager of Haver & Boecker, Oelde, where
he has Ь е е п head of the research and development department with the rank of
chief engineer since 1968. Appointment to senior managerial status in 1976.
Address: Mozartstrasse 12, 4740 Oelde 1, W. Germany
А . Introduction.
В у В . Kohlhaas
В . Raw materials . 3
Dipl.-Ing. Eberhard Steinbiss
Born at Wiesbaden in 1941. Studied general mechanical engineering at the Tech-
nological University of Darmstadt. ' П 1969, scientific staff member in the А е ­
search Institute of the Cement Industry, Dusseldorf. With К Н О Humboldt Wedag
AG, Cologne, since 1982. PubIications.
Address: Uerdinger Strasse 25, 4000 Dusseldorf 30, W. Germany
Dipl.-Ing. Horst Х е l l е г
Born at Biberach/Riss in 1935. Studied mechanical engineering at the Tech-
nological University of Stuttgart. Since 1960, production engineer in various
cement works and in the thermal engineering section of the central technical
office of Heidelberger Zement. PubIications.
Address: larchenweg 1,6906 leimen, W. Germany
1. Geology, raw material deposits, requirements applicate to the deposit,
exploration of the deposit, boreholes, evaluation of borehole re-
sults, calculation of reserves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3
В у H.-U. Schafer
1 Raw materials and quarrying methods . 4
2 Exploration 6
References . . . . . . . . 25
11. Quarrying the raw materials . 27
В у Н . Schuberth
1 Guidelines for quarrying 28
2 Overburden. . . . . 30
3 Breaking out the rock 32
4 loading . . . . . . 46
5 Haulage . . . . . . 50
6 Mobile crushing plants. 55
7 Site restoration 57
References . . . . . . . 62
111. Raw materials storage, bIending beds, sampling stations.
В у О . Schmidt
1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 Bed bIending theory. . . . . . . . . . ..
3 Machinery and process engineering methods.
4 Sampling stations
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
С . Cement chemistry - cement quality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
В у О . К п б f е l
н istorical introduction
Raw materials and the raw mix
' Х
1 Raw materials . 105 4 Supply and identification of cements 163
2 Raw mix: proportioning and analysis 109 5 Quality control 165
119 6 Suggestions for the use of cements 165
References 166
111. Chemical, physical and mineralogical aspects of the cement burning
process .
119 Х Cement testing 166
1 Drying 121 1 Fineness 167
2 Dehydration of clay minerals . 121 2 Setting times 168
3 Decomposition of carbonates . 122 3 Soundness 168
4 Solid reactions (reactions below sintering) . 123 4 Strength 169
5 Reactions in the presence of liquid phase (sintering) 123 5 Heat of hydration 169
6 Reactions during cooling . 124 References 170
7 Factors affecting the burning process 125 Cement Standards . 170
References 128 References 171
IV. Portland cement clinker. 128
1 Clinker phases. 128 О Manufacture of cement. 177
2 Judging the quality of clinker. 133
References 137 1. Materials preparation of cement . 179
V. Finish grinding 137
В у Н Schneider and U. Binder
1 The materials involved in finish grinding. 137 1 Primary reduction 179
2 Fineness and particle size distribution 141 References 213
3 Mill atmosphere . 142 2 Size classification 214
4 Grinding aids 144 References 238
References 145 3 Grinding 239
References 266
VI. Storage of cement . 145 4 Roller mills 266
1 Storage in the cement works 145 References 276
2 Storage о п the construction site 146 5 Grinding and drying of coal 277
References 146 References 293
VII. Hydration of cement (setting, hardening, strength) 146 11. Raw meal silos 295
1 General. 146
В у Н К К
2 Hydration of the clinker phases . 149
3 Hydrogen of slag cements and pozzolanic cements . 153 1 General. 295
153 2 Batchwise homogenization . 295
3 Continuous bIending. 297
VIII. Relations between chemical reactions, phase content and strength of
4 Combined systems. 304
portland cement . 153 5 Summary . 304
References 158 References 305
IX. Types, strength classes, designation and quality control of cements. 158 111. Cement burning technology. 307
1 General. 158 1 Kiln systems. 307
2 Classification and designation of cements 160 В у Е SteinbiB
3 Constituents of cements . 163 References 319
Handling and feeding systems - Continuous conveyors. . . . . . 515
В у F. Mechtold
2 Preheaters and precalcining.
В у Е Steinbir..
References . . .
3 Clinker cooling
В у Н Xeller
References . . .
4 Firing technology
В у Е Steinbir..
References . . . .
5 Refractory linings
В у О Opitz
References . .
3 Loading of clinker and crushed stone
4 "Big bag" despatch . . . . . . . .
5 Shrink wrapping. . . . . . . . . .
6 Automation of despatch procedures .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General introduction
IV. Clinker storage.
В у В Kohlhaas
1 General .
2 Forms of construction and space requirements .
3 Selection criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 Design .
5 Filling and emptying silos and other storage structures
6 Storage buildings and outdoor stockpiles
References .
V. Cement silos.
В у Н К К
1 General .
2 Large-capacity silos
References . . . . .
11. Belt and band conveyors .
1 Belt conveyors . . .
2 Steel band conveyors
111. Bucket elevators. . . .
1 General explanation .
2 Belt bucket elevators.
3 Chain bucket elevators .
4 Swing bucket elevators.
IV. Chain Conveyors. . . . .
1 Flight conveyors. . . .
2 Continuous-flow conveyors
3 А р г о п conveyors
V. Vibratory conveyors
VI. Screw conveyors..
Packing and loading for despatch
Packing ....
В у Р Schwake
1 Introduction.
2 Types of packaging
VII. Pneumatic Conveyors
Vi 11. Feeders. . . . . . .
Х Weighing equipment .
References . . . . .
11. Despatch of cement .
В у Е Bomke and G. Schafer
1 Despatch in sacks. . . .
2 Bulk loading . . . . . .
G. Process engineering and automation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585
В у G. Schmiedgen
1. General............................ 585
Contents Contents
11. Measurement and process control .
1 Measurement . . .
2 Closed loop control . .
К . Workshops and spare parts store
В у В . Kohlhaas
.. 709
111. ProgrammabIe controllers.
IV. Monitoring and operation.
L. Water supply, compressed air. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 717
В у В . Kohlhaas
V. Process computers. . . .
1 Development and use of process computers
2 Computerized control centre
3 Hardware and software.
4 Microprocessors. . .
VI. Process control system .
References . . . . . .
1. Water supply for cement works
1 Estimated quantities required .
2 Raw water .
3 Supply system. cooling water circuit, water storage .
4 Waste water disposal
11. Compressed air supply .
Н . Environmental protection and industrial safety . . . . . . . . . . 621
В у G. Funke
М . Personnel requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725
В у В . Kohlhaas
Lubricants, storage and consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 729
В у В . Kohlhaas
1. Environmental protection .
1 Prevention of air pollution
2 Noise control . . . . . .
3 Ground vibratio!1s due to bIasting .
References . .
1. General .... 729
11. Industrial safety
1 Accident prevention regulations.
2 Promotion of safety in cement works
3 Safety ru les .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11. Types of lubricants.
111. Storage of lubricants .
1 Delivery and handling
2 Storage .
3 Issue of lubricants to consumers
4 Distribution of lubricants to the machines
Maintenance and wear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695
В у В . Kohlhaas
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 General .
2 Spares and renewabIe parts planning
3 Determining the cost of maintenance
References . . .
О .
Lubricants consumption
References . . . . . .
Firefighting equipment .
В у В . Kohlhaas
ProbIems of wear
References . . .
Р . Laboratory equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 749
В у В . Kohlhaas
А . Introduction
1. Introduction . 749 А . Introduction
11. Proposed outline specification for equipment of individual rooms. 752
В у В . Kohlhaas
V. Chemicals......... 779
IV. General laboratory apparatus 771
111. Laboratory equipment with apparatus and measuring instruments. 761
Subject Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
..... 785
The first edition ofthe Cement Engineers' Handbook was pubIished in 1954. Upto
that time п о such reference book for the engineer or technician in cement works
practice had been availabIe. Although four subsequent editions appeared, the
demand for the book continued as brisk as ever. The major developments that had
meanwhile taken place in the cement industry in Germany and other countries
justified the decision to produce an entirely new edition that would take due
account of the latest cement manufacturing technology.
The text for this new edition has been written Ь у а team of experts in their
respective fields of specialization relating to cement manufacture and the
machinery used at all stages of the process. Some of the chapters have been
substantially enlarged and updated from those contained in the earlier editions of
the Handbook. А number of new chapters have moreover been added. The entire
subject matter has been extensively recast and rearranged, as will Ь е apparent from
the comprehensive tabIe of contents. Each chapter is accompanied Ь у а list of
literature references enabIing the reader to consult т о г е detailed pubIished
information о п matters of particular interest to him. The names of the authors а г е
given at the beginning of the chapters.
The following information о п the sections and chapters into which the book is
divided will help the reader to understand its layout and to use it with greater
В . Raw materials
1. Geology, raw material deposits
This section is of especial significance in connection with setting up а new cement
works and ensuring а long-term supply of good-quality raw materials.
11. Quarrying the raw materials
The modern techniques of winning the raw materials Ь у quarrying о г mining
operations а г е described. The restoration of worked-out quarry sites in the interests
of landscape conservation also receives attention.
Ш . Raw materials storage
The raw materials needed for cement manufacture are seldom found in the ideal
chemical composition in their natural state. Besides, quarrying operations usually
stop at the week-ends, whereas cement production proceeds continuously. Т о
с о р е with the high production rates of modern cement plants and keep them
supplied with materials, capacious intermediate storage facilities а г е required, so
as to make the plants independent of the quarry operating rhythm.
А . Introduction
С . Cement chemistry - cement quality
After presenting а historica/ introduction, the author of this section deals in detail
with the cement raw materials, their suitability and the calculation of the raw mix
proportions. The chemical, mineralogical and physica/ processes associated with
burning the materials in the kiln а г е described.
Portland cement clinker and the assessment of its quality а г е discussed. Other
sections deal with cement grinding, storage and hydration. The types and strength
classes of cement, as well as cement testing procedures and associated matters, а г е
also considered. Finally, some information о п standard specifications for cement
in various countries is given.
These matters а г е dealt with much more fully than in earlier editions of the
Handbook, with the object of giving the mechanical and electrical engineers
(including those concerned with process control and instrumentation) in cement
manufacture а better understanding of the probIems involved.
В . Raw materials 1. Geology, deposits
В . Raw materials
1. Geology, raw material deposits, requirements
а р р l i с а Ы е to the deposit, exploration of the
deposit, boreholes, evaluation of borehole results,
CalCiJlation of reserves
В у H.-U. Schafer
D. Cement manufacture
This chapter is devoted to the actual process of making cement. The various stages
а г е described. The wet process and the shaft kiln а г е only briefly considered. О п the
other hand, the dry process with raw meal preheating and the precalcination
principle а г е treated in some detail, as а г е the preparation of the raw materials, the
storage and homogenization of the raw meal, and the cooling of the cement
This latest edition of the Handbook moreover contains up-to-date information о п
firing technology, kiln systems and refractory lining construction.
Clinker storage now has а separate section allotted to it. / п view of today's с о п с е г п
with environmental pollution prevention, the dust-free storage of large quantities
of clinker is very important.
Present-day methods of packing and despatch loading а г е described (Chap-
ter Е ) .
Whereas the subject of materials handling and conveying (Chapter F) was rather
summarily dealt with in earlier editions, it has now received much more detailed
treatment. Feeding and proportioning а г е also included.
Process engineering and automation а г е of such importance in modern cement
manufacturing technology that they have а separate chapter devoted to them, in
which the principal aspects а г е considered in some detail (Chapter G).
The subjects of environmental protection and industrial safety (Chapter Н ) а г е
now likewise fully dealt with in the Handbook for the first time. These а г е subjects
of great importance in connection with modern cement manufacture, which
indeed с а п Ь е carried out only if the statutory and other requirements relating to
them а г е duly complied with.
The book contains some further chapters devoted to various matters that с о п с е г п
the cement works engineer: maintenance and wear; workshops and spare parts
store; water supply, compressed air; personnel requirements; lubricants; firefight-
ing equipment; laboratory equipment.
1 Raw materials and quarrying methods .
2 Exploration . . . . . . . . .
2.1 Exploration procedure . . . .
2.1.1 Trial pits and surface samples .
2.1.2 Drilling . С о г е drilling in limestone. С о г е barrels Flushing media . . . . С о г е drilling in clay .. Treatment of the cores . Testing of drilled cores . Rotary percussive drilling with crawler-mounted machines.
2.1.3 Stratigraphic investigations .
2.1.4 Tectonics ..... Limestone deposits ... С / а у component. . . . . Overburden investigations
2.1.5 Geophysical investigations
2.1.6 Hydrogeological investigations
2.2 Laboratory investigations. . .
2.2.1 Chemical investigations ...
2.2.2 Mineralogica/ and petrographic investigations Limestone.. ..... Clay component. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.3 Physical investigations. . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Evaluation of the resu Its of the investigations.
2.3.1 Geochemical evaluation with quarrying operations planning .
2.3.2 Calculation and classification of reserves. .
2.4 Organizing а п exploration project. . . . .
2.5 Using а computer in а п exploration project.
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
В Raw materials 1. Geology, deposits
Quarrying methods
1 Raw materials and quarrying methods
Т а Ы е 1 : Nomenclature of clay. silt. etc. in accordance with particle size
distribution (DIN 18123)
The raw materials for cement г which а г е the subject of geological
exploration а г е mainly limestones and clays. П the geological sense both а г е
sedimentary rocks which may occur as hard о г dense material (commonly known
as "rock") о г softer soil deposits. They may Ь е of а п у geological age. Limestones
mostly г in the form of rock, sometimes constituting whole mountainous
formations. П Europe, more particularly the Devonian granular limestones, the
Jurassic and Triassic limestones oftheAlpine region and the Cretaceous limestone
deposits а г е of importance.
Whereas the limestone deposits of the Precretaceous period а г е usually composed
of fossil limestones which in many instances were subjected to metamorphic
change (e.g., marbIes, siliceous limestones), the younger and mostly
Postcretaceous limestones occur both as fossil deposits and as limestone-clay
г The latter а г е referred to as lime marl (calcareous marl) о г marl,
depending о п the limestone/clay ratio of the mixture (see Duda, Vol. 1, Section 1).
These limestones also include the so-called г cements in which С а О Si0

and е

а г е present in such proportions that the lime standard is around
1OOand the desired moduli с а п Ь е obtained bythe addition ofonly small quantities
of corrective materials. Such deposits а г е however, о г г а г е о с с г г е п с е
The youngest recent and sub-recent limestones include coral limestones, which
occupy in some cases а п intermediate position Ь е т е е п (consolidated) rock and
unconsolidated material. Deposits of shells, which с а п also Ь е used in the
г of cement clinker, belong to the last-mentioned category.
The clay mineral component used for cement manufacture will generally Ь е а soft
о г г material: clays, silts, о г sands with high content of clay minerals.
These materials а г е classified according to particle size distribution rather than
mineralogical composition Т а Ы е 1). Rock-type clay materials may occur as clay
slate, shale and (to some extent) crystalline slates. Subject to chemical suitability,
such rocks as granites, gneisses, basalts and basaltic tufas о г pozzolanas may also
serve as clay mineral components.
Additive materials for ciinker production may Ь е needed for correcting the
chemical composition of the raw mix, e.g., materials providing Fe, Si0
о г А


more particularly the most inexpensive ones that с а п serve the г e.g.,
roasted pyrites о г low-grade iron о г е laterite, quartz sand о г quartziferous
weathering products of metamorphic rocks, and bauxite.
< 0.002mm
0.002-0.063 mm
0.063 - 2.0 mm
Т а Ы е 2: limits imposed о п the MgO content of portland cement
materials Ь у Standards in various countrjes (according to Cembureau.
Country max. % MgO
Ь у weight
Rumania 2.5
Belgium, Denmark 3
Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, Pakistan, Portugal,
Great Britain 4
Australia 4.2
Bulgaria 4.5
Argentina, Austria, Canada, Chile, Cuba, Finland, France,
German Democratic А е р Fed. А е р of Germany, Greece,
Hungary, Indonesia, Ireland. Israel, Japan, Netherlands,
Norway, Poland, South Africa. Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Taiwan, г USSR, Venezuela,
Jugoslavia, People's А е р of China 5
Brazil, Czechoslovakia. India, USA 6
The assessment of the suitability of the raw materials for cement г is
based chiefly о п their chemical composition. For limestone components the so-
called lime standard is used as а criterion, giving information о п the С а О content as
well as о п the "hydraulic" constituents Si0
, А

and е

It is in а п у case
preferabIe to assessing the materials merely о п the basis of С а О content.
The rocks to Ь е used as clay mineral components с а п most suitabIy Ь е assessed Ь у
calculation of the silica ratio and the alumina ratio.
For deciding о п the suitability of raw materials it is furthermore essential to perform
mix proportioning calculations in order to ascertain the content of alkalies,
sulphates, chlorides and MgO introduced into the raw mix.
The permissibIe limit values for the content of sulphates, alkalies and chlorides
must Ь е conformed to.
The content of magnesium that с а п Ь е permitted is laid down in standards
which vary from о п е country to another Т а Ы е 2).ltwill haveto Ь е decided in each
particular case whether anything in excess ofthe standard specified content с а п Ь е
allowed, since there а г е п о suitabIe raw materials that fulfil the requirement of, in
most cases, not exceeding about 4-5% MgO Ь у weight) in the cement. Under
certain circumstances, too, г о г economic reasons may constitute а
deciding factor in justifying а departure from the standard limit.
Exploration of limestone and clay deposits for cement clinker manufacture has
three aims:
(1) verifying the quality of the raw materials;
В Raw materials 1. Geology, deposits
(2) estabIishing the range of variation in quality of the raw materials throughout
the working life of the deposit;
(3) verifying the workabIe reserves of raw materials.
For the technological planning of the machinery for а cement manufacturing plant
it is of major importance to ascertain the ranges of variation of individual raw
material constituents in the deposit throughout the operating life of the plant, for
only in this way с а п г о е г е е operation yielding а final product of good quality
Ь е ensured. Variations of relatively short duration, ranging from months up to
about half а у е а г should also Ь е known in good time, so that suitabIe precautions
in terms of machinery and process technology с а п Ь е taken о г otherwise, in the
ligbt of economic considerations, corrective ingredients that will help maintain а
product of unvarying quality с а п Ь е quarried о г purchased.
Exploration for limestone and clay mineral components for cement manufacture
mainly comprises geochemical investigations, though the bedding conditions of
the deposit also play а п important part with regard to subsequent planning of
the quarrying operations to meet the raw material requirements of the cement
Besides qualitative conditions, the deposit will also have to fulfil quantitative
conditions more particularly in connection with the method of quarrying о г
digging to Ь е employed.
Cement works with clinker outputs of between 1000 and 6000t/day need а raw
material input of 2000 to 12000t/day (assuming clinker production о п 330 days
and quarrying operations о п 260-280days р е г у е а г about 50-90% of this
quantity being limestone and 10- 50% clay mineral material.
2 Exploration
2.1 Exploration procedure
The exploration procedure will always have to Ь е suited to the particular
conditions of the deposit under investigation, so that it is here not possibIe to give
more than а general outline description.
Generally speaking, the exploration of cement-grade deposits will comprise three
Stage 1: Field inspection of а number of deposits, surface tests, а limited number of
exploratory borings (including core borings, if necessary), simple hydrological and
tectonic investigations, large-area mapping.
The object of this first stage of а п exploration, which с а п Ь е referred to as
reconnaissance prospecting, is to select о п е or more deposits for further detailed
prospecting. In this connection the quality of the deposit is especially important,
while probIems of mining or quarrying are given comparatively little attention at
this stage.
Stage2: О п completion of the first stage, о п е or more deposits are selected for
detailed investigation. О П the basis of а comprehensive drilling program the
Exploration procedure: Trial pits and surface samples
deposits а г е broadly studied with а view to ascertaining their chemical characteris-
tics over extensive areas. In conjunction with the borings, further investigations are
carried out for determining the bedding conditions, ground water and possibilities
of working the deposit, the object being to assess the suitability of а site for
quarrying or open-cast working. More particularly, the second stage aims to find
the most suitabIe area for siting the quarry or to select the most favourabIe of two or
more deposits potentially availabIe for supplying the raw materials.
Stage 3: This is the stage of detailed exploration, using а grid of closely spaced
boreholes for the purpose of determining chemical properties of the raw material
components and their variations over short distances, in order to gear the process
engineering design of the cement works to these conditions.
Furthermore, special investigations for planning the quarrying operations а г е
carried out. The structure of the deposit is studied in detail. In addition, the
possibility of working the material Ь у ripping may, for example, Ь е examined. While
these exploratory operations а г е in progress, assessment of the results already
availabIe is undertaken, so that а п у probIems emerging therefrom с а п Ь е fed back
to the exploration work and duly taken into consideration. О п completion of the
third stage of exploration, the deposits are fully known as regards their qualitative,
quantitative and mining or quarrying engineering features and с а п Ь е got ready for
2.1.1 Trial pits and surface samples
Taking samples from а trial pit is usually а form of surface testing, because it is not
possibIe economically to dig shafts of а п у great depth into limestone rock.
О п the other hand, with clay soils it is possibIe to base the exploration о п а
comprehensive grid of test shafts. However, if the clay deposit is of substantial
thickness, it is better to use drilling techniques, as the digging of deep shafts is very
Mostly а combination of the two methods is adopted.
With limestone, pits а г е dug in places where the solid rock is covered Ь у other
material which has to Ь е removed in order to expose the limestone for testing. Such
exploration also affords а п opportunity of testing the overlying material and
assessing its possibIe usefulness.
When the surface of the rock has Ь е е п exposed Ь у excavation, or if it occurs as а п
outcrop, material for examination с а п Ь е sampled in two ways: either as spot
samples from а locally limited а г е а of exploration or as continuous samples taken
along а line (or а long exploration trench) extending at right angles to the strike.
With continuous sampling it is important that the samples should Ь е properly
representative of the rock strata under investigation. This с а п most simply Ь е
achieved Ь у excavating а cut from which, for approximately unvarying cross-
section, а constant quantity of sample material per unit length is obtained.
If а cut is too expensive or indeed impracticabIe, it will alternatively Ь е necessary to
take from the strata in question а sample quantity which bears а п appropriate
relation to their depth and extent.
В Raw materials 1. Geology, deposits
When а trial excavation is made, sampling and testing should, as far as possibIe,
not Ь е confined just to the surface of the limestone, but should extend down to at
least below the top weathered layer of rock. П most cases this will require the aid of
а heavy excavator о г rock breaking hammers and а compressor. П young chalk
limestones о г corallimestones а ripper о г even lighter equipment т а у suffice for
the purpose.
П а п у case it must Ь е investigated whether the limestone is liabIe to undergo
changes in its chemical character as а result of atmospheric influences, weathering,
circulating underground water, о г ground water occurring close to the surface. In
the last-mentioned case the chemical properties of the ground water а г е also of
considerabIe importance.
If clay occurs in the form of а loose-textured soil-type deposit, exploratory
excavations (trial pits, etc.) с а п Ь е made with simple means. The stability of the
walls of such excavations should Ь е given due attention in view of the danger to
т е п working in the excavation, о г to machines stand ing at the edge thereof, arising
from а sudden collapse of а wall. If necessary, timbering will have to Ь е installed.
The arrangement of trial pits and trenches in clay is similar in principle to that in
limestone. The same is true of the sampling procedures.
It is advantageous to have hermetically closabIe jars о г canisters availabIe for
storage of the rock о г soil samples with their in situ moisture content
because т о г е particularly with clays the moisture conditions а г е important
deciding what type of preparatory processing machines will have to Ь е used.
Where excavating machinery is used for digging the trial pits, the experience thus
gained с а п provide useful indications with regard to the p/anning of the future
quarrying operations (Iumpiness, stickness, distintegration, suitability for е х с а
vation Ь у means of power shovels, wheel loaders, etc.).
2.1.2 Drilling
The selection of the most suitabIe drilling о г boring method in terms of technical
suitability and also of е с о п о т у is the fundamental condition for successful
exploration. П the main, there а г е three drilling techniques to choose from:
drilling of cuttings Ь у circulating water о г other flushing
с о г е Г П wlth contlnuous с о г е extraction; percussive rotary drilling
wlth removal of cuttlngs Ь у means of compressed air.
drilling with rotary bits and removal of cuttings with the flushing medium
IS sUltabIe only in exceptional cases for exploratory drilling in solid rock deposits. If
this method is used, it should Ь е known in advance whether it will not cause
changes in the chemical character of the samples, е g., Ь у the dissolving of solubIe
compounds (alkali chlorides, for example) о г Ь у failing to reveal the presence of
marl strata о г clay enclosed within the rock under investigation.
Similar considerations а г е applicabIe to percussive rotary drilling with crawler-
mounted machines of the type used for the drilling of bIastholes. This method is
unsuitabIe for deposits consisting of loose-textured о г soil-type deposits.
С о г е drilling is the most reliabIe method of obtaining samples for assessment. П
this technique а continuous с о г е is extracted over the full depth of the hole, so that,
Exploration procedure: Drilling
if the drilling operations а г е carried out Ь у suitabIy experienced personnel, the
geologist с а п obtain full information of all details of the limestone deposit at all
levels below the surface. С о г е drilling in limestone
For successful exploration with the aid of с о г е drilling the correct choice of drill
bits, с о г е barrels and f/ushing media is of major importance.
For с о г е borings in limestone the diameter should Ь е not less than 75 т т With
smaller с о г е diameters there is а risk that jammed cores will pulverize thin soft
intermediate strata, that the hole will Ь е choked Ь у caving and that material from
some strata т а у Ь е removed along with the flushing medium.
А п и р р е г limit to the с о г е diameter is imposed Ь у considerations of е с о п о т у
Diameters of 120 т т and upwards а г е seldom used, except under critical
conditions where drilling has to Ь е done with water flush in porous rock and, Ь у
employing а large diameter, washing-out of solubIe compounds с а п Ь е prevented
at least in the interior ofthe с о г е О П the other hand, cores which а г е too small will
make the evaluating geologist's task т о г е awkward, while the halves into which
the с о г е specimens а г е split for the purpose of possibIe supplementary о г follow-
и р tests а г е then rather unsuitabIe for the purpose.
The choice of а suitabIe drill bit will depend о п the rock itself: the bedding,
fissuring and tectonic characteristics of the deposit, and the abrasiveness of the
rock. Carbide-tipped as well as diamond drill bits а г е used. With large diameters
and heavily fissured rock the risk that parts of the с о г е will tilt and jam in the с о г е
barrel is greaterwith carbide bits; besides, the с о г е is т о г е exposed to the action of
the flushing medium than with diamond bits. П such cases the choice of the most
suitabIe bit will depend о п the foreman-driller's experience. С о г е barrels
Three types of с о г е barrel а г е availabIe from which to make а choice:
the single tube, the doubIe tube and the wire line type. П addition, there а г е special
types of barrel, which т а у have to Ь е used under exceptionally difficult
The three types а г е illustrated schematically in Fig. 1. The single tube Ь а г г е is
provided, п е а г its bottom end just above the bit, with а с о г е catcher ring which
grips the drilled с о г е during extraction of the drill rod and thus prevents it from
dropping down the hole. The basic condition for successfully using the single tube
Ь а г г е is that the rock is of such а kind (massive and uniformly strong) that а с о г е
с а п indeed Ь е drilled from it. If the limestone is composed ofthin plate-like strata о г
if it easily disintegrates during drilling, there will Ь е а risk that part of the с о г е will
fall back into the hole о п extraction. Furthermore, in such cases the geological and
geochemical assessment and analysis of the sample is rather difficult, since the
sample consists merely of fragments which make it impossibIe to с а г г у out all the
necessary г in detail. Another and very serious drawback of the single
tube is that the с о г е is enveloped in а flow of flushing medium along its entire
В Raw materials 1. Geology, deposits
Exploration procedure: Drilling
Fig.1 : Types ofcore Ь а п е single tube barrel (1), doubIetube barrel (2),
grapple device (3) with wire line barrel (4) (based о п information from
Atlas С о р с о
Special doubIe tube с о г е barrels а г е equipped with bits which а г е so designed that
the flushing medium does not emerge from the gap between the inner and the
outer tube, but is discharged to the outside before о г within the cutting edge of the
bit. Inside the bit (Fig. 1) the inner tube is in such close contact with it, that
practically п о water с а п get to the с о г е sample.
If borings а г е carried out in very soft and shattered material (though firm enough to
е п а Ы е а stabIe hole to Ь е drilled), it is possibIe to use а special doubIe tube с о г е
barrel in which а third tube, made of plastic, с а п Ь е inserted into the inner tube. The
с о г е is then removed together with the plastic tube from the barrel, so that а
substantia/ly undisturbed sample for assessment is obtained.
If the deposit consists of material in which it is not possibIe drill а stabIe hole even
with mud flush, а wire line barrel с а п Ь е used.
With thewire line barrel thewhole drill rod isofthe same diameter as the с о г е barrel
itself. The inner tube, however, is not permanently connected to the outer tube Ь у
ball bearings, but is gripped in it Ь у means of а catch t.he
of с о г е corresponding to the length of the barrel has Ь е е п drllled, а wlre П е wlth а
kind of grapple is lowered into the hole and releases the catch, enabIing the tube
containing the с о г е sample to Ь е drawn up. This procedure offers the advantage
that the drill rod need not Ь е extracted in order to extract the sample from the hole,
so that the risk of caving and bIockage of the hole is obviated. Besides, the
operation of extracting the с о г е tube takes less time than it does with the other
systems. There а г е also special wire line с о г е barrels in which the flushing medium
emerges before the cutting edge of the bit, so that there is hardly а п у contact
between the с о г е and the medium. Flushing media
The choice of the flushing medium for borings in limestone is of major importance
in connection with the subsequent geochemical investigation of the samples.
It has already Ь е е п noted that with а fluid medium for flushing the borehole there is
а risk that clay and marl strata, as well as sand and silt inclusions, will Ь е washed
out and that solubIe constituents of the limestone willlikewise Ь е lost. П principle,
а distinction is to Ь е drawn between air and liquid flushing media. П all cases air
flush is preferabIe, because it ensures that п о constituents will Ь е removed Ь у
washing о г dissolving action. With air flush it is often unnecessary to use а doubIe
tube с о г е barrel, for in the single tube the samle is enveloped only in а stream of air,
though admittedly the rate of drill bit wear is then higher.
With water flush the pressure of the water should Ь е kept as low as possibIe. The
higher the pressure, the greater is the risk of disturbing the sample Ь у washing out
some of the material. For the purpose under consideration water is the only suitabIe
liquid flushing medium о г otherwise only such media whose constituents с а п
afterwards, in the chemical analysis of the rock samples, unambiguously Ь е
identified as having originated from the flushing medium.
In connection with water flush, the porosity of the limestone is of major
importance. In а п у case the water used for the purpose should Ь е analysed to make
ouler lube
flushing medium (f(uid)
р Ш е I
flushing medium (fluid)
с о г е Ь а г г е
length, so that, especially if water flush is employed, fine stone chippings and а п у
sandy, silty о г clayey inclusions а г е likely to Ь е washed out.
With the doubIe tube type of с о г е barrel the inner tube is connected through ball
bearings to the outer tube and therefore does not revolve with the latter (which
carries the drill bit). In this way the с о г е remains at rest and thus substantially
г The most important advantage of the doubIe tube, however, is that
the с о г е is not enveloped in the flushing medium, which is, instead, forced through
the annular space between the inner and the outer tube. The с о г е comes into
contact with the flushing medium only at the lower end of the barrel, where the
inner tube terminates and а gap for the passage of the medium exists between the
two tubes. Because of this limited а г е а of contact, very little of the с о г е is washed
out, though of course some dissolving of solubIe constituents in this а г е а cannot
Ь е avoided.
В Raw materials 1. Geology, deposits
it possibIe subsequently to draw conclusions as to а п у effect that it may have had
о п the samples. For example, if salt water is employed, it will in а п у case Ь е difficult
to distinguish between the alkali content of the limestone and the alkali introduced
with the flushing water.
In highly porous limestone which с а п Ь е suspected of having а high content of
alkali, chlorine and sulphate the с о г е drilling technique with air flush is the only
possibllity of obtaining suitabIe samples for geochemical investigation. С о г е drilling in clay
Ifthe clay mineral componentfor cement manufacture occurs in the form of а solid
rock (shale, slate, etc.), the same drilling techniques as for limestone с а п Ь е
applied. However, if it occurs as non-cohesive soil, other methods will have to Ь е
chosen. П such cases, as а rule, percussive drilling will Ь е used and the hole will Ь е
cased as drilling proceeds, so as to prevent caving о п extraction of the rod. The
sar:npling device used in borings of this type is usually а spoon sampler which, о п
Ь е П extracted, closes its lower end and thus prevents the soil sample from falling
out. The sample obtained in this way is г however, so that the information
it gives о п bedding conditions, г etc. may Ь е questionabIe.
This technique с а п also Ь е applied to cohesive soils, but in such soils it is
alternatively possibIe to use а rotary drill, equipped with а carblde-tipped blt. If
г samples а г е required, а с о г е barrel of the doubIe tube type с а п Ь е
used. п many instances, however, а single tube с о г е barrel will adequately serve
the г if water flush с а п Ь е dispensed with. Drilling operations а г е liabIe to Ь е
particularly difficult, even if little water is used, in clays containing minerals whict1
swell and thus cause а narrowing of the hole. Under such conditions it is certainly
necessary to case the hole directly above the drill blt.
Drilling in г о г friabIe material should, if at all possibIe, Ь е performed
without а flushing medium.
П especially difficult cases the drilling operations may Ь е carried out with doubIe
tube с о г е barrels о г wire line barrels equipped with а plastic inner tube for
enclosing the sample. The plastic tube is withdrawn along with the sampled
material and serves also as its container for despatch to the laboratory. Treatment of the cores
The cores extracted from the boreholes а г е stored in boxes. If they а г е to Ь е
transported freight over long distances, the boxes should Ь е made of suitabIy
strong materlal and strengthened with metal. Cores obtained from loose-textured
deposits should additionally Ь е protected in plastic bags.
1n the field, the cores should Ь е recorded Ь у the geologist directly а п е г their
removal from the с о г е barrel. Such records с а п most suitabIy Ь е supplemented Ь у
г photographs of each с о г е Fields records should Ь е as comprehensive as
pos.sibIe so as to е п а Ы е the samples also to Ь е correlated with а п у supplementary
borlngs that may Ь е made later о г with the actual conditions encountered о п
Exploration procedure: Drilling
opening-up the quarry. The drilling report should contain technical data relating to
the drilling operations and also geological data, so that, when the geochemical
tests results become availabIe, а complete diagram for each borehole is obtained.
Each report should contain information о п the location, altitude of the starting
point and designation of the borehole. For each drilling depth, the diameter of the
hole, the type of с о г е barrel, the type of blt and change of blt, amount of с о г е г е
covered, flushing losses and rate of drilling progress should Ь е noted. With the aid
of this information it will, in the event of subsequent additional investigations, Ь е
possibIe to discuss whether drilling с а п Ь е done more easily and cheaply with
different equipment. г the foreman-driller should keep а record of the
ease о г difficulty with which the rock с а п Ь е drilled. Although this is а matter of
subjective judgment, it с а п facilitate the work of correlating the profiles in rock of а
macroscopically very uniform character.
The correct geological description of the samples comprises the designation of the
type of rock penetrated, the г of the rock, its granularity, information о п
inclusions of foreign rock о г mineral inclusions, porosity and hardness, bedding,
г and information о п а п у faults encountered.
г each drilling report should record the samples taken from the с о г е
drilling run, unless the с о г е is divided and о п е half is retained for possibIe г
reference. If information о п approximate stratigraphic classification is availabIe,
this too should Ь е included in the report. Under certain circumstances, field tests
may Ь е performed о п the cores in order to check the С а С О
content о г the
suspected presence of MgO. The results of these tests а г е likewise to Ь е added to
the report. А graphic representation of the conditions encountered is in а п у case
necessary. Testing of drilled cores
For the г of testing, the cores а г е divided into sections о п the basis of
macroscopic criteria. Each section is then subdivided into portions for analysis,
with due regard to the method of quarrying to Ь е employed. In the case of а
relatively thin deposit, i.e., of limited depth, which will have to Ь е worked Ь у
ripping о г if ripping has to Ь е applied for other reasons), the length of the analysis
portions should not exceed twice the ripping depth.
О п the other hand, if benching is to Ь е employed, the portions for complete
analysis should not Ь е more than 5 m long.
If at а possibIe, the с о г е should Ь е divided in halves, о п е half being retained for
г reference, while the other is sent to the laboratory. Cores of very large
diameter may also Ь е quartered.
If such division of the с о г е is not possibIe, the whole с о г е must Ь е despatched to
the laboratory, where it may have to Ь е comminuted Ь у crushing. П such cases the
с о г е portions should not exceed 1 m in length, in order to keep down the cost of
analysis (see below).
В Raw materials /. Geology, deposits Rotary percussive drilling with crawler-mounted machines
Т о supplement the с о г е borings and to fill in the network of boreholes in solid rock
deposits, additional drilling с а п Ь е carried out inexpensively with the aid of а
drilling machine, of the type used also for the drilling of large-
dlameter holes for bIasting.
The. drill bit, operating Ь у rotary percussive action, shatters the rock, and the
cuttlngs а г е removed from the hole Ь у air issuing from the bit.
The dust carried out of the hole with this flushing air с а п Ь е trapped in а dust
coll.ector, which is mounted о п the drilling machine. It comprises а cyclone in
whJch the coarser particles а г е precipitated, while the finer ones а г е retained
in special filters. The suction extractor is connected to а flexibIe tube which
terminates in а plastic sleeve forming а п airtight closure over the mouth of the
?orehole, so that all the dust с а п Ь е collected. For testing the samples it is
not only to analyse the dust precipitated in the cyclone, but also to
Include the fine particles trapped in the filter equipment.
With borings of this type it often occurs that the dust is collected without the aid of
а suction extractor, merely Ь у p/acing а sheet of plastic around the top of the hole
and collecting the dust, discharged from the hole, о п this sheet. This method is to
Ь е u.nl.ess the object of such borings is merely to obtain approximate
gUldlng о г If It IS desired, quickly to obtain details of the chemical composition
at о п е partlcular point in а deposit о п which reliabIe information is already
Clay intercalations, sand inclusions о г soft moist limestone strata а г е forced aside
Ь у the rotary percussive drill bit and remain sticking to the wall of the borehole, so
а г sample of such material is not obtained. Nor is it possibIe to get
п о г а ю п о п the presence of а п у cavities in the rock. The most serious drawback
of rotary percussive dri/ling, however, is that it offers п о possibility of sampling the
rock as such and thus forming а reliabIe picture of the occurrence of limestone in
the deposit under investigation.
2.1.3 Stratigraphic investigations
п prospecting for raw materials for the manufacture of cement only secondary
attaches to stratigraphic investigations, because the suitability of the
raw materlals depends mainly о п chemical features and is not confined to а п у
particular geological age.
stratigraphic investigations а г е usually limited to macroscopic
с а с а ю п of the drilled cores and to assigning characteristic datum horizons for
correlating the individual с о г е borings.
М о г е important, о п the other hand, is the chemostratigraphic examination of the
borehole profiles, especially if the deposit appears to Ь е of а very unvarying
character о п the evidence of field observations and of the cores.
Quite often it is only in this way that differences in facies а г е ascertainabIe which
would otherwise remain undetected. Such differences т а у nevertheless Ь е of
considerabIe importance in connection with the subsequent planning of the
Exploration procedure: Tectonics
quarrying operations, e.g., if the average С а О content of the limestone is only
about 46% and there is а marked shift to lime marl facies.
2.1.4 Tectonics
Of greater importance than stratigraphic investigations in the present context а г е
investigations о п the bedding conditions and structure of the deposit. The precise
interpretation of these factors constitutes the basis for the reliabIe geochemical
evaluation of the results of the borings and for planning the quarrying
2.1 .4.1 Limestone deposits
The investigation begins with surveying the availabIe exploration points relating to
the deposit. The bedding features and а п у faults affecting them с а п Ь е observed
and measured there. Particular attention should Ь е paid to "micro-tectonics", i.e.,
the structural characteristics and their variations within distances of the order of а
few metres о г indeed of decimetres, since such characteristics с а п Ь е of major
importance in determining the alignment of the quarry face. Furthermore, the
exploration points provide information о п the presence of а п у strain zones which
manifest themselves in variations in bed depth о г which have caused foliation of
the limestone.
Fracturing and faults which extend as т о г е о г less straight planes through the
limestone а г е important in connection with further planning. Young limestone
deposits, in particular, а г е often penetrated Ь у such fractures whose faces а г е often
crusted with calcite and coated with а thin а у е г of clay. Such planes should receive
particular attention in quarry p/anning, because ground vibrations due to bIasting
а г е liabIe to cause subsequent rock slips along these p/anes, resulting in sudden
collapse of large portions of the quarry face.
If the exploration points availabIe for the deposit а г е not sufficient to permit
complete mapping of its structural features, photogeological mapping т а у Ь е
helpful, provided that aerial photographs in the scale range from 1: 5000 to
1 : 15 000 а г е obtainabIe and the vegetation о п the terrain does indeed allow
photogeological interpretation.
Another valuabIe aid in assessing the structural conditions of the deposit is
provided Ь у the results of borings. For these, correlation с а п Ь е based primarily о п
the stratigraphic description of the individual borings. Such correlation must not
wait till the drilling operations have Ь е е п completed, but should proceed at the
same time as those operations, in order to monitor and, if necessary, correct the
locations chosen for the further exploratory boreholes in the light of the structural
Interpretation of the macroscopic stratigraphic с о г е drilling records is linked to
р ю е sections along the network of boreholes and to maps indicating the depths
at which particular stratigraphic horizons occur. П this way а good idea of the
structure of а deposit с а п Ь е obtained, which с а п Ь е supplemented with the results
of geochemica/ investigations.
В . Raw materials 1. Geology, deposits
The chemical data of each borehole, like the stratigraphic details, are recorded in
profiles and sub-surface contour maps, so that then, Ь у combination of the two
sets of evaluated data, the tectonic and the geochemical structure of the deposit is
clearly apparent.
The tectonic data are especially important in а case where, as а result of secondary
actions, changes in the chemical properties of the limestone have occurred о п
either side of а fault. Although such variations are of а locally limited character, they
are liabIe to cause entirely different raw meal conditions for а time during quarry
operation and material processing. Clay component
If the clay component occurs as а solid rock-type material, the requirements
applicabIe to the tectonic investigations are the same as those for limestone.
' П deposits consisting of softer material а thorough tectonic investigation is more
particularly necessary if adjacent or underlying strata show а distinct deviation
from the chemical character of the clay mineral component. Furthermore, water-
bearing horizons affected Ь у faults т а у Ь е encountered during excavation. Also,
the stability of slopes is often affected Ь у tectonic conditions, which т а у give rise
to difficulties in excavating the material, especially in countries with heavy
rainfall. Overburden investigations
The layer of material which overlies the deposit should Ь е included in the
investigation, in order to decide whether such material is to Ь е discarded as useless
overburden or с а п Ь е utilized in the production process, e.g., as part of the clay
mineral component or as а sand admixture.
The overburden с а п Ь е investigated with shallow borings, soundings (penetration
testing) or trial trenches.
Sampling is done Ь у the same methods as those for loose rock or soil.
If the overburden is solid rock or similar consolidated material, it is especially
important to assess its potential usefulness, for otherwise its removal as mere waste
is bound to Ь е а cost-intensive operation (e.g., Ь у bIasting).
If the object is only to investigate the depth of overburden, geophysical methods
с а п advantageously Ь е applied. ' П а case where the overburden is of а loose or
fairly soft character, seismic measurements, more particularly Ь у means of the
hammer bIow technique, are very suitabIe, as they с а п Ь е performed quickly and
inexpensively. However, this technique does require а relatively level surface ofthe
limestone. If the surface is very irregular, e.g., as а result of underground water
percolation, this method of investigation cannot Ь е used. The application of the
hammer bIow technique in conjunction with penetration tests is especially to Ь е
With greater overburden thicknesses it is alternatively possibIe to use а geo-electric
method (based о п contrasts in the electrical resistivity of strata), which с а п Ь е very
effective more particularly when used in combination with the hammer bIow
Exploration procedure: Geophysical investigations
For interpreting and evaluating the overburden investigations it is most suitabIe to
use а т а р о п which lines of equal overburden depth have Ь е е п drawn, unless the
depth is uniform and very small.
2.1.5 Geophysical investigations
Hammer bIow and geo-electric methods represent two simple geophysical
techniques which с а п Ь е used with relatively little effort and expense for
determining the depth of overburden, the thickness of consolidated and uncon-
solidated strata, the detection of waterbearing strata, and ascertaining the ground
water tabIe. ' П addition, determination of the velocity of sound transmission in the
ground provides indications as to whether the material с а п Ь е broken out Ь у
The hammer bIow method is especially suitabIe in cases where the depth of
exploration is limited to 10-15 т . The seismic shock (setting up а vibration in the
ground) is produced with а heavy hammer which automatically switches о п the
electronic measuring equipment. А seismic detector (geophone) responds to the
ground movements and displays them о п а п oscillograph. The time it takes for the
first shock wave to travel from the hammer to the detector is measured (Fig. 2). If
the distance from the hammer to the detector is large enough, the wave produced
Ь у the hammer will Ь е refracted at the stratum boundary о п penetrating into the
underlying material, more particularly the bedrock. The distance between the
hammer and the detector is progressively increased, and in each position the wave
propagation time is measured.
У ,
Fig. 2: Propagation and refraction of seismic waves, and time-distance
В Raw materials 1. Geology, deposits
Exploration procedure: Geophysical investigations
The results а г е to begin with, represented graphically, the propagation time being
plotted against the hammer-to-detector distance. The points in the graph а г е
connected to о п е another Ь у straight lines which show changes in slope according
to the number of strata involved. The reciprocals of the slopes of these lines
correspond to the wave velocities in the respective strata. The velocities с а п most
quickly Ь е calculated from the linear regression of the measured values, omitting
the values close to the "breaks" (changes in direction) because those values а г е
unreliabIe о п account of transition effects:
у = В х + А where у = time axis (t)
х = distance axis (s)
Т а Ы е З Seismic velocities
residual (weathered) soil
sand, gravel, dry
sand, gravel, wet
300- 600 m/s
450- 900m/s
600-1500 m/s
750-1500 m/s
1200- 2000 m/s
1600-3000 m/s
1600-4000 m/s
When the lines have Ь е е п calculated, their intersections с а п Ь е determined and the
distances from these "breaks" о п the graph to the origin (point О then Ь е worked
out. With this distance and the velocities in the two strata it is possibIe to find the
depth at which the interface о г boundary surface of the strata is located:
Another geophysical method, somewhat т о г е elaborate as regards its application
and interpretation, is that of geo-electric exploration, which has а substantially
greater range in depth (to about т А distinction is drawn between
geo-electric mapping, comprising substantial areas of the subsoil, and soundings
which give in-depth information at specific exploration points.
In both cases the so-called four-point arrangement is usually adopted (Fig.3),
comprising а п outer pair of electrodes Е to which а voltage is applied and а п inner
pair of electrodes S (probes) across which the resulting voltage is measured.
In the sounding technique, the distance between the electrodes is progressively
increased, so that changes in the electric potential distribution in the ground occur
and а г е measured, thus enabIing the apparent resistance to Ь е calculated.
The potential distribution in the ground depends substantially о п the thickness of
the strata with equal electrical resistivity.
If strata differing in their resistivity а г е present, the pattern of potential distribution
at the surface of the ground is altered. The interpretation of the results of the
v = velocity in the stratum.
v, в
Х к
О ---
2 V
+ v,
where D = depth of interface
= distance from "break" to point О
= velocity in stratum п
Since this method of seismic exploration operates with only а limited input of
energy for producing the ground vibrations, it с а п Ь е used only for depths not
exceeding about 10-15m and comprising not т о г е than three strata. For greater
depths it will Ь е necessary to use explosive charges for producing the vibrations.
The advantage of the hammer bIow method is that the equipment with the cabIes
and accessories weighs only about 25 kg and that, operated Ь у о п е о г two т е п it is
easily possibIe to measure 10-15 profiles а day. Quite often this method с а п
suitabIy Ь е used for the mapping of sand о г marl horizons о г the ground water tabIe
in clay deposits.
А п important requirement is that the velocities in the respective strata Т а Ы е 3) а г е
sufficiently far apart, i.e., differing in magnitude, to е п а Ы е them to Ь е reliabIy
distinguished from о п е another.
Fig. З Current paths and potential distribution in geo-electric
measurements Е = electrodes. S = probes)
В Raw materials 1. Geology, deposits
measurements with progressively increasing electrode distances enabIes the
resistivity and thickness of the individual strata to Ь е determined.
If geo-electric mapping is required, the electrode spacings а г е kept constant and
the whole set-up is moved along to different locations. П this way а т а р showing
lines of equal resistivity is obtained, e.g., enabIing large sand inclusions, the
surface of а water-bearing stratum о г the undersurface of а raw material deposit to
Ь е mapped.
2.1.6 Hydrogeological investigations
For planning the quarrying operations it is necessary to know the ground water
level о п the site to Ь е worked. The most convenient method of obtaining this
information is observing the water level in the boreholes. If the water flush
technique is used, it is necessary to wait some time until the water introduced into
the hole during drilling has dispersed. In а п у case, the water level observations
should Ь е continued over а full у е а г so as to include seasonal variations.
Hydrogeological observations а г е liabIe to Ь е particularly elaborate in limestone
deposits with karst characteristics, where а comprehensive network of water level
observation points will Ь е needed. If the boreholes fail to provide adequate
information о п ground water level, geo-electric soundings т а у Ь е employed,
which т а у moreover Ь е supplemented Ь у geo-electric mapping of the ground
water tabIe.
Exploration procedure: Laboratory investigations
MgO in the limestone, 5i0
, А

and е

in the clay mineral component. П
testing the limestone the amount of residue insolubIe in Н С shouId always also Ь е
stated, because this residue т а у contain minerals which significantly affect the
MgO content.
After the results for the 1 m portions have Ь е е п determined, mixtures of the
availabIe samples с а п Ь е prepared, thus providing composite samples comprising
several metres of borehole depth. Complete analyses а г е performed о п these. For
this purpose it т а у to begin with, suffice to perform only а limited number of such
analyses for overall guidance,. If these show the alkali content Ь е to Ь е
substantially uniform, the alkali analyses т а у Ь е reduced in number so as to
comprise even larger sample quantities, i.e., representative of material from а
greater length of borehole. In а п у case the compounds 5i0
, А


С а О
and MgO should Ь е determined only for sample sections of such size that it is
possibIe to alter the quarry operations planning according to the geochemical
requirements. For example, if а bench height of 15 m is intended, it is, with sections
of 5 т possibIe to shift the level of а bench upwards о г downwards, in order thus to
keep the quarrying geared to, as far as possibIe, equal geochemical conditions.
Х г а у fluorescence analysis has proved very useful for analysing relatively large
quantities of limestone and clay samples in а short time. The alkali and the sulphate
content will have to Ь е checked Ь у wet chemical analysis, however, because the
results of Х г а у fluorescence analysis tend to Ь е unreliabIe except when such
analysis is performed Ь у very experienced personnel. Wet analysis will in а п у case
Ь е needed for determining the chloride content.
п connection with the exploration of limestone for cement manufacture,
mineralogical and petrographic investigations have а less important part to play
than chemical investigations.
Quite often the limestone occurs in а natural mixture with clay, and in such cases
the designation т а у Ь е based о п the chemical analysis, using the nomenclature
given Ь у KLihl (1958) (cf. Vol.ll, Chapter 2 of his book "Zement-Chemie").
М ineralogical investigations а г е of interest if the aim is to separate the raw material
into lime-rich and clay-mineral-rich components respectively е g., for the
manufacture of white cement clinker, involving the removal of the constituents
containing е


5uch investigations assume greater importance in dealing with siliceous lime-
stones. For such materials it is necessary to ascertain the distribution of the quartz
in the limestone matrix. The type of intergrowth and the grain size of the
constituents с а п Ь е determined in thin sections under the microscope.
The residue insolubIe in Н С should also Ь е examined. This с а п most simply Ь е
done Ь у dissolving away the calcareous matter with monochloro acetic acid о г
formic acid, followed Ь у Х г а у examination of the residual material.
Furthermore, the distribution of dolomite с а п Ь е investigated Ь у means of staining
2.2 Laboratory investigations
2.2.1 Chemical investigations
Besides the borings, the chemical investigations associated with а п exploration
project of the kind described here а г е responsibIe for the major part of the expense
involved. This being so, it is desirabIe to use every possibIe means of working
economically Ь у suitabIy classifying the samples.
For the evaluation of а п exploration project for the detection of raw materials for
the cement industry it is, as а rule, necessary to know the content of each of the




С а О MgO,

О Na20, С and Р
Under certain circumstances it will also Ь е necessary to determine the content of
organic matter in the limestone and in the clay mineral component, because it
tends to undergo oxidation in the preheater and thus, Ь у causing reduction of

give rise to incrustations which tend to clog the equipment.
The samples а г е divided into sections о п the basis of macroscopic criteria. There is,
however, а risk that variations which т а у Ь е important in connection with quarry
operations planning remain undetected within а п у particular portion for analysis.
For this reason the samples will preferabIy Ь е subdivided into portions of 1 m
length for processing into the actual samples for analysis. For each of these 1 m
samples the total carbonate content is first determined, in order thus to obtain
information о п the variations of the most important constituents, namely, С а О and
Mineralogical and petrographic investigations
20 21
В Raw materials 1. Geoiogy, deposits
methods applied to thin sections. However, for practical purposes of assessing
material deposits it is usually simpler to obtain this information Ь у chemlcal
analysis. .
In addition, mineralogical information с а п Ь е very useful in predicting the severlty
of wear that will occur in the crushing and grinding machinery.
п т а п у cases the quickest way to obtain adequate information о п the
cal composition is Ь у Х г а у examination of the fine structure of the materlal. Clay component
Mineralogical and petrographic investigations о п the clay m.ineral г
of interest both in the choice of preparatory processing machlnery and In obtalnlng
information о п the burning behaviour of the material in the kiln.
In both cases the mineralogical form ofthe silica, determined Ь у chemical analysis,
plays а significant part. Large amounts of free quartz will cause heavy mechanical
wear Ь у abrasive action and will, in contrast with the clay minerals, Ь е с о т е
reactive only at high temperatures.
Swelling clays а г е liabIe to cause troubIe in storage and in extraction from storage
containers о г stockpiles.
Information о п the mineralogical mode of occurrence of alkalies, sulphates and
chlorides с а п provide clues to possibIe circulations involving these substances
in the cement plant.
These investigations с а п most simply Ь е carried out Ь у Х г а у methods.
Alternatively, differential thermal analysis has proved very suitabIe for the
2.2.3 Physical investigations
The physical investigations to which the raw materials а г е subjected usually
comprise only the determination of the natural moisture content of the fresh rock
and the maximum water absorption.
Grindability and weartests а г е performed in connection w!th the and design
of the crushing, grinding and other preparatory р г о с е П а с П е г у
In some cases it is also necessary to determine the particle size distribution of clay
о г sand.
2.3 Evaluation of the results of the investigations
The availabIe results of the investigations should Ь е so processed that all variations
in chemical characteristics, workabIe quantities, materials mixture, and type of
machinery to Ь е used in quarrying the deposit с а п Ь е ascertained from the
interpretation and evaluation of the data that emerge. .
It is of major importance that the analyses should yield average values for materlal
quantities corresponding to between о п е and five years' production. Larger
quantities т а у falsify the overall picture, so that useless parts of the deposits т а у
wrongly Ь е rated as useful.
Exploration procedure: Evalutions of the results of the investigations
2.3.1 Geochemical evaluation with quarrying operations planning
The first step, in conjunction with planning the quarrying operations, consists in
determining the average chemical composition. Then follows the calculation of the
raw mix composition. With the results of this calculation the proportion of
limestone from the first quarry bIock required in the mix с а п Ь е determined. О п с е
this value has Ь е е п determined, the precise working life of the bIock с а п Ь е
It is possibIe that the composition of the materials, other than limestone, added to
the mix will undergo some change during this period of time, so that а shift in the
mix proportions will occur. This must of course Ь е taken into account, so that
during the excavation of the first bIock it т а у well Ь е that variations in the daily
quantities of limestone produced will Ь е necessary.
Similar considerations apply to variations in the composition of the limestone itself.
If, for example, а very marly limestone is encountered in а fault zone, it will have to
Ь е ascertained how much higher-grade limestone from another part of the quarry
will have to Ь е added in order to obtain the required raw mix composition. It т а у
indeed occur that, as а result of such changes in the chemical characteristics of the
limestone, the addition of clay to the raw mix с а п Ь е entirely dispensed with for
fairly long intervals. In that case there must of course Ь е sufficient plant availabIe
for producing, handling and preparing the extra limestone required. This extra
demand for limestone will reduce the working life of the quarry in comparison with
the initial estimate.
If, in such cases, operations planning is based о п average values over long periods,
it т а у occur that the quarry machinery capacity originally provided will turn out to
Ь е inadequate for daily output requirements in course of time. Under such
circumstances а crusher, for example, с а п compensate for this shortfall in capacity
only Ь у working longer hours each day.
Such calculations show furthermore that а cement plant which is operated with
only two raw material components in the first few years of its working life т а у as а
result of changes in the average composition of the limestone as quarrying
proceeds further into the deposit, require additional corrective components after
several years. Alternatively, special arrangements т а у Ь е с о т е necessary such as,
for example, the installation of а bypass system to с о р е with increasing contents of
chloride and alkali.
Also, о п the basis of such а п evaluation of the geological investigations, it is
possibIe to direct the quarrying operations in such а way that certain masses of rock
in which some of the constituents exceed the permissibIe limits с а п nevertheless
Ь е usefully quarried and processed. For example, Ь у varying the floor level of а
bench о г Ь у working а п intermediate bench it т а у Ь е possibIe so to control the
operations that the limiting concentration is never exceeded.
2.3.2 Calculation and classification of reserves
The information concerning reserves which is contained in the final report of а п
exploration for raw materials intended for cement manufacture should always
relate to workabIe (recoverabIe) reserves.
В Raw materials 1. Geology, deposits
Material excavated for the construction of haulage roads, turning areas, access
ramps and safety zones, where п о production of rock for processing с а п Ь е done,
should Ь е deducted. Also, some allowance for waste or loss in quarrying should Ь е
The total reserve quantity and the working life thereof is obtained simply Ь у adding
up the quantities in the respective bIocks and the estimated lives of these bIocks.
Such а calculation should comprise the proved reserves.
The classification procedure for the pit and quarry industry is generally similar to
that recommended for ores Ь у the Gesellschaft Deutscher Metallhutten- und
Bergleute (Association of German Metallurgical and Mining Engineers, 1981).
"Proved reserves" (category А comprise reserves which have Ь е е п the subject of
detailed exploration and have Ь е е п fully investigated with regard to chemical
features and their range of variation, bedding, tectonics, preparatory processing,
hydrogeological conditions and the legal aspects associated with quarrying the
materials concerned. Category В relates to "probabIe reserves", i. е the zones
which lie adjacent to а deposit containing category А reserves and which have
already Ь е е п explored Ь у borings to such а п extent that inferences as to chemical
features, bedding conditions and structure, hydrogeological conditions and
preparatory processing с а п Ь е drawn from the experience gained in investigating
the category А reserves.
These last-mentioned reserves should Ь е ascertained as the result ofthe third stage
of а п exploration project in connection with which the reserves assignabIe to
category В are also estimated.
"Indicated reserves" (category С 1) а г е determinabIe at the end of the second
stage of а п exploration project for cement raw materials. These have Ь е е п
investigated о п the basis of а network 01 widely spaced Ь о г е ю е the types of
rock and their chemical characteristics а г е substantially known, as а г е also the
structure and bedding conditions in broad outline.
Final'y, the "inferred reserves" (category С 2) are those which а г е tentatively
determined as the result of the first exploration stage, in which the deposit has Ь е е п
prospected Ь у means of а fimited number of individually located boreholes, so that
the chemical characteristics and structure of the deposit а г е known in а п
approximate and general way.
2.4 Organizing а п exploration project
The various activities involved in prospecting for raw materials for the manufacture
of cement, as described above, comprise т о г е than just the work of the geologist о г
geological institution. П order to tackle the task successfully, it is necessary to
employ the services of а team of experts from the very outset. It is especially
important that this team should include а mining engineer and а process engineer
familiar with the cement industry, for only in this way will it Ь е possibIe to Ь е sure of
avoiding serious mistakes which might otherwise Ь е committed already in the
planning stage of the exploration project. М о г е particularly, the participation of the
process engineer is of major importance in order to ensure that the geochemical
investigations а г е properly geared to the cement industry's needs.
Using а computer in а п exploration project
2.5 Using а computer in а п exploration project
The evaluation of the geochemical data obtained from the exploration с а п Ь е
substantially speeded up Ь у means of а suitabIe computation system.
The chemical analyses of the drilled cores с а п Ь е stored section Ь у section, with
associated data relating to the co-ordinates of the borehole, the depth and the
thickness of the deposit. В у making use of appropriate programs it is moreover
possibIe to store the results obtained from inclined boreholes and from trial pits
and, with due regard to the dip of the strata, to obtain а strata-related г е
presentation of the geochemical conditions.
Since the benches in the quarry а г е usually horizontal, the computer с а п via the
standard deviation, determine coefficients of variation and limiting concentrations
for selected areas of the deposit. From this information the bench height and bench
sections с а п then in turn Ь е obtained.
This data collection с а п Ь е regularly updated and supplemented with further
analyses during the subsequent actual quarrying operations, so that pred ictions of
the chemical composition of the material encountered in the individual stages of
quarrying с а п reliabIy Ь е made.
It is also possibIe to let the computer produce maps indicating lines of equal
chemical concentration, which provide information for determining the direction
of quarrying.
Calculations of reserves, evaluations of geophysical investigations and analyses of
the bedding conditions с а п then Ь е carried out.
1. Bender, F. Н rsg.) : Angewandte Geowissenschaften. - Stuttgart: Enke- Verlag
2. Cembureau (Hrsg.): Cement Standards of the world (portland cement and its
derivatives). - Paris 1968.
3. D1N 18123 Baugrund: Untersuchung von Bodenproben,
К о г п г Б В е п е г е п - Berlin und К б п Beuth-Verlag 1971.
4. Duda, W. Н Cement Data Book. Internationale Verfahrenstechniken der
Zementindustrie, 2. Auflage. - Wiesbaden und Berlin: Bauverlag GmbH
5. Engelhardt, W. v. / Fuchtbauer, Н / Muller, G.: Sediment-Petrologie, TI.II:
Fuchtbauer / М uller: Sedimente und Sedimentgesteine. Stuttgart:
Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung 1970.
6. Flathe, Н / Homilius, J.: Geoelektrik. In: Schneider, Н (Hrsg.): Die
WassererschlieBung, 2. Auflage. - Essen: Vulkan-Verlag 1973.
7. GDMB Gesellschaft Deutscher Metallhutten- und Bergleute (Erzmetall)
(Hrsg.): Lagerstatten der Steine, Erden und Industrieminerale 1981. - GDMB,
Е г п г а В е 1О 3392 Clausthal-Zellerfeld.
В Raw materials 1. Geology, deposits
8. Kuhl, Н Zementchemie. - Berlin: Verlag fur Bauwesen 1958.
9. Schater, Н - U.: Prospektion auf Kalksteinlagersti:itten gezeigt а т Beispiel zur
Erkundung von Rohstoffen zur Herstellung von Zementklinker. - In:
Aufbereitungs-Technik 2. u. 3/1979.
10. Schi:ifer, H.-U.: Prospecting Methods in Ceramic Raw Material Exploration. -
п Interceram. Vol. 28, No. 4/1979.
В Raw materials 11. а п у п
11. Quarrying the raw materials
В у Н Schuberth
1 Guidelines for а п у п 28
1.1 Layout of open-cast operations . 28
1.2 а п у equipment 29
2 Overburden . 30
2.1 Overburden removal 30
2.2 Storage of overburden material 31
3 Breaking out the rock 32
3.1 Drilling and bIasting . 32
3.1.1 Drilling large-diameter holes 32 Single-row bIasting 33 Surface bIasting . 35 Drilling tools 35 Drilling machines 36
3.1.2 Blasting. 36
3.1.3 Cost 40
3.1.4 Tunnelling method. 40
3.1.5 Series firing of small-diameter bIastholes. 41
3.1.6 Secondary bIasting. 41
3.1.7 Storage of explosives 42
3.2 Ripping. 43
3.3 Stripping 45
4 Loading. 46
4.1 Development trend. 46
4.2 Loading machines . 46
4.2.1 о р е а е excavators 46
4.2.2 Hydraulic excavators . 47
4.2.3 Wheel loaders . 48
4.2.4 Crawler loaders 49
5 Haulage 50
5.1 Rail haulage. 50
5.2 Haulage Ь у rubber-tyred vehicles and other means 50
5.2.1 Heavy trucks 50
5.2.2 Belt conveyors 52
5.2.3 Load and с а п у 53
5.4 Aerial ropeways . 54
6 Mobile crushing plants . 55
1 Guidelines for quarrying
Raw materials for the cement industry а г е usually obtained Ь у large-scale о р е п ­
cast ( о г open-pit) mining о г quarrying operations. Depending о п the intended
clinker production quantities, quarry outputs may г и п to several million tonnes of
material р е г у е а г . In order to avoid misdirected capital expenditure ;t is therefore
imperative to obtain reliabIe information о п the raw material deposit, more
particularly in terms of quality and quantity. Such information yielded Ь у
geological exploration is of decisive importance with regard to the conduct of the
quarrying operations. ' П addition, however, various statutory requirements and
obIigations have to Ь е fulfilled concerning the excavations themselves, accident
prevention and environmental protection. ' П many cases these so dominate the
picture that purely economic and technical considerations of winning the material
become secondary to satisfying the statutory conditions.
В . Raw materials 11. Quarrying
7 Site restoration . . . . . . . . . .
7.1 The situation in the cement industry .
7.2 Quarries and landscaping.
7.3 Restoration features ..
7.3.1 Hillsides.......
7.3.2 Berms and quarry faces
7.3.3 Final quarry floor
7.3.4 Waste tips . . . . . .
7.3.5 Settling ponds. . . ..
7.4 Noise and dust emission
7.5 Cost
Guidelines for quarrying
the rock. It will then usually Ь е necessary to с а п у out the quarrying operations in
several benches and at several working points simultaneously, so that the
composition of the raw material с а п Ь е controlled. It will only rarely о с с ш that the
deposit will consist of material having а п ideal composition for cement manufac-
ture, enabIing the quarrying operations to Ь е confined to а single face and а single
working point. With subsurface quarrying in Е ш о р е а п latitudes it will usually Ь е
necessary to control the inflow of ground water Ь у pumping о г other means. The
cost of this must not Ь е underestimated.
The various quarry floor о г base levels should Ь е connected to о п е another and to
the surrounding general ground level Ь у means of ramps, so that machines,
equipment, operating personnel and repair gangs с а п readily move from о п е level
to another. If the ramps а г е moreover used as haulage roads for heavy trucks, they
should not Ь е moresteeply inclined than 1 in 1О and should Ь е sufficiently wide so
that two vehicles travelling in opposite directions с а п conveniently pass each
other. Narrower ramps for single-line traffic with passing bays а г е not to Ь е
recommended except perhaps for small quarries with only а few vehicles. The best
direction of quarry face advance is along the strike of the bed. ' П this way it will
most easily Ь е possibIe to meet the safety requirement that hazardous effects of
rock pressure о г instability must Ь е avoided. If particular reasons necessitate а
different direction of face advance, e.g., diagonally inclined, either ascending о г
descending, the danger of falling rock from overhanging parts should Ь е
counteracted Ь у increasing the batter of the working faces. It should also Ь е Ь о г п е
in mind that surface water is liabIe to collect о п , and г и п off along, such bedding о г
parting planes, thus forming а possibIe cause of rock slips.
The height of the working face is, for example in the Federal RepubIic of Germany,
subject to statutory regulations with regard to permissibIe maximum values
depending о п the method of quarrying о г the size of machines used. The slope and
width ofthe benches should Ь е suited to the nature and stability of the rock and to
the method of quarrying.
1.1 Layout of open-cast operations
The most widely used method of quarrying is based о п the conventional benching
technique, in which the material in the deposit is quarried in several benches
C'steps"), о п е above the other, with predetermined heights of face. If the deposit
is located above the level of the cement works, thus involving "hillside quarrying",
it is advantageous to use the maximum permissibIe face heights, because the
material broken out of the face falls Ь у gravity to the haulage level, е . g., if large-
hole bIasting is employed. The restricting conditions о п face height may Ь е the
accessibility of the top part of the face о г the attainabIe bIasthole drilling depth.
Conversely, with "subsurface quarrying", i. е . , if the deposit is located below the
level of the cement works, it will generally Ь е advantageous to work with relatively
low faces, so as to keep to а minimum the expensive work of raising the quarried
material from the working floor level to the level of the surrounding ground. The
low face is moreover advantageous in cases where quarrying has to Ь е done
selectively in order to compensate for variations in the chemical characteristics of
1.2 О и а г г у equipment
The mechanical equipment of the quarry, more particularly the number and size of
the machines, will depend о п the intended rate of production and о п the haulage
distance. With regard to the economy of the operations it с а п , roughly speaking, Ь е
said to improve with increasing size of the machines employed, provided that а
sufficiently high rate of production in the quarry will е п а Ы е а correspondingly high
degree of plant utilization to Ь е achieved.ln many cases, however, fulfilmentofthis
requirement is restricted Ь у quality considerations, more particularly when а
certain constant average quality ofthe outputfrom the quarry has to Ь е obtained Ь у
the controlled combining of various grades of rock.
Of especial importance is the р г о р е г interadjustment of the machines employed,
i. е . , ensuring that they а г е duly suited to function efficiently with о п е another,
more particularly in the operations of loading, haulage and crushing.
Thus, the loading machine should Ь е so suited to the haulage trucks, and vice
versa, that the number of loading bucket operating cycles for filling а truck is
В Raw materials 11. Quarrying
between three and eight, the larger п и т Ь е г being applicabIe to the smaller bucket.
From th.e economic P?int of view it is important not to allow the capital tied и р in
the е п П е and Г П П П gear of the vehicles to remain idle for too long periods.
They must е а г п their keep!
О п the other hand, the receiving capacity of the crusher shouId Ь е large enough to
the full of а haulage truck discharged in just о п е dumping о г
Р Р П о р е г а ю п П а у the size of the rock pile fragments fed to the crusher
should Ь е so large as to cause jamming in the feed opening.
In plannlng the quarry, the need for providing intermediate storage directly before
о г after the primary crusher should Ь е considered. Such buffer capacity makes the
rate of quarrying to some extent independent of the rate of further processing and
с а п thus Ь е invaluabIe in maintaining continuity of supply in the event of
temporary hold-ups in quarrying activities (see also Chapter В 111).
2 Overburden
It will only seldom о с с ш that а raw material deposit is not covered Ь у а layer of
о г that the overburden с а п Ь е directly excavated and processed along
wlth the actual deposit because the chemical composition fits in with that of the
raw mix п а п у case the overburden will have to Ь е removed separately from
the m.aterlal of deposit. It will either have to Ь е dumped as unprocessabIe
wlth а п у unwanted inclusions and impurities from the deposit
Itself) о г Ь е ш а Ы у stockpiled, so that it с а п Ь е reclaimed in controlled quantities
and mixed in the right proportion with the main material from the deposit.
2.1 Overburden removal
The method of removal will depend о п the following factors relating to the
strength and hardness; soil о г solid rock;
thickness of the а у е г
haulage distance;
loadbearing capacity;
susceptibility to weathering.
Prov.ide.d that rock overburden с а п Ь е suitabIy broken и р Ь у drilling and bIasting о г
Ь у Г Р Р П the following conventional types of machine с а п Ь е used for its
backacting excavator (back-hoe);
dragline excavator;
П general, the ground surface which is as yet intact will, о п account of its
have better bearing capacity for loads than ground that has already had
ItS top layer removed. As indicated, the preferred machines for topsoil digging
- nowadays mostly with hydraulic controls - а г е the backacter and the dragline.
The backacter is better а Ы е to remove unconsolidated material from а п у fissures,
crevices о г dolines (swallow-holes). О П the other hand, the dragline has а larger
outreach and greater digging depth. Besides, the dragline bucket, suspended loose
from its г о р е с а п swerve to miss obstacles о п а rough rocky surface, so that the
excavator is not subjected to excessive wear and tear. If the material to Ь е handled
is fragmented rock, the pieces will have to Ь е fairly small, however.
With both types of excavator it is necessary to use some form of haulage machine
for removing the excavated overburden material. П most cases, various types of
truck а г е used for such purposes. Multi-axle articulated dump trucks with multi-
wheel drive have Ь е е п found most suitabIe because of their good manoeuvrability
о п the generally bad ground о п which they have to travel. Alternatively, the
excavated material с а п Ь е loaded, via suitabIe feed devices, onto belt conveyors in
cases where these с а п Ь е economically used in order to с о р е with large handling
quantities о г to meet other requirements.
The bulldozer с а п suitabIy Ь е used as а means of overburden stripping if the
handling distances а г е not too great, if there is only а limited thickness of
overburden о г if highly cohesive soilleaves п о alternative to this method without
necessitating extensive additional measures (construction of roads). Furthermore,
а bulldozer is usually а very useful piece of equipment for work о п building и р the
soil tips.
Besides the above-mentioned "classic" overburden handling machines, other
types of machine а г е used for special purposes о г under special conditions, such as
face shovels, scrapers, scraper-dozers, wheel loaders, crawler loaders, possibIy
even bucket ladder excavators о г small bucket wheel excavators.
2.2 Storage of overburden material
The planning of suitabIe piles о г tips for dumping the overburden material, т о г е
particularly with regard to quantities to Ь е stored and favourabIe location relative
to the source of the material - and, of course, outside о г at the edge of the deposit
to Ь е quarried -, should Ь е done with considerabIe с а г е It often occurs that, due
to inefficient planning, the а г е а reserved for overburden dumping turns out to Ь е
inadequate and с а п subsequently Ь е extended only at considerabIe expense о г
indeed not at all. As for the technical layout of а п overburden pile the following
points call for consideration:
The pile should Ь е well and firmly based о п the subsoil. If the latter is waterlogged,
it should Ь е drained. The overburden material should Ь е placed layer Ь у а у е г for
only in this way will there Ь е adequate compaction of the dumped material Ь у the
haulage and handling vehicles travelling over it during the build-up of the pile. The
layers should not exceed 8 m in thickness. Each individual layer should end at а
distance of 4 m before the о п е below, so that а Ь е г т is formed. The berms should
Ь е inclined slightly backward, and surface water run-off should Ь е intercepted in
adequate discharge channels and removed under controlled conditions, in such а
way as to prevent erosion о п the berms and slopes о г at the toe of the overburden
В Raw materials 11. Quarrying
Slopes should never Ь е steeper than 1 :2 and should Ь е grassed and planted as
soon as possibIe after being given а covering of topsoil, so that the vegetation с а п
help to keep the soil in position and scouring action Ь у rainwater is avoided. The
build-up of а п overburden pile should Ь е so controlled in terms of time that it will
not have to go through the winter months, with heavy rain and/or snow, while its
slopes remain devoid of vegetation because grassing them was left too late for the
grass seed to germinate. П addition, а п intercepting ditch should Ь е dug at the toe
ofthe pile. А п у material washed down с а п settle in thisditch, and excess rainwater
collecting in it с а п Ь е discharged under controlled conditions after sedimentation
of solids.
з Breaking о и the rock
3.1 Drilling and bIasting
Drilling and bIasting continue to Ь е the favoured combination for breaking out the
material, i. е dislodging it from the quarry face and fragmenting it. Although it has,
in recent years, increasingly Ь е е п brought into discredit о п account of the noise
and vibrations that unavoidabIy arise and has, as а result of environmentalist
activity о г statutory regulations, often Ь е е п restricted and sometimes indeed
banned, the real economic advantages it offers in most cases а г е still utilized
wherever the opportunity exists. П addition, efforts а г е continually being made,
and with some success, to adapt the drilling and bIasting technique to the specific
conditions of the deposit and the local environment and thus reduce its
undesirabIe effects to а minimum. Even so, it must Ь е remembered that the steady
growth of "environment-consciousness", both о п the part of the authorities and of
the general pubIic, often rules out а choice of quarrying methods based о п purely
economic considerations. П such cases а different method of breaking out the
material will have to Ь е applied, such as ripping о г stripping.
3.1.1 Drilling large-diameter holes
The large-hole bIasting method (sometimes called well-drill bIasting) is now
predominant in quarrying in open-pit workings. It с а п bring down large masses of
rock from the face, suitabIy fragmented for loading, with due regard to the layout of
the quarry and the planned progress of operations, while avoiding severe ground
vibrations and involving only а small amount of secondary bIasting for breaking up
over-Iarge fragments.
The economic advantage of large-hole bIasting, and therefore its widespread use,
а г е due to the fact that the operations of "drilling" and "Ioading of the rock pile"
с а п Ь е carried out quite independently of each other.
The definition of large-diameter bIastholes is, in Germany, linked to the relevant
accident prevention regulations and relates to holes т о г е than 12 m in depth.
Irrespective of this statutory definition, the engineer о п the job rates а п у hole
8,xceeding 50 - 60 mm diameter as coming within this category. The predominant
Breaking out the rock: Drilling and bIasting
diameter range in current German use is between 60 т т and 105 т т occasionally
up to 150 т т П other countries, т о г е particularly in the USA, larger diameters а г е
preferred, namely, 225 - 300 т т and even т о г е In densely populated areas the
acceptabIe bIasthole diameter is often limited Ь у considerations of ground
vibrations, which а г е liabIe to Ь е excessively severe if the charge fired р е г hole о г
р е г stage of detonation is too large. Single-row bIasting
П most cases the large-diameter bIastholes а г е drilled in о п е row р а г а е to the
slope ofthequarry face. The most favourabIeslope is between 700 and 800. In order
to ensure р г о р е г break-out of the toe of the face, the holes а г е usually drilled so as
to extend а certain а short distance below the level of the quarry floor (sub-
drilling). With face heights commonly around 20 m, а sub-drilling depth of about
1 m has Ь е с о т е the estabIished practice. It should Ь е noted, however, that
particularly the explosive charge in the sub-drilled part ofthe holes is likely to cause
the most powerful ground vibrations. П Germany, face heights in excess of 30 m
а г е now prohibited о п account of the accident hazard associated with them. The
great majority of faces in quarries а г е about 20 m in height о г less. There is а trend
towards reducing the height because this makes for better selectivity in conducting
the quarrying operations.
There is а whole range of possibIe variations in large-hole bIasting practice, from
single-row and multiple-row bIasting with о г without toe holes to so-called
surface bIasting.
The choice of bIasting method, т о г е particularly the number of bIasthole rows,
depends о п the properties of the rock as well as о п the vibration effects that с а п Ь е
tolerated. For example, holes disposed in а number of rows over а certain а г е а а г е
т о г е likely to offer а suitabIe solution in brittle easy-to-shatter rock than in tough
rock fracturing into large bIocks.
The column of explosive in а bIasthole should, if possibIe, extend continuously
from the bottom of the hole up to the stemming. Only in this way с а п the cost of
producing such large bIasthole volumes Ь е fully utilized Ь у working with
sufficiently large hole spacings and burdens.
It often occurs, however, especially in heavily fissured rock, that the bIasting
energy is insufficient to dislodge the т о г е heavily restrained rock mass at the toe.
But if the geometric features of the bIastholes (diameter, burden, spacing) а г е
sufficiently reduced to ensure break-out of the toe, it will frequently Ь е necessary
to use intermediate stemming in the upper part of the holes in order to avoid
use of explosive and the risk of large rock fragments being hurled out with
dangerous force, particularly in places where irregular break-out at the quarry face
has locally reduced the burden. П such cases the waste of а certain proportion of
expensively drilled bIasthole volume will Ь е unavoidabIe.
These drawbacks т а у Ь е overcome Ь у suitabIy increasing the bIasthole volume at
the toe of the face, so as to obtain а larger quantity of explosive charge where it is
needed most.
This is usually done Ь у systematically drilling so-called toe holes from the quarry
В Raw materials 11. Quarrying
а burden
Ь spacing
г г
Fig.1 : Blasting with large-diameter holes
Breaking out the rock: Drilling and bIasting Surface bIasting
О п account of the above-mentioned drawbacks, so-called "surface" bIasting is
gaining wider acceptance. With this technique the rock is loosened in с о п
sequence ofthe fragmenting effect of bIasting in а number of holes distributed over
а certain а г е а instead of being disposed in о п е row. This method is especially
suitabIe for selective quarrying о г when separate loading of different materials
found in the same quarry is required, since the location of the material remains
substantially unchanged after bIasting. There is essentially а lifting action and
bulking of the rock as а result of fragmentation. А drawback is that this method
requires about twice as much drilling (in terms of hole length) and twice as much
explosive. The holes themselves а г е generally of much less depth than those in
conventional large-hole bIasting from а face. А п advantage of surface bIasting is
that the amount of subsidiary work - such as secondary fragmentation, quarry
face trimming and floor levelling - is generally less.
а burden
Ь spacir19
Blasting with large-diameter holes and toe holes

