No. 1.

Test Colour

Observation Blue or bluish green Light green Dark brown Green Pink White

Inference Cu+2 may be present Fe+2 may be present Fe+3 may be present Ni+2 may be present Co+2 may be present Shows the absence of the above radicals NH4+ may be present CH3COO- may be present 1. If coloured, it may be Cu(NO3) 2 , FeCl3. 2. If colourless, it may be Zn(NO3) 2,Chlorides of Zn+2,Mg+2 etc.



Ammonical smell Vinegar like smell



Salt absorbs moisture and becomes paste like.


No. 1.

Test Test for CO3 : Salt + dil. H2SO4 (2 ml)

Observation Brisk effervescence (CO2 gas) Reaction: CO3-2 + H2SO4 SO4-2 + H2O + CO2

Inference CO3-2 may be present

CT for CO3-2 Salt + dil. HCl Observation:Brisk effervescence & evolution of CO2 gas Reaction: CO3-2 + HCl 2. Test for Cl-, Br- & NO3-: Salt + conc. H2SO4 (2 ml) Cl- + H2O + CO2 CO3-2 is confirmed Cl- may be present

Colourless gas (HCl) with pungent smell, white fumes (of NH4Cl(s)) with aqueous NH4OH. [HCl + NH4OH Reaction: Cl- + H2SO4 HCI(g)+ HSO4NH4Cl(s) + H2O(l)]

Reddish brown gas with pungent smell. It does not turns FeSO4 solution black. Reactions: Br- + H2SO4 2HBr + H2SO4 HSO4- + HBr Br2(g) + SO2(g) + 2H2O

Br- may be present.

Important Note: If no brown fumes are observed, add one Cu chip and heat. Reddish brown gas (NO2) with pungent odour, turns FeSO4 solution black. Reactions: NO3- + H2SO4 4HNO3 + C(paper pellet) HNO3 + HSO44NO2 + CO2 + 2H2O

NO3- may be present.

(brown gas) No gas / vapour evolved the above radicals are absent.(go for independent radical tests i.e.SO4-2 & PO4-3)


CT for ClSalt + water + AgNO3 solution (2-3 drops) Observation: White ppt.is formed which is soluble in ammonium hydroxide Reaction: Cl- + AgNO3 AgCl + NO3Cl- is confirmed.

CT for BrSalt + water + AgNO3 solution. (2-3 drops) Observation: A light yellow ppt.( AgBr(s)) is obtained which is partially soluble in NH4OH(aq). Reaction: Br-(aq) + AgNO3(aq) AgBr + NO3-(aq) Br- is confirmed.

(light yellow ppt.) CT for NO3

1. Salt + Water + Diphenyl amine (5-7 drops) Observation: Deep blue colouration. Reaction: NO3- + H2SO4 H2C2O4 + HSO4NO3- is confirmed.

2. Ring test: Salt + water + Observation:

FeSO4 solution (1ml -freshly prepared) + few drops of conc.H2SO4 along the side of the test-tube.

Formation of brown ring at the junction of two liquids Reaction: NO3- + H2SO4 6FeSO4 + 3 H2SO4 FeSO4 + NO + 5H2O HSO4- + HNO3 3Fe2(SO4) 3 + 4H2O + 2NO [Fe(NO)( H2O)5]SO4 (Brown ring) 2. Test for SO4 :Salt + water + BaCl2(aq)

NO3- is confirmed.

White ppt.( BaSO4) insoluble in dil. HCl Reactions: SO4-2 + BaCl2 BaSO4 + Cl-

SO4-2 may be present

CT for SO4-2: Lead Acetate test: Salt + Water + (CH3COO)2Pb(aq) Observation: White ppt. of PbSO4 Reaction: SO4-2 + (CH3COO)2Pb(aq) 4 Test for PO4-3 (as well as CT): Ammo. Molybdate test Salt + water + conc. HNO3 + boil + Ammonium Molybdate (excess) + boil PbSO4 + CH3COOSO4-2 is confirmed

Deep yellow ppt Reactions: PO4-3 + 3(NH4) 2MoO4 + HNO3 + H2O (NH4) 3PO4.12MoO3.6H2O PO4-3 is confirmed

(amm. Phosphate molybdate –yellow ppt)


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