Industry Guide

20
A Guide to Cranes and Derricks

N.C. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Division 1101 Mail Service Center Raleigh, NC 27699-1101 Cherie Berry Commissioner of Labor

N.C. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Program
Cherie Berry Commissioner of Labor OSHA State Plan Designee Allen McNeely Deputy Commissioner for Safety and Health Kevin Beauregard Assistant Deputy Commissioner for Safety and Health Bobby Davis Reviewer

Acknowledgments A Guide to Cranes and Derricks was originally prepared by David V. MacCollum, president of David V. MacCollum, Ltd., of Sierra Vista, Ariz. NCDOL recognizes with much appreciation the contributing organizations that offered and supplied material and information used in this guide. Wire Rope Slings Pocket Reference Guide extracts shown in the PDF version of this document are provided on behalf of union ironworkers and their employers by the Institute of the Ironworking Industry. Figures 14 and 15 were provided courtesy of Award Services Crane Safety Systems, a division of Ronald M. Ward & Associates Inc. of Orlando, Fla. Mr. Ward reviewed the manuscript as used for previous edition. N.C. Department of Labor employee Bobby Davis incorporated these documents into this guide, including information from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hoisting and Rigging Standard, DOE-STD-1090-2001 www.hss.doe.gov/nuclearsafety/ns/techstds/standard/standard.html#1001. DOE’s current Hoisting and Rigging Standard, DOE-STD-1090-2007, can be found at www.hss.doe.gov/nuclearsafety/ns/techstds/standard/std1090-07/index.html. The Cranes and Derricks Standards (NCAC 07F .0900) may be accessed through the NCDOL Web page. This guide was updated in 2009. _____ This guide is intended to be consistent with all existing OSHA standards; therefore, if an area is considered by the reader to be inconsistent with a standard, then the OSHA standard should be followed.
To obtain additional copies of this guide, or if you have questions about North Carolina occupational safety and health standards or rules, please contact: N.C. Department of Labor Education, Training and Technical Assistance Bureau 1101 Mail Service Center Raleigh, NC 27699-1101 Phone: (919) 807-2875 or 1-800-NC-LABOR

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Additional sources of information are listed on the inside back cover of this guide.

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The projected cost of the NCDOL OSH program for federal fiscal year 2009–2010 is $17,534,771. Federal funding provides approximately 30 percent ($5,180,700) of this fund.

Revised 7/09

Contents
Part Page Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1iiv 1 2 3 4 Reasons for Crane Accidents and Preventive Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ivi1 Types of Cranes Generally Used in the Workplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ii14 Analysis of Eight Hazards Common to Most Cranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ii19 Crane Safety Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ii23 References, Requirements and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ii28

iii

Foreword
Construction cranes are a common sight on North Carolina city skylines. People watch in amazement as stacks of material and loads of concrete become our newest buildings. But the very power and size of cranes can pose many dangers to the employees who work in and around them. A Guide to Cranes and Derricks examines the hazards and describes safety measures the reader can take when implementing a crane safety program for a company. The guide also includes the new standards for cranes in North Carolina. In North Carolina, N.C. Department of Labor enforces the federal Occupational Safety and Health Act through a state plan approved by the U.S. Department of Labor. NCDOL offers many educational programs to the public and produces publications to help inform people about their rights and responsibilities regarding occupational safety and health. When reading this guide, please remember the mission of the N.C. Department of Labor is greater than just regulatory enforcement. An equally important goal is to help citizens find ways to create safe and healthy workplaces. Everyone profits when managers and employees work together for safety. This booklet, like the other educational materials produced by the N.C. Department of Labor, can help. Cherie Berry Commissioner of Labor

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For example. isolate or otherwise render the hazard effectively inert or inaccessible. what is a hazard? How can a hazard be controlled? As it relates to cranes. a. If this cannot be done. not just the riggers. To change the design of a crane on a jobsite to make it safer is almost impossible. It is not unusual in large metropolitan areas to see several crane booms outlined against the skyline within a few blocks of each other and in rural areas to see cranes performing a great variety of jobs. Each has specific safety responsibilities. Ask the manufacturer to install a crush-resistant cab and restraint system that encloses the operator in a protective frame to give the operator a place of safety if upset occurs. but there are measures within the control of every crane owner or user that can be taken to prevent a hazard from becoming armed and active. A crane can be a very dangerous piece of equipment. A fact that is often overlooked is that hazards are the primary cause of most accidents. On cranes. In decreasing order of importance. mining. 1 . that there are inherent hazards that occur during normal working circumstances. Examples are alarms. guardrails or other barriers to prevent entry into the danger zone created by the rotating crane cab. this is especially important so the boom can be stopped before it reaches a hazardous position. But. Give warning. d. intercessory warning device should be installed that detects a hazard and emits a timely. the most effective ways to control hazards are: 1. Use an insulated link on the hoist line to prevent the passage of electric current from the hook through the load to the person guiding the load on the ground. an active. Install fences. Guard the hazard. To prevent electrocution when cranes are to be used in the vicinity of overhead energized power lines. There are numerous suppliers of such items. c. When a hazard cannot be controlled by applying either the first or second method. The major effort during the planning phase of any project must be to select appropriate work methods for cranes to eliminate hazards created by particular work circumstances. 3. Warning systems must emit the standard variety of sounds or flashes so the meaning of the warning will be understood. Active: An active hazard is an armed hazard triggered into action by the right combination of factors. and maintenance of production and service facilities. 2. a hazard may be thought of as any unsafe condition. cranes are the workhorses that have increased productivity and economic growth in construction. Install screens or covers over moving parts. so hazard prevention is what brings about a safe workplace. the employer should ask the manufacturer to assist in installing guards to provide physical protection against moving parts. Basic hazard prevention measures can be taken to eliminate these hazards. Everyone must be involved—management. maritime operations.1 Reasons for Crane Accidents and Preventive Measures In our highly mechanized world. logging. Armed: An armed hazard is a dormant hazard that has become armed and ready to cause harm during certain work circumstances. supervisors and the work crew. then nearby personnel should be protected from the hazard. Eliminate or minimize the hazard. Those supervising the use of cranes can greatly improve workplace safety by targeting the craning hazards that cause the most injury and death. Hazards may be present in three forms: • • • Dormant: A dormant hazard is an undetected hazard created either by design or crane use. have the local electric utility install line guards or covers on the lines. however. Most crippling injuries and deaths from crane accidents can be attributed to several basic hazards. It is important to ensure the safety of all personnel who may be in the immediate areas where cranes are being operated. Statistics show. signalers and operators. Listed below are other methods of guarding particular hazards or the danger zone they create. audible and/or visual warning signal. At this point it is too late to take any preventive action to escape injury or avoid death. b. Workplace safety is more than complying with a few safety rules. and a mutual understanding of who is responsible for what is essential. Hazards that cannot be totally eliminated through planning must be reduced to an acceptable level of risk by the use of appropriate safety devices to guard. Some hazard detection systems not only give audible or visual warnings but are wired to stop or prohibit movement. horns and flashing lights.

Compliance inspections will ensure that the operator is adequately trained. The primary focus will be to increase crane inspection activity.Signs and labels are passive warnings. Compliance officers are directed to stop and conduct inspection activity whenever they see a crane in use (consultation can also stop and offer services). the crane and operation thereof are in good repair. wheel-mounted cranes and articulating boom cranes. cranes have been inspected prior to service and on a daily basis per ANSI and OSHA standards. locomotive cranes. special operating procedures. and consultative services in this area. Use of gloves. Personal protective equipment.” 29 CFR 1926. warnings are best used to make users aware of a specific