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floor, these being of such diameter and spacing as to achieve the required extra
bIasting effect at the toe. With the right type of drilling machine and the
introduction of free-flowing granular explosive into the toe holes Ь у means of
bIowing equipment, this procedure т а у in suitabIe rock, Ь е т о г е economical than
having subsequently to с а п у out supplementary drilling and bIasting to dislodge
those portions of the toe which have remained standing after the firing of the main
AII the same, the techniques for obtaining greater bIasthole volume at the toe ofthe
face, though offering the advantages mentioned here, а г е not in very widespread
use. The reason р г о Ь а Ы у lies in the difference in technical development of the
machines for drilling vertical and those for drilling horizontal holes, in the relatively
lowcost of the А NС а т т о п ium nitrate-caг Ь о п explosives chiefly used in verticaI
holes, and the need to remove all rock pile (fragmented rock) from the toe of the
face before toe hole drilling с а п с о т т е п с е
Fig.2. Surface bIasting with large-diameter holes Drilling tools
Rotary drilling and percussive rotary drilling а г е almost the only methods used for
forming the bIastholes in quarries for cement raw materials. The drilling tool is
generally а step bit; for larger diameters а roller bit is sometimes used о г in
percussive rotary drilling, а cross bit о г а stud bit. The last-mentioned type of bit is
claimed to Ь е especially advantageous in hard rock because of the higher specific
feed pressure that с а п Ь е applied. Besides, it is better а Ы е to с о р е with fissured
rock because it cannot jam so easily in the crevices. With down-hole hammers the
drilling force is developed at the bottom of the hole instead of being transmitted
down through the drill rods, so that the latter а г е less severely stressed, while the
drilling machine itself is also relieved of mechanical load. Besides, there is less
likelihood of deviation of the drill hole from the vertical.
В Raw materials 11. Quarrying Drilling machines
Modern rotary drilling machines а г е operated Ь у just о п е man. They mostly have
fully hydraulic drive systems, а г е reliabIe in operation and attain drilling rates of up
to 30 г depending о п the nature ofthe rock and the diaR1eterofthe hole. The
power pack, compressor, hydraulic units, drilling mast, rod magazine, operator's
platform and dust suppression system а г е mounted о п а traction unit usually
equipped with crawler tracks. The prime mover is generally а diesel engine.
Although it is more expensive in energy consumption than а п electric motor, it is
nevertheless preferred because it provides better mobllity of the drilling machine
and makes it independent of power feed cabIes. О п some machines а slewing ring
enabIes the г to swivel о п the crawler chassis, thus enabIing
unproductive manoeuvring of the whole machine to Ь е reduced. The use of
increasingly long drill rods likewise aims at increasing the efficiency of the
machine, а trend which has led to the development of the "single-pass" machine
which drills the hole to its full depth with just о п е long rod, i. е without having to
couple successive rods as drilling proceeds. Rubber-tyred traction units с а п
suitabIy Ь е used under circumstances where the machines each have to operate at
а number of different points, о г at different working levels о г indeed in different
quarries, so thatsubstantial distances have to Ь е travelled. However, the ground о п
which they travel will"have to Ь е of sufficient bearing capacity to с а г г у their
There is п о doubt that the fully automatic one-man-operated rotary drill requires
more skill о п the part of the operator, and also more servicing, than does the
percussive rotary drill powered with compressed air and mounted о п crawler
tracks. These machines а г е of relatively low weight. With а suitabIe compressor in
tow, а а с П е of thls klnd с а п move about under its own power even о п difficult
terrain. The drill guide mast с а п Ь е tilted and swivelled in all directions, so that а
wide variety of drilling duties с а п Ь е performed. These machines а г е the preferred
type in small and medium-size quarries and in cases where highly skilled operating
personnel а г е unavailabIe.
3.1.2 Blasting
When the bIastholes have Ь е е п drilled, they а г е charged with explosive and the
charges а г е fired. The object of bIasting is to loosen and fragment the rock so as to
obtain а rock pile suitabIe for loading. The amount of explosive to Ь е used in а п у
given case will depend о п the specific explosive consumption, i. е the amount
needed for producing а tonne of rock pile о г for loosening and fragmenting а cubic
metre of solid rock. It is а п empirical value which varies from о п е set of quarrying
conditions to another and should Ь е known in а п у quarry where production is in
progress. When opening up the quarry, this value с а п Ь е determined Ь у reduced-
scale trial bIasts based initially о п known average values from practical experience
under comparabIe conditions. The specific explosive consumption is mostly
between 200 and 400 9 р е г
of solid rock. It does, however, vary within wide
limits, depending to а great extent о п the г of the rock - whether it is hard,
Breaking out the rock: Blasting
soft, compact, г о г affected in some other way. The bIasthole location grid,
i. е the spacing and г dimensions, is determined о п the basis of the
calculated quantity of explosive needed for breaking out the intended quantity of
rock Ь у bIasting with holes of given diameter (which in turn depends о п the type of
drilling machine availabIe). The appropriate relationship of bIasthole spacing and
г с а п Ь е expressed as а product of these two dimensions (in m
). The value
of this product in any given case с а п Ь е calculated Ь у determining the quantity of
explosive (in kg) which с а п о п average Ь е charged р е г bIasthole and dividing this
quantity Ь у the required specific explosive consumption (in
of rock).
The smaller the spacing and the burden, with correspondingly smaller bIasthole
diameter, the better will Ь е the fragmentation obtained, because the explosive will
Ь е more uniformly distributed along the face. А finer location grid is more
particularly advantageous in deaiing with thick-bedded rock tending to produce а
coarsely fragmented rock р е
Т а Ы е 1: Single-row bIasting with large-diameter holes
hole bIasthole г spacing bIasthole
diameter grid volume
(mm) (m
) (m) (m) (Iitres/
corresponding drilled metre)
of rock
р е г drilled
92 20 3.5 to 5 3.5 to 4.5 6.6
105 24 3.5 to 6 3.5 to 5 8.6
150 without
toe holes 30 4 to 7 4 to 6 17.6
150 with
toe holes
76mm fZ5 50 5 to 1О 5 to 7 17.6 + 4.5
50 6 to 1О 5 to 8 29.8
With increasing bIasthole diameter, spacing and г there is an increase both in
the proportion of very finely fragmented material (due to shattering of the rock in
the immediatevicinity ofthecharge) and in thatof large lumps (dislodged from the
parts of the rock farthestfrom the charge). А coarse grid of this kind will as а rule Ь е
economically advantageous only in rock which is г finely fissured and
brittle. Blasting Ь у the tunnelling method, nowseldom used, represents а п extreme
case of firing large concentrated charges.
As already stated, the aim is to fill the entire bIasthole with explosive, if possibIe.
В Raw materials 11. Quarrying
Breaking out the rock: Blasting
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The stemming inserted in the top part should as а rule have а depth equal to the
А whole range of explosives is availabIe to the quarry engineer. It extends from
powder to gelatinous explosives and includes slurry explosives; there are low
explosives and high explosives, as well as intermediate types; explosives which are
used in cartridge form and those which are used in bulk. Careful consideration of
the choice of explosive, so that the most su itabIe type for the job is used, makes for
greater е с о п о т у
In raw materials quarrying for the cement industry there is а trend towards the
preferred use of the inexpensive ANC (ammonium nitrate-carbon) explosives.
These are superseding the more expensive gelatinous types (gelatines, gelignites),
whose use is now mainly confined to that of а priming charge for initiating the
slower ANC, but even here they are making way for the heavier-grade detonating
fuse (more particularly the 40g fuse). They are, however, still in с о т т о п use for
secondary bIasting, i. е the further reduction of oversize fragments of rock Ь у
individual drilling and bIasting. П quarries where ANC explosives are used, their
proportion is seldom below 70% of the total explosive consumption. In certain
cases it т а у Ь е as high as 99% or more.
Another reason why the ANC explosives (known also as ANFO = ammonium
nitrate-fuel oil) have rapidly Ь е е п gaining ground is their high degree of handling
safety and the possibility of conveying them in special mixingjloading trucks to the
actual site of bIasting - provided that sufficiently large quantities of explosives are
consumed to make this economically attractive and that the quarry floor offers а
reasonabIy level riding surface. The actual explosive mixture of ammonium nitrate
and diesel oil is produced о п the spot" in the truck and is pumped through а hose
into the bIastholes. Alternatively, it с а п Ь е introduced into the holes with special
pneumatic loading devices. The wage costs involved in loading the bIasting
charges Ь у this method are very low. Besides, there are substantial savings due to
eliminating the transport of the explosives from the magazine to the actual site of
bIasting and dispensing with а п у handling of explosives at the magazine itself. It
should not go without mention, however, that the economically advantageous
method of о п the spot" bulk delivery of explosives Ь у truck to the bIastholes is
used also with other types of explosive, more particularly the slurries.
The degree of filling and therefore the charge efficiency of the bIastholes depends
not only о п the density of the explosive itself, but also о п the bIasthole and
cartridge diameters employed or о п whether the explosive is used in buIk form. This
should Ь е duly borne in mind when calculating the explosive quantity in kg per
linear metre of bIasthole. The degree of filling is around 70% for powder explosives
in cartridge form; around 90% in the case of slurry or gelatine-type explosives; and
around 100% when explosives are used in bulk.
For reasons of safety, bIasting charges should Ь е fired only Ь у electric detonation.
Detonators (bIasting caps) with varying degrees of sensitivity are availabIe for the
purpose. They are produced as instantaneous detonators or delay detonators, the
latter being of the ordinary delay (usually half а second) or the millisecond delay
type. The last-mentioned detonators are manufactured in а range of delay periods
differing Ь у some tens of milliseconds. The detonating current is now usually
В Raw materials 11. а п у п
supplied Ь у а condenser discharge bIasting machine (exploder). This is а reliabIe
type of machine which is increasingly superseding the earlier electrodynamic
exploder with direct discharge of current. For bIastholes exceeding 12 m in depth
the use of detonating fuse is compulsory under German regulations. П such cases
the detonators а г е fitted to the end of the fuse outside the hole. If the relevant
regulations allowthe electric detonator to Ь е used for firing а primer cartridge at the
foot of the hole, detonation will Ь е initiated in the region where the highest degree
of restraint from the п о п п rock exists, so that then the greatest bIasting
effect will Ь е obtained. Besides, the detonation report will Ь е т о г е muffled and
thus cause less nuisance to neighbouring residents.
It should Ь е mentioned, however, that the older method of bIasting with safety fuse
and appropriate detonators is still used to some extent. This type of fuse consists of
а train of bIack powder enclosed in а waterprooftubular casing and has to Ь е lit.
3.1.3 Cost
It is not possibIe to give generally-valid information о п the cost of bIasting with
large-diameter holes. It will depend о п а variety of determining factors, including:
the type and stability of the rock, the size and utilization of the drilling machine, the
type and method of use of the explosive, requirements as to the fragmentation of
the rock pile in connection with availabIe loading or further processing facilities,
etc. П approximate terms it с а п Ь е stated, however, that the specific cost of drilling
and bIasting р е г tonne of 10adabIe rock pile shows а slight hyperbolically
decreasing trend, so long as the diameter remains within reasonabIe limits, as
envisaged in the foregoing description of the bIasting operations.
However, in seeking to take advantage of this trend it will often occur that
economic limits are encountered, т о г е particularly when the drilling machine
capacity substantially exceeds the quantities of rock pile actually needed Ь у the
cement works in а given period. П such cases it often works out cheaper to let а п
outside firm с а п у out the entire dri 11 ing and bIasting operations о п а contract basis.
Obviously, this is т о г е likely to Ь е а п attractive solution where relatively small
quantities of material а г е required than in medium-sized о г large а п е though
local conditions and other considerations will of course play а part.
3.1.4 Tunnelling method
1n the tunnelling method of bIasting (known also as "coyote bIasting") fairly large
charges а г е fired in tunnels driven into the face. It is now hardly every used. It
could, however, Ь е considered in cases where capital expenditure has to Ь е kept
low о г where the surface of the raw material deposit is inaccessibIe to drilling
machines, е g., in very rough о г mountainous country. The major drawbacks ofthis
method а г е the tunnelling work itself, the severe vibrations set up Ь у the bIasts, and
the very coarse fragmentation achieved, necessitating much secondary bIasting.
Breaking out the rock: В lasting
3.1.5 Series firing of small-diameter bIastholes
This technique is still used where relatively small quantities have to Ь е fr.agmented,
е g., in dealing with residual rock masses, о г in а supplementary to other
bIasting methods for dealing with particular features of the d.eposlt. The holes, of
small diameter, т а у Ь е drilled horizontally into the face о г vertlcally о г at а п у angle.
They т а у Ь е located side Ь у side о г о п е above the other; т а у Ь е t.o
о п е another о г fan out. If the burden is kept small, the exploslve с о п р ю п IS
often quite low and fragmentation is good, i. е relatively few large fragments
requiring secondary bIasting а г е formed. This result u.sually depend о п
achieving а uniform distribution of the explosive charges wlth.ln the rock to
Ь е broken out Ь у drilling а large number of holes carefully ш е to Ь е П
conditions. А major drawback is that this method is very labour-lntenslve,
especially if separatedrilling platforms have to Ь е erected against the а п у face. It
also involves Ь у п о means negligibIe accident hazards because the т е п have to
work close up against the face and spend fairly long times there.
3.1.6 Secondary bIasting
No bIasting method с а п completely avoid the production of а certain proportion
oversize pieces of rock C'boulders"), though it is often possibIe to keep thls
proportion down to а minimum Ь у suitabIe choice of bIasting method. These
oversize pieces have to Ь е further reduced, otherwise they would а п
obstructive effect о п the further operations of loading, haulage and с г П The
maximum size of boulders that с а п Ь е tolerated will of course depend also о п the
size and capacity of the handling and crushing plant used in the quarry.
Boulders а г е usually broken up Ь у bIasting C'secondary bIasting") because
nearly always gives а suitabIy fragmented product, whatever the typ.e of rock. Thls
is mostly done Ь у drilling small-diameter holes t? а depth equal to а Iltt.le т о г е
the diameter ofthe boulder. They а г е charged wlth 60-90 9 of exploslve р е г m of
rock, stemmed and detonated (electrically, if possibIe).
Another method of secondary bIasting is called "mudcapping" о г "plaster
shooting". П this case а substantially larger quantity of а gelatine-type high
explosive, characterized Ь у high detonation velocity, is used (250 - 500 g/m
). It
is simply applied to the surface of the boulder, well and det?nated. rhe
drawbacks of this technique а г е that it is very noisy (envlronmental nUlsance) and
often not economical either, so that it is tending to go out of use.
Secondary fragmentation Ь у mechanical methods in lieu of bIasting gaining
ground. They а г е based either о п the pounding action of а heavy dropwelght о г о п
demolition of the boulder with pneumatic о г hydraulic breaking hammers.
Obviously, the success of such methods will depend to а great extent о п the
hardness and toughness of the rock, the underlying material о п which the
rests, and the size and power of the mechanical equipment employed. Thls
being so, it is necessary to с а г г у out tests to find out if mechanical
fragmentation is economical before а decision is made. Another drawback IS tha.t,
with such methods, it often occurs that some of the secondary fragments а г е stlll
г е а у too large.
В . Raw materials 11. Quarrying
3.1.7 Storage of explosives
The primary consideration with regard to the storage of explosives is that of safety.
Н е п с е it is с а п Ь е presumed that in п о country anywhere in the world the
accumulation of storage of stocks of explosives с а п Ь е permitted without а п у
restriction Ь у official regulations of some kind. ' П the Federal RepubIic of Germany
the statutory requirements а г е laid down in the second Decree for the implemen-
tation of the Explosives Act (of 23. 11. 1977), including the Appendix containing
the principal technical regulations, and furthermore in the relevant Guidelines in
which these requirements а г е further elaborated.
А I I these regulations are directly applicabIe, i. е . , they do not Ь е с о т е effective only
after the granting of а l i с е п с е to store explosives. Since the whole question of
storage involves some legal complexities, it is advisabIe to seek guidance for the
relevant inspection authorities at the very outset, when the setting-up of а п
explosive magazine is contemplated. This precaution с а п save а lot of frustration,
time and т о п е у .
Although these statutory requirements а г е applicabIe only to Germany, it с а п Ь е
helpful to seek guidance from them о п the safe storage of explosive in countries
where these matters а г е not subject to such close regulations.
Of major importance is the classification into "storage categories" to which
potentially hazardous explosive materials а г е assigned. For the present purpose
only category 1.1 is of interest, comprising the industrial explosives and bIack
The safe distances from the explosives magazine to residental areas and pubIic
highways, depending о п the quantity of explosive stored, а г е stated in Supplement
1 to the Appendix. These distances с а п permissibIy Ь е varied within certain limits,
depending о п the importance of the areas о г installations to Ь е protected and о п
the constructional features of the magazine.
The general requirements applicabIe to explosives storage а г е laid down in the
second part of the Appendix. The most important of these, besides the safe
distances, is а general prohibition о п the storage of these materials in the о р е п air
о г in vehicles. It is also stated that п о explosives а г е allowed to Ь е stored directly at
access ways to places of work. Emphasis is laid о п fire protection arrangements,
and precautions against the action of electricity and against theft or unauthorized
removal of explosives а г е outlined, е . g., а Ь а п о п windows, the requirement that
suitabIy strong doors, walls and roofs Ь е provided, and that the magazine Ь е
reliabIy locked up and the keys kept in safe custody. The safety precautions should
- in view of the factthatthe manufacture of "home-made" explosives Ь у criminals
and terrorists is now commonplace - concentrate т о г е particularly о п detonating
equipment such as detonators, detonating fuse and electric exploders.
Other regulations are concerned more particularly with the construction, fitting-up
and operation of the magazines.
In the fourth part of the Appendix the requirements applicabIe to the storage of
explosive materials outside а magazine а г е outlined. These comprise what are
defined as small quantities needed for day-to-day use in the quarry and held readily
availabIe at various conveniently located points. Also included is the mobile
storage of such quantities in containers, cabinets о г site vehicles.
Breaking out the rock: Ripping
3.2 Ripping
Another method of breaking out the rock, as а п alternative to drilling and bIasting,
is represented Ь у ripping. А distinction is to Ь е drawn between the ripping of rock
from horizontal surfaces and ripping from vertical faces.
Obviously, the ease о г difficulty with which а п у particu lar type of rock с а п Ь е
dislodged and fragmented Ь у ripping will depend to а great extent о п its hardness
and compactness, as well as other geological and tectonic properties. Factors that
make for easier ripping а г е heavy fissuring of the rock, thin but well developed
bedding, coarsely crystalline structure, inhomogeneity, zones affected Ь у weather-
ing о г tectonic action. Conversely, homogeneous, solid, fine-grained rock without
weak spots is difficult to break up Ь у ripping.
"Horizontal" surface ripping, which is the с о т т о п е г method, is carried out with
the aid of о п е or т о г е ripping teeth mounted at the rear end of а heavy crawler
tractor. The teeth penetrate into the rock and drag grooves о г furrows in it as the
tractor travels. The material loosened in this way is then shifted Ь у bulldozing.
The most reliabIe way to decide whether а particular type of rock is indeed suitabIy
"rippabIe" is Ь у practical trials.
А simpler, though not nearly so informative, method is based о п the principle of
seismic refraction. The transit times of shock waves in the subsoil are measured,
these waves being produced Ь у hammer bIows applied to steel plates located at
varying distances and being detected Ь у а seismic pick-up device (geophone).
The velocity of propagation of these waves in the rock is а measure of its in-situ
strength and thus provides а п indication of the р г о Ь а Ы е rippability. The
relationship between wave velocity and ripping characteristics has Ь е е п deter-
mined empirically from numerous observations. Though of course the power and
weight of the machines concerned а г е major factors, it с а п broadly Ь е stated that
with the crawler rippers in present-day current use the types of rock which are of
interest to cement manufacture, such as limestone or shale, are likely to Ь е suitabIy
rippabIe if the seismic wave velocity does not exceed about 2000 - 2500 т /
As Fig.3 shows, only the latest super-heavy crawler rippers с а п tackle rock in
which this limit is somewhat exceeded. However, the seismic wave velocity с а п
offer п о т о г е than approximate guidance. Determining the rippability and the
ripping effort of rock is still more of а п art than а science. It requires much
experience to hit upon the optimum combination of ripping speed, depth and
spacing of the furrows.
The design, number and method of attachment of the ripping teeth are of major
importance in connection with this. The teeth с о т е in various shapes, straight or
curved, each type being т о г е particularly suited for certain types of rock. The
design of the tooth tip also plays а part. Thus, short tips а г е better suited for rock
which is difficult to penetrate, whereas long ones а г е т о г е effective in abrasive
rock. Medium-Iength tips set to the correct cutting angle с а п develop high
breaking-out forces and с а п с о р е adequately even with rock of а п abrasive
character.lfthe ripping attachment is mounted so that it с а п swivel about а point of
rotation, the cutting angle of the teeth will vary with their depth of penetration. This
В Raw materials 11. Quarrying
Breaking out the rock: Stripping
method of mounting is generally restricted to certain types of rock. For many other
types the parallel-motion system of mounting is т о г е suitabIe, because here the
cutting angle: once it has been cQrrectly set, remains unchanged
Irrespectlve of the worklng depth. There is, finally, а combination of these two
systems in that the working angle is adjustabIe, usually Ь у means of а hydraulic
г а т the reason being that the optimum angle for penetrating into the rock at the
of work т а у differ from the optimum angle for the actual ripping operation
Itself. As а rule, а single tooth should initially Ь е tried. Only in relatively easily
rippabIe rock will it Ь е possibIe to operate with several teeth.
The most economical quarrying technique in given circumstances will have to Ь е
determined Ь у trials. For instance, the spacing of the ripping furrows will affect the
ofthe material. The maximum attainabIe penetration depth
IS not necessarrly always the optimum. О п sloping ground the ripping direction
most often employed is downhill; this is likely to achieve the highest output of
10adabIe rock despite idle uphill travel of the ripper. Failure to remove all the
dislodged material will cause "cushioning" of the tractor о п its next ripping pass
and will increase the friction factor between the crawler tracks and the solid rock
underneath. Sometimes it т а у Ь е advantageous to do occasional bIasting with
light charges in cases where intermediate strata of rock resistant to ripping а г е
З З Stripping
Stripping with bucket wheel о г bucket chain excavators of the usual type is а
method of raw material winning which is used in soft deposits with high natural
moisture content, such as chalk о г marine clay. Excavating and loading а г е
performed in а single operation.
The ripping method of breaking-out in quarries must Ь е judged in comparison with
the alternative of drilling and bIasting. Ripping т а у Ь е preferabIe in one о г т о г е of
the following cases:
the effect of ground vibrations due to bIasting presents an environmental
р г о Ы е т and thus seriously restricts the operations in the quarry (though it
should Ь е borne in mind that ripping т а у introduce its own probIems, т о г е
particularly due to noise and dust emission);
the quarrying of the material over large areas Ь у ripping achieves an
advantageous degree of homogenization in deposits of inhomogeneous
residual areas of the workabIe deposit, which have been left standing because
their proximity to vulnerabIe installations ruled out bIasting е g., near roads,
railways, buildings), have to Ь е quarried as well.
Ripping requires large working areas and extensive opening-up of the quarry. А
drawback is that, depending о п seasonal factors, the raw material quarried Ь у this
method will absorb up to 2% т о г е moisture in the quarry, and this extra moisture
will of course have to Ь е removed in the cement works, involving correspondingly
higher energy input.
The performance and therefore the cost of ripping depend very much о п the length
of the ripping passes and bulldozing distances. As а rule, shorter passes а г е т о г е
advantageous. With passes up to about 50-60 m in length, which а г е to Ь е
regarded as the maximum, outputs (production rates) of up to 550t/hour с а п
reasonabIy Ь е expected when the usual heavy crawler rippers of up to 60t overall
weight and up to 500 h.p. engine ratings а г е employed.
Ripping makes severe demands о п the robustness of the machines. The frame and
undercarriage have to Ь е very stabIe, for the ripping action develops not only high
peak values of the traction force, but also swerving moments that tend to push the
crawler tracks off course. High operating, maintenance and repair costs have
hitherto generally made ripping unattractive as an alternative to quarrying Ь у
drilling and bIasting, except in cases where there а г е compelling reasons not to
employ the latter method, т о г е particu larly in cases where environmental
protective restrictions have to Ь е complied with. Hence the development of ripping
will continue to Ь е watched with interest. The operating results obtained with the
super-heavy crawler rippers of about 86 t overall weight and 700 h.p. engine
rating, which have latterly appeared о п the market, will have to Ь е awaited before а
т о г е definite assessment с а п Ь е made. It т а у then well Ь е that, with sufficiently
high levels of plant utilization, ripping will offer an economically т о г е acceptabIe
alternative to drilling and bIasting.
4 з
е г tractor

З О О р
r tractor

З О О р
seismic velocity km/sec
seismische GeschWlndigkeit km/sec
с raw е

rippabIe reissbar
I 1 borderl ine case Grenzfoll
п о rippabIe nicht reissbar
Fig. З Ripping capacity 01 crawler rippers
В Raw materials 11. Quarrying
4 Loading
4.1 Deve/opment trend
The trend in loading machines in the last ten years has Ь е е п steadily away from
о р е г а е face shovels and towards the increasing use of wheel loaders and
hydraulic excavators. The diagram in Fig.4 illustrates this development, which is
representative of about 65% of German cement production.

20 N


о р е г а е

.0- wheel г
А Radlader
-' г
- 0---- г
Hydro - Bagger
higher operational readiness than the excavator. latter is, however, т о г е
suitabIe under conditions where it has to travel fairly frequently from о п е working
position to another. Diesel excavators а г е manufactured chiefly in the smaller size
range. From about 2.5
bucket capacity upwards, electrically powered excava-
tors а г е usually employed in the Central European countries.
Depending о п its size, the electric excavator is equipped with о п е о г т о г е motors.
П the latter case, there is often а separate motor for crowding, slewing, lifting and
travelling. О П large machines, loss-free control and favourabIe starting conditions
а г е provided Ь у Ward - Leonard о г thyristor systems. Otherwise rheostatic control is
the usual method.
The declining use of о р е г а е excavators as loading machines in quarrying
is attributabIe to several drawbacks:
the rigidly fixed bucket requires а well fragmented rock pile suitabIe for
the excavator itself has р о о г mobility, i. е it cannot Ь е moved quickly and
conveniently to fresh working positions (and is therefore unsuitabIe for
selective loading);
it is rather unsuitabIe for dislodging rock from а quarry face о г clearing away
а п у masses rock that have remained standing at the toe of the face.
4.2.1 о р е г а е excavators
Mechanization of loading in quarries started with the introduction of the с а Ы е
operated excavator, т о г е particular/y the face shovel, which is still о п the market
and availabIe from т а п у manufacturers and in т а п у sizes. With its bucket fixed
immovabIy to the а г т the diesel о г electrically powered face shovel is purely а
loading machine. Its relatively high capital cost с а п Ь е justified Ь у long service life,
often twenty years о г т о г е Larger machines generally last longer than smaller
4.2 loading machines
The machines used for loading in open-pit quarrying in solid rock, including
limestone, marl and shale, а г е о р е г а е excavators, hydraulic excavators,
wheelloaders and (in special cases) crawler loaders. The choice of machine to Ь е
used in а п у given instance must Ь е made with great с а г е because о п с е а particu lar
system has Ь е е п adopted, а subsequent change to а different system involves
heavy expenditure which т а у overtax the resources of relatively small under-
takings. Large ones usually operate with several systems of loading machinery,
enabIing these to Ь е interchanged to suit varying conditions of service.
Fig.4: Trends in /oading machines
4.2.2 Hydraulic excavators
Although hydraulic excavators have long Ь е е п used in quarrying, they initially
made iittle headway because of their smali size (0.3-0.7
bucket capacities)
and the rigid attachment of the bucket to its а г т It was only with the introduction
of the movabIe loading bucket in lieu of the fixed bucket (actuated Ь у hydraulic
rams for tilting movements) that the advantages of these machines began to Ь е
widely recognized. The bucket of the hydraulic excavator has three degrees of
(1) raising the bucket;
(2) crowding (forward motion of the bucket);
(3) swivelling of the bucket in relation to the а г т
Hydraulic excavators mostly have а service weight п the range between 50 and
90 t, with bucket capacities of 3 to 4
Larger machines а г е seldom used п
cement raw materials quarrying. In the open-pit mining of other minerals, however,
there is а trend towards the use of machines weighing т о г е than 100 t, with
buckets of 6 to 8 З The buckets т а у Ь е of the tipping о г the bottom-opening
type, the latter being better suited for carefulloading of the haulage vehicles, but
has the disadvantage of heavier wear and the need for additional hydraulic
equipment to operate the opening mechanism.
The three degrees of freedom е п а Ы е the hydraulic excavator bucket to perform а
swivelling movement up о г down, so as to adjust the position of its teeth to obtain
the best possibIe penetration for digging, without causing collapse of а heaped-up
rock pile. Also, larger pieces of rock с а п Ь е selectively scooped up from the pile. For
В Raw materials 11. Quarrying
digging from а rock face the angle of the teeth с а п Ь е su ited to the direction of the
strata. The excavator с а п in fact Ь е used for the direct breaking-out of material from
а quarry face, though of course the loading cycle time will then Ь е increased and
the performance of the machine in terms of loading rate (tonnes/hour) с о г г е
spondingly reduced. However, as а п adjunct to bIasting, the hydraulic excavator
с а п suitabIy Ь е used for clearing and trimming the quarry floor and for removing
а п у toe rock masses that have Ь е е п left standing.
Besides this good bucket manoeuvrability and the resulting optimum utilization of
the biting о г break-out force, other advantages of the hydraulic excavator а г е its
lower weight and greater mobility as compared with the о р е г а е excavator.
This mobility relates т о г е particularly to its travelling capacity and also to the
speed with which it performs its various operating motions. In addition, various
types of bucket as well as other attachments с а п interchangeabIy Ь е fitted to the
excavator, so that it is indeed а universal machine. For example, а hydraulic
hammer for secondary fragmentation of boulders с а п Ь е attached, о г а spade
which с а п Ь е operated with remote control of the excavator, so that it с а п Ь е used
for the trimming of quarry faces with п о risk of personal injury.
О п the other hand, hydraulic excavators а г е usually at а disadvantage in having а
shorter service life and а lower degree of operational availability than the с а Ы е
operated excavator. Although the drive and hydraulic units а г е generally so
designed as to Ь е readily exchangeabIe and renewabIe, repairs nevertheless require
т о г е skill and с а г е
Hydraulic excavators а г е availabIe as diesel о г as electrically powered machines.
The high cost of diesel fuel is а strong argument in favour of electric drive, which
has the additional advantage of а higher service life expectation. О П the other
it receives its power supply through а с а Ы е which п о У oniy limits its range ot
а с ю п but т а у also impede the movements of the haulage vehicles.
The lJSe of hydrostatic drive in combination with power-summation control
achieves favourabIe operating efficiency. With this method of control the power
and the working speed с а п Ь е adapted to the working conditions, while the oil
pressure in the dual circuit hydraulic system plays а major part in applying the
appropriate force in performing the required motion (bucket, slewing gear, bucket
а г т Ь о о т travel machinery). The rate of oil supply is the deciding factor for the
speed with which the motion is performed.
4.2.3 Wheel loaders
The wheelloader, о г wheel-mounted loading shovel, has Ь е е п further improved in
recent years. п respect of mobility it is far superior to the excavator and is т о г е
particularly suitabIe for selective quarrying where the loader has to serve several
loading points, sometimes rather widely separated, all within short intervals of
time. Besides carrying out rock loading duties in the quarry, the wheel loader is
suitabIe for clearing and trimming work as well as for other handling and loading
duties in the cement works itself.
Most of these machines used in the cement industry have bucket capacities of
between 3 and 8
About 80%of all these machines employed in rock quarrying,
Loading machines: Crawler loaders
and 100% of those with т о г е than 2
bucket capacity, have articulated frames
and а г е equipped with centre pivot steering. Such machines а г е т о г е manoeuvra-
Ы е and attain higher loading rates than rigid-framed wheelloaders of equal bucket
capacity. Because of the travel movements that the loader has to perform between
scooping up the material and depositing it in the haulage vehicle, its working cycle
time is longer than that of the excavator (which does not change its position during
the loading operations), though this drawback с а п Ь е compensated Ь у the use of
larger bucket capacities. The travel movements cause heavy wear о п tyres. Efforts
to improve tyre service life include the use of tyre chains for protection against cuts
Ь у sharp pieces of rock. Another development with the same purpose is the so-
called beadless tyre, which has а carcass formed as а п oval-section air chamber, to
the circumference of which а renewabIe fitting belt is attached. U-shaped shoes
а г е bolted direct to anchor eyes vulcanized into the belt. Better traction grip,
protection of the tyres from damage Ь у cuts and the elimination of overheating а г е
advantages claimed for this tyre system.
For successful use of wheelloaders the rock pile should Ь е well fragmented, as the
ripping and break-out forces that such machines с а п develop а г е only about о п е
sixth to one-third of those of с о т р а г а Ы е excavators. The wheel loader is thus
unsuitabIe for the loosening of rock, а circumstance which limits its use as а
loading machine in conjunction with quarrying Ь у surface bIasting, for example.
О п the other hand, besides being used purely for loading fragmented rock into
trucks the wheelloader с а п also Ь е used for transporting this material over limited
- up to about 100 -150 m ("Ioad and с а г г у operation).
The service life of а wheel loader is shorter than that of а п excavator. The
mechanical and hydraulic systems of the articu lated wheelloader with centre pivot
steering а г е sophisticated and subject to severe operating loads and stresses,
requiring а correspondingly large amount of servicing and maintenance. Against
this the initial cost of the machine is relatively low, and when used for "Ioad and
с а г г у duties it enabIes savings in haulage vehicles and personnel to Ь е effected.
When digging into rock pile consisting of jagged interlocking fragments, the wheel
loader will have to develop its maximum digging force, which т а у exceed the
overturning load of the machine, so that its г е а г wheels tend to lift off the ground.
Extra counterweight to prevent instability с а п Ь е obtained Ь у filling the tyres with
4.2.4 Crawler loaders
П quarrying, the use of these machines is generally confined у о sites where the
ground is very rough о г very soft, е g., in open-pit clay digging. The bucket is
mounted о п а crawler undercarriage which с а п function underthese unfavourabIe
conditions. О п the other hand, the travel movements а г е slower than those of а
wheelloader and the cycle time (and therefore the loading rate) correspondingly
less favourabIe. Equipped with а ripping attachment, the crawler loader с а п
additionally perform light breaking-out duties.
В Raw materials 11. Quarrying
ф payload in t
1& Nutzlast _-------<r-
_. ;0-..0-.-0-.-0...."0...-0
cement production Б Х

Zementproduktion х 10 t
40 80
30 60
't) Q;
>- ....
a.z С
10 2
П about 90% of а Н open-pit rock quarries in the Federal RepubIic of with
annual outputs of over 50 000 t, in 1976 the main haulage of
heavy and medium-duty trucks. Fig.5 illustrates the е о ю п п haulage vehlcle
utilization Ь у cement works representing about 65% of а ceme.nt
production. It appears from this diagram that the number of. has steadlly
diminished in the last ten years, while the payload р е г vehlcle has П с г е а е
High-speed and low-speed diesel а г е used for powering the
heavy trucks. The largest vehicle at present In eXlstence, wlth 318 t load capaclty,
is equipped with а 3300 h.p. slow-running diesel. The truck.s
in quarrying operations а г е however, of 35t о г 50t capaclty, wlth englne г а П
mostly between 400 and 700 h.p. . . .
Powershift transmission is now standard equipment о п medlum-slzed vehlcles
(upto about 1OOt), while mechanical gearboxes а г е used only in .the
of vehicle. For heavy dump trucks (above about 100 t) г а п Ю П
systems а г е now obsolete. These vehicles have diesel-electric drlve о г have dlrect-
drive axle motors (mechanically connected to the wheels) о г wheel-hub motors.
The third possibility is hydrostatic power transmission. .
The braking system is subject to heavy loads and has to Ь е deslgn.ed and
constructed to appropriate standards of efficiency safety. It comprlses the
service brake and emergency brake, а п auxiliary or parklng brake, and а retarder. П
principle, the brakes а г е designed as multiple-circuit sys.tems.
The tractive force diagram is а п important basis for the performance а
dump truck. It is necessary to find the optimum с о ы а ю п between the tractlve
force in the low speeds and in the highest speed ("top gear"). .
As the ratio of payload to unladen weight is steadily and the welght of
the vehicle therefore varies greatly, while the roads о п whlch It travels usually
unpaved, the suspension has to stand up to severe conditions of Г The
Fig. 5: Evolution in haulage vehicles
5.1 Rail haulage
With а few exceptions, haulage of quarried materials Ь у rail-mounted vehicles has
Ь е е п superseded in recent years. "Railless" haulage, mainly Ь у dump truck о г belt
conveyor, is now predominant.
Traction is provided Ь у diesellocomotives о г о п larger projects, electric о с о т о
tives. The latter have the advantage of requiring fewer repairs, but а г е liabIe to
cause probIems and extra expense о п account of the system of overhead contact
wires needed for powering them. Standardized track gauges а г е 600 т т 900 т т
and 1435 т т The payload р е г wagon is limited Ь у the gauge, е g., 4
т т
Itshould Ь е noted that certain minimum radii г haveto becomplied with
in laying the tracks and that the maximum gradient а loaded train of wagons с а п
negotiate (over short distances) is 1 :17.
5.2 Haulage Ь у rubber-tyred vehicles and other means
5.2.1 Heavy trucks
Trucks as the principal means of haulage were first used in open-pit mining in
America in 1937. Those vehicles were of 15 to 20 t payload and engine power
rating up to 11 О kW (150 h.p.). Developments since those days have led to trucks
with load capacities of up to 318 t and powered Ь у locomotive diesel engines that
с а п develop 2427 kW (3300 h.p.).
The vehicles с а п Ь е subdivided into non-articulated and articulated vehicles with
two о г т о г е axles and various systems of dumping, i. е discharging the load. The
following description is confined to forward-contro\ two-axle rear-dump trucks,
the type most extensively used in cement raw materials quarrying.
Haulage comprises the transport of the fragmented rock pile material from the
loading point to the crushing plant. Two main systems а г е to Ь е distinguished:
(1) haulage Ь у rail-mounted vehicles;
(2) haulage Ь у rubber-tyred vehicles and other means.
Depending о п the choice of haulage system and the particle size of the material to
Ь е handled, the rock pile loaded Ь у the loading machine is either fed to а primary
crusher in the quarry, the product of which is г transported to the cement
works, о г the rock pile is carried in heavy dump trucks о г railway wagons to а
crushing plant located away from the quarry. Intermediate solutions а г е possibIe.
Thus, the rock т а у Ь е loaded into trucks and taken to а primary crusher in the
quarry, the crushed material then being delivered Ь у а belt conveyor system to the
cement works. Other variants а г е likewise availabIe, and the choice of haulage
method will depend primarily о п considerations of е с о п о т у П addition, local
factors play а part, such as the haulage distances, the gradients о п the haulage
routes, the number of working points in the quarry, the bearing capacity of the
ground, and the need for selective quarrying.
5 Haulage
В Raw materials 11. Quarrying
requirement that springing should Ь е equally good for the unladen and the fully
laden vehicle is fulfilled Ь у а suspension system with а parabolic spring
characteristic, i. е the curve representing the spring tension as а function of the
spring travel is not а straight line but а parabola, so that the tension increases т о г е
than proportionally with increasing compression of the springs. The vehicle
manufacturers strive to achieve this suspension behaviour Ь у means of various
springing and damping systems:
hydropneumatic suspension (oil/gas);
rubber springing systems (rubber cushions and telescopic struts о г rubber-
element telescopic struts);
steel springs;
hydraulic suspension systems.
The dump bodies, о г hoppers, of the vehicles have to withstand very rough service
conditions and а г е made of highly wear-resistant steel plate with stiffening
features. At the front end there is а projecting shield to protect the driver's с а Ь The
body с а п Ь е heated with engine exhaust gas to prevent sticky materials from
caking inside it under wet weather conditions. The tipping movement of the body,
for dumping the load, is performed Ь у hydraulic action.
Among the various cost items in the operation of haulage vehicles, tyre wear is
especially important. The rate of wear depends о п several factors, including the
tread pattern and the possibIe use of protective chains о п severely abrasive rock
The functional availabllity rating of а heavy truck with р г о р е г maintenance, repairs
and spares planning с а п Ь е put at around 80%. The condition ofthe haulage roads
not oniy affects у г е wear, but aiso hiil-climbing ability, vehicle speed and fuel
consumption. As the roads а г е as а rule, not surfaced with permanent paving
materials, а grader is а useful machine for maintaining them in adequate
With regard to the interadjustment of the loading machine and the trucks it с а п Ь е
said that the ratio of loading bucket capacity to truck payload capacity should Ь е
between 1 :3 and 1 :8 if loading is done Ь у а п excavator and between 1 :3 and 1 : 6
if it its done Ь у wheel loader. The outreach and loading height of the loading
machines should Ь е sufficient to ensure complete filling of the truck.
5.2.2 Belt conveyors
Encouraged Ь у the good experience gained in lignite mining, belt conveyor
systems have evolved into а п important means of transport in open-pit а п у п
and mining operations in loose-textured material о г soft ground. П rock quarrying,
о п the other hand, this method of material handling is only sporadically used and
then for the most part only in the production of raw materials for the European lime
and cement industry.
Th.e fragmented material produced Ь у rock bIasting has to undergo
sUltabIe prlmary crushing in а mobile о г portabIe plant and hasto Ь е fed carefully
onto the belt conveyor Ь у means of а special device so as to prevent damage to the
belt. These arrangements а г е the main reasons why the introduction of such
conveyors into quarrying is making rather slow progress. The sequence:
drilling and bIasting,
- loading,
- haulage е g., in dump trucks),
is replaced Ь у
drilling and bIasting,
(primary) crushing,
conveying (belt conveyor).
Overland belt conveyor systems а г е usually designed for carrying the quarried
materials over medium distances. These installations а г е characterized Ь у flexibllity
of design, enabIing themto adaptthemselves to uneven terrain conditions, е g., Ь у
the use of catenary-type idler sets with rollers mounted о п steel wire ropes. The
specific cost of transport with the belt conveyor decreases with increasing length
of the system and increasing material handling rate, the latter in turn being
dependent о п belt width, speed, and cross-sectional (troughed) shape. The speed
т а у Ь е anything up to 3 m/second, and instead of а standard trough angle of 200,
т о г е deeply troughed cross-sections with angles of 250 о г 300 т а у Ь е used. With
increasing centre-to-centre distances the steel wire с а Ы е belt becomes the type
predominantly employed. Depending о п the length of the belt, its slope (angle of
ascent) and handling rate, о п е о г т о г е drive motors, at о п е о г both ends
of the belt, а г е used to power it.
П comparison with vehicular haulage, the overland belt conveyor makes much
т о г е modest demands upon route alignment and the structures for bridging а п у
traffic routes that have to Ь е crossed - not least because the uniformly distributed
loading of the conveyor does not require anyappreciabIe bearing capacity of the
subsoil. Gradients of up to 180 с а п moreover easily Ь е overcome.
А drawback of the belt is its limited adaptability to alignments curved о п plan and
the susceptibility of the belt to suffer damage from coarse hard lumps of material.
Furthermore, somewhat limited positional adaptability in the а п у in order to
с о р е with varying locations of the mobile crusher (which in turn will depend о п
variations in the working and loading points in the quarry) is another disadvantage
of the belt conveyor.
Keeping the belt conveyor in good operational order requires some monitoring
devices, е g., metal detectors and devices for the detection of tears and holes in the
belt. Sideguide idlersshould Ь е provided in orderto assist in the training ofthe belt
to run true and in line with the carrying idlers.
5.2.3 Load and с а п у
For relatively small distances between the rock pile loading point and the mobile
crusher (not т о г е than about 200 т it т а у Ь е advantageous to make use of the
good mobility of the wheel loader and its favourabIe ratio of bucket capacity to
В Raw materials 11. а п у п
service weight. The currently availabIe machines with up to 20
bucket capacity
а г е adequate for the purpose.
In the load and с а п у method the wheel loader scoops up its bucket-Ioad of
fragmented rock at the quarry face and directly transports it to the crusher, which is
equipped with а special receiving hopper to accept the material discharged from
the bucket. With some types of crusher the loader travels up onto а kind of ramp
and deposits the load into the crusher opening. The crushed product is conveyed
to the cement works Ь у overland belt conveyor.
Time studies in а limestone quarry where two wheel loaders, each of 10.6
bucket capacity, were used о п load and с а п у duties over а distance of 100 m
showed the average loading cycle time, inclusive of safety margins, to Ь е about
120seconds. Theoretical handling rates of up to 500 t/hour were attained, not
allowing for time spent о п repairs and о п waiting for removal of the crusher to fresh
working locations. It was found that the performance is substantially dependent о п
the travel speed of the wheelloader, the condition of the terrain and the gradients
to Ь е overcome. The rolling resistances encountered Ь у the loader directly and
considerabIy affect the performance (rate of material handling) Ь у their reduction
of the travel speed. In practice, speeds а г е between 6 and 12 km/hour for the laden
journey and between 8 and 14 km/gour for the unladen return journey to the
loading point. For а travel distance of 30 m these differences in speed between the
two limits of the range о п each journey may cause handling rates attained Ь у а
particular machine to vary Ь у 29%. For а distance of 150 m the rates may, for the
same reason, vary Ь у 63%. О п soft subsoil and/or о п terrain with steep gradients
the maximum travel distance between loading point and crusher should therefore
Ь е limited to not more than 60 - 80 m.
5.3 Aerial ropeways
The advantages offered Ь у а п aerial ropeway (aerial tramway) are due to its ability
to overcome difficult terrain conditions. This method of transporting materials is
largely independent of the nature and utilization of the ground over which the
system is routed. It provides а short connection between the terminal stations and
с а п overcome considerabIe gradients. Operation of the ropeway с а п Ь е fully
automated, while power consumption is relatively low.
с а е and single-cable systems а г е available. In the latter, о п е and the
same с а Ы е (wire г о р е serves to support as well as to tow the buckets. Ropeways
с а п Ь е used for virtually а п у distance from, say, 1 km to 100 km. The speed of the
buckets is about 4 m/second.
There а г е some major drawbacks, however, which limit the use of ropeways to
exceptional cases. The handling capacity is limited to about 500t/hour. The
capacity of а п existing installation с а п Ь е increased, if at all, only at considerabIe
capital expense. Also, а ropeway system is susceptible to faults and breakdowns
(especially in larger installations), while operating performance is liable to Ь е
hampered Ь у high winds.
Mobile crushing plants
6 Moblle crushing plants
The combination of mobile crusher and belt conveyor system has in recent years
managed only in the quarries of the Е ш о р е а п lime and cement industry to secure
anything like а substantial proportion of the material handling duties. However,
there have lately Ь е е п moves to test and introduce this system also in other о р е п
pit rock а п у п and mining operations. The overall trend is towards higher
throughput rates. In contrast with the static crushing plant installed at the edge of
the quarry (which is still the more usual arrangement), necessitating haulage ofthe
material from the quarry face to the crusher over а distance which increases as
quarrying advances, а mobile plant с а п Ь е moved close to the loading point о г to
varying central positions in the quarry which а г е most favourably located at а п у
given stage of the operations. Depending о п the depth of the quarry and the length
of the haulage roads, the mobile crusher in combination with а belt conveyor
system may prove а substantially more economical г to the static
The mobile crusher is fed either directly о г indirectly. With direct feed the loading
machine takes up the material from the rock pile at the face and deposits it straight
into the feed opening of the crusher. The best performance (highest feed rate) is
obtained if the feed opening is low so that the loading machine с а п most
conveniently discharge the contents of its bucket о г hopper into it. This means that
the height of the crusher and undercarriage should Ь е suitabIy low.
In the indirect method the loading machine first deposits its load into а feed device
which in turn discharges it into the crusher feed opening. The device should deliver
the material uniformly to the crusher and may Ь е а п apron conveyor, а П Ь Ь е г belt
conveyor or а chain conveyor. The direct feed method is used only in about 4% of
all mobile crushers, the indirect method being standard practice in 96% (of which
about 80%of such installations have а р г о п conveyors, 14%belt conveyors and 2%
chain conveyors).
1n order to increase the throughput, the material may Ь е screened between the feed
device and the crusher, so that only the larger pieces of rock а г е fed to the latter,
while the undersize pieces а г е delivered directly onto the belt conveyor.
The actual crusher may Ь е а п у of the usual types of primary crushing machines. The
machines manufactured in the Federal RepubIic of Germany for the international
cement industry comprise the following types'
single-rotor and г о о г hammer crushers
- impact crushers
- jaw crushers and gyratory crushers
These figures comprise mobile as well as static crusher plants.
А swivelling conveyor may Ь е used to receive the crushed product and provide а п
adaptabIe connecting link between the mobile crusher and the overland belt
conveyor system. This intermediate conveyor is usually а belt conveyor (in 74% of
the cases), о г else а п apron conveyor (24%) о г а chain conveyor (2%).
The travel mechanism of the mobile crusher is of major importance. There а г е
various types:
В Raw materials 11. Quarrying
Crawler tracks т а у Ь е fitted parallel or transversely to the direction of passage of
the material through the crushing plant. This method of travel.is in
cases where the bearing pressure о п the ground has to г е а П falrly
limits and where frequent changes of location с а п suitabIy Ь е achleved wlth
moderate travel speeds. А disadvantage is the high service weight in.
with the walking crusher, generally poorer climbing capacity о п gradlents,
scope for installing the crusher о п sloping ground, and inadequate moblllty п
different directions.
Rubber-tyred mobile crushers have advantages in terms of
speed, and possibility of carrying out servicing while IS In о р е г а ю п
Also, the climbing capacity, mobility in various г е с ю п and scope for
installation о п sloping ground are adequate, but the high bearing pressure exerted
Ь у the wheels is а drawback. .'
А semi-mobile crusher has п о permanently attached travel mechanlsm or chassls
of its own. When in service, the plant is supported о п а steel frame or о п skids. For
moving it to а different working location, а special lifti.ng truck or. а travelling
chassis is used, the advantage being that these travel devlces are avallabIe for use
also with other semi-mobile crushers. This arrangement helps to keep down the
capital cost of the crushing plant. Lifting trucks of up to 600 t capacity are now
availabIe for the purpose. Travel speeds are in the region of 2 kmjhour.
7.1 The situation in the cement industry
The building materials industry, including the cement industry, uses raw materials
which, generally speaking, are extracted rather close to the surface of the.g.round.
These materials are found in relatively limited quantities in particular localltles and
с а п Ь е economically transported only over fairly short distances. The choice of
location for the processing plant (cement works) is therefore directly bound up
with the location of the quarrying area.
The raw material needs of the German cement industry involve the quarrying of
about 1 km
of fresh land per year. Since the Federal RepubIic of Germany is а
country with limited raw material resources, but is о п е the world's largest raw
material consumers, the indigenous supplies obviously must Ь е utilized in the most
efficient possibIe way.
7 Site restoration
In addition to the probIems of environmental protection to Ь е overcome, the pit
and quarry industry has the special probIem of site restoration, or
recultivation. These terms indicate the need for the raw materials а Г Г У П or
mining activities to с о т е to terms with the demands of nature and landscape
conservation. Restoration in this sense means restoring the landscape to some-
thing like its original or at least а п environmentally acceptabIe after the
quarrying operations have ceased о п the site с а ю п r:n
particularly refers to creating а biologically and ecologlcally Intact and vlabIe
natural habitat for animal and plant life.
Site restoration
crawler tracks
Raupenfahr werk
'NOlking mechanism
pneumatic tyres


t 40
Е ё
ф ...
З О и

10 С
The walking mechanism is powered Ь у а hydraulic system. Vertical rams lih the
machine and its walking pad or shoe, while horizontal rams move the shoe forward
and thrust the whole machine in the desired direction. This is the general principle,
but actual details of the mechanism vary from о п е manufacturer to another.
The advantages of the walking method of travel are the low bearing pressure per
unit area of ground о п which the machine travels, the mobility in different
directions, the ability to climb gradients, and the possibility of installing the
crushing plant о п sloping ground. О п the other hand, this travel method is not very
suitabIe in cases where the crusher has to Ь е moved fairly frequently from о п е
location to another. The travel speed is low, but so is the drive power required.
walking mechanism;
crawler tracks;
rubber-tyred wheeled chassis;
semi-mobile crusher.
The choice of the appropriate type will Ь е based о п numerous criteria, such as
service weight, bearing pressure exerted о п the ground, headroom (overall
height), drive power rating, travel speed, manoeuvrability in different directions,
performance о п gradients, permissibIe slope о п which the plant с а п Ь е installed,
maintenance and repair possibilities during plant operation, behaviour with regard
to frequent changes of location. Fig. 6 shows the proportions of the various types
of travel mechanism for mobile crushers as they have Ь е е п introduced and
developed over the years.
The advantages and disadvantages of these types are bound up with the
conditions of use.
1956 1960 62 б 66 68 70 72 74 76
Fig.6: Evolution in mobile crushers (Manufacturers in Fed. А е р of
В Raw materials 11. Quarrying
1.2 Quarries and landscaping
With increasing size of individual quarries, the probIems associated with site
restoration have correspondingly increased.
For the present-day large and deep quarries methodically conducted restoration
а г е and а statutory requirement. Since it is, generally speaking,
posslbIe to fIIlln the excavations because there is not enough backfill material,
It IS necessary to remodel the landscape in а п acceptabIe т а п п е г Additional
changes in the а р р е а г а п с е of the restored site will Ь е caused Ь у the presence of
overburden tips and settling ponds.
Experience has shown that early p/anning for the subsequent utilization of the
site an,d ancillary features (waste tips, etc.) is essential to speedy and
satlsfactory rel.nstat.ement of а functional landscape configuration. What usually
cannot Ь е avolded IS that the restored site will comprise exposed rock faces. The
important however, is the overall resulting а р р е а г а п с е of the landscape.
WI.th metho?lcal restoration, а varied landscape with а good range of plant and
anlmal specles с а п Ь е obtained. Not only is it thus possibIe to restore а pleasing
а р р е а г а п с е to the countryside, but in some exceptional cases the restored site т а у
even look better than it originally did before quarrying started. For reasons of cost,
the quarry operators will strive to restore the site as soon as possibIe after the
operations .in а particular а г е а have ended, so that topsoil spreading and
г е с а ю п с а п Ь е Interlinked as closely as possibIe.
А п alternative useful quarry site restoration method is to utilize the excavations for
refuse disposa/, so that they а г е filled in before final landscaping.
1.3 Restoration features
the site measures involves hillsides, benches, final quarry
floor, tlPS and е П ponds. П addition, the effect of trees and shrubs planted in
with these measures upon the propagation of noise, waste gases and
nOlse should Ь е taken into consideration.
7.3.1 Hillsides
In the present context these comprise the areas situated between the rim of the
quarry and the unaffected surrounding land. The plants, shrubs, etc. planted о п
these strips of land should protect them from soil erosion and should moreover
scatter their seeds onto the benches, floors and quarry faces. Н е п с е the hillside
vegetation forms the basis and starting point for the natural flora and the associated
within the quarry А п у waste tips (overburden piles, etc.) that т а у
eXlst о п о г п е а г the hillside strips с а п suitabIy Ь е included in the planting program.
Whll.e operations а г е sti/l in progress, such grassed and planted tips
proVlde а ю п а protection against dust and noise nuisance. The areas in
question should Ь е planted with undemanding deep-rooted species, such as
sallow (Iow-growing willows). These not only form and hold the topsoil but in
nction with the vegetation stages of grass, plants and bushes they
provlde the natural habltat for subsequent other species.
Site restoration
7.3.2 Berms and quarry faces
After extraction of the workabIe mineral, berms о г benches remain о п the final
slopes, and the correct choice of width for these horizontal/edges is important in
connection with the subsequent growth of vegetation о п them. As а rule, they
should Ь е 3 to 6 mwide, depending о п the height above the quarry floor and unless
statutory regulations require other dimensions. Against the need for suitabIy wide
berms must Ь е set the requirement that the least possibIe quantity of workabIe
mineral should Ь е left behind in the quarry. А compromise will therefore have to Ь е
М а г and о а т т а у Ь е used for filling and banking against quarry faces, because
topsoil is generally not availabIe in sufficient quantities. Soil-forming
rooting plants should preferabIy Ь е used, which с а п protect the subsoll а а П
erosion Ь у water flowing down the quarry faces.
Steep rock walls а г е unsuitabIe for planting with vegetation, except sin.ks
(dolines) filled with о а т у material already exist. А certain amount of plant Ilfe wlll,
however, gain а foothold in loam-filled crevices and at the between
strata and will in course of time spread to give а natural coverlng of greenery to
parts ofthe rock. П а п у casethe wallsshould Ь е stabIe and properly has
Ь е е п found that the stability с а п Ь е considerabIy improved Ь у е а П а relatlvely
thin а у е г of the workabIe deposit in situ.
7.3.3 Final quarry floor
The final floor of the quarry should generally Ь е levelled. However, if sufficient
quantities of overburden а г е availabIe, artificial hillocks т а у Ь е formed, which help
to introduce some pleasing variety into the overall visual impression created Ь у the
restored site. А п у depressions caused Ь у overburden stripping operations should
Ь е filled in. If the final floor is dry and topsoil is in short supp/y, it т а у Ь е necessary
to provide artificial irrigation. Otherwise а certain amount of replanting will have to
Ь е carried out to make good the losses of vegetation that occur in periods of dry
О п the other hand, ifthe final floor is below ground water level, flooding т а у occur
when the quarry pumps а г е stopped. А lake will then Ь е formed, which с а п Ь е а
pleasing feature of the landscape in combination with the and trees
growing о п the berms and hillside strips, besides с г е а П а п envlronment for
aquatic birds. Also, the water in the quarry с а п serve as а reservoir.
7.3.4 Waste tips
The recultivation of the tips (overburden and waste material piles) is normally
carried out before restoration work starts о п the quarry itself. Economic, technical
and landscaping criteria а г е applicabIe to the operations of locating, building up
and shaping the tips.
1n order to keep transport costs down, waste tips а г е generally located as close to
the quarry as possibIe so as to have minimum overburden haulage distances. When
Site restoration
2.00 to 3.80 О М т

2.00 О М т

100000 О М
1.00 О М т

2.00 О М т

3.60 О М т

3.15 О М т

2.25 О М т

3.00 О М т

at least
at least
7.5 Cost
Because of the т а п у and varied possibilities for the subsequent utilization of
worked-out quarries and their ancillary installations, and. of the other
variabIe factors involved (wages, etc.), п о generally-valld п о г а ю п о п the cost
of site restoration с а п Ь е given. For the most commonly encountered case where
restoration consists of landscaping the site Ь у the planting of trees а п shrubs,
however, the following figures (for German conditions in 1979) с а п provlde some
approximate guidance:
soil stripping
supplying fill material
spreading 0.30 m topsoil
spreading 0.35 m organic soil
planting of seedlings, incl. subsequent с а г е
planting of saplings and shrubs
spray seeding of rubbIe slopes
(depending о п angle of slope)
quarry floor afforestation, individual trees
The cost р е г hectare т а у thus Ь е of the order of
Planted areas of this kind do not themselves produce dust, а п much of the
carried into them Ь у wind is trapped. М о г е particularly, the О П down of the a.lr
currents Ь у the foliage cause them to discharge of thelr burden. Thls
result is т о г е effectively achieved if the dust-Iaden а г с а п penetrate П о the
trees, so that dust precipitation takes place in о г just it..Eddy о г а ю п П
front of dense forest also results in а certain smount of р г е С Р а ю п but а lot of the
dust remains airborne and is carried along in the wind that sweeps over the top of
such forest instead of penetrating into it. . .
Roughly speaking, forest with 40% penetrability achieves the dust preclpl.-
tating effect. П winter, when the trees and shed thelr leaves, thelr
effectiveness is reduced to about 60% of that а а П е п summer.
With regard to the effect of planted areas т о г е particularly: belts of forest) о п the
distribution and objectionabIe action of waste gases there а г е four aspects to Ь е
reduction of wind velocity;
increase of turbulence;
true filtering action Ь у the foliage;
physiologically beneficial effect of wind screening Ь у the trees and
bushes. . k
If а belt of forest is to Ь е at all effective in the attenuation of р о ю п Ь у smo е
fumes and waste gases, two conditions have to Ь е satisfied:
the belt of forest should rise well above the initial level at which the smoke
plume spreads out;
the distance from the trees to the source of smoke emission must not Ь е too
В Raw materials 11. Quarrying
7.3.5 Settling ponds
Like the waste tips, the settling ponds must also Ь е incorporated into the restored
landscape. The choice of location for these features с а п Ь е а п important factor in
this connection. Natural depressions in the ground, hollows о г old quarry workings
с а п suitabIy Ь е used for the purpose.
The outer face of а п impounding dam should Ь е planted with trees. О е е р roots
help to stabilize the soil. The silted-up settling pond areas should likewise Ь е
planted with trees о г otherwise Ь е used as pasture о г а г а Ы е land. Other possibIe
uses а г е as sports fields о г recreational facilities, as such areas а г е usually very
When substantial pond areas have thus filled up, p/anting о п them should
с о т т е п с е as soon as they а г е sufficiently firm and trafficabIe.
the quarry has reached its final extent, it т а у Ь е advantageous to dispose the tips
around the quarry site, where they с а п serve а useful purpose in visually screening
the workings and acting as а barrier curbing the emission of noise, dust and
exhaust gases.
Grassing and planting the tips should begin, in the р г о р е г season, as soon as
possibIe after they have Ь е е п completed. Besides grass, other species of plant
should Ь е sown, е g., clover, lupins, etc. Aher this vegetation has had time to
develop, afforestation should с о т т е п с е with fast-growing species such as alders.
The ultimate aim should Ь е to achieve mixed plant;ng.
7.4 Noise and dust emission
(See also Chapter Н protection)
The planting of shrubs and trees for the purpose of noise and dust emission control
should Ь е p/anned and carried out before the quarry is opened up. The execution of
such measures т а у however, run into difficulties, т о г е particularly in open-pit
projects extending Over very large areas of land. Planting should in а п у case
immediately Ь е started along the boundaries where the final extension of the
quarry workings has Ь е е п reached. This will Ь е conducive to speedy restoration of
the site and its re-integration into the surrounding landscape.
Although the sound-attenuating effect of а belt of trees and bushes ;s often
overrated, dense forest with well developed undergrowth с а п reduce the sound
0.5 and 2.0 dB А р е г 1О m of sound transmission path through
It. О Ь ю у It IS advantageous to make the strip of forest bordering the quarry as
wide as possibIe.
As а barrier to atmospheric pollution, especially Ь у dust, strategically planted trees
and bushes с а п Ь е of real vafue. From this point of view it is т о г е effective to have
а belt of high trees in stepped formation о г rows of trees in а staggered
arrangement, in either case allowing the wind to bIow through them. This form of
protection is т о г е effective than dense forest presenting а relatively impenetrabIe
obstacle to the flow of air.
В Raw materials 11. Quarrying
1. Н Die Weiterentwicklung der Schreitwerke fLir schwere ortsbe-
wegllche Brechanlagen. - п ZKG 21/1968/512- 515.
2. Rekultivierung eines Steinbruchs. - In: ZKG 31/1978/247 -249.
3. Tractor, С о Handbook of Ripping. - August 1975.
4. Caterplllar Tractor С о Performance handbook, 8th edition. - Oktober 1977
5. Dynamit Nobel: Die Sprengarbeit in Tagebauen und Steinbruchen 2
lage, 9/1975. ' .
6. О Leistungen, Betriebskosten und Standzeiten von
RelBraupen In Kalksteinbruchen. - In: ZKG 30/1977/516.
7. Flachsenberg, Р Laden und Transport in Steinbruchen. - In: Aufbereitungs-
Technik. 6/1965/149 -160.
8. Flachsenberg, Р Qualitatssteuerung und Qualitatsuberwachung im
Kalkwerk. - In: ZKG 19/1966/155-163.
9. Flachsenberg, Р Р г о Ы е т der Qualitats- und Mengensteuerung beim
A.bbau von Ka.lksteln. Vortrag auf der 9. Arbeitstagung des Fachausschusses
fur В е г е с П der GDMB а т 8.5.71 in Hameln. - GDMB Gesellschaft
Deutscher Metallhutten- und Berg/eute (Erzmetall), Е г п г а В е 1О
3392 Clausthal-Zellerfeld.
1О Р Eine neue Steinbrecheranlage. - Separatabdruck aus der Neuen
Zurcher Zeltung Nr.29 vom 19.1.70.
11. Grimmer, K.-J.: und Entwicklungsrichtungen zur F6rderung
groBer Massenschuttgutstrome. - п Berg- und Huttenmannische
Monatshefte 6/234 - 244.
12. Grosse, О Wanderbrecher im Steinbruch eines Zementwerkes. - п ZKG
23/1970/141 -146.
13. Hinz, W.: Umweltschutz und Energiewirtschaft. - п ZKG 31/1978/215-
14. K6nig, R.: Entspricht unsere Sprengtechnik dem internationalen Stand? - In:
Bergbau 5/1975/107.
15. Korak, J./Martens, P.-N./Z6I1ner, G.: Bandtransport auch im Festgestein-
Tagebau. - In: F6rdern und heben 14/1974.
16. Korak, J. / Martens, P.-N. /Z61lner, G.: Radlader als Ladegerat im Festgestein-
Tagebau. - п F6rdern und heben 1976/215-220.
17. Korak, J. (Martens, Р Н / Z6Ilner, G.: Schwerlastkraftwagen. Ein
fur Massenschuttguter aus tagebautechnischer Sicht. - п
Fordern und heben 1976/587 - 594.
18. Korak, P.-.N./Z?llner, G.: Ladegerate fur den Festgestein-
Tagebau - eln Betrlebsmlttelvergleich. - п F6rdern und heben
28/1978/819 - 824.
19. Н Die Grenzen der Gewinnung vom Rohmaterial durch ReiBen und
Abschleben. - In: ZKG 25/1972/214.
20. Mentges, G.: Kalksteinabbau und Landschaftspflege. In: ZKG
21. Pieper, 1.: Umweltschutz und Industrie. - In: ZKG 26/1973/409-412.
22. PreuBer, W.: Versuchssprengungen mit losem ANC-Sprengstoff А т т о
п е х 1) im Werk Flandersbach der Rheinischen Kalksteinwerke GmbH,
Wulfrath. - In: Die Industrie der Steine und Erden 2/1966.
23. R6ttgen, R.: Flachensprengungen a\s Mittel zum selektiven Abbau. - п
Nobel Hefte 33/1967/149.
24. Rottgen, R.: Das Flachensprengverfahren beim Einsatz eines ANC-Misch-
ladefahrzeuges. - 1п Nobel Hefte 42/1976/123.
25. Schater, H.-U.: Maschinensystem zur Rohstoffgewinnung in Festgestein-
tagebauen. - In: ZKG 30/1977/541-544.
26. Schiele, Е / Forsthoff, W.: Stand der Tagebau- und Steinbruchtechnik. - In:
ZKG 24/1971/158.
27. Sillem, Н Rohstoffgewinnung: TiefreiBer, Fahrbrecher, Mischbetten. - п
ZKG 21/1968/56.
28. Stumpf, К Abraumwirtschaft und Haldenlagerung bei der Kalksteinge-
winnung. - In: ZKG 21/1968/23 - 31.
29. Stumpf, К Die Rohstoffgewinnung als Ausgangsstelle der
Zementproduktion. - п ZKG 24/1971/443-450.
30. Thelen, А г о В Н у г а Ь а е г im Tagebau. - п Baumaschinen u.
Bautechnik 6/1977.
31. Thum, W.: Sprengtechnik im Steinbruchbetrieb und Baubetrieb.
Wiesbaden und Berlin: Bauverlag GmbH 1978.
32. Weinmann, W.: Die zweite Verordnung zum Sprengstoffgesetz: Neue bun-
deseinheitliche Vorschriften uber die Aufbewahrung explosionsgefahrlicher
Stoffe. - In: Nobel Hefte 44/1978/81.
33. Weirich, К Einsatz einer verfahrbaren Brecheranlage im Steinbruch eines
Zementwerkes. - In: Berg- und Huttenmannische Monatshefte 10/1969.
34. WeiB, Н Fahrbare Grol1brechanlagen-Untersuchung der durch den Einsatz
fahrbarer Vorbrechanlagen in den Gewinnungsbetrieben verursachten
Kostenanderungen. - 1п Aufbereitungs- Technik 7/1966/109.
35. Wilmanns, F.: GroBbrechanlagen mit Hydro-Schreiter in Steinbruchen. - In:
Aufbereitungs-Technik 9/1968/235 - 240.
36. Zepter, К Н Rohstoffgewinnung und Aufbereitung. п ZKG
37. Zepter, К Н Schutzder naturlichen Umwelt - M6glichkeiten und Grenzen.
Vortrag, internationaler (techn.) KalkkongreB, Hershey, Р А USA, 21.-
В Raw materials 111. Storage, bIending beds, sampling stations
В у D. Schmidt
References. . . . . . . . . . . .
ш Raw materials storage, bIending beds,
sampling stations
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . .
е п п theory. . . . . . . . .
Mode of operation of the bIending bed
Assessment of а bIending bed . . . . . . . .
Estimating the homogenizing effect in advance .
Machinery and process engineering methods.
Stacking methods . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chevron method.
Windrow method
Horizontal layers.
Strata method. . .
Cone-shell method.
Chevcon method . . . . . . . .
Stacking and reclaiming machines....
Chevron stacking and end-on reclaiming.
Stacking machines. . . . . . . . ...
Reclaiming with front-acting machines . . .
Blending bed system with windrow stacking .
Stacking machines. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reclaiming Ь у side-acting scrapers . . . . . . . . . . . .
Blending bed systems with horizontal and inclined stacking .
Stacking machines. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reclaiming machines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Blending bed based о п the cone-shell method .
Arrangement of bIending beds
Longitudinal stockpiles.
Parallel stockpile5 ..
In-line stockpi/es . . .
Circular stockpile .
Homogenizing tanks о г troughs. . . . .
г to combat end-cone probIems .
Sampling stations . . . . . . .
Sample quantity. . . . . . . .
Proces5 engineering г . .
Sampling installation 1 (MIAG).
Sampling installation 2 (FLS).
Checking the sampling system
1 Introduction
The intermediate storage of raw materials between the quarry and the raw mill has
traditionally formed the stockpile from which а steady supply of materials for
processing in the cement works has Ь е е п maintained. П addition, it has in recent
years Ь е с о т е increasingly important for the г of р г е е п п о г р г е
homogenizing of the crushed stone. In а few cases, final homogenization is even
achieved in this way. The principle of е п п Ь у longitudinal stockpiling
and transverse reclaiming of bulk materials has already long Ь е е п practised in the
coal and а г е mining industries, such stockpiles being known as bIending beds. It is
being increasingly used in the cement industry for the homogenization of raw
stone orthe bIending ofdifferent raw materials, butalso forthe homogenization of
clinker, г slag and coal.
There а г е а number of reasons for providing intermediate storage of raw materials
in the form of а stockpile:
processing in the works is thus made largely independent of the operations
in the quarry;
multi-shift working in the quarry is rendered unnecessary Ь у the use of high-
capacity loading, haulage and primary crushing machinery;
noise and dust emission а г е reduced in that they а г е limited to shorter periods
of time;
the stockpile safeguards the uninterrupted supply of material to feed the
present-day large kilns;
the stockpile с а п deal т о г е efficiently, in terms of material handling, with
sticky materials than storage in silos с а п
the stockpiling and reclaiming operations с а п Ь е satisfactorily automated;
г operation of the п е п п and preparation plants fed
from the stockpile enabIes full advantage to Ь е taken of cheaper electricity at
nights and week-ends.
The following consideration5 а г е additionally applicabIe to а bIending bed for raw
material homogenization:
better utilization of inhomogeneous raw material deposits;
р г е е п п of different raw material components is possibIe;
better uniformity of the raw meal and therefore of the clinker is achieved, 50
that the quality of the cement is т о г е nearly constant.
As а rule, new cement works а г е equipped with bIending beds of various types,
with о г without sampling stations. Similar arrangements а г е provided under most
modernization schemes for existing works. The following types of bIending bed а г е
to Ь е distinguished, all of which с а п Ь е designed as longitudinal (straight) о г
circular beds:
- Storage stockpiles
No special requirements as to pre-homogenizing efficiency а г е applied, and п о
sampling station is needed. Stacking and reclaiming the material а г е done Ь у
methods not involving the use of expensive and sophisticated machines.
Bed-blending theory
quantity (t)
Menge (t)
quantity (t)
Menge (t)
reclaiming in slices
transversely to the layers
Abbau in Scheiben
quer zu den Schichten
material quantity
р е г slice = Ь Q
р г о Scheibe = Ь Q

А т
К т

material quantity
р е г layer = Ь т
Materialmenge р г о
Schicht = Ь т
stacking in equal
Aufbau in gleichen
Fig.1 : Variations in the raw material composition homogenized in the
Ы е п п bed
Reclaiming the material from the pile is done transversely to the direction of
stacking Ь у what is in principle а slicing action, т о г е particularly if а side-acting
scraper is used. With this type of reclaimer the material is removed in а certain
thickness all the way from the ridge to the toe of the stockpile. With а front-acting
reclaimer the entire cross-section of the pile is simultaneously acted upon Ь у the
raking-down device, so that the material removed in this way cannot really Ь е
regarded as а "slice". AII the same, for the present purpose, such layers of reclaimed
material will likewise Ь е conceived as thin slices.
О П these assumptions, the reclaiming operations с а п Ь е described as follows:
Because of the superposition of the input variations in the composition of the
material stacked о п the stockpile, the material reclaimed in slices at right angles to
the stacking layers will Ь е subject to certain output variations, which а г е of two
а variations within an individual slice of material (short-term deviations);
Ь variations in the average values of the slices (Ionger-term deviations).
2 е п п theory
2.1 Mode of operation of the bIending bed
Homogenization of materials in а blending bed с а п Ь е explained as follows:
The stacking о г stockpiling) system disposes the incoming raw material in the
longitudinal direction of the pile Ь у continual to-and-fro movements, so that а
number of relatively thin layers of material а г е deposited. In this way the raw
material flow is divided into quantities of М tonnes, each corresponding to one
layer. The longer-term variations in chemical composition, which depend о п а
particular system of working о г а particular working cycle in the quarry, а г е thus
"cut up" and superimposed one upon another in an irregular sequence.
В Raw materials 111. Storage, bIending beds, sampling stations
DoubIe stockpiles, for raw materials containing а high and а low percentage of
lime, respectively, а г е basically similar to the single-component stockpile. The
"high" and the "Iow" material а г е simultaneously reclaimed from the bIending
stockpiles and а г е used for approximately proportioning the raw mix. Further
corrective materials а г е added ahead of the raw mills.
Blending beds with specified target values
Single-component bIending bed: This type of bIending bed is intended т о г е
particu larly for the stockpiling of limestone confirming to specified characteris-
tic values (Iime standard, С а С О
С а О The stacking operations for building
up the stockpile а г е monitored Ь у а sampling station. In order to ensure а good
homogenizing о г bIending effect, the stacking and reclaiming equipment is
т о г е elaborate than that used in the ordinary storage stockpile.
Proportioning stockpile: In this variant the required mix proportioning is
obtained Ь у the simultaneous о г successive stacking of different raw material
components in the same pile. The input of materials has to Ь е monitored Ь у а
sampling station. Н е г е too, elaborate stacking and reclaiming equipment is
essential to achieving the bIending effect. In practice, however, this type of
bIending bed has not с о т е into widespread use.
In general, it с а п Ь е said that pre-homogenization of the raw materials с а п very
seldom enabIe subsequent homogenization of the raw meal to Ь е dispensed with.
Depending о п the layoutofthe blending bed and its equipment, somevariations in
the composition of the reclaimed raw materials а г е bound to occur, and these а г е
passed о п to the subsequent stages of processing. Such variations have to Ь е
evened out mainly Ь у homogenization of the raw meal. In planning the in-
stallations it is therefore necessary to consider the blending bed and the raw meal
homogenization system as а single whole. If the blending bed is designed to
achieve а high blending о г homogenizing effect, the subsequent homogenizing
treatment applied to the raw meal need Ь е correspondingly less elaborate.
Conversely, ifthe blending bed is designed to а lower standard of homogenization,
the raw т е а homogenization system will have to compensate for this.
В Raw materials 111. Storage, bIending
х =5<.
The remaining output variations exist only within the slices of material. There are
п о variations between о п е slice and another.
In а п actual, as opposed to а п ideal, bIending bed there additionally occur
variations from slice to slice, as Fig. 3 shows. Even though the variations within the
slices remain unchanged, their average (or mean) values are now п о longer equal
to the overall average of the chemical composition:
5<; =f=. 5<.
Because of the slice-by-slice reclaiming technique the variations within the slice
are evened out to а greater or less extent, depending о п the type of reclaiming
machine. The variations in the averages of the respective slices are predetermined
Ь у the quantities and the number of layers N. For correct bIending bed design
the quantities of material per layer and the number of layers should Ь е so chosen
that the remaining variations from о п е slice to another are reduced to а minimum.
The bIending effect с а п Ь е improved - and indeed theoretically Ь е made infinitely
good - Ь у increasing the number of layers in building up the stockpile and Ь у
using а reclaiming system that will efficiently homogenize the material.
These considerations indicate that the cycle of operations in the quarry deserves
closer attention. True, the standard deviation of the input variations cannot Ь е
altered Ь у changing the cycle, but it is possibIe to improve the variations from о п е
slice to another, the more so as the quantity of material per stacked layer exceeds
the loading capacity of о п е or more loading machines. The procedure in the quarry,
е g., the loading and haulage from several qualitatively different rock piles, may
conceivabIy Ь е correlated with the stockpiling of the material in the bIending bed,
so that quantities of material with similar characteristics of quality or composition
are stacked о п top of о п е another in the same parts of the bed. This undesirabIe
situation, which diminishes the bIending effect achieved, с а п Ь е remedied Ь у
suitabIy varying the operations in the quarry, so as to achieve а п irregular sequence
of delivery of the material to the bed.
Figs.2 and 3 show two theoretical bIending bed reclaiming models. The material
slices and the statistical frequency distributions of the input and output variations
are shown.
Fig.2 relates to reclaiming from а п ideal bIending bed. The continuous line
represents the input variations, the dotted line the output variations. "Ideal"
stacking of the material signifies that the chemical composition at every cross-
section of the bIending bed is equal to the overall average composition:
Н х
1st II ice з S,liCe kth slice mth slice
1. Scheibe 3. Scheibe k-te Scheibe m-te Scheibe
2nd slice length of bed
2. Scheibe Mischbettlange
Fig. 2: Frequency distribution within the individual reclaimed slices of
а п ideal bIending bed
1st slice 3rd sl ice kth sl ice mth sl ice
1. Scheibe 3. Scheibe k-te Scheibe m-te Scheibe
2nd slice length of bed
2. Scheibe Mischbettlange
Fig. З А е а frequency distribution within the individual reclaimed slices
from а bIending bed
2.2 Assessment of а bIending bed
For assessing the homogenizing performance of а bIending bed, the following
parameters will Ь е considered.
Four of these are introduced as estimated values of the statistical variance:
overall variance of the input variations
SJ32 overall variance of the output variations
Theoretically, high homogenizing effects с а п Ь е attained Ь у making the number of
layers large enough, i. е using very thin layers. . . . .
О П the other hand, the presupposed statistical independence dlmlnlshes
decreasing layer thickness, for the quality characteristics of raw
layers stacked in the bIending bed tend to Ь е correlated о п е another. T.hls
phenomenon с а п most easily Ь е visualized at the reversal Р О П of the stacklng
operation. Atthe end of each forward pass and the beginning of each return of
the stacker, material possessing the same properties is two
layers. Thus the condition that the material must Ь е stacked In dlscrete quantltles
is fulfilled only after every second layer, i. е only every second layer
contributes to the homogenization achieved in the bIending bed.
The relationship between the standard deviation and the number of layers is shown
in Fig.4 for single-component and multi-component bIending beds. It
that а worthwhile reduction in the output standard deviation is attained only If
there are at least about 50 layers. With increasing number of layers the rate of
improvement diminishes, so that from about 500 layers onwards there is hardly а п у
further improvement in the homogenizing or bIending effect, while the sheer
technical effort and expense of building up the bed in so large а number of layers
would not Ь е commensurate with the advantage gained.
The following conclusions are to Ь е drawn from all this:
Predictive estimates in accordance with the method indicated above are to Ь е
regarded only as approximate. With increasing number of layers the results
found for the homogenizing or bIending effect increasingly tend to over-
estimate the effect. (This has Ь е е п verified Ь у check calculations based о п
accurate measured data.)
2.3 Estimating the homogenizing effect in advance
The bIending bed design methods reported in the literature are mainly concerned
with the variations between the slices of reclaimed material. The following method
is generally employed. It presupposes that the raw material values of the individual
slices conform to а normal distribution and are statistically independent.
For estimating the output variations the following relation is availabIe:
to build up the bed has Ь е е п decided, the homogenizing effect of the as а
whole will have Ь е е п predetermined. The final variations are bound up wlth the
output variations in the material reclaimed from the bed. П words: the
design and operation of а bed have Ь е е п fixed, the homogenlzlng effect
will Ь е constant. Higher input variations will result in higher output а а ю п
However, this criterion Ь у itself is not sufficiently informative. In addition, the
absolute values of the output variations should Ь е availabIe. In the planning of new
installations these values determine the performance requirements applicabIe to
the proportioning devices before the mills and/or to the homogenizing equipment
for the raw meal. With а well designed е п п system it is possibIe to
achieve good homogenizing effects, Ь у which is more particularly to Ь е under-
stood: low final variations in the chemical composition of the material, despite
possibIe high input variations of the material stockpiled in the bed.
The homogenizing (or bIending) effect of а bIending bed depends о п the method
of stacking and о п the characteristics of the reclaiming machinery. О п с е these two
Sx2 variance of the averages of the slices.
Other parameters to Ь е considered are:
N the number of layers
[t] the quantity of material per layer
the quantity of material per reclaimed slice.
The variations within the slices (SQ) are short-term ones. П the reclaiming
operation they are evened out to а greater or less extent, depending о п the type of
reclaiming equipment. This с а п Ь е most readily visualized when considering the
action of а side-acting scraper, а reclaimer which removes the material from the pile
in successive slices. The contents of each slice comprise marked variations, which
are passed о п to the processing equipment further down the linefrom the bIending
bed. With front-acting reclaimers the slices are thinner, the reclaiming action
comprises the entire cross-section of the pile, and the variations in each slice are
substantially smaller. П general, variations in the raw material are not equalized to
а п у appreciabIe extent in the raw grinding plant. Н е п с е they will have to Ь е
removed in the raw meal homogenizing system.
If reclaiming is done Ь у side-acting machines, the output variations, i. е the
variations in the material coming out of the bIending bed, will Ь е greater than if
front-acting machines are used. Therefore, with the former method it will Ь е
necessary to provide suitabIy effective raw meal homogenizing facilities, whereas
these с а п Ь е simpler if the latter method is used. If each slice of reclaimed material is
regarded as а unit, the variations within it (sQ) с а п Ь е neglected, so that then only
the variations between the individual slices (5,,) remain to Ь е considered. The latter
are ionger-term in character. Since the averages of these raw material slices differ
from the overall average, these variations cannot Ь е removed Ь у raw meal
homogenization, but only Ь у means of а suitabIe components proportioning
system upstream of the raw mill.
The effectiveness of а bIending bed is expressed Ь у the concept of "homogenizing
effec(' е namely, the ratio of the standard deviations of the raw material
characteristics о п entering and leaving the bIending bed respectively; thus'
В Raw materials 111. Storage, bIending beds. sampling stations
Machinery and process engineering methods
The raw material is deposited Ь у а stacking device moving continually to and fro
over the longitudinal centre-line of the stockpile. In this way individual layers
containing equal quantities of material а г е disposed о п е upon another in the shape
of а series of ridged roofs. This means that. subject to ignoring the short-term
variations, all cross-sections have the same composition. The material discharged
from the stacker slides and rolls down the sides ofthe pile, thus causing а degree of
particle segregation depending о п the properties of the material concerned. The
coarser particles will tend to accumulate at the base of the pile. The arrow (Fig. 5)
indicates that building up the pile requires only о п е central throw-off point of the
stacking device in the longitudinal direction and с а п Ь е achieved with relatively
simple equipment.
5(·'.) standard deviation
from mean
vom Mittelwert
5 comp.onents,
- mean input variation
5 Koml!9nenten
mittl. Eingangsschwankung
10 20
number of layers
Schichtzahl z
Machinery and process engineering methods
Stacking methods
Chevron method
Fig. 4: Blending effect as а function of the number of stacked layers of
- When using the formula Sx = sa/VN it is advisabIe to introduce only half the
actual number of layers.
- There is п о point in using fewer than 50 о г т о г е than 500 layers.
Attempts to make т о г е accurate predictions of the homogenizing effect of а
bIending bed usually fail for the following reasons:
the input variations in the material coming from the quarry а г е not known and
а г е then mostly over-estimated;
the thickness of the layers stacked in the bIending bed is not constant, this
being due to variations in performance of the handling and stacking
the е п п stockpile comprises two end cones where the conditions а г е
different from those in the rest of the pile and which, depending in part о п the
particle size of the material to Ь е homogenized, have а marked detrimental
infiuence о п the homogenizing effect.
Despite all its imperfections, the method of predicting the homogenizing effect as
outlined above is now widely used.
According to Hasler. experience to date shows that with present-day bed-
bIending technology the following values of the homogenizing effect с а п Ь е
е = 3 to 6 if the overall variations а г е considered (Iong-term and short-term
output variations) ;
е = 6 to 15 if the short-term variations а г е left out of account (i. е ignoring the
variations within each slice).
Fig.5: Chevron stacking method
3.1 .2 Windrow method
The drawback of particle segregation с а п Ь е avoided Ь у using the windrow
method of stacking, in which the layers ("windrows") а г е disposed longitudinally
over and beside о п е another. Although some segregation т а у occur during the
stacking of the individual rows, it is limited to each individual row. Besides. this
effect с а п Ь е minimized Ь у appropriate choice of the height and spacing of the
rows of stockpiled material. The larger the number of rows, the т о г е favourabIe
will Ь е the particle size distribution in the pile.
П actual practice, however, the windrow method in its pure form, as illustrated in
Fig. 6, is hardly everemployed. Much т о г е often а combination ofthis method and
the chevron method is adopted.
А drawback ofthe windrow stacking technique is that it requires several throw-off
positions, necessitating expensive slewing Ь о о т stackers.
В Raw materials 111. Storage. bIending beds. sampling stations
Machinery and process engineering methods
3.1.3 Horizontal layers
Step-by-step advancing of а bridge stacking system in conjunction with continual
slewing of the stacker belt conveyor о п its boom will produce а stockpile whose
individuallayers aredisposed horizontally о п е о п top of another. With this method,
bulk materials differing in their angle of repose and consisting of particles in
relatively wide size ranges с а п Ь е stacked in layers varying in thickness, without
appreciabIe segregation.
It is also а suitabIe method for circular stockpiles, the stacking being done Ь у
means of а belt whose throw-off point moves in а meandering path.
Fig. 6: Windrow stacking method
Fig. 7: Actual stacking in а bIending bed
3.1.4 Strata method
П terms of г distribution of the material in the stockpile, this method
is equivalent to the preceding о п е but with the drawback of а certain amount of
segregation due to accumulation of the coarser particles at the bottom of the pile.
The layers in this system а г е inclined at а п angle of about 320 to 380.
This type of stockpile is especially suitabIe for reclaiming Ь у side-acting
7 6 5
Н б е а е
-------- -----8
--- 2
3 2
е г о 55- seetion 01 bed
Mi schbetl querschni1t
strip No.
Strelfen Nr
Fig. 9: Strata stacking method
Fig. 8: Stacking in horizontal layers
3.1.5 Cone-shell method
As contrasted with the methods so far described, in which the stacking device
travels continually to and fro, in the cone-shell method the stacker - а belt
conveyor that с а п Ь е moved along the length ofthe pile о г а fixed-boom stacker -
forms а series of conical piles heaped о п е against another. As soon as such а pile
has Ь е е п built up to the appropriate height, the stacker moves о п In this method а
distinction is to Ь е drawn between continuous stacking and г stacking
(Figs. 1О and 11).
The homogenizing о г bIending effect achieved with this method is less good than
that achieved with the methods described above. while there is а г
В Raw materials 111. Storage, bIending beds, sampling stations
in thatthe coarser particles tend to accumulate at the base ofthe pile.
с а п Ь е done only Ь у side-acting scrapers or Ь у underfloor
е х а с ю п
$=+- ( ( r Г r r r r rr
Fig.10: Continuous stacking method (numbers denote sequence)
Fig.11: Alternate stacking method (numbers ю е sequence)
3.1 .6 Chevcon method
The firm of Р Н В offers this method as а hybrid of the chevron and the cone-shell
method. Itis suitabIy only for circular stockpiles.
The is similar to that used in the chevron method, but instead of
е а П П over the rldge of the pile, the throw-off point of the stacker is varied а
rad!al L the course of each to and fro cycle. The slope of the face from
whlch reclalmlng wllI subsequently Ь е done с а п Ь е varied Ь у appropriate alteration
of For constant stockpiling rates the angle а of the slope will then remain
unchanged (see Fig.12).
This very effectively overcomes the "end-cone probIems" that are
assoclated wlth е п п stockpiles and will Ь е further discussed later in this
chapter. In thanks to the overlapping of old and new material in the pile,
long-term а а ю п or the effects of possibIe sudden changes in incoming
of raw materlal с а п Ь е cancelled. The number of layers comprised in each
bythe reclaimer is about30%greater п + k) than the number п sliced
П reclalmlng from chevron pile with its flanks sloped at the natural angle of
repose of the materlal. As а result, а better homogenizing effect is obtained. Also,
Machinery and process engineering methods
+k I
n I

schematic diagram
Schemati sche г
Fig.12: Chevcon stacking principle
there is very little segregation into coarser and finer particles. The stacker belt с а п
continue to deposit the incomimg material even in the immediate vicinity of the
reclaimer, so that utilization of the fu 11 capacity of the bIending bed с а п Ь е attained
at all times. Since stacking is done continuously, а circular bed built up о п this
principle с а п justifiabIy Ь е called а п infinite bIending bed.
3.2 Stacking and reclaiming machines
Over the years, а large number of systems and machines have Ь е е п developed, and
from these have evolved certain types of bIending bed, which will Ь е described
The combination of chevron (or, where applicabIe, chevcon) stacking with front-
acting reclaimers is to Ь е regarded as the most favourabIe procedure, as it involves
the least expenditiure о п machinery. The process engineering disadvantages
associated with the chevron method of stacking are cancelled Ь у the use of front-
acting reclaimers. Such reclaiming machines are used also for stockpiles built up in
horizontal layers.
The alternative system consists in windrow stacking with reclaiming Ь у means of
side-acting scrapers. The MIAG "step-back" method is more particularly suitabIe
for this purpose.
Good homogenizing or bIending effects are also attained with the strata method
and side-acting scraper reclaimers.
The homogenizing effect of е п п stockpiles built up Ь у the cone-shell
method and operating with side-acting scrapers or underfloor extraction is poor,
and for this reason it is а system little used for bIending beds.
3.2.1 Chevron stacking and end-on reclaiming Stacking machines
Blending beds т а у Ь е of the outdoor type or Ь е accommodated in suitabIe
buildings. П the latter case the material с а п Ь е stacked Ь у belt conveyors mounted
under the ridge of the roof or Ь у mobile f\oor-mounted stackers travelling the
В . Raw materials 111. Storage, bIending beds, sampling stations
Machinery and process engineering methods
Fig.11: Circular bIending bed with "infinite" stacking о п the chevcon
Fig.16: Stacking in а circular bIending bed with simple chevron method
Fig.15: В о о т stacker with т о у а Ы е (Iuffing) Ь о о т (Iongitudinal
Fig. 1З : Longitudinal stockpile with overhead stacker belt and tripper
Fig.14: В о о т stacker with fixed Ь о о т (Iongitudinal stockpile)
length of the building. The arrangement and installation of belt conveyors will
depend о п the type of roof construction. These handling devices have the
advantage of being relatively inexpensive and not taking up so much space as а
floor-mounted mobile machine, so that the cross-sectional dimensions of the
building с а п Ь е correspondingly smaller. А disadvantage associated with belt
stacking is the large height of fall of the material onto the pile. With dry material this
с а п throw up much dust.
Stackers with fixed or movabIe booms (which с а п Ь е raised and lowered) are used
for covered as well as for outdoor bIending beds. For reasons of cost it is not а good
idea to install permanently mounted belt conveyer systems over outdoor stock-
piles. А drawback associated with fixed-boom stackers is that dust nuisance т а у
arise, and the attachment of telescopic discharge spouts or similar devices to

Bridge mounted bucket-wheel reclaimer.
This type of machine comprises о п е о г т о г е bucket-wheels and а raking-down
device which together а г е moved to and fro о п the bridge across the face of the
stockpile. The material dislodged from the pile is scooped up at the toe of the face
Ь у the bucket-wheel
Fig. 20: Bucket-wheel reclaimer, bridge-mounted type
Machinery and process engineering methods
Bridge type scraping reclaimer:
The bridge о п which the raking-down device is accommodates а г г
chain conveyor whose bIades shift the dislodged materlal along to а с о е с П belt
conveyor that extends along one edge of the stockpile.
Good homogenizing action because thin slices а г е removed from the entire
cross-sectional а г е а of the pile.
The rate of rec\aiming and handling of the material is constant and quite simple
to regulate. . . .
The machine takes up only а modest amount of с е с ю п а space Inslde а
The direction of reclaiming с а п conveniently Ь е reversed.
There is an upper limit to the handling rate.
Along the edge ofthe pile beside the collecting conveyor а scrape feeding shelf
has to Ь е provided, which must not Ь е covered with material during stacking
and which thus restricts the utilizabIe stockpiling width
Fig.19: Bridge-type scraping reclaimer with harrow attachment
scraper chain
Q Reclaiming with front-acting machines
AII front-acting reclaimers, i. е machines for "end-on" removal of material from
stockpiles, а г е equipped with some form of handling device which is only а Ы е to
с а п у away the material from the toe of the pile. The material is dislodged from the
pile Ь у the action of а raking-down device which sweeps across the cross-
sectional face. Each cycle of the device removes а thin "slice" comprising all the
layers in the pile, and in the process of sliding and tumbIing down the sloping face
the material of the various layers is mixed together. Т о obtain а good homogenizing
effect it is of course essential for the raking-down device to involve the entire face
of the pile.
These devices а г е of various kinds (Fig. 18) :
Н а п о а г е triangular structures fitted with renewabIe teeth and so inclined as
to suit the angle of repose of the stockpiled material. The latter is dislodged Ь у
the to-and-fro movement of the harrow across the face of the pile.
The rope-operated scraper comprises two ropes which pass around pulleys at
the top а frame near the а р е х of the pile and а г е attached to а slide о г carriage
which moves to and fro о п the supporting bridge. As а result of this shuttling
motion of the slide, the ropes perform movements somewhat like those of а с а г
windscreen wiper and thus dislodge the material from the entire face of the
pile. Fordealingwith difficultmaterial, thetwo ropes т а у Ь е interconnected Ь у
pivotabIy attached cross-members fitted with teeth, thus substantially increas-
ing the loosening effect and reducing wear о п the ropes.
Scraper chains а г е т о г е particularly appropriate for dealing with very difficult
material requiring considerabIe effort to dislodge it from the face of the pile. In
the course of its to-and-fro movement the scraper chain sweeps across the
entire face and actively scrapes the materia! down to the toe.
Associated with these raking-down systems there а г е in the main, four different
types of front-acting reclaimer; these а г е illustrated in Figs. 19 to 22.
Fig.18: Raking-down devices
В Raw materials 111. Storage, bIending beds, sampling stations
combat this nuisance is not without probIems. It is preferabIe, under such
circumstances, to employ а Ь о о stacker enabIing the height of free fall
of the material to Ь е kept down to а minimum.
В Raw materials 111. Storage, bIending beds, sampling stations
Good homogenizing action. The variations due to the fact that the material is
not constantly taken from the entire face of the pile during the to-and-fro cycle
of the bucket-wheel are of short duration and с а п without difficulty Ь е
averaged out in the subsequent processing stages.
The handling rate is virtually unlimited. For high rates, two or more bucket-
wheels с а п Ь е mounted о п the same bridge.
Sideways transport of the material to the longitudinal collecting belt conveyor
is done Ь у а belt installed in the bridge. This arrangement saves energy in
comparison with the scraping reclaimer and moreover enabIes а low toe wall to
Ь е constructed as а lateral boundary to the stockpile. Thus there is п о risk of
overfilling the pile, while the amount of space occupied is kept down to а
The rate of material handling during the transverse movement of the bucket-
wheel is not constant. This is compensated Ь у using three different transverse
travel speeds for the bucket-wheel wh ich are applied at successive stages of its
to-and-fro cycle. The drawback is that such three-speed operation requires
more elaborate control arrangements.
The cross-sectional space requirements are greater than those of the bridge-
type scraping reclaimer.
О П reversal of the reclaiming direction the buckets have to Ь е turned over.
Fig.21: Bucket-wheel reclaimer with slewing boom
Bucket-wheel reclaimer with slewing boom.
The bucket wheel is mounted at the end of the boom which swings to and fro
across the stockpile, so that the reclaiming face is slightly curved. In other respects
the action is similar to that of the bridge-mounted bucket-wheel reclaimer.
These are as already mentioned for the bridge-mounted machine.
The track rails arewithin the width ofthe pile (and buried Ь у it), so thata further
saving in space is obtained.
Machinery and process engineering methods
These are also as mentioned for the bridge-mounted m.achine. .
Turning the machine round requires much space, whlch с а п Ь е а е ю
drawback inside а building.
Drum reclaimer:
The material dislodged from the face of the stockpile .is up Ь у scoops
mounted о п а revolving cylindrical drum or tube and. IS o.nto а
conveyor installed inside the drum. This type of а П е .IS Ь у Its
good homogenizing or bIending effect, since the е п е wldth. of the .plle IS at all
times being acted upon. However, the elaborate and expe.nslve deslgn featu.res
make the drum reclaimer uneconomical except for very hlgh rates of а п П
(above 2000 t/hour).
Fig. 22: Drum reclaimer
3.2.2 Blending bed system with windrow stacking Stacking machines
Stacking Ь у the windrow system с а п like chevron stacking, also Ь е done in
buildings with ridge-mounted belt coveyors a.nd appropriate trans.verse belt
conveyors, but all the disadvantages already е п ю п е - е g., great helght
etc. - are applicabIe in this case too. It is better to use ?oom stackers for Ь П
up the stockpiles. There are three types of such а с П е
а stacker with fixed boom and telescopic belt conveyor; .
Ь stacker with movabIe boom (Iuffing motion) belt
с stacker with movabIe boom comprising lufflng (ralslng and lowerlng) and
slewing motion.
Т у р е а has the disadvantage that the material falls from а great hei.gh.t. just it
does from а belt conveyor mounted under the ridge of the roof of а Ь П а
boom stacker of type Ь the height of fall с а п Ь е to а r:n'nlmum. П а у
type с is а universal machine, which is more partlcularly sUltabIe where two
parallel stockpiles have to Ь е formed side Ь у side, in which case the stacker travels
longitudinally between the piles, these being built up as required, Ь у slewing the
Ь о о т in either direction.
З Boom stacker with fixed boom and telescopic belt
Fig. 24: Boom stacker with movabIe (Iuffing) boom and telescopic belt
Fig. 25: Boom stacker with movabIe (Iuffing and slewing) boom
The windrow system of stacking с а п Ь е applied to а п у type of bIending bed, i. е
straight or circular. In the latter case it must Ь е borne in mind that the outer rows
contain more material than the inner. Another advantageous method of stockpiling
consists in depositing the material in large homogenizing troughs or tanks such as
those constructed Ь у the engineering firms of FLS and MIAG.
The windrow method applied to а circular bIending bed is illustrated in Figs.26
and 27.
Fig. 26: Boom stacker with luffing boom and telescopic belt conveyor
for а circular stockpile
Fig.27: Slewing bridge with movabIe belt conveyor. supported о п
central tower and external rail Reclaiming Ь у side-acting scrapers
А п у of the front-acting machines described in с а п Ь е used for reclaiming
from е п п stockpiles built up Ь у the windrow method. Such machin.es
would certainly effect somefurther, though slight, improvement in the homogenlz-
ing effect. However, the use of scraper chain reclaimers, operating either as front-
acting or side-acting machines, has Ь е с о т е estabIished practice for such bIending
beds. More particularly the so-called step-back method of MIAG has Ь е е п
developed for the purpose. The material is reclaimed from о п е side of the pile Ь у а
machine which travels short distances to and fro in conjunction with raising and
В Raw materials 111. Storage,
I! : I I
: I I I I
I I I I longitudinal section
1st г stepl I I Langsschnit!
1. Abbauschritr :. I ь I :
2nd reclaiming - - - - -; I
2. Abbauschritt' I I
:" , I
f- - - - -
Fig. 28: MIAG step-back reclaiming principle
Fig. 29: Reclaiming Ь у side scraper
Fig. 30: Reclaiming Ь у semi-portal scraper
Fig.31 : Reclaiming Ь у portal scraper
Fig. 32: Reclaiming Ь у front end scraper
lowering ofthe scraper а г т During reclaiming from the topto the toe of the pile the
reclaimer travels slowly back, so that the face of the pile is scraped away in the
shape of а he/ically г surface. The effect achieved in this way is similar to that
of reclaiming with а front-acting machine. The reclaiming action does not
comprise the entire face simultaneously.
Reclaiming with side scrapers has the disadvantage that the rate of flow of the
reclaimed material is not constant, while the homogenizing effect is less good than
that obtained with front-acting machines.
3.2.3 Blending bed systems with horizontal and inclined stacking Stacking machines
А е п п stockpile с а п Ь е built up in horizontal layers Ь у means of а
slewing-boom stacker о г а п overhead belt conveyor (mounted under the ridge of
the roof) with slewing throw-off belts. А luffing-boom stacker о г а ridge-mounted
belt conveyor with simple transversely movabIe throw-off belts с а п alternatively Ь е
used for building up stockpiles consisting of inclined layers. These stacking
machines have already Ь е е п described. Stacking in horizontallayers is widely used
8. Raw materials 111. Storage,
Fig. 33: Т г а е Ш п scraper and strata stacking method
also f?r materials into trough о г tank type homogenizing systems
а с П п layers Ь у the strata method, and reclaiming Ь у а
slde scraper, а г е IlIustrated In Fig.33. Reclaiming machines
Scraper chains г for reclaiming from а stockpile buiJt up in horizontal
/ayers. а с П е as described in, must Ь е used for the
purpose.. е с а П from piles with inclined layers т а у Ь е done not only with
п а с П but also with side-acting scrapers.
Reclaiming homogenizing troughs с а п Ь е done with scrapers о г with bucket-
ladder о г chaln-bucket) machines.
The homogenizing e.ffect o?tained а type bIending bed is generally
better than that о Ь а П е wlth а bIendlng stockplle built up Ь у the strata method.
80th systems а г е to Ь е rated as very efficient, however
Fig. 34: Homogenizing trough with bucket-Iadder reclaimer
3.2.4 81ending bed based о п the cone-shell method
This illu.strated F!g. 35, calls for п о special comment. The stacking and
е с а П а с П е а г е slmllar to those already described. П terms of homogeniz-
Ing effect th,s IS not а good system, however.
Machinery and process engineering methods
Fig. 35: Stacking and reclaiming of а bIending bed based о п the с о п е
shell-method: overhead stacker belt, longitudinally г а е Ш п scraper
3.3 Arrangement of bIending beds
As a/ready stated, а distinction is to Ь е drawn between longitudinal (straight)
stockpiles and circular stockpiles, while the trough о г tank type, in which the
material is stored substantially below ground.level, is а third main variant. With the
longitudinal arrangement the bIending bed will generally comprise two stockpiles,
worked discontinuously in that о п е is being built up Ь у the stacking equipment
while material is being reclaimed from the other. О п the other hand, with а circular
pile the т о operations - stacking and reclaiming - с а п proceed simultaneously
о п the same pile, о п е end of which is being built up while the other is being
reclaimed, so that these operations с а п proceed continuously. The chevcon
method is т о г е particularly suitabIe for circular bIending beds, in which case
virtually the entire capacity of the pile is effectively availabIe and the stacking and
reclaiming operations proceed in а п "infinite" cycle.
П the case of homogenizing troughs the two operations - stacking and reclaim-
ing - а г е usually carried out simultaneously in that reclaiming takes place in о п е
part of the trough while stacking proceeds in another part of the same trough.
П deciding which layout to choose for а е п п system the following
considerations а г е а р р icabIe:
how much space is availabIe for accommodating the bed?
what scope for possibIe future extension is there?
do subsoil conditions (bearing capacity) have to Ь е taken into account in
planning the bed?
It is not possible to make а п у generally-valid statements as to the size (capacity) of
the stockpiles, as the bIending bed for each cement works has to Ь е laid out to suit
the particular requirements of the case. Roughly speaking, however, it с а п Ь е said
that а stockpile should contain about о п е week's supply of raw materia/ for the
cement works.
.. irln methods
Fig. 38: Circular stockpile
3.3.2 Circular stockpile
Fig. 37: In-line stockpiles
Long buildings if the stockpiles are under roofed cover.
End-cone probIems.
High length/width ratio, besides requiring long buildings, makes such
bIending beds difficult to accommodate in а cement works layout.
I '
----'--'-- ------r-
-1-/' In-line stockpiles
No change-over of machines.
No slewing stacker required.
Only two belt conveyors.
Short roof spans for buildings.
Capacity с а п Ь е increased.
Fig.36: Parallel stockpiles Parallel stockpiles
Moderate length/width ratio о п plan.
- Fits in easily with the layout scheme for а cement works.
- Capacity с а п easily Ь е increased.
О isadvantages:
Reclaimer has to Ь е changed over from о п е pile to another.
Either а slewing stacker or а stacker with two booms is needed.
Large number of belt conveyors and transfer points.
Long roof spans for stockpiles accommodated in а building.
Extra space required for change-over of machines.
End-cone probIems.
scraping reclaimer
Longitudinal (straight) е п п stockpiles т а у Ь е arranged either parallel or
in line.
В Raw materials 111. 5torage, bIending beds, sampling stations
Very short belt conveyors.
5imple roof construction for buildings, with central column as supporting
т е т Ь е г
It is relatively simple to keep the reclaiming output rate constant.
No end-cone probIems.
А г е а о п plan about 40% less than for straight stockpiles.
No change-over of reclaiming machines.
А circular stockpile is sometimes difficult to fit into the cement works layout.
5ticky о г very moist material т а у choke the chutes in the central column.
The poke-holes for unbIocking the chutes а г е relatively inaccessibIe.
Ground-water т а у cause difficulties in the material extraction tunnels.
Capacity с а п Ь е increased only Ь у setting up а second pile.
3.3.3 Homogenizing tanks о г troughs
Under certain circumstances it т а у Ь е advantageous to buiid а sub-surface
stockpile, т о г е particularly in а suitabIy lined excavation formed, for example, Ь у
bIasting in rock, the object being to save о п the cost of above-ground building
construction. However, in some cases trough-type bIending beds at ground level,
i.e., not recessed into the ground, а г е recommended т о г е particularly Ь у the
engineering firm of Fl5.
Very good space utilization.
- No end-cone probIems.
Fig. 39: Homogenizing trough
Machinery and process engineering methods
Roof с а п Ь е of simple and light construction
Very good homogenizing о г bIending effect.
Trough is expensive to construct.
Expensive machinery.
Material falling from а great height throws up much dust.
3.4 Measures to combat end-cone probIems
The end cones - i. е the semi-conical ends - of longitudinal е п п
stockpiles а г е liabIe to cause some probIems. For о п е thing, it is difficult to the
rate of reclaiming constant at the ends of the pile because here the с г о е с of
the face from which the material is being reclaimed will vary from sllce to sllce.
Besides, not all the stockpiled layers а г е then simultaneously removed in each slice.
Especially when the reclaimer starts о п the stockpile, the homogenizing effect is at
first liabIe to Ь е very unsatisfactory, because there will have Ь е е п considerabIe
segregation at the time of stacking. VOIlmin mentions various methods of
counteracting these drawbacks:
If the capacity of а stockpile is to Ь е increased, it is better to the
longer than wider, because the relative volume of the end cones IS smaJler п а
narrower pile.
For а length/width ratio of 4 the end cones comprise about 15%of the volume
of the pile. This proportion increases to about 20% for а ratio of 3.
The end с а п е at the "far end" of the pile с а п Ь е left standing о г Ь е only partly
reclaimed. This does т е а п some loss of effective stockpiling capacity,
The reversal points of the stacker с а п Ь е staggered in relation to the height
attained Ь у the pile during the course of building it up. П this way the
segregation at the front end с а п Ь е reduced. . . .
These end-cone probIems а г е obviated if а circular stockplle IS used, especlally
if the chevcon stacking method is adopted.
4 Sampling stations
For monitoring the operation of single-component о г
beds which have to attain specified homogenizing о г bIending effects It IS essentlal
to have suitabIe automatic sampling stations.
50 far, not much information о п such installations has appeared in the literature, so
that guidance о п these matters must Ь е sought from the manufacturers of cement
plant equipment. There is as yet п о standardization of sampling stations, they
а г е always tailored to suit the requirements of each individual case, whlch т о г е
particularly depend о п the properties of the materials to Ь е sampled. This being so,
the brief outline presented here с а п lay п о claim to completeness of treatment of
the subject.
В Raw materials 111. Storage, bIending beds, sampling stations
Sampling stations

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200 g/hour.
1.2% = 0.6 t/hour
at 2-minute intervals = 200 kg/cycle
120 kg charge
4.2.1 Sampling installation 1 (MIAG)
Capacity of raw material handling
Sampling quantity:
Sampling rate:
Sample splitter (1 : 50) .
Sample mixer:
Quantity from mixer for despatch
to laboratory (1 : 600 division) .
The samples а г е taken with а three-compartment chute which intercepts the raw
material flow every 2 minutes. The centre compartment diverts the material onto а
slow-running belt conveyor which feeds it to а а hammer crusher
which reduces from 30 т т to below 2 т т product size. This crusher is heated, so
4.2 Process engineering features
Two raw material sampling systems in actual use at cement works will now Ь е
described. In both cases the material in question is limestone.
I n general, it is advisabIe to provide drying facilities, о г а crusher that с а п Ь е heated,
for dealing with material with а moisture content of 3% о г т о г е The sampling
station is as а rule accommodated in а tower-like structure upstream of the
bIending bed and comprises the various items of sample preparatory processing
machinery installed о п е above another. В у making use of gravity inside the
sampling station the material handling equipment с а п Ь е kept to а minimum and
the capital cost and operating expenses of the sampli ng system Ь е correspondingly
reduced. In cases where the sampling of the material с а п Ь е done only at ground
level, it is advisabIe additionally to install а bucket elevator
4.1 Sample quantity
According to availabIe information, а representative sample of raw material in the
form of crushed stone will Ь е something between 0.2% and 2% of the total
handling flow. If the chemical composition of the material entering the bIending
bed is subject to large variations, о г if it comprises а wide range of particle sizes,
sample quantities in excess of 1% should Ь е taken. Stacking rates for modern
bIending beds а г е between 400 and 1000 о щ so that the sample quantities to
Ь е taken and prepared for testing will range from 0.8 to 20 t/hour.
It is advisabIe to perform the sampling as а weight-dependent rather than as а time-
dependent operation. In the former case the sampler is controlled direct Ь у а belt
weigher. The cumulative sample is homogenized in а special mixer after а certain
quantity (tonnage) of material has Ь е е п collected. With both methods suitabIe belt
conveyors and automatic counting equipment а г е required. The samplers с а п Ь е
adjusted to take а п у desired quantity.
1n order to obtain qual itatively correct samples it is necessary to take these from the
full cross-section of the flow of material being carried о п the raw material belt
В Raw materials 111. Storage, bIending beds, sampling stations Sampling stations
Fig.41 : Sample divider and mixer
Fig.42: TurntabIe in pneumatic
despatch station
that the initial 3.5% г content is lowered to under 1%. А screw conveyor
delivers the sample to а rotary-tube splitter whose discharge opening с а п Ь е varied
from the outside Ь у means of а sliding gate, so that the sample splitting ratio с а п Ь е
adjusted to а п у desired value. The final reduced sample quantity is collected in а
А beltweigher incorporated in the belt conveyer bringing the raw material from the
quarry records the quantity handled. Under adjustabIe electronic control, the
contents of the mixer а г е intensively mixed after every 500 t of material passing the
weigher. О П completion of the mixing operation а quantity of about 200 9 is
removed from the mixer Ь у а pneumatically powered extraction device and is fed to
а п automatically functioning pneumatic despatch station which sends the samples
to the laboratory. П the laboratory each sample is г dried and prepared for
analysis Ь у pulverization in а vibratory mill.
The remainder of the sample material in the mixer is not required for testing and is
returned to the main material flow. When the mixer has Ь е е п emptied, the sampling
cycle starts over again. The actual mixing operation is of relatively short г
No samples а г е taken г this period, so that there is п о risk of the sampling and
testing г being falsified.
The sampling station has а dust collection system. The dust precipitated in the
latter is returned to the sample splitter, so that п о dust losses occur.
4.2.2 Sampling installation 2 (FLS)
Capacity of raw material handling
system: 500 г
Sample quantity: 0.18% = 1О Х 90 kg = 900 kg/hour
1st splitter (1 : 1О : 90 kg/hour
2nd splitter (1 : 20) : 4.5 г
3rd splitter (1 : 20) : 0.225 г
The samples а г е taken with а swivelling chute which discharges the material onto а
vibratory feeder. The latter feeds it to а jaw crusher in which it is reduced from а
feed size of up to 50 mm to а product size of about 1О mm. The sampled quantity of
material is discharged into the first sample splitter. The reduced quantity is passed
through а п electrically heated drying device, г crushed to below 1 mm
particle size and then г reduced in the second splitter. The sample from this
device is crushed for the third time, now to а product size not exceeding 0.2 mm. In
the third splitting stage, which then follows, the final sample quantity of about
225 9 is obtained.
4.3 Checking the sampling system
Cumulative samples from automatic sampling stations may Ь е affected Ь у
systematic errors. The only way to detect such errors is Ь у taking random samples
at the same time as the cumu lative samples. The random samples а г е split, prepared
96 97
Fig. 43: Automatic sampling station for limestone (FlS)
Sampling stations
Acknowledgements for illustrations
Hasler/V61Imin, Technische Stelle Holderbank Management und Beratung AG
Н М В Figs.· 1,2,3,13,18,19,20,21,22,33,34,38,39
Н Weddig, Buhler- М iag В М В Braunschweig' Figs.· 5, 6, 8, 9, 1о 11, 14, 15,
Kamm/Zimmer/Frommholz, Pohlig-Heckel-Bleichert Р Н В Rohrbach' Figs.· 4,
Schmidt, NOROCEMENT, Hannover: Figs.: 7, 28
Fa. Polysius, Neubeckum: Fig. 32
F. L. Smidth (FLS), Kopenhagen: Fig 43
Ouda, W. Н Cement- Oata- Book, 2. Auflage. - Wiesbaden und Berlin.
Bauverlag GmbH 1978.
2. Hasler, R. /V61Imin, К Stand der Mischbett-Technik in der Zementindustrie. -
1п ZKG 28/1975/497.
3. Helming, В Oie Zementherstellung, Teil2. - Fa. Polysius, Neubeckum.
4. К а т т К Oosierung und е г е с Ш п von Rohmaterial durch
Abbaukratzer. - In ZKG 25/1972/89.
5. Schmidt, О О е г Vergleichma(l,igungseffekt der gesamten Rohmaterialauf-
bereitungskette des Werkes Hardegsen. - In: ZKG 30/1977/532.
6. Weddig, H.-J.: Abbau-Kratzer und Bagger in Schuttguthalden. - In.
Aufbereitungs-Technik Н 10.
7. Weddig, H.-J.: Methoden des Auf- und Abbaues von Schuttguthalden. - п
Aufbereitungs- Technik 12/1971/328
8. Zimmer, К Е / Frommholz, W.. Kreislager als Homogenisierungsanlagen. - п
9. Information literature from the following firms.
а Buhler-Miag GmbH, Postfach 3369, 0-3300 Braunschweig
Ь Buckau-Wolf (Maschinenfabrik), Postfach 69, 0-4048 Grevenbroich
с Weserhutte Otto Wolff GmbH, Postfach 940,0-4970 Bad Oeynhausen i. W.
d. Holderbank Management u Beratung AG Н М В - Technische Stelle-,
С Н -5113 Holderbank (AG)
е Р Н В Pohlig-Heckel-Bleichert, Vereinigte Maschinenfabriken AG,
Heckelstr. 1, 0-6672 Rohrbach (Saar)
F L. Smidth & С о AS, 77 Vigerslev Alle, О К Copenhagen-Valby
and analysed Ь у hand. The errors that о с с ш in these operations а г е greater with
increasing maximum г size of the material from which the smaller subsample
has to Ь е obtained Ь у "splitting" the original sampled quantity. Investigations have
shown that the е п о г thatthis т а у involve in raw material of 0-30 т т particle size
range is ± 6.8 lime standard units. О п the other hand, the е п о г associated with
splitting а sample of comminuted and homogenized material is negligibIe.
-belt dryer
В г
Г sample splitter 2
l?\i Teiler 2
• Ф
е ё Ь г а о г у feeder
.. Vibrationszuteiler
• •
..ri4- sample splitter 3
2?d Teiler 3
I t ..
I •
!81 t ..
\ ..
It gross sample
belt с о п у е у о г

Becherwerk fur
В Raw materials 111. Storage, bIending beds, sampling stations

t +-. (J
' I /' _swivelling chute (sampler)
'-j-"""" г (Probeentneh т е г
belt с о п у е у о г
Transportband _vibratory feeder
Q v _*=_ Vibrationszuteiler
• г vibratory feeder
_sample spl/tter 1
Teiler 1
• b_vibratory feeder

С Cement chemistry - cement quality
111. Chemical, physical and mineralogical aspects of the cement burning
С Cement chemistry - cement quality
1. Historical introduction .
11. Raw materials and the raw mix .
1 Raw materials. . . . . . . . .
1.1 General considerations; origins .
1.2 Use in cement production . . .
2 Raw mix: proportioning and analysis
2.1 Principles of proportioning the raw materials.
2.2 Calculation of the raw mix proportions
2.3 Raw mix (or raw meal) analysis .
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
В у D KnOfel
process .
1 Drying . . . . . . . . . . .
2 Dehydration of clay minerals .
3 Decomposition of carbonates.
4 Solid reactions (reactions below sintering).
5 Reactions in the presence of liquid phase (sintering)
6 Reactions during cooling. . . . . .
7 Factors affecting the burning process
References. . . . . . . . . .
IV. Portland cement clinker
1 Clinker phases . . . .
1.1 Alite (tricalcium silicate)
1.2 Belite (dicalcium silicate)
1.3 Aluminate phase . .
1.4 Ferrite phase . . . . . .
1.5 Other clinker phases. . .
2 Judging the quality of clinker.
References. . . . . . . . . . . . .
V. Finish grinding . . . . . . .
1 The materials involved in finish-grinding.
1.1 Portland cement clinker
1.2 г slag
1.3 Pozzolanas
1.4 Fly-ash.....
1.5 Sulphates....
2 Fineness and particle size distribution .
3 Mill atmosphere.
4 Grinding aids. .
References. . . . . . .
VIII. Relations between chemical reactions, phase content and strength
of portland cement . . . . . . . . . 153
References. . . 158
С Cement chemistry - cement quality
VI. Storage of cement. . . . . . .
1 Storage in the cement works. .
2 Storage о п the construction site
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VII. Hydration of cement (setting, hardening, strength)
1 General.. .
References .
2 Hydration of the clinker phases .
2.1 Aluminate .
2.2 Alite .
3 Hydration of slag cements and :
References. . . . . .. .
IX. Types, strength classes, designation and quality control
cements ....
1 General
2 C/assification and ot
3 Constituents of cements . . . . . .
4 Supply and identification of cements
5 Quality control .. .
5.1 Internal quality control .
5.2 External quallty control. . .. ..
6 Suggestions for the use of cements
References. . . . . .
Х Cement testing
1 Fineness .
1.1 Sieve residue .
1.2 Specific surface .
2 Setting times
3 Soundness . . .
4 Strength ..
5 Heat of hydration
References. . . .
Cement Standards
1. Historical introduction
1. Historical introduction
The word с е т е п С is of ancient Roman origin. The Romans made а kind of
structura/ concrete composed of broken stone о г similar material with burned lime
as the binding medium. This form of construction was called "opuscaementitium".
Later о п the term "cementum" was used to denote those admixtures which, о п
being added to the lime, imparted "hydraulic" properties to it, i. е gave it the
power to set and harden under moist conditions о г indeed under water. Such
г were т о г е particularly brick dust and volcanic tuff.
The Romans made excellent use of this material. Perhaps their most famous
building in which it was employed о п а large scale is the Pantheon, а circular
temple built in Rome in the reign of the Е т р е г о г Hadrian (about 120 А It is
43 m in diameter and has а domed roof with а circular aperture at the centre. This
dome, as well as the walls several metres in thickness, а г е constructed of
"concrete" (the walls а г е faced with brick). For achieving the hydraulic properties
ofthis concrete the builders used pozzolana, а volcanic tufffrom the region ofwhat
is now known as Pozzuoli п е а г mount Vesuvius.
Up to the latter half of the 18th century the factors that gave certain types of
cementing material their hydraulic properties were shrouded in mystery. The
British engineer John Smeaton (1724-1792) recognized the importance of the
clay component as essential to hydraulic setting and hardening behaviour when, in
1756, he sought а water-resisting binding medium for the masonry of the new
Eddystone lighthouse п е а г Plymouth. М о г е particularly, it was discovered that
those cements which did not dissolve completely in nitric acid were found to
possess good hydraulic properties (the insolubIe residue being due to clay and
quartz) .
П 1796 another Briton, James Parker, made а hydraulic cement, which he called
"Roman с е т е п С from the calcined nodules of argillaceous limestone known as
septaria. The first attempts to produce cement Ь у the burning of а п artificial mixture
of limestone and clay were made in France, especially Ь у Vicat, in the early years of
the 19th г Although these attempts were successful, the results were not
followed up in that country, and it was the achievement of Joseph Aspdin, а British
bricklayer, to produce а п excellent hydraulic lime, in 1824, Ь у burning а г
containing certain proportions of lime and clay at а high temperature. Н е called his
product "Portland с е т е п С а п а т е which has г as а generic designation
and which was originally chosen Ь у Aspdin because the "artificial stone" made
with his cement (and aggregates) was thought to resembIe Portland stone, а п
oolitic limestone found in southern Britain. However, it was not yet а true portland
cement as we now know it. This step was achieved Ь у his son William, who
succeeded, in 1843, Ь у applying even higher temperatures, to produce а material
which contained а substantial proportion of sintered matter in addition to the
"underburned" mass of the earlier product. "Sintering" means: burning at а
temperature which causes partia/ fusion of the material. William Aspdin's cement
was distinctly superior to its predecessors in attaining higher strengths and was
used, inter alia, in building the new Houses of Parliament in London (1840-
а mass product). The two portland г cements,
and "Hochofen", were standardized in 1909 and 1917
1.1 General considerations; origins
The ideal raw material for cement manufacture is а rock which already in its natural
state contains the correct proportions of the constituents to produce а cement
clinker of the desired composition. Besides, it should Ь е availabIe in abundance,
easy to quarry and of homogeneous character. In reality this ideal combination is
extremeiy г а г е Instead, it is nearly always necessary to base the manufacture of
The present definition of cement as given in German Standard DIN 1164 is as
follows: "Cement is а finely ground hydraulic binding medium for mortar and
concrete, consisting substantially of compounds of calcium oxide w!th s!licon
dioxide, aluminium oxide and ferric oxide, which have Ь е е п formed Ь у п е Г П о г
fusion. When mixed with water, cement hardens both in air and under water and
retains its strength under water; it has to possess constancy of volume (sound-
ness) and attain а compressive strength of at least at 28
Portland cement is made from portland cement cllnker wlth а п г of
sulphate. Portland г cements (slag cements) additionally contain
г slag, while trass cement additionally contains trass. Besides these
cements, other types, such as high-alumina cement and supersulphated cement,
а г е г in some countries, but these two cements а г е п о longer
produced in the Federal RepubIic of Germany and а г е not standardized he.re. О П
the other hand, oil shale cement and trass г cement а г е types whlch а г е
officially permitted in this country.
The position occupied Ь у cements and allied binding media in the
Rankin diagram of the ternary system С а О М О А з е з IS П
dicated in Fig.1. . .. .
In this chapter the chemical, mineralogical and physical aspects, 1. е the sClentlflC
principles. of cement г will Ь е outlined and the corresponding aspects
of the application of cement will Ь е briefly dealt with. .
The subject will Ь е treated as far as possibIe in the sequence of р с ю п
process: raw materials, preparation of the raw mix, г and с о о П portland
cement clinker, grinding, storage, types of cement. Various tests applicabIe to
cement will Ь е described. П addition, since it is essential for the cement
г engineer to know something also of the practical application of his
product е g., in connection with testing and in dealings with the
phenomena associated with the hardening (hydration) of cement wlll also Ь е
11. Raw materials and the raw mix
1 Raw materials
10 20 з а 50 40
- г
Trass, Puzzolan,
70 60
С Cement chemistry - cement quality
gronuloted г 510g
Hochofen cement
The second half of the 19th centurysaw the rapid е Х а Г С П о т п е с е т е п
in а number of countries, including Germany. first
which continued in production for а greatmanyyears, was set upatZLillchow, п е а г
Stettin, Ь у Н Bleibtreu in 1855, followed Ь у а works at Oberkassel, п е а г В о п п in
1858. В у 1889 there were 60, and around 1900 there were 83 cement works in
Germany. The earlier ones used simple intermittently fired shaft kilns. Annular kilns
с а т е later. The first rotary kiln in Germany was commissioned in 1898.
I n 1862, Е Langen discovered the latently hydraulic properties of granulated
(rapidly-coo/ed glassy) г slag, his investigations having shown that
г of quicklime and such slag attained high strengths о п hardening. The
possibility of using portland cement to activate the г slag was applied
Ь у G. Pri.issing in 1882. This principle was, in due г applied in what in Britain
is known as portland г cement. In the United States it is known as
portland г slag cement, while in Germany there а г е two main varieties,
namely, "Eisenport/and" cement and "Hochofen" cement. The principle of
sulphate activation was discovered Ь у Н Ki.ihl in 1908 and was later to Ь е applied
to the г of supersulphated cement. These were main/y German
Thefirst high-a/umina cements were produced in France г the
Flrst World War. Based о п patents obtained Ь у J. Bied, а Frenchman, these
products consist mainly of the solidified /iquid phase (melt) of crystallized
monocalcium aluminate.
hydraulic limes
Hydraulische Kalke
• MgO
Fig.1: Diagram of ternary system С а О М О А з е з
(Rankin diagram)
Fig.2: Diagram of sediment formation
11. Raw materials and raw mix
character is usually quite clearly discernibIe, but the strata т а у Ь е discontinuous,
displaying sudden breaks which must Ь е taken into account in quarrying the
Limestones consist predominantly of calcium carbonate С а С О з generally in its
most stabIe modification known as calcite. I n addition, they often contain
magnesium, aluminium and iron combined as carbonates and silicates; silica
), usually in the form of quartz, is also often present. Most limestones utilized
Ь у the cement industry а г е either chemically precipitated о г organic limestones.
Chemically precipitated limestones а г е formed т о г е particularly in warm seas
where water supersaturated with lime and of low С О content т а у о с с ш е g., at
present о п the Bahama banks). This inorganic process of precipitation proceeds as
С а Н С О
----+ С а С О з + Н О + С О
dissolved in precipitation water given о Н
sea water of lime as gas.
А fairly с о т т о п variety of limestones in this category а г е the oolitic limestones,
which а г е composed of so-called ooliths, i. е т о г е о г less spherical rock particles
grown Ь у accretion around а nucleus and of the order of 1 т т in diameter. These
calcareous ooliths а г е formed in shallow water (Iess than about 2 m depth) subject
to considerabIe motion. When а certain amount of lime has Ь е е п deposited around
the nucleus (which т а у Ь е а grain of sand о г а shell fragment), the oolith sinks
to the Ь о Н о т Ь у gravity. Portland limestone belongs to this type.
The organic, о г biogenic, limestones represent а substantial proportion of lime-
stones. М а п у marine organisms - plants and animals - form hard shells о г
skeletons of calcium carbonate. When they die, their calcareous remains accu-
mulate as а sedimentary deposit. Such organisms а г е for example, т а п у species of
algae, corals, shellfish and protozoa т о г е particularly the Foraminifera). If these
а г е distinctly identifiabIe in the limestone as fossil remains, they form the basis of
classification, е g., shelly limestones, с о г а limestones, algal limestones, for-
aminiferallimestones, etc. Chalk is а limestone consisting mainly of the remains of
unicellular planktonic algae, т о г е particularly so-called coccoliths, which а г е
microscopic calcareous plates secreted Ь у those organisms.
М а г Ы е is а limestone consisting very largely of calcite С а С О з in а relatively
coarsely crystalline form. It is what is known as а metamorphosed limestone
produced under conditions of high temperature and pressure, т о г е particularly in
the process of mountain formation (orogenesis). О П account of its hardness,
marbIe is seldom used as а raw material for cement.
There а г е various transitional types and varieties of limestone.
Clays а г е c\astic sediments, i. е they consist mainIy of the remains of pre-existing
rocks which have Ь е е п broken down Ь у weathering and/or erosion. The clay
minerals а г е present in the form of very small particles ( < 0.002 т т which have
Ь е е п deposited mainly in water - fresh, brackish о г marine. Geologically the clays,
along with shales, marls, etc., а г е classed as argillaceous rocks. The term "clay" is
т о г е especially reserved for material which has п о pronounced bedding planes
and which forms а plastic mass when wet. The principal constituents а г е the clay
formation of rock
Gesteinsbi Idung
р г о с е
cement о п raw materials which а г е not in themselves very suitabIe, but which have
to Ь е appropriately combined and bIended. For practical purposes the raw
materials а г е limestone and clay (occurring in deposits in which they а г е usually
mixed with certain amounts of other components).
Limestones and clays а г е in the geological sense, sedimentary deposits. These
т а у Ь е formed inorganically from the weathering residues о г the precipitated
solution products of older rocks е g., granite о г basalt, but also sandstone,
and т а г Ы е о г т а у о с с ш as new formations. The latter т а у Ь е inorganic
In character е g., clays formed from weathering products) о г organic е g., chalk
formed from the shells of marine organisms). Most sedimentary deposits а г е of
marine origin, i. е formed in seas (most limestones, for example). Clays а г е
deposited in lakes, along rivers and as offshore formations in seas. Some sediments
subsequently undergo processes of change and consolidation (diagenesis)
The typical form in which sediments а г е laid down is in layers, known as strata о г
beds in geological terminology. Since they а г е nearly always deposited in water,
the layers а г е originally horizontal. The actual stratification, i. е the presence of
individually distinguishabIe layers, is caused Ь у variations in the sedimentation о г
other conditions governing the formation of the sediment. As а result of these
processes over millions of years, deposits of considerabIe depth
s?metimes amounting to hundreds ofmetres, т а у Ь е built up. Though
О Г П а у horlzontal and extending uniformly over large areas, these strata т а у
subsequently Ь е affected Ь у so-called tectonic processes - upheavals and
disturbances of various kinds - which cause them to Ь е с о т е tilted, folded, fau Ited
о г disrupted in other ways. When such deposits а г е quarried. their stratified
С Cement chemistry - cement quality
г о с k + water + at m05phere
Jrimares Gestein + Wasser + Atmosphiire
------- у ----
relict new 501 utions
5tructure5 Neubildungen, Losungen
Relikte //',
(5urviving origi - / / "
Ge "
bruchsti.ic ke) / / ' ,
г j in water (river5 , ) i
Transport 9berwiegend in Wasser { FlUssen. Me;ren J I
/ '. clas.tic sediments chemical and biogenic 1.
klastlsche Sed. chemische und biogene Sed.
diagenetic changes (consolidation )
diagenetische Veriinderungen (Verfestigung)
"-- ----L__
Prr)ncHtinnlina and analysis
2 Raw mix: proportioning and analysis
2.1 Principles of proportioning the raw materials
For the production of cement it is necessary to have, or make, raw material mixtures
whose chemical composition is within certain limits. The continuous production of
high-quality cement is possibIe only if the raw mix possesses optimum com-
marly clay 5-15%
clay < 5%
The raw materials for cement manufacture have а С а С О з content between about
74 and 79% Ь у weight.
Some limestones contain а certain amount of dolomite С а М С О З and thus
introduce magnesium oxide (MgO) into the raw material. Magnesia .expansion
must Ь е reckoned with if the MgO content exceeds about 5% Ь у welght.
The oxides Si0
, А

and е О з are generally provided Ь у an
component, i. е а clay or allied material (clay, marly clay, clay marl). materlals
containing sand are sometimes also used, е g., sandy marl or sandy Ilmestone.. ln
some instances these components may contain harmful с о п с е п а ю п of a\kalles

О Na
0), sulphates е g., gypsum CaS04' Н О the sulphates are usually
reckoned as о з and, more rarely, chlorides. These substances
difficulties in the burning process, more particularly in consequence of Intenslfled
cyclic processes and coating formation in the kiln system. The clays also have а
major etfect о п the pelletizing or nodulizing properties of the raw meal and о п the
water demand of the raw slurry in the wet process of cement manufacture.
If it is not possibIe to obtain the desired chemical composition of the raw mix just
with the two above-mentioned raw material components, it will Ь е necessary to
add relatively small quantities of corrective ingredients to mix..
should contain the required oxides - deficient in the main raw materlals - In falrly
high concentrations. At the same time, however, they must not contain appreci.abIe
amounts of harmful oxides е g., MgO or К

О Their purpose, therefore, IS to
adjust the chemical composition of the raw mix and improve sinter.ing
More particularly, the following are used: quartz sand for Increaslng the slllca
content; roasted pyrites or iron ore for increasing the ferric oxide content
(these substances should contain at least 25% е з . . .
Other с о п е с е ingredients are sometimes used, depending о п local avallablllty
and need.
Blastfurnace s\ag is only exceptionally used as а raw material for
cement manufacture (it is, however, extensively used as а subsequent addltlve to
cement in the production of portland bIastfurnace cement). .
If so\id fuels are used in the burning process, the ash arising from these wlll
become incorporated in the cement and have to Ь е taken into account.
о с с ш о с
casionally fibrous, crystals. Most clays consist of different clay minerals which are
present together, е g., illite, montmorillonite, kaolinite, halloysite, etc. Their
chemical composition is far from simple, as the following two examples will
montmorillonite А Ы О Н Si
0,o] Н

kaolinite AI
[(OH)B Si
Besides clay minerals, clays may contain various proportions of other finely divided
quartz (Si0
"sand"), calcite С а С О
gypsum (CaS0
' Н

Ilmonlte (FeOOH), pyrite (FeS
), feldspars (aluminosilicates), carbonaceous
particles, etc.
Clay soils with а substantial proportion of sand and silt, and often with а certain
amount of limonite (iron oxides and hydroxides giving the material а yellowish or
brownish colour), are called loam. The term marl is applied to calcareous
mudstones, which are natural mixtures of clay and lime. Loess is formed as an
accumulation of wind-born dust with particles in the size range of 0.01 to 0.1 mm,
originally derived from desert areas and of а brownish-yellow colour. The
constituents are mainly siliceous (clay, quartz, feldspar) and about 10% of lime. If
the lime has been dissolved out, the material is called loess loam.
1.2 Use in cement production
As а rule, the main components availabIe for the manufacture of cement are
limestones (the source of С а О and clays (the source of Si0
, А

and е


These have to Ь е mixed with each other in proportions depending о п their own and
о п the required final chemical composition. However, overall chemical com-
position is not the deciding factor, because the reactions in the cement burning
process take place between the individual phases present in the kiln feed mix, so
that the fineness and homogeneity of the raw material and raw meal are also
important. If the kiln feed has а large reactive surface area and the mineral phases
are homogeneously distributed, the diffusion rates and therefore solid reaction
velocities will Ь е higher than in coarser and less well homogenized material. The
reaction behaviour of those raw materials whose natural composition is already
fairly close to the desired chemical composition (Iime marl, for instance) will
generally Ь е more favourabIe, because the components are naturally present in а
very finely crystalline and well bIended form. О п the other hand, mixtures of
"extreme" raw materials е g., р ш е limestone and р ш е clay) react less
As already stated, the Ь е а п component is usually а limestone. Limestones
which already contain some natural admixture of clay are to Ь е preferred, as already
noted above. The following approximate classification is applicabIe'
pure limestone >95% С а С О
Ь у weight)
marly limestone 85-95% С а С О
Ь у weight)
lime marl 70-85% С а С О
Ь у weight)
С Cement chemistry - cement quality 11. Raw materials and raw mix
Т а Ы е 1 : Limiting values of chemical composition of cement raw mate-
rial (after ignition)
oxide limiting value content
С а О 60-69 65
18-24 21

4- 8 6

1- 8 3
MgO <5.0 2

О Na
0 <2,0 1
О з <3,0 1
position and furthermore if variations in this composition remain within the
nar.rowest possibIe range. The limiting values stated in Т а Ы е 1 а г е to Ь е regarded as
valled for the manufacture of cement generally, i. е they relate to all т а п п е г of
cement works. Within а п у particular works the variations have to Ь е much
For practical purposes the raw material composition (and also the composition of
the cement clinker) is usually characterized Ь у certain ratios, often called "moduli".
They а г е in fact proportioning formulas into which the percentages of the various
oxides, as determined Ь у chemical analysis, should Ь е substituted.
For calculating the optimum lime content of the mix, the so-called hydraulic
modulus, as expressed Ь у the following formula, т а у Ь е used:
Н М = С а О
+ А

+ е

Nowadays, however, this has largely Ь е е п superseded Ь у the lime standard
(LSt), for which some variant formulas have been evolved.
А high content of lime С а О enables lime-rich clinker phases, which have the
most favourable properties (especially with regard to strength development), to Ь е
formed т о г е abundantly in the burning process, but subject to the condition that
all the С а О must Ь е combined with the three other major oxide components (Si0


The object of the proportioning formulas is to provide а means of
calculating the maximum proportion of lime that с а п Ь е made to combine with
these acidic oxides.
If there is а п excess of uncombined lime, i. е existing as free lime (CaO
) in the
cement, it т а у cause damage in mortar о г concrete as а result of expansion
phenomena (see also Section IV.1). The lime standard provides а criterion for
determining the optimum lime content. It expresses the actual content of С а О
present in the raw material (or in the clinker) as а percentage of the maximum С а О
content which с а п Ь е combined Ь у the acidic oxides (Si0
, А


in the
most lime-rich clinker phases under technical conditions of burning and cooling.
11 О
Raw mix: Proportioning and analysis
Thus LSt = 100 represents the optimum С а О content. Two formulas f?r the lime
standard will Ь е given here. The first, designated LSt 1, was due to Kuhl:
100 С а О
LSt I =
2.8 Si0
+ 1.1 А О з + 0.7 е
А somewhat modified version was later substituted as LSt 11, while LSt 111, due to
Spohn, Woermann and Knbfel, furthermore takes account ofthe possible presence
of MgO, which с а п replace up to 2% Ь у weight) of С а О
100 С а О + 0.75 MgO)
LSt 111 =
2.80 Si0
+ 1.18 А О з + 0.65 е
Va\ues of the MgO content only и р to 2%are to Ь е taken into account in the LSt 1.11
formula; if this content is higher, the second term in parentheses should г е а П
constant at 1.50.
As а further refinement, the term -0.7 О з т а у Ь е introduced into the
to take account of the possible formation of CaS04' This is done, for example: In
the generally similar "Iime saturation factor" used in British cement а п а с Г П
Example of the application of the lime standard:
The chemical analysis of а raw т е а gives the following results (in % Ь у mass о г
weight) .
65.7 С а О 21.1 Si0
, 6.6 А

3.1 е О з 2.0 MgO, residue 1.5;
100 (65.7 + 75 х 2.0) _ 975
LSt 111 = - .,
х + х + х З
For technical clinkers the value of LSt 111 is between 90 and 102 (values above 97
а г е to rated as very high-qua\ity).
The silica modulus (SM) о г silica ratio) is the ratio of silica (Si02 ) to the sum of
the alumina А

and е п с oxide е
This modulus characterizes the ratio of solid to liquid in the clinkering of
material, because at clinkering temperature the Si02 is pre.dominantly
the solid phases (alite and belite), whereas the other two oXldes о с с ш In the IlqUld
phase (melt). П industrial cements the silica modulus is generally between 1.8 and
С Cement chemistry - cement quality 11. Raw materials and raw mix
The iron modulus М also known as the alumina ratio А А is the ratio of
alumina to е п с oxide:
Since these two oxides both occur almost entirely in the liquid phase at clinkering
temperature, this modulus characterizes the composition of that phase. If the е п с
oxide content is higher, so that the iron modulus is lower, the viscosity of the melt
decreases. For а va/ue of М < 0.638 the clinker phase called tricalciumaluminate
С з А fails to form: С з А г е е cements а г е characterized Ь у increased sulphate
resistance. П industrial cements this modulus is generally between 1.3 and 4.0 and
most often between 1.8 and 2.8. In special cements it т а у have much lower values
(down to about 0.4).
П the burning process, volatile constituents а г е driven out of the raw materials.
М о г е particularly, с а г Ь о п dioxide С

isdrivp.n out ofthe limestone and water of
hydration is driven out of the clay. As а resu/t, the materials undergo а decrease in
weight in the production of cement clinker.
The required quantity of dry raw material (i. е without its inherent natural
moisture) for the production of portland cement clinker с а п Ь е computed as
The с а г Ь о п dioxide is driven out of the limestone:
С а С О з = С а О + С 02
(40 + 12 + 48) = (40 + 16) + (12 + 32)
100 parts С а С О з = 56 parts С а О + 44 parts С

Furthermore, about 7% of water of hydration is expelled from the clay in the raw
meal (organic constituents, etc. а г е not considered).
Thus, when а raw т е а containing, say, 76% С а С О
and consisting only of С а С О
and clay is ignited, the loss о п ignition will Ь е approximately as follows:
from С а С О
= 0.76 х = 33.44% С

from clay =0.24 х 7 = 1.68% Н

35.12% totalloss о п ingnition,
i. е raw т е а with 76% С а С О з gives about 64.9% of clinker, for а п ignition loss of
about 35.1 % о г 1 kg of raw т е а yields about 0.65 kg of clinker)
For different values ofthe С а С О з of the raw т е а the quantities of materials с а п Ь е
calculated with the following formulas:
0.44 х % С а С О з 0.07 х (100 - с а с о

а = 1 - 100 + 100 = kg of clinker р е г kg of
raw meal
Calculation of the raw mix proportions
Ь = = kg of raw meal р е г kg of clinker
% С а С О х . .
с = з __ = С а О П the с П е г
а х 100
The following values а г е obtained with these formulas:
% С а С О
in the 74 75 76 77 78 79
raw т е а
а = kg of clinker
0.649 0.645 0.641 0.638 р е г kg of raw meal 0.656 0.652
Ь = kg raw meal
1.541 1.550 1.558 1.567 р е г kg of clinker 1.524 1.533
с = % С а О
68.1 69.3 in the clinker 63.2 64.4 65.6 66.9
Intermediate values с а п Ь е directly read from the accompanying diagrams
(Fig.3). . . . 11
Taking account of losses of material in the manufacturlng process, It IS у
assumed in practice that 1.55-1.60 kg of raw material is needed for produclng
1 kg of clinker.
2.2 Calculation of the raw mix proportions
а For the approximate calculation of the mix proportions.for material
components it is convenient to set down the relevant values П а п Х at
the centre of which is written the desired С а С О
content of the raw mlx. The
С а С О content of the limestone is written in the upper left-hand с о г п е г and the
С а С О з content of the clay is written in the lower left-hand corner. The differences
the two last-mentioned values and the desired С а С О
content of the raw
mix at the centre of the Х а г е now written in the diagonally opposite
values thus finally obtained represent the proportions of the raw materlals whlch
will form the desired mix.
Suppose that the following raw materials а г е availabIe:
% Ю


е О
С а О MgO loss о п
limestone 3.8 0.9 0.6 52.9 0.3 41.5
clay 53.4 20.2 7.5 4.3 2.1 12.5
The raw mix should therefore Ь е proportioned as follows:
52.9 х 100
The limestone contains ----= 94.5% С а С О

(It has Ь е е п assumed that all the С а О is present as С а С О
For 77 %С а С О
in the raw т е а the above-mentioned Х pattern for с о р а ю п
94.5 69.3 (parts of С а С О
deficient in the clay)
':>. /'
/' ':>.
7.7 17.5 (parts of С а С О
in excess in the limestone).
4.3 х 100
The clay contains = 7.7% С а С О
79 С а С О
О г г т т т
'- ....


0101 0, 64t----j---+--+--+----!--+--+_...::::::::t::::..-....Ib--
74 75 77
а kg of clinker / , kg of raw mea!
kg К / 1kg Rohmehl
',57 г г
',56 ь

Й 1.53 t----t-=--""9---+---+---+-+--+---I------iL----i
01 1,52 t----t---+--+--+----j--+--+---I---____i-_I
С Cement chemistry - cement quality 11.
',51 -!-----.L--+--L---+----1.-_-I-------l_-+---_L----i
74 75 76 77 78 79 О О С а С О
Ь kg of raw meal/ , kg clinker
kg Rohmehl /1 kg Klinker
The following analysis values а г е calculated:
74 75 76 77 78 79"10 С а С О З
с "10 С а О in clinker / "10 С а С О
in raw meal
% С а О im К 1"10 С а С О
im Rohmehl
Fig. З Yield obtained for different percentages of С а С О
in the raw
т е а (from Labahn/Kaminsky, 1974)
loss о п
С а О
209.5 1.2
4.2 2.1
raw mix,
ignited (%)
limestone (3.96 parts) 15.1
clay (1 part) 53.4
raw mix (%)
It is г necessary to check that the composition of the raw mix calculated in
this way is within the permissibIe limits Т а Ы е 1) and to ascertain its lime standard
т о г е particularly LSt 111, which in this case is 95.7) and moduli (in this case:
silica modulus = 2.0, iron modulus = 2.4). If necessary, а different lime content
will have to Ь е chosen о г corrective materials added.
Ь Calculation of а two-component raw mix with the aid of Kuhl's lime
standard formula [41]:
С Cement chemistry - cement qua/ity 11. Raw materials and raw mix
Suppose that the availabIe components are limestone (k) and clay (t) with the
following composition (in % Ь у weight):
Raw mix (or raw meal) analysis
LSt = 98
SM = 1.6
М =2.3
= 19.2% Ь у weight

= 8.2% Ь у weight

= 3.6% Ь у weight
С а О = 63.9% Ь у weight.
О п the assumption that the clinker made from this raw mix contains 5% Ь у
weight) of constituents unaccounted for (Ioss о п ignition, MgO, alkali oxides,
etc.), the following clinker analysis is calculated:
clay t
= 57.6
А с = 25.4
Ft = 9.7
Ct = 4.9.
limestone k
Sk = 5.0
Ak = 1.9
Fk = 1.4
= 91.2


С а О
What quantity х of clay t must Ь е mixed with 1 part of limestone k to obtain the raw
mix for portland cement with the lime standard LSt?
П general, the raw mix composed of 1 part of limestone k and х parts of clay t will
have the following composition:
Si02 = Sk + х . St А

= A
+ х . А с
е О з = Fk + х Ft С а О = C
+ х . C
According to the formula for the lime standard LSt I (see Section 11.2.1):
LSt 1= 100· (Ck + х . Ct )
2.8 (Sk + х 'St) + 1.1 (A
+ Х А с + 0.7 (F
+ х F
О п solving this equation for х we obtain:
Since the SM in this example is very low (cf. information given in Section 11.2.1), it
would Ь е advantageous to add а п appropriate quantity of quartz sand as а third
raw material component (corrective material).
For the calculation of а three-component raw mix see, for example, KJJhl, 1963,
р Н Formulas for the calculation of а mix comprising four components are
given Ь у Seidel/Huckauf/Stark, 1978, р 61 Н
The calculation of raw mix proportions is useful in connection with the planning of
new cement works or the opening-up of new raw material deposits in that it
provides approximate guidance о п the quantities of materials required and о п the
suitability of the availabIe raw material components. О п the other hand,
calculations are of dubious value for routine production purposes, because In
practice the respective components are continually subject to more or less
substantial variations. This would necessitate regular analytical monitoring of the
raw materials and, о п the basis of the results, continual recalculation of the mix
О п substitution of the oxide formulas this becomes:
For LSt 1= 98 and the above-mentioned oxide concentrations we с а п calculate: х
= 0.400.
2.3 Raw mix (or raw meal) analysis
For the purpose of production control the raw mix or the raw meal and the clinker
are regularly analysed. Besides "we(' chemical analysis, X-ray analysis is
extensively used for the purpose in modern cement works.
The "non-destructive" X-ray-based analytical techniques have now Ь е е п in
widespread and successful use in the cement industry for about 15 years and are
employed either for quantitative elemental analysis (X-ray fluorescence analysis,
X-ray spectrometry) or for quantitative phase determination (X-ray diffraction
analysis, X-ray diffractometry). Of course, purely qualitative checks с а п also Ь е
made Ь у these methods. Whereas X-ray fluorescence analysis (elemental deter-
mination) is extensively used both for raw meal and for cement monitoring, X-ray
diffractometry (phase analysis) has hitherto Ь е е п used only for the determination
of free lime content of cement.
П the cement industry more particularly the so-called wavelength-dispersive
principle of X-ray fluorescence analysis is generally used (in preference to the
energy-dispersive principle) because it achieves higher intensities and better
resolution, so that errors are smaller. The methods of sample preparation are also
important deciding factors with regard to the reliability of the X-ray analysis
LSt ,. (2.8' Sk + 1.1 . A
+ 0.7' F
) -100· C
LSt 1· (2.8' St + 1.1 . А с + 0.7' F
) -1 00· ct
х = LSt· 1 (2.8' Si02 + 1.1 . А О з + 0.7' е

-100 С а О (for limestone)
LSt·1 (2.8·Si02 + 1.1 А О з + 0.7' е

С а О (for clay)
Therefore in this case the raw mix must consist of 1 part of limestoneand 0.400 part
of clay. The precise composition of the mix is as follows:
2 А

з е

з С а О
1 part limestone
5.0 1.9 1.4 91.2
0.400 part clay
23.0 10.1 3.9 2.0
28.0 12.0 5.3 93.2
the с е т е п burning process
111. Chemical, physical
Ш Chemical, physical and mineralogical aspects of
the cement burning process
For the production of с е т е п clinker the raw material has to Ь е to а
temperature of about 14500 С so that clinkering Ь П П
requires а п oxidizing atmosphere in the kiln, р С П а г е У г е е п с П е г If
this condition is п о satisfied, the resulting clinker will Ь е of а brown colour, .and
the с е т е п obtained from it will Ь е of inferior strength and will set т о г е rapldly.
Important chemico-physical processes occur already during of the
kiln feed material and especially а the burning temperature с п е Г П
ture) , such as: dehydration of the clay minerals, е с а г Ь о п а ю п of
с а г Ь о п dioxide) of the carbonates (this process is usually to г
calcination), solid reactions and reactions involving the р а С р а ю п о а Щ
phase (melt), and crystallization processes. AII these а г е
affected п о only Ь у chemical factors (chemical с о Р О ю п of the raw materlals),
two systems of measurement: either the detection channel (comprising analyser
crystal and detector) is moved through а certain .angular range .and measures the
characteristic radiation of the elements successlvely (sequentlal system) о г the
apparatus is equipped with а number of detection channels in а fixed а г г а у namely,
о п е channel р е г element to Ь е detected (multichannel simultaneous system). The
sequential system offers greater flexibility, enabIing of to Ь е
detected. О П the other hand, the simultaneous system IS qUlcker, comprlses fewer
moving parts and has proved advantageous т о г е particularly in where the
same elements have to Ь е analysed over and over again the г о П е
Н е п с е this last-mentioned system is preferred for р г о с ю п control In .the
с е т е п industry. With such equipment а complete analysis с а п Ь е о Ь а П е In а
few minutes (the actual analysis and measuring time is very short, е g.,
20 seconds). .
Х г а у fluorescence spectrometers с а п Ь е used independently. for о с с а ю п а
analyses о г for simple analysis programs о г Ь е as а п Integral р а г of а
process control system associated with computer
eqUlpme.nt. The outpu.t data
take the form of pulse rates, concentrations У а Ь у welght), modull and
standard, о г Ь е utilized in some other form for process control а the .materlal
end of the с е т е п manufacturing process (e.g., for raw mix р г о р о г Ю П п feed
focusing circle"'-
Fokussierungskrei 5
г а у path in diffract ometry
Strah lengang bei
Х г а у tube
т у path in spectrometry
StrahLengang bei
The physica\ basis for Х г а у analysis is the equation commonly known as Bragg's
n . л = 2d . sin Э
where: л = а э е п of the radiation
Э = angle of incidence and diffraction ang\e
d = spacing of crystal lattice planes
n = integer.
П Х г а у fluorescence analysis the values of d and Э а г е known Ь у virtue of the
instrumentation set-up, while л the characteristic wavelength of the emitted
radiation, is determined. О п the other hand, with Х г а у diffractometry the values of
л and Э а г е known, while d, the characteristic lattice spacing of а crystalline
material, is determined.
In the case of fluorescence analysis the samp\e is irradiated with high-energy
X-rays in the spectrometer. The radiation dislodges electrons from the "inner
shells" of the atoms, and the vacant positions а г е immediately occupied Ь у
electrons from the "outer shells" These last-mentioned electrons thus pass into а
lower-energy state, and the accompanying release of energy is emitted as X-rays
(of various wavelengths) which а г е typical of each type of atom, i. е each
chemica\ element. The intensity of this emitted characteristic X-radiation is
measured and is proportional to the quantities of the respective elements present in
the sample under investigation.
It emerges from Bragg's law that the characteristic X-rays а г е to Ь е measured
а certain values of the angle between the sample and the detector. There а г е
Fig. З а Х г а у analysis methods
С С е т е п chemistry - с е т е п quality 11 Raw materials and raw mix
rotary kiln
г е о е п
о L, __---L__+-_-----'__ О
, 10 О З О З б
length 01 kiln
? )I О е П П

е -------,
grate г
Dehydration of clay minerals
о с ./.
1500 Q,o

с с

.- '"

=' m
.... ::;, с
'': .... " Q,o
с '"
Е а

, u(!)
, /
, /
, I
, I
", I Quarz
2 Dehydration of clay minerals
Between about 1000 and 4000 С the clay minerals give off their adsorptively bound
water, including the so-called interlayer water. At
о п the types of clay mineral concerned, generally between about 400 and С
the chemically combined water (hydroxide groups) is also expelled е у а ю п
exemplified Ь у the dehydration of kaolinite'
AI4[(OH)8Si40'O]-+2 А

. 2 Si02 ) + 4 Н О
kaolinite metakaolin
Fig.4: Formation of new phases in the lepoi kiln (from Weber, 1960)
CS + C-+C
S *
С А + С
С А + С + F-+C
chemical transformation
С а С О
-+ С а О + С О

3 С а О + 2 Si0
+ А

С а О . Si0
) + С а О А

AI 4(OH)8Si 40 ,O
-+2 А

. 2Si0
) + 4 Н

further uptake
of lime Ь у C
escape of adsorbed water
decomposition of
metakaolinite and other
compounds, with formation
of а reactive oxide
uptake of lime
Ь у CS and С А
formation of C
decomposition of clay,
е g., with formation of
decomposition of lime-
stone, with information
of CS and С А
escape of free water (drying
800 .. 1300
400. . 750
600 .. 900
600 ... 1000
100 .. 400
< 200
Т а Ы е 2: Chemical transformations in the thermal treatment of portland cement
raw meal (principal reactions in clinker burning)
• For abbreviated notation see footnote о п page 123
The water that is present as "free" (uncombined) moisture in the raw meal, or has
Ь е е п added to it е g., for pelletizing), is driven out at temperatures ranging up to
about 2000 С
temperature о с
1250 .1450
1 Drying
but also Ь у mineralogical (mineral composition) and physical factors (particle size,
homogeneity, etc.). The due completion of these endothermic reactions plays а
decisive part with regard to the quality of the cement produced. Т а Ы е 2 reviews the
transformations in the processing of the raw meal; these will Ь е discussed below.
Fig. 4 and 5 give information о п the formation of new phases that occurs in the kiln
С Cement chemistry - cement quality 111. Cement burning process
С Cement chemistry - cement quality 111 Cement burning process
--- -- Quarz
С а С О з - -
C:!AS - --f--
-- --


С А 1--- -
Al -ferrit
600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 С
г t
Temperatur t
Fig. 5: Existence ranges of the phases i n the charge (phase determi-
nation in cooled samples; - confirmed information, - - - - reported
only Ь у some authors (from Seidel/Huckauf/Stark, 1978)
Metakaolin undergoes decomposition already to some extent within the above-
mentioned temperature range and further up to about 9000 С resulting in the
formation of reactive oxides, e.g., as follows. А



+ 2Si0
The dehydration of clays is affected Ь у various factors, such as the type of clay
mineral, the г and quantity of admixtures, the particle size, the degree of
crystallization of the clays, the gaseous atmosphere, etc.
з Decomposition 01 carbonates
The calcium carbonate С а С О
which constitutes about 74 to 79% of the cement
raw meal is decomposed (dissociated, decarbonated, calcined) at temperatures
from, theoretically, 8960 С upwards, in accordance with the equation:
С а С О
С а О + С О

At that temperature the dissociation pressure is > 1 Ь а г and thus equals the
external pressure. The requisite reaction enthalpy L'1H is 1660 kJ/kg. The value of
8960 С relates to pure calcite; with increasing content of г е g., in
cement raw meal) the thermal dissociation shifts to lower г п actual
practice it begins between 5500 and 6000 С This effect is due to chemical reactions
of the С а О with the admixtures Si0
, А

and е

resulting in the formation
Reactions in the presence of liquid phase (clinkering)
initially of, for example, С а О А

С А С а О А

С а О Si0
(= CS) and С а О . Si0
(= C
S) *) in solid reaction. The content of
free lime С а О is therefore low at temperatures below 8000 С (Iess than 2% Ь у
weight), rising to around 20% at higher temperatures.
The thermal dissociation of М С О
which is of much less importance in cement
manufacture, is similar to that of С а С О
but takes place at lower temperatures.
4 Solid reactions (reactions below clinkering)
From temperatures of about 5500 - 6000 С onwards there occur solid reactions, as
already mentioned, in which the decomposition products of С а С О
react with
those of the clays, at first resulting in the formation of compounds with lower
content of lime е g., monocalcium aluminate С А dicalcium silicate C
S). The
formation of tricalcium aluminate С а О А

= С з А and calcium aluminofer-
rite С а О А


= C
AF], which occur also in portland cement clinker,
begins at around 8000 С Examples of such reactions а г е
С а О . А

+ 2 С а О -+ 3 С а О . А

С а О . А

+ 3 С а О + е

-+ 4 С а О . А

. е

С а О Si02 + С а О Si0
The solid reactions proceed very slowly, but с а п Ь е speeded и р Ь у reduction of
the particle size of the materials involved (i. е larger surface а г е а raising of the
burning temperature, presence of crystal lattice distortions.
5 Reactions ё п the presence 01 liquid phase (clinkering)
The first formation of liquid (melt), marking the start of what is known as
"sintering" о г "clinkering", г at а temperature of between about 12600 and
13100 С With further rise in temperature the proportion of liquid phase increases to
around 20 - 30% Ь у weight) at 14500 С the actual proportion being dependent
о п the chemical composition of the material. (Thus, the proportion of liquid formed
is less according as the silica modulus is higher: see Fig. 6.) At these temperatures
the main component of portland cement clinker is formed, namely, tricalcium
silicate С з known also as alite.
At the start of clinkering the material still contains substantial amounts of
uncombined С а О as well as dicalcium silicate (C
S). П the presence of the liquid
phase these compounds pass into solution; the diffusion of the reactants is greatly
facilitated in the liquid (as opposed to the solid state), tricalcium silicate С з is
formed in accordance with the following reaction and crystallizes:
С а О + 2 С а О . Si0
-+ 3 С а О . Si0
(= С з .
') п cement chemistry the following abbreviated notation is employed to indicate the
С = С а О S = Si0
. А = А

F = е О з М = MgO, Cs = CaS04 , Н = Н О N = Na20,
К = К

С Cement chemistry - cement quality 111. Cement burning process
alumina modulus 22
т м е

- I
lime standard =96
о а З
.I:. >.

g.s:l1: 15
1,5 2,5 З О З р
silica modulus Si0
Ш с а О А

+ е з
Fig. 6: Relation between the silica modulus and the content of clinker
liquid phase. calculated according to l. А Dahl. at а clinkering tempera-
ture of 14500 С (from Locher. 1979)
With this the ma;n object of the clinkering process. i. е the formation of the
valuabIe compound С з has Ь е е п achieved, and it is this that requires and justifies
the effort and cost of heating the raw materials to the high clinkering temperature.
П а ю п the liquid phase promotes other reactions, е g.. involving relatively
coarse quartz о г limestone particles.
С з and dicalcium silicate (C
S) а г е present as solid phases in
the п е Г П IIQUld. At temperatures above 14000 С the liquid phase contains а
the А

О з and е з of the subsequent clinker and has approx;mately the
о О П compOSltl?n: 56% С а О 7% Si0
• 23% А

and 14% е

(percentages Ь у we/ght). А state of equilibrium is estabIished at clinkering
of .the phase is lower with decreasing iron modulus (alumina
г а ю 1. е wlth п с г е а П е о
content. Subsidiary mix components also affect
the viscosity, is. for example, increased Ь у alkalis, but decreased Ь у О З and
MgO. These г е а с ю п с а п Ь е accelerated т о г е particularly Ь у
increasing the proportion of liquid phase;
lowering the viscosity of the liquid phase;
reducing the proportion of coarse particles (especially quartz) in the raw meal.
6 Reactions during cooling
If the. clinker formed in the burning process were cooled very slowly. some of the
г е а с ю п already accomplished would Ь е reversed. resulting т о г е particularly in
Factors affecting the burning process
the loss of tricalcium silicate - which is important to the strength development of
the cement - Ь у dissolving in the liquid. With rapid cooling, which is desirabIe, the
liquid solidifies quickly and there is п о appreciabIe loss of tricalcium silicate. The
equilibrium is "frozen", as it were. Thus, the composition of cooled technically
produced portland cement clinker is substantially similar to that attained at
clinkering temperature.
In contrast with liquid phases with а high Si0
content, the lime-rich alumino-
ferritic liquid in portland cement clinker undergoes complete crystallization even
when cooled rapidly.
The rate of cooling also affects the state of crystallization, the reactivity of the
clinker phases and the texture of the clinker itself. For instance, rapid cooling will
produce fine closely-intergrown tricalcium aluminate С з А and calcium alumino-
е п е [C
(A,F)] crystals, which react slowly with water.
Other effects of rapid cool ing а г е
better grindability of the clinker due to stress cracks;
higher alite content because less alite is lost Ь у dissolving;
slower setting of the cement because of intergrown finely crystalline aluminate and
е п е phases;
better soundness (Iess expansion) if the MgO content is above 2.5%, because
т о г е MgO is present in solid solution in the clinker, while free MgO occurs in finely
crystalline form.
О п the other hand, extremely rapid cooling over the entire temperature range from
clinkering to ambient temperature (quenching) is liabIe to result in lower cement
strength. It has Ь е е п observed, however, that limited quenching may produce а п
increase in strength. The rate of cooling in the upper temperature range appears to
Ь е the important factor. П this range, relatively slow cooling under oxidizing
conditions from ciinkering temperature to around 14000 С (for high-alkali clinker)
о г around 13000 С (for low-alkali clinker) - in the kiln - is reported to have а
beneficial effect о п the strength of the cement, which т а у Ь е attributabIe to crystal
lattice dislocations caused Ь у incipient decomposition of alite. (The validity of
these observations and interpretations has Ь е е п disputed Ь у some authors,
The rate of cooling of the clinker after leaving the kiln is generally considered not to
Ь е of appreciabIe influence о п the strength of the cement, i. е it does not matter
which type of cooler - planetary о г grate cooler, for example - is used.
7 Factors affecting the burning process
The above-mentioned reactions а г е affected Ь у numerous chemical, mineralogical
and physical factors, some of which с а п Ь е controlled.
The chemical composition of the feed material supplied to the kiln has а marked
influence о п the burning time required. This с а п Ь е defined as the length of time
needed, at а certain burning temperature, to Ь ш п а raw т е а of given fineness to
such а п extent that not т о г е than 2% of free С а О Ь у weight) is present. The
burning time becomes longer with increasing lime standard, silica modulus and
iron modulus (the influence of the last-mentioned modulus is only slight,
С Cement chemistry - cement quality 111 Cement г process
./. т г т 1000. С
60 О С
ъ 1200· С
ь г
Factors affecting the burning process
о 20 40 60 80 100 120
average particle а р
mittlerer Korndurchmesser dp
Fig 8' Effect of limestone particle size о п free С а О content at vari-
burning temperatures (from Lehman/Locher/Thormann.
dp = average particle size of а fraction; lime standard K.St 1= 96; sll..
modulus = 3.0; alumina modulus = 2.2; I1t/l1t = 5 to К ю t = 30mln.•
clay component: illite
6 5
alumina modulus = 2.04

v,""" '"

5 0,96
>- 0,94
о Q92
.Q 3
е а
0.::.: 0,88
2 3 4
silica modulus
Silicatmodul SM
Fig. 7: Relation between the silica modulus and the combining of lime in
synthetic raw meals made from pure oxides (from Sycev, 1962)
however). The relationship between the silica modulus and the combining of lime
is exemplified in Fig. 7. The values represented in this diagram were obtained о п
synthetic raw meals in the laboratory and а г е only tentatively applicabIe to
conditions in industrial cement manufacture. Alkali oxides (when present in а п
amount of above about 0.5% Ь у weight) tend to inhibit the combining of lime,
whereas MgO (below about 2.0% Ь у weight) and О з (below about 1.0% Ь у
weight) accelerate it in the г process.
The mineralogical composition, for example, affects the pelletizability of the
raw meal and also affects the water content needed in raw slurry, while the burning
г and the specific heat requirement а г е modified, inter alia, Ь у the mineral
components of the raw meal. The mineral character of clays and coarsely crysta11 ine
quartz, in particular, is а major influencing factor, but crystal lattice dislocations,
crystal size and intergrowth, г and impurities, natural bIending of the
phases in the raw material, and other factors, also play а part.
The rates at which reactions take place а г е generally dependent о п the particle
size ofthe reactants, i. е о п the reactive surface areas. Н е п с е the raw meal shouId
Ь е of such fineness that in the burning process even its coarsest particles will react
as completely as possibIe. As а rule, this condition is satisfied Ь у cement raw meal
with а residue of not more than 5- 20% Ь у weight) retained о п the 90 micron
sieve, the actual maximum acceptabIe percentage being dependent о п the
composition of the meal and the type of kiln system.
Fig.8 shows the effect of the limestone particle size о п the content of free С а О at
various temperatures, bearing in mind that these а г е values obtained in the
laboratory and give only а tentative indication of conditions in actual industrial
The homogeneity ofthe raw meal is а major а of
uniform composition and for ensuring steady Ь П П с о п ю п .. For thls It must
more particularly Ь е ensured that the is of с о о ю п throughout,
even within small volumetric quantltles « 1 mm ). If thls .IS not the case,
"pockets" consisting of different phases will. о с с ш i.n the с П е г may
consist, for example, of concentrations of free.llme. are to to
expansion phenomena о п hydration) о г of dlcalclum sl\lcate (be.llte) п а
homogeneous material would have combined to produce the deslrabIe trlcalclUm
silicate (alite). .
So-called mineralizers as additives (e.g.. fluorlte CaF2 ) may favourabIy affect the
burning process. . .
Т о sum up, the burning behaviour of а raw meal IS dependent о п the о О П
factors: ..
chemical composition (Iime standard, silica modulus, iron modulus, subsldlary
constituents, liquid phase, mineralizers) ;
mineral composition; . .
particle size distribution, especially the maximum partlcle Slze;
homogeneity of the raw meal; .
burning conditions (rate of heating, more partlcularlx at
11000 С maximum burning temperature, and г е е п ю п tlme at thls hlghest
temperature) .
The result of the burning process is portland cement clinker, consisting of the
clinker phases.
which it was burned and the manner in which it was subsequently cooled. They
modify the properties of the alite: for example, the incorporation of foreign ions
usually increases its strength. Below 12500 С tricalcium silicate may decompose
into С а О and C
S if subjected to very slow cooling, especially if it contains Fe
+ as
а result of burning under reducing conditions. Quantitatively and also with regard
to the properties of the cement (more particularly its strength development)
tricalcium silicate is the most important constituent of cement. For this compound
to form in the burning process, it is essential that sintering should occur.
1.3 Aluminate phase
The aluminate phase (in its pure form: С з А likewise contains foreign ions. Н е г е
the incorporation of alkalis (Na
0, К

О each in amounts exceeding Ь у
weight, is possibIe. The aluminate phase possesses а high degree of reactlvlty,
which is further increased Ь у the incorporation of alkalis. The presence of the
phases С в А
and К С в А
has Ь е е п reported. П order to retard the of the
aluminate phase at the start of hydration, every cement must с о п а П some added
sulphate е g., in the form of gypsum) as а setting retardant.
Together with alite and belite, the aluminate phase may somewhat increase the
early strength of the hardening cement (this effect being due to the considerabIe
heat of hydration that this compound evolves). Its own hydraulic properties are
slight. however.
The compound С А may also occur.
Clinker phases
1.2 Belite (dicalcium silicate)
Chemically pure dicalcium silicate (C
S) *) is not found in cement clinker either; it
likewise contains incorporated foreign oxides. It occurs mainly in solid form at the
clinkering temperature and is present only in small proportions in clinker with а
high lime standard. Its strength development is slow, but in the long run it attains
strengths at least as good as those of alite. The modification of belite, which is the
form in which this compound is predominantly present in clinker, may at room
temperature change into the у modification, which is the more stabIe form, but
virtually lacking in hydraulic properties (beta-gamma inversion). This change is
accompanied Ь у а volume increase of about 10%, which is considered to Ь е the
cause of the so-called "falling" of clinker, а rapid disintegration. This inversion с а п
Ь е obviated, however, i. е the belite с а п Ь е stabilized, Ь у the incorporation of
foreign ions and also Ь у rapid cooling. With present-day technology of cement
manufacture the risk of clinker falling has Ь е е п eliminated.
The finely crystalline aluminate and ferrite phases а г е often ranked as "interstitial
matter" о г "matrix". Both these phases а г е formed from the clinker melt о п
360 days

о 80 т т

1 Clinker phases
Some important data relating to the clinker phases а г е given in Т а Ы е 3. Fig.9
shows the strength development of these phases. As already stated, free С а О and
free MgO (periclase) may also occur in the clinker.
Portland cement clinker consists substantially of the four crystalline clinker phases
alite, belite, calcium aluminate and calcium aluminoferrite in close interpenetrating
association. П addition, the clinker contains voids ("pores") and usually some free
(uncombined) lime; more rarely, periclase is present.
4,7,8,9, 12,20,23,24,28,31,33,36,41,46,49,51,53,54,59,69,82,83,87,89,
IV Portland cement clinker
С Cement chemistry - cement quality IV. Portland cement clinker
j 40Ц

20 -II-++-+--!-------1
О о х

UQ 0728 90 180
hardening time
Fig.9: Compressive strengths of clinker phases (water-cement ratio
= 0.5); 1 = С З 2 = C2S; 3 = С з А 4 = C
AF (from Bogue, 1955)
1.1 Alite (tricalcium silicate)
Chemically pure tricalcium silicate С з *) does not occur in portland cement
clinker; it always incorporates foreign oxides, е g., approximately 2% MgO, also
А О з е О з Т and others. The amounts in which these oxides а г е present
depend more particularly о п the composition of the clinker, the temperature at
*) For abbreviated notation see footnote о п page 123 ') For abbreviated notation see footnote о п page 123
128 129
Т а Ы е З Clinker phases
designation alite belite aluminate phase е п е phase
of the phase tricalcium silicate dicalcium silicate tricalcium aluminate calcium aluminoferrite
in the clinker
ofthe pure phase
composition of the
pure phase 3 С а О Si0
2 С а О Si0
3 С а О А

2 С а О А

abbreviated notation С з C
S С з А C
о г C
foreign ions Mg, AI, Fe alkaiis, AI, Fe, alkalis, Fe, Mg Si, Mg
commonly incprporated fluoride
in clinker phases
number of
modifications 6 5 3
modifications monoclinic М 11) monoclinic cubic orthorhombic
о с с п п in trigonal (R) а and а belite) orthorhombic
technical clinkers tetragonal
colour of the white white white dark brown
р ш е phase due to MgO
dark grey-green

proportions in
cement clinker
(% Ь у mass)
technical properties
in cement
rapid hydration,
high initial and
good final
strength, moderate
heat of hydration,
main strength
constituent in
п о г т а portland
slow hydration,
good final strength,
low heat of
rapid hydration,
high heat of
hydration which
promotes early
strength, shrinks
appreciabIy о п
hydration, reacts
with sulphates
and thus undergoes
slow and moderate
hydration, hardly
а п у strength de-
velopment, moderate
heat of hydration,
ion, gives п о г т а
cement its colour
of clinker
2 Judging the quality of clinker
Various methods of judging the quality of cement clinker а г е availabIe. As а rule,
several а г е applied.
Complete chemical analysis Ь у wet-chemical analysis о г Х г а у fluorescence
analysis) gives information о п the overall composition. From the results it is
possibIe to calculate the lime standard and the moduli (silica modulus, iron
modulus) which together provide т о г е conveniently assimilabIe information о п
the quality of the clinker (see also Section 11.2.1). The potential phase com-
position, as envisaged Ь у Bogue, с а п also Ь е calculated from the analytical
results. This calculation presupposes that the clinker melt (Iiquid phase in
clinkering) crystallizes in equilibrium with the solid phases and that the clinker
phases а г е of chemically р ш е and stoichiometric composition, i. е р ш е С з C2S,
С з А and C
AF. П reality the first assumption (equilibrium о п crystallization) is not
fulfilled, as was pointed out in Section 111.6 dealing with the reactions о п cooling;
П о г is the requirement of chemical purity, for the clinker phases contain
incorporated foreign ions. AII the same, this phase calculation yields reasonabIy
useful approximate values for guidance. As а rule, the actual alite content is higher,
the belite content lower than calculated, whereas the actual content of the
aluminate and ferrite phases differs only Ь у а few р е г cent from the calculated
("potential") content (see Т а Ы е 5).
Т а Ы е 4: Experimentally determined chemical composition of the
clinker phases of а portland cement clinker (% Ь у weight)
alite belite aluminate ferrite
phase phase
С а О 69.70 63.20 59.50 51.40
24.90 31.50 4.21 2.28

1.12 1.84 27.52 19.60

0.64 0.96 5.76 22.52
MgO 0.89 0.48 0.85 3.18

О 0.19 0.75 0.66
0 0.06 0.19 0.25

0.16 0.24 0.48 1.60


В у way of example, Т а Ы е 4 gives the chemical compositions of the phases of а
portland cement clinker.
cement clinker П с - cement
1.4 Ferrite phase
The ferrite phase does not possess а constant chemical composition; it is in fact
а т е т Ь е г of а solid solution series extending theoretically from С

А to C

is sti\l not existing) :
С А ... C
F... C
AF ... C
··· C
Depending о п the availability of iron and aluminium, the members of the solid
solution series will Ь е situated п е а г е г the iron-rich о г п е а г е г the aluminium-rich
end thereof. Quite often the composition of this phase in cement clinker
corresponds т о г е о г less to C
AF. The general formula of the series is C
(A,F) о г
ApF,.p. Foreign ions а г е incorporated in the ferrite phase as well. It is the phase
that contributes т о г е particularly to giving cement its colour: р ш е C
(A,F) is
brown, C
(A,F) containing MgO is of а dark grey/green colour. It is very slow-
reacting and of little importance to the properties of the cement.
1.5 Other clinker phases
Most cement clinkers contain free С а О (uncombined lime) in amounts up to
2% Ь у weight. Its presence is due either to unsuitabIe preparation of the raw т е а
(inhomogeneous о г too coarse), to inadequate burning (so that it was not
combined Ь у other oxides), to too slow а rate of cooling (so that partial
decomposition of С з о г С з А could о с с ш о г to too high а lime content (LSt 111
> 100). Free lime is undesirabIe in appreciabIe concentrations (above about 2.5%
Ь у weight), as it is liabIe to cause expansion phenomena in mortar and concrete
(Iime expansion), С а О +

С а О Н
г с clinkers т а у contain free MgO (periciase). Since about 2.0 to 2.5%
MgO Ь у weight is combined in the form of а solid solution in the other phases of
the clinker, а cement conforming to the standard specifications т а у permissibIy
contain up to about 2.5-3.0% of peroclase (according to German Standard
DIN 1164, up to а total of 5.0% MgO Ь у weight is a\lowed). The proportion of
MgO that is combined in other phases will depend о п the chemical composition of
the clinker and its conditions of production. Periclase is undesirabIe because, if
present in substantial amounts, it т а у cause expansion similar to that caused Ь у
lime (magnesia expansion), but т о г е surreptitious because in some cases the
damage it causes т а у remain undetected for years.
Finely crystalline and uniformly distributed periclase causes less expansion than
does а п equal quantity of periclase that is present in coarsely crystalline form о г in
о с а accumulations ("pockets"). The same is true of free lime and its expansion
The expansion due to free С а О is а result of its hydration, similar in principle to
slaking, but slower: it reacts with water to form С а О Н which has about twice
the volume of the С а О from which it was formed. Magnesia expansion is similarly
due to the reaction of MgO with water. The expansion effects а г е commonly
referred to as "unsoundness" of the cement.
П г а г е cases cement clinker т а у moreover contain small amounts of, for example,
alkali sulphates and glassy phase.
С Cement chemistry - cement quality iV. Portland cement clinker
Т а Ы е 5: Comparison of potential and microscopically determined
(actual) phase compositions of various portland cement clinkers (% Ь у
Fig.10: Portland cement clinker: micrograph obtained with reflected
light: alite: dark grey. mostly with straight boundaries; belite: light
grey. curved boundaries; ferrite: white matrix; aluminate: dark in-
clusions in white matrix
Judging the quality of clinker
Sum of the clinker phases = 93.6% (say 94%)
(percentages Ь у weight).
Another important criterion is the free lime content (uncombined С а О which
is determined Ь у wet-chemical analysis о г Х г а у diffractometry. П conjunction
with the lime standard it gives information о п the production conditions, т о г е
particularly the degree of burning. The free lime content is not allowed to exceed а
certain iimiting value which is in the range of 2 to 3% Ь у weight), depending о п
С а Iculation:
С з = 4.071 х 63.50 - 7.602 х 20.90 - 6.719 х 6.05 - 1.430 х 3.20 = 54.4%
(say 54%)
S = 2.868 х 20.90 - 0.754 х 54.4 = 18.9% (say 19%)
С з А = 2.650 х 6.05 - 1.692 х 3.20 = 10.6% (say 11 %)
AF = 3.043 х 3,20 = 9.7% (say 10%)
normal portland г с K
cement clinker portland portland
cement clinker cement clinker
pot. micr. pot. micr. pot. micr.
49 70 42 58 39 51
21 7 26 21 29 19
13 11 15 12 17 22
11 10 11 9 13 8
aluminate phase
е п е phase
Bogue's formulas for calculating the potential composition:
For normal portland cement clinker:
С з = 4.071 С а О - 7.602 Si0
- 6.719 А О
- 1.430 е

S = 8.602 Si0
+ 5.068 А

+ 1.079 е

- 3.07 С а О
о г C
S = 2.868 Si0
- 0.754 С з
С з А = 2.650 А

- 1.692 е

AF = 3.043 е


For clinker with iron modulus 0.64 (rich in iron oxide. п о С з А
С з = 4.071 С а О - 7.602 Si0
- 4.475 А

- 2.863 е

S = 2.867 Si0
- 0.754 С з
F = 1.702 е

- 2.665 А

AF = 4.766 е


For the oxide symbols in these formulas the respective analytical results (in % Ь у
weight) should Ь е substituted. If the content of free lime is known, this should Ь е
subtracted from the overall С а О content before the calculation is done.
If negative values а г е found for C
S, it means that free lime must Ь е present.
Since the alkalis, MgO and other subsidiary constituents а г е not taken into account
in the calculation, the potential phase content is always found to Ь е below
Example of the calculation ofthe potential phase composition. Consider а normal
portland cement clinker with the following chemical analysis (% Ь у weight) :
loss о п ignition 0.42 MgO 2.00
insolubIe in HCI 0.15 К

О 0.95
20.90 Na
0 0.21

6.05 О З 0.54

3.20 CaO
С а О 64.55 residue 1.03
(fineness, partic/e size distribution, maximum particle size and homogeneity of the
raw meal, heating-up rate, duration of sintering, cooling rate, etc.). Experts с а п
detect certain defects in the production conditions Ь у microscopic examination of
the cfinker and decide о п ways and means of overcoming them. As а rule, polished
and etched specimens а г е employed, which а г е examined Ь у reflected light at
magnifications of between 50 and 1000. Properties such as shape, reflectivity,
hardness, etching behaviour е g., in water о г in а solution of nitric acid in
a/cohol), etc. а г е used as means of identifying the phases and also yield other
information о п them. Figs. 1О and 11 а г е micrographs of portland cement clinker in
reflected light.
The constituent clinker phases с а п Ь е determined qualitative/y, and also to а great
extent quantitatively, Ь у means of X-ray diffractometry (diffraction analysis).
The quantitative determination of free lime for production control purposes Ь у this
method has acquired practical importance. Т о use this method for quantitatively
determining а the clinker phases presents difficulties, because various important
diffraction lines coincide е g., those of alite and belite), because the incorporation
of foreign ions causes variations and because the degree of disorder in the structure
of the various clinker phases differs in consequence of varying production
92, 93
1.2 Blastfurnace slag
Blastfurnace slag, т о г е particularly in granulated form, is а so-called latently
hydraulic material, i. е it needs а п activator to е п а Ы е it to harden "hydraulically".
П practice, calcium hydroxide (in cement clinker о г as hydrated lime) and
sulphates (gypsum, anhydrite) а г е used as activators. Slowly cooled crystalline
bIastfurnace slag in lump form is unsuitabIe, however; to possess latent hy-
draulicity, the slag has to Ь е in а glassy form produced Ь у rapid cooling. This is
achieved Ь у quenching the molten slag in water, which yields а granulated
1.1 Portland cement clinker
With the exception of high-alumina, а standard cements contain portland cement
clinker. This material has Ь е е п dealt with in Section V.
v. Finish grinding
1 The materials involved in finish grinding
С Cement chemistry - cement quality IV. Portland
Fig. 1.1 : cement clinker: under-burned (porous); micrograph
obtamed wlth reflected light: free lime: bIack pocket; belite: light-
textured areas; alite: dark textured areas; pores (here filled
wlth resm): grey areas with grinding scratches

the production conditions, for otherwise the risk of lime expansion in the mortar or
concrete made the cement cannot Ь е ruled о щ The factors causing the
free II.me are explained in Section IV.1. The test for /ime expansion is
descrlbed п е с ю п Х
The density?f а part;cle size fraction of clinker е g., 5- 7 т т
о Ь а П е Ь у screenl.ng, check о п the degree of burning. Depending о п
the raw (chemlcal с о Р О ю п and characteristics of the kiln plant (porosity
of the с П е г etc.), the va/ues for the bulk density of adequately burned clinker
range between 1.2 and 1.6
• The permissibIe minimum value in а п у given
case has to Ь е determined empirically.
examination of the clinker yields information о п the nature
с о п о г а ю п and distribution of the clinker phases. The quantitative
of these п the chemical composition of the clinker, whereas their
с о п о г а ю п and dlstrlbution а г е determined Ь у the production conditions
С Cement chemistry - cement quality У Finish grinding
product. The granulated bIastfurnace slag should have the fowest possibIe residual
water content (favourabIe values а г е below 10%). The particle size is usually
below т т
The of bIastfurnace slag а г е determined Ь у its chemical
and glass content. The latter should Ь е above 90%. Methods of
р г о С П slag wlth 95 -100% glass content а г е now availabIe.
The compos.ition of.the granulated bIastfurnace slags used in cement
IS П the. range indicated in Т а Ы е 6. There а г е formulas
for the hydraullc propertles о п the basis of the chemical analysis of the
slag: А с с о г П to DIN 1164 а granulated slag is to Ь е classed as suitabIe for
П slag т о г е particularly the two German varieties known as
cement and "Hochofen" cement) if the following condition is
However, such formu.las с а п do п о т о г е than give approximate guidance. 50 far, it
has proved to .estabIlsh а generally-va/id formula that will reliabIy
hydraullc propertres о п the basis of the chemical analysis data, п о г does
It а р р е а г Ilkely that such.a formula. will Ь е found. In general terms, however, it с а п
Ь е sald that the hydraullc propertles а г е better according as the content of С а О
MgO and А О з is higher (this applies for MgO only up to about 12%, while AI о
above 13% Improves only the early strength). 2 з
Т а Ы е Chemical compositions of the granulated bIastfurnace slags
used '" cement manufacture (% Ь у weight)
2 28-38
С а О

з 9-18
0- 2
5 1- 3
М п О
0- 2 Na
0- 2
А т о г е reliabIe the hydraulic properties of а granulated
bIastfurnace sl.ag In Intergrinding it with clinker and gypsum to produce а
slag cement а hlgh slag content (in the laboratory) and testing this cement for
strength ar,d, If nec.essary, for other properties as well. For comparison а с е т е п
т а у Ь е made whlch contains, instead of slag, а п equal quantity' of а п inert
substance е g., quartz sand) of the same fineness о г alternatively, а portland
made from the same clinker, but without slag, т а у Ь е ground to the same
f,neness as the slag cement and tested.
1.3 Pozzolanas
Pozzolanas а г е materials, mainly of natural orlgln, which react at п о г т а
temperature with calcium hydroxide and thus produce strength-developing
chemical compounds (hydraulic hardening). Most pozzolanas а г е volcanic
materials, especially those known as tuffs. The п а т е "pozzolana" is derived from
Pozzuoli п е а г mount Vesuvious о п the Gulf of Naples. П Germany, similar
materials known as Rhenish trass а volcanic tuff from the Neuwied Basin п е а г
KobIenz) and Bavarian trass а rock transformed Ь у meteorite impact, found in the
а г е а called ё н п е г Ries, about 80 km south of Nuremberg) а г е used as
additives to cement. Trass has to conform to German 5tandard DJN 51 043.
Burned oil shale residue, used т о г е particularly at Dotternhausen п е а г Donau-
eschingen, is another pozzolanic material that calls for mention. п other countries
such materials comprise, besides volcanic rocks, various siliceous sedimentary
deposits, including т о г е particularly kieselguhr (diatomaceous earth consisting of
the remains of unicellular creatures with siliceous skeletons). Essential quality
requirements of а pozzolana а г е that it contains large amounts of 5i0
and А

а suitabIy reactive form, so that it с а п react with С а О Н The suitability of such
materials as ingredients of cement с а п Ь е determined Ь у means of comparison
tests (as with bIastfurnace slag) о г Ь у chemical methods (testing the capacity to
с о т Ы п е with lime).
1.4 Fly-ash
Fly-ash о г pulverized fuel ash (PFA) is obtained, for example, in dust collection
equipment of furnaces fired with pulverized coal, especially those of electricity
generating plants. It is composed of glass-like particles of predominant/y spherical
shape and consisting mainly of 5i0
, А

and е

It is а pozzolanic material
which is activated Ь у calcium hydroxide and is then с а р а Ы е of hydraulic
hardening. This applies т о г е particularly to the glass content of the ash, which
should therefore Ь е as high as possibIe. О п the other hand, it should contain the
least possibIe amount of burnt с а г Ь о п residue, as this is detrimental to the cement
properties (Iower strength and durability of concrete made with the cement).
The reactivity offly-ash is higher according as its specific surface is larger. For most
types offly-ash this is between about 1000 and upwards of 4000 cm
jg (Blaine),
though it should Ь е noted that these values т а у Ь е falsified о г shifted to higher
values Ь у the presence of с а г Ь о п particles. The ash particle sizes а г е generally
between 0.5 and 200 microns. Coarse-graded fly-ash с а п Ь е improved Ь у
grinding, preferabIy Ь у intergrinding with portland cement clinker and gypsum to
produce the desired cement. Up to about 30% of fly-ash - depending о п the
quality and properties of the ash - т а у thus Ь е incorporated as а п additive in
1.5 Sulphates
А quantity of sulphate (in the form of gypsum о г а mixture of gypsum and
anhydrite-II) is always added to the portland cement clinker in the finish grinding
Т а Ы е 8: Reference values for fineness of cements
Fineness and particle size distribution
2 Fineness and particle size distribution
Under otherwise similar conditions а substance will react т о г е rapidly in
proportion as its specific surface (in cm
/g) is larger. For this reason the raw
materials for cement manufacture have to Ь е ground before burning, and the
clinker (with admixtures, especially gypsum) has to Ь е ground to suitabIe fineness
in order to produce а cement that will react readily with water in the hydration
process. Thus, о п е and the same clinker will achieve better т о г е rapid) strength
development according as it is т о г е finely ground, i. е acquires а larger specific
surface. For е у е г у additional1 00 с т

/g of specific surface the gain in strength of
the cement is in the region of 0.5 to 2.0 N/mm
, the average increase in 28-day
compressive strength being approximately 1 N/mm
• The same applies to а the
usual standard testing ages for cement. Only after а much longer period (several
years), when е у е п the coarser particles have fully reacted, is there likely to Ь е little
difference in the strength finally attained Ь у coarser and finer cements. Reference
values for cement fineness а г е given in Т а Ы е 8.
specific surface
(Blaine) in cm
percentage Ь у weight)
retained о п 0.09 т т
standard sieve (DIN 4188)
С Cement chemistry - cement qua/ity V. Finish grinding
process, the object.of this ad?ition being to control (retard) the setting time of the
The ret.ardlng IS brought about Ь у а reaction of the sulphate with the
а т П а е whlch would otherwise set too quickly (clinker containing
а h.gher content of С з А will re.quire т о г е sulphate; see also Section VII.2).
However, too sulphate П the cement is liabIe to cause expansion
phenomena е с ю п VII.2), and for this reason upper limiting values а г е specified
the.cement content (reckoned as О з The values laid down in DIN 1164 а г е
glven П Т а Ы е 7. Natural. impurities in raw gypsum е g., clay, calcite) do not
a.dversely affect the quallty of the ,cement. Depending о п the С з А content, the
of the cement and the afkall content, there exists for е у е г у cement а certain
sulphate content which. т т о г е о у е г distinctly improve the strength.
Th,s opt,,:num of su Iphate IS h,gher according as the С з А and alkali content
the IS and the cement is т о г е finely ground. Because of the
П SO/Ublllty between hemihydrate (highly), gypsum (moderately) and
а П У Г solubIe), nature ofthe sulphate-bearing compound added
the П е г IS. also ?f some /mportance. The optimum sulphate content will Ь е
hlgher If used. п order to avoid possibIe irregularities of setting, it is
to use mlxtures of anhydrite- f I (in proportions ranging from
1 .1 to 1: 8). г cement Wlth.a hlgh content of С з А and alkalis and ground to
а h.lgh degree of flneness the OptlmUm sulphate content is around 5% SO Ь
welg.ht. For coarsely ground cement containing little о г п о С А and with а 10;
alkall content the О З requirement is in the region of 2.5-3% Ь у weight.
Т а Ы е 7: Highest permissibIe О з content in cements (DII\! 1164)
type of cement highest permissibIe О З content
in % Ь у weight for specific а с е

of the cements
п clinker grinding, the gypsum, being т о г е readily grindabIe, tends to Ь е
concentrated in the finer particle size fractions of the product. So does а п у fly-ash
that т а у Ь е added, whereas bIastfurnace slag becomes concentrated in the coarser
Strength development, especially the early strength, is distinctly improved if the
cement is т о г е closely graded, i. е if the middle range of particle sizes between 3
and 30 microns is increased to а Ь о у е 50%, say, at the expense of the coarser and
the fi п е г particles - provided that the specific surface of the cement is not reduced.
The improvement is due to the faster rate of hydration achieved. For producing
such closely graded cement it is essential that the grinding plant has а highly
selective classifier (air separator). The use of grinding aids is reported also to Ь е
helpful in achieving this result. However, the effect of grading (particle size
distribution) о п the strength development of industrial cements is not always
clearly manifest. Fig. 12 shows the strength development of various granulometric
classes of cement.
< 10
< 6
< 6
< 3
< 1
< 4
portland cement 35
Hochofen cement 35
portland cement 45
Hochofen cement 45
portland cement 55
Trass cement
о у е г
4000 cm
from 2000 to
4000 cm
portland cement,
Eisen portland cement,
trass cement
Hochofen cement
with 36 to 70% Ь у weight
of bIas'tfurnace slag
Hochofen cement with
т о г е than 70% Ь у weight
of bIastfurnace slag
С Cement chemistry - cement quality V. Finish grinding
70 .--.----.-----.-----==.....
50 о е


10 Н
30 о "'"""'-L------I..__--'--- --'
1 7 28 90 days
hydration time Tage
Н ydrationszeit
Fig.12: Strength development during the hydration of cements of
various granulometric classes (from Sweden); 1 = O/3f,Lm, 2 = 3/9f,Lm,
3 = 9/25/lm, 4 = 25/50/lm)
Clinker which has Ь е е п stored under damp conditions for some considerabIe time
already contains hydration products. When such clinker is ground, these products
tend to Ь е с о т е concentrated in the finest fractions (and cause high specific
surface values) while furthermore, е g., Ь у forming coatings о п the grinding
media, they obstruct the grinding of the unhydrated clinker constituents which
thus tend to form higher concentrations in the coarser fractions. For these reasons
the specific surface values yielded Ь у such clinker should Ь е rated with some
caution: in general, higher values should Ь е aimed for than in the grinding of fresh
unhydrated clinker.
The fineness of grinding of cements т а у Ь е determined Ь у sieving о г а separation
method (the fineness being expressed as а certain percentage Ь у weight above а
certain size, е g., as residue retained о п а standard sieve), but is т о г е usually based
о п the specific surface determined Ь у the Blaine method (air permeability of а bed
of cement, the result being expressed in cm
/g; the finerthe cement, the higherthe
specific surface) (see also Section Х
з м ш atmosphere
Heat is generated in the grinding of cement clinker, resulting in а rise in
temperature, which т а у in some instances exceed 1200 С The water content ofthe
gypsum (CaS04 ' 2 Н О is driven out, slowly at first (from about 400 -450 С
onwards), but above 800 С at а rapid rate, as а result of which the gypsum is г
о г indeed comp/etely dehydrated (the latter above 11 00 С so that it is transformed
into hemihydrate (CaS04 ' Н

О о г anhydrite 111 (CaS0
, solubIe anhydrite),
see Fig. 13. These partly о г wholly dehydrated sulphates dissolve much т о г е easily
in water than gypsum does and а г е thus т о г е reactive. In С з А г с cements this
Mill atmosphere
hemi- gypsum
hydrate .,.
Halb - Gips ./.
30 70
40 60
50 50

60 40
70 30
80 20
"' 90 10
100 О
95 100 105 110 115 120· С
temperature 01 materia\
Mal'd.guttemperat ur
Fig.13: Content of gypsum and hemihydrate (including solubIe а п
hydrite) as а function of mill charge temperature during grinding
reactivity is advantageous for its retarding effect о п the setting behaviour С з А
reacts with sulphate to form ettringite: see also Section VII.2). О п the other hand,
when "hot" -ground cement is mixed with water, а solution supersaturated with
calcium sulphate may quickly develop, from which gypsum is then precipitated in
the form of needle-shaped г which interlock and cause а stiffening of the
mass called "false set". This is, however, а temporary phenomenon, which с а п Ь е
reversed Ь у further mixing. Rapidly forming needle-shaped crystals of syngenite
and ettringite т а у also have а share in this early stiffening, and the alkali sulphates
contained in the clinker react just as quickly.
In portland cement of normal composition the О з content corresponding to
hemihydrate, anhydrite 111 and clinker alkali sulphate together should Ь е below
2.2 - 2.5% Ь у weight (depending о п the С з А content; а lower limit is applicabIe to
portland bIastfurnace cement, cements with low С з А content and certain others).
If this limiting value for the combined О з content is exceeded, there is а risk of
false set. Apart from remining below this limit, other ways to overcome this
р г о Ы е т а г е increasing the mixing time of the cement о г at the clinker grinding
stage, substituting anhydrite-II for а proportion (up to about 50% Ь у weight) of
the gypsum.
The moisture given off Ь у the gypsum dehydration to the atmosphere in the mill, as
also the water which т а у Ь е injected into the mill for cooling its charge during
grinding, will react т о г е particularly with the finest particles of the cement formed.
As а result, the reactivity of the tricalcium aluminate С з А is in part substantially
reduced, and if fairly large amounts of moisture а г е thus released into the mill, the
С Cement chemistry - cement quality V. Finish grinding
strength development of .the cement will Ь е appreciabIy affected (strength
losses.of more than 10% are IlabIe to occur). С з А г с and alkali-rich cements are
especlally prone to this effect.
4 Grinding aids
Grin.ding aids have Ь е е п used in Germany for the last twenty years or so, more
partlcularly for the grinding of cements in the higher ranges of fineness (specific
surface above about 3500 cm
/g). Their usefulness is greater according as the
to Ь е ground is finer. For equal cement fineness, grinding aids с а п
substantially increase mill throughput Т а Ы е 9). However. they must
Ь е ш а Ы у tested with regard to their harmlessness in concrete made with the
cement; particularly, they must not promote с о п о о п of reinforcing steel,
and а certlflcate to that effect must Ь е supplied Ь у the manufacturers of the
grinding aids. Whereas the advantageous action of these substances in connection
with the grinding of portland cement is beyond dispute, they are of relatively little
value in the grinding of slag cements.
Т а Ы е 9: in performance of finish grinding mills as а
result of в alds (from Schneider. 1969)
cement specific surface increase in amount of
/g throughput % additive %
PZ 35 2400-3000 bis10 0,01-0,03
PZ 45 3000-4000 10-30 0,02-0.06
PZ 55 4000-5500 25-50 0.04-0,1
Particularly effective aids are glycols е g., ethylene glycol, propylene
glycol) .and ethanol а П е е g., triethanol amine). As а rule, they are added in
quantltles of less than 0.005% Ь у weight. Larger additions (above 0.2% Ь у weight)
of triethanol amine are liabIe to lower the early strength, but the 28-day strength is
not adverselx affected. aids have Ь е е п used for а good many years, as
already е ю п е and It has Ь е е п estabIished that they do not impair the long-
term Ь е а ю of concrete either.
VI. Storage of cement
VI. Storage of cement
1 Storage in the cement works
The finished cement that is discharged from the clinker grinding mill is stored in
silos in which it should, ideally, undergo п о subsequent changes. However, certain
inf\uences may act upon the cement in storage and have а detrimental effect о п its
Cement shouid Ь е stored at the lowest possibIe temperature.
At temperatures of 500 - 600 С there is little dehydration of gypsum for storage
periods of up to about 28 days, but at 800 - 900 С the dehydration is very
considerabIe, and under such conditions the gypsum may lose all its crystal water.
Indeed, incipient dehydration is found to occur in cement stored at only 400 С for
periods in excess of 28 days. The water thus released - together with moisture of
atmospheric and possibIe other origin - reacts with the cement in the cooler zones
of the silo. The С з А in the cement is more particularly prone to react with water.
Acicular (needle-shaped) ettringite and syngenite are formed, also tabular
aluminate hydrate. These newly formed crystals are liabIe to cause solidification
of the (formation of lumps, "bridging" in the silo). Since the compounds which
are more particularly involved in these solidification reactions with water are С з А
and alkaii sulphates, cements which have а high content of these compounds
are notabIy prone to Ь е affected in this way.
Water absorption Ь у cement, especially if the latter has а high С з А content,
furthermore causes retardation of setting (because of diminished reactivity of the
С з А and, depending о п how much water is absorbed, also causes loss of strength
(in consequence of pre-hydration of the С з in the cement). Besides, false set
_ temporary early stiffening of the cement when mixed with water - may also Ь е
due to causes associated with silo storage (see Section V.3).
П general, cement is less likely to Ь е affected Ь у storage according as it is more
finely ground. This may appear somewhat surprising, but the reason is that in finer
cement the average radius of the pores or voids between the cement particles is
smaller, so that water vapour diffuses less easily through the bed of cement.
As с а п Ь е п е п е from the foregoing, as little moisture as possibIe should Ь е
allowed to get into the cement storage silo, and the temperature of the stored
cement should, if possibIe, Ь е below 600 С Т о minimize the access of water to the
cement, it may Ь е advisabIe to reduce the gypsum content or to substitute
anhydrite 11 for some of the gypsum in clinker grinding, the amounts of water (if
а п у that are sprayed into the mill should Ь е duly monitored, and the feed of moist
clinker and/or bIastfurnace slag to the mill should Ь е avoided.
Cement which, when fresh, has normal setting properties may become quick-
setting as а result of storage. This is more particularly liabIe to occur in the
following types of cement:
(1) Cements produced from clinker whose molar ratio К О + Na20): О з > 1. П
this case the change from normal to quick setting behaviour may Ь е caused Ь у
alkali carbonate (formed possibIy via alkali aluminate).
С . Cement chemistry - cement quality
(2) Cements with low С
5 and high С з А and C
(A,F) content. After storage in air
at low humidity values (relative humidity below about 50%) а diminished
reactivity of the С
5 , characterized Ь у less formation of С а ( О Н ) 2 at the start of
hydration, т а у occur in conjunction with unimpaired intensive reactivity of the
С з А .
These causes т а у Ь е superimposed, and other causes т а у Ь е involved as well. The
following counter-measures are availabIe: changing to raw materials of different
composition (in particu lar, а low a/kali content) and using water-repellent
admixtures in the clinker grinding mill, so that the cement is rendered "hydropho-
Ы с " and thus insensitive to moisture.
2 Storage о п the construction site
Cement which is stored unprotected for а п у considerabIe length of time will
absorb moisture, causing lumps to form and resulting in а loss of hardening
capacity. 50 long as the lumps are friabIe - easily crumbIed between the fingers -
the decline in strength is not serious, however.
Cement in sacks is more at hazard than bulk cement in а Ы п or silo. Н е п с е properly
dry storage conditions for sacks of cement are important: under cover in а shed or,
if in the о р е п , placed о п battens clear of the ground and covered with plastic sheet.
Cement thus stored in sacks, or in а Ы п , о п the construction site undergoes а loss of
strength averaging somewhat over 10% in three months. The decrease in early
strength, especially in the case of more finely ground cements, т а у Ь е greater than
this. For this reason the period of storage should always Ь е kept as short as
possibIe, and for very fine cements it should preferabIy not exceed о п е month о т at
most two months.
VII. Hydration of cement
(setting, hardening, strength)
1 General
Hydration is а process in which water is combined with the reacting substance.
The hydration of cement is accompanied Ь у solidification, i. е . , а п initially liquid or
plastic system (cement paste) progressively turns into а stone-like solid (referred
to as hardened cement paste). The process of solidification comprises two stages:
setting and hardening. О п setting, the cement paste stiffens into а solid, but as yet
of negligibIe strength. 11'1 the then following stage of hardening the paste gradually
develops considerabIe strength. There is п о sharp division between setting and
hardening, the transition is gradual.
VII. Hydration of cement
/1'1 the hydration and solidification of cement а number of different processes
actually take place simultaneously and/or successively. These include more
particu larly:
chemical reactions: especially hydration and hydrolysis reactions;
dissolving and crystallization processes: gel-like and crystallized newly formed
substances containing water (hydrate phases) are formed from supersaturated
solutions and in topochemical processes;
interfacial processes: surface attractive forces (adhesion) produce bonding of
the constituents of the cement paste.
The hydration reactions are exothermic, i. е . , heat is evolved. The heat evolution of
cement hardening under adiabatic test conditions attains а maximum after 1 to
3 days and then proceeds at а diminishing rate. The heat given off, in terms of
quantity and in relation to time, depends о п the type of cement (more particularly
its constituent phases), its fineness and the presence of additives, if а п у
(bIastfurnace slag, pozzolana).
The overall result of the hydration reactions is а hardened product possessing high
strength. The strength of the hardened cement paste is primarily due to its internal
structure, which in turn is determined Ь у the shape and size of the hydration
products (hydrate phases) and their spatial arrangement and packing density
(porosity). The water that has to Ь е added to the cement in order to achieve
hydration is combined chemically as hydration water о г as hydroxide. The
theoretically requ ired amount of water is not т о г е than about 30%of the weight of
the cement (water-cement ratio w/c ~ 0.3). Besides this chemically combined
water, however, а certain amount of water is physically bound о п the very large
surface areas ofthe hydrate phases (adsorbed water, corresponding approximately
to w/c ~ 0.1). Also, some water is present as capillary water in the voids of the
hardened cement paste. The higher the capillary water content (Ieaving capillary
"pores" after evaporation), the lower will Ь е the strength, the resistance to
chemical attack and the frost resistance of the hardened paste or т о г е particularly
the concrete о г mortar in which it forms the bonding medium. A/so, these pores
increase the permeability to water. Fig. 14 shows how the strength decreases with
increasing water-cement ratio.
The final strength of the hardened cement paste under normal conditions of
hardening (normal temperature, not under pressure) is at best about 200 N/mm
as laboratory research has estabIished. The principal influencing factor is the
capillary porosity (which in turn is bound up with the water-cement ratio and with
the degree and progress of hydration), while the composition of the cement and
the conditions of hardening а г е subsidiary factors in connection with strength
development. 11'1 actual practice, as distinct from the laboratory, the final strength
attained is generally less than the above mentioned value.
Under practical conditions the strength of mortar (aggregate particle size < 4 т т )
and concrete (aggregate particle size usually < 16 т т , < 32 т т о г < 63 т т ) is
affected т о г е particularly Ь у the following factors:
type and quality of the cement;
water-cement ratio (proportions Ь у weight),
aggregates (type, strength, particle shape, surface, quantity, grading);
admixtures and additives, if а п у
compaction and curing;
temperature and age.
The hardening of cement с а п Ь е accelerated о г retarded Ь у the incorporation of
admixtures ofvarious kinds in the mix. Hardened cement paste, and therefore the
mortar о г concrete in which it forms the bonding medium, is а stabIe substance,
resistant to п о г а environmental conditions. Certain external influence а у
however, have а harmful effect, causing concrete corrosion.
2.1 Aluminate
In the absence of gypsum in the cement, tricalcium aluminate reacts very
3 С а О А

+ 6 С а О А

6 Н

О (1)
It likewise reacts quickly when calcium hydroxide is present, а substance which is
split off in the hydration of the calcium silicates (alite and belite, see below) :
3 С а О . А

+ С а О Н + 12 Н

О С а О А

3 Н

О (2)
Both these reactions would cause excessively rapid setting of the cement paste.
Sulphate, in the form of gypsum о г anhydrite-II, is therefore added as а retarder,
interground with the clinker in the finish grinding mill. The hydration reaction in the
presence of sulphate proceeds as follows:
2 Hydration of the clinker phases
For а fuller explanation of the hydration process it will Ь е necessary to take а look at
the four principal clinker phases: alite, belite, aluminate and ferrite. П general, the
hydration reactions с а п Ь е represented as follows in а simplified general way:
clinker phases + water hydrate phases + energy
(high in energy; (Iow in energy; (heat of
contain п о water) contain water) hydration)
The progress of the reaction с а п Ь е measured with reference to newly formed
compounds, heat of hydration evolved, chemically combined water, strength
Especially important а г е the hydration reactions of aluminate and of alite. Belite
reacts in the same а п п е г as alite, while ferrite is of п о great significance.
cement 55
cement 45
cement 35
cement 25
...... r--..
" \:

.... \
\ \

1\. 1\ \
\ \
\ \
1\ \.
r-.... \ \ \
г \ 1\
1\. \ 1\. 1\.
1\. \

'\.. i'
r".. '-.
r-... r'-.. ..........
" '"
......... г
..... 1'-..
......... r-

С Cement chemistry -
0,30 0,40 0,50 0,60 0,70 0,80 0,90 1,00
w/c _
Fig.14: Relation between 28-day compressive strength 01 concrete
(Pw2S)' water-cement ratio and cement strength class (from Graf)
*) In concrete technology, г and "additive" а г е often treated as synonymous terms,
but sometimes (as also in this translation) а distinction is drawn between substances such
as plasticizers, retarders, etc. added in у е г у small amounts ("admixtures") and substances
such as trass, fly-ash, etc. which form а quantitatively т о г е substantial component of the
cement ("additives")
3 С а О . А

+ 3 (CaS0
' 2 Н

О + 26 Н

О 3 С а О . А

. 3 CaS0
' 32 Н О
С з А +3(CS'2H) Н С з А С Н
aluminate + gypsum + water
(1 volume) (8 volumes)
С Cement chemistry - cement
the phases
The coarsely crystalline tabular calcium aluminate hydrates formed in the reactions
(1) and (2) very quickly form а structure somewhat like а house of cards and
possessing а certain amount of strength (corresponding to the "initial set" of the
cement paste). О п the other hand, reaction (3) - i. е in the presence of sul-
phate - first produces finely crystalline ettringtite. This substance is deposited as а
thin film о п the surface of the cement particles in the first few hours of hydration.
This film does not prevent the particles from sliding in relation to о п е another, i. е
the paste remains plastic. Only later, when the ettringite forms long needle-shaped
crystals which bridge the water-filled spaces between the cement particles
and enmesh the particles themselves, does the setting process begin (Fig.15).
The trisulphate (ettringite) subsequently undergoes transformation into т о п о
Fig. 15: Hardened cement paste with acicular ettringite crystals (scan-
ning electron micrograph)
The sulphate content of the cement should Ь е only so high that it is consumed in
reaction (3) and not later than in the first 24 hours after mixing with water. Excess
sulphate т а у likewise in accordance with reaction (3), cause expansion
phenomena in hardened mortar or concrete. Maximum permissibIe values of the
з content are specified in order to prevent this Т а Ы е 7).
2.2 Alite
Alite (tricalcium silicate) reacts with water to form calcium silicate hydrates С Н
phases) containing less lime, while calcium hydroxide is splitoff. Belite (dicalcium
silicate) shows similar behaviour. The hydration reaction is, for example:
6 (3 С а О 5i0
) + 18 Н

О С а О 6 5i0
· 5 Н

О + 13 С а О Н
+ Н С


+ С Н (4)
alite + water _ С Н phase + calcium hydroxide
The calcium silicate hydrates which are formed (Fig. 16) vary in the shape of their
crystals (film-like, roll-like, fibre-like, etc.) and in theircomposition, depending о п
the conditions of formation (water-cement ratio, temperature, etc.). They are,
however, always very fine-grained and are the principal strength-giving consti-
tuents of the hardened cement paste. 5ince the specific surface of the hardened
paste is extremely high, namely, ofthe orderof 3000000cm
jg (ascompared
only about 3000 cm
jg for cement), its strength is attributabIe to the с о о р е а ю п
of powerful adhesion forces (electrostatic forces of attraction acting between the
exceeding/y small hydrate phases) developed Ь у the hydration products and the
Fig.16: Calcium silicate hydrates (CSH phases) in hardened cement
paste (scanning electron micrograph)
С Cement chemistry - cement quality VII. Hydration of cement
VIII. Relations between chemical reactions, phase content and strength
Т а Ы е 10: Heat of hydration of clinker phases (in J/g)
з Hydration of slag cements and pozzolanic cements
The hardening of cements consisting of portland cement clinker with bIastfurnace
slag о г а pozzolanic material as the second major ingredient comprises two
reaction subsystems. The portland cement reacts in the т а п п е г already described,
while the interground ingredient is activated to undergo hydraulic hardening Ь у
the calcium hydroxide which is formed as а г of hydration of the calcium
silicates alite and belite. The resulting reaction products of the hardening process
а г е similar to those of portland cement, except that hardened slag cement contains
less calcium hydroxide. These slag and pozzolanic cements moreover harden at а
slower rate than portland cement and their rate of heat evolution is lower.
It с а п reasonabIy Ь е presumed that the chemical reaction pattern, the actual phase
content and the strength of portland cement а г е at least loosely interassociated. For
о п е thing, the new phases formed in the burning process (clinker phases) а г е
dependent о п the chemical character of the raw material. Furthermore, the
strength-determining hydration products (hydration phases) а г е formed Ь у
reaction with water from the clinker phases.
Ш Relations between chemical reactions, phase
content and strength of portland cement
mechanical stabilization of the mass Ь у interlacing of the newly formed
The calcium hydroxide which is formed in accordance with equation (4) produces
а strongly basic г р Н > 12) in the freshly hardened cement paste (and
therefore in mortar and concrete). This high р Н value inhibits the corrosion of
embedded steel and is indeed what makes reinforced concrete such а durabIe
material in which the reinforcing bars а г е normally so well and lastingly г
Ь у the concrete. However, as а result of carbonation and other influences, this
г action т а у diminish in course of time.
Some indication of the respectively contributions of the clinker phases to the
strength development of cement is given in Fig. 9. However, these results obtained
for individual phases cannot Ь е directly applied to the conditions actually
occurring in cement paste, as is apparent also from the heat of hydration values
given in Т а Ы е 10. Fig. 17 schematically shows the sequence of formation of the
hydrate phases and the structure development in the setting and hardening of
portland cement.
4,6,8,13,23,28,34,38,46,52, 53,56,61, 62,83,84,85,86,87,88,90, 91.
С а О Н
с А Н
for reaction
in clinker
..... " CSH short-fibr
" CSH kll'zfaseri
heat of hydration
for reaction
of individual phase
1---- 1. о ....
о 5 з о 1 2 6
minutes hours
Minuten Stunden
р о г е space
§ Porenraum



с т Е
С з

С з А
С а О
Fig. 17: Schematic diagram of the formation of the hydrate phases
and the structure development in the hydration of cement г
locher/Richartz/Sprung, 1976)
VIII. Relations between chemical reactions, phase content and strength
Fig.19: Relative compressive strengths associated with variation ofthe
iron modulus (Iaboratory cements; referred to cement with lime
standard K5t 1= 95; silica modulus 2.0; alumina modulus 2.0; 2.8% з
fineness З с

c!inker phases, actual (.,. Ь у mass)
К akt М - 0/.)
Knofe\ 1977
25 alumina modulus
, т м
alumina modulus alite belite
С з д CiA,F1
т м A\it Belit
0,5 б 14 О 18
1,0 б 14 б 15
1,5 Б З 15 10 12
2,0 58 б 17 9
б б 20 8
2,0 1,5 1,0
Tage r
7days. _s:-:::-- - ---0-

80 2days
С Cement chemistry - cement quality
Exactly definabIe relationships between the above-mentioned three properties or
sets of properties - chemical reaction pattern, phase content, strength - с а п
however, at best Ь е expected only if the following minimum conditions are fulfilled
in the manufacture of the cement:
(1) adequate fineness and homogeneity of the raw meal;
(2) as а result: complete reaction of the meal to form clinker phases in the burning
(3) а clinker grinding process which produces equal reactive cement surface
areas (specific surface values) for constant amounts of interground added
The trends shown in Figs. 18, 19 and 20 are generally observed in industrial as well
as in laboratory-made cements. The strength increase with increasing silica
modulus is manifest, being more particularly due to the higher proportion of silicate
in conjunction with lower proportions of aluminate and ferrite. The somewhat
more marked increase in early strengths is attributabIe to the increase in alite
(Fig.18). Increasing the iron modulus (alumina ratio) only affects the early
strength development as а result of the very considerabIe increase in aluminate
accompanied Ь у а marked increase in heat of hydration which masks the
lime standard alite beli1e
С з д C2(A,F1
KSt Alit Belit
85 З 37 15 9
90 50 б 15 9
95 58 б 17 9
100 б 4 17 10
105 71 О 17 З С а
, d / clinker phases, actua\ ("10 Ь у mass)
о 7 ays х К akt М _., )
70 Tage
40 ...,...- К П О е б
90 95 100 standard
Fig. 20: Relative compressive strengths associated with variation of the
lime standard (Iaboratory cements; referred to cement with lime
standard K5tl = 95: Ш с а modulus 2.0; alumina modulus 2.0; 2.8 з
fineness З с

ISilica modulus alite belite
50 19 21 10
1,7 54 17 20 9
р 58 б 17 9
2,3 б 15 б 8

б 14 б 7
б 14 15 б
х 2days
/ Tage
/ ' 7days
/ ,,' Tage
/ ,/ о 28days
7 ,,' о Tage
/ ,
/ ,Q,'
,,' clinker phases, actual Ь у mass)
К akt М о
70 К п ё е б
1,5 1,7 2,0 2,3 2,5 2,8 silica modulus
Fig. 18: Relative compressive strengths associated with variation of the
silica modulus (Iaboratory cements: referred to cement with lime
standard K5tl = 95: silica modulus 2.0: alumina modulus 2.0: 2.8% з
fineness З с

С Cement chemistry - cement quality
VIII. Relations between chemical reactions, phase content and strength
Fig. 22: Effect of increasing MgO content о п compressive strength
development and clinker phase content (Iaboratory cements)
8 %MgO
alite belite perlclase
%MgO Alit е С з А C
О 59 15 17 9 О
1 62 11 15 12 О
2 61. 9 З 11. О
З 67 6 11 16 <1
1. 68 3 10 17 2
5 69 1 9 18 З
6j8 not determined nicht bestimmt
clinker phases, actual О о Ь у mass)
IOinker hasen akt. М - о .
6 2
з о
in alite (Fig. 19). With а п increase in the lime standard the compressive strength is
notabIy increased, especially the early strength, the cause being the very large
increase in alite content (Fig. 20).
From Figs. 18 to 20 it а Iso emerges that the 28-day compressive strengths i ncrease
Ь у about 10% as а result of raising the lime standard Ь у about 5 units) and the
silica modulus Ь у about 0.3). Such а п effect о п strength cannot Ь е obtained Ь у
varying the iron modulus. П general, it should Ь е noted that the figures given а г е
very approximate indications and а г е likely to vary greatly from о п е cement works
to another.
The relative compressive strengths (referred to the respective 2-day strengths
= 100) showthedifferentamountsof hardening. With lowsilica modulusand iron
modulus, as also with low lime standard, the subsequent hydration reactions still
contribute а great deal to the strength attained. These diagrams, too, а г е merely
approximate indications of trends.
These fundamentally clear-cut trends are liabIe to Ь е considerabIy modified Ь у the
incorporation of subsidiary elements. The effect of MgO is shown in Fig. 22, and
thatof K
in Fig. 23, as examples. Theseeffects, which а г е governed Ь у the raw
material characteristics, and also differences in the production conditions (raw
material fineness and homogeneity, burning and cooling conditions, clinker
grinding, cement storage) constitute а set of factors which make it impossibIe to
make exact and reliabIe predictions of the strength development of cement Ь у
means of relatively simple calculations (formulas) based о п the chemical reaction
pattern or the phase content of the clinker concerned.
lime sbndard
silica modulus
alumlna modulus
т м
2 7 28 days 2 7 28days 2 7 28 days
Tage Tage Tage
Fig.21 : Relative compressive strengths as а function of lime standard,
silica modulus and iron modulus, referred to the respective 2-day
strengths (Iaboratory cements)
7 days
1 day
28 days
- о
0,0 51 21 18 10
10 0,1. 51 22 17 10
0,8 51 20 19 10
1,5 1.9 22 18 11

51 19 18 12 К п Ы е 1971
З О "IoK
З О -----<>----- --- -- о - ---
а е actual (% Ь у
20 Klinkerphasen akt. М - 0101
О К О alite belite С А CJAF
О 2 Alit е 3 "Z',
Fig.23: Effect of K
о п compressive strength development and
clinker phase content (Iaboratory cements)
180 days
/ 2


С Cement chemistry - cement quality
However, if the content of subsidiary elements and the production conditions с а п
Ь е kept approximately constant, as с а п usually Ь е achieved in а particular cement
works at least over а certain length of time, much more straightforward г е
lationships wi\l exist. In such cases the 28-day standard compressive strength of
с а п Ь е predicted with sufficient а с с ш а с у Ь у means of а simple formula,
provlded that the three above-mentioned "minimum conditions" а г е complied
with. One such formula is KnOfel's "strength index":
F28 = (3 х alite) + (2 х belite) + aluminate - е п е
8efore this formula с а п Ь е properly used, it is necessary to estabIish an appropriate
correlation curve, obtained Ь у plotting the strength index (F 28) against the
compressive strength. For this purpose the phase contents should Ь е determined
quantitatively Ь у microscopic о г Х г а у examination) in at least ten cements о г
clinkers) differing from one another as much as possibIe; the с о п е р о п п 28-
day standard compressive strengths of these cements should also Ь е determined.
Then, with the aid of this с о п е а о п curve, the strength с а п Ь е predicted Ь у
calculating the strength index from the quantitatively determined phase content.
The validity of the с о п е а о п curves should Ь е verified from time to time.
Х Types, strength classes, designation and quality control
.s:. 60
(Ij'; 30

80 37 28 90
ю г е п п time
Fig.24: Strength development of various cements (from Woods/
а г е е п о щ 1976): 1 = portland cement with 70% alite and 10%
belite, 2 = portland bIastfurnace cement with 60% slag, 3 = portland
cement with 30% alite and 50% belite
Т а Ы е 11 : Classification and designation of cements (from Cembureau,
Note: The various types of cement с а п Ь е further subdivided into classes (e.g.:
О С 1, О С 11, 811, 8111). The above subdivision for portland cement (according to
properties) с а п a\so Ь е applied to 81 and POZ.
IX. Types, strength classes, designation and quality
control of cements
1 General
AII cements а г е hydraulic binding agents, i. е when mixed with water they will
harden both in air and under water. The product of the hardening process - the
"hardened cement paste" - is а water-resistant stone-like material.
As а general rule, cements of equal composition are more reactive in proportion as
they а г е more finely ground and thus have а larger surface а г е а at which the
с а п take place. Finer grinding tends to Ь е associated with shorter setting
tlmes, hlgher early strengths and higher early rates of heat evolution (heat of
hydration). It is in these respects that, for example, portland cement of class 35
differs from that of class 45.
The opposite trend (slower reaction, longer setting times, lower early strengths,
lower heat of hydration) is associated with coarser grinding, higher belite content
of the cement, and the addition of bIastfurnace slag (slag cements) о г pozzolana
(pozzolanic cements, е g., trass cement).
The effect of the above-mentioned influencing factors о п the final strengths is
small, however (see also Fig.24).
special properties / designation
Ordinary Portland Cement / normaler Portlandzement
Rapid-Hardening о г High Early Strength or High Initial
Strength) Portland Cement/ Portlandzement mit hoher
Fruhfestigkeit / schnellerhartend
High Strength Portland Cement/ Portlandzement mit
hoher Festigkeit/ hochfest
Low Heat о г Slow Hardening, Low Heat of Hydratation)
Portland Cement, Medium Low Heat Portland
Cement/ Port\andzement mit niedriger Hydratationswarme
Sulphate-Resisting Portland Cement/ Portlandzement mit
hohem Sulfatwiderstand
Air-Entraining Portland Cement/ Portlandzement mit
81astfurnace Cement/ Huttenzement
Pozzolanic Cement/ Puzzolanzement
С Cement chemistry - cement quality
Classification of cements с а п Ь е based о п various sets of criteria. Thus, the
principal distinctive characteristics т а у Ь е
strength classes (minimum о г average strengths; usually 28-day compressive
strengths) ;
types of cement (portland cement, slag cement, pozzolanic cement);
important special properties (Iow heat of hydration, resistance to aggressive
media, rapid strength development, etc.).
The main criterion of "strength class" is the basis of classification adopted in
Standard DIN 1164 for cements in the Federal RepubIic of Germany (West
Germany). The German Democratic RepubIic (East Germany) bases its
TGL281 01 /02 о п "types of с е т е п С while the American (USA) Standard
ASTM С а and the classification of CEMBUREAU, Paris, а г е based о п
"important special properties" as the criterion. In each of these systems, the other
criteria а г е employed for г subdividing the cements. The DIN 1164 classifi-
cation will т о г е particularly Ь е considered here.
2 Classification and designation of cements
The strength classes listed in Т а Ы е 12 а г е specified in DIN 1164. М о г е particularly,
the classification is based о п the required minimum 28-day compressive strengths
(determined Ь у testing in accordance with DIN1164, Part7, see SectionX).
Besides, maximum permissibIe compressive strengths а г е laid down for the
Т а Ы е 12: Strength classes (DIN 1164)
strength class compressive strength in N/mm
2 days 7 days 28 days
min. min. min. т а х
25' 10 25 45
35 L
18 35 55
45 L
10 45 65
20 45 65
55 30 55
Only for cements with low heat of hydration and/or high sulphate resistance
Portland cement, Eisen portland cement, Hochofen cement and trass cement
with slow early hardening г а г е additionally given the symbol L, while
the symbol F is added to cements with high early strength
IX. Types, strength classes, designation and quality control
cements Z25, Z35 and Z45, and for this reason the cement г aim at
achieving average strengths midway between the two specified limits for each
Cements Z35 and Z45 а г е furthermore subdivided according to their early
hardening г denoted Ь у а п appended letter:
cements with slow early hardening L
cements with high early strength (rapid-hardening) F.
The cements а г е produced Ь у the intergrinding of portland cement clinker with а
proportion of calcium sulphate (gypsum) to control the setting behaviour. In
addition, the two German types of slag cement contain а su bstantial of
bIastfurnace slag interground with the clinker, while trass cement slmllarly
contains а substantial proportion of interground trass:
portland cement (made from portland cement clinker) PZ
Eisenportland cement (containing at least 65% of portland cement
clinker and not т о г е than 35% of г slag) EPZ
Hochofen cement (containing 15 to 64% of portland cement clinker
and 85 to 36% of г slag) HOZ
Trass cement (containing 60 to 80%of portland cement clinker and 40
to 20% of trass) TrZ
(percentages Ь у weight).
Furthermore, distinctions а г е based о п special properties:
cements with low heat of hydration I\JW
(maximum heat of hydration after 7 days: 270 J/g)
cements with high sulphate resistance т о types: HS
PZ with 3% С з А potential according to Bogue, and 5% А О з
HOZ with 70% г slag)
cements with low effective alkali content (not standardized) NA
(maximum total alkali content in Na2 0 equivalent:
0.60% in PZ
0.90% in HOZ with > 50% slag 1.10)
(percentages Ь у weight).
The complete standard designation of а cement comprises its indication of
strength class, cement type and special properties (if а п у Examples:
(1) А portland cement (PZ) with а 28-day minimum compressive strength of
35 N/mm
(35) and 2-day minimum compressive strength of 1О N/mm
(F) :
designation according to DIN1164: PZ35 F. .
(2) А Hochofen cement (HOZ) with а 28-day minimum compresslve strength of
35 N/mm
(35), а 7-day minimum compressive strength of 18 N/mm
(L), and
high sulphate resistance (HS):
designation according to DIN 1164: HOZ35 L-HS.
Other standard cements complying with 01 N1164 а г е special cements such as
white cement, water-repellent (hydrophobic) cement and highway engineering
strength class distinctive colour г of lettering
25 violet bIack
35 L light brown bIack
F red
45 L green black
F red
55 red bIack
"Cement is allowed to Ь е put only in transport containers which а г е clean and free
from residues of earlier deliveries. It must not become contaminated in transit"
О I N 11 64, Part 1).
Delivery notes for bulk cement о г labels о п sacks should give the following
information: type of cement, strength class, designation of special properties (if
а п у name of supplying works, gross weight of sack о г net weight of bulk cement,
quality control indication. Delivery notes for cement supplied in bulk should
г state: date and time of delivery, vehicle registration number, name of
customer, order number and consignee.
П addition, distinctive г identification for strength class should Ь е displayed
о п the cement sacks Т а Ы е 14). П the case of bulk cement delivery а distinctively
г weatherproof sheet (size DII\J А colour and lettering conforming to
3 Constituents 01 cements
Х Types, strength classes, designation and quality control
4 Supply and identi1ication 01 cements
Oil shale cement and trass г slag cement а г е permitted under special
certificate of approval in the Federal RepubIic of Germany, but а г е not
Т а Ы е 14: Distinctive colours for the strength classes (DIN 1164)
The principal constituents of the above-mentioned cements а г е portland cement
clinker, г slag and trass (see 5ections IV and V).
The content of magnesium oxide (MgO), referred to the ignited portland cement
clinker, is not allowed to exceed 5% Ь у weight, while the sulphate content (as
з must comply with the values given in Т а Ы е 7. Other г in amounts
up to 1% Ь у weight а г е permitted, provided that they do not promote corrosion of
reinforcing steel. Chlorides (CI-) а г е not allowed to Ь е added to cement; the
inherent CI- content from the raw materials must not exceed 0.10% Ь у weight.
Determination of the chemical composition of cements should Ь е done in
accordance with DIN 1164, Part3. Т а Ы е 13 gives some approximate guiding
values for the chemical composition.
..... MCO-=tN-=t
'f I I V I
L!) .....


..... 0 L!)M I'-=t
-=t ..... ф ..... N

Ф С О ф

00)-=t ..... N
L!) .....
'f I I V I
..... CO-=t ..... N
ф .....

I ё
о ф
._ о
а ...
ct1 ct1
... с
Ф (.)
- с
ct1 ct1
с с
с Е
с Ф
(.) Е
о Ф
I (.)

(J) Ф
(J) Е

ct1 с
с ф
(J) Е
'0 8
с а



с а
С Cement chemistry - cement quality
С Cement chemistry - cement quality
Т а Ы е 14) for affixing to the storage Ы п should accompany the delivery note. The
information printed о п this г sheet should comprise: type of cement,
strength class, designation of special properties (if а п у name of supplying
works, quality control mark and delivery date stamp.
5 Quality control
Due conformity to the cement quality requirements of DIN 1164 (composition and
properties) should Ь е verified and monitored Ь у quality control ("internal" control
Ь у the cement г and "external" control Ь у а п authorized independent
supervisory organization, DIN 1164, Part2).
5.1 Internal quality control
"$0 long as а cement is being г and in so far as а limiting value is
specified in DIN 1164, Part 1, the cement г must test the composition
and the properties of each type of cement and strength class in the cement works.
The followi ng а г е to Ь е tested at least о п с е а day:
At least twice а week:
loss о п ignition
content of с а г Ь о п dioxide С

insolubIe residue
content of sulphate з
fineness of grinding
compressive strength at each specified age (see DIN 1164, Part 1).
At least о п с е а month:
principal constituents of the cement
heat of hydration
the composition required to ensure high sulphate resistance.
The resufts of the internal quality control should Ь е recorded in writing and, if
possibIe, statistically analysed. The recordsshould Ь е kept for at leastfive years and
Ь е made availabIe to the supervisory organization (external quality control) о п
reques(' (DIN 1164, Part 2).
5.2 External quality control
External quality control is as а rule performed Ь у а п officially recognized quality
control organization; at present this is the German Cement Works Association
(Verein Deutscher Zementwerke), Dusseldorf.
The supervisory (external quality control) organization shouId monitor the cement
works' own internal quality control, primarily Ь у inspection of the relevant records
and documents. In addition, the supervisory organization should, in order to verify
Х Types, strength classes, designation and quality control
compliance with the conditions laid down in DIN 1164, Part 1, с а п у out the
following tests for each cement type and strength class in с п е п production:
At least о п с е in every two months:
loss о п ignition, content of с а г Ь о п dioxide С

insolubIe residue, content of
chloride, fineness of grinding, setting, soundness, compressive strength at
each specified standard age, principal constituents of the cements.
At least о п с е every six months:
heat of hydration, the composition required to ensure high sulphate
А test report should Ь е made. If the cement is found to fulfil the of
DIN 1164, the packaging and delivery note is allowed to с а п у the П С Г р ю п
"Quality controlled in conformity with DIN 1164" and the sign о г mark of the
quality control organization е g., "VDZ") (Fig.25).
Fig.25: Quality mark (Ieft) and mark of the quality control institution
(Verein Deutscher Zementwerke, Dusseldorf, right) (DIN 1164)
According to the "Technical guarantee conditions for standard cements" the user
of the cement does not have to с а г г у out а п у checking о г monitoring of the
standard values. However, as а precaution against а п у guarantee claims, it is
essential that а sample of each cement consignment Ь е kept for possibIe future
reference. This sample should Ь е properly representative of the
(average sample), have а weight of at least 5 kg, Ь е stored dry а п under alrtlght
conditions, and Ь е unmistakabIy labelled (time and date of dellvery, name of
supplying works, type and strength class of the cement, No. of delivery note).
6 Suggestions for the use of cements with reference to
their general and special properties (from: Zement-
MerkbIatt, issued Ь у Bundesverband der Deutschen
Portland cements, Eisen portland cements, Hochofen cements and trass cements
а г е so classified in DIN 1164 that their properties а г е in the main, characterized Ь у
their standard designations.
Z 25 : Cement with very slow strength development and heat evolution, des-
ignated Ь у NW (Iow heat). If this cement has а high resistance to sulphate
С Cement chemistry - cement quality
attack, it is additionally given the designation HS. П genera/, this class of
cement is used in mass concrete.
Z 35 L: Cements with the same 28-day strength as Z 35 F, but slower early
hardening and therefore correspondingly longer formwork stripping times,
good subsequent strength development. Because of low heat evolution
this cement is especially suitabIe for massive structural members.
Z 35 F: Cements with normal early hardening and medium heat evolution.
Z45 L: Cements with the same 28-day strength as Z45 F, but with lower 2-day
Z45 F: Cements with high early strength (rapid-hardening), so that early form-
work stripping is possibIe. Because of rapid strength development and rate
of heat evolution, suitabIe for precast concrete and for winter
Z 55: Cements with very high 2-day and 28-day strengths, for cases where high
early concrete strength is needed and for very high-strength concrete
construction. These cements а г е especially suitabIe for concrete to Ь е
placed at low temperatures, so that resistance to freezing is attained as
quickly as possibIe.
The special additional properties of low heat evolution (NW) and high sulphate
resistance (HS) have already Ь е е п mentioned above (see Х and IV.2), as have
also certain special cements, more particularly: white cement (PZ45 F with low
iron oxide content) and water-repellent (hydrophobic) cement (insensitive to
moisture; reacts with water only after intensive mixing; availabIe in strength
classes Z35 F and Z45 F).
Different cements should not Ь е mixed with о п е another, certainly not о п the
construction slte, as the facilities for uniform bIending а г е not availabIe there.
Otherwise, for example, variations in colour а г е liabIe to о с с ш "special" properties
of the cements may Ь е impaired, etc. If mixing of different cements is unavoidabIe,
however, then only the properties and values of the cement with the lower cement
class should Ь е adopted for the resulting mixture. Quick setting will occur when а
mixture of high-alumina cement with а standard cement conforming to DIN 1164
(PZ, EPZ, HOZ, TrZ) is used for making mortar о г concrete.
Х Cement testing
It would Ь е outside the present scope to deal with the determination of the
composition of cements, more particu\arly the chemical analysis. Д for the other
properties, the procedures will Ь е briefly outlined. For further detalls the relevant
parts of the Standard will have to Ь е consulted.
1 Fineness (DIN 1164, Part4)
As specified in Part 1 of DIN1164, а cement conforming to this must not
leave а residue of more than 3% Ь у weight о п the 0.2 mm test sleve (DIN 4188).
The specific surface determined Ь у the air permeability method should Ь е not less
than 2200cm
/g (in special cases not less than 2000cm
1.1 Sieve residue
The content of coarse particles is determined as the residue retained о п the
sieve with 0.2mm aperture size (DIN4188, Sheet1) Ь у manual о г mechanlcal
sieving. The sample for the sieve test .should consist of 100 ± 0.100 9 of
cement. Sieving is stopped when the resldue does not decrease Ь у more than О 1 }6
о п continuation of sieving for а г 2 minutes. The amount г е а П е о п the sleve
is stated in % Ь у weight, referred to the initial sample.
1.2 Specific surface
"The specific surface of cement in cm
/g is calculated from the г of а
bed of cement, its porosity, the density of the cement and. the o.f alr. The
measure of the permeability is the time it takes for а certaln quantlty of alr to flow
through the bed under specified conditions" (DIN 1164, Part4).. .
For performing the test а predetermined quantity of IS put Into the
standardized apparatus and is gently compacted to а predetermlned Then
air is drawn through the bed of cement Ь у suction produced Ь у а falllng column of
liquid. The time it takes for the level of the in U-tube of the to
fall а certain marked distance is measured. Thls tlme IS а measure of the П е п е of
the cement: the finer it is, the longer will it take for the air to flow through the bed,
and vice versa. The specific surface is calculated from:
К у е з vt
OSP = ------]
р (1 е . V 1011
Х Cement testi ng
The standard test requirements for cements used in the Federa\ RepubIic of
Germany а г е specified in DIN 1164, Parts 3 to 8. The tests relate to the
determination of the following: composition (Part3), fineness (Part4), setting
times (Part5), soundness (Part6), strength (Part7) and heat of hydration
where: OSP specific surface in cm
е porosity in parts Ь у volume
t time of air flow in seconds
р specific gravity of the cement
11 dynamic viscosity of the air in Р а s
К apparatus constant.
С Cement chemistry - cement quality
2 Setting times (DIN 1164, Part 5)
Obviously, in order to allow sufficient time for applying the mortar or placing the
concrete, cement must not set too quickly. According to О N1164, Part 1,
standard cements must not begin to set earlier than 1 hour after mixing, and setting
must Ь е completed not more than 12 hours after mixing.
The setting times (initial and final set) are determined with Vicat's needle
apparatus о п а neat cement paste: The cement is passed through а 1 т т test sieve
and а quantity of 500 9 is mixed with 25-30% Ь у weight) of water - depending
о п the type of cement concerned - in а standard two-speed mixer for а total of
3 minutes. А certain "standard" consistency of the cement paste must Ь е attained
Ь у variation of the amount of mixing water to suit the cement under investigation.
This consistency is ascertained Ь у putting the cement paste in а mould consisting
of а п ebonite ring о п а sheet of glass and Ь у determining the penetration depth of а
"plunger" applied to the top surface of the cement paste specimen. When the latter
has attained the standard consistency (ascertainabIe Ь у trial and error with varying
amounts of mixing water, if necessary), the initial and the final setting time с а п Ь е
determined with the "needle" of the Vicat apparatus. The initial set is considered to
occur when the needle penetrates to а distance of 3 to 5 с т from the bottom of the
mould, i. е remains stuck in the paste at this distance above the glass sheet. For
determining the final set, the mould with the sample is removed from the glass and
replaced in the reversed position. The final set is considered to occur when the
needle penetrates not more than 1 т т into the sample. П both tests, i. е for initial
and for final setting time, the penetration of the needle should Ь е measured at 10-
minute intervals.
Х Cement testing
cracks and not greatly distorted (> 2 т т it has the test, i. е is
The more stringent autoclave test in accordance wlt.h ASTM С 151 а IS а
criterion for magnesia expansion as well as the е х р а п ю п due to too much free
4 Strength О N 1164, Part 7)
Depending о п its strength class, а cement should attain the streng.ths
listed in Т а Ы е 12. These values are averages obtained from tests о п SIX test prlsm
halves. The test procedure is known as the ISO-RILEM-CEM method.
It is performed о п mortar prisms with dimensions of 4 с т х 4 с т :.16 с т
mortar consists of а mixture of cement, standard sand partlcle
fractions of О О т т О т т and т т п e.qual parts) and
water in the proportionsof 1:3:0.5 (quantities for maklng three prlsms are450.g of
t 1350 9 of sand 225 9 of water). It is mixed in а two-speed standardlzed
into steel and compacted о п а vi.brating The moulds
containing the mortar prisms are stored at 90% relatlve humldlty for 1 day: then
the prisms are carefully demoulded and kept in water at 20' ± 1о С up to the tlme of
strength should Ь е determined Ь у least three prism
specimens in the middle Ь у means of а п apparatus speclfled In the
The compressive strength is determined immediately afterwa.rds о п SIX
of the prisms fractured in the flexural .test. с о р г е ю п е П а с П е
conforming to DIN 1164 has to satisfy strlct reqUlrements. Т о wlth Part 1 of
this Standard, only the compressive strength need Ь е determlned.
Т а Ы е 15: Heat of hydration of cements (reference values)
5 Heat of hydration (DIN1164, Part8)
Cements with the special property "Iow heat of hydration" NW) г
not allowed to evolve more than 270 J of heat per gramme of cement In the flrst
7 days after mixing with water. They are used т particularly for mass
structures which, if made with ordinary cement, mlght undergo а п Г In
temperature causing stresses and .. cements are chlefly
cements with а high content of dicalclum slllcate (and lower content of trlcalclum
з Soundness (DIN1164, Part6)
В у "soundness" is understood the ability of the cement to maintain а constant
volume. Thus, а cement is to Ь е rated as sound if, after it has hardened, it remains
free from expansion effects which т а у crack, loosen and destroy the hardened
Unsoundness, i. е lack of volume stability, is caused Ь у а high content of free
MgO, causing magnesia expansion (for this reason DIN 1164 specifies that the
MgO content must not exceed 5.0% Ь у weight), Ь у excess sulphate, causing
sulphate expansion (DIN 1164 specifies а п upper limit for the О з content: see
Т а Ы е 7), and Ь у substantial amounts of free С а О (uncombined lime, causing lime
expansion; this is monitored Ь у the boiling test). For reactions see SectionVII.2.
The test for soundness specified in DIN 1164, Part 6, is the boiling test and is
performed at the same time as the setting test, using surplus cement paste (or
otherwise paste of the same consistency prepared for the purpose). Half this
sample is formed into а lump, placed о п the centre of а sheet of glass, and gently
vibrated, so that it spreads into а "pat" about 1О с т in diameter and 1 с т thick,
which is allowed to set and harden at 90% relative humidity for 24 hours. The
sample is then boiled for 2 hours.lfcracking orwarping occurs, the cement must Ь е
rated as having failed the test. But if the sample remains sharp-edged, free from
portland cement
Eisen/ Hochofen cement
trass cement
low-heat cement
heat of hydration (J/g)
at 7 days
о п complete hydration
United States of America
BL, POZ ASTM С 595-76
С Cement chemistry - cement quality
silicate and/or tricalcium aluminate) and slag cements with а high content of
г slag. Values for the heat of hydration of cements а г е given in
Т а Ы е 15.
In accordance with D1N 1164, Part 8, the heat of hydration is determined with а
heat-of-solution calorimeter. As stated there, " ... this method is intended for the
determination ofthe specific heat in J/g that is released when а cement undergoes
hydration under isothermal conditions. The heat of solution of the unhydrated
cement sample as well as that of the sample hydrated at 200 С (water-cement ratio
w/c = 0.4) in а specified acid г is г The difference between thetwo
heats of solution is the heat of hydration."
The test apparatus comprises а heat-of-solution calorimeter with accessories
(Dewarflask, stirrer, funnel, etc.), an officially calibrated Beckmann thermometer
and an appropriate acid г (nitric acid + hydrofluoric acid). The cement paste
samples (their mix proportions, mixing г and г а г е specified)
а г е stored in а water bath at 200 ± 0.50 С The heats of solution of the unhydrated
and of the hydrated cement а г е determined from the rise in г occurring
when the samples dissolve (the test should Ь е performed in г
surroundings) and from the determinations of the С а О content о г the losses о п
ignition, if applicabIe). Formulas for calculating the heat of solution from the test
data а г е given in the Standard. It is an elaborate г
Т у р е of cement
all cements
Great Britain
NF Р 15-300
NF Р 15-301
1978 edition
BS 12: 1978
BS 12: Part 2:
BS 4027. Part 2'
Issuing authority
Association г а щ а е
de Normalisation,
г г
Cedex 7,
F-92080 Paris la Detense
British Standards
British Standards
2 Park Street,
London W.1
American Society for
Testing and Materials,
1916 Race Street,
Philadelphia, Р а 19103
Cement Standards of various countries
(For symbols and designations see Т а Ы е 11)
Federal RepubIic of Germany
BI, POZ Nov 1978
German Democratic RepubIic
О С HSC, SRC/LHC TGL 28101/01
BI, POZ TGL 28101/02
Т у р е of cement Standard Issuing authority
DIN Deutsches Insti-
tut fur Normung,
В г rafenstrasse 4 - 7,
О 000 Berlin 30
Amt fur Standardi-
Abt. Dokumentation,
Mohrenstrasse а
DDR-1026 Berlin
1, Alsted Nielsen, Н С Falsches Erstarren von Portlandzement und IOumpen-
bildung im Silo. - In: ZKG 26/1973/380.-384. .' .
2, Alsted Nielsen, Н С How to avoid lumplng of cement tn sllos. - In. Rock
Prod.77/1974/72-80. ..
3 Arbeitskreis "Analytische Chemie" (Hrsg.). Analysengang г Ze':lente..
. Dusseldorf' Betonverlag GmbH 1970 (Schriftenreihe der е е п е
Heft 37). 1 Е h ft
4, Autorenkol\ektiv: Technologie der Band : Igensc а
Rohstoffe, Erhartung, 1976, Band 2. Aufbereltungsprozer.. und Aufberel-
tungsanlagen (in Vorbereitung); Band 3: und ,.Brennanlagen,
1978; Band 4 Gesamtprozer.., 1979. - Berltn· VEB Verlag г Bau",,:,esen.
5. Bentz, А Lehrbuch der Angewandten Geologie, Bd. 11, К а р 5.2.. Stelne und
Erden von А Graupner. - Stuttgart: Enke Verlag 1968., '
6. Bicz6k, 1.. Betonkorrosion-Betonschutz, 2. Auflage. - Wlesbaden und Berlln
Bauverlag GmbH 1968.
С Cement chemistry - cement quality
7. Billhardt, Н W.: О Ь е г den EinfluBder Alkalien und des Sulfats aufdas Erharten
von Zement. - Iп ZKG 24/1971/91
8. Bogue, R. Н The Chemistry of Portland Cement. - New York: У а п Nostrand
Reinhold С о т р а п у 1955.
9. Butt, У М /Timashev, У У The mechanism of clinker formation process and
ways of modification of clinker structure. - VI. Intern. Congr. Chem. С е т
Moskau (1974), Sect. 1-4, Principal Р а р е г
10. Cembureau (Hrsg.): The Testing of Cement. - Paris 1967.
11. Cembureau (Hrsg.) : Cement Standards of the world (portland cement and its
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12. Chatterji, S. / Jeffery, J. W.: The effect of various heat treatments of the clinker
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13. Czernin, W.: Zementchemie fur Bauingenieure, 3. Auflage. - Wiesbaden und
Berlin: Bauverlag GmbH 1977
14. DIN 1164: Portland-, Eisenportland-, Hochofen- und TraBzement, Т 1 Т 8,
November 1978. - Berlin und К п Beuth-Verlag GmbH.
15. 01 N4188: SiebbOden, Oktober 1977. Т 1 - DrahtsiebbOden fur Analysensie-
Ь е М а В е Т 2 - DrahtsiebbOden fur Analysensiebe, Anforderungen und
PrUfung. - Berlin und К Б п Beuth Verlag GmbH.
16. DIN 51043: Т г а В Anforderungen, PrUfung, Januar 1972 (Entwurf' August
1977). - Berlin und К п Beuth Verlag GmbH.
17. Engelhardt, W. v. / Fuchtbauer, Н / Muller, G.. Sediment- Petrologie, TI. 11:
Fuchtbauer / Muller: Sedimente und Sedimentgesteine, 3. Auflage. Stuttgart:
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18. Frigione, G. / Di leva, R.: Size distribution of granular components in portland
and bIastfurnace cement. - п il cemento 72/1975/13 - 24.
19. Gille, F (Hrsg.). Mikroskopie des Zementklinkers. (Bilderatlas) - Dussel-
dorf: Betonverlag GmbH 1965.
20. Goes, С Oberdas Verhalten der Alkalien beim Zementbrennen. - Dusseldorf:
Betonverlag GmbH 1969. (Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie, Heft 24)
21. Graf, О Die Eigenschaften des Betons, 2. Aufl. - Berlin, Heidelberg, New
York: Springer Verlag 1960.
22. Henkel, F.: Anwendung der R6ntgenfluoreszenzanalyse im Schichtlabora-
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23. Henning, О / KnOfel, О .. Baustoffchemie, 2. Auflage. - Wiesbaden und
Berlin: Bauverlag GmbH 1980.
24. Hinz, W.: Silikate. Grundlagen der Silikatwissenschaft und Silikattechnik
Bd. 1 und 2. - Berlin У Е В Verlag Ю г Bauwesen 1970 und 1971. '
25. Hoffmanner, F.: К Kleine Gefugekunde. Holderbank
l\I1anagement und Beratung AG, 1973. - Holderbank Management und
Beratung AG Н М В Technische Stelle, С Н Holderbank (AG).
26. Kalousek, G. l.: А Ь п о г т а set of portland cement, causes and correctives. -
US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, General Report No. 45,
Denver, С о о 1969.
27. Keienburg, R.-R.: Kornverteilung und Normfestigkeit von Portlandzement. -
Dusseldorf: Betonverlag GmbH 1977 (Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie,
Heft 42).
28. Keil, F.: Zement. Herste"ung und Eigenschaften. - Berlin: Springer-Verlag
29. KnOfel, О Erfahrungen mit dem Mehrkanal- R6ntgenspektrometer in der
Zementindustrie. - In: Siemens-Zeitschrift 42/1968/30-35.
30. KnOfel, О Quantitative r6ntgenographische Freikalkbestimmung zur Produk-
tionskontrolle im Zementwerk. - In: ZKG 23/1970/378-379.
31. KnOfel, О Beeinflussung der Eigenschaften von Portlandzementklinker und
Portlandzement durch Alkalien. - In: Silikattechnik 22/1971/262-266.
32. К п б е О Rasches Erstarren gelagerter Zemente. - Schriften der Hochschule
fur Architektur und Bauwesen Weimar 18/1975/99-108 (Vortrag auf der У
ibausil, Weimar 1973).
33. KnOfel, О е г EinfluB von TiG auf die Eigenschaften des Portlandzement-
klinkers und des Portlandzementes. - In: ZKG 30/1977/191 -196.
34. KnOfel, О Corrosion of Building Materials. - New York: У а п Nostrand
Reinhold С о т р а п у 1978. Obersetzung von KnOfel, О .. Stichwort: Baustoff-
korrosion. Wiesbaden und Berlin: Bauverlag GmbH 1975.
35. KnOfel, О Betonkorrosion - eine Obersicht. - п Bautenschutz und
Bausanierung 1/1978/50- 52, 68- 72.
36. KnOfel, О Beeinflussung einiger Eigenschaften des Portlandzementklinkers
und des Portlandzementes durch ZnO und ZnS. - In: ZKG 31/1978/157-
37 К п б е О Der optimale Sulfatgehalt in Portlandzementen. - Schriften der
Hochschule fur Architektur und Bauwesen Weimar 1978 (Vortrag auf der VI.
ibausil, Weimar 1976).
38. KnOfel, О Bautenschutz mineralischer Baustoffe. - Wiesbaden und Berlin.
Bauverlag GmbH 1979.
39. KnOfel, О Beziehungen zwischen Chemismus, Phasengehalt und Festigkeit
bei Portlandzementen. - п ZKG 32/1979/448-454.
40. KnOfel, О EinfluB von Frost und Taumittel auf Zementstein und Zuschlag. -
In: Betonwerk + Fertigteil-Technik 45/1979/221-227,315-320.
41. KnOfel, О Beitrag zum EinfluB von MgO auf die К und auf
Eigenschaften von Portlandzement. - п tiz Tonindustriezeitung 103/
1979/740- 746.
42. KnOfel, D. / Spohn, Е Der quantitative Phasengehalt in Portlandzementklin-
kern. - In' ZKG 22/1969/471-476.
43. Kodama, Т / Nieda, Т . The deterioration of quality and the aeration phenome-
п о п of sacked cement left in the air for а long time. - п Rev. 29th Gen. Meet.
С е т Ass. Jap., Tokyo 1975/62.
44. Kokubu, M./Yamanda, J.: Fly-ash cements. - VI. Internat. Congr. chem.
С е т Moskau 1974, Sect. 111 - 3, Principal-Paper.
45. Kristmann, М Portlandzement-Klinker, mineralogische und mineralchemi-
sche Untersuchungen. Holderbank Management und Beratung AG, 1977. -
Н М В Techn. Stelle, С Н Holderbank (AG).
С Cement chemistry - cement quality
46. Ki.ihl, Н Der Baustoff Zement. - Berlin: VEB Verlag fi.ir Bauwesen 1963.
47. Kuhs, R.: EinfluB des Gipses auf Klinker mit verschiedenem Aluminatgehalt. _
DLisse/dorf: Betonverlag GmbH 1958 (Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie,
Heft 22).
48. Labahn, 0./ Kaminsky, W. А Ratgeber fi.ir Zement-Ingenieure, 5. Aufl. _
Berlin und Wiesbaden: Bauver/ag GmbH 1974.
49. Lehmann, Н / Locher, F. W. / Thormann, Р Der EinfluB der Kalksteinkorn-
grbBe auf die Klinkermineralbildung im Temperaturbereich 850 -14500 С _
In: tiz Tonindustrie Zeitung 88/1964/489-498, 537-547.
50. Lieber, W. / Richartz, W. EinfluB von Triathanolamin, Zucker und Borsaure auf
das Erstarren und Erharten von Zementen. - In. ZKG 25/1972/403-
51. Locher, F. W. EinfluB der К auf die Eigenschaften des
Zements. - In. ZKG 28/1975/265-272.
52. Locher, F. W.: Die Festigkeit des Zements. - п ZKG 29/1976/247 - 249,
53. Locher, F. W./Dreizler, 1.: Zement. - In. Ullmanns Encyklopadie der
technischen Chemie, 19. Band. - MLinchen: Verlag Urban und Schwarzen-
berg 1969.
54. Locher, F. W. / Sprung, S. / Opitz, D.: Reaktionen im Bereich der Ofengase. _
In: ZKG 25/1972/1 -12.
55. Locher, F. W. / Sprung, S. / Korf, Р .. Der EinfluB der KorngrbBenverteilung auf
die Festigkeit von Portlandzement. - In: ZKG 26/1973/349-355.
56. Locher, F. W. / Richartz, W. / Sprung, S.: Erstarren von Zement, Teil 1:
Reaktion und GefLigeentwicklung. - In. ZKG 29/1976/435-442.
57. Locher, F. W./ Smolczyk, H.-G./Woermann, Е Kramer, Н Grade, К В е
stimmung der Phasenzusammensetzung von Zementen. - DLisseldorf
Betonverlag GmbH 1962 (Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie, Heft 29).
58. Ludwig, U.: Uber die EinfluBnahme verschiedener Sulfate auf das Erstarren
und Erharten von Zementen. - In. ZKG 21/1968/81-90, 109-119, 175-
59. Ludwig, U./Darr, G.-M.. Uber die Brennbarkeit von Zementrohmeh/. - In:
ZKG 28/1975/421 -423.
60. Ludwig, R. / Richartz, W.: AufschluBmittel fLir die Rbntgenfluoreszenzanalyse
von Stoffen der Zementindustrie. - п ZKG 31/1978/550-557.
61. LLihr, Н Р / Efes, У : Influence of granulometry of fly-ash with low ignition
losses о п the strength development of motar prisms. - VI Internat. Congr.
Chem. С е т Moskau 1974, Sect. 111 - 3, Suppl. Paper 153.
62. Massazza, F.: Chemistry of pozzolanic additions and mixed Cements. - VI.
Internat. Congr. Chem. С е т Moskau 1974, Sect. 111 - 6, Principal Paper. п
il cemento 73/1976/3- 38.
63. Matouschek, F.: Beitrag zur Erkarung der Knollenbildung im Zement. - In:
ZKG 25/1972/395 - 396.
64. MerkbIatt Liber die Praparationsverfahren fLir die Rbntgenfluoreszenzanalyse
von Stoffen der Zementindustrie (Fassung Mai 1978). - In. ZKG
31 /1 978/558 - 564.
65. Plesch, R.. Energie- oder wellenlangendispersive Rbntgenanalyse in der
Zementindustrie. - In: ZKG 30/1977/279- 281.
66. Quervain, F. de. Technische Gesteinskunde, 2. Auflage. - Basel und
Stuttgart: Birkhauser Verlag 1967.
67. Regourd, М / Gunier, А The crystal chemistry of the constituents of portland
cement clinker. - VI. Int. Congr. Chem. С е т Moskau 1974, Sect. I - 2,
Principal- Paper.
68. Richartz, W.: EinfluB der Lagerung auf die Eigenschaften des Zementes. - п
ZKG 26/1973/67 - 74.
69. Salge, Н /Thormann, Р Llber den EinfluB von Р е auf die Konstitution von
Zementklinker. - In: ZKG 26/1973/532-539.
70. Schmidt, D.: Erfahrungen mit der rbntgenographischen Freikalkbestimmung.
- In: ZKG 31/1978/502-506.
71. Schmidt- Н е п с о С EinfluB der Zusammensetzung des Klinkers auf Erstarren
und Anfangsfestigkeit von Zement. - 1n ZKG 26/1973/63 - 66.
72. Schneider, Н Feinmahlen von Zementklinker mit Mahlhilfsmitteln - п ZKG
73. Schwiete, Н Е / Otto, Р : EinfluB der Granulationstemperatur und der chemi-
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HLittenzementen. - Forschungsbericht NRW I\Ir. 2055 (1969).
74. Seebach, Н М v.· Die Wirkung von Dampfen organischer FlUssigkeiten bei
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75. Seidel, К Handbuch fLir das Zementlabor. - Wiesbaden und Berlin:
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76. Seidel/Huckauf/Stark. Technologie der Bindebaustoffe; Bd. 3 Der Brenn-
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77. Spohn, Е / Woermann, Е / Knbfel, D. Eine verfeinerte Kalkstandardformel. -
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78. Sprung, S.: EinfluB der MLihlenatmosphare auf das Erstarren und die Festigkeit
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83. Taylor, Н F. W.: The Chemistry of Cements, Vol. 1und 11. - London: Academic
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С Cement chemistry - cement quality
D. М а п а с е of cement
1. Materials preparation technology
D. Manufacture of cement
85. Vavrin, F.: Effect of chemical additions о п hydratation process and hardening
of cement. - VI. Internat. Congr. Chem. С е т Moskau 1974, Sect. 11-6,
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86. Verbeck, G. J. / Helmuth, А Н Structures and physical properties of cement
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Fachbereich 7 (Generalberichter F. W. Locher), е г а г е п е с п п
е е п е е п с а е п (S. 625- 707). - е Ь а е п п В е г п Bauverlag
GmbH 1979.
88. Walz, К Н е г е п о п В е о п nach DIN 1045. В е о п е с п о о с е
А г Ь е п е г а е п 2. Auflage. - Dusseldorf: В е о п е г а GmbH 1972.
89. Weber, Р а г е Ь е г а п im г е о е п п е г В е г с с п der Kreis-
а о г а п е п Р а е п Ы п - п ZKG о п е г е 9/1960.
90. Wesche, К Baustoffe fur г а е п е Bauteile, Bd. 2: с е а с а п о г а п
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е е п п г е Heft 28).
92. о е г а п п Е е с о р о о п of alite п е с п с а р о г а п с е е п с п е г _
Р г о с IV. п е г п Sympos. Chem. С е т а п о п 1960, Bd. 1, S. 119.
93 о е г а п п E./Eysel, W./Hahn, Th.: Chemische п strukturelle п е г
с п е п zur М с г а Ы п о п Tricalciumsilicat. - п ZKG 16/
1963/370-375; 20/1967/385-391; 21/1968/241-251; 22/1969/235-
241 п 414-422.
94. о о а г е е п о п Н е п п п О u.a.: Т е с п о о е der В п е Ь а
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fur Bauwesen 1976.
В у Н Schneider and U. Binder
1 Primary reduction . .
1.1 е п о п and characteristics
1.2 Types of crusher .
1.2.1 Jaw crushers ..
1.2.2 Gyratory crushers
1.2.3 Roll crushers . .
1.2.4 Impact crushers .
1.2.5 Н а т т е г crushers
1.3 Crushing р а п .
1.3.1 Stationary crushing plants
1.3.2 Mobile crushing plants .
References. . . . . . . . . . . .
2 Size classification . .
2.1 с г е е п п .
2.2 С а с а о п associated with dry grinding processes
2.2.1 Static air separator ....
2.2.2 Bladed rotor separator . .
2.2.3 Circulating air separators .
2.2.4 Channel wheel separator .
2.3 Classification in wet г п п .
2.3.1 Н у г о с у с о п е
2.3.2 Curved screens . . . . . . .
2.4 Criteria for the assessment of с а с а о п processes
е е г е п с е . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
г п п .
General п г о с о п . .
Forms of comminuting а с о п .
Types of grinding mill . . . .
TumbIing mills . . . . . . .
TumbIing mills with grinding media (tube mills)
Various forms of construction for tube mills
Motion of grinding media in tube mills
М о о п of the material being ground
Effect of volume п с г е а е о п г п п
Calculating the mill drive power. . .
D. Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
3.6 TumbIing mills without grinding media (autogenous mills)
3.7 Monitoring of wear
3.7.1 Mechanical checks . . . . . . . . .
3.7.2 Mill lining .
3.7.3 Intermediate and discharge diaphragms
3.7.4 Feed and discharge equipment
3.7.5 Other checks .
3.8 Process engineering checks. . . . .
3.8.1 Determining the loading percentage .
3.8.2 Grinding media classification . . . .
3.8.3 Determining the number of fractured grinding media
3.8.4 Checking the lining . . . . . .
3.8.5 Checking the diaphragms. . . .
3.8.6 Checks п the interior of the mill
3.9 Size reduction. . . . . . . . .
3.9.1 Height and condition of the material bed
3.9.2 Build-up of material о п liners and grinding media.
3.9.3 Determination of wear Grinding media wear .. Lining wear. . . . . . Wear of the diaphragms
References. . . . . . . . . .
4 Roller mills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1 Roller mill design е а ш е .
4.1.1 Mills with truncated-conical rollers (Loesche mills) ..
4.1.2 Mills with convex-surfaced rollers (Pfeiffer MPS mills)
4.1.3 Mills with spherical grinding elements (Peters mills)
4.2 Grinding action developed in roller mills .
4.2.1 Draw-in action of the grinding elements .
4.2.2 Grinding action . . .
4.2.3 Control of roller mills
References. . . . . . . . . .
5 Grinding and drying of coal .
5.1 Preparation of the coal. general considerations .
5.2 Storage......
5.3 Grinding and drying .
5.4 Grinding process . .
5.5 Types of coal grinding
5.5.1 TumbIing mills ..
5.5.2 Roller mills . . . .
5.6 Safety requirements
References. .
Primary reduction
1. Materials preparation technology
The purpose of the preparatory processing of the raw materials is to convert these
chemically and minera/ogically different materials. usually supplied to the plant
in coarse lumps. into raw meal or slurry of homogeneous composition. This has to
Ь е accomplished with suitabIy chosen machinery and methods, а п at low.est
possibIe cost, in order thus to fulfil the basic conditions for а п economlcal Ь П П
process. . .
Primary crushing, е п п drying, grinding, combined п П and drYlng,
and homogenizing are the principal processing stages in the preparation of the raw
materials for cement manufacture. Screening and classifying are separating
methods which are used in the cement industry in order to с а п у out the size
reduction operations with greater economy. О П the other hand, beneficiation of
raw materials Ь у separation of unutilizabIe constituents and concentration of the
utilizabIe ones Ь у screening or classifying is only exceptionally applied in cement
а п а с ш е Limestone and clay - the two principal raw materials for cement
clinker production - as well as secondary raw materials containing aluminium
oxide, silicon oxide and iron oxide, which are used as admixtures in the process,
are almost everywhere availabIe in adequate quantities and suitabIe chemical
Elaborate beneficiation treatments such as are widely employed in ore and coal
preparation are therefore generally not required in the cement industry and, apart
from certain individual cases, not economically viabIe either.
1 Primary reduction
Reducing the raw materials to а fine powder - conventionally called "meal" - is
necessary in order to produce а homogeneous mixture which will quickly Ь е
converted in the kiln into а homogeneous clinker containing п о free lime.
As а rule, size reduction (comminution) of the raw materials is effected in at least
two main stages: crushing (primary reduction) and grinding (fine reduction). In
the cement industry it is not usual to make а sharp distinction between these
stages in terms of particular product sizes of the crushing machinery. Indeed, the
borderline is variabIe, depending о п the performance and attainabIe reduction ratio
of the crushers and grinding mills and thus depending a/so о п the technical
development of these machines.
Generally speaking. crushing denotes the size reduction process that breaks down
the material to а particle size suitabIe as feed for the next main stage, i.e., grinding.
In applying the distinction between crushing and grinding it is of п о consequence
whether either or both of these main stages are accomplished in о п е or more
individual stages.
In present-day cement manufacture, with due regard to the possibi/ities of the
reduction machinery employed, crushing is taken to mean reducing the particle
size to between about 80 and 20 mm. This crushed product is further reduced Ь у
grinding to а fineness below about 0.2 mm size, in which condition it is called
raw meal and is ready for feeding to the kiln.
О g'
з §
2 'i
1 к
10.] 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5
particle size d in mm
10 1 2 3 4 5 102
t/ I!
1/1 J1
......V V
" 1./
0.110" 2 3 4 5
;;-- 40
.!; 50
о 60
,§ 90
i 95
е 96
1 в
The granulometric composition of the feed о г the product of а size reduction
machine is determined Ь у screening о г sieving in the coarse particle size range
(above about 50 microns).
The resu It Qf the particle size analysis (screen о г sieve analysis) с а п Ь е represented
in а numerical tabIe and/or as а particle size cumulative distribution curve
Fig. 2: Reduction ratio "z"
1200 800 600
Z95 = -- = 48; ZBO = - = 57 , Z63 2 = -86 = 70
25 14 '.
А = crusher feed (fragmented rock obtained Ь у bIasting)
В = crusher product (discharged from а г hammer crusher)
п open-circuit reduction the material passes only о п с е through the machine,
whereas in closed-circuit reduction the material discharged from the machine
is separated Ь у screening о г classifying (the latter usually Ь у air separation) into
fine and coarse particles, the latter being г to the machine for г
reduction (Fig.1 а
The so-called reduction ratio is frequently applied as а criterion for judging the
operating range of crushers. It is the ratio of the size (Iinear edge dimension) of the
largest piece in the feed material to the size of the largest piece in the crushed
product. As it is difficult actually to determine the largest sizes in the feed and in the
product, these respective particle sizes а г е instead defined in terms of а certain
percentage Ь у weight) passing а screen, e.g., 95% о г 80% о г 63.2% (Fig. 2).
Primary reduction: Definitions and characteristics
Fig.1 : Open-circuit size reduction
Fig.1 а Closed-circuit size reduction
О г of cement '. Materials preparation technology
1.1 Definitions and characteristics
Before describing the actual size reduction processes it is necessary to define some
с о т т о п у used concepts associated with them:
Single-stage reduction means that the material is reduced to the desired
product fineness Ь у the action of just о п е machine, which т а у operate either о п
the open-circuit (sing/e-pass) о г the closed-circuit principle (Fig.1). Multi-
stage reduction is effected in two о г т о г е machines in series, each of which
constitutes о п е stage of the reduction process and which operates either in о р е п о г
in closed circuit.
fresh feed
fine product
actual feed
(fresh feed+oversize)
О Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology Primary reduction: Definitions and characteristics
, -- ·/.UI а 5U!SSDd UO!lJodoJd

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2000 1800 1600 Б О а 800 1000 1200
particle si1;e d in т т

Fig. З Cumulative distribution с и г у е for rock pile produced Ь у large-
hole bIasting (Iinear scales о п both axes)
from which the percentage retained о п о г passing а п у particular aperture size с а п
Ь е read (Fig. 3). П the diagram the particle sizes а г е shown о п the horizontal axis,
while the percentages Ь у weight) а г е marked о п the vertical axis. А linear scale
may Ь е adopted for both axes о г alternatively, only for the vertical axis, while the
particles а г е plotted to а logarithmic scale.
Quite often the well-known Rosin-Rammler-Bennett (RRB) particle size distri-
bution is comminuted materials, which uses log d for the horizontal
and log log -R- for the vertical axis (d = particle size, R = percentage
If the exponential relationship estabIished Ь у Rosin, Rammler and Sperling is
strictly conformed to, the distribution curve appears as а straight line which is
characterized Ь у two values. the equivalent particle size d' and the uniformity
coefficient n (Fig. 4), where d' is the size corresponding to 36.8% Ь у weight)
retained as residue о п the sieve (oversize) and n is the tangent of the slope of the
line. Particle size distribution diagrams а г е commercially availabIe which а г е
provided with scales о п the vertical and horizontal axes enabIing the values of n
and of the specific surface of comminuted materials to Ь е read.
The actual values determined in tests generally deviate more о г less from the
theoretical straight lines. Even so, the exponential relationship is а useful
approximate equation.
Fig.4: С и г у е for oversize particles in hammer т product (RRB
diagram). Material' limestone
О Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Types of crushers
lumps of clinker о г kiln coating (as discharged from rotary coolers о г shaft kilns, for
example). О П the other hand, they а г е seldom used for the crushing of limestone in
cement works.
The reciprocating motion of the crushing jaw of the о е а г Blake type)
jaw crusher subjects the material to а mainly compressive action. This machine is
especially suitabIe for crushing very hard material fed in coarse lumps (Fig. а
In the single-toggle jaw crusher the jaw moves not only backwards and forwards
but also up and down, so that there is attrition as well as compressive crushing
action. Crushers of this type а г е т о г е suitabIefor the reduction of hard to medium-
hard material fed in smaller lumps (Fig. Ь
Jaw crushers а г е sensitive to moist and plastic feed material and tend to choke if
there is а substantial proportion of fine particles in the feed. The attainabIe
reduction ratio is between about 6:1 and 8:1. For obtaining а product of
favourabIe size for feeding to grinding mills it is generally necessary to apply
secondary crushing in another type of crusher.
The particle size distribution of the jaw crusher product is considerabIy affected Ь у
the loading of the machine; а crusher operating substantially below capacity will
yield а coarse product with а high proportion of oversize.
2000 1800 1600 600 200
V/1//V/ V/



:/; l/j





800 1(w 1200 1400
particle size d in т т -_
Fig. 5: Particle size distribution diagram for rock pile produced Ь у large-
hole bIasting
The logarithmic division of the horizontal axis of а particle size distribution diagram
offers the advantage that the finer sizes а г е characterized т о г е prominently, which
is appropriate because of their greater importance than the coarser ones in
determining the overall surface а г е а of the comminuted material concerned.
В у differentiation the particle size distribution diagram с а п Ь е derived from
the cumulative distribution curve (Fig. 5): The horizontal axis is divided into equal
portions, each representing а particle size class о г fraction, and for each portion the
corresponding ordinate is determined, indicating the percentage Ь у weight) of
this size class in the comminuted material as а whole.
Е 15

1.2.1 Jaw crushers
Jaw crushers а г е used for the primary reduction of very hard and abrasive
admixtures for cement manufacture, such as quartzite о г iron а г е and of large
Solid rock which has Ь е е п dis/odged from its natural deposit Ь у bIasting о г ripping
forms а coarsely fragmented rock pile, initially with its natura! inherent moisture.
The hardness, fragment size, moisture content, plasticity and abrasiveness of the
material а г е important factors affecting the choice of the size reduction machines
and methods for dealing with it. Hard materials causing severe abrasive wear а г е
reduced with slow-running machines such as jaw crushers and gyratory crushers,
which function Ь у developing mainly а compressive action. For medium-hard to
hard materials impact crushers and hammer crushers а г е т о г е suitabIe, they
achieve size reduction mainly Ь у impact.
The gyratory crusher is seldom found in the Е ш о р е а п cement industry, which uses
mainly medium-hard to hard and not very abrasive limestone. In other parts of the
world, however, it is т о г е commonly employed in the industry. Its size reduction is
achieved mainly Ь у compressive action between the fixed conical bowl and the
oscillating cone-shaped crushing head, which functions somewhat like а pestle in
а mortar. The lower end of the shaft carrying the crushing head is mounted in а п
eccentric which performs а horizontal rotary motion, while the upper end is
mounted in а fixed ball-and-socket type bearing. As in the jaw crusher, the width
of the crushing gap continually varies between а maximum and а minimum.
The width of the gap с а п Ь е altered Ь у raising о г lowering the crushing head, а п
adjustment that takes only а few minutes to perform and is effected mechanically о г
1.2 Types of crusher
а о е crusher
Fig. 6: Jaw crushers
1.2.2 Gyratory crushers
Ь single-toggle crusher
О г of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Types of crushers
For primary reduction the width of the rolls is approximately equal totheir diameter,
the ratio of these dimensions usually being within the range of 0.8 to 1.2. The
attainabIe size reduction ratio IS fairly low, only from about 3: 1 to 5: 1.
Circumferential velocities of the rolls are 5-9 m/second.
г о (ortwin-roll) crushers with 1800 т т roll diameter and approximately
equal effective roll width attain throughputs of 1000-1200 t/hour for а gap width
of about 250 т т between the rolls and с а п accept feed material up to 1000 т т in
П some machinesthe two bearings of о п е crushing roll arefixed totheframe ofthe
crusher, while those of the other roll are mounted о п slide rails. This movabIe roll is
held in its predetermined working position with the aid of pull-rods and springs.
The movabIe mounting enabIes the crushing gap width to Ь е varied, while the
springs provide some "give" to allow uncrushabIe foreign bodies in the feed to
pass. г о crushers in which both rolls are movabIy mounted are also
As а rule, the two rolls are driven separately, each through а V-belt drive. The
specific power consumption is in the range of 0.2 to 0.3 kWh/t.
1.2.4 Impact crushers
1n its mode of operation and design featu res the impact crusher differs considerabIy
from the slow-running jaw, gyratory and roll crushers, which reduce ф е material
Ь у а predominantly compressive (and therefore truly "crushing") action. The
Fig. 9: г о crusher
1.2.3 Roll crushers
Roll crushers are used for the primary reduction of medium-hard moist and
abrasive materials such as marl, shale and clay (Fig. 9). The feed is subjected to
compressive and shearing action between а pair of counter-rotating rolls, which
т а у Ь е either smooth or corrugated or provided with tooth-like projections. The
teeth give better bite to the feed and concentrate the action of the crushing force,
enabIing large and compact pieces of rock to Ь е split.
or stockpile in heavy trucks с а п Ь е tipped straight into the feed opening. Uniform
size distribution in the crushed product с а п however, Ь е obtained only if а
controlled rate of feed is maintained.
Like the jaw crusher, the gyratory crusher is sensitive to moist and plastic feed
material and it tends to choke if the material has а high fines content.
Fig. 7: Gyratory crusher
Fig.8: Unifeed gyratory crusher (Krupp-Esch)
(in machines of more modern design) hydraulically. Increase in gap width due to
wear of the bowl and crushing head с а п thus Ь е compensated, so that the service
life of these parts с а п Ь е extended Ь у some 50 to 60% without having to
recondition or replace them, while the product size remains approximately
unchanged throughout their lifetime. Vertical adjustment of the head in relation to
the bowl enabIes the gap width to Ь е varied within а range of 15-20% from the
average setting (Fig.7).
The ratio between the radial width А of the feed opening and the maximum
discharge gap width С in large primary crushers is between 6: 1 and 9: 1, which
corresponds to the attainabIe reduction ratio for predominantly cubic material. If
the machine is fed with material of а more irregular shape, this ratio, referred to the
maximum dimensions of the pieces, т а у Ь е as high as 12: 1 to 15: 1.
The largest gyratory crushers in current use attain throughputs of over 6000 г
and have feed openings 1500 т т х 4400 т т in size А х В while the discharge
gaps range in width from 150 to 250 т т
А jaw crusher designed for а certain throughput rate с а п accept larger pieces of
rock than the normal gyratory crusher. In order to с о р е with equally large-sized
feed, the gyratory crusher has to Ь е over-designed in terms of capacity.
In а special form of the machine, called the unifeed gyratory crusher (Krupp-Esch;
Morgardshammar), this drawback has Ь е е п eliminated. It is substantially similar to
а п ordinary gyratory crusher, except that the feed opening is provided with а п
enlarged receiving space о п о п е side, which functions as а pre-crushing chamber
(Fig. 8). The oscillating motion of the crushing head is similar to that in а п ordinary
gyratory crusher.
А general advantage of the gyratory crusher is that it is unaffected Ь у overloading.
It requires п о special feedif1g device. the fragmented rock coming from the quarry
О . Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
alternative terms to "crushing" and "crusher" а г е "breaking" and "breaker", and it
would perhaps Ь е more accurate to speak only of "impact breaker", but in practice
the distinction is seldom consistently made.
' П the impact crusher the feed material entering the crushing chamber encounters
the impactor bars immovabIy mounted о п the rotor and revolving with it at а
circumferential velocity of 30-45 m/second. The fragments are flung against the
upper breaker plate, rebound into the crushing chamber, are again subjected to the
action of the impactor bars, and so о п until they have Ь е е п sufficiently reduced to
pass through the upper gap into the space between the two breaker plates. Н е г е
the process is repeated until the material is fine enough to pass through the second
gap. Besides the impact of the rock fragments with the bars and plates there is also
а п "autogenous" reduction effect due to the rock fragments colliding with о п е
another (Fig. 1О ) .
__----"IIIiIL. ..s- Fig.10: Single-rotor impact crusher
The impact crusher is best suited for dealing with brittle hard to medium-hard
material with natural cleavage planes. It cannot с о р е very well with soft, plastic
and moist material.
The shape and arrangement of the breaker plates, the circumferential velocity of the
rotor and the number and design of the impactor bars should Ь е chosen with due
regard to the nature of the feed material (type of rock) and the maximum feed
Depending о п the hardness and size of the feed, coarse impact crushers reduce the
material to а product size of between 150 and 200 mm and attain reduction ratios
of between 6: 1 and 20: 1. The circumferential velocity of the rotor is а major factor:
low velocity results in а coarse product; with higher velocity the size reduction
Types of crushers
Fig.11: Compound impact crusher (Hazemag)
energy is greater and the material is broken up into correspondingly smaller
fragments, but the rate of wear о п the bars and plates is of course higher (it
increases proportionally to the square of the velocity). The optimum feed material
size range of 0- 25 mm for raw mills cannot Ь е achieved in а single pass through
the coarse impact crusher. Applying the closed-circuit principle in this case does
not achieve а п у worthwhile improvement in reducing the product size. А more
efficient method is to use а secondary crushing stage, e.g., in the form of а second
impact crusher operating with higher rotor circumferential velocity.
' П the compound impact crusher the two stages - primary and secondary - а г е
combined in а single machine (Fig. 11). This is а dual-rotor crusher in which the
primary rotor runs at about 35 m/second and the secondary rotor (mounted below
and to о п е side ofthe primary) runs at about 45 m/second circumferential velocity.
The maximum product particle size is determined Ь у the bottom gap formed Ь у а п
additional ridged comminuting anvil plate. Compound crushers с а п accept feed
lumps up to about 1.5 m size, reducing it to а product in which 95% is smaller than
25 mm, corresponding to а reduction ratio of 60: 1, achieved in а single pass:
The upper rotor is fitted with fixed impactor bars, while the lower rotor has Im-
pactor bars о г movabIy mounted hammers, depending о п the nature of the feed
material and the required product fineness.
1.2.5 Hammer crushers
The hammer crusher is the most widely used machine for the primary reduction of
medium-hard to hard limestone and marl in the cement industry.
The main feature is the rotor which carries а series of pivoted hammers. When the
rotor is running, the centrifugal forces cause the hammers to point radially
outwards. ' П the upper crushing chamber the feed material is subjected to а
combination of impact and percussive action Ь у the hammers and Ь у repeated
collision with the breaker plate, together with "autogenous" action Ь у fragments

О Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
of rock colliding with о п е another. The finer reduction is accomplished in the gap
between the hammers and the breaker plate in the single-rotor hammer crusher.
The width of the product outlets between the bottom grid bars determines the
maximum product particle size. As а rule, the process engineering requirement of
obtaining the finest possibIe mill feed in а single crushing pass is fulfilled Ь у the
hammer crusher.
Н а т т е г crushers а г е built as single-rotor (Fig.12) and twin-rotor machines
(Fig. 13). The rotors т а у consist of а series of discs mounted о п а square shaft о г
т а у alternatively take the form of rollers. If hammers with forged-on individual
pivot stubs а г е employed, the rotor discs must Ь е axially movabIe for changing the
hammers when they have Ь е с о т е worn. It is, however, better to key the discs
securely to the rotor shaft and to mount the hammers о п continuous spindles
extending the full width of the rotor. О п disc-type rotors with recesses and о п
roller-type rotors the hammers а г е installed in а staggered arrangement so as to
give complete coverage across the rotor. Rotors а г е mounted in plain о г in anti-
friction bearings.
The forged о г cast hammers range from about 30 kg to 200 kg in weight, according
to the size of the crusher. The discharge grids enclose the rotors through а п angle
of between 1200 and 1800 and а г е т о г е particularly in large crushers, axially о г
radially divided for convenience of handling in terms ofweight and size. The forged
grid bars а г е of triangular о г trapezoidal cross-section (Fig.14). Triangular bars
form wider entry apertures to the product discharge openings and thus offer less
resistance to the passage of the material, but wear away т о г е rapidly so that the
openings Ь е с о т е too wide. This effect is less pronounced with trapezoidal bars,
which moreover, for equal structural strength and equal width of the openings,
have а larger о р е п grid surface а г е а than triangular ones.
Fig.12: Single-rotor hammer crusher О К
Types of crushers
З Twin-rotor hammer crusher. type Titan О К
Fig.14: Grid bar cross-sections. Effective о р е п grid surface area Fo for
equal section modulus of bars: F
= 1.5 Fo•
О . Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
The grid openings of primary crushers operating as single-stage machines which
supply feed for tube mills are usually 25 mm in width, thus attaining а product with
only 3-5% oversize in the 25-30mm fraction. However, widths of 40-50mm
are employed in crushers which are fed with raw materials containing plastic
components and above 6-8% moisture, the greater width being necessary to
avoid choking of the grids.
Single-rotor hammer crushers are built for throughputs of up to about 2000 t/hour.
For example, а well known machine of this capacity has а rotor of 3300 mm width
and а hammer circle diameter of 3350 mm, equipped with 112 hammers weighing
150 kg each.
The circumferential velocity of the rotors is between about 28 and 33 m/second.
Fig.15: Hammer crusher with feed rollers (F.L.S.). 1 feeder, 2 chain curtain,
3 feed rollers, 4 hammer rotor, 5 adjustabIe impact wall
Types of crushers
The hammer crusher shown in Fig. 15 is а special form of construction, equipped
with two rollers which rotate in the same direction, but at different speeds, and feed
the material to the rotor equipped with freely movabIe hammers. Undersize
particles already present in the feed are discharged through the gap between the
rollers. The impact wall and bottom discharge grid, which encloses the rotor
through а п angle of about 1200, are adjustabIe in relation to the rotor, so that the
wear of ф е hammers, breaker elements and grid bars с а п Ь е compensated to some
' П another version of the hammer crusher there are likewise two feed rollers, but
this machine has two rotors, rotating both in the same direction.
Crusher drive systems
Single-rotor and twin-rotor hammer crushers are usually driven Ь у slip-ring motors
via а V-belt transmission system. As а rule, slip resistors are provided in order to
ensureflexibIe behaviour of the drive motor. In the event of а drop in rotation speed
due to impact loading of the rotor, the motor will still develop а high torque and the
V-belt drive will Ь е less severely strained. The drive pulley, which serves as а
flywheel, is overhung-mounted о п the rotor shaft - even о п the largest crushers
hitherto built - and is fixed Ь у means of locking sleeves or similar devices.
The motor shaft is connected to the intermediate drive shaft Ь у means of а flexibIe
coupling. If а squirrel-cage motor is used, а fluid clutch is additionally provided, in
order to facilitate motor starting and prevent surges in the supply system.
Some twin-rotor hammer crushers are equ ipped with rotors directly driven through
reduction gear units.
А new type of drive - direct drive with а travelling-wave (Iinear) motor of
segmental design - has Ь е е п used for single- rotor hammer crushers. In this type of
motor the torque is transmitted to the rotating element, which is designed to
function also as а flywheel and is mounted direct о п the rotor shaft of the crusher
thus dispensing with the V-belt transmission. The travelling-wave motor has ~
favourabIe torque characteristic and takes up less space than conventional motors.
Its slightly lower efficiency is hardly а п important drawback, but а more serious
objection is its high cost.
Auxiliary equipment
With the evolution of crushers to larger and larger throughput ratings the
dimensions and weights of their wearing parts are correspondingly increasing.
Removal and renewal of worn parts without the aid of suitabIe lifting appliances is
awkward and time-consuming. The solutions adopted Ь у some manufacturers to
ease these probIems will Ь е briefly described Ь у way of example.
Several of them have developed special auxiliary equipment to facilitate the
operations of changing the wearing parts of their machines and thus substantially
reduce the repair downtime periods.
О г of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Types of crushers
/ '\
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The throughput rate and fineness of the product а г е affected Ь у the state of wear of
the comminuting components of the crusher. Hammers have to Ь е reversed,
resurfaced with hard steel Ь у welding), о г entirely renewed, before their size
reduction effec! decreases too much. The bottom grid bars, too, must Ь е г
о г renewed before they let through а п unacceptabIy high proportion of oversize
partic!es in the crushed product.
The hammers and grid bars are made of forged, cast о г rolled steel. The choice of
construction material depends о п the size, hardness and abrasiveness of the
crusher feed and also о п the shapes that the designer adopts as being most
appropriate for these parts to meet the requirements. Generally speaking, а higher
factor of safety against г will Ь е obtained at the expense of wear
inspection. Polysius has combined the grids and casing rear walls into carriages
which с а п Ь е moved with the aid of hydraulic rams. The Mammut (Mammoth)
crusher has discharge grid carriages which travel into the crusher casing and are
positioned under the grid halves to Ь е removed (Fig. 17). After release ofthe lateral
connections the grid is lowered hydraulically onto the carriage, so that it с а п then
travel out of the casing.
The continuous spindles о п which the hammers are mounted а г е extracted and
refitted with hydraulic devices. А п electric chain hoist с а п Ь е introduced through
а п access door in the upper casing into the interior. In this way each hammer to Ь е
dismantled с а п Ь е lifted out of the crushing chamber.
Auxiliary equipment in а wider sense comprises hammer drills - hydraulically
powered, as а rule - which а г е installed о п telescopic mountings п е а г the feed
hopper and а р г о п conveyor and с а п Ь е used to break up а п у oversize pieces of
rock that get into the hopper. The same method is used also for dealing with such
pieces that inadvertently reach the hoppers о п jaw crushers о г gyratory crushers.
Fig.17: Various systems for removing and refitting the discharge grids
of twin-rotor crushers
Thus, hydraulic pull-out systems for extracting the breaker plates or bars are
provided. г hydraulic rams mounted о п the crusher casing е п а Ы е the
breaker wall and certain parts of the casing to Ь е swung о р е п о п impact crushers
and hammer crushers, without the aid of other auxiliary devices. Also, various
solutions for changing the bottom discharge grids of hammer crushers have Ь е е п
devised. Polysius, for instance, releases the bottom part of the casing and pulls out
the two halves of the г grid, which с а п then Ь е lifted out Ь у а crane. In the
М iag Titan crusher the rear walls с а п Ь е swung о р е п Ь у hydraulic rams, while the
grids are connected Ь у swivel mountings to the walls of the casing and с а п Ь е
moved Ь у means of the rams for maintenance and also for adjustment while the
crusher is running.
Design г о п the upper part of the machine е п а Ы е sections of casing which
are situated beside the rotor shaft to Ь е removed, without having to dismantle the
upper casing, for taking out and refitting the rotors (Fig.16). The twin-rotor
crushers of Krupp are likewise equipped with hydraulic rams with which the г е а г
walls с а п Ь е swung о р е п so that the lining and rotors Ь е с о т е accessibIe for
Fig.16: Auxiliary equipment for changing worn parts О К Mammut
crusher), а hammer lifting device, Ь hammer spindle extracting device, с discharge
grid extracting device
О . Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
It is advantageous to use steel having а constant tensile strength over the whole
length of the hammer, with а high degree of hardness at the head and with
adequate toughness and wear resistance at the pivot hole. The hardness of the
metal around the hole is of major influence о п the service life of the hammer spindle
and is а factor that deserves careful attention in choosing the material for the
hammer to Ь е suitabIy compatibIe with that of the spindle.
If the discharge openings in the bottom grids а г е narrow and the feed material has а
high moisture content, the striking faces of the hammers should have sharp edges.
When the hammers have Ь е е п worn away Ь у а п amount corresponding to about
10%weight loss, they should Ь е resurfaced in order to preserve their comminuting
effectiveness and to prevent the throughput rate of the crusher from declining. The
materials of which the hammers а г е made should therefore also Ь е suitabIy
weldabIe, а property which is only to а limited extent compatibIe with the
requirements of а high degree of hardness and а long service life. Austenitic
manganese steels, possessing good weldability, а г е best suited for the purpose.
' П the development of composite cast hammers (Magotteaux) with the comminut-
ing head made of high-carbon cast steel with over 3% С and 16%С г the possibility
of resurfacing was relinquished from the outset. The head preserves its effective
shape and, under appropriate conditions, the working life is т о г е than doubIed in
comparison with that of the usual hammers. Lifetime is limited Ь у the low tensile
strength in the region of the pivot hole and Ь у the restricted height of the high-
с а г Ь о п cast steel head, which gives rise to cavitation phenomena at the transition
to the parent material.
The net rate of wear о п hammers for the reduction of limestone and т а г ' is in the
range of about 0.5 to 6 g/t. Grid bars usually last at least as long, and anything up to
about twice as long, as the hammers.
Considerations of е с о п о т у must decide whether to use hammers of high-carbon
cast steel which is unsuitabIe for resurfacing о г instead to make use of а less
resistant material which с а п Ь е resurfaced. The operational availability of the
crusher, wage costs and material consumption а г е factors to Ь е taken into account
in connection with this. The general trend is towards the use of high-strength
materials offering long service life.
1.3 Crushing plants
А distinction is made between single-stage and multi-stage plants, according to
whether the desired product size is attainabIe with just о п е crusher о г requires two
о г т о г е crushers operating in series. Each of these crushing stages т а у in principle
Ь е operated in о р е п circuit (with о г without preliminary screening) о г in closed
circuit (with screens о г grizzlies as the classifying devices).
Stationary crushing plants, i.e., installed in а fixed location, а г е predominant in the
cement industry, but for new installations, especially when large throughputs а г е
required, mobile plants - self-propelled о г easily relocatabIe - have Ь е с о т е
much т о г е numerous since the early 1960s, now that the various systems for
moving them from о п е working position to the next have proved reliabIe.
Stationary crushing plants
1.3.1 Stationary crushing plants
' П the Е ш о р е а п cement industry, which uses chiefly т а г ' and medium-hard to
hard limestone as its principal raw materials, single-stage crushing plants
equipped with hammer crushers а г е the commonly preferred type.
The feed hopper, feeding equipment, crusher and product removal conveyors а г е
the main component units of the plant. The feed hopper should have а capacity
equal to at least twice that of the largest vehicles supplying rock to the crusher
(Fig. 18). Caking ofmoist andstickyfeed material с а п Ь е minimized Ь у using а well
designed hopper, with rounded transitions from the end walls to the side walls. If
the hopper is of concrete, it should Ь е lined with steel plates о г , preferabIy, with
steel rails, which give much better protection against wear.
Robustly constructed а р г о п conveyors have proved most suitabIe for feeding.
They fulfil all requirements applicabIe to а feeding system in order to obtain
optimum utilization of the crusher: control of the handling rate within а certain
range, controllability in response to the loading condition of the crusher, feed over
the full working width of the crusher, ability to start under load, feed с а п Ь е
stopped instantly ( п о after-trickle of material that could choke the slowing- down
о г stopped crusher).
Particularly with moist feed material it is important that the а р г о п conveyor should
have the same width as the crusher rotor, so as to ensure that the rotor is fed
Fig.18: Stationary crushing plant ( О . & К . ) with hopper and apron feeder
О . Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
uniformly over its full width and undergoes uniformly distributed wear. Optimum
utilization of the crusher is obtained Ь у means of а п infinitely variabIe а р г о п
conveyor drive interlocked with the crusher drive. А frequently employed method
of control is to vary the а р г о п conveyor speed in response to the rotor speed. А
more suitabIe solution, quicker and more sensitive, is obtained Ь у basing the
control action о п the power consumption of the crusher drive motor.
Rubber belt conveyors а г е usually employed for carrying away the product
discharged from crushers equipped with bottom grids. ' П order to prevent caking
and build-ups of adhering material, the belt should preferabIy Ь е so wide as to
comprise the whole width of the crusher discharge opening, so that the side walls
of the connecting chute between the crusher and the belt conveyor с а п Ь е made
Steel а р r o п conveyors о г chain conveyors, though mechanically more elaborate
and expensive than belt conveyors, а г е preferabIe for product removal from impact
crushers and from hammer crushers not equipped with bottom grids. The reason is
that the material discharged from the crusher falls with greater impact force о п the
conveyor than when а bottom grid limits the size and impact velocity of the pieces
О п the feed side of the crusher, fine material sticking to the а р г о п conveyor and
falling off it о п the return run is removed Ь у а scraper conveyor installed in а
concrete trough in the foundation slab о г otherwise, if accessibIe space is required
under the а р г о п conveyor, in а steel trough mounted directly underthe latter. As а п
alternative solution the product removal conveyor о п the discharge side of the
crusher may Ь е extended rearwards to underneath the throw-off end of the feed
а р г о п conveyor and thus catch the material falling off. ' П that case а separate
scraper conveyor с а п Ь е dispensed with.
Multi-stage crushing is employed mainly in older plants whose equipment
dates from а time when high-capacity crushers with high reduction ratios were not
yet availabIe. ' П general, crushing in two о г more stages will Ь е applied in cases
where the hardness о г abrasiveness of the feed material is likely to cause
considerabIe crusher downtime and attendant cost.
Gyratory crushers, which а г е used as first-stage machines when very hard and
coarse feed material has to Ь е reduced, с а п receive the material direct from the
truck, without the interposition of а feed hopper (Fig.19). As the preliminary
crusher delivers а product in the 300- 500 min size range, the second-stage
crusher с а п function under less severe operating conditions than if the size
reduction had to Ь е performed all in о п е stage.
While gyratory crushers с а п often Ь е employed also as second-stage machines,
high-speed machines such as impact crushers о г hammer crushers а г е more
advantageous for obtaining а finer product which is suitabIe as feed for the
grinding mills. If it is essential to feed the mills with а finely crushed product from
which oversize pieces а г е strictly excluded, it is necessary to classify the second-
stage crusher product Ь у screening and retu г п the oversize to the crusher for fu rther
reduction (closed-circuit operation). However, if the second stage of crushing is
performed Ь у а hammer crusher with bottom discharge grid, such classification
will not Ь е necessary. If the first stage of size reduction is performed Ь у jaw
Stationary crushing plants
Fig.19: Stationary crushing plant with direct feed dump trucks
crushers of gyratory crushers, which а г е relatively immlJne from overloading and
с а п therefore Ь е fed direct from the trucks, the product should Ь е intermediately
stockpiled to allow а uniform rate of feed to the second crushing stage. А п
intermediate bunker with а п extracting conveyor controlled in response to the
power consumption of the secondary crusher drive motor ensures that this crusher
с а п operate under optimum conditions. From the point of view of the overall
performance of the primary size reduction system it is generally more advantageous
also to apply such controlled feed to the first-stage crusher - of whatever type -
through а feed conveyor and hopper, in which case the second-stage crusher,
designed with а п appropriate safety margin of capacity, с а п Ь е fed direct with the
product of the first stage of crushing.
Preliminary screening
Separation of the finer particles from the raw stone before it is fed to the crusher is
not standard practice in the cement industry. ' П exceptional cases, however, the
material may first Ь е passed over а grizzly о г а reciprocating grid screen. Preliminary
separation ofthe coarserfrom the finer material с а п serve to relieve the crusher orto
improve the quality of the raw material Ь у raising the concentration of certain
desirabIe constituents. As а rule. it makes for better performance of the crusher,
О Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Relieving the crusher
The decision as to applying preliminary screening of the raw stone is governed Ь у
the proportion of fine particles in it, the physical properties of those particles, and
design features of the crusher employed. The possibility of thus
е е П the crusher may, in new plant design, result in deciding to use а smaller
machine than would otherwise Ь е required. Also, the subsequent installation of
preliminary screening in а п existing plant с а п bring about а п improvement in
crusher performance - higher throughput rate - without involving major capital
expenditure (Fig.20).
Removal of the fines from the crusher feed reduces wear of the crushing elements,
besides cutting down the hazard of clogging and caking in the crusher.
Comparisons of capital expenditure and operating experience show that the
additional installation of mechanical equipment for preliminary screening is
profitabIe only if about one-third ofthe material flowsupplied to the crusher с а п Ь е
separated in this way. For а given feed material а crusher с а п Ь е relieved to а greater
extent according as the reduction ratio that it с а п attain is lower. This is particularly
true of jaw, gyratory and roll crushers as compared with hammer and impact
Fig.20: Static primary crushing plant with preliminary screening о п
stepped (multi-stage) grizzlies (Babbitless)
Stationary crushing plants
crushers. The preliminary removal of fine, sticky and moist material may Ь е
advantageous in reducing the risk of clogging and diminished performance,
particularly with jaw and gyratory crushers, but also with hammer crushers.
In general, however, preliminary screening offers п о advantage when primary size
reduction is done in а single stage in hammer crushers, which attain high reduction
ratios and с а п deliver а product below 25 mm particle size, commonly considered
to Ь е the maximum acceptabIe as ball mill feed. As а rule, the raw stone seldom
contains more than 15-20% of fine particles, so that their preliminary removal
from the crusher feed is hardly worth-while. The separation of moist sticky material
below about 25 mm size in the crusher feed с а п moreover Ь е probIematical and с а п
only Ь е accomplished with poor efficiency.
The preliminary screening devices used before primary crushers are various types
of stationary grizzlies or moving grid-type screens (with bars or with rollers, either
round or elliptical), reciprocating separators, vibrating grates or heavy eccentric-
weight-driven shaking screens (Fig. 21). А relatively recent development is the
Mogensen sizer, which is especially suitabIe for the separation of moist fine
material that is difficuIt to remove Ь у screening from the crusher feed (Fig. 22). This
Fig.21 : Grizzly with elliptical rotating rollers
Fig. 22: Mogensen sizer (illustration of its principle)
D. Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
machine comprises а number of round steel bars individually attached to а
transverse tubular member. The bars а г е not all in the same plane, but а г е set in а
staggered arrangement. This ensures that the effective size of the apertures
increases in the direction of flow. The bars, up to 2 m in length, oscillate in response
to the weight of the material moving over them; this oscillatory motion helps to
prevent choking. The range of performance of Mogensen sizers is stated to Ь е
characterized Ь у cutsizes from 300 mm down to 25 mm. If sharpness of separation
is of major importance, two о г more sizers may Ь е operated in series.
The design principle is simple, п о drive power is required, and renewal of worn bars
с а п Ь е accomplished with relatively little effort.
Intermediate screening
With multi-stage crushing, removal of the fine particles from the first-stage product
с а п result in notabIy relieving the second stage. Screening applied after the final
crushing stage, i.e., directly before the grinding mill, is advantageous if the
crushers yield а product with а high proportion of oversize which is liabIe to cause
troubIe in mill operation.
Feeding of two components
Moist and plastic clays а г е difficult to comminute with their natural pit moisture
content. They с а п Ь е crushed, without simultaneous drying, in г crushers,
operated multi-stage because oftheir low individual reduction ratios. There may Ь е
not only with comminution, but also with storage, reclaiming and
е е П to the grinding mill if such plastic material is handled alone. Combined
crushing of limestone and clay in the limestone crusher is more favourabIe. For this
purpose the two materials, in their correct quantitative г а г е tipped into
the feed hopper. This procedure does not, however, achieve sufficiently homo-
geneous bIending of the materials.
А solution which is both favourabIe from the process engineering standpoint and
relatively simple in terms of mechanical equipment consists in feeding the two
components, at controlled rates, from separate feed hoppers, each delivering its
material Ь у its own feeder (Fig. 23). Thus, Ь у means of two а р г о п feeders with
speed control, the crusher с а п Ь е fed with а correctly proportioned mixture of raw
materials which conforms quite closely to the specified chemical composition. The
limestone-clay mixture с а п usually Ь е handled without difficulty Ь у the hammer
crusher even if the clay has very unfavourabIe physical properties.
limestone as the main component of the mixture performs а cleaning
а с ю п П the crusher and facilitates the combined reduction of this material with
the plastic clay tending to clog the machine. П proportioning the two components
the clay is deposited onto the limestone. The speeds of the two а р г о п feeders а г е so
interadjusted that the desired mixture is supplied to the crusher. The two feeder
drives а г е coupled together in such а way that а п у change in the speed of the main
а р г о п feeder in response to the power consumption of the crusher drive motor is
immediately followed Ь у а corresponding change in the speed of the secondary
а р г о п feeder (which handles the clay component) so as to ensure that the
predetermined mix proportions а г е maintained.
Stationary crushing plants
Fig. 23: Simultaneous feeding and crushing of two components with
two apron feeders О К
Р г о р е г design of the clay hopper is very important. Its walls should Ь е as steep
as possibIe, and preferabIy Ь е plastic-lined, in order to prevent the clay from
sticking to it. The handling appliance - а р г о п conveyor, chain conveyor о г belt
conveyor - should not Ь е too narrowly dimensioned, even if only quite small
quantities of clay have to Ь е handled, because otherwise arching of the material
between the side guide plates of the conveyor is liabIe to occur, giving rise to
troubIe with feeding the clay.
Protection against foreign bodies
In the quarrying and loading of raw materials it inevitabIy occurs that metallic
foreign bodies - excavator bucket teeth, г drill rods, drill bits, pieces of rail,
chains, etc. - turn up in the feed material supplied to the primary crusher. If the
crusher is fed direct Ь у excavators or dump trucks, there is п о opportunity of
intercepting and removing such pieces of meta\. Nor is it possibIe to remove them
from the feed material flow: the size of the rock fragments and the very
considerabIe depth of the moving material (sometimes more than 1 m) ru le out the
use of tramp iron separators.
О г of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
П primary size reduction, т о г е particularly with big single-stage coarse crushers,
operational reliability is best achieved Ь у very heavy and robust design of these
machines, equipped with mechanically о г hydraulically operated overload р
tection devices to prevent damage being caused Ь у foreign bodies that cannot Ь е
crushed. О п the other hand, secondary crushers which а г е fed with pre-crushed
rock below about 300 т т particle size с а п Ь е effectively protected Ь у magnetic
separators Ь у metal detectors.
Overload protection
The toggle plates in jaw crushers т а у Ь е designed as "predetermined г
components", i.e., designed to fail first in the event of overloading of the machine,
thus forestaIling т о г е serious damage to other parts. Hydraulic overload protection
systems а г е т о г е expensive, but they avoid having to stop the plant for
replacement of а fractured toggle plate. The stationary crushing plate с а п swivel
about а top pivot, while lower down it is held in its normal working position Ь у
hydraulic rams. When а large piece of uncrushabIe material enters the crushing
chamber, а п г develops in the hydraulic system, causing the crushing
plate to swing aside. As а result, the foreign body drops through the discharge
opening, the rams move the crushing plate back to the working position, and the
feeder - which was automatically stopped when the hydraulic overpressure
developed - is restarted. With this protective system the standstill periods due to
overloads а г е substantially shortened.
The same principle of hydraulically controlled "give" has Ь е е п applied to gyratory
crushers: if а large piece of metal becomes lodged in the crushing chamber, the
discharge opening widens to let it pass. А similar purpose is served Ь у the movabIe
roiis, held in the working position Ь у springs or hydraulically, о п г о
crushers. П impact crushers the breaker elements are similarly designed to move
aside and thus prevent overload damage to the impactor bars or plates.
Crushers with bottom discharge grids, especially twin-rotor machines, which pull
the feed material and а п у foreign bodies it contains into the crushing chamber, а г е
т о г е seriously at risk. Single-rotor hammer crushers are less р п е to overload
hazard if - as, for example, in the Mammut crusher (Fig. 16) - а п у pieces of metal
entering the crusher are hurled against the breaker plate and rebound back out of
the crushing chamber onto the feed conveyor. However, the feeding system will
then have to Ь е stopped and the metal removed Ь у hand. А п advantageous feature
is the use of hammers which с а п rotate freely through 3600 о п their pivots and с а п
thus swing aside if they encounter uncrushabIe foreign bodies.
As а rule, foreign bodies с а п Ь е more effectively removed from the material after it
has Ь е е п pre-crushed (first-stage crushing). Magnetic separators and metal
detectors are used for the purpose and help т о г е particularly to protect the high-
speed second-stage crushers.
Drum-type electromagnetic separators comprise а stationary set of magnets
surrounded Ь у а horizontaily mounted rotating drum or cylinder made of а п о п
magnetic material. The crushed material is passed over the drum, and а п у tramp
iron contained in it remains clinging to the drum and is carried round to the
underside thereof, where there is п о magnetic field, so that the pieces of iron fall
Stationary crushing plants
off. Powerful electromagnet systems а г е necessary for dealing with coarse material
moving in а stream of great depth. For effective action of the separator it is essential
to distribute the material evenly across the full width of the drum. Drum separators
equipped with permanent magnets т а у Ь е used for iron removal from fine-
grained material of limited depth о п the conveyor.
Electromagnetic belt pulleys, used at the discharge ends of rubber belt
conveyors, are equipped with а rotating set of magnets acting around the full
circumference of the pulley. Pieces of iron а г е carried round to the underside and
fall off the return run of the belt о п с е they have moved out the magnetic field.
Magnetic pulleys а г е availabIe for belt conveyors of all the normally employed
widths and speeds (and for the depths of material which а г е determined Ь у these
operating parameters).
Suspended magnets are installed over belt conveyors, chutes or ducts and lift
the tramp iron out of the flow of material. From time to time the magnet is swung
aside, and the excitation г switched off, to allow cleaning of the magnet. For
dealing with material containing а substantial amount of tramp iron, belt-type
suspended magnetic separators (Fig. 24) т а у Ь е used. А device ofthis kind is
equipped with а continuous rubber belt which carries the pieces of iron out of the
magnetic field, so that the magnet pole face itself remains clear. For reasons of
space such separators are usually mounted transversely to the direction of flow of
the material о п the conveyor. FavourabIe mounting positions а г е the points of feed
onto, or discharge from, the conveyor, because at these points the material is
loosened up and the extraction of tramp iron thus made easier.
For all types of magnetic separator the rule is that а п у equipment and parts within
range of the magnetic field should Ь е made of non-magnetic materials, г
Fig. 24: Belt-type suspended magnetic separator, mounted transversely
over а horizontal (1) о г а п inclined ascending belt conveyor (2) (Steinert)
О г of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Stationary crushing plants
Dl<iln Х vR/ C Х к
Dcrusher = 24 Х terusher Х (1 -f/1 00)
Determining the crusher capacity
The nominal capacity, or rating, ofthe crusher will Ь е governed bythe required raw
material throughput and the possibIe working time of the crushing plant. The
quarrying operations, of which the crushing plant usually forms part, are in most
cases conducted о п а si ngle-srlift basis with five or six working days per week. For
а п г shift the effective crushing time per shift с а п Ь е put at 7 or at most
7.5 г The crusher should therefore, in а п effective time of 35 to 45 г Ь е
а Ы е to produce sufficient raw material to feed the kiln plant for а whole (7 -day)
The requisite crusher throughput capacity с а п Ь е calculated from the following
at some considerabIe distance from the actual cement works. Besides, the low
specific surface of the coarse material and its short time of г in the crusher
make effective drying impracticabIe.
The only heating systems applied to primary crushers are intended, not for drying
the material, but preventing the caking of moist sticky materials which might
otherwise cause clogging.
Heating the bottom plate of the feed chute, the side walls and the breaker plates in
impact crushers to surface temperatures of 1800-

С is done with the aid of
heat transfer oil circulated at approximately З О О
С through а system of pipes.
Heat input ratings are in the region of 20000 kcal per г and per square metre of
heated г
Indirect heating of certain areas of the inlet and outlet casing and crushing
chamber where moist material tends to adhere has Ь е е п tried out in some hammer
crushers. These critical г are heated with externally applied electric heating
elements, with the results that caked materiai spalls off. Insulated hoods protect
these radiant heaters and improve the efficiency of this simple and relatively
inexpensive heating system, which requires little maintenance.
these would Ь е magnetized and undesirabIy attract iron or steel objects. The lateral
clearance from tramp а iron magnet should Ь е about 0.3 times the width of the
magnet. Under the magnet а clear headroom equal to 0.7 times its width should Ь е
Metal detectors are used for revealing the presence of tramp metal which is not
magnetically responsive. The equipment generally comprises о п е or two detecting
coils installed over and/or under the belt conveyor or enclosing it. The presence of
а piece of metal in the otherwise constant magnetic field of а coil causes а п electric
pulse which с а п Ь е utilized for switching off the conveyor or causing а certain
length of the layer of material о п the belt, conta;ning the metal, to Ь е diverted from
the main conveying path. Obviously, there should Ь е п о moving metal parts in the
vicinity of the detecting coil. Static metal parts do not г the detection, but are
liabIe to weaken its sensitivity.
Hygroscopic materials which, when moist, Ь е с о т е electrically conductive т а у
cause false alarms due to variations in г content (and therefore in
conductivity) о п passing the metal detector. The most reliabIe protection against
tramp metal is provided Ь у the combination: metal detector-magnetic drum-
metal detector (Fig. 25). П this arrangement the first metal detector operates the
switch-on/switch-off of the drum separator, whose magnetic field therefore is
activated only when metal is detected о п the conveyor. А п у non-magnetic metal
that passes the drum will produce а response from the second metal detector.
Fig. 25: Protection against foreign bodies Ь у а combination of metal
detectors and magnetic drum separator where:
Heating of crushers
The pre-drying of raw materials prior to primary size reduction is employed only in
exceptional circumstances. Elaborate arrangements to prevent "false" air in-
leakage into the heated crushers are required in such cases. As а rule, п о utilizabIe
waste heat is availabIe at primary crushing plants which have to deal with raw
materials with а high г moisture content, especially as such plants are often
vR/ C
capacity of crushing plant
capacity of kiln plant
raw material/clinker ratio
г г content of
raw material
working time of kiln per week
working time of crusher per week
D. Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Mobile crushing plants
For the example values listed above the requisite crusher capacity is thus:
If the crusher is designed for single-shift working, it will have sufficient capacity
even if the kiln plant capacity is subsequently doubIed: in that case the quarry and
crusher will have to work doubIe shifts, leaving the week-ends availabIe for repairs
and maintenance.
3000 х 1.6 х 168
Dcrusher = 24 х 35 х 0.96
= 1000 (t/hour).
1.3.2 Moblle crushing plants
Because of the coarse grading of the fragmented rock pile produced Ь у bIasting in
the quarry, this material cannot, as а rule, Ь е directly handled Ь у belt conveyors. П
order to Ь е а Ы е to use belt conveying - generally less expensive than long-
distance road haulage - from а point as close to the quarry face as possibIe, the
rock pile will at least have to Ь е crushed to "belt conveyabIe" size, which generally
means that it should not contain pieces above about 200-400 т т The need for
crushing at the quarry face and for moving the crusher along with the site of
quarrying operations has led to the development of various mobile installations in
capacities ranging up to the highest throughputs required.
Depending о п the method of moving the crushing plant from о п е working position
to another, а distinction с а п Ь е made between truly mobile (self-propelled) plants
and semi-mobile ones (not self-propelled).
Moblie plants п the т о г е specific sense of the term have their own integral
travelling machinery, enabIing them to proceed from о п е location to the next
Wheel-mounted (rubber-tyred) crushers а г е employed in cases where they have
to travel over relatively long distances and have to Ь е highly manoeuvrabIe. Such
machines с а п move at speeds of up to about 6 km/hour. Under suitabIe conditions
the running resistance of the tyred wheels is relatively low, so that drive power
requirements а г е correspondingly modest. When the crusher is in operation, the
wheels а г е relieved of load, either Ь у being lifted off the ground to that the crusher
is directly supported о г Ь у the lowering of strut legs producing the same effect. А
drawback associated with wheel-mounted crushers is the high bearing pressure
exerted о п the ground (4.5-9 kg/cm
). They с а п travel о п gradients of up to
about 1 in 1О О П heavy plants, hydraulic axle load adjustment compensates for the
effects of irregularities о п rough ground. Sprung wheel suspension systems
serving the same purpose а г е used о п smaller and lighter ones (Fig. а
Crawler-mounted mobile crushers с а п likewise ascend 1 in 1О gradients and
travel over ground which need only Ь е roughly cleared of obstacles. Besides, the
bearing pressure is low (1 -1.5 kg/cm
). Travel speeds а г е between 5 and
8 m/minute. The crawler tracks а г е not relieved of load when the crusher is in
operation and they а г е therefore subjected to severer service conditions than other
travel systems (Fig. Ь
Fig. а Wheel-mounted (rubber-tyred) moblle crushing plant О К
Fig. Ь Crawler-mounted moblle crushing plant
Fig. с Rail-mounted moblle crushing plant comprising two sections
Section 1: feed hopper, а р г о п conveyor, crusher, product conveyor
Section 11: belt conveyor, dust collector, power supply system
Rail-mounted mobile crushers с а п suitabIy Ь е used in cases where the direction
of travel is well defined in advance (Fig. с Thanks to the low rolling resistance,
drive power requirements for travel а г е low, and wear о п the travel machinery is
light. Against this there is the disadvantage that gradients of only about 1 in 40 с а п
Ь е overcome, while maneouvrabllity is limited and moving the plant to а fresh
О Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology Mobile crushing plants
Fig. 26d: Mobile crushing plant with hydraulic walking mechanism
operating from а hau\age level at the appropriate height above the floor о п which
the crusher is standing. In that case it is advantageous to build а suitabIy paved
г а т р that с а п safely and reliabIy Ь е used Ь у the vehicles. With such arrangements
the hopper capacity с а п Ь е as large as that for а stationary crushing plant.
working location requires preparation of the quarry floor and, of course, track-
laying. The ground should have а fairly high bearing capacity. As а rule, п о load-
relief of the travel wheels during crusher operation is provided.
In terms of cost the most favourabIe travel system is the hydraulically powered
walking mechanism, usually comprising а walking pad with three lifting rams
with which the whole pontoon-like platform with the crusher and other equipment
с а п Ь е lifted. Horizontal hydraulic walking rams installed between the platform and
the walking pad е п а Ы е the plant to Ь е moved orturned in а п у direction (Fig. 26d).
Speeds of about 0.7 to 1.5 m/minute а г е commonly adopted for walking crushers.
While the crusher is in operation the walking pad is kept raised о Н the ground, the
whole plant then being supported о п strut legs.
Semi-moblle crushing plants а г е wheel-mounted о п rails о г о п rubber tyres)
and а г е moved to fresh working locations Ь у towing о г pushing, i.e., they а г е not
self-propelled. In recentyears а п alternative system has Ь е е п to use special rubber-
tyred о г crawler-tracked lifting vehicles which bodily convey the whole plant to
а fresh position. The advantage is that о п е and the same lifting vehicle с а п serve
the needs of several plants and that, when not in use, the vehicle с а п Ь е stored
under protection from the weather and other adverse influences (Fig. е
Besides mobile and semi-mobile crushing plants there а г е what с а п best Ь е
described as relocatabIe ones, being skid-mounted, so that moving them
requires powerful tractors. Even so, such plants а г е restricted to relatively low
service weights and low throughput capacities.
Which system of moving the crusher should Ь е chosen will depend to а great
extent о п the technical features of the quarrying operations and о п the condition
(evenness, roughness) of the quarry floor.
As with stationary crushers, mobile crushers located close to the working face in
the quarry с а п Ь е fed directly Ь у loading shovels о г Ь у dump trucks if they а г е for
example, gyratory crushers which а г е substantially unaffected Ь у irregular loading.
As the crusher will generally Ь е standing о п the quarry floor, the vehicles delivering
the fragmented rock to it should Ь е а Ы е to travel up а г а т р to the requisite
dumping height о г the crusher т а у alternatively Ь е fed from а higher floor level о г
bench) than that о п which the crusher is standing. Direct feeding of а crushing
plant without the interposition of а haulage vehicle was practised in а West
German cementworks quarry in the 1960s.ln thatsystem the rock pile obtained Ь у
bIasting was fed, with the aid of а scraper, via а п inclined plane to the gyratory
crusher. The crushing plant was equipped with а hydraulic walking system.
Optimum utilization of the crushing plant - whatever the type of crusher used for
reducing the coarsely fragmented rock pile - с а п Ь е obtained only Ь у feeding it as
uniformly as possibIe. As in the case of а static plant, the mobile crusher must Ь е
fed at а steady rate via а feed hopper. For direct loading Ь у excavators о г loadersthe
hopper is restricted to а height that enabIes these machines to discharge into it, so
that its capacity is correspondingly limited. If larger hoppers а г е used, it will Ь е
necessary to build earth ramps to them о г otherwise to use relocatabIe steel г а т р
If the quarrying operations require moving the crusher to а fresh position only at
infrequent intervals, it will Ь е advantageous to feed it Ь у using heavy dump trucks
Feed material
т а х feed size
product fineness
Т у р е of crusher
Feeding system
feed hopper
а р г о п conveyor
Product handling
extractor belt
transfer belt
Travel system
walking speed
т а х gradient
specific ground pressure
length overall
1900 т т х 1200 т т х 1000 т т
98% < т т
single-rotor hammer crusher
with discharge grate
т т
infinitely variabIe, controlled in
response to crusher drive load
rubber belt conveyor (flat)
rubber belt conveyor (troughed),
slewabIe through 1200
hydraulic walking mechanism
0.7 m/minute
1 in 1О т а х
1.5 kg/cm
О г of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Fig. е Crushing plant moved with the aid of lifting vehicles
For plants comprising а feed hopper, feeder and crusher the type of conveyor most
commonly employed is the robust а р г о п conveyor. For feeding the rock to mobile
crushers, however, heavy-duty belt conveyors а г е occasionally used, these having
the advantage of lower weight than а р г о п conveyors, so that the overall weight of
the mobile equipment is correspondingly less. Т о reduce the severity of the service
conditions to which the belt is subjected, а special belt loading hopper with а п
automatically opening and closing bottom. functioning in the т а п п е г of а slide
gate, т а у Ь е employed (Fig. 27). Loading this hopper with rock is done with its
bottom closed. With the belt conveyor temporarily stopped, the bottom gate
opens, allowing the rock to fall gently onto the belt, which is then restarted and
delivers the rock to the crusher. Continuous feeding of the crusher is not achieved,
а gate closed
Ь gate о р е п
Fig. 27: Belt conveyor feed hopper with bottom slide gate (Esch)
Primary reduction - References
As with static systems, the conveying equipment for removing the crushed stone
from mobile plants т а у Ь е belt, а р п о г chain conveyors. As а rule these handling
appliances deliver the stone to belt conveyors which а г е adjustabIe for height, с а п
slew through а п angle of about 1200 and а г е connected to the frame of the crusher
supporting platform. These belt conveyors in г discharge the stone onto а
mobile intermediate conveyor о г direct onto the extendabIe о г retractabIe end of
the main belt conveyor that carries the material out of the quarry.
Again as with static crushing plants, the choice of crusher will Ь е governed Ь у the
properties of the raw material. Single-stage size reduction of the rock pile to
suitabIe mill feed size - i. е to 25-80 maximum particle size, depending о п the
mill system - is the preferred technique. А п у other г such as multi-stage
reduction, preliminary screening before the crusher о г closed-circuit operation
must always involve expensive additions to the mechanical equipment as
compared with single-stage crushing.
Very large crushing plants а г е subdivided into two о г т о г е plant sections. Thus, the
feed hopper and feeding equipment form а structural unit. The crusher and product
discharge conveyor form another unit. These two units а г е separately moved from
о п е working location tothe next. Mobile lifting units, mounted о п crawlertracks о г
о п wheels, с а п suitabIy Ь е used as the vehicular base for giving mobility to such
The technical data for а single-stage crushing plant for а throughput of
1000 г equipped with а hydraulically powered walking system. give some
guidance о п the mechanical sophistication, the dimensions and the weights of а
modern mobile installation (see Fig.26d).
1. Althoff, Н Die Weiterentwicklung der Schreitwerke fur schwere ortsbeweg-
liche Brechanlagen. - In: ZKG 21/1968/512.
2. Altmann, Н F./Liebmann, R.: Wanderfeldmotor als Antrieb eines Schreit-
brechers. - Iп ZKG 28/1975/53.
3. Andreas, А Prinzip und M6glichkeiten der Prallzerkleinerung. - In: ZKG
4. Andreas, A./J6bkes, J.: Die Anpassungsfahigkeit von Prallmuhlen bei der
Aufbereitung von Rohmaterialien Ю г verschiedene Mahlsysteme. - 1{1: ZKG
30/1977/558 - 560.
5. Baumbach, F.: О е г Mogensen-Stangensizer - eine neuartige L6sung fur
grobe Trennungen. - п Aufbereitungs- Technik 18/1977/64.
6. Erni, Н Rohmaterialaufbereitung und Homogenisierung. - In: ZKG
7. Esken, Н Erfahrungen mit dem Einsatz eines fahrbaren Brechers im Stein-
bruchbetrieb eines Zementwerkes. - п Aufbereitungs- Technik 2/1961/1.
8. Fabian, Н Einsatzm6glichkeiten von mobilen Brechanlagen. - п Aufberei-
tungs- Technik 21/1980/277.
9. Grosse, О Wanderbrecher im Steinbruch eines Zementwerkes. - п ZKG
о Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
10. Gruschka, 1.: Rationalisierung in Bruchen und Gruben durch sich selbst
bewegende Lade- und Brecheranlagen. - п ZKG 20/1967/1.
11. Н о о г т а п п W.: Zuteiler fur Zerkleinerungsmaschinen. - п Aufbereitungs-
Technik 7/1966/510.
12. Kirste, R.: Erfahrungen mit Fahrbrechern und Bandtransport in Zementwer-
ken. - In·ZKG 24/1971/456.
13. Kochanowsky, В 1.: Erfahrungen mit fahrbaren Brechern in den USA und
Е ш о р а - In: Aufbereitungs-Technik 11/1970/466.
14. Motek, Н О е г Compound-Brecher (System Andreas Oznobichine), ein
neuartiger Brecher fur die Zerkleinerung von Zementrohmaterial. - In: ZKG
15. Pietsch, Н J.: Verfahren zur Nachzerkleinerung in Steinbruchen. - Aufbe-
reitungs- Technik 11/1970/61.
16. Ruppert, Р Betriebsversuche mit zweistufigem Brechen von Kalkstein. -
In: ZKG 25/1972/222.
17. Schneider, Н Rohmaterial- und Zementmahlung. - In: ZKG 21/1968/63.
18. Sillem, Н Rohstoffgewinnung: Tiefreir..er, Fahrbrecher, Mischbetten. - In:
ZKG 21/1968/56.
19. Sillem, Н Zerkleinerungstechnik. - In: ZKG 30/1977/549.
20. Sydow, W.: Mobile Brechanlagen mit Querraupenfahrwerk. - In. ZKG
21. Taupitz, К С Р г о Ы е т е beim Absieben von grobstLickigem Roh-Haufwerk.
- In: Aufbereitungs- Technik 7/1966/149.
22. Weirich, К Die verfahrbare Brecheranlage im Zementwerk Kirchdorf. - In:
ZKG 24/1971/54.
23. Weir.., Н Fahrbare Gror..brechanlage. - In: Aufbereitungs-Technik 6/
24. Weir.., Н Fahrbare Gror..brecheranlagen, Einsatz und Е п с п б с
keiten. - In: Aufbereitungs- Technik 7/1966/501.
25. Weir..lehner, G.: Einsatz eines Backenkreiselbrechers mit geschlossenem
Kreislauf fur Kalk-Mergel. - п Aufbereitungs- Technik 7/1966/129.
26. Wilmanns, F./Wolf: Grobzerkleinerung mit Backenbrecher, Kreiselbrecher und
Backenkreiselbrecher. - In. Aufbereitungs- Technik 5/1964/234.
27. Wilmanns, F Gror..brecheranlagen mit Hydroschreiter in Steinbruchen. - In:
Aufbereitungs- Technik 9/1968/235.
2 Size classification
In the context of crushing and grinding the term classification means the
separating о г dividing of particulate bulk materials consisting of а mixture of
different particle sizes into two о г т о г е size ranges о г fractions. In general,
separation т а у Ь е effected о п the basis of volume, i. е the geometric dimensions
of the particles, о г о п the basis of mass, i. е differences in material properties.
Size classification - Screening
Separation according to particle size is done Ь у screening о г sieving. Inertia forces
а г е utilized in cyclone separators and in various т о г е sophisticated devices
collectively called air separators о г classifiers.
2.1 Screening
In the cement industry, particle size classification Ь у screening as part of the
production operations is of less importance than, say, in the lime industry о г in coal
and о г е preparation. Indeed, true classification procedures in the primary size
reduction stage do not о с с ш in cement manufacture, sincethe aim of the crushing
treatment is to produce а feed material suitabIe for grinding to а fine powder, not
the production of size fractions as required for crushed stone used in road
construction, concrete production, etc.
For particle size separation in the finely pulverized products of the grinding
processes in the cement industry - raw meal and cement - there is п о economic
possibility of classifying large quantities Ь у screening о г sieving, which has to rely
solely о п gravity. О П the other hand, screening о г sieving is of importance as а test
procedure for assessing the effectiveness of crushing and grinding treatments,
т о г е particu larly Ь у determining the particle size distribution о г the percentages
retained о г passing certain screen о г sieve sizes and thereby monitoring the
granulometric composition of intermediate and final products.
In crushing plants, screens with surfaces comprising usually square apertures
(formed Ь у а series of wires extending in two directions) о г slots (formed Ь у
parallel bars; these а г е known as grizzlies) а г е used for the following purposes:
(1) relieving the operating conditions of primary Г Ь у preliminary sepa-
ration of fine particles from the feed;
(2) removal of unsuitabIe constituents such as sand о г loam, in order to enrich о г
concentrate the lime component;
(3) separation of the product of а primary crusher into fine and coarse fractions;
the latter т а у Ь е returned to the crusher for further size reduction о г Ь е fed to
а secondary crushing stage.
In general, obtaining а sufficiently finely comminuted product, i. е with particles
not exceeding а specified upper size limit, т а у Ь е important for the protection of
subsequent size reduction machinery (secondary crushers, grinding mills) о г for
ensuring favourabIe operating conditions in subsequent processing stages (grind-
ing, р г е е п п
П the further stages of cement manufacture, screening is used for the following
(4) screens а г е interposed into the product flow from clinker plants in order to
remove а п у oversize clinker particles о г fragments of fractured grinding media;
(5) screens installed before packing plants and bulk cement dispatch facilities
serve to protect the machines and equipment from troubIe that could Ь е caused
Ь у foreign bodies о г lumps of material;
(6) in clinker dispatch installations, screens а г е used for the removal of fine
particles caused Ь у abrasion о г shattering, thus reducing dust nuisance in the
handling of the material.
О г of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
2.2 Classification associated with dry grinding processes
Types and operating principles:
For very fine size reduction using closed-circuit operation it is necessary to
separate the particles fine enough to qualify as "finished produc(' from the coarser
particles (oversize) in the product discharged from the grinding mill. The
requirements that the separator, or classifier, must fulfil are; good selectivity
(sharpness of separation) to е п а Ы е economical grinding plant operation, and
highest possibIe uniformity of the granulometric composition of the finished
In the dry system of closed-circuit grinding the separation is effected in various
types of air-swept devices called air separators or air classifiers and often
comprising power-driven rotating elements (in which case they are called
mechanical а ir separators). 1n the wet system, the classifyi ng devices are screens or
Various types of air separator employed in connection with cement г
will now Ь е described. They all function о п the same principles. А particle in а
rotating г of air is subjected to the interaction of three sets of forces: the force
exerted Ь у the air (proportional to the square of the т е а п particle diameter), the
force of gravity, and the centrifugal force (the two last-mentioned forces are
governed not Ь у the size, but Ь у the mass, of the particle). If the effective force
exerted о п the particle Ь у the air exceeds the resultant of gravity and centrifugal
force, the particie will remain airborne and Ь е с а п е along with the air. If the force
of gravity prevails, the particle will sink, and if the centrifugal forces prevails over
the other forces acting о п the particle, the latter is flung outwards against the wall
of the separator, where its motion is а п е е so tt1at it is then precipitated as in а п
ordinary cyclone separator (Fig. 28).
Although the separators used in the cement industry are broadly similar in
principle, they differ considerabIy from о п е another in matters of design Щ range
of application. The differences consist mainly in the method of introducing the
Fd faree exerted Ь у the air (air drag)
eentrifuga/ faree
faree af gravity
Fig. 28: Forces acting о п а material particle in а rotating current of air
Classification associated with dry grinding processes
material and the separating air, the magnitude of the centrifugal acceleration, and
the method of separating the finished product (the fine particles) from the air
stream. In some air separators the material с а п moreover Ь е given а drying or а
cooling treatment.
2.2.1 Static air separator (Fig. 29)
The static air separator or classifier is so called because it has п о moving
mechanical parts. It is used chiefly in conjunction with air-swept grinding plants
(operating with tube mills or roller mills). The material to Ь е classified is с а п е
along in а stream of air from the mill and enters the separator from below. It flows
between the conical outer casing and the inner separating с о п е As а result of the
outlet duct
ring of guide vanes
(angle setting adjustabIe)
Fig. 29: Static air separator (schematic)
О г of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
increasing cross-section the air flow velocity is reduced here, and coarse particles
а г е precipitated. At the same time, the tangential admission of the air brings about
а rotational motion in this outer separating chamber, so that а certain amount of
centrifugal precipitation also occurs in it. The material collected here is discharged
through the tailings (oversize particles) outlet of the separator.
П the upper part of the separator the material-Iaden air enters the inner с о п е
through а ring of adjustabIe guide vanes. The material particles will Ь е to
а centrifugal acceleration whose magnitude depends о п the setting of the vanes.
Just as in а cyclone separator, the air carrying the material spirals downwards in the
inner с о п е and is accelerated in doing so. The result of the force of gravity and the
centrifugal force thus prevails over the force that the air exerts о п the larger and
heavier particles, which а г е flung against the wall of the с о п е where they lose their
velocity and slide down the wall into the tailings outlet of the separator. The
tailings а г е г to the mill for г grinding. О П the other hand, the smaller
particles (the fines) remain entrained in the air, which carries them upwards in its
spiralling motion and out of the separator. This discharged air laden with fines (the
finished product of the grinding process) is passed into а product collector
- usually а cyclone о г а filter - in which these particles а г е finally separated from
the air.
Control possibilities:
The separation characteristic of the static air separator с а п Ь е varied in several
Ь у varying the air flow rate and therefore the velocity of the air, which in г
alters the force exerted Ь у the air о п the particles and indirect/y also the
centrifugal force to which they а г е subjected.
Ь у adjusting the deflector over the bottom inlet duct through which the
material-Iaden air enters the separator
п some separators of th is general type the position of the deflector с а п Ь е adjusted
in the vertical direction. Reduction of the distance between deflector and the
mouth of the inlet duct causes intensified acceleration and change of direction of
the air stream. The material particles impinge о п the wall of the casing and fall into
the tailings outlet. This classification Ь у deflection and impingement is rather
unselective, and for this reason small distances between inlet duct and deflector
а г е used mainly in cases where the static separator has to act as а dust precipitator,
е g., as а pre-collector, and not for the sharp separation of particle sizes. Besides,
this classsification involves excessive pressure loss in the system. п т о г е
sophisticated forms of construction the deflector, which in its simplest form т а у Ь е
а mere baffle plate, is given а streamlined conical shape and т а у Ь е fitted with
attached guide vanes Ь у means of which а laminar spiral flow pattern of the air
entering the separator с а п Ь е obtained. With this arrangement the precipitation of
the particles in the outer chamber is accomplished chiefly Ь у the cyclone wall effect
already mentioned.
- Ь у adjusting the top outlet duct
As in ordinary cyclones, the cut size - the particle size at which separation
between fines and oversize is effected - с а п Ь е varied Ь у vertical ac\justment of the
Classification associated with dry grinding processes
air outlet duct at the top of the separator. For а constant air flow rate, а п increase in
length of this duct will, within limits, shift the cut size so to give а finer product,
and vice versa. Although most static separators have а п adJustabIe top outlet duct,
this does not constitute а suitabIe method of routine product fineness control, but
serves as а means of basic adjustment to suit the given operating conditions.
2.2.2 Bladed rotor separator
The characteristic г of this type of air separator is а rotor comprising а set of
bIades in а conically tapered arrangement and rotating о п а vertical shaft in а
casing of truncated -conical shape (Figs. а and Ь The material- а е п stream
of air is admitted from below and is distributed sideways Ь у е е с ю п at the
underside of the assembIy. The rotating bIades accelerate the rotational flow the
air which already has а spiral motion as it enters the separator casin.g. The о а ю п а
and accelerational effects are intensified Ь у the upward п а Г Г О П of the
between the rotor and the outer casing. The air is drawn inwards Ь у с ю п
through the gaps between the rotor bIades. The heavier particles, i. е those for
which the resultant of gravity and centrifugal force prevails over the force .exerted
о п them Ь у the air stream, а г е flung outwards against the wall the с а П a.nd
then fall back into the mill (Fig. а or into the tailings outlet Ь The
particles are carried out of the separator with the air and а г е preclpltated from It In
cyc\ones or in filters.
Control possibilities: ..
For constant air flow rate the performance of the separator с а п Ь е Ь у
varying the rotor speed. Because of the effect of the Г П п
mill, variation of air flow rate is possibIe only wlthln Ilmlts.
а material-Iaden air from grinding chamber
and tailings г
Ь fines discharged from separator (product)
с rotor with bIades,
d variabIe drive
t а
Fig. З О а Bladed rotorseparator. withdrive. as mounted over rollermills
(Loesche GmbH)
О Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Classification associated with dry grinding processes
З О Ь Bladed (otorseparator. with drive. as а п independentelassify_
Ing unlt fed through а riser duet (Loesche GmbH)
2.2.3 Circulating air separators
The circulating air separator (as а generic designation) differs from the static
separator а п the bIaded rotor separator in some important respects:
- а е п а classification is fed mechanically to the separator Ь у means of а
sUltabIe с о п П О conveyor;
Conventional air separator (Fig. с
А п air separator of this general type comprises а п outer casing, а п inner casing (the
upper part of which forms the separating or classifying chamber), а ring of guide
vanes, the distributing disc or plate, the main circulating fan and the auxiliary fan
(the latter known also as counter-vanes or secondary bIades in some manufac-
turers' Iiterature).
The main fan, which functions as а radial fan, produces а circulating air current in
the separator. It flows upwards in the inner casing and downwards in the space
between this and the outer casing, re-entering the inner casing through the ring of
Fig. З О е Conventional air separator
the air current required for the functioning of the separator is generated Ь у а fan
inside the separator casing or mounted outside it;
the material for classification is introduced into the stream of air Ь у means of а
distributing disc or similar device.
Circulating air separators are the most extensively used type of classifying
equipment for fine particles in the cement industry. They comprise machines
differing widely in their design features, but nevertheless embodying the same
basic operating principles, the differences being confined to the method of material
feed and distribution and of controlling the performance of the separator. It would
Ь е outside the present scope to attempt а description of the т а п у variants offered
Ь у manufacturers. Only two main types will Ь е considered: the conventional
mechanical air separator (or centrifugal separator) and the now increasingly used
cyclone air separator.
а feed material in gas stream,
Ь fines discharged from separator (product)
с tailings discharged from separator
(coarse particles)
d rotor with bIades
е adjustabIe с о п е
f adjustabIe air control ring
9 variabIe drive
с .,
а t
Range of application:
Because. of abili!y to high air throughputs the bIaded rotor separator is
а П у .In С О П п с ю п with air-swept grinding mills, more particularly roller
m,lIs, In whlch case the separator is а п integral feature accommodated in а п
upward ex!ension of the mill housing itself. Alternatively, the material-Iaden air
from the т с а п Ь е fed through а riser duct to the separator, which с а п thus Ь е
as а п I.ndependent device for the separation of coarse particles from а stream
of alr carrYlng o.r other particulate matter. Its mode of operation, and the
р е с р а ю п of the fine particles from the carrying air, are as already
О Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
guide vanes. The upward current of separating air flows past the distributing
dlSC and through the rotating bIades of the auxiliary fan.
The pu Iverized materiaI for classification is fed onto the distributing disc and flung
outwards Ь у centrifugal force. Large particles collide with the wall of the inner
casing and fall into the tailings outlet in the conical bottom part of this casing. The
particles remain airborne and а г е carried upwards to the auxiliary fan,
whlch accelerates the air which has already acquired а spiralling motion in the ring
of guide vanes. The centrifugal forces set up in this way fling the coarser particles
the wall of the inner casing, so that these, too, а г е discharged through the
ta П outlet. The finer particles continue upwards in the air current and а г е drawn
the bIades of the т а in fan, wh ich further accelerates the air and discharges
It Into the product collecting chamber, i. е the space between the inner and the
o.uter Н е г е the fine particles а г е precipitated from the downward spiralling
alr, as In а п о г П а г у cyclone, and pass out of the fines outlet in the conical bottom
part of the outer casing.
Control possibilities'
The separation characteristic of the air separator с а п Ь е modified in various ways
(1) Adjustments to the auxiliary fan:
Adjustments to the auxiliary fan will affect the spiralling air current and therefore
modify the centrifugal acceleration of the particles carried in the air, sothat а shift in
cut size is obtained. At the same time, for а given performance characteristic of the
main fan, the circulating flow rate and flow velocity will also Ь е altered in
consequence. Whatever type of control intervention is applied, the aim should Ь е
to obtain the requisite centrifugal acceleration for size separation with the least
possibIe pressure drop.
Some possibilities for the control of various types of air separator.
а The speed of the auxiliary fan and the performance of the main fan а г е
Without alteration of the auxiliary fan bIade angle setting: Increasing the
number о г size of the auxiliary fan bIades shifts the cut size to а smaller particle
size. If there is scope for radial adjustment of these bIades, а reduction of the
clearance between them and the wall of the inner casing will produce а similar
shift in the cut size. Conversely, reducing the number о г size of the auxiliary fan
bIades, о г increasing their clearance, will result in increased particle cut size.
Alteration of the auxiliary fan bIade angle setting: Maximum acceleration of the
air с п е п is obtained with the auxiliary fan bIades set vertical. А п у
adJustment up to а п angle of 450 о п either side reduces the effective
(projected) bIade surface а г е а and thus also the radial acceleration. If the angle
is further increased with respect to the vertical, а fan effect propelling the flow
of air is developed, while the radial acceleration is further reduced. If the
fan bIades а г е sloped in their direction of rotation, they will strengthen
the alr flow due to the main fan, and the cut size will Ь е increased. If the bIades
а г е sloped in the opposite direction, they will reduce the flow, and the cut size
will Ь е decreased.
Classification associated with dry grinding processes
Ь Adjustment of the auxiliary fan speed while the performance of the main fan
remains unchanged:
The change in speed changes the acceleration imparted Ь у the auxiliary fan to
the spiralling air current. If the availabIe speed control range for this fan is
insufficient for the required purpose, the measures indicated under а т а у
additionally Ь е applied.
(2) Adjustments to the main fan:
The air f\ow velocity, and therefore its capacity to с а п у along the particles of
material and keep them airborne, is affected Ь у changing the performance of the
main fan. Depending о п the design of the air separator, the necessary adjustments
т а у Ь е performed while the machine is running о г т а у require it to Ь е stopped.
М о г е particularly, the following adjustment possibilities а г е availabIe:
changing the speed of the main fan,
changing the effective surface of the fan bIades;
reducing the intake cross-section of the fan impeller Ь у means of adjustabIe
adjusting the setting angle of the guide vane ring.
П most air separators there is scope for the interlinking of several control
interventions, so that the separation characteristic с а п Ь е modified to suit а wide
range of operating conditions.
П particular cases, е g., for the optimization of plants operating under high load о г
where special requirements have to Ь е fulfilled Ь у the classified material, it т а у Ь е
necessary to с а п у out extensive investigations and tests in order to ascertain the
most favourabIe and most economical setting of the separator to meet these
П general, it is preferabIe not to regard the air separator as а п individual piece of
equipment, but to consider it in combination with the grinding plant with which it
has to interact.
The quality of the separating effect depends not only о п the technical design
features, but also о п the operating load of the separator, and attains its optimum
within the design performance range. Outside this range the qua\ity declines. This
being so, wrong conclusions т а у Ь е drawn if the separator is considered in
isolation from other equipment. For instance, if some fault in the mill causes р о о г е г
size reduction, the circulating load in the closed grinding circuit and therefore the
operating load of the air separator will increase, а situation that cou Id incorrectly Ь е
interpreted as being due to а decline in separator performance.
Cyclone air separator (Fig. 30d):
П terms of design features and classification principle the cyclone air separator is
basically similar to the conventional type of separator.
The differences consist in the external arrangement of the air circu\ating fan and
product collecting cyclones.
The fan, which is characterized Ь у better efficiency and с а п develop higher
pressures than the slow-running internal fan of the conventional air separator,
enabIes the fines to Ь е precipitated from the air in high-efficiency cyclones.
О Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Fig. З О Cyclone air separator О & К
Although this mode of operation involves greater pressure losses, it is т о г е
effective than the classifying action achieved in the conventional separator. The
separating air circulated through the system is thus very largely relieved of its load
of fine particles before being returned to the separating chamber.
In the conventional separator with its less effective separating action there occurs
internal recirculation of т о г е particularly the very fine fractions, resulting in
diminished classification performance. This snag is virtually eliminated in the
cyclone air separator. As а rule, such separators с а п therefore Ь е operated with
lower rates of air circulation than conventional ones of с о т р а г а Ы е throughput
capacity and с а п achieve better separation in the very fine particle size range.
Classification associated with dry grinding processes
Cyclone air separators а г е therefore very suitabIe in connection with the manufac-
ture of high-strength and very high-strength cements, i. е ground to а high degree
of fineness. Also, the flow rate of the separating air circulating through the cyclone
air separator с а п Ь е varied within wide limits, enabIing not only the specific surface
but also the particle size distribution of the finished product to Ь е controlled.
О П account of the higher air rates and т о г е favourabIe size classification
performance, these separators с а п Ь е operated at higher specific separating
chamber loadingsthan is practicabIewith conventional separators.lt is particularly
the higher air ratesand the scopeforvarying them over а wide rangethat makes the
separator performance much less sensitively dependent о п loading of
separating chamber, i. е even quite large variations in the loadlng do not result In
а п у major decline in the quality of performance. .
As in conventional air separators, the material for classification т а у also Ь е drled о г
cooled in the cyclone air separator.
Control possibilities:
In principle, the possibilities for the control of cyclone air separators а г е the same as
those of conventional ones, except of course that, as already noted, the air flow rate
с а п Ь е varied within а much wider range. For normal purposes, i. е the production
of raw meal and cement in their usual degrees of fineness, the scope for control
provided Ь у changing the auxiliary fan speed and/or the air flow rate is usually
2.2.4 Channel wheel separator
П this machine, which differs radically from the separators described so far, the
а е п а for classification is fed from above through а central tube which delivers it
to the centre of the channel wheel, а horizontal rotor comprising а series of radial
feed channels alternating with extraction channels. Rotation of the wheel hurls the
material outwards. Under the action of the Coriolis force it is spread in а thin layer
о п the г е а г walls (in relation tothe direction of rotation) ofthe feed channels. Atthe
perimeter the material issues from each channel Ь у streaming out over the throw-
off edge of the wheel. Around the circumference, behind each feed channel, is а п
intake opening through which the air is sucked in and flows radially inwards
(Fig. 31).
The actual separating о г classifying action is accomplished directly in front ofthese
intake openings. The stream of material coming out of the feed channels is
intersected Ь у the air flowing into the extraction channels, so that the trajectories of
the particles undergo varying amounts of curvature depending о п the size and
weight of the particles and resulting from the combination of the inertia forces and
the force exerted Ь у the stream of air. The finer particles, whose trajectories а г е so
strongly curved Ь у the air с п е п that they а г е sucked into the extraction channels,
а г е с а п е along inwards and into а collecting duct which delivers them to а
product collecting cyclone. О П the other hand, the trajectories of the coarser
partic!es а г е less strongly curved. These particles а г е thus с а п е out of the intake
range of the extraction channels, impinge upon the wall ofthe separator casing and
fall into the tailings outlet (Fig. 31 а
Classification in wet grinding
2.3.1 Hydrocyclones
Along with conventional dry cyclones, hydrocyclones come within the general
class of centrifugal separators о г precipitators, and the two types have features in
common (Fig. 31 Ь The raw slurry is admitted under pressurethrough а tangential
nozzle into the upper cylindrical part of the hydrocyclone and is compelled to flow
in а downward-spiralling path. The centrifugal forces developed in this way
classify the material particles according to mass. The larger and heavier particles а г е
forced outwards and travel in а descending path along the wall of the casing and
а г е discharged from the bottom outlet а р е х nozzle). О П the other hand. the finer
particles а г е carried upwards in the central part of the swirling flow set up Ь у the
throttling action developed in the narrow bottom of the hydrocyclone and а г е
discharged through the central pipe (vortex nozzle) at the top. As the bottom
discharge flow contains mainly coarse particles, its solids concentration is
substantially higher than that of the top discharge flow. П practice the not very
Fig.31 а Channel wheel separator: operating principle (Krupp-Polysius)
А feed, В fines. С tailings, D separating air
,\ .1)

Control possibilities:
Experience so far gained with this separator indicates that the cut size с а п most
advantageously Ь е altered Ь у varying the rotation speed of the channel wheel.
Field of application:
As the channel wheel separator is а fairly new development, а comprehensive body
of operating experience is not yet availabIe. Results so far obtained would suggest
that it с а п most suitabIy Ь е used in the manufacture of very high-strength cements
and for special size classification purposes.
2.3 Classification in wet grinding
As in dry grinding, so also in wet grinding it is possibIe to obtain Ь е Н е г economy Ь у
closed-circuit operation, i. е Ь у separating the mill product into fines and oversize,
the latter being returned to the mill for further grinding. Efforts to make the wet
process of cement manufacture as efficient and economical as possibIe within the
currently attainabIe limits have, among other improvements, led to the develop-
ment of а procedure using high solids concentrations (up to 1250 g/Iitre) in the
Conventional gravity classifiers, such as rake, screw, bowl and up-current
classifiers, which function satisfactorily only with considerabIy lower с о п
centrations than these, а г е unsuitabIe for the purpose. It was therefore necessary
to devise other methods. Developments in that direction resulted in today's
hydrocyclones and curved screens, including the DSM screen.
О Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Fig.31: Channel wheel separator (Krupp-Polysius)
1 separator casing, 2 channel wheel, 3 drive, 4 plenum chamber, 5 feed, 6 feed
downpipe, 7 foreign bodies removal, 8 air fan, 9 fines collecting cyclones
О . Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Classification in wet grinding
as compared with the raw slurry fed into it entails extra cost in handling and
treating this liquid with its lower solids concentration. Also, the hydrocy-
clones, pumps and pipelines а г е subject to heavy mechanical wear о п account
of the high operating pressures and flow velocities.
Control possibilities:
The separating characteristic of а hydrocyclone is governed Ь у its design features,
the variabIe properties of the feed material, the feed pressure and the operating
conditions. Influencing factors а г е :
(1) those determined Ь у the design of the equipment:
angle of taper of the conical section;
ratio of the bottom outlet ( а р е х nozzle) and top outlet (vortex nozzle)
diameters (in some hydrocyclones this с а п Ь е varied);
(2) those determined (and modifiabIe) Ь у the operating conditions:
feed rate;
solids concentration in the raw slurry; viscosity ( с а п Ь е modified Ь у the
addition of thinning agents);
feed pressure.
Determining the settings for optimum selectivity and cut size often involves
protracted trial-and-error procedures because the interactions of these various
factors а г е very difficult to gauge, even though they а г е linked Ь у physical
The separating performance of hydrocyclones responds very sensitively to even
quite minor changes in the above-mentioned factors, and in order to obtain а
slJitabIy uniform finished product it is essential that the items of eqlJipment
connected before and after the cyclones а г е functioning properly.
2.3.2 Curved screens
' П the classification devices so far described, the separating effect is achieved Ь у
the action of gravity and/or centrifugal force upon the particles, i. е . , the mass о г
weight of the individual particle determines the magnitude of the force thus exerted
о п it. О П the other hand, in the devices described in the present section, separation
is based о п the repeated comparison of the size of the particles with а particular
aperture ( о г the geometric projection thereof). Accordingly, the size classifiers in
this general category а г е designated as "screens" (Fig. 31 с ) .
In principle, а curved screen consists of а grid consisting of horizontal bars of
wedge-shaped о г trapezoidal cross-section which а г е arranged so as to form а
curved surface. The raw slurry for classification is fed under pressure from above, in
а thin stream, onto the screening surface, о п which it flows downwards. At the
edge of each Ь а г that it encounters а thin layer is "peeled off" from this flow. At the
same time, а separation in particle size is effected at these screen Ь а г edges. In
much simplified terms it с а п Ь е said that particles whose centres а г е above the
edge of а Ь а г which they encounter а г е carried along Ь у the flow of slurry in its
further descent along the curved surface, while particles whose centres а г е below
the edge а г е discharged through the screen. Fig. 31 Ь : Hydrocyclone
outlet nozzle
( о р е х nozzleJ
top outlet
(vortex nozzleJ
selective separating action of the hydrocyclone often necessitates the use of two
stages of classification, the slurry being passed successively through two
hydrocyclones connected in series.
In order to obtain reasonabIy satisfactory sharpness of separation at а cut size of
0.1 -0.2 mm when operating with high-viscosity slurries with solids с о п с е п ­
trations of about 1000-1250g/litre, large centrifugal forces а г е required. These
а г е achieved in small-diameter cyclones into which the slurry is fed at relatively
high pressures, generally above 2 atm. (gauge pressure). As а rule, hydrocyclones
range in diameter from 1О mm (used in multiple assembIies, so-called multi-
cyclones) to about 600 mm.
Against the advantage of technical simplicity of wet grinding systems must Ь е set
some drawbacks:
The particle cut size and sharpness of separation а г е considerabIy affected Ь у
the slurry feed rate, sol ids concentration, viscosity and admission pressure;
Under normal operating conditions these variabIes cannot always Ь е main-
tained at favourabIe values without additional arrangements, е . g., return of
part of the product flow to the pump sump о г other such measures.
For the subsequent stages of the raw material preparation process - de-
watering о г partial dewatering of the slurry and burning it in the kiln - the up to
10% higher water content of the fine slurry discharged from the hydrocyclone
D. Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Fig.31c: Curved screen (schematic)
О П the curved screens used in the cement industry, which have а curvature radius
of about 0.5 m and operate with flow velocities of 3 - 8 m/second, layers
corresponding in thickness to about 25% of the aperture width а г е skimmed off at
the successive bars. With the usual apertures employed о п these screens, from 0.3
to 1 т т cut sizes of О т т а г е obtained.
The edges facing the oncoming flow а г е subject to heavy wear and Ь е с о т е
bIunted in course of time, as а result of which the cut size is shifted to smaller
particle sizes. О п the other hand, the г е а г edges of the bars Ь е с о т е gradually
sharpened Ь у the abrasive action of the particles. В у reversing the bars from time to
time it is possibIe, despite increasing wear, to maintain the desired cut size of the
Like hydrocyclones, curved screens с а п Ь е successfully operated with slurries
containing solids in concentrations up to 1250 g/Iitre, and they have the
advantage over hydrocyclones in that the increase in water content of the fine
slurry is less pronounced. П т а п у instances, combinations of hydrocyclones with
curved screens as secondary classifiers а г е employed.
Classification in wet grinding
Control possibilities:
For а given aperture width between the screen bars the cut size and the selectivity
of the screening operation с а п Ь е modified Ь у varying the flow ve\ocity and solids
concentration of the slurry. Reduction of the velocity increases the cut size and the
probability that oversize particles will Ь е present in the fines, while the probability
of undersize particles being present in the coarse rejects is correspondingly
reduced. Increasing the flow velocity produces the opposite effects.
For equal apertures and flow velocities а п increase in the solids concentration of
the slurry fed to the screen reduces the cut size, but the sharpness of classification
becomes р о о г е г Conversely, with lower solids concentration in the feed slurry
there is а п increase in cut size and а п improvement in sharpness.
As in the case of hydrocyclones, it requires some trial and е п о г to determine the
optimum settings for flow velocity and solids concentration for а given purpose.
Curved screens likewise respond very sensitively to changes in these parameters,
while it is equally essential thatthe equipment installed before and after the screens
should function reliabIy.
fine г
Fig. 31 d: DSM screen (schematic)
Criteria for the assessment of classification processes
Errors of measurement inevitabIy affect the result of the outp.uts Ь у
means of these formulas. А simplified empirical formula, whlch IS sufflclently
accurate for practical purposes, has Ь е е п given Ь у Koulen:
As а rule, in actual plant operation it is impracticabIe.to ?etermine the flow rates
the feed А fines (F) and tailings (G) directly Ь у е П Therefore the output IS
calculated from the results of the particle size analysis:
+ v
= 100 [%].
= х 100 [%].
G 0/].
= - Х 100 [/0 ,

х [%]
= - Х 100 [%];
Fines output
The fines output V
is the percentage Ь у weight) of the feed material that is
separated as fine product in the classification process.
О Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
О М screen
The О М screen (developed bythe Dutch 5tate Mines) is а furtherdevelopment of
the curved screen and functions о п the same principle (Fig. 31 d). П this case the
screen surface also consists of horizontal bars of trapezoidal о г wedge-shaped
section, but here arranged as а cylinder segment comprising а п а г с of 2700. The raw
slurry to Ь е classified is fed tangentially under pressure through а nozzle onto the
inner surface of the screen. It rises in а curved path and travels round this surface.
О п the way, the slurry containing the fine particles is discharged through the
apertures between the bars and emerges о п the outside of the screen and is
collected there. Meanwhile the coarse particles discharged from the inner surface
after travelling completely round it а г е collected in another hopper. The one-sided
wear of the bars, which affects the cut size of the classifying operation, is
compensated Ь у reversing the direction of flow round the screen. The nozzle с а п
Ь е swung over to the other edge for this purpose.
As compared with ordinary curved screens, the О М screen attains better
sharpness of separation because of the longer path that the slurry travels along the
curved surface.
2.4 Criteria for the assessment of classification processes
П the cement industry, classifiers а г е used mainly in conjunction with closed-
circuit grinding. Their operation considerabIy affects the grinding process. Various
criteria and characteristics are used for assessing their performance.
а - 5g [0/]
= ---Х 100 /0,
and 5
denote the totals of the in
the particle size analysis of the samples of feed materlal, П е and tal\lngs taken п а
test о п а classifier. Obviously, only values which correspond to the sarne partlcle
sizes should Ь е used for determining the totals (see Т а Ы е 1).
Fundamental equations:
А . L1a = F. М + G . L1g.
L1a,M,L1g =
classifier feed rate [t/hour] = total mill throughput
fines output rate [t/hour] = finished product output
tailings output rate [t/hour] = circulating load
undersize (proportion below а certain size) in A,F,G [% Ь у weight]
proportion of а particular size fraction of А F, G [% Ь у weight]
percentage output of fines [% Ь у weight]
percentage output of tailings [% Ь у weight]
recycle ratio
precipitation efficiency [%]
selectivity [%]
cut size [micron].
Recycle ratio
The recycle ratio u is the ratio of the classifier feed rate to the fines discharge rate:
А 100 St-5g
u = F = = Sa - 5

This ratio provides а criterion for the loading of the classifier thus o.f the
grinding plant.ln а grinding plant operating under steady condltlOns
the rate of feed of new material to the plant must Ь е equal to the rate of П е
discharge from the classifier, i. е the material removed as finished product from the
grinding circuit. The recycle ratio с а п therefore Ь е from the measured
values of the rate of new material М fed to the Г П П plant and of the rate of
tailings discharge from the classifier:
М +G А
О Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation techn%gy
Criteria for the assessment of classification processes

:dt =2J..SlJ. m

ю о
stepped diagram corresponding to these functions must Ь е drawn and then the
average smooth separation curve approximating to that diagram.
The selectivity с а п Ь е calculated from.
ю м w ш ю 80 W 00 00
particle size in IJ.m
Fig. З а Separation curve for cement with а specific surface of
З с

(plotted from Т а Ы е
method 01 particle
analysis [%] [%]
1 з 7,S" г
6,& "3,0 3,9

г г
l' и

16 Ц г -fo,i'
J2 Б 9'f,J'
М 7'1,1 99,3 г
air- jet 90 pqo

г о о О 9,1
- ..N3,o

v. .. s. - я _ З З ..
,. 05'- S9 ·100 - з З • О .... З 7-
е 100- У = 61,1"1..
Т а Ы е Determination of fines output Ь у Koulen's method (10); tests
о п а cyclone air separator with 5.2 m diameter О & К
Precipitation efficiency
The precipitation efficiency of the classifier is:
G 'Ag Ag о
t = х 100 = v
х У о
А А а А а
Fх f f
р = х 100 = V
х [%].
А х а а
The precipitation efficiency is referred to а certain given particle size (and varies
with the size considered). It denotes what percentage of the material finer than the
reference particle size in the classifier feed is discharged as fines.
Cut size Т а Ы е 2)
The cut size is defined as that particle size d
of which half the particles are
discharged in the fines and half in the tailings, i. е for that size the selectivity is
If sharpness of separation is р о о г т о г е than 50% of even the finest particle sizes
т а у end up in the tailings, so that then п о definite cut size d
The selectivity (separation efficiency) is characterized Ь у what percentage of а
given particle size in the classifier feed is discharged in the tailings. Plotted against
particle size, it appears as а curve (separation curve, Т г о т р curve) representing the
so-called classifier selectivity function (Fig.32a).
It is not possibIe to determine the selectivity for а given particle size directly from
the size analysis values, as these relate to size fractions, not individual sizes. First, а
Specific precipitation efficiency
It is possibIe to assess the performance of а classifier without to
the separation curve. For that purpose the particle size г Ь ю п and the speclflc
surface areas of various particle size ranges in the classifier feed material с а п Ь е
considered instead.
The sieve undersize amounts (percentages Ь у weight passing the respective test
sieves) а г е plotted against the particle sizes, as has Ь е е п done in the upper diagram
of Fig.32b. П the lower diagram the Blaine values corresponding to these
О Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Criteria for the assessment of classification processes
J! Ispecific
Е efficiency
fines output
ф 11 = т а х fines output
i V
5000 = --- =0,536
tJ I т а
о о о г г о о
о -:;; 100..---....--.,..---.,..---...,....--.....---....,..--....,..---,
ф .L:
Ф 1
'+- ф
.S 3: 80 - -!
> I I
60 Г I
2i. - air separator,
ю 4.5 m я
80 fines output VF
undersize amounts have Ь е е п plotted. For this purpose the Blaine values haveto Ь е
determined for а sufficient number of different size fractions to е п а Ы е а continuous
curve to Ь е drawn.
Suppose that the desired ciassifier product must have а Blaine value (specific
surface) of 3300cm
/g, as in the example represented in Fig.32b. п the lower
diagram this is found to correspond to а particle size of 75 microns in the classifier
feed. Projecting this value perpendicularly upwards into the upper diagram shows
this size to correspond to about 75% passing the sieve (= VF max.). This fines
output V
max. = 75% represents the highest attainabIe output of finished product
having а specific surface of 3300 cm
/g if the classifier feed is separated ("cut")
with complete sharpness at 75 microns. Actually, complete sharpness of cut is
never achieved. The ratio of the actual fines output VF (= 40.11 % in the example
considered) to the highest attainabIe output V
max. provides а criterion for the
separating performance of the classifier.
80 '10 60 80 100 120 1110
particle size in JJ.m
Fig. Ь Determining the maximum percentage output of fines VFmaX for
а given classifier feed material (15-)




Б "ij


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и (,.,




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D. г of cement
Classifier tests
The rate of feed and the partic/e size distribution of the material supplied to the
classifier affect the classification result. Therefore these two parameters should Ь е
kept constant г the period of the trials, and the grinding plant should Ь е
operating under steady conditions (equilibrium). П order to compensate for а п у
variations in the feed, the samples of the material flow rates А F and G are taken
over periods of 5 -1 О minutes at close intervals of 1 - 2 minutes. Gross samples of
the three flows - classifier feed, fines, tailings - are respectively prepared and the
specific г values and particle size distributions are determined.
The test record should include the relevant technical data of the classifier, е g., the
speed and setting of the auxiliary fan, the settings of the valves or dampers in the air
circulating system, etc., together with particulars of the mill, the mill feed material,
and the cooling air or hot gas introduced into the grinding plant in so far as these
affect the classification process.
Evaluation of the classifier tests
The undersize percentages а f, g) for the classifier feed rate А the fines output
rate (F) and the tailings output rate (G) obtained in classifier tests are indicated in
TabIes 1 and 2. The values of а f and 9 с а п advantageously Ь е p/otted against
partic/e size in а diagram with linear scales. The values for the percentage output of
fines VF and for the recyc/e ratio u are calculated Ь у the methods given in Section
2.4. The selectivity values, which are needed for drawing the separation г are
calculated as shown in Т а Ы е 2.
10. Koulen, K./Schneider, Н г Berechnung des Gewichtsausbringens bei der
Sichtung. - п Aufbereitungs- Technik 6/1965/586. .
11. Krogbeumker, G.: Betriebserfahrungen mit dem Kanalradslchter. - In: ZKG
12. Mayer, F. W.: Die Trennscharfe von Sichtern. - п
13. Rock, Н Die Abscheideleistung von Windsichtern und Ihr ElnfluB auf das
Mahlergebnls bei der Kreislaufmahlung. - п ZKG 30/1977(564. ..
14. Ruegg, А Abscheide-Effekt und Wirkungsgrad von Streuslchtern fur Ze-
mentmahlanlagen. - In: Schweizer Bauzeitung 85/1967/70.
15. Seebach, Н М von: Verfahrenstechnische Optimierung von Zementmahlan-
lagen. - In. ZKG 25/1972/71. . .
16. Stumpf, К Ein- oder mehrstufiges Brechen von К а е П - п Aufberel-
tungs- Technik 4/1963/533.
17. Taupitz, К С ProbIeme beim Absieben von grobstuckigem Roh-Haufwerk.
- п Aufbereitungs- Technik 7/1966/149. . ...
18. Trawinski, Н Das Bogensieb г nassen Feinabsiebung. - In: Zeltschrlft fur
Erzbergbau und Metallhuttenwesen VIII/1955/1. ..
19. Trawinski, Н Mechanische Trennverfahren fur Suspensionen und Schlamme.
- п Aufbereitungs- Technik 7/1966/709. .
20. Tromp, К F.: Neue Wege fur die Beurteilung der Aufbereitung von е П
kohlen. - п GlUckauf 73/1937/125.
21. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e.V.: AusschuB Maschinentechnik. MerkbIatt
М Т Sichteruntersuchungen (1965).
3.1 General Introduction
В у grinding is understood the comminution of materials to а powder. П
г Ь у the dry process it constitutes the final stage In the р о с ю п of
raw т е а (raw grinding). The clinker discharged from the ki.ln has Ь е ground to
а fine powder which, with the г of some gypsum. IS the flnlshed product
of the whole process: cement. Th is final clinker grinding operation is often referred
to as finish grinding. The terms "pulverizing" and "milling". are. basically
synonymous with "grinding", but are mostly confined to the с о П ю п of с о а
or lignite for use as pulverized fuel. . .
The object of grinding is, more particularly, to г of the
material - while conforming to а desired partlcle slze Ь ю п - to such а п
extent as to obtain adequate reactivity for the next stage in the cement
manufacturing process or adequate reactivity in the finished product (the cement)
In the cement industry about 75% of the total electric energy consumption is
consumed in grinding the raw materials, the clinker and, where applicabIe, the fuel
1. Baumbach, F.: Der Mogensen-Stangensizer Eine neuartige Lbsung fur grobe
Trennungen. - п Aufbereitungs- Technik 18/1977/64.
2. Bundesverband der Deutschen Kalkindustrie e.V.: Technische MerkbIatter,
MerkbIatt 6/1, 11, 111, Sichter in der Kalkindustrie.
3. Eicke, G.: Mahlanlagen zur Erzeugung von Spezialmehlen. - п Aufberei-
tungs- Technik 20/1979/99.
4. Heyd, J.: Vorzuge des drehzahlgesteuerten Windsichters. - In. ZKG
5. Н о т а п п W.: Zuteiler fur Zerkleinerungsmaschinen. - п Aufbereitungs-
Technik 7/1966/510.
6. Jager, Н Der Zyklon-Umluftsichter. - п ZKG 15/1962/479.
7. Kayser, W.: Neuentwicklungen auf dem Gebiet der Streu-Windsichter. _ In:
ZKG 15/1962/469.
8. Kayser, W.. Kennwerte und Kennlinien zum г von Sichtvorgangen. _
п ZKG 17/1964/547.
9. KnobIoch, O.jMuller, M./Eickholt, Н .. Entwicklungsstand von Streuteller und
Kanalradsichtern. - In ZKG 32/1979/413.
з Grinding
О . Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Because of the diminishing availabIe sources of energy and the attendant rise in
energy costs it is important to р а у particular attention to this major cost item.
Grinding of materials in the two main types of mill now commonly employed
- tube mills and roller mills - inevitabIy involves very considerabIe energy losses.
The actual energy input required for reducing а given material to а certain particle
size far exceeds the energy theoretically needed for breaking down the particles
and thus increasing the surface area of the material. Depending о п the criteria
applied, it is estimated that only between 2 and 20% of the energy supplied to the
grinding system is utilized for producing new surface. The remainder, i. е . , between
98 and 80%, is lost energy, largely going to waste as heat and vibration.
There has of course Ь е е п п о lack of effort to improve present-day grinding systems
and to achieve greater е с о п о т у in terms of energy utilization. Some positive
results have indeed Ь е е п achieved. Even so, the attainabIe improvements in this
respect are still only а mere fraction of the energy losses associated with
Further developments - е . g., based о п fundamentally different comminuting
actions such as those of the centrifugal forces in planetary ball mills or of the
pressure waves associated with electrical discharges - do indeed о р е п up some
interesting prospects, but such processes are still very much in the experimental
stage and nowhere near full development for use о п а п industrially meaningful
The probIem facing the operator of а grinding plant is to decide how to achieve
maximum е с о п о т у with the equipment now availabIe. For this it is essential to
know the present-day possibilities and limitations and to Ь е properly informed of
the ways and means of assessing the performance of the plant. Besides, the
improvement of existing systems and the design of new ones have to Ь е based о п
а sound understanding of these principles.
The energy required for the comminution, or size reduction, of а material to а
certain required fineness (characterized Ь у the specific surface of the product
obtained) will depend о п the hardness of the material, its compressive strength, its
brittleness (or its elasticity or its plasticity), the size and shape of its particles, its
temperature and moisture content, and of course also о п the nature of the
comminuting action exerted Ь у the grinding process employed These factors in
combination determine the resistance that the material offers to size reduction and
с а п Ь е regarded as specific of the material.
This specific resistance to grinding с а п Ь е expressed as specific energy require-
ment and с а п provide а criterion for directly comparing the size reduction
properties of different materials with о п е another.
The size reduction of а material - in the cement industry the materials concerned
are minerals or mixtures of minerals - therefore involves overcoming specific
resistances or forces. ' П the main these are crystal bonding forces and interfacial
bonding forces. ' П crystalline materials, fracture is initiated at flaws which are
always present in such materials and which constitute weak spots that impair the
homogeneity of the crystals. When the material is subjected to load, these flaws act
as notches where stress concentrations о с с ш and where fracture will Ь е initiated
when the stresses exceed the local strength of the material.
Forms of comminuting action - Types of grinding mill
The probability of fracturing is governed not only Ь у the magnitude of the loading,
but also Ь у the rate (speed) of load increase because it is this that determines
whether the material will, within limits, behave in а more plastic or in а more elastic
The efficiency of а size reduction process т а у Ь е judged Ь у comparing the energy
consumption of а п industrial grinding plant with the energy theoretically required
for achieving the size reduction о п the basis of the physical theories of particle
fracture. The actual energy consumption is always found to Ь е т а п у times greater
than the theoretical value, the difference between the two values being а п
indication of the energy lost or wasted in grinding the material.
More particularly, these energy losses are due to:
(1) Friction between the particles of the material themselves and between them
and the grinding elements (grinding media, liner plates, grinding rollers,
grinding bowl, etc.). ' П ball mills there is moreover friction between the
grinding mediathemselves and between them and the milllining. Thefriction is
converted into heat, noise and electrostatic charge.
(2) Wear of the grinding elements; elastic and, to some extent, plastic deformation
of the elements.
(3) Elastic deformation of the material to Ь е comminuted until the fracturing stress
is attained at the flaws and weak spots in its particles, so that these break up.
(4) Plastic deformation of the material to Ь е ground.
(5) Formation of particle agglomerations.
3.2 Forms of comminuting action
The conventional machines for the size reduction, or comminution, of materials
make use of the following types of mechanical action applied to the particles:
compression, shear, percussion and impact. As а rule, there are п о clear-cut
divisions between these various actions, and in most machines two or more of
them о с с ш simultaneously, i. е . , the particles are subjected to а combination of
3.3 Types of grinding mill
3.3.1 TumbIing mills
In machines of this category the size reduction of the feed material is accomplished
Ь у the action of gravity upon the contents of the mill - which is usually а tube-
shaped or drum-shaped unit rotating о п а horizontal axis - in the course of its
rotation. ' П the cement industry such mills are used for raw material, coal and
clinker grinding.
А distinction is to Ь е made between tumbIing mills containing grinding media,
usually consisting of steel balls, and those containing nogrinding media (or only а
small quantity), the comminuting action being performed mainly Ь у the feed
material itself, i. е . , the coarse particles act as their own grinding media in tumbIing
upon, and rubbing against, о п е another (autogenous mills).
D. Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
TumbIing mills operated with grinding media а г е usually of the type called tube
3.3.2 TumbIing mills with grinding media (tube mills)
In this very extensively applied grinding system the grinding media and the feed
material to Ь е ground are brought together in а rotating tubular or drum-shaped
compartment. The media and material are lifted some distance at the rising side of
the mill in its rotational motion and, after reaching а certain height, с о т е tumbIing
down (cascading and/or cataracting). The actual height to which they are lifted
depends о п а number of factors' the speed of the mill, the type of lining, the
composition and shape of the grinding media, the filling ratio (mill loading
percentage), and the properties of the mill feed material.
Size reduction work is done both during the rising movement and during the
subsequent cascading/cataracting of the mixture of grinding media and feed
material. In the first part of this cycle, i. е the lifting stage, the material is reduced
mainly Ь у compressive and shearing action. Then, in tumbIing back to the bottom
of the mill, it is subjected mainly to impact and percussion.
The grinding media used in the cement manufacturing industry are nearly always
steel balls or short cylindrical steel media (Cylpebs). Porcelain or rubber-jacketed
steel balls or porcelain Cylpebs а г е used only for exceptional purposes, е g., in the
production of white cement. Grinding media consisting of other materials, such as
flint, т а у Ь е used for the reduction of very soft raw materials, е g., chalk.
mill is lined with plates, usually of steel and commonly referred to as liners,
whlch serve to protect the mill shell against wear and also to assist the lifting of the
feed material/grinding media mixture. П wet grinding, linings made of rubber or а
combination of rubber and wood т а у Ь е used. These materials, and also porcelain
linings, are employed in white cement manufacture.
А third function - besides providing wear protection and helping to lift the mill
contents - thatthe liners are sometimes required to perform is that of "classifying"
the grinding media according to size along the length of the mill. This effect is
achieved Ь у the use of specially shaped liners.
3.3.3 Various forms of construction for tube mills
The design features of certain types of tube mill which are of little or п о importance
in connection with cement manufacture е g., rod mills, trommel screen mills, etc.)
will not Ь е described here.
The technical nomenclature applied to tumbIing mills tends to Ь е inconsistent. For
instance, the designation Ъ а mills" is sometimes rather loosely applied as а
generic term to describe all these mills (except rod mills, autogenous mills, etc.) or,
alternatively, this term is confined to such mills with а low length/diameter ratio
(below 3'1 or 2: 1). The latter is а rather arbitrary distinction, whilethe designation
Ъ а .mills" т а у Ь е misleading because the grinding media are not necessarily
spherlcal: but т а у cylindrical bodies such as Cylpebs. Mills characterized Ь у а
length/dlameter ratlO of 3: 1 or more are conventionally called "tube mills". It
Motion of grinding media in tube mills
would, however, Ь е т о г е logical to apply this designation to this whole class of
mills, irrespective of the length/diameter ratio.
Tube mills с а п Ь е classified according to various criteria.
(1) number of grinding compartments:
- single-compartment mills;
- multi-compartment mills;
(2) method of product discharge:
end discharge through mill bearing trunnion;
end discharge through trunnion with stream of air (air-swept mills) ,
end discharge at periphery of mill;
central discharge at periphery of mill;
(3) nature of the grinding process:
wet grinding:
in о р е п circuit;
in closed circuit;
dry grinding:
in о р е п circuit;
in closed circuit (with air classifier equipment).
3.4 Motion of grinding media in tube mills
Rotation of the mill causes the charge consisting of grinding media and feed
material to Ь е lifted some distance Ь у friction between the media and the lining.
The helght to which the charge is iifted will depend о п а number of factors.
circumferential velocity of the mill;
shape, size and weight of the grinding media,
friction between the lining and the grinding media; its magnitude с а п Ь е
modified Ь у design features of the liners;
friction within the mill charge itself; the magnitude of these frictional forces is
in turn governed Ь у the loading percentage, the proportion of feed material in
relation to grinding media, and the properties of the material, such as its
moisture content and flowability.
It is not possibIe toquantify all these variabIes and estabIish а п exact mathematical
analysis. Т о simplify the probIem of grinding media motion, the behaviour of just
о п е of them - say, а ball - will first Ь е considered.
The ball is subjected to centrifugal force (due to the rotation of the mill) and to the
force of gravity. Under the combined action of these forces the ball will travel in а
circular path, i. е in contact with the rising wall of the mill, so long as the radial
component m х 9 х cos а of the gravitational force is less than the centrifugal force
т .
__ о At the point of the circumference where the radlal component of the
gravitational force becomes larger than the centrifugal force, the ball detaches itself
from the wall and falls back into the mill. П doing this it travels along а parabolic
path (Fig.33).
О г of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Motion of grinding media in tube mills
The feed material, which is lifted along with the grinding media and is subjected to
compression and shear г this part of the motion, is pulverized mainly Ь у
impact and percussion in the zone А where almost the entire energy of the
falling grinding media is concentrated. This form of communuting action is
especially effective in the primary size reduction of relatively coarse feed material
supplied to the mill.
Under similar conditions, but with higher loading percentages, the grinding media
will perform а cascading motion (Fig.35). П this case the inner layers of the
grinding media charge detach themselves before the outer ones, and the latter fall
back onto the media which а г е already detached and moving downwards. As
Fig. 35: Cascading
of grinding media
Fig. 34: Cataracting
of grinding media
The assumption о п which the above calculation is based, namely, equal angular
velocity of the grinding media and the mill shell, is not fu/filled under actual
operating conditions. Only at rotational speeds substantially higher than the
theoretical critical speed will the grinding media remain in contact with the lining
all round the circumference.
Н е п с е the critical speed serves merely as а reference value for describing mill
speeds, which are often expressed as а percentage of the critical speed.
As has Ь е е п determined experimentally, the most г grinding effect is
obtained in the range between 68 and 75% of the critical speed. Tube m;lIs are
normally operated within these limits. As а rule, the various г have
adopted certain speed ranges as most suitabIe for their mills.
The bulk volume of the grinding media charge in tube mills is usually between 20
and 35% of the internal volume of the grinding compartment. This filling ratio is
known as the loading percentage or grinding media load of the mill. The media
form а bed comprising а number of layers. When the mill rotates, the inner layers
detach themselves before the outer ones. If the speed of rotation of the mill is
sufficiently high and the loading percentage is appropriately chosen, the media
perform а cataracting motion (Fig.34).
Fig. 33: Forces acting о п а grinding ball
30 42.3
ncr;t = l;r or ----,=:== г р т
V r у

where О denotes the internal diameter of the mill (in т
Putting v = 60 ,we obtain for the critical speed.
The following notat;on will Ь е used'
m mass of the grinding ball [kg]
v (circumferential) velocity [m/second]
r radius of the circular path т
а angle of detachment [degrees]
n speed of mill rotation [revolutions/minute]
9 acceleration of gravity [m/second
О п the assumption that the ball cannot slide or roll о п the mill lining and that
it therefore moves at the same angular velocity as that of the mill shell, the
ang/e of detachment с а п Ь е determined from the equilibrium condition
m х v
.. v
2 Х 11 Х r х n
m х 9 х cos а = ---, glvlng: cos а = --, while v = _
r 9 х r 60
so that cos а = 1.118 х 103 Х r х п

Above а certain rotational speed - the so-
speed - detachment of the grinding media will not г i.e., they
wlll Ь е с а П е г round and round the circumference. Н е п с е cos а = 1. This speed is
characterized Ь у the condition that the centrifugal force and the gravitational force
. т
at the top of the clrcumference are in equi/ibrium. so that: ---=mg.
D. Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Motion of grinding media in tube mills


11,0 1,1
J 4 5 6 7
effectlve length т
_ 0--0- -0- -0- - 0--0 -- 0-- o-J-----
234 5 67:
........... \



1,017'117'1 '\.


"./ \
О т т \
О т т
\ х
11" .......

т t----._
the material is transported longitudinally through the mill proportionally increases.
This is achieved thanks to the better flowability that the material acquires as it
becomes т о г е finely ground.
The level that the material settles down to under continuous mill operating
conditions is governed Ь у the composition of the grinding media As а rule,
this level с а п Ь е lowered and the residence time of the materlal П the mlll Ь е
shortened Ь у using coarser grinding media (Iarger balls, etc.), and vice versa.. ln
actual practice the р г о Ы е т is to determine the operating point at which, wlth
maximum throughput, the required degree of size reduction is achieved.
- bulk denslty -'-'- volume г
Fig. 36: Increase in volume (bulking) of the feed material with increas-
ing fineness of grinding in а tube mill of 4.0m diameter and 7.5m
effective length
3.4.1 Motion of the material being ground
П tube mills the raw material is fed, and the product discharged, in а continuous
flow. П the course of size reduction, the material moves from the inlet to the outlet
of the mill. This motion is due to several causal factors. П dry grinding these а г е
increase in bulk volume of the material according as it is ground to finer particle
increasing flowability of the material as it is т о г е finely reduced;
displacement of the fine material with better flow properties Ь у the coarser feed
material with р о о г е г flowability.
In addition, in air-swept mills the stream of air passing through the mill assists the
longitudinal progress of the material.
3.4.2 Effect of volume increase о п grinding (Fig, 36)
Besides р г о р е г adjustment of the grinding media to suit the feed material, the
proportion of material in relation to grinding media in the mill is а major factor
governing the effectiveness of the grinding process. If the proportion of material is
too low, а high percentage of direct impacts between grinding media will о с с ш so
that п о material is pulverized between them and nocomminuting work isdone. О п
the other hand, if there is too much material in the mill, too much of the energy of
falling will Ь е dissipated in displacing the particles from between the impacting
grinding media and will thus Ь е wasted.
Experience shows that the best grinding results а г е generally obtained when, with
the mill at rest, the top level of the material coincides with the top level of the
grinding media charge along the whole effective length of the mill. In order to
obtain such conditions it is necessary that, with increasing bulk volume of the
material with progressively finer size reduction along the mill, the speed at which
contrasted with what occurs in cataracting, in cascading the motion of the
grinding media in their downward stream is characterized Ь у flowing and rolling
rather than falling. Thus the energy of falling is distributed over а larger а г е а and
therefore less concentrated. For this reason, cascading is not very suitabIe for the
comminution of coarse feed material, but is о п the other hand very effective for fine
(secondary) grinding.
For equal circumferential velocity of the mill shell the actual pattern of grinding
media motion Ь е т е е п the two extremes of cascading and cataracting is governed
Ь у а number of factors:
shape and surface configuration of the liners;
composition of the grinding media charge;
loading percentage of the mill;
resistance of the material to comminution;
moisture content of the feed material.
Through the first three factors it is possibIe to modify the motion of the grinding
media so as to adapt it to the operating conditions in а п у given case.
----- ...
О М а п а с ш е of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Wet grinding
П wet grinding с а п е out in tube mills the axial progress of the material is
governed mainly Ь у the flow velocity of the п у its water/solids content and the
fineness of the raw п у particles. If the water content is appropriately adjusted,
classification of the material according to particle size о с с ш in the mill, which is
advantageous because particles already sufficiently reduced in size will then not
unnecessarily Ь е ш е г subjected to grinding action.
3.5 Calculating the mill drive power
The power input required for driving а tube mill с а п Ь е determined from the
power = torque х angular velocity (Fig. 37).
Fig.37: Simplified geometric relationships for determining the Ш
drive power
When the mill is in operation, the mass of grinding media and feed material forms
а п п е а г у shaped asymmetrical body whose centre of gravity is at а distance а
from the vertical centre-line of the mill cross-section. The opposing torque is thus
equal to the weight G of the grinding media multiplied Ь у the distance а i. е
М = 9 х а
Relative to the rotating mill shell, the centre of gravity S, which is at rest, has the
х п х п
angular velocity о
From the relation:
power = torque х angular velocity we obtain.
Calculating the mill drive power
Gxa х п х п
102 60'
in which а is а п unknown quantity. В у way of simplification it с а п Ь е assumed
that, in all mills with с о т р а г а Ы е loading percentages and rotational speeds, there
is а constant ratio between а and the internal diameter of the mill, so that we с а п
write: а = Х х D
О П substitution of this relation into the above expression for N we obtain.
G х Х х D
2 х 1t Х n
N = х --- [kW].
102 60
Т о obtain а simpler expression, we с а п introduce а power factor.
Х х х п
С = ---so that: N = G х D
Х n х С [kW] ,
60 х 102
1\1 power consumption [kW]
G weight of mill charge [t]
internal diameter of mill т
С power factor
1t speed of mill rotation [revolutions/minute]
This calculation is, as already stated, based о п the assumption that in all mills with
с о т р а г а Ы е loading percentages the distance а is а constant proportion of the
diameter. Thus п о account is taken of а п у е а ш е that affect the lifting height of
the mill charge and the magnitude of the distance а such as the shape of the liners,
the type of grinding media, the weight of the grinding media charge, and the
physical properties of the feed material.
Values for the factor С have to Ь е determined empirically. Unfortunately, they
exhibit а wide range of scatter between the upper and lower limiting sizes of the
grinding media employed, so that the power consumption values calculated with
the aid of such factors tend to Ь е п а с с ш а е The power consumption of а tube
mill determined in this way, which takes account of the mechanical losses of the
mill and drive but not the efficiency of the drive motor, is therefore to Ь е regarded
only as а п approximate guide value. Т о allow for the efficiency of the motor а п
extra 4% should Ь е added (Fig.37a).
Data of the tube mill:
internal diameter D
= 3.13 т effective length 11.5 т grinding media charge
82.5t; loading 20.5%;
С = 0.252 (coarse grinding media);
О Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
TumbIing mills without grinding media (autogenous mills)
Differences in design between tube mills and autogenous mills а г е due to the fact
that in the latter type of grinding machine it is necessary to operate with а larger mill
charge volume and greater height of fall of the "grinding media" in order to develop
sufficient comminuting energy, because the lumps of material that have to perform
this function а г е of lower density than the steel balls о г Cylpebs used in tube mills.
The comminution of о п е piece of feed material Ь у another is more effective if there
is а pronounced difference in mass between the two pieces; therefore the particle
size distribution of the feed material in а п autogenous mill must not Ь е
homogeneous along the length of the mill. This requirement is fulfilled Ь у using
mills which а г е short in relation to their diameter and Ь у installing so-called
deflectors, which а г е internal fittings that deflect the material towards the centre of
the mill.
Besides requiring larger effective volumes and different length/diameter
autogenous mills must also rotate at higher speeds than tube mills - so as to 11ft
the charge higher and thus obtain greater heights of fall - in order to attain
comparabIe throughput rates. Autogenous mills do indeed differ considerabIy from
tube mills in having very low length/diameter ratios, of the order of only 1 :5, and
their speeds а г е in the range of about 70 to 100% of critical. They а г е used both for
drying grinding (Aerofall mills) and for wet grinding.
П dry grinding, the sufficiently pulverized material is removed from the mill usually
Ь у а stream of air, which enabIes the granulometric of the prod.uct
the mill to Ь е controlled within certain limits. Such air-swept mllls demand hlgh а г
throughput rates, which с а п Ь е turned to advantage Ь у combining the autogenous
grinding operation with drying of moist feed material. .
In wet grinding, the product is discharged Ь у overflowthrough the п ю п
о г through sieve plates. In comparlson with ordinary tu Ь е mllls contaIn П grl nd Г
media, the raw slurry fed to а п autogenous mill shou Id have а п approximately 7 to
10% higher water content.
With autogenous grinding, whether dry о г wet, it is possibIe to grind
granu lar bu Ik materials о г materials that have Ь е е п suitabIy pre-crushed, subJect to
the maximum feed particle size not being too large. Sometimes, о п the other hand,
specially separated larger pieces of rock а г е added to act as "grinding media" in
what could otherwise Ь е too fine-grained а feed material. For the same reason,
large steel balls (up to а loading of about 10%) may Ь е introduced i.nt? the to
assist the autogenous grinding action and compensate for а Г а ю п In the
granulometric composition of the feed material.
П the cement industry, autogenous grinding is used only in certain individual
cases and then only for the primary grinding of raw materials. With the currently
availabIe mills of this kind it is not possibIe to obtain а finished product of sufficient
fineness to serve as raw meal for kiln feed. This is so because the selective size
reduction effect associated with autogenous grinding, which may Ь е advan-
tageous in the preparatory processing of other raw materials, is rather undesirabIe
in raw grinding for cement г М о г е particularly, it means that
homogeneous hard components in the feed material а г е liabIe to Ь е inadequately
broken down.
The main advantage of autogenous grinding, i. е without о г with only а limited
large balls


small balls/
0,22 Cyl pebs

0,20 _
Т Т т
I 1
20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38
power factor С % mill /oading
fig. а Power factor С for determining the drive power of а tube mill
rotational speed n = 17.5 r.p.m.;
feed material. raw material for cement manufacture.
Power consumption: N = 82.5 х 3.13 х 17.5 х 0.252 = 1139 kW
adding 4% (= 46 kW) gives I\J = 1185 kW.
This calculated value compares with N = 1195 actually г for this mill
operating under these conditions.
3.6 TumbIing mills without grinding media (autogenous mills)
The motion of the mill charge in а п autogenous mill is subject to the same
principles as those operating in а п ordinary tube mill, except that instead of balls о г
other grinding media the larger pieces of feed material themselves perform the
function. Both types of mill а г е governed Ь у the same physical
е а ю п Р .namely, that the new surface produced is proportional to the energy
П р to the m,11 and that the work done in comminuting the material is determined
Ь у the mass and height of fall of the grinding media.
D. М а п а с е of с е е п 1. Materials р г е р а г а о п е с п о о у
р г о р о г о п of) г п п media, lies п the lower rates of wear п с о р а г о п with
г п п п tube mills. О п the other а п claims that а о е п о г п п п о е
lower specific power с о п р о п such as а г е sometimes put forward п the
literature, а р р е а г п о to Ь е Ь а п а е п а п а п у such с о р а г о п it is
п е с е а г у to compare the results of the г п п process п о merely о п the basis of
р е г с е п а е г е а п е о п test sieves, but also п terms of specific surface values.
Because of the more highly selective character of the с о п п а с о п which
е п to produce more cleavage а о п the с о п а с faces of the micro-crystals, the
а о е п о г п п product tends to с о п а п а lower р г о р о г о п of very п е
3.7 Monitoring of wear
The п е г п а п oftube mills, such as the п е г the feed а п discharge devices,
the п е г е а е а п discharge diaphragms а п the г п п media charge, а г е а
subjected to severe е с а п с а а с о п These а п е themselves п wear of the
parts с о п с е г п е the degree of wear Ь е п е р е п е п о п the properties of the feed
material to Ь е г о п а п о п the quality (wear г е а п с е of the materials of which
these е а г п parts а г е made. Besides, the а е п effect of е с а п с а repetitive о г
cyclic loading о п these parts is р о г а п
п order to е п а е as far as possibIe the о с с г г е п с е of damage п mill
о р е г а о п а п to с о р е п а е for е с п е п mill р е г о г а п с е due to wear, it is
advisabIe regularly to inspect the г п п с о р а г е п for wear of their п е г п а
п Furthermore, п order to reduce о п е а п wages, the п е с е а г у
р е р а г а о п shouid Ь е made in а а п с е i. е before а с ш а р а п о п These
include taking samples of the material before а п after the mill е п the г п п
р а п is о р е г а п п е г steady-state с о п о п For process е п п е е г п checks
it is п г с е to п с е the р е г о г а п с е of е р е п "upstream" а п о п
stream" of the mill п the а е е п of the п с о п п of the mill itself.
The р е г о п п е who have to Ь е п а е п а п с е for о р е п п а п е п е г п the mill
should Ь е о п е п good time, а п the п е с е а г у tools, ladders, lamps а п а п у
е а п п г е п that may Ь е required should Ь е п г е а п е Samples of
material at р о п spaced 1 m apart should Ь е а е п from п the mill а п stored
п е п а Ы е с о п а п е г Properly г а п е а п е х р е г е п с е р е г о п п е should
preferabIy Ь е used for this work п order to reduce the risk of mistakes п а р п
а п е а е е п Obviously, it is п е с е а г у to take adequate safety р г е с а о п so
as to е п е that the mill will п о Ь е п а е г е п у started while there а г е men п е
it. А supervisor should Ь е р г е е п outside the mill, while the п е г п а п р е с о п is
Ь е п made.
3.7 1 М е с а п с а checks
Despite the use of high-grade е п п е е г п materials а п х п е с п е п
о е г п mills, damage to п е г п а п с а п п о Ь е ruled out. As р г е е п а у
г п п р а п а г е п а п у п а п с е operated п е г remote с о п г о - i. е they
М о п о г п of wear
а г е started, stopped а п о п о г е from control а о п some с о п е г а Ы е
а п с е away - there is а risk that relatively п о г п а damage may produce
major с о п е е п а damage before it is detected.
It is advisibIe to take every availabIe о р р о г п у to detect а п remedy possibIe
sources of troubIe п their early stages. п с а г г у п out the п р е с о п of the mill it is
therefore р о г а п also carefully to е х а п е the п е г п а п
3.7.2 Mill п п
As а rule, the п е г о г of а tube mill is accessibIe о п у through а п о е These с а п
most с о п е п е п у Ь е о р е п е а п с о е е п they а г е positioned atthetop ofthe
shell е п the mill has stopped. However, if this is adopted as а п а г practice, it
е а п that always о п у the same approximately two-thirds р о г о п of the
с г с е г е п с е п о covered Ь у the г п п media с а п Ь е п р е с е п order to
е х а п е the other parts of the п п the п р е с о п should from time to time also
Ь е carried out with the а п о е п а е г е п р о о п The task of а п п the
heavy а п о е covers п е г such с о п о п с а п Ь е facilitated Ь у г е р а с п the
covers Ь у temporary lightweight о п е е g., с о п п of 1О mm thick steel plate,
е п the а п о е а г е п the top р о о п
Fractured о г Ь г о е п parts of the п а г е а р о е п а source of troubIe. The п е г
thus affected should Ь е replaced Ь у п е о п е е е п if the fractured pieces а р р е а г
to Ь е firmly interlocked а п perhaps also held п р о о п Ь у г п п media
wedged п о the п п
If а fairly large п Ь е г of п е г а г е о п to Ь е damaged п а particular а г е а of the
mill, it is п е с е а г у п о о п у to repair the damage, but also to п the cause. Besides
the more obvious possibIe causes of damage, such as material flaws о г п е с е
х п of п е г there а г е others, п с п о а п р е г с е п а е too low, so that
с а а г а с п г п п media overshoot the bed а п strike the п е г too low а rate of
feed п е г с о п п о о р е г а п с о п о п п е г о а п of the mill); too
coarsely graded г п п media charge; п с о г г е с п е г а е п of the а г п е
values of the г п п media а п liners.
For о р е г а о п а reliability of the п п the п е г т ш Ь е satisfactorily supported
а п secured. If some о г all of the п е г а г е bolted, the bolts should Ь е checked from
time to time п order to а с е г а п that they а г е still е п е to the correct torque
г е с о е п е Ь у the а п а с е г
Already at the time offirst п а п the п п it should Ь е е п г е that the Ь е а г п
surfaces to which the п е г а г е fixed а г е properly е е п А п у irregularities such as
burrs о г п must Ь е removed before the п е г а г е fixed.
3.7.3 п е г е а е а п discharge diaphragms
The diaphragms о п plates о г partitions) а г е subjected п о о п у to wear, but
also to с о п е г а Ы е cyctic е с а п с а loads. These affect more particularly the
р р о г п frames о п which the п е г plates о г the slotted с г е е п plates of the
diaphragms а г е о п е The п е а Ы е е г е п а о е е п Ь е е е п these
frames а п the mill shell, а п also Ь е е е п them а п the plates they с а г г у have to
О . Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Ь е resisted Ь у the fixing bolts. It is these bolts in particular that а г е liabIe to
Having regard to the cost and effort of making good the consequences of damage
to, say, а п intermediate diaphragm, it is reasonabIe and advisabIe to test each and
every bolt Ь у tapping it with а hammer.
The liners о г the slotted screen plates of mill diaphragms а г е often secured Ь у
means of shear bolts. Particularly in mills of relatively large diameter it is difficult,
if not indeed impossibIe, to replace individual bolts п е а г the periphery of the
diaphragms. If the attachment of а liner о г screen plate appears to Ь е critically
weakened, it т а у Ь е advisibIe, as а п interim measure till the next major overhaul, to
remove the sector affected and substitute а п ordinary steel plate cut to the
appropriate shape. Т о е п а Ы е this temporary sector to Ь е secured Ь у bolting, а п
opening should Ь е provided in it through which it is possibIe to reach the back of
the plate and manipulate the fixing bolts. When the plate has Ь е е п fitted to the
diaphragm, the opening should Ь е closed with the piece of steel originally cut
away to form it. This piece should then Ь е welded in position.
Replacement of the bolts for fixing the supporting frame to the shell in а large mill,
which а г е likewise difficult to get at, с а п Ь е facilitated Ь у inserting а piece of wire
from outside the mill through the hole in the shell and welding the new bolt to the
end of the wire inside the mill. The bolt с а п then Ь е pulled carefully between the
lifters into its hole.
' П inspecting the diaphragms in the mill all their visibIe parts and those of the
supporting frames should Ь е checked for the presence of cracks. The condition of
the screens о г perforated plates in the middle of the diaphragms shouId also receive
adequate attention. А п у metallic foreign bodies that have Ь е с о т е wedged in the
slots of diaphragms and protrude into the grinding compartment should Ь е
removed because impact with large grinding media т а у produce а wrenching
effect that will fracture the bars adjacent to the slots.
3.7.4 Feed and discharge equipment
T ~ e feed and discharge devices а г е frequently provided with lifting and/or
conveying inserts. As these internal fittings а г е also subject to considerabIe wear,
they should Ь е inspected а ! suitabIe intervals. Their fixings should Ь е checked and,
if necessary, renewed.
3.7.5 Other checks
During fairly long shutdown periods the critical or especially severely stressed
parts outside the actual grinding compartment of the mill should also Ь е duly
inspected. The following а г е especially important·
Trunnion bearings
The trunnion bearings о п т а п у mills а г е lubricated Ь у means of oiling rings and
wipers. The condition of these components should Ь е checked. In particular,
depending о п the design features in а п у given case, the joints of the oiling rings
should receive attention. Worn wiper elements should Ь е renewed in good time.
The trunnions themselves shou Id Ь е examined for the presence of scratches and
Monitoring of wear
Т о ensure operational reliability of the trunnion bearings it is essential not only to
supply them adequately with lubricant, but also to ensure that the lubricant is free
from contamination. The bearing housing should Ь е effectively sealed. The sealing
elements, usually rubber lip seals о г fabric seals, should Ь е adjusted о г renewed, as
necessary. It should also Ь е ensured that these sealing elements а г е coated with а
film of lubricant to protect them against wear.
In the case of mills equipped with girth gear and pinion drive the tooth bearing, the
condition of the tooth flanks and the lubricant film should Ь е checked at regular
intervals. If spray lubrication is employed, the spraying devices should likewise Ь е
regularly checked to make sure that they а г е functioning properly. This с а п Ь е done
Ь у laying а sheet of р а р е г о п the part of the girth gear destined to receive the
atomized spray and to allow the lubricating system to perform о п е operating
With properly functioning spray nozzles the lubricant should Ь е uniformly
distributed over the full width of the girth gear. The quantity of lubricant dispensed
in each successive spraying operation с а п Ь е determined from the difference in
weight obtained Ь у weighing the sheet of р а р е г before and after spraying. The
result should, with due regard to the number of spraying operations that the
lubricating system performs р е г hour, Ь е checked against the recommendations of
the mill manufacturer о г lubricant supplier.
The requirements applicabIe to the seals of the girth gear housing а г е similar in
principle to those already stated for the trunnion bearing seals. Н е г е , too, it is
important to prevent dust getting into the housing.
Mill heads
Although the mill heads (end walls) а г е designed о п the basis of sound structural
and metallurgical principles, and а г е manufactured and tested with all possibIe
с а г е , fracturing and damage cannot Ь е completely ruled out. It is therefore
advisabIe also to inspect these components at regular intervals, with particular
attention to the transition between the trunnion and the head. Т о е п а Ы е а п у
cracking to Ь е detected as early as possibIe, it is desirabIe to keep these parts free
from dust.
Mill shell
The same as has Ь е е п said concerning the mill heads applies also to the shell, i. е . ,
the cylindrical body of the mill. The parts especially at risk а г е those where, as а
result of the unavoidabIe deformation and deflection of the shell, stress с о п ­
centrations а г е liabIe to occur during operation. Such parts а г е the joints of the
cylinder segments and those of the manhole strengthening surrounds, which а г е
usually welded to the shell. These areas of the mill shell should therefore also Ь е
О . Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Process engineering checks
For determining the ratio, the internal diameter of the mill and the distance from the
top surface of the grinding media bed to the highest point of the milllining should
Ь е measured. If the lining is provided with profiled, е . g., corrugated о г stepped,
liners а suitabIe correction should Ь е made and the average diameter Ь е adopted
3.8 Process engineering checks
3.8.1 Determining the loading percentage
The loading percentage, о г filling ratio, is defined as the ratio of the bulk volume of
the grinding media to the total internal volume of the grinding compartment. For
practical purposes it с а п Ь е expressed as а ratio of cross-sectional areas:
f = cross-sectional а г е а of grinding media charge
internal cross-sectional а г е а of mill
Alternatively, the following approximation т а у Ь е adopted f = 1.068 - 1.164
HL;/DLi ·
А п even simpler approximation is obtained Ь у counting the number of exposed
liners visibIe around the circumference, i. е . , not covered Ь у grinding media, and
relating this to the total circumferential number of liners. This yields the formula:
f = 1.34 _ 0.172 х number of exposed liners
For the sake of Ь е Н е г а с с ш а с у , the dimensions D
and H
should Ь е determined
as averages from а number of measurements, especially if the mill is fitted with
profiled liners.
The filling ratio is often expressed in р е г cent, and as such is т о г е particularly
known as the loading percentage о г р е г cent loading of the mill.
The weight of the grinding media charge of the mill, о г of а compartment thereof,
с а п now Ь е calculated from
Fig. 38: Average interna! dimensions with profiled liners
internal diameter of the mill (within liners) [ т ]
distancefrom top of grinding media bed to highest point ofthe lining [ т ]
r internal radius = D
,/2 [ т ]
а central angle [degrees].
The central angle is determined from: cos a/2 = 2 HLil D
а sin а )
The filling ratio is: f = -- - -- .
360 2 п
,2 Х п
G =4-х f х qGM Х LM [t].
where L
is the effective length of the mill о г compartment [ т ] and qGM the bulk
density of the grinding media [t/m
]. The bulk density for steel grinding media
(balls о г Cylpebs) ranges from about 4500 to 4800 t/m
. For normal grinding
media mixtures а п average of 4550t/m
is generally reasonabIe.
3.8.2 Grinding media classification
For effective size reduction there shouId Ь е а п appropriate ratio between the size of
the feed material particlesand the mass of the individual grinding media. As the size
of the particles decreases along the mill, the mass and therefore the size of the
media ( Ь а l l diameters, etc.) should correspondingly decrease. This condition с а п
Ь е satisfied Ь у providing the mill with so-called classifying liners.
In order to obtain а п objective assessment of the effectiveness of the grinding
media classification and to determine what changes о с с ш in the grinding media
grading over fairly long periods, it is advisabIe to perform checks from time to time.
For that purpose, samples ofthe media а г е taken from the top layer at points spaced
at equal distances along the mill. The number of media to Ь е sampled at each point
should either Ь е determined in advance о г should Ь е the total number found to Ь е
present within а specified а г е а of the top layer. The samples thus obtained а г е
weighed and the average weight and (in the case of balls) the corresponding
diameter а г е calculated. Obviously, the number of grinding media taken at each
sampling point should Ь е sufficient to е п а Ы е reliabIe averages to Ь е determined.
The guarantees issued Ь у the suppliers of classifying liners are often based о п the
averages of 100 balls о г other grinding media. For routine checks in the works,
however, smaller numbers - 50, for example - will yield sufficiently accurate
О . Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
3.8.3 Determining the number of fractured grinding media
Despite reliabIe production methods and regular quality control, defects of
manufacture in grinding media cannot Ь е ruled out. In the mill such defects о г
flaws т а у result in spalling о г fracturing of the media beyond а п acceptabIe limit.
The fragments detached from them а г е liabIe to have а п adverse effect о п grinding
The proportion of fractured grinding media in the whole charge с а п Ь е estimated
Ь у а sampling method similar to that used for monitoring the grinding media
classification. The grinding media and fragments thereof which а г е present within
а predetermined circu lar а г е а in the top layer а г е weighed and sorted. The fractured
proportion is expressed as а percentage of the total weight of the sample.
Fragments of larger grinding media а г е classified in the mill as though they were
small grinding media, so that а higher proportion of fragments is bound to occur in
the samples obtained close to the outlet end of the grinding compartment. The
samples should preferabIy Ь е taken at regularly spaced points (1 m apart, say)
along the length of the mill.
The proportion of damaged grinding media is expressed Ь у .
0D1 + 0D2 + 0D3 + ... 0Dn
fractured percentage = х 100 [%],
0s1 + 0s2 + О s з + .Osn
where 0D is the weight of the damaged proportion in а п individual sample and os
is the weight of а п individual sample.
3.8.4 Checking the lining
The design and configuration of the milllining is of major influence о п the motion
of the grinding media charge and thus о п the comminuting action developed Ь у it.
Wear that reduces the profiling of the liners, so that their lifting action is impaired,
will promote undesirabIe premature sliding back of the grinding media. As а result,
the point of detachment of the media from the wall of the mill is gradually shifted
lower down. The power consumption, and therefore the energy availabIe for size
reduction, diminish in consequence. For this reason it is necessary to inspect the
condition of the lining from time to time.
Wear of the corrugations, ridges о г other features of the lining с а п Ь е checked with
the aid of templates conforming to the profiling of the lining in its original (new)
condition. В у applying а template to, for example. liners that с а п Ь е conveniently
reached from а manhole, changes in the condition of the lining с а п quickly Ь е
3.8.5 Checking the diaphragms
The purpose of the diaphragms with their slotted plates is to act as screens which
allow feed material which has Ь е е п sufficiently reduced in size to pass to the next
grinding compartment о г to the mill outlet, while grinding media and oversize
particles а г е retained. The effective cross-sectional а г е а of the openings in the
Size reduction progress
diaphragms should Ь е sufficiently large to е п а Ы е the fine particles as well as the air
о г hot gas (for drying the material in the mill) to pass at the required rate. Fragments
from fractured grinding media, heavily worn media о г the feed material itself
- especially if it is too moist and/or the air flow through the mill is inadequate -
т а у cause choking of the slots in the diaphragms and thus obstruct transfer о г
discharge of the material.
Т о reduce the risk of choking, the slots а г е so formed that they widen in the
direction of passage of the material through them. With increasing wear the slots
Ь е с о т е wider and thus let coarser particles through This oversize material is liabIe
to cause probIems in the fine grinding compartment.
3.8.6 Checks in the interior of the mill
For the checks and inspections described here it is important that the grinding
plant should Ь е shut down direct from steady-state operation with its normal
throughput, without а п у alterations - either before о г after shutdown - that т а у
affect the granulometric composition and quantity of feed material inside the mill.
This requirement с а п perhaps most readily Ь е fulfilled Ь у stopping the mill quickly
Ь у means of the emergency switch о г , in the case of а fully interlocked system, Ь у
switching off а п important unit of plant downstream of the mill. The mill fan should
also Ь е stopped at the same time, otherwise the air sweeping through the mill т а у
alter the condition of the bed of material and thus cause incorrect conclusions to Ь е
High temperature in the mill т а у , however, make it necessary to cool the interior
before it с а п Ь е entered for inspection. In that case the fan will have to Ь е switched
о п again, but taking с а г е that it is started with its control damper о г Inlet vanes
closed and that these а г е subsequently opened up only to such а п extent as is
necessary to lower the temperature sufficiently.
3.9 Size reduction progress
For monitoring the size reduction progress, i. е . , the degree of comminution of the
feed material achieved о п its way through the mill, samples of material should Ь е
taken at points spaced 1 m apart along the mill. starting at а distance of 0.5 m from
the mill inlet о г the intermediate diaphragm.
As the granulometric composition of these regularly spaced samples is likely to
vary according to whether the sample is taken at о п е particular spot о г comprises
several samples taken across the width of the bed of material, it is advisabIe to
adopt а п agreed sampling procedure before carrying out the checks. It is
recommended that each sample at 1 m intervals should itself Ь е composed of three
individual samples consisting of equal volumes of material. Two of these samples
sh.ould Ь е taken at а distance of about 0.5 m from the lining о п each side, and the
thlrd sample from the middle of the bed. The last sample along the mill should Ь е
taken at 0.5 m before the intermediate diaphragm о г discharge diaphragm. Because
the bed of material falls away here, it is often difficult to obtain samples at such
О Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Build-up of material о п liners and grinding media
3.9.1 Height and condition of the material bed
The bed of feed material being ground shouId cover the top layer of grinding media,
but not to а п у appreciabIe depth. If the bed is too high о г too low, it indicates
defective composition of the grinding media charge. With too coarse media the
bed will Ь е too low, and vice versa.
Wavy о г hump-like irregularities in the bed of material and grinding media т а у Ь е
caused Ь у varying resistance in the bed. М о г е particularly such variations т а у Ь е
due to: transition from non-classifying to classifying liners, unfavourabIe grinding
media grading (with too abrupt а transition from coarse to fine media), inadequate
initial comminution in the first few metres ofthe mill and therefore too much coarse
material arriving in the zone with finer grinding media.
In the vicinity of the intermediate and discharge diaphragms there should Ь е а
distinct falling-away of the bed of material. If this is not the case, о г if indeed there
is а local accumulation of material instead, this is generally attributabIe to
inadequate discharge capacity of the diaphragm, i. е the effective а г е а of its slots
is inadequate. In mills operating in closed circuit with а classifier а distinct
accumulation of feed material often occurs п е а г the mill inlet, which is due to
tailings from the classifier continuing to enter the mill for some time after the plant
has Ь е е п stopped. It is not, therefore, а п indication of inadequate comminuting
Т о е п а Ы е the condition inside the mill to Ь е assessed, the height of the material bed
and the а р р е а г а п с е presented Ь у the media and material should likewise Ь е
measured and recorded at each point where samples а г е taken for estabIishing the
grinding diagram. The material bed heights т а у Ь е included in the diagram. Quite
often, distinct functional relationships а г е seen to exist between the cumulative
screen curves, the curve for specific surface and the depth of the bed of material.
If the bed is fairly high, the measurement с а п Ь е performed Ь у inserting а strip of
cardboard о г sheet metal into it. The strip should have а width equal to at least
twice the largest grinding media size.
3.9.2 Build-up of material о п liners and grinding media
Build-up (caking of material) о п liners and grinding media т а у Ь е due to various
causes. Their interactions giving rise to this undesirabIe phenomenon have not yet
Ь е е п fully explained.
The following causal factors т а у Ь е mentioned:
- static electric charging and free surface energy,
- adsorption;
- mechanical pressure.
Higher temperatures in the mill increase the tendency, which also appears to
increase not only if there is too much moisture in the mill atmosphere, but also if the
atmosphere is too dry. As the caked material has а cushioning effect which impairs
grinding performance, it is likewise something to look out for during а п internal
of the mill. The nature and extent of а п у build-up should Ь е noted. The
Information thus collected should Ь е included in the mill record sheets. М о г е
particularly, the following data should Ь е obtained:
2100 §
Е ..
1500 V1Z
1100 .....
О О т
О т т t'-- I
0/5,"," 1\.
'\ I I
I ,.
р т т
............. I1 ,.
о т т

,\ 1\
II '-.... I
О т т
I 102
r-..... I

.. '1'-.. 1'--.
т т
т т

0,5 4,5 0.5
70 с

points. Yet it is these samples that а г е particularly informative, and it is therefore
worth making the effort to remove some layers of grinding media in order to reach
the material. The presence о г absence of а high concentration of coarse particles of
material in this part of the mill, i. е close to the intermediate diaphragm о г the
outlet, с а п provide important information о п the condition and effectiveness of the
grinding media charge.
The samples thus obtained at 1 m intervals along the mill а г е screened and the
cumulative quantities retained о п the screens а г е plotted as а curve in а diagram.
The ordinates represent the cumulative percentages Ь у weight) retained, while
the distances in metres along the mill а г е marked о п the horizontal axis. Points of
equal particle size in the diagram а г е connected to о п е another. In addition, with
appropriate feed material and fineness of grinding, the specific surface values т а у
also Ь е determined and Ь е plotted. The "grinding diagram" obtained in this way
gives clear information о п the quality of the size reduction process (Fig. 39).
О 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 1.0 2,0 3,0 О 5{) 6,0 7,0 8.0 9,0
effective length (rn) ..
-. interrnediate diaphragrn 8rnrn width of slots
• • г г 10 rnrn width of slots
- retained
---- specific surface
Fig.39: Grinding diagram of а clinker grinding mill (closed circuit
operation with bucket elevator)
260 261
О Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
where the first build-up occurs (at what distance from the mill inlet о г
intermediate diaphragm);
what parts а г е affected (Iiners, grinding media);
extent of the build-up (approximate estimate of the areas covered with caked
material о п that part of the lining which is visibIe);
strength and thickness of the build-up material е g., с а п Ь е easily wiped off,
о г cannot Ь е removed without the aid of а tool).
Because of the т а п у causes and their interaction it is not possibIe to lay down
generally-valid rules for the prevention of build-up. The measures to betaken must
therefore Ь е decided for each individual case. Ouite often, however, the р г о Ы е т
с а п Ь е overcome Ь у improving the air flow conditions in the mill. For example, if it
is confined to the mill lining, it т а у Ь е due merely to condensation of moisture.
Improved air flow т а у provide the remedy. Other possibIe measures to combat
build-up а г е injection of water into the mill in order to lower the temperature
and/or the additiori' of а grinding aid to neutralize the forces associated with free
surface energy.
3.9.3 Determination of wear
Besides the process engineering consequences of wear, such as decline in
grinding performance and undesirabIe changes in the granulometric composition
of the product, the economic aspects of wear а г е also of importance in connection
with the operation of grinding plants.
In order to obtain precise information о п wear and Ь е а Ы е to с о т р а г е the
behaviour of parts made from different materials and/or supplied Ь у different
manufacturers, It IS advisabIe to observe and record the wear ofthe г П П medla,
liners, intermediate and discharge diaphragms.
ReliabIe information о п specific rates of wear moreover facilitates the spare parts
inventory and the planning of repairs. Grinding media wear
Weighing the whole grinding media charge before putting it into the mill and
subsequently - after а fairly long period of service - weighing it again is certainly
the most accurate method of determining the rate of wear. However, because ofthe
considerabIe effort it involves, it is а method which, if at all, с а п Ь е considered only
for very small mills е g., experimental mills).
The specific wear is. 0spee = [g/t],
where ilOmedia is the difference in weight of the grind.ing media (in grams) before
and after the period of service, and ilOmater,a, is the quantity of feed material that
has Ь е е п put through the mill during that period (in tonnes).
As а п alternative to this laborious and therefore rather impr<jcticabIe method, the
specific wear of particu lar grinding media sizes о г size fractions с а п Ь е estimated Ь у



с о
с о
ё с



с О
о Е
> (.)
с о
с о
::; Е
(/) (.)
Grinding media' Balls
Ф о о м Ф м М О О
О О М о о о м м Ф м о о

о м о о о о о О О Ф М о о о Ф

О Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Lining wear
Vwear Х qlining
О о р е е = ----- [g/t],
Specific wear: О р е е = А О х 104 ц а е г а
where Omaterial is the throughput of feed material during the service period
considered (in tonnes). Lining wear
Wear of the mill lining с а п impair its purely protective function of preventing
damage of the mill shell and moreover diminish its effectiveness in lifting and
classifying the grinding media. For process engineering as well as economic
reasons it is therefore necessary to monitor the wear behaviour of the lining.
The most reliabIe method of quantifying the wear is to remove some liners, from
points uniformly distributed along the length of the mill, from time to time and
compare their weight with the weight of those plates in the new condition. As
this is а very laborious and time-consuming р г о с е щ however, in practice а
somewhat less accurate but more convenient method will generally Ь е adopted.
О п е such method is based о п measuring the internal diameter of the mill, i. е
within the lining, applying а correction to allow for the average profile depth о п
corrugated о г stepped liners. The volumetric amount of lining wear с а п Ь е
calculated from the difference between the diameter of the worn lining and that of
the lining in its new condition. The specific wear is:
volumetric wear of the lining с

specific gravity of lining с

throughput of feed material during the service period
considered [t].
weigh.in.g .samples representative numbers of these media. In many
It IS Just these speclflc wear rates that а г е of interest to the mill operator. It is а
sUltabIe method when starting with а grinding media charge consisting of
new media о г otherwise of very carefully selected and graded media
whlch а г е all of the same quality.
Before the with а newly assembIed grinding media charge, а
number of medla of each slze а г е taken and weighed, in order to determine the
average weight of о п е ball, Cylpebs, etc. of that size. The number of media to Ь е
taken each will depend о п howgreatly the individual weights vary within
sl.ze and о п the degree of accuracy required. For ordinary works
е а ю п It wlll normally Ь е sufficient to take 30 grinding media of each
а long period ofservice in the mill, thesame numbers ofthe individual
slzes а г е agaln taken and the average individual weights determined. The wear that
has. occurred is Ь у the difference between the original
welght (new and the welght after service and multiplying this Ь у the total
number of medla, of each size, with which the mill was charged. This method
becomes impracticabIe when wear has progressed to such а п extent that it is п о
long.er possibIe reliabIy to determine the original nominal sizes of the grinding
If. grinding media of а different quality from the existing charge а г е added with а
vlew to investigating their wear behaviour, and if these new media do not differ
in shape and dimensions from the existing ones, they should Ь е
with identification marks (grooves о г drilled holes) to е п а Ы е them to Ь е
Identlfled from the others after а period of service in the mill.
А П determlning the filling г а ю before (f,) and after
) а sufflclently long р е г ю of service. The weight calculated from the difference
in filling ratio (Ioading percentage) provides а п indication of the wear that has
taken .pla?e. It sh?uld. Ь е Ь о г п е in mind, however, that the average bulk density of
the grlndlng medla mlxture wlll undergo а change in consequence of the different
rates of the grinding media sizes. It should in each particular case,
а П regard to the deslred accuracy, Ь е considered whether о г not а correction to
take account of this change in bulk density is necessary.
The wear is expressed Ь у А О = --'4- х 4ft х М Х qb [t],
м difference in filling ratio before and after the service period
considered = f, - f 2
А О grinding media quantity lost Ь у wear [t]
DLi internal diameter of mill [m]
Left effective length of mill о г grinding compartment [m]
qb average bulk density of grinding media charge

А drawback of this method is that, to obtain reliabIe results, the measurements
must Ь е performed very accurately and that changes in the profile of the liners due
to wear а г е very difficult to take into account.
Another method consists in comparing the liners with templates corresponding to
their profiles in the new condition. After appropriate service intervals these
templates are applied always to liners at the same points in the mill, е g., at joints
between diaphragm plates, о г between end wallliners, о г at she!! liners that с а п Ь е
reached from а manhole. The volumetric wear с а п Ь е determined from the
difference between the template profile and the profile of the liner in its actual
(.worn) condition. If the specific gravity of the lining material and the number of
Ilners а г е known, the weight of this material lost Ь у wear с а п Ь е approximately
calculated. Taking account of the total throughput of feed during the period
considered, the specific wear с а п then Ь е found.
D Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology Wear of the diaphragms
The in tu?e mills are subject to considerabIe wear from the grinding
medla rolllng, с а с а П and cataracting in contact with them. Determining the
actual pattern of wear for calcu/ating the loss of lining material from measured
in volume is usually very laborious. For practical purposes, however, it
wlll usually Ь е sufficient regularly to determine the thickness of the plates at the
most heavily worn points and estimate the service life from the measurements.
а п Ь е facilitated Ь у using а piece of wire bent at right angles at о п е end,
whlch IS Inserted through а slot in the diaphragm and turned. With closed rear wall
plates of the thickness measurements с а п Ь е performed at the joints.
When the dlaphragm plates are due for renewal, it is advisabIe to take the
opportunity to determine the actual rate of wear Ь у comparing the residual weight
with the weight of the plates as they were when new.
1. Bundesverband der Deutschen Kalkindustrie е У Technisches ArbeitsbIatt
2. Drosihn, U.: Das neue Klinkerwerk im Werk Amoneburg. - п ZKG 23/
3. Fahlstrom, Р Н :son: Autogenes Mahlen. - п Zeitschrift fur Erzbergbau und
Metallhuttenwesen, XIII/1960/598.
4. Hardinge, Н Autogenes Mahlen. - п Aufbereitungs-Technik 1/1960/46.
5. Lehmann, Н Praktische Untersuchungen zur Bestimmung des AbIaufes von
Mahlkorperbewegungen in einer Modell-Trommelmuhle von 1 m Durchmes-
ser. - П Tonindustrie-Zeitung 88 (1964) Nr. 7/8.
6. Schoneck, С Rohmaterial-Mahlung in Aerofall-Muhlen. - п ZKG 16/
7. Schubert, Н Aufbereitung fester mineralischer Baustoffe, Band' - Leipzig:
У Е В Deutscher Verlag fur Grundstoffindustrie 1964.
4 Roller mills
This class of mills comprises т а п у variants which nevertheless have certain basic
in с о т о п There is some confusion in the terminology designating these
mllls, especlally In the German language. П English, "roller mills" has с о т е to Ь е
widely accepted as а generic term including even those machines in which the
ro.llers are in fact balls. Designations such as ring-roller mills, ring-ball mil/s, bowl
mllls, etc. are generally confined to the description of specific types. AII these
machines are characterized in having rollers (or comparabIe other grinding
elements) which travel in а horizontal circular path о п а bed of feed material with
they pressed in contact Ь у vertical forces applied externally to them, the
Ь е П comminuted Ь у а combination of compressive and shearing
а с ю п
Roller mills employed in the cement industry have grinding elements of various
Roller mill design features
shapes. Thus, in some mills they are cylindrical rollers, in others the rollers are of
truncated-conical shape or have flat lateral faces and а convex circumferential
surface. Some leading manufacturers equip their mills with balls as the grinding
elements. The force that keeps the rollers or balls pressed in contact with the bed of
material о п the grinding path т а у Ь е exerted Ь у gravity, centrifugal force, spring
pressure, hydropneumatic action, etc.
П recent years, roller mills ranging up to very large throughput capacities have
с о т е into widespread use for raw material and с о а grinding in the cement
industry. Technical development has reached а п advanced stage, but has Ь у п о
means Ь е е п completed, and there are as yet п о discernibIe reasons why even
bigger mills with higher throughputs should not Ь е introduced. There also exist
interesting prospects for using these machines as finish grinding mills, i. е for
clinker grinding. Encouraging results have Ь е е п obtained in this direction, but it
still remains to Ь е seen whether economical solutions will emerge for the major
probIem of wear and the associated effects о п the quality of the cement produced
Ь у grinding in roller mills.
О п the other hand, roller mills have a/ready long estabIished themselves as very
suitabIe for с о а grinding, i. е for the production of pulverized fuel (see Section
5.5.2). The widespread return to pulverized с о а and lignite in cement manufacture
is having а stimu lating effect о п the development and optimization of these mills
which, for this type of work, are usually of relatively small size and operated with
direct firing systems.
4.1 Roller mill design features
1n view of the т а п у different manufacturers and design variants, both in Germany
and in other countries, it is obviously not possibIe to deal with а the various makes
of roller mill in this book. It will, however, Ь е endeavoured to classify and briefly
describe the familiar main types with reference to the mills supplied Ь у some
manufacturers mentioned Ь у п а т е о п the understanding that this must not Ь е
construed as implying preference in terms of performance or quality.
А с о т т о п characteristic of all the mills described here is that size reduction is
effected Ь у rollers or comparabIe grinding elements travelling over а circu lar bed of
material and that the material, after passing under the rollers, is subjected to а
preliminary classifying action Ь у а stream of air sweeping through the mill.
Depending о п the air flow velocity, а certain proportion of the puIverized material is
thus с а п е into а classifier (air separator) which normally forms а п integral feature
of the upper part of the casing of the mill. Oversize particles rejected Ь у the
classifier fall back into the grinding chamber, while the fines are swept with the air
out of the mill and are collected in а filter or а set of cyclones. As the pneumatic
conveying of the material in the mill to the separator requires considerabIe air flow
rates, and as the materialleaving the grinding bed and с а п е up into the classifier
comes into intimate contact with the air, roller mills are especially suitabIe for the
drying of moist feed material in combination with grinding. This is particularly
advantageous because these mills с а п accept large quantities of hot air or gas at
relatively low temperatures such as commonly occur in the waste gases of cement
manufacturing plants.
О Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
4.1.1 Mills with truncated-conical rollers (loesche mills)
Two or more conically tapered grinding rollers in fixed mountings travel о п а п
annular path о п the upper surface the revolving grinding tabIe о п which the bed of
feed materiallies. rollers.are mounted о п swivel arms о п which they с а п Ь е
swung out repalrs or т а П е п а п с е Roller pressure is exerted Ь у springs о п
т а с П е and hydropneumatically о п larger ones (Fig.40). The tabIe о п
whlch liner segments of the grinding ring forming the roller path are
mounted IS drlven through gears in а gearbox which is designed to resist the
exerted Ь у the rollers. The material to Ь е ground is fed centrally onto the
Г П П tabIe and is Ь у centrifugal force, due to the rotation of the tabIe, to
the roller path. A.tthe clrcumference ofthetabIe is а raised rim, а so-called dam ring,
Ь у means of whlch the depth of the bed of material с а п Ь е adjusted. Between the
outer edge of the. th.e casing of the mill is а stationary ring comprising
ports thro.ug,h whlch alr IS admltted from under the grinding tabIe into the grinding
and с а У П chamber.
!hepulverized material that spills over the rim is caught Ь у the upward stream of air
ш п from the ported air ring. The air is guided and accelerated Ь у vanes or
louv.res, so that а kind of fluidized bed is formed. Widening of the flow cross-
е с ю п causes the air velocity to decrease over the rollers, so that coarser particles
Fig.40: М Ш with truncated-conical rollers (loesche GmbH)
Roller mill design features
fall back onto the tabIe. The particles swept up to the rotor-type classifier undergo
а separating action, the oversize fraction likewise falling back onto the tabIe for
further grinding, while the fine particles (the finished product) are с а п е out of
the mill.
Depending о п the grindability of the material and the air flow rate, а recycling of the
material thus develops insidethe mill casing. The circulating load т а у amountto as
much as 8 to 1О times the rate of fresh feed to the mill. This recycling requires а high
air flow rate а fact which, as already stated, с а п Ь е turned to advantage for drying
the material during the grinding process. It is thus possibIe to grind and dry cement
raw materials with up to 18%moisture content without unacceptabIy lowering the
throughput of material. For coal grinding it is possibIe even to accept а feed
moisture content ranging up to 25%.
The bIaded rotor classifier mounted over the grinding chamber has variabIe speed
control. П rotates о п а vertical axis and its rotary motion imparts а horizontal
centrifugal acceleration to the mixture of air and material particles rising from
below. The oversize particles, о п account of their greater mass, are deflected
further out of the air stream, impinge о п the wall of the casing and fall back into the
grinding chamber. The fines discharged from this classifier are characterized Ь у
about 1% retained о п the 0.2 т т sieve and 12% о п the 0.09 т т sieve.
А notabIe feature of the т described here is that its rollers are mounted in
bearings that are outside the grinding chamber with its high dust concentrations
and elevated temperature.
4.1.2 Mills with convex··surfaced rollers (Pfeiffer MPS mill)
In principle this roller mill is similar to the machine described in the preceding
section. It is equipped with three rollers, likewise in stationary mountings, running
о п а п annu lar path of concave cross-sectional shape to accommodate the convex
surfaces of the rollers. The material is fed from о п е side onto the rotating grinding
ring. The grinding pressure is developed Ь у the dead weight of the rollers operating
in conjunction with а hydropneumatically tensioned spring system. After being
discharged from the edge of the grinding ring the pulverized material is entrained
Ь у the upward stream of air issuing from the ported air ring and undergoes
preliminary classification in the same way as in the loesche mill.
ObIique setting of the ports imparts а circulatory motion to the material in the
direction of rotation of the rollers. The coarse particles that fall back onto the
grinding ring here and the oversize rejects from the classifier are returned to the
roller path to undergo further size reduction (Fig.41), while the fines are carried
with the air stream out of the top of the mill and classifier casing. The cut size of the
rotor classifier is adjustabIe.
п terms of size reduction performancethe MPS mill issimilartothe loesche mill of
comparabIe specification, but its very ample flow cross-sections in the grinding
chamber allow even larger air flow rates through the mill. According to information
supplied Ь у the manufacturer, cement raw material with above 20% moisture
content с а п Ь е dried in the mill to below 1% residual moisture.
О . Manufacture of cement I Materials preparation technology
Fig.41 : Mill with convex-surfaced rollers (Gebr. Pfeiffer)
4.1.3 Mills with spherical grinding elements (Peters mill)
In this type of mill, known also as а ring-ball mill, the grinding action is performed
Ь у balls set close together and rolling о п а power-driven rotating grinding ring. At
the top the balls а г е held in position and pressed down - Ь у springs о г hydro-
pneumatically - Ь у а pressure ring, which is stationary. The whole assembIy
resembIes а very large ball bearing.
The material is fed centrally о п to the grinding tabIe and carried Ь у centrifugal force
to the grinding ring о п which it is pulverized Ь у the balls rolling over it. At the
perimeter of the ring the pulverized material is entrained in а п upward stream of air
and undergoes preliminary classification, as in the previously described mills, after
which it passes to the classifier (usually of the static type), where the oversize
material is rejected and falls back into the mill. The fines а г е carried out of the mill in
the air stream (Fig. 41 а ) .
В у passing hot air о г gas through the mill, drying performance с о т р а г а Ы е to that
of the other roller mills с а п Ь е obtained.
Grinding action developed in roller mills
Fig. 41 а : М Ш with spherical grinding elements (Claudius Peters AG)
4.2 Grinding action developed in roller mills
The material is comminuted Ь у the grinding elements rolling о п а circular bed of
feed material. The larger pieces of material а г е crushed Ь у the rollers as in а roll
crusher, while the smaller ones а г е reduced Ь у rubbing action. The pulverized
material spilling over the edge of the grinding tabIe о г grinding bowl - the
terminology tends to vary from о п е manufacturer and mill design to another - is
entrained Ь у а high-velocity stream of air, so that the smaller particles а г е swept
upwards into the classifier and the coarser ones fall back onto the roller path. This is
the preliminary classifying eHect, as distinct from the final separation а с с о т ­
plished in the internal classifier in the upper part of the casing.
Because of the short residence time of the feed material in the grinding chamber as
compared with that in а tube mill, the bed of material is kept substantially free from
fine particles which do not require further grinding, unnecessarily load the mill and
D. Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
tend to form undesirabIe agglomerations. The important basic conditions for
effective grinding in а roller mill а г е that the grinding elements develop а good
draw-in action and adequate pressure and that а stabIe bed of material is
4.2.1 Draw-in action of the grinding elements
As in а roll crusher, there is а geometric relationship between the diameter of the
grinding elements (rollers or balls) and the maximum particle dimensions that the
mill с а п accept. ' П roller mills, maximum feed particle sizes of between about 1/20
and 1/15 of the roller (or ball) diameter are permissibIe. If material coarser than this
is fed to the mill, there is the danger that the coarse particles will not Ь е drawn in
under the rollers but will simply Ь е displaced, i. е . , pushed along in front of them.
Furthermore, within the permissibIe maximum particle size limit, the draw-in action
is governed Ь у the granulometric composition and coefficient of friction of the feed
material. Thus, the bed of material should possess adequate stability so as not to Ь е
displaced Ь у the rollers. Also, in order that the rollers do indeed roll о п the material
and not merely slide along, а sufficiently large frictional force must Ь е developed
between their circumference and the material.
It may occur that, while the mill is operating under steady-state conditions, the
granulometric composition of the feed material changes drastically, е . g., due to
/ I
Fig. 42: Draw-in action of feed material between roller and grinding ring
h = depth of bed
Н = initial depth
Grinding action developed in roller mills
segregation о п emptying the feed hopper, so that the mill temporarily receives only
fine material. This may adversely affect the stability ofthe bed: part ofthe material is
displaced, the depth of the bed is therefore reduced, and (assuming the pressure о п
the rollers to Ь е unchanged) the specific pressure exerted о п the material is
increased. It may thus о с с ш that the rollers "punch through" the bed in places,
resulting in "bumpy" running.
As the condition of the feed material is liabIe to vary with regard to its grindability,
composition, granulometry and moisture content, mill designers strive to achieve
adequate draw-in capacity of the rollers that will с о р е with а п у variations likely to
о с с ш in the feed material. Measures to achieve this include: providing the rollers
and roller path with raised profiling (ridges) and utilizing the joints of the
renewabIe segments о п these components to provide positive grip. Another
possibility is to use alternate segments with different wear properties or to form
ridge-type raised features о п the rollers Ь у means of highly wear-resistant weld
metal deposited with special electrodes.
А dam ring at the perimeter of the grinding ring serves to maintain the required
stability and depth of the bed of material. Furthermore, in large machines with
hydropneumatically applied grinding pressure, the pressure с а п Ь е varied to suit
the existing conditions of grinding.
4.2.2 Grinding action
The grinding that the material undergoes between the rollers and the roller path о п
the grinding ring comprises the following actions:
Draw-in of the material : The particles of feed materlal are grlpped between
the roller and the grinding ring. The larger ones, which project above the others
and are the first to Ь е subjected to the crushing action, are broken down. This
size reduction is of course promoted Ь у the fact that the pressure is initially
concentrated о п these larger particles, so that their compressive strength is
quickly and greatly exceeded. The pressure exerted Ь у the roller is then
transferred mainly to the particles ranking next in size, and so о п . This process
continues to the narrowest part of the gap between the roller and the grinding
ring. The continuous and progressive size reduction of the material is
accompanied Ь у а п increase in its specific surface.
Compaction of the bed of material: In conjunction with the reduction in
size there occurs intensive spatial rearrangement of the individual particles
under crushing load. The compressive and shearing forces associated with this
have а further size reducing effect, mainly Ь у attrition, which is indeed the key
factor in achieving fine pulverization in а roller mill. It is assisted Ь у а certain
amount of relative movement - depending о п mill design features - between
the rollers and the grinding ring. This relative movement also helps to prevent
build-up о п the ring if the mill is fed with moist or sticky material.
Depth and condition of the bed of material: As explained, final size
reduction in а roller mill is achieved substantially Ь у attrition, i. е . , the rubbing
together of the material particles subjected to compression and shear while
D Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
rearrangement of their positions in the bed. Т о accomplish this
г е ш г е the fulfilment of several conditions:
sufficiently high specific grinding pressures;
sufficiently large number of points and areas of contact of the particles
with о п е another;
sufficient possibility of movement of the particles in relation to о п е
These а г е directly interrelated. If the bed of material increases in depth,
the speclflc pressure exerted о п the material, for а given pressure applied Ь у the
becomes less. If the depth of the bed decreases, the specific pressure
Increases, but the scope for relative movement of the particles is restricted and the
number of their points and areas of contact is reduced. Н е п с е every bed of material
in а roller mill must Ь е а compromise between the specific grinding pressure that
pulverizes the material and the bed depth needed for achieving the product
fineness required.
П most cases, if the mill is fed with material which is uniform in its granulometric
composition and size reduction properties and which develops sufficient friction, а
stabIe bed of т о г е о г less constant depth is formed о п the grinding ring. With
difficult materials there is scope for modifying and controlling the depth of the
Ь у dam rings о г other such devices. If the feed material is too dry and has а
hlg.h of fine particles, stabilization of the bed т а у Ь е achieved Ь у
О е П П It.
It has Ь е е п found that for the grinding of relatively soft materials, such as marl, the
addition of high-grade hard limestone - required primarily for correction of the
deficient chemical composition of the raw material - improves the performance of
angle of pressure с о п е а р р Б О
high specific low specific
grinding pressure grinding pressure
Fig. 43: Effective а г е а of material subjected to pulverizing action during
а roller pass, depending о п bed depth
Grinding action developed in roller mills
roller mills in terms both of throughput and of operational behaviour. Т о achieve
such improvement, however, the limestone should Ь е as coarse as possibIe within
the maximum feed size limit that the mill с а п accept. The beneficial effect is due to
the fact that, in the bed consisting largely of softer and finer particles including а
very high proportion of recycled classifier rejects that have already Ь е е п с о т
minuted, the coarse limestone particles act as individual "hard spots" that offer
higher resistance to the rollers and cause them to lift slightly. The rollers with their
mechanical о г hydropneumatic spring action then fall back onto the bed and do
correspondingly т о г е size reduction work о п the finer particles they then
encounter. Moreover, these hard spots promote т о г е intensive spatial rearrange-
ment of the particles of material in the bed and thus help to loosen it up, which
likewise makes for т о г е effective fine pulverization.
П general it с а п Ь е stated that with feed material which т а у cause difficulties о п
account of low friction due to its specific material properties and/or granulometric
composition it is possibIe to achieve distinct improvements in mill throughput,
operational behaviour and specific power consumption Ь у the addition of hard
coarse particles. Improvements с а п similarly Ь е obtained when dealing with feed
material thattends to Ь е с о т е solidly compacted о п the grinding ring because of its
moisture content and composition, е g., too high а proportion of clay
Grinding speed; time of roller passage
In addition to the factors so far discussed - specific friction of the feed material,
ratio of roller diameter to feed size, depth of the material bed, specific grinding
pressure applied, composition of the material - the order of magnitude of the
grinding speed is another important factor that governs the size reduction process
in а roller mill.
The grinding speed is determined Ь у the dimensions of the grinding ring and the
magnitude of the centrifugal force needed for transporting the material. Apart from
minor differences bound up with individual design features of the various mills, the
grinding speed is much the same in all the usual roller mills о г а п у given grinding
ring diameter. Т о increase the grinding speed Ь у some substantial proportion is of
little benefit, because the larger centrifugal force that is then developed will shorten
the residence time of the material о п the roller path. Besides, because the time of
roller passage - i. е the time during which а п у particular particle of material is
subjected to the action of the roller - is reduced, the availabIe grinding pressure
cannot Ь е so effectively utilized for breaking down the particles.
It is known from materials testing technology that when compressive loads а г е
applied at substantially higher speeds (rates of stress increase) than those
employed in normal strength testing, distinctly higher crushing strengths а г е
measured. П roller mills operating with the usual grinding speeds and pressures
the rates of stress increase to which the material particles а г е subjected а г е very
т а п у times greater than those in compressive strength tests. Further increases in
grinding speed would only increase the comminution resistance of the material
even т о г е and thus serve п о useful purpose.
В Ь г п е г has given а characteristic value k which expresses the time of action of the
О Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
grinding pressure (contact force р е г effective unit а г е а and provides а criterion for
comparing roller mills differing in design:
zx Р
k = -- [kg х second/m
z number of rollers [ - ]
Р total contact force [kg]
v angular velocity х rolling circle radius [m/second]
а effective width of rollers т
The effective width of conically tapered rollers с а п Ь е taken as 100% of the actual
width of the contact surface, while for rollers with convex surfaces about 60% т а у
Ь е adopted. For the latter, а т о г е precise value с а п Ь е found Ь у examining the
extent of wear о п the rolling surface.
4.2.3 Control of roller mills
О п account of the short residence times of the feed material in а roller mill - for
example, а cycle time of about 30 seconds was measured in о п е such mill - these
mills respond much т о г е rapidly than tube mills to disturbing influences, е g.,
variations in feed rate, grindabi/ity о г moisture content of the material to Ь е
During the short cycle time in the mill the material is either о п the grinding bed о г is
in suspension in the stream of air. А п у influences that affect the residence time of
the material о п the bed will therefore quickly also manifest themselves in the
change in dust concentration of the conveying air that sweeps through the mill. As
the entire recirculation of material in nearly all these mills is effected entirely Ь у
pneumatic conveying action, it is directly associated with а pressure drop of the air.
The pressure drop within the mill therefore, о п the assumption of а constant
volumetric rate of flow, constitutes а п important controlled variabIe. В у varying the
feed rate and/orthe pressure exerted bythe rollers it is possibIe to keep the pressure
drop at а constant value and thus to achieve а fairly uniform rate of classifier
Besides the pressure drop, in combined grinding and drying mills the temperature
in the grinding chamber and the rate of exhaust gas discharge а г е used as
controlled variabIes.
1. В ё е г Н Das Mahlverhalten von weichgebranntem Kalk. - Referat zur
8. Technischen Tagung der Kalkindustrie а т 19.-20.10.1967 in Bad
2. Kaminsky, W. А Die Entwicklung der groP..en е е п о е п е п fur Ze-
mentwerke. - п ZKG 14/1961/489.
Grinding and drying of с о а
3. Klovers, Е J.: Energieeinsparungen Ь е Rollenmuhlen. - In: ZKG 32/
4. Loesche, Е G.: О е г EinfluP.. von Walzenmuhlen auf das Rohmehlaufberei-
tungsverfahren. - п ZKG 25/1972/225.
5. Schauer, S.: Walzenschusselmuhlen, Stand u. Entwicklung, Teill.- In: ZKG
6. Schauer, S.: Walzenschusselmuhlen, Grundlagen zur Auslegung, Teilll. - In:
ZKG 26/1973/368.
7. Schneider, G.: Die Walzenschusselmuhle М PS fur Vermahlung von Steinkoh-
le. - In: Aufbereitungs-Technik 20/1979/537.
8. Schneider, L./Blasczyk, G.: Mbglichkeiten der Kohlevermahlung. - In: ZKG
9. Schuler, U.: Mahltrocknung mit е е п о е п е п unter besonderer Beruck-
sichtigung von Schusselmuhlen. - In: Aufbereitungs-Technik 16/1975/401.
10. Schwendig, G.: Versuche und Betrachtungen zur Oberwalzzerkleinerung
eines Mahlbettes. - In: Aufbereitungs-Technik 72/1966/489.
5 Grinding and drying of с о а
5.1 Preparation of the coal, general considerations
With the steep rise in cost that fuel oil and natural gas have undergone since the
early 1970s there has Ь е е п а return to coal for industrial firing systems, including
the kilns of the cement industry. This trend is reflected in the extensive literature
that has appeared о п the subject of pulverized fue/ (coal and lignite), dealing with
process engineering and also very extensively with safety engineering experience
and requirements associated with the operation of coal grinding and drying
The preparation of coal in the cement works - as distinct from its preparation in
central plants which supply pu/verized fuel ready for firing to industrial consumers
and which do not с о т е within the present scope - comprises the grinding and
drying of the raw coal delivered to the works. In cases where coal consumption
rates а г е high and coal from different sources of supply is used, it т а у Ь е
advantageous to bIend the various coals in conjunction with stockpiling, so as to
obtain а resulting fuel that is physically and chemically as closely uniform as
possibIe and thus to achieve well balanced kiln operating conditions.
As а rule, for reasons of environmental protection and safety, cement works
operate with relatively small с о а stocks if they с а п rely о п regu lar deliveries. Under
these circumstances п о elaborate storage installations а г е required. Stocks
с о п е р о п п to about 30 to 60 days' consumption а г е normally held at the
Information о п pulverized fuel firing systems is given in Section 0.111 "Firing
D. Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
5.2 Storage
Coal has the property of absorbing oxygen from the air. This is associated with heat
evolution. If the heat cannot Ь е given off at а sufficiently rapid rate to the
surroundings, self-ignition т а у о с с ш over а prolonged period of storage during
which the temperature gradually rises to above the critical value of about 700-
800 С . The danger of self-ignition is especially great in coal that has с о т е fresh
from the mine and also in coal that has Ь е е п crushed, so that а substantial increase
in reactive surface а г е а has occurred.
The self- ignition tendency is greater according as the volatile content of the coal is
higher and also, because of the larger reactive specific surface, as its percentage of
fine particles is higher.
Special safety precautions а г е not necessary for coal that is to Ь е stored for only а
few days, as in transfer о г transhipment stockpiles. For longer-term storage,
however, the coal should Ь е deposited in layers which а г е each well compacted
with the aid of rollers о г crawler-mounted vehicles, so as to minimize the entry of
atmospheric oxygen to the interior of the pile. Alternatively, the coal should Ь е
deposited in а thin layer and as loosely as possibIe, so that the heat evolved Ь у
oxidation с а п Ь е quickly dissipated [22].
5.3 Grinding and drying
The raw coal, which generally has а moisture content of between 4 and 12% Ь у
weight in the as-supplied condition, is normally dried in combination with
grinding in the mill. If coal slurry with а water content in the range from 15to30% is
used, however, separate preliminary drying in а rotary dryer will Ь е necessary
before grinding and final drying in the mill а г е possibIe.
As а rule, in conjunction with grinding, the coal is dried to а residual moisture
content of between 0.5 and 1.5%, which is suitabIe for firing. Completely dry с о а l
is т о г е difficult to ignite. In systems with intermediate storage of the pulverized
coal it is, however, preferabIe to reduce the moisture content to below 1% in order
avoid possibIe troubIe with build-up (caking) and difficulties at Ы п discharge
outlets, rotary gates and screw conveyors.
The fineness to which the coal should Ь е ground for firing will depend о п its
flammability and its combustion rate. These properties а г е in turn governed Ь у the
content of ash and volatile constituents. Coal with а low volatile content will in
general have to Ь е ground finer than с о а l with а high volatile content. Commonly
applied fineness criteria а г е : 10-15% Ь у weight retained о п the 0.09 т т and 1 -
2% Ь у weight о п the 0.2 т т standard sieve (DIN 4188 sieves). As а п approximate
guiding value the required fineness of the pulverized coal is expressed Ь у the
following rule of thumb. the percentage Ь у weight retained о п the 0.09 т т sieve
should Ь е equal to between 0.5 and 0.7 times the percentage volatile content (dry,
ash-free) [24]. This will ensure good combustion with а short flame.
According to this rule, coal with а 30% volatile content would have to Ь е
pulverized to а fineness of 15-21 % о п 0.09 т т . In practice, however, it is
preferabIe not to exceed 15% retained, even if the volatile content is fairly high, as
this greater fineness of the coal is desirabIe to ensure complete combustion. This is
Coal' grinding process
especially relevant to high-ash coal. О п the other hand, for firing in а (pre)calciner
associated with the preheater system it is quite appropriate to use а т о г е coarsely
pulverized coal, as experience has shown [24].
5.4 Grinding process
With regard to the functional coupling of the coal grinding plant with the firing
operation, various grinding/drying systems have Ь е е п developed which а г е not
always very consistently designated Ь у the terminology used in the technical
In principle, а distinction с а п Ь е drawn between the direct firing system and the
indirect system. In the former, the pulverized coal is fed direct from the grinding mill
(with reference to fuel grinding it is often called а "pulverizer") to the Ь ш п е г , the
coal being carried in а stream of air which passes through the mill and is supplied as
primary airto the kiln. О П the other hand, in the indirect system the pulverized coal,
separated from its carrying medium, is temporarily accommodated in а п in-
termediate storage Ы п , from which it is fed independently to the Ь ш п е г .
The direct system in its basic form is shown schematically in Fig.44. The
pulverized coal is, as already stated, fed direct to the kiln, without intermediate
storage. The hot air о г gas needed for drying the coal in the mill т а у Ь е availabIe as
exit gas from the kiln о г exhaust air from the clinker cooler; alternatively, it т а у Ь е
supplied Ь у а hotair generator (air heater). The mill system fan drawsthe hotairor
gas (which т а у have а temperature not exceeding 3500 С ) through the grinding
mill and discharges it, together with the pulverized coal it carries, as primary air to
the kiln Ь ш п е г . This fan therefore functions also as the primary air fan The diagram
shows that with this system the entire gas flow - comprising the hot air о г gas, the
water vapour driven out of the coal, and the "false" airthat inevitabIy infiltrates into
the plant - is thus supplied to the kiln.
The advantages of the direct firing technique а г е its simplicity in terms of layout
and equipment, with correspondingly low capital expenditure, and its operational
reliability, because there is п о pulverized coal to Ь е stored, п о г а п у dust-Iaden
exhaust gas to Ь е dedusted. А disadvantage, however, is the high rate of primary air
Fig.44. Direct firing system ( С . Е . Raymond)
D. Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
flow, resulting in correspondingly higher heat consumption of the kiln. Also, from
the process engineering standpoint, the direct coupling of the mill to the firing
system is unfavourabIe. The throughput of the mill has to Ь е varied to suit the
requirements of the kiln at а п у given time, so that optimum settings for the mill are
generally not possibIe. Another drawback is that the operation of the kiln is
dependent о п that of the mill. Malfunction of the mill results in shutdown of the
kiln, as does а п у interruption in the supply of raw coal to the mill, since there is п о
stored quantity of pulverized coal to serve as а buffer supply to bridge over а п у
temporary breaks in the continuity of fuel output from the mill. А п у variation or
irregularity in the functioning of the mill will directly affect the firing system and
thus the operation of the kiln.
А more sophisticated version of the direct firing principle is schematically
illustrated in Fig.45. Here the с о а is ground in а п air-swept ball mill. The
pulverized coal is, however, collected in а cyclone; the mill system fan handles the
substantially dedusted exhaust air, and this cleaned gas is supplied to the primary
air fan. Part of the mill exhaust air remains as circulating air in the grinding system.
This variant is а little more elaborate and expensive than the preceding о п е the
cycloneseparator, which supplies the pulverized с о а to the burner, has а damping
effect о п the transmission of а п у variations in performance or output from the mill
to the burner. This technique is the semi-direct firing system. It is а somewhat
comprehensive designation which includes а number of variants.
For instance, the semi-direct system shown in Fig.46 is suitabIe for the grinding
and drying of с о а with а high moisture content [14]. It is more particularly
advantageous when the quantity of hot gas that has to Ь е passed through the mill
in order to drive out the moisture is greater than the quantity of primary air that the
kiln burner с а п accept. The surplus exhaust gas from the mill is discharged into the
Fig.45: Direct firing system (F. L. Smidth Tirax Mill)
1 Ы п for raw coal, 2 weight belt feeder, 3 air-swept mill (Tirax), 4 air heater, 5 air
separator, 6 cyclone, 7 air circulating fan, 8 primary air fan, 9 rotary kiln,
1О planetary cooler (Unax)
Coal: grinding process

• Е Т Я
Fig.46: Semi-direct firing system С Е Raymond)
Fig. 47: Semi-direct firing system (F. L. Smidth)
1 Ы п for raw coal, 2 weigh belf feeder, 3 air-swept mill (Tirax), 4 air heater, 5 air
separator, 6 cyclone, 7 air circulating fan, 8 primary air fan, 9 rotary kiln,
1О planetary cooler (Unax), 11 surge Ы п

D. Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Coal' grinding process
L-__J..-__.... а х С
1, . I :
:& J & ...1
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Ь 'SOmb:
: с :
I т
centrally installed mill of appropriate throughput с а п supply the fuel requirements
of several kilns. Such а pulverized fuel system is therefore sometimes referred to as
а central grinding p\ant. . .
Exhaust air from the clinker cooler о г preferabIy (because of ItS Inert character
thanks to its low oxygen content) exit gas from е kiln is used for drying the coal in
е mill.
А central grinding plant equipped with а fabric filter is shown schemati.cally in
Fig. 50. The exhaust gas, with а temperature of 800 С .is the
external atmosphere. Fig. 51 shows а central г п П plant In whlch а п
ball mill is the pulverizing unit. The hot gas for coal drying is taken from t,he Г П
hood of the kiln. The mill exhaust gas is drawn through the system fan Installed
after the cyclone and is then divided into two flows, о п е of which is recirculated to
the mill, while the other is discharged into the dust collector and thus to the
atmosphere, , .
А solution in which the exhaust air from the mill is supplied as с о о П alr to the
clinker cooler and which therefore does not require а dust collecting filter is shown
in Fig.52.
Fig.49: Semi-direct firing system (Loesche GmbH) .
а Ы П for raw coal, Ь с о а feeder, с coal grinding mill, d cyclone, е mlll fan,
f puiverized coai Ы п 9 primary air fal1, 11 pulverized coal feeder, i kiln Ь ш п е г j hot
air, k cold air
Fig. 48: Semi-direct firing system С Е Raymond)
atmosphere through а dust collecting filter. The filter, of course, constitutes а п
extra expense and is moreover а potential source of fire or explosion hazard.
The air-swept ball mill coal grinding plant shown in Fig.47 is also а п example of
semi-direct operation. А surge Ы п of limited storage capacity is mounted о п load
cells which serve to control the rate of coal feed to the ball mill. 1n this arrangement,
too, air is recirculated to the mill, and а quantity of exhaust air equivalent to the hot
air supplied to the system is used as primary air.
In the grinding plant shown in Fig. 48, which serves two burners, there still exists
the operational coupling of kiln and с о а grinding mill. This semi-indirect plant
supplies fuel to the kiln Ь ш п е г and to the precalcining Ь ш п е г in the preheater. Both
burners а г е supplied with pulverized coal from а Ы п of limited storage capacity.
Fig. 49 shows yet another semi-direct firing variant. The raw coal is fed to the roller
mill through а controllabIe feeder. The pulverized coal is collected in а cyclone and
delivered through а rotary gate to а Ы п which is mounted о п load cells and controls
the set point of the mill feeder. The mill system fan is installed after the cyclon. The
exhaust air from the cyclone, still containing а certain amount of fine dust, is used
partly as primary air for combustion and is partly returned, mixed with fresh hot air,
to the air-swept mill.
In general, if direct firing is used for two о г т о г е consumer units - т о г е
particularly' cement kilns - it will Ь е necessary to use two о г т о г е с о а grinding
mills to achieve suitabIy г о е г е е plant operation.
The indirect system is characterized Ь у the interposition of а substantial storage
capacity between the coal grinding mill and the consumer equipment, which т а у
comprise о п е о г т о г е burners. These а г е decoupled from the mill. Thus, о п е

D. Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Types of coal grinding mill
Ь г т ь :
Ф : I
I С 1:
I г -- т ь !
: L
L.- ..J
Fig.50: Central grinding plant (Loesche GmbH)
а Ы п for raw coal, Ь coal feeder, с coal grinding mill, d fabric filter, е mill fan,
f pulverized с о а Ы п 9 primary air fan, h pulverized coal feeder, i kiln burner, j hot
air, k cold air
Fig.51 : Central grinding plant (F. L. Smidth)
1 Ы п for raw coal, 2 weigh belt feeder, 3 air-swept mill Т 4 air heater, 5 air
separator, 6 cyclone, 7 air circulating fan, 8 primary air fan, 9 rotary kiln,
1О planetary cooler (Unax), 11 pulverized coal Ы п 12 dust collector
Fig. 52: Central grinding plant with exhaust air discharge into clinker
cooler. requiring п о dust filter (Heidelberger Zement AG, employee's inven-
tion, patents already granted in individual countries, applied for in others)
Advantages of the indirect system а г е operational independence of coal grinding
and kiin firing with regard to each other, possibility of supplying several consumer
units from о п е central grinding plant; possibility of choosing the optimum rate of
supply of primary air to the kiln; greater а с с ш а с у of feeding the pulverized с о а to
the burner, with shorter control dead time.
There are some disadvantages, however: higher capital cost of the equipment,
which is more elaborate in terms of mechanical installations, control technology
and safety arrangements; the need for а filter with а high dust collecting efficiency;
the need for creating inert conditions as а safety precaution.
5.5 Types of с о а grinding mill
The mills used for с о а grinding and drying а г е either tumbIing mills or roller mills.
Some commonly employed types of mill will now Ь е briefly described, without
laying claim to completeness.
5.5.1 TumbIing mills
The tube mill or Ь а mill is especially suitabIe for the indirect firing system, i. е
wherethere is nodirect connection between mill and kiln and where the pulverized
and dried coal is stored in а п intermediate bin of ample capacity. Thus the mill с а п
Ь е operated economically at а constant optimum rate of throughput, inde-
pendently of the demands of the burners fed Ь у it.
О Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
The ball mill is insensitive to foreign bodies in the feed material, and the wear of the
grinding media с а п Ь е compensated without а п у great effort or cost. The relatively
long residence time of the coal in the mill has the effect of equalizing а п у short-
term variations in the quality of the mill feed, thanks to the bIending action of
the system. Also, harder constituents such as quartz and pyrite are effectively
Ball mills for coal grinding are almost invariabIy operated as air-swept mills. As а
rule, in order to с о р е with the relatively high moisture content of the raw coal, the
mill is preceded Ь у а drying compartment. The mill is mounted in trunnion
bearings, usually at both ends. А п advantageous alternative system of mounting
that enabIes larger quantities of gas to Ь е introduced into the mill is the sliding shoe
bearing (Fig.53) .

Fig. 53: Air-swept tube mill with drying compartment and sliding shoe
bearing at inlet end (Krupp-Polysius)
5.5.2 Roller mills
As already noted in Section 4, the designation "roller mill" is often used as а
о п е comprising mills in which the grinding elements т а у not only Ь е
а ю types of roller, but т а у alternatively consist of balls. А п advantageous
feature for direct firing systems is the short residence time of the material in these
mills, so that mill operation с а п Ь е quickly adjusted to suit the firing requirements at
а п у given time. Economically advantageous is moreover the fact that the power
consumption of а roller mill drive is more closely dependent о п the rate of material
throughput than that of а tumbIing mill. The throughput control ratio is about 1 2
in all types of roller mill.
Quartz and pyrite are frequently present in coal. They cause а higher rate of wear of
the grinding elements, so that more frequent renewal of these parts is necessary
Types of с о а grinding mill
Fig.54: Ring-ball mill for с о а grinding; standard type. designed to
resist pressure surge (Claudius Peters)
and the operational availability of the plant is correspondingly diminished. This is
obviously а drawback in direct firing with close interconnection of mill and kiln.
The Claudius Peters direct-firing mill is а ring-ball mill which is availabIe in two
versions for operation under inert internal atmosphere and designed to а п
explosion-resistant specification so that it с а п withstand pressure surges of 3.5 bar
or 50 psi (Fig.54).
The Krupp-Polysius А М К roller mill с а п Ь е supplied with а housing designed to
resist pressure surges of up to 8 bar. This range of с о а grinding mills comprises
throughputs from 2.3 to 62 t/hour for а Hardgrove grindability index of 55 and а
product fineness corresponding to 12% retained о п the 0.09 т т sieve (Fig. 55)
The Atox coal grinding mill is а fairly new develop.ment of the firm of F. L. Smidth
(Fig. 56). It has а flat-topped grinding tabIe, and the three grinding rollers are each
mounted о п а shaft which is attached to а central yoke. The mill is designed to
О . Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Types of coal grinding mill
Fig.58: MPS roller mill
(Gebr. Pfeiffer)
Fig. 57: Three-roller direct firing
mill LM 26.30 D. of modular design
(Loesche GmbH)

Fig. 56: Atox roller mill for с о а l grinding (F. L. Smidth)
Fig.55: Roller m Ш for с о а l grinding (Krupp-Polysius)
О . Manufacture of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
Fig. 59: Т у р е " Е " ring-ball mill (Fives-Cail Babcock)
Safety requirements
comply with the United States and Е ш о р е а п safety codes for resistance to
explosion pressure surges. The mills in this range have throughputs from 5.5 t/hour
(drive motor power rating 55 kW) to about 80 t/hour (800 kW), their product
having а fineness corresponding to 10% retained о п the 0.09 т т sieve.
The roller mill originally developed Ь у the firm of Loesche for с о а l grinding, and
subsequently used also for the grinding of other materials, is at present availabIe in
two ranges intended т о г е particularly for coal. The principal features of the range
of smaller mills with their two grinding rollers and their grinding tabIes from 1300
to 1900 т т diameter а г е : throughputs from 14 to 40 t/hour, with corresponding
drive power ratings from 112 to 330 kW, yielding а product ground to а fineness of
15% retained о п 0.09 т т for coal with Hardgrove grindability index of 90. These
mills are resistant to pressure surges of 3.5 bar, thus satisfying the conditions of the
German VDI Code 3673. The larger coal grinding mills built Ь у Loesche are
characterized Ь у modular design and have two, three or four rollers. This range
starts with а mill designed for а throughput of about 40 t/hour (420 kW installed
power) and equipped with а grinding tabIe of 2100 т т diameter. See Fig.57.
Other extensively used coal grinding mills are the MPS roller mill of Gebr Pfeiffer
AG (Fig.58) and the type Е ring-ball mill of Fives-Cail Babcock (Fig.59).
5.6 Safety requirements
Special requirements intended to ensure safe operation of coal grinding plants
have to Ь е fulfilled in order to eliminate explosion hazard. The potential existence
of such hazard is due to the following factors:
combustibIe materials in finely divided form а г е present;
the dust (pulverized coai) concentration is within the explosive range, 1. е . ,
between the lower and the upper limit of flammability;
oxygen is present in concentrations that с а п sustain explosions;
sources of ignition т а у develop.
Even fairly coarse coal particles of about 1 т т size, suspended in air, с а п constitute
а п explosion hazard. In the grinding plant the pulverized с о а l is always present in
ignitabIe fineness.
The explosive range for pulverized coal, о г coal dust, suspended in air depends о п
its physical properties, such as its fineness and moisture content, and о п its
chemical composition, such as its ash content and volatile content. The lower limit
above which the concentration of coal particles in atmospheric air is potentially
hazardous thus varies according to circumstances. Values from 200 g/m
to as low
as 15 g/m
in the most unfavourabIe case have Ь е е п reported (Narjes 1963,
Wibbelhoff 1981). Of course, the figures found Ь у various investigators depend
not only о п the physical and chemical properties of the pulverized coal, but also о п
experimental conditions such as the ignition energy input.
The important fact, however, is that it is not economically possibIe to operate coal
grinding systems with concentrations of pulverized coal which а г е consistently
below the lower limit of flammability and thus "safe".
There is also а п upper limit of flammability, which is located at concentrations of
between 1500 and 6000 g/m
, again depending о п various circumstances. At
D. г of cement 1. Materials preparation technology
concentrations of с о а suspended in air in excess of this limit there is considered to
Ь е п о danger of explosion. г start-up and shutdown of а с о а grinding plant
the internal conditions always pass through the explosive range bounded Ь у these
two limits.
П terms of oxygen concentration the lower limit of flammability is around 14%
Ь у volume of the air in which the с о а particles а г е suspended. А gas г
containing less than this oxygen amount is regarded as inert with regard to с о а
dust explosion and therefore "safe".
Lowering the oxygen content in the grinding circuit has the effect of raising the
lower limit offlammability and lowering the upper limit, so thatthe explosive range
is narrowed. Also, with lower oxygen content the ignition г of the
г of pulverized с о а and air is raised, and this effect, too, tends to reduce the
hazardous range of concentration.
The most dangerous г of ignition liabIe to initiate explosions а г е smouldering
pockets that may develop in с о а dust deposits inside the plant. Ignition of the dust
may Ь е brought about Ь у too high а temperature of the gas used for drying the
Н е п с е the conditions for the occurrence of а п explosion а г е at times fulfilled in а
с о а grinding plant. As it is not possibIe to eliminate deposits of combustibIe dust
inside the plant, the required degree of safety is attainabIe only Ь у using inert gas
for drying and conveying the pulverized coal. П the event of г of the supply of
inert gas а potentially hazardous condition may still arise, so that, theoretical.ly at
least, it would Ь е necessary to provide а separate and independent г of П е г
gas for immediate availability in а п emergency. . .
П actual practice the grinding plant normally operated under Inert Internal
conditiorls is designed to а п explosion-resistant Г in that it is а Ы е to
withstand г surges of а certain magnitude, while it is additionally provided
with г relief venting, so that the consequences of а п explosion а г е kept
within acceptabIe limits and п о serious damage is done. Venting devices а г е of
various types: о panels, explosion doors, etc. П the interests of safety,
personnel should not Ь е allowed to enter certain "no-go" zones п е а г these devices
while the plant is in operation. Maintenance, repairs and inspections of vital parts
• should Ь е carried out only г plant shutdowns.
The principles and precautions applicabIe to с о а grinding and drying а г е even
more stringently applicabIe to lignite (brown coal), which is especially hazardous
о п account of its higher content of volatile matter.
Grinding and drying of с о а - References
1. Bartknecht, W.: Explosionen, AbIauf und SchutzmaBnahmen. - Berlin,
Heidelberg, New York: Springer-Verlag 1978.
2. Baumeister, W.: Erfahrungen mit einem kombinierten pneumatischen System
г Dosierung und Fbrderung von Kohlenstaub. - п ZKG 34/1981/247.
3. Billhardt, Н W.: Betriebserfahrungen mit einem neuen Kohlenstaub-Dosier-
system. - п ZKG 34/1981/255.
4. Birolini, P./Sammartin, L.: Explosionseigenschaften von Kohlenstaub und ihre
Berucksichtigung beim Bau von Kohlenstaubmahlanlagen. - п ZKG
5. Bbcker, D./Kreusing, Н Braunkohlenstaub, Herstellung und Verwendung. -
п ZKG 34/1981/221.
6. Brundiek, Н Aufbau, Funktion und neue Betriebserfahrungen mit Walzen-
Kohlenmuhlen. - п VGB Kraftwerkstechnik 61/1981/328.
7. Buchmuller, Н А Rohrmuhlen fur Kohlevermahlung. - п Aufbereitungs-
Technik А Т 12/1971/179.
8. Durr, М Kohlefeuerungen aus der Sicht des Ofenbauers. - п ZKG
9. Eicke, G.: Moderne Zentralmahlanlagen fur Kohle. - п Aufbereitungs-
Technik А Т 18/1977/520.
10. Flbter, Н J. : М it Ofenabgas inertisierte Kohle- Mahltrocknungsanlagen fur die
Zementindustrie. - In: ZKG 34/1981/257.
11. Fredenberg, К G./von Wedel, К Kohlemahltrocknung mit Vertikalmuhle und
Inertkreislauf. - In: ZKG 33/1980/446.
12. Kline, J. P./Kreisberg, А J./Deroche, D. L.: Cut fuel cost with indirect с о а
firing. - Unverblfentlichte Mitteilung der Fuller Company, Bethlehem,
Pennsylv. 18001.
13. Kuhlmann, К Betriebserfahrungen mit einem Kohlenstaub- Dosiersystem
nach dem Fbrderleitungs- Differenzdruckverfahren. - п ZKG 34/1981/251.
14. Musto, А L.: С о а firing of cement kilns. - In: С Е Raymond Technical Briefs,
15. Narjes, А Vermeiden von Kohlenstaub-Verpuffungen г Inertgasbetrieb.
- Iп ZKG 16/1963/357.
16. Niemeyer, Е А Planung und Bau einer zentralen Mahltrocknungsanlage fur
55 t/h Kohlenstaub im Werk Li:igerdorf. - п ZKG 32/1979/415.
17. о V.· В г е п п und ExplosionskenngrbBen von Stauben. - In: BG 1980.
18. Parpart, J. Entstaubung von Kohlenstaubanlagen. - п ZKG 32/1979/265.
19. Patzke, J. Sicherheitstechnische Betriebserfahrungen bei der Kohlemahlung
im Zementwerk Lagerdorf. - п ZKG 34/1981/238.
20. Ruhland, W.: Dosierung von Kohlenstaub mit einer Differential-Dosierwaage.
- п ZKG 34/1981/243.
21. Schmidt, А J .. Regeleinrichtungen fur Kohlenstaubfeuerungen. - In: ZKG
22. Schneider, F.: Kohlenaufbereitung und Kohlenfeuerungen fur Zementdreh-
Ы е п - п ZKG 29/1976/289.
О Manufacture of cement 1. lVIaterials preparation technology
11. Raw meal silos
11. Raw т е а silos
For the manufacture of cement clinker it is necessary to р г е р а г е а raw mix fulfilling
certain conditions as to its chemical composition (see Section CI12). Raw
materials which already in their natural state conform to these requirements а г е
exceedingly г а г е П orderto obtain а suitabIe mix, in modern cement production it
is therefore standard practice to apply bIending and homogenization of the raw
materials at some point between the crushing plant and the raw mill This is
normally done in а so-called bIending bed а stockpile which serves not only for
storage of the crushed stone, but is so built up and equipped that preliminary
homogenisation of its composition с а п Ь е effected (see Section В
Homogenization also takes place during the grinding process. Although this
further improves the chemical uniformity of the material, it is in most cases still not
enough to meet the strict requirements of present-day cement burning (see
Section С
This being so, over the years various methods and systems have Ь е е п developed
which е п а Ы е а high degree bf raw meal homogenization to Ь е achieved
economically. Special silos equipped for storing and homogenizing the raw meal
а г е availabIe. The systems с а п Ь е broadly subdivided into those with batchwise
(intermittent) and those with continuous operation. Which system should Ь е
chosen in а given case will depend о п circumstances and requirements. Also,
besides chemical and technical considerations, the question of е с о п о т у (cost of
construction, operating expenses, etc.) must not Ь е ignored.
23. Schneider, L.: Verfahrenstechnische Gesichtspunkte fur Kohle-Mahl- Trock-
nungsanlagen in druckfester Bauweise mit Oruckentlastung. - Vortrag auf
dem Symposium "Kohlenstaub" der Steinbruchsberufsgenossenschaft а т
10. Febr. 1981 in Hannover.
24. Schneider, L./Blasczyk, G. Mbglichkeiten der Kohlevermahlung. - In: ZKG
25. Schneider, L./Blasczyk, G./Lohnherr, L.: Betriebserfahrungen mit modernen
Kohlenmahlanlagen - Kugel- und Rollenmuhlen. - In: ZKG 34/1981/260.
26. Scholl, Е W.: В г е п п und Explosionsverhalten von Kohlenstaub. - In' Oie
Industrie der Steine und Erden 1981/45 and ZKG 34/1981/227
27. Scholl, Е W./Fischer, P./Oonat, С .. Vorbeugende konstruktive SchutzmaP..-
nahmen gegen Gas- und Staubexplosionen. - In. Chem. Ing. Techn.
51 Н 5.
28. VOI-Richtlinien 2263' Verhutung von Staubbriinden und Staubexplosionen.
- August 1969.
29. VOI-Richtlinien 3673' Oruckentlastung von Staubexplosionen. - Juni 1979.
30. Voos, Е Betrieb von Kohlenmahlanlagen. - In: ZKG 17/1964/526. ..
31. Wehren, P./Kortmann, F. Н Oie Schwingmahlung, ein neues Mahlsystem fur
die Zerkleinerung von Kohle und Koks. - In Braunkohle 31 Н 4.
32. Wibbelhoff, Н Oerzeitige sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen а п Kohle-
Mahl-Trocknungs-Anlagen. - In' Oie Industrie der Steine und Erden
1981/61 and ZKG 34/1981/234.
Information literature is obtainabIe from the following firms.
а Krupp Polysius Aktiengesellschaft, 0-4720 Beckum
Ь CPAG Claudius Peters, 0-2000 Hamburg
с F. L. Smidth & С о A/S, О К Valby Kopenhagen
d) Fuller С о т р а п у Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18001
е С Е Raymond Combustion Engineering, Inc., Chicago, Illinois 60606
f) Ь Н 0-4000 Ousseldorf
g) О & К Orenstein & Koppel Aktiengesellschaft, Werk Ennigerloh,
0-4722 Ennigerloh
h) Five-Cail- Babcock, Hauptverwaltung, 0-4150 Krefeld
i) Gebr. Pfeiffer AG, 0-6750 Kaiserslautern
В у Н К Klein-Albenhausen
1 General .
2 Batchwise homogenization
3 Continuous bIending
4 Combined systems
5 Summary
1 General
2 Batchwise homogenization
With this system the raw meal in а large-capacity silo is completely fluidized Ь у the
admission of compressed air through suitabIe inlets in the bottom of the silo. The
air penetrates the silo contents, thus greatly reducing о г cancelling the friction
between the particles (Fig.1). А п overall circulatory motion is obtained Ь у
D. Manufacture of cement 11. Raw meal silos
Fig.1: Homogenizing silo embodying the quadrant system
Continuous bIending
admitting the air cyclically through different zones е g., sectors о г segments) of
the silo Г The greater part of the air enters the silo in the so-called active
aerating zones, while in the other zones only so much air is supplied as to keep the
material over them merely in а fluidized condition. With this method even very large
and long-term variations in the chemical composition of raw meal с а п Ь е reduced
to very low amounts.
The actively aerated zones а г е switched systematically at regular intervals Ь у
means of special valve equipment, so that they move round and round the silo
bottom - е g., sector Ь у sector - in а clockwise о г anticlockwise direction. It is
more particularly this continual progression of the active zones that keeps the
contents of the silo in motion and effects the desired homogenization.
А homogenizing silo is generally designed to hold 1О to 12 hours' grinding output,
so as to ensure sufficient treatment to с а п с е out the remaining variations in the
chemical composition of the raw meal. The time required for achieving this will of
course depend also о п the degree of prehomogenization of the raw material ahead
of the mill.
The height (depth) of material in the silo should not exceed 1.5 times the silo
diameter. Normally а height/diameter ratio of 1.2: 1 is adopted.
The specific air supply rate
of air р е г minute and р е г m
of aerated silo bottom
а г е а will depend о п the ease with which the material с а п Ь е fluidized. For normal
raw meal the required specific air rate is about 1
minute, with air supplied at
а pressure of 2-3 Ь а г
These figures indicate that pneumatic homogenization demands а substantial
energy input. It does, however, achieve а relatively high degree of homogenization,
so that even quite large variations in the composition of the raw meal с а п Ь е
effectively reduced The result is а function of the homogenizing time and thus of
the energy consumed. Fig. 2 shows а п efficiency curve for а system of this type.
Т о compensate for the intermittent operation, two homogenizing installations may
Ь е employed, о п е being aerated while the other is supplying raw meal to the kiln.
"Two-storey" construction - о п е silo mounted over the other - is commonly
з Continuous bIending *)
As already mentioned, with modern quarrying methods and with the introduction
of efficient bIending beds а substantial degree of homogenization of the raw
material is achieved already before it is supplied tothe raw grinding mill. As а result,
little о г п о homogenization of the raw meal may Ь е necessary, in which case the
raw meal silo will function merely as а buffer store. AII the same, the raw meal
composition will generally still show some residual variation, and it is advan-
') In the literature п о clear distinction is drawn between "bIending" and "homogenizing",
these terms often being treated as synonyms. Some authors, however, use "bIending" where
two or more recognizabIy different material components have to Ь е merged or mixed or
where more or less distinct layers of material are incorporated with о п е another
с о
5,0 u
1.,0 <'3
3,0 ;,?
г о
Г .....
г о о
r-o- ....




I I I I I I I I I I I I ...
20 1.0 Б О 80 100 120 11.0 Б О 180 200 220 21.0 HOMOGENISIERZEIT I mln]
0,1 0,2 0,3 0,1. SPEZ ARBEITSBEDARF
I kw h/t I
Fig. 2: Performance diagram of а pneumatic homogenizing silo
spez. Arbeitsbedarf = specific power consumption
Homogenisierzeit = homogenizing time



с о
О г of cement 11. Raw meal silos
Continuous bIending
••0 ' __ 0 Jtr
о _0 __• __0 Д
Schnilt В В
Schnltt Д - д
Schnitt В В
д __-_IIIIIIIIIII_t_ д
I -'-f
Schnltt д д
fig. 5: Blending chamber silo (schematic)
fig. 4: Blending chamber silo (schematic)
tageous to reduce this as far as possibIe. П modern systems this is usually done in
continuously operating silos equipped with special discharge aerating chambers,
referred to as bIending о г mixing chambers, often conical in shape.
The raw meal is deposited а у е г Ь у layer in the silo (Figs. 3,4,5). It enters through
а system of troughs and several inlet openings so as to build up these layers as
uniformly as possibIe over the entire cross-sectional а г е а of the silo. The actual
bIending is effected during the emptying process, this being brought about Ь у
cyclic aeration of bottom sectors о г zones in such а way that funnel flow develops,
causing the respective layers to flow into the "funnel" cavity and merge. П order to
prevent fresh raw meal from rushing prematurely into the funnel, this action must
Ь е stopped from time to time and а new funnel Ь е formed. This isdone cyclically Ь у
а п air distribution system о г preferabIy Ь у means of shut-off valves associated with
the conical discharge chamber.
The bIending efficiency of such а п installation is inevitabIy limited and will depend
substantially upon the manner in which the raw meal is deposited layerwise in the
silo and how effectively the funnelling-down of the material to achieve the
mingling of the layers is continually accomplished. It is reckoned that а homo-
genization factor of at least 3: 1 is attainabIe with о п е such silo, and that 5: 1 and
higher с а п Ь е attained if two silos а г е operated in combination with each other.
However, the efficiency varies considerabIy from о п е silo systemto another. Power
consumption is relatively low - about 0.1-0.2kWh р е г tonne of raw meal.
о . Manufacture of cement 11. Raw meal silos
. ъ .,,'
Fig. 6: Blending chamber silo with elevated homogenizing compart-
ment (schematic)
З 0 2
Combined systems
Fig. 7: Blending chamber silo with integral homogenizing compartment
з о з
О М а п а с ш е of cement 11. Raw meal silos References
4 Combined systems
1. Ahrens, N.. Tendenzen der Rohmaterial-Homogenisierung. - In ZKG
26/1973, 1.
2. Daniel, Н Homogenisierung im Multi-Strom-Silo. - In: ZKG 32/1979/161.
3. Grapengiesser, J. С Eine neuartige Beli..iftungseinheit fur beli..iftete Silo-
bbden. - In: ZKG 22/1969/218.
4. Grapengiesser, J. С Gror..raumsilos mit Mischeffekt. - In: ZKG 24/
5. Kirchhoff, K./Johansen, V.· Homogenisierung in Zementfabriken mit dem
'Funnel flow' -Verfahren. - In. ZKG 27/1974/373.
6. Klein, Н .. е е Ш е е п bei der pneumatischen Homogenisierung. - In:
ZKG 15/1962/399.
7. Klein, Н Verbesserung bei der Chargen-Homogenisierung - In: ZKG
8. Kraur.., W. Vorrats- und Mischsilotechnik mit Tunnelentleerung und п е и
artigen Mischsilos. - In: ZKG 29/1976/3.
9. Kraur.., W.: Kontinuierlich arbeitende Rohmehlmischanlagen. - In. ZKG
10. Kurz, Н Р Allgemeine Ahnlichkeitsgesetze der pneumatischen Siloentlee-
rung und Mer..ergebnisse uber den Geometrieeinflur.. auf die Flier..vorgange. -
In: Aufbereitungstechnik А Т 16/1975/569.
11. Lochmann, Н O./Schillo, Н Rohmehlvergleichmar..igung mittels Prozer..-
rechner. - In. ZKG 25/1972/177
12. Matouschek, F.: М с р г о е е in der Zementindustrie. - In: ZKG
13. Nystrbm, L./Sbderman, J.: Ein neues Verfahren zur Homogenisierung у о п
Rohmeh! und Zement. - In: ZKG 27/1974/194.
14. Parnaby, J.: Mengen- und pneumatische Homogenisierungssysteme fur die
Kontrolle der Qualitat у о п Rohmehl. - In: ZKG 26/1973/22.
15. Pennell, А R./Watson, О Auslegung und Betriebsverhalten у о п kontinuier-
lich arbeitenden Mischsystemen fur die Homogenisierung у о п Zement-
Rohmehl. - In: ZKG 26/1973/27.
16. Radewald, Н ProbIeme der Homogenisierung у о п Rohmehl in Harburg.
In: ZKG 22/1969/371.
17. Rbtzer, H./Hagspiel, W.: Untersuchung des Homogenisierungseffektes in
Vorratssilos fur Zementrohmehl mit Hilfe у о п Radioisotopen. - In. ZKG
18. Schmidt-Pathmann, W./Kraur.., W.: Mischkammersiloanlagen zur Rohmate-
rialvergleichmar..igu ng. - In А Т 14/1973/6.
19. Schramm, R./Zeig, К Untersuchungen der Mischwirkung einer Homogeni-
sier- und Rohmehlanlage. - In: ZKG 32/1979/557.
20. Sommer, H./Cuenod, M./Thibaud, О DieVergleichmar..igungdes Kalkgehal-
tes у о п Rohmehl. - In: ZKG 28/1975/508.
21. Voos, E./Blatton, В Das pneumatische Homogenisieren. - In: ZKG 12/
Raw meal silo installations embodying а combination of the two principles
outlined а Ь о у е - batch homogenization and continuous bIending - are so
designed that the meal is prehomogenized (bIending of layers) in а continuous silo
and then passed to а comparatively small second silo for final homogenization.
As а result of the bIending of the layers of material Ь у funnel action in the
continuous silo not only the maximum values but also the frequency of the
variations are reduced, so that the final homogenizing treatment с а п Ь е performed
fairly quickly, which in turn means that the second silo need only have а
correspondingly small volumetric capacity for attaining the specified uniformitv in
chemical composition of the raw meal (Figs. 6 and 7).
The small second silo is aerated continuously and is fed with material at а rate equal
to the rate of discharge from this silo, which may take the form of а homogenizing
chamber installed within the continuous bIending silo and constituting а п integral
feature thereof.
5 Summary
Which type of bIending/homogenizing silo system will provide the technically
optimal and economically favourabIe solution for а п у particular cement works is а
question that must Ь е viewed in the overall context of the raw material conditions
and preparation equipment envisaged. Various combinations of raw meal silos are
shown in Fig.8.
Fig. 8: Various raw meal bIending silo installations: two-storey homo-
genizing silo. continuous bIending silo. combination silo
О г of cement 11. Raw meal silos
О г of cement 111. Cement г technology
111. Cement burning technology
1 к 1n systems
22. Weislehner, G.. Ein Beitrag zum ProbIem der pneumatischen Mischung
staubfbrmiger GLiter. - In ZKG 22/1969/345.
23. Wildpaner, H./Kuhs, R.: Rohmehl-Mischungsregelkreis in Zementwerken. -
In: ZKG 24/1971/362.
24. Ziegler, Е Erweiterung des Zementwerkes Burglengenfeld. - In: ZKG 29/
25. Zulauf, J.: Systemidentifikation von Homogenisieranlagen. - In. ZKG
Acknowledgements for illustrations.
Fig. 4' CPAG
Fig.5 CPAG
Fig. 7: CPAG
В у Е Steinbiss
1.1 Types of kiln
1.1.1 General ...
1.1.2 Long rotary kiln .
1.1.3 Short rotary kiln .
1.2 Method of support for rotary kilns.
1.2.1 Rollers and their bearings
1.2.2 Thrust rollers .
1.2.3 Tyres. . . . . . . .
1.2.4 Rotary kiln drive.
1.2.5 Air seals at kiln ends.
1.1 Types of kiln
1.1 1 General
In the early days of cement г the clinker was produced in shaft kilns
(vertical kilns) which were manually charged and controlied It was а process
involving strenuous physicallabour and had the drawback of irregular operation,
yielding а clinker ofvariabIe and often inferior quality. Besides, the capacity of such
kilns was low.
This unsatisfactory system was superseded Ь у the automatically operating shaft
kiln. With good raw materials and suitabIe fuels it is thus possibIe to obtain regular
kiln performance, but the disadvantage of limited output р е г kiln - not above
about 300 tonnes р е г day - remains.
Late in the nineteenth г the rotary kiln was developed in Britain, introduced
into the United States and, from that country, adopted in Continental г With
this kiln it had become possibIe to use а п у type of fuel: solid, liquid о г gaseous
(coal, oil, gas). The raw materials were introduced into the rotating tube in the form
of "slurry" (wet process) о г "raw meal" (dry process). In comparison with the
shaft kiln, the capacity of the rotary ki In was soon greatly increased, especially after
very effective homogenization methods, preheating and precalcining systems had
Ь е е п developed, and efficient measuring and control instrumentation had Ь е е п
AII these developments and improvements have helped to bring the rotary kiln to а
high level of performance. Thus, clinker outputs of 3000 t/day а г е now regarded as
perfectly ordinary, while kilns с а р а Ы е of producing 6000 to 8000 t/day а г е Ь у п о
means very exceptional. Besides the development of large kiln units there has Ь е е п
а very notabIe reduction in specific heat consumption, which makes for greater
О Manufacture of cement 111. Cement burning technology
economy and is of course а desirabIe development in the general effort to conserve
energy. AII this has Ь е е п achieved without detriment to the high quality standards
with which the cement clinker has to comply.
П view of this evolution, the present chapter will Ь е concerned о п Iy with rotary kiln
Kiln systems
The thrust due to the slope of the shell and its rotation has to Ь е resisted. О П small
ki\ns with rollers of correspondingly small diameter the latter а г е disposed with
their axes slightly at а п angle to the longitudinal axis ofthe kiln instead of parallel to
it (Fig. 2). However, о п present-day big kilns the axes of the rollers а г е placed
parallel to the kiln, а п arrangement which enabIes the kiln to perform continuous
1.1.2 Long rotary kiln
Feed: slurry with about 30 to 45% water content (wet process) о г dry raw
meal (dry process).
Shell diameter: up to about 7.0 m.
Length of kiln: for wet о г dry process between 32 and 35 times shell diameter.
Inclination of kiln: 3.0 to 4.5%.
Rotational speed of kiln: 1.5 to 2.5 r.p.m., corresponding to а circumferential
velocity of about 0.3 to 0.9 m/sec.
Refractory lining: see Section 0.111.5.
Internal chain system: weight of chain fittings about 0.1 to 0.13 t/m
of effective
kiln volume.
Thermal rating of refractory lining in burning zone: 20 to 25 GJ/m
. h
Residence time of material in kiln: 3 to 5 hours.
1.1.3 Short rotary kiln
Feed: semi-dry о г dry raw meal (semi-dry о г dry process).
Shell diameter: up to about 7.0 m.
Length of kiln. between 15 and 17 times shell diameter.
Inclination of kiln: 3.0 to 4.5%.
Rotational speed of kiln: up to about 2.5 r.p.m.
Refractory lining: see Section 0.111.5.
Thermal rating of refractory lining in burning zone: 20 to 25 GJ/m
. h
Residence time of material in kiln: 40 to 60 minutes.
1.2 Method of support for rotary kilns
Oepending о п the length of the kiln, it is supported о п two о г more tyres (riding
rings) mounted о п carrying rollers. The ratio of roller diameter to tyre diameter
ranges from 1: 2.2 to 1: 4.4 and depends о п the kiln shell diameter and о п the
number of tyres and roller sets о п which the kiln is supported, this in turn being а
determining criterion for roller size with respect to permissibIe bearing contact
1.2.1 Rollers and their bearings
The centres of the carrying rollers а г е positioned at а п angle of 30 degrees о п each
side of the vertical centre-line of the kiln shell cross-section. See Figs. 1а 1 Ь and
1с The spacing of the roller sets along the kiln will depend о п the positioning of
the tyres and о п the longitudinal thermal expansion of the shell.
Fig.1 а К mounting
(from Labahn/Kaminsky, 1974)
Fig.1 Ь Rotary kiln mounting
К Н О HumboldtWedagAG, Cologne)

О Manufacture of cement 111. Cement burning technology Kiln systems
Fig. 4: К roller
with mounting
К Н D Humboldt
Wedag AG,
З К roller
К Н О Humboldt
Wedag AG,
"uphill" and "downhill" movements, while now thetyres will not Ь е а г obIiquely о п
the rollers and thus not cause grooving and lateral deformation of them.
The carrying rollers а г е mounted in scoop-Iubricated plain bearings, occasionally
in roller bearings (Figs.3 and 4).
ki П outlet end
а с
11 11-- 1/ 11
'. '. .'
-.r:::-h ы -s...c:t-, '. ы -S-.r±-:r
'1 11 I /i
Fig. 2: К roller adjustment (from Labahn/Kaminsky, 1974)
Fig.1 с Bearing pedestal for kiln rollers К Н О Humboldt Wedag AG,
\1 \! --\,1 \1
-$-1 в э з
,'\ о I"\-- 1\ о 1\ а = k!ln rotates clockw!se
I ь = klln rotates clockwlse
с = kiln rotates anti-clockwise
d = kiln rotates anti-clockwise
310 311
D. г of cement 111. Cement г technology





с а
с а

Fig.5: Thrust roller (KHD Humboldt Wedag AG, Cologne)
Fig.6: Thrust roller set (KHD Humboldt Wedag AG, Cologne)
1.2.2 Thrust rollers
П order to limit the uphill and downhill sliding movements of the tyres о п the
rollers, small kilns а г е provided with thrust rollers which а г е given а certain
permanent setting to limit the range of movement. Large kilns а г е equipped with
а т о г е sophisticated system comprising hydraulically controlled thrust rollers
(Figs.5, 6 and 7).
О Manufacture of cement 111. Cement burning technology
Kiln systems
Т а Ы е 1: PermissibIe relative ovality values, as determined Ь у the
Shelltest method (according to Erni/Saxer/Schneider, 1979)
Fig.9: Rotary kiln drive assembIy К Н О Humboldt Wedag AG, Cologne)
Under normal operating conditions а clearance ranging from 3 to 20 т т is formed
between the shell and the tyre, depending о п the respective temperatures of these
с о р о п е п Because of this loose fit (so-called floating tyre) there some
circumferential slip о г lag of the tyre in relation to the П aXlal г е с ю п
(Iongitudinal direction of the kiln) the tyre is located П Р О ю п Ь у .means of
retaining elements welded to the shell. With floating tyres the shell ovallty Ь е
kept to acceptabIy low values only Ь у sufficiently rigid an.d tyre
in conjunction with the least possibIe compatlbIe а О п the Г
of the shell being constricted Ь у the tyre. П с е there г е а П а п of
uncertainty, the tyre clearance or the circumferentiallag of.the tyre In г е а ю п to the
shell should Ь е continuously monitored. If the clearance IS too large, It should Ь е
reduced Ь у the insertion of filler plates (packings) between the shell and tyre. The
require plate thickness с а п Ь е from·.p = Umin/
- 3, Vl:'here Umin
the minimum lag distance of the tyre In т т П normal о р е г а ю п ofthe klln. The
ratio of circumferential lag to clearance is generally between 1.5 and 2.5.
Various tyre mounting systems а г е shown in Fig.8.
1.2.4 Rotary kiln drive
The drive system comprises the two-piece girth gear \toothe? ring), the
skiln shell, and the pinions (dual pinions for large, п е Р Ю П for k\lns),
together with couplings, c\utches, main and auxiliary gear Unlts and
The kiln drive should Ь е а Ы е to meet the requirements of all operatlng а ю п
including extreme cases (Figs.9 and 10).
Fig. 8: Т у г е mounting systems
(from Erni, 1974)
А Bolted chairs
В Welded chairs, with wearing plate
С Guided chairs, keyed
kiln diameter
1.2.3 Tyres
The tyres (riding rings) а г е among the most important constructional features of а
rotary kiln. They constitute the supporting elements which have to transmit the
load of the kiln and its contents to the carrying rollers. This function has to Ь е
reliabIy performed despite longitudinal movements and thermal expansion of the
kiln shell.
The internal diameter of the tyre must Ь е sufficiently large to provide adequate
clearance for the shell when the kiln has attained its full operating temperature.
Insufficient clearance is liabIe to cause pinching and possibIe constriction of the
shell Ь у the tyre.
Generally speaking, the tyre should Ь е so dimensioned in relation to the shell that
the "ovalling" (e/liptical distortion) of the latter remains less than 0.2% (as stated
Ь у Nies, 1942). The ovality с а п Ь е measured о п the rotating shell Ь у means of the
Shelltest apparatus. Damage to the refractory lining due to excessive cross-
sectional distortion с а п Ь е avoided Ь у ensuring that the ovality measured in this
way does not exceed the amounts indicated in Т а Ы е 1.
О г of cement 111. Cement burning technology
Kiln systems
б о о
О З '"
Ofendurchmesser in m
kiln diameter in m
Fig. 11: Approximate drive power ratings for rotary kilns with cyclone
Fig.10: К drive pinion and mounting К Н О Humboldt Wedag AG,
The girth gear and pinion(s) а г е accommodated in а п oil-tight and dust-tight
sheet-steel casing. Scoop lubrication is employed о п small kilns, large ones а г е
equipped with atomized spray lubrication.
Main drive motor. а г а е р е е thyristor-fed О С motor designed to а rating
about 100% above the theoretical power demand.
Auxiliary motor: its г is to serve as а standby to е п а Ы е the kiln to continue
rotating (at reduced speed) in the event of а power supply г о г fault in the
main motor. If the cement works has а п emergency power supply system, the
auxiliary motor т а у Ь е а three-phase А С machine, otherwise а п internal
combustion engine - diesel о г petrol (gasoline) - designed for quick starting will
Ь е provided.
Instead of girth gear drives, oil-hydraulic drive systems have occasionally Ь е е п
used for rotary kilns, but have not gained wide acceptance.
1.2.5 Air seals at kiln ends
For reasons of thermal е с о п о т у it is necessary to prevent as effectively as possibIe
the infiltration of ambient air into the rotary kiln at the feed о г inlet) and at the
discharge о г outlet) end respectively. Specially designed seals а г е used which
have to withstand high г and also the wear caused Ь у the abrasive dust
contained in the kiln gases. Various forms of construction а г е employed. Figs.11
and 12 show examples. А п important requirement is that the seals should continue
Fig.12: Rotary kiln feed end seal
К Н D Humboldt Wedag AG, Cologne)
О Manufacture of cement 111. Cement burning technology
to function in preventing air entry when they have undergone а certain
amount of unavoldabIe wear and also if the kiln runs somewhat out of true. They
must compensate for thermal expansion.
maintenance of the kiln seals is important. Infiltration of air is liabIe to cause
losses. The amount of infiltrated air с а п Ь е approx;mately estimated
wlth the a,d of the following formula:
V= А р (m
А is the area of the gap (in т

and р is the negative pressure (suction) in the
klln П mbar).
Fig.1 З Rotary kiln outlet end seal К Н О Humbo/dtWedag AG, Cologne)
1. Beigel, В Abdichtungen fur г е б е п - In. ZKG 5/1971/208-215.
2. В о п п W. / Saxer, В Shelltest-Messungen а п gro/?'en г е б е п - In ZKG
3. Das, Т К / Jeschke, Р Spannungen und Verformungen im feuerfesten
Mauerwerk. - In' Ber. Deutsch. Keram. Ges. 52/1975/126 und Ref. ZKG
4. Erni, Н Betriebserfahrungen mit gro/?'en г е б е п und Folgerungen fur
Konstruktion und Uberwachung. - In: ZKG 27/1974/486.
5. Erni, Н / Saxer, В / Schneider, F.: Deformation von г е б е п und ihr Einflu/?,
auf die Futterhaltbarkeit. - In: ZKG 32/1979/236-243.
6. Geryk, M./Genda, М Die Wahl des richtigen Konstruktionsspiels zwischen
Ofenmantel und Laufring bei г е г о г б е п - п ZKG 31/1978/436.
7. Hilber, Н Folgerungen aus den Stabilitatsmessungen а п Drehofenmanteln.
- п ZKG 14/1961/339-346.
8. Huggett, L. G.: Radial deformation in rotary kilns. - п British Ceramic Soc.
9. Labahn, О / Kaminsky, W. А Ratgeber fur Zementingenieure, 5. Aufl. -
Wiesbaden und Berlin: Bauverlag GmbH. 1974.
10. LiebIer, К W.: Ovalitatsverformungen wahrend des Anfahrbetriebes. - In:
ZKG 29/1976/56.
11. Meedom, Н Elastizitatstheoretische Bestimmung der Ofen-Ovalitat und ihr
Einflu/?, auf die Futterstandzeit. - In. ZKG 29/1976/568.
12. Nies, Н W.: Die Berechnung der Drehofenlaufringe. - п Zement
13. Ramamurti, V. / Gupta, L. S. Design of rotary kiln tyres. - In: ZKG
14. Ramamurti, V. / Reganatha Sai, К Deformation and stresses in kilns. - In.
ZKG 31/1978/433.
15. SchroebIer, W.: Zementmaschinen - Antriebe - Ubersicht. - In: ZKG
16. Steinbi/?', Е .. Messung der Ovalitatsverformung und des Laufringspiels von
г е б е п - п ZKG 29/1976/321.
17. Steinbi/?', Е Untersuchungen zur mechanischen und thermischen Beanspru-
chung feuerfester Steine in е е п г е б е п - п ZKG 30/1977/625.
18. Strub, О Olhydraulik-Antriebe fur е е п г е б е п п ZKG
30/1977/181 .
19. Xeller, Н / б п Н lIberwachung, planma/?'ige Wartung und vorbeugende
Instandhaltung Ь е Laufringen. - п ZKG 29/1976/557
D. М а п а с е of с е е п 111. С е е п Ь г п п е с п о о у
Preheaters а п р г е с а с п п
2 Preheaters and precalcining
---------' I
, \
h ' Ь
(", , С " " /
, /)' (j
Fig.1 Ь р а lepol kiln system (from Petzold, 1960)
а Fuller cooler, Ь rotary п с Lepol grate, d hot chamber, е г у п chamber,
f + 9 с о п chambers, h + i + k а п
Fig.1 а Grate preheater а rotary п Ь hot chamber, с grate, d с о п
chamber, е а п f overflow duct, 9 fresh air п а е h г у п chamber)
В у Е е п Ы
2.2 Grate preheaters
Efforts to achieve further heat а п i. е р г о п the thermal е с е п с у of а п
р а п led to the е е о р е п of grate preheaters (Fig. 1 а Ь
М о г е particularly, а preheater of this п с о п of а г а е п grate с а г г у п а
bed of pellets о г п о е formed from о е п е raw meal п а р е е п device.
2.1 е п е г а
It was г е с о п е quite early that the heat liberated п the rotary п с а п besides
Ь е п used for the actual р г о с е п of the feed material, а а п а е о у Ь е
utilized for р г е е а п the material. Т о promote this, the п е о п е р г е е а п
о п е of the п may Ь е equipped with р е п е с а п а п о г п е г made of
е а г е п steel о г ceramic materials which assist heat е х с а п е а г а п а
п е г etc.). Other devices е г п the same purpose п с е for example, sheet-
steel с о р а г е п с о п а п п е а е х с а п п media disposed а г о п the
с г с е г е п с е of the shell.
AII such devices aim to provide а large с о п а с surface а г е а Ь е е е п the hot gases
а п the п feed material п orderto promote е а е х с а п е If а п is fed with dry
raw meal, these п е а fittirlgs stir up а great deal of dust which is swept а о п
with the exit gases discharged from the п Т о collect this dust а с у с о п е is
п е г р о е п the gas flow а п с а п also usefully serve as а simple heat е х с а п е г
From this р г п с р е were evolved more sophisticated heat е х с а п е г with а view
to further р г о п the thermal е с е п с у of the п system. These devices а г е
е х е г п а to the actual rotary п а п п а е at the feed е п where the hot exit
gases flow through them а п preheat the feed material а п if п е с е а г у dry it. For
the wet process of с е е п а п а с е various types of slurry г у п а п
р г е е а п devices were developed.
With the dry process, fed with Ь а п а у dry pulverized materials (raw meal),
the г у п п с о п is п р о г а п what is р о г а п is the р г е е а п а а п а Ы е
п suitabIe devices. п с е а с о п е г а Ы е part of the thermal р г о с е п of the
material is accomplished п these heat е х с а п е г е х е г п а to the п the п itself
с а п Ь е made с о г г е р о п п у shorter.
2.1 е п е г а . . ...
2.2 Grate preheaters .
2.3 С у с о п е preheaters
2.4 Р г е с а с п п processes.
е е г е п с е . . . . . . . .
D. Manufacture of cement 111. Cement burning technology
This method of cement manufacture is called the Lepol process, the preheater
being known as the Lepol grate. The п а т е is derived from that of the inventor, Dr.
Lellep, and from Polysius, the firm that built the first grates. The hot kiln gases flow
through the approximately 15 to 20 с т deep bed of pellets о п the grate, either о п
the single-pass principle or, more particularly in later versions of the system, the
principle. This process с а п Ь е used not only for dry raw materials, but
also in cases where they с а п Ь е prepared only Ь у wet methods, i.e., as а slurry. П
that case the slurry is first dewatered as much as possibIe Ь у means of filter presses
and then moulded into cylindrical "fingers" which break into nodules. These are
processed о п the travelling grate in the usual way. .'
With raw materials prepared dry (raw meal) the pellets are formed with а certain
quantity of added water in а pelletizer, usually in the form of а tilted rotating р а п or
dish, though drum-type pelletizing (or nodulizing) devices are still used to some
extent. The pellets must have sufficient mechanical strength so as not to shatter
when deposited onto the Lepol grate from the pelletizer. Moreover, they must
possess а certain amount of plasticity to prevent them from prematurely disinte-
grating as а result of the relatively rapid heating they undergo о п exposure to the
hot kiln gases. Otherwise the fragments of broken pellets are liabIe to cause
choking of the grate and thus obstruct the flow of gas through the bed, giving rise
to serious troubIe in operating the kiln.
2.3 Cyclone preheaters
The first application for а patent in respect of а cyclone preheater for raw т е а was
filed in Czechoslovakia Ь у Vogel-Jorgensen, then employed Ь у the Danish firm of
F. L. Smidth. П due course the patent was granted, in 1934. It proposed preheating
the raw т е а in а cyclone separator before feeding it to the rotary kiln, the latter
being correspondingly shortened in comparison with а conventional dry-process
kiln. It was not till nineteen years later (1953), however, that the first functionally
satisfactory cyclone preheater (or suspension preheater) was commissioned - for
а 300t/day guaranteed clinker output from а kiln in the works of Bomke &
Blechmann, Beckum, Germany - after the technical practicability of the new
method had Ь е е п conclusively proved Ь у Franz Muller. This first kiln plant with
cyclone preheater was built Ь у the firm of Humboldt (now К Н D Humboldt Wedag
Cologne. Upto 1959 that firm was the sole supplier of the cyclone preheater,
the prototype of which it had developed (Fig. 2). From then onwards, however,
other German and foreign cement machinery manufacturers entered the market
with their own versions of the cyclone preheater, all utilizing the same fundamental
Whereas in 1953 most cement kilns had clinker outputs of between 300 and
500 t/day, nowadays kiln plants producing around 5000 t/day are not uncommon
and are likewise equipped with cyclone preheaters embodying the same basic idea
of heat transfer from the hot kiln exit gas to the raw т е а in suspension in the gas
stream. For further information the reader is referred to the article Ь у Bomke
(1978), which moreover contains а comprehensive list of literature references.
Preheaters and precalcining
Fig. 2: Humboldt preheater
(from Bomke, 1978)
The demand for increasingly high clinker outputs from individual kiln plants
resulted in corresponding increases in the size of the kiln shells and of the preheater
cyclones. This general growth in the dimensions of the installations was attended
Ь у а number of probIems and difficulties which had to Ь е overcome. For example, it
Ь е с а т е impracticabIe to transport very large prefabricated kiln sections from the
manufacturing works to the site of erection, the thermal rating of the burning zone
in the kiln Ь е с а т е very high and thus severely reduced the working life of the
refractory lining, etc. These and other probIems prompted cement plant manufac-
turers to consider the possibility of shifting more of the processing treatment from
the actual kiln to the preheater, i.e., making the latter contribute more to the cement
burning process than just preheating the raw meal. This approach led to the
development of precalcining.
О IVlanufacture of cement 111. Cement burning technology
the decarbonation of calcium carbonate is very largely accomplished in this device;
о п the other hand, the designation "precalcining" о г "precalcination" is well
estabIished.) This process is especially advantageous when relatively low-grade
fuels with low calorific value and/or high content of inert matter have to Ь е used
(charcoal, lignite, waste materials such as old motor tyres, etc.), as these с а п Ь е
fired in the calciner, where flameless combustion at relatively low temperatures
below 9000 С will suffice for obtaining the required calcination. Thus if 60% of the
total fuel input is fired in the calciner, the raw meal will Ь е about 90% calcined Ь у
the time it enters the kiln. With precalcining there is only а slight increase in heat
consumption and а small rise in exit gas temperature as compared with the
conventional kiln-cum-preheater system.
Precalcining with tertiary air supply through а separate duct is especially
advantageous in conjunction with а bypass system for reducing the alkali content
in the clinker. М о г е particularly, with this precalcining equipment the heat losses
associated with bypassing some of the kiln gas in order to reduce the so-called
alkali cycle с а п Ь е substantially cut down, more particularly because the un-
desirabIe constituents (alkalis, chlorides) а г е now volatilized in the kiln rather than
in the preheater, so that а higher proportion of them с а п Ь е discharged via the
bypass with а п equal amount of gas.
П а conventional preheater the raw meal is calcined only to а fairly limited extent
(ranging from about 1О to 50%), the remainder of the с а г Ь о п dioxide being driven
out in the kiln itself. With precalcining almost the entire decarbonation process is
effected in the calciner, о п е result of which is that the thermal conditions to which
the refractory lining in the kiln is exposed become much less severe. This in turn
means that, for equal clinker output, the diameter and length of the kiln с а п Ь е
с о п е р о п п у reduced. The significant feature is that the calciner is separate
from the kiln and that part of the thermal energy required for the clinker
manufacturing process is utilized in the calciner and not in the kiln. Besides, the
heat contained in the exhaust air from the clinker cooler is also utilized (as
preheated tertiary combustion air for the precalcining burners).
В у conversion to precalcining, the clinker output of existing rotary kilns with
cyclone preheater equipment с а п Ь е substantially increased - Ь у up to about
100%in certain cases. П newkiln plants equipped with (pre)calciners it is possibIe
to increase clinker output up to threefold, as compared with а conventional kiln-
cum-preheater plant, while the kiln dimensions (diameter and length) с а п
moreover Ь е reduced.
Further information о п these and other aspects of precalcining systems will Ь е
found in the following bibIiographic references.
1 Gerstner, В / Schlegel, R. / Schwerdtfeger, J.: Calciniertechnik durch Zweit-
feuerung am ZAB-Vorwarmer. - п ZKG 32/1979/222-226.
2. К а р о о г G. К Beitrage zur Energieeinsparung beim Zementbrennen mit
Warmetauscher. - п ZKG 31/1978/602 - 605.
3. Kobayashi, Т г Vorcalcinier-Ofenanlagen е п е с е п 45 Mio t Jahres-
Leistung - Beschreibung, Charakteristiken und Vergleich mit anderen Ver-
fahren. - п ZKG 32/1979/311 - 317 (mit Schrifttum).
Preheaters and precalcining
Feststoff (Mehl. К
<J-- L':lft. Gas
alr. gas
<== Brennstoff
2.4 Precalcining processes
The. principle and its applications have Ь е е п developed more
partlcularl.y In Japan and Е ш о р е А feature which all precalcining systems have in
common IS that the supply of fuel is divided between two firing units, i.e., two
or.sets. of burners, о п е in the kiln and the other in the suspension preheater.
rhls prmclple IS shown schematically in Fig. 3. The burners in, о г associated with,
the preheater а г е fed with combustion air consisting of exhaust air from the clinker
coo.ler. air isdrawn eitherthrough the kiln itself orthrough а separate duct (the
tertlary alr duct). If the precalcining combustion air is drawn through the kiln, the
latter has to Ь е about 20% larger than if а separate duct is provided, and the air
excess factor of the firing process is increased from 1.1 to about 2.1. The kiln
volu.me.rating. (loading р е г unit volume) is about 2 t/m
' day in conventional kilns,
т wlth precalcining it is about 3.3 t/m
. day if the precalcining combus-
ю п IS fed.through the kiln and about 4 t/m
' day if а separate tertiary air duct is
provlded. Thls means that in the last-mentioned kiln roughlytwice as much clinker
for а given internal volume of the kiln с а п Ь е burned as in а conventional kiln
without precal.cining. At the same time, despite the much increased volume rating,
the с г о е с ю п а thermal rating is lower than that of the conventional kiln, the
reason т that а m.uch lower proportion (about 40%) of the total fuel supplied
to the burnmg plant IS actually fired in the kiln, the remainder being fired in the
precalcining system.
As alrea.dystated, up to 60% ofthe fuel may befired in the (pre)calciner. (With this
р г о р о г ю п of fuel, the term "calciner" is perhaps preferabIe to "precalciner", since
Fig. 3: Diagram illustrating the precalcining principle
О Manufacture of cement 111. Cement burning technology
4. Kohanowski, F. 1. / Shy, J. L.: Warmetauscherblen mit Vorcalcination und
By-Pass zur Alkalikontrolle. - In: ZKG 31/1978/595-601.
5. Kwech, L.: Brennverfahren. - In: ZKG 30/1977/597-607 (with с о т р г е
hensive references).
6. Popescu, О Radu, О Brezeanu, 1.: Berechnungsverfahren fur Zement-
brennanlagen mit Zweitfeuerung und einige experimentelle Ergebnisse. - In:
ZKG 31/1978/27 - 29.
7. Ramesohl, Н Betriebserfahrungen beim Verbrennen fester Brennstoffe im
Zementdrehofen und daraus resultierende Folgerungen. - In: ZKG 31/
1978/227- 229.
8. SteinbiB, Е .. Erfahrungen mit der Vorcalcinierung unter Berucksichtigung von
Ersatzbrennstoffen. - In: ZKG 32/1979/211-221 (with references).
9. Sutanto, О Betriebserfahrungen mit einer modernen Zementwerkslinie mit
Pyroclon ® - Warmetauscher. - п ZKG 32/1979/322-329.
10. Takemoto, К / Fukuda, У / Akita, S.: Betriebserfahrungen mit dem RSP-
Verfahren in Ofunato. - In: ZKG 31/1978/22-26.
The occurrence of alkali and chlorine cycles in kiln systems and the possibility of
controlling these phenomena Ь у bypassing have already Ь е е п mentioned. In
general, these form р а п of the "dust cycle" probIems which, in some plants т а у
cause serious operational difficulties, such as т а у also arise from excessive
formation of coatings in kilns. Т о find effective ways and means of coping with
these probIems has long claimed the attention of cement plant designers.
1. Bade, Е .. Verfahren zur Reduzierung des Alkalikreislaufes beim Zement-
Ь г е п п е п - 1п ZKG 15/1962/403- 408.
2. Bomke, Е 25 Jahre Schwebegas-Warmetauscher zum Vorwarmen von
Zement-Rohmehl. - In: ZKG 31/1978/589-594.
3. Buzzi, S.: MaBnahmen zum Vermeiden schwieriger Ansatze im Warme-
tauscherofen. - In: ZKG 25/1972/289-291.
4. Danowski, W. / Strobel, U.: Alkalibelastbarkeitsuntersuchungen in Trocken-
brennanlagen. - In: ZKG 29/1976/458.
5. Davis, W. G.: Die Ursache von Ringbildungen in Drehblen. - In: Rock
Products 56/1953/July issue. Ref. in ZKG 6/1954/56.
6. Elle, К Н Ringbildung und Ringbeseitigung aus betriebIicher Sicht. - In:
ZKG 25/1972/26-27.
7 Frankenberger, А EinfluB der Staubkreislaufe auf die Wirksamkeit von
Rohmehlvorwarmern. - In: ZKG 23/1970/254-262.
8. Frankenberger А / Matejka, J.' Alkali-Schwefelkreislauf in einem Drehofen
mit zweistufigem Zyklonvorwarmer. - In: ZKG 31/1978/30-31.
9. Hatano, Н Uber das Verhalten des Schwefels im Warmetauscherofen. - In:
ZKG 25/1972/18-19.
10. Herchenbach, Н Staubkreislaufe - EinflUsse im Schwebegas-Warmetau-
scher auf Ansatz, Vorentsauerung und Teilgasabzug - п ZKG 25/1972/
11. Ihlefeldt, Н MaBnahmen zur Verminderung des Alkalikreislaufs im Lepo\-
ofen. - п ZKG 25/1972/15.
12. Keil, F. / Goes, С О Ь е г das Verhalten der Alkalien beim Zementbrennen. -
Ref. in: ZKG 13/1960/430-432.
13. Konopicky, К Beitrag zur Frage der Ansatzbildung in Drehrohrblen. - п
ZKG 3/1951/240-245.
14. Kunnecke, М Ringbekampfung in Zement-Drehblen. - In: ZKG 25/
15. Locher, F. W. / Sprung, S. /Opitz, О Reaktionen im Bereich der Ofengase. -
п ZKG 25/1972/1 -12 (with comprehensive references).
16. Majdic, А / Schwiete, Н Е Uber die Ansatzbildung im Drehofen. - п ZKG
17. Matouschek, F.: Schlechte Verbrennung = Ansatzringe. - In: ZKG
3/1951/67 -69.
18. Mussgnug, G.: Ansatzbildung im Zementdrehofen und Futterhaltbarkeit. -
In: ZKG 1/1948/41.
19. Mussgnug, G.: Beitrag zur Alkalifrage in Schwebegas-Warmetauscherblen. -
In: ZKG 15/1962/197-204.
20.0pitz, О Das Entfernen storender Ansatze in Zementblen. - In: ZKG
22/1969/132 -135.
21. Petzold, А Chemie und Technologie der Bindemittel. - Freiburg 1960.
22. Plank, F. W.: Die Anwendung des Cardox-Verfahrens zum Beseitigen von
Ansatzringen in Drehblen. - In. ZKG 18/1965/486-490.
23. Ritzmann, Н Der EinfluB von Staubkreislaufen auf den Warmeverbrauch von
Drehofenanlagen mit Rohmehlvorwarmer. - In. ZKG 24/1971/576- 580.
24. SchlUter, Н Verfahren zur Reduzierung von Alkall- und Chiorkreislaufen in
Rohmehlwarmetauscherblen. - In: ZKG 25/1972/20-22.
25. Schoneck, С Beseitigung von Ringen aus К а т Drehofenauslauf.
- In: ZKG 16/1963/481 -482.
26. Slegten, J.: Beitrag zum Studium der Ringbildung in Zementdrehblen. - In:
ZKG 8/1 956/397 - 402.
27. Sylla, Н М Untersuchungen zur Bildung von Ansatzringen in Zementdreh-
Ы е п - In: ZKG 27/1974/499-507 (with comprehensive references).
28. Sylla, Н М Ansatzbildung durch Salzschmelzen. - In: ZKG 30/1977/487-
493 (with comprehensive references).
29. Teoreanu, 1. / Puri, А Kreislauf flUchtiger Stoffe in Zement- Drehblen. - п
ZKG 28/1975/377.
30. Warshawsky, J./ Porter, Е S.: Verminderung des Alkali- und Schwefelgehalts
im Klinker durch einen Ofen-By-Pass im Vorcalciniersystem. - п ZKG
31/1978/284- 287.
31. Weber, Р AlkaliprobIeme und Alkalibeseitigung bei warmesparenden Trok-
kendrehblen. - 1n : ZKG 17/1964/335- 344.
32. Witols, G.: Die Bekampfung von Sulfatringen im Drehofen. - In ZKG
15/1962/205- 207.
D. Manufacture of cement 111. Cement burning technology
з Clinker cooling
What all types of cooler have in common is that the cooling air flows directly - in
counter-current or cross-current - through the clinker and that some or all of the
heated air from the cooler is fed as combustion air to the kiln.
Water as а direct cooling medium for clinker is used only in the manufacture of
special types of clinker or for after-cooling subsequent to cooling with air.
Indirect air cooling, with separating walls dividing the clinker from the air flow
passages, is sometimes used, but only for after-cooling.
The main types of clinker coolers, listed in the order of their frequency of
application, are:
direct coolers (Fig.1);
grate cooler, planetary cooler, rotary cooler, shaft cooler;
indirect coolers, after-coolers (Fig. 2);
gravity cooler ("g" cooler).
3.2.1 Clinker quality
The soundness, chemical resistance and strength of the cement, as well as the
grindability of the clinker, are affected Ь у the rate of cooling applied to the
The differences in cooling rate in the significant temperature range and for the
commonly employed raw material compositions between the various clinker
3.2 Selection criteria and principal characteristics of coolers
The following aspects have to Ь е considered in choosing the appropriate type of
cooler in а п у given case:
raw material situation;
projected or existing kiln plant;
projected or existing works installations;
local environmental conditions.
The relative importance of the following requirements applicabIe to clinker coolers
must Ь е assessed accordingly:
obtaining good clinker quality Ь у optimum cooling rate;
final cooling of the clinker to the lowest possibIe temperature;
optimum adaptation to the raw material drying system and burning system
preceding the cooler;
least possibIe impact о п the environment;
low capital cost;
low operating expenses,
i. е . , favourabIe energy balance with а high proportion of heat recovery,
low electric energy consumption,
low wear and maintenance costs,
low susceptibility to faults (minimum downtime).
Clinker cooling - main types of coolers
В у Н . Xeller
3.1 Introduction: main types of coolers
The hot cement clinker discharged from the kiln is further treated in clinker
Introduction: main types of coolers . . . . . . . . . .
Selection criteria and principal characteristics of coolers .
Clinker quality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Final cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scope for adaptation to the drying and burning system and to
raw material conditions.
3.2.4 Environmental nuisance
3.2.5 Capital cost. . . . . .
3.2.6 Operating costs . . . . Heat input and heat recovery Electric energy requirements Costs associated with wear, repairs, materials and wages
3.2.7 Availability - indirect expenditure. . . . . . .
3.3 Description of the various types of clinker cooler
3.3.1 Grate coolers . . . . . . . Travelling grate coolers. . . Reciprocating grate coolers . General design features. Single-grate coolers . . . . Combination coolers. . . . Multiple-stage coolers with intermediate size reduction Air demand and duotherm circuit . Design dimensions; а п example of а п actual cooler .
3.3.2 Planetary coolers.
3.3.3 Rotary coolers .
3.3.4 Shaft coolers . .
3.3.5 Gravity coolers .
3.4 Operation, monitoring, measurement and control of coolers
3.4.1 General considerations. . .
3.4.2 Grate coolers . . . . . . .
3.4.3 Rotary and planetary coolers
3.4.4 Shaft coolers . . . . . . .
3.4.5 Gravity coolers ("g" coolers)
3.5 Dust collection arrangements for clinker coolers
3.5.1 General considerations .
References. . . .
Clinker cooling - selection criteria
( Vom Direktki.ihler
from direct cooler
cooler systems are, however, so small that for practica/ purposes there are п о
differences in the quality of the clinker finally obtained. Only the grindability of the
clinker from grate coolers is, for equal grinding conditions, а little more favourabIe
than that from other types of cooler.
3.2.2 Final cooling
Cooling of the clinker with air as the sole cooling medium cannot achieve so low а
final temperature in the planetary, rotary or shaft cooler - in which all the cooling
air has to Ь е used as combustion air supplied to the kiln - as in the grate cooler.
With the latter, especially if а clinker breaker is interposed, final temperatures of as
low as 800 С for the cooled clinker с а п easily Ь е attained, whereas the correspond-
ing temperatures for rotary and planetary coolers, particu larly if they are large ones,
are generally above 1500 С while the clinker discharged from shaft coolers has
temperatures above 3000 С
With these last-mentioned types of cooler the only way to attain lower final
temperatures is Ь у after-cooling or, with rotary and planetary coolers, alternatively
Ь у supplementary cooling with water.
Against this, cooling to low final temperatures in the grate cooler requires large
quantities of cooling air. If the air heated in the cooling operation cannot Ь е utilized
for raw material drying, its dedusting before discharge into the atmosphere will
involve heavy expenditure о п dust collection equipment. For this reason it т а у
even with grate coolers in certain cases Ь е advantageous to employ separate
Fig. 2: Indirect cooler, after-cooler
exhaust air
Fig.1: Direct cooler
cooling air
cooling air
ш Ki.ihlluft
:::: Г С О О п а Г
п li::I:3 '<':;,
О Manufacture of cement 111. Cement burning technology
grate cooler
rotary cooler
shaft cooler
О Manufacture of cement 111. Cement burning technology
3.2.3 Scope for adaptation to the drying and burning system and to raw material
The widest-ranging possibilities for adaptation to the requirements of economical
drying of raw material and fuel, or the preheating of fuel, are afforded Ь у the grate
cooler. The various grate cooler designs range from systems with п о exhaust air
(for example, short grate coolers with additional after-coolers) to multiple-stage
grate coolers embodying the duotherm principle with intermediate clinker break-
ing and intermediate air offtake.
With these arrangements, in cases where the raw materia! has а low moisture
content and requires little exhaust air from the cooler for drying, additional
expenditure о п dust collection equipment for cleaning the exhaust air с а п Ь е cut
down. At the other extreme, raw material with as much as 14% moisture content
с а п Ь е dried without any extra heat input Ь у utilizing the exhaust gas from the
clinker cooler in combination with exit gas from а preheater kiln with
With regard to adaptation to the kiln system the grate cooler is more versatile than
the other systems of clinker cooler. More particularly, it offers the best conditions
for optimal extraction of hot air for precalcining kiln systems with separate tertiary
air supply.
For kiln systems with grate-type preheaters, in which the exit gases cannot Ь е
utilized for material drying purposes, there is practically п о economical alternative
to the grate cooler, because in such cases the exhaust air from the cooler с а п
always Ь е utilized.
О п the other hand, п о surplus hot air that с а п Ь е used for material drying is
availabIe from planetary, rotary and shaft coolers. With the planetary cooler there is
п о possibility at all of obtaining tertiary air, while in the case ofthe rotary cooler and
the shaft cooler а tertiary air offtake is indeed possibIe near the kiln hood or from the
cooler shaft, but not without practical difficulties. See Т а Ы е 1.
Т а Ы е 1 : Ы of the various types of coolers for economical е х
traction of hot air
grate planetary rotary shaft
cooler cooler cooler cooler
secondary air х х х х
tertiary air х О О
hot air for с о а х
hot air for raw х
material drying
х = possibIe О = partly possibIe - = not possibIe
Clinker cooling - selection criteria
The chemical and mineralogical composition of the raw material is also of
considerabIe influence о п the effectiveness of the various cooling systems. For raw
material which produces а very fine-grained clinker or gives rise to frequent
dislodgment of coating in the kiln the best scope for adaptation to the burning
system is provided Ь у the grate cooler. . .
With planetary, rotary and shaft coolers the fluctuating rate of cllnker
from the kiln due to ring formation and coating movements causes hlgh and
markedly varying final clinker temperatures, since the radiation heat losses remain
substantially constant and the cooling air rate availabIe to these coolers с а п
practically not Ь е altered. .
With unequal granulometric and discharge conditions there are Ilkely to Ь е
difficulties in operation more particularly in the shaft cooler. .
The occurrence of large quantities offine-grained clinker causes probIems wlth all
cooling systems, but grate coolers are best а Ы е to с о р е with
because of the lower air velocities and less pronounced dust с у с П effect In thls
type of cooler. See Fig.3.
3.2.4 Environmental nuisance
А potential environmental nuisance due to dust and noise emissions is associated
with grate coolers. With other types of coolers there is п о discharge of dust, only
the noise probIem.
Dust emission:
The official clean air reglJlations in nearly all countries necessitate substantial extra
expenditure о п equipment for dedusting the exhaust air in cases. where а
conventional grate cooler is to Ь е used. Centrifugal dust collect?rs wlth
mechanical action are unabIe to meet the strict present-day reqUlrements In thls
respect. Expensive granular bed filters, electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters
have to Ь е used for the purpose. For this reason, alternatives to the conventional
grate cooler have Ь е е п developed for use in cases where the exhaust air from the
cooler cannot Ь е utilized in raw material or с о а drying installations. Examples of
such modified grate coolers are the shortened grate cooler with ancillary after-
cooler (the latter an indirect cooler with п о dust emission) or the so-called
duotherm grate cooler with intermediate indirect air-to-air cooler. the dust
nuisance in the immediate vicinity of these modified grate coolers IS s1ll1 greater
than that arising from rotary or planetary coolers, which have to Ь е operated with а
fairly high negative pressure at the rotating seal with the kiln hood, so that,
of the greater cycling effect, better retention of dust within the cooler system IS
Noise emission:
AII types of clinker cooler emit а great deal of noise, attaining levels of between 95
and 100 dB(A) at points of maximum loudness in the vicinity 1
to 5 m distance). With grate and shaft coolers the cooling alr fans are the prlnclpal
D. Manufacture of cement 111. Cement burning technology Clinker cooling - selection criteria
К п е г б г п п е п
wО О clinker gradings
99.5 г т г т т г т г г г т г г т т г Г
1.. '"-----1---


nach Li.ibke


boundary li
Э according t

' Li.ibk
- --
[d Р д
10 100 1000 IL'O.. t":J д в с п
Fig. 4: One-third octave analysis of the sound emitted from а planetary
cooler for normal kiln running at rated output (from Kadel, 1974)
noise emitters, whereas most of the noise from rotary and planetary coolers arises
from the uninsulated lifter zone. See Fig.4.
With all types of clinker cooler in locations susceptibIe to noise nuisance it is
therefore necessary to apply noise control measures. Appropriate sound insulation
arrangements а г е most elaborate and expensive in the case of planetary coolers
because of the sheer size of the noise source, the elevated position thereof and the
high ambient temperatures due to radiation and convection of heat. Depending о п
the distance from the cooler to adjacent residential areas, arrangements such as
sound-attenuating walls, movabIe noise suppression covers о г sometimes even
totally closed buildings with forced ventilation т а у Ь е necessary.
3.2.5 Capital cost
Besides the actual capital expenditure о п machinery, electrical engineering
components including measuring and control instrumentation, refractory and
insulating material, buildings and erection of the cooler, the expenditure as-
sociated with the space requirements and the altitude (height above sea level) of
the installation will also have to Ь е considered.
Space requirements
А rotary cooler which is installed under the kiln and in the direction oppositeto that
of the material flow in the kiln represents а п economical arrangement in terms of
the space needed to accommodate it. А п even т о г е favourabIe arrangement in this
respect is the grate cooler with complete exhaust air utilization, installed under the
kiln. However, for operational reasons it is better not to place the clinker cooler
with its material flow direction opposite to that in the kiln.
А shaft cooler requires very little extra space in the horizontal directions, but о п
account of its great headroom it т а у cause probIems о п sites with unfavourabIe
soil conditions.
Planetary coolers and those grate coolers which have to operate in conjunction
with highly efficient dust collection equipment (granular bed filters, electrostatic
precipitators, fabric filters with air-to-air coolers) will require а relatively large
334 335
О Manufacture of cement 111. Cement burning technology
amount of space. О п the other hand, planetary coolers require the least headroom
and с а п therefore Ь е advantageous о п sites with critical ground-water conditions,
i. е waterlogged sites where subsurface construction (pits, chambers) presents
With increasing altitude of the site above sea level the density of the atmosphere
becomes lower, so that the required vo/umes of cooling air and combustion air
Ь е с о т е larger. This most unfavourabIy affects rotary coolers, whose diameter is
determined Ь у the air velocity in the cooling tube and in which therefore, at higher
altitude, the specific throughput is reduced while the capital cost of the cooler
increases. Similar considerations apply to the planetary cooler, though in this type
there are generally somewhat ampler reserves or margins with regard to the critical
air velocity.
Grate coolers and shaft coolers present the least probIems in this respect, because
the increase in fan capacity and size of housing necessitated Ь у higher altitude has
only а minor effect о п the overall cost of the cooler. О п the other hand, with the
shaft cooler the attainment of suitabIy low final clinker temperatures becomes even
more probIematical at high altitudes, while in the case of grate coolers it becomes
advisabIe under such circumstances to install а type comprising а п intermediate
breaker and а circulating air system.
The actual capital expenditure associated with the various types of clinker cooler
is liabIe to vary greatly from о п е case to another, especially if after-coolers
and/or eiaborate noise control measures have to Ь е included. П every case where
complete utilization of the exhaust air from the cooler is possibIe, the multiple-
stage grate cooler with circulating air system will involve the lowest capital
Mechanical and ancillary equipment
Wherever complete exhaust air utilization is possibIe, the grate cooler will always
Ь е the least expensive type in terms of purely mechanical engineering and
ancillaries. In this respect the shaft cooler is also quite favourabIe, whereas in
the case of the rotary cooler and planetary cooler, as also the grate cooler with
high-efficiency dust collection system, the cost of mechanical and/or ancillary
equipment is distinctly higher, though in this there is very little difference between
these three last-mentioned types of cooler.
Electrical equipment. instrumentation
П so far as these expenditure items are concerned, the planetary cooler is distinctly
superior to the other types even though it requires а more powerful kiln drive and
higher-capacity exit gas fan, while the shaft cooler and grate cooler are the most
expensive types in this respect.
Clinker cooling - selection criteria
Refractory lining and insulation
The highest cost arises in planetary coolers, while grate coolers are least
Structural engineering
Planetary and rotary coolers are much less expensive in this respect than shaft and
grate coolers.
Because of the more difficult conditions due to the handling of heavy parts and the
elaborate welding work involved, planetary coolers are substantially more е х р е п
sive to erect than the other types of cooler. The latter differ little from о п е another in
erection costs.
3.2.6 Operating costs
The operating costs of clinker coolers mainly comprise the direct expenditure
о п
replacement of wearing parts, repair materials,
wages for repairs and maintenance;
energy costs comprising electricity and heat (the latter because heat recovery
is never 100%).
Besides, indirect expenditure has to Ь е taken into account. This arises when, as
result of faults or deficient operation of the clinker cooler, the plant is unabIe to run
at optimum efficiency or indeed has to Ь е shut down.
The relative operating cost items are very similar for the various types of cooler. The
cost relationships exemplified Ь у а grate cooler with exhaust air utilization are
indicated in the accompanying diagram Т а Ы е 2). These percentage figures are
based о п the foilowing assumptions:
cost of heat: (21 О М

kcal/kg) 5 DM/GJ
electricity: 0.075 DM/kWh
repair wages: 17 DM/h
repair materials: see Т а Ы е 2.
The high proportion of expenditure о п energy as compared with that о п repairs
and parts clearly emerges from the diagram. Heat input and heat recovery
The cost of heat for the cooler is taken to comprise all expenses attributabIe to that
proportion of the clinker heat which is not recovered, i.e., not utilized in о п е of the
following possibIe ways:
- preheating the combustion air for firing the kiln;
О Manufacture of cement 111. Cement burning technology Clinker cooling - selection criteria
utilizing the heat in Н е exhaust air from the cooler for materials drying о г other
heating purposes outside the burning system (coal, raw material о г slag drying;
preheating of fuel oil о г water).
The proportion of heat recovery is sometimes referred to as the thermal efficiency of
the cooler. М о г е particularly this denotes that proportion of the total heat content
of the clinker (as it is discharged from the kiln) which is utilized for о п е о г т о г е of
the above-mentioned purposes. А distinction т а у further Ь е drawn between the
Т а Ы е 2: Operating cost relations for the grate cooler with exhaust air
Ш а о п
internal thermal efficiency, which relates only to the heat utilized within the clinker
burning process itself, and the external thermal efficiency, which takes account of
the entire quantity of clinker heat that is utilized. This latter efficiency concept has
significance only in the case of grate coolers from which the exhaust air с а п indeed
Ь е utilized for its heat content.
The thermal efficiency is calculated from:
0Cg - О С
11 = х 100 (%)
т Т Т 100%
т с е _---!il97%
1) overall cost (if п о heat recovery at all)
2) cost of energy (if п о heat recovery at all)
З cost of power
4) replacements for wear and repairs
5) wages for repairs and maintenance
6) cost of heat in the case of optimum heat recovery п о п а е thermal
radiation and convection, final temperature of clinker, water)
7) cost of heat in the case of 50% internal heat recovery
OgC heat gain of cooler = 0cll + 0air
0CI. heat content of clinker discharged from kiln
0air heat content of cooling air
О С = heat loss from cooler = 0hC + О Г С + Ow + О е
0hC heat content of clinker discharged from cooler
О Г С heat loss due to radiation and convection
ow heat loss due to water cooling
(water injection, water-cooled plate)
О е heat content of exhaust air from cooler
(in calculating the external thermal efficiency only
the proportion of unutilized exhaust air is considered).
The efficiency of the clinker cooler is governed not only Ь у the type and design of
the cooler, but also Ь у the following:
clinker entry temperature;
secondary air flow rate,
granulometric composition of the clinker;
exhaust air heat not utilized in the burning process.
These last-mentioned four factors а г е dependent о п the kiln and the material
conditions, not о п the design and т а п п е г of operation of the cooler. For this
reason it is necessary to exercise due caution in making comparisons between
coolers о п the basis of thermal efficiency.
For example, the internal efficiency of а cooler will decrease if the secondary air rate
is reduced and/or the clinker entry temperature is lowered. 80th these quantities
а г е largely dependent о п factors outside the influence of the cooler.
The secondary air rate is determined Ь у
the heat consumption of the kiln plant as а whole;
the primary air rate,
the amount of inleakage of air at the kiln hood,
the air excess with which the kiln is operated.
The clinker entry temperature, i.e., the temperature at which it is discharged from
the kiln and enters the cooler, depends т о г е particularly о п the length of the flame
and of the Ь ш п е г in the kiln. If the firing nozzle is fairly long, part of the kiln will in
!nterner Warmeri.ick-
internal heat recovery
-----t=-=-=t-----J,L 93%
--'----------1:, •• %
('l' =50%)
е в
----L-®----+-7-'[ -.------------!2\7 75%
Г I =72%) -
I !,. Verwertbare А Ы
I а Ы е exhaust air
: I
О Manufacture of cement 111. Cement burning technology
Clinker cooling - selection criteria
1 - 3.762 (02 - 0.5 CO)/N
n = ------------
The air excess с а п Ь е calculated from the exit gas analysis at the feed end of the kiln
as follows:
With а favourabIy designed kiln burner the following primary air rates will Ь е
coal: approx 7 -12% of combustion air rate
heavy fuel oil: approx. 3 - 5% of combustion air rate
natural gas: approx. 0- 3% of combustion air rate.
From these figures it is evident that, for example, when the fuel is changed from
с о а to natural gas, the calculated efficiency of the cooler becomes higher, even if
equal clinker cooling rate curves are assumed in both cases. The reason for this
increase in efficiency is that the secondary air rate for natural gas firing is higher
than for с о а firing. Yet, as а result of this change-over of fuel, the heat
consumption ofthe plant as а whole will increasefor other reasons (higher exit gas
rate, poorer heat transfer from the flame).
The proportion of infiltration air at the firing hood of the kiln will depend о п the
design and condition of the seal. The magnitude of the negative pressure in that
part of the system is also of major importance with regard to this. The greatest
negative pressures occur in the hoods of kilns with planetary or rotary coolers,
because with these cooler systems the air flow resistance in the cooler has to Ь е
overcome Ь у the kiln fan. П the case of the rotary coolers, in particular, the entry of
infiltrated air с а п Ь е а probIem, because with this type of cooler, besides the high
negative pressure required, there are two rotating seals where inleakage of air т а у
The secondary air requirements of wet-process kilns or long dry-process kilns with
а specific heat consumption of 5.0-5.5 GJ/t of clinker (1200-1300 kcal/t) is in
the region of 1.3-1.5
/kg of clinker.
Heat-saving kilns with less than 3.3 GJ heat consumption per t of clinker
(790 kcal/kg) require secondary air at а rate of about 0.85 - 0.9
/kg of
Because of the considerabIe effect that the secondary rate has upon the clinker
entry temperature and the calculated efficiency of the cooler, the relevant vaiues
are, for the sake of better comparability, sometimes converted to equal secondary
air rate and, with the aid of the cooling curves determined, also to equal clinker
entry temperature. However, this procedure is meaningful only in those rare cases
where the granulometric characteristics of the clinker in the respective plants to Ь е
compared are also similar.
The heat losses assignabIe to the following items are indicated in Т а Ы е 3'
sensibIe heat in the clinker leaving the cooler;
radiation and convection;
water cooling;
exhaust air;
secondary air.
The nexttwo diagrams (Figs. 5 and 6) show the various loss proportions - varying
with the clinker exit temperature - for grate coolers and for planetary or rotary
coolers, о п the assumption that these operate with а heat-saving kiln system and
that these coolers с а п at best attain about 66% efficiency.
n 'lmin . К
/kg clinker)
air excess factor
minimum quantity of air required for complete
combustion and dependent о п the heat consumption
of kiln and type of fuel used
К rate fuel to clinker (kg/kg)
Since Lmin is dependent о п the fuel fired in the kiln, it will have to Ь е calculated
from the elementary analysis thereof for each individual case.
Thefollowing approximatevalues т а у Ь е adopted forthe standard fuels of average
composition (H
= net calorific value):
effect function as а cooling zone. As а result, the cooler efficiency will Ь е less good,
but the overall heat consumption of the burning plant will in general Ь е somewhat
improved. А long firing nozzle has the additional advantage that the thermal rating
- the "heat load" or thermal intensity per unit area of wall surface or unitvolume of
internal space - of the kiln outlet and of the cooler is reduced. This is а п important
advantage more particularly in kilns equipped with planetary coolers, while in grate
coolers it especially reduces the formation of objectionabIe accretions ("stalag-
mites" or "snowmen") in the chute or shaft leading into the cooler. Instead, а
clinker dust-ring is, in such cases, likely to build up in the kiln itself, but such rings
generally do not grow beyond а certain size, after which they collapse spon-
taneously and break up.
The secondary air rate (L
) с а п Ь е calculated as follows:
L.ec = Lcom - Lpr - L
З clinker)
where: L
combustion air rate
Lpr primary air rate
Linf rate of air infiltration
(inleakage) at kiln hood
coal: L
= --H
+ 0.5505 З
(corresponding to about 1.08
/1000 kcal)
heavy fuel oil: L
= --H
-1.37 З
(corresponding to about
с а
natural gas: Lmin = approx. 1.092
/1000 kcal.
Т а Ы е З Heat balances of coolers in GJ/t (kcal/kg)
type of cooler grate coolers tubular coolers

travelling inclined horizontal с о т multistage planetary shaft
rotary ::1
grate grate grate bination duotherm cooler

heat supplied
clinker 1.507 1.507 1.507 1.507 1.507 1.222 1.356 1.507
(360) (360) (360) (360) (360) (292) (324) (360)
cooling air О О О О О О О О

clinker dust (0.096 0.108
(23) (26) :-
heat expenditure
clinker 0.092 0.067 0.079 0.067 0.033 0.117 0.158 0.301
(22) (16) (19) (16) (8) (28) (38) (72)

secondary air 1.009 1.026 0.950 1.026 1.080 0.896 1.005 1.194
(241 ) (245) (227) (245) (258) (214) (240) (285) S'
с о
clinker dust 0.054 0.067
(13) (16)
radiation 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.025 0.251 0.209 0.012
and convection (4) (4) (4) (4) (6) (60) (50) (3) с о
exhaust air 0.364 0.397 0.461 0.397 0.369
(87) (95) (11 О (95) (88)
water cooling 0.025 0.025
(6) (6)
therm. efficiency
internal % 67 68 63 68 72 72 73 79
external % 96





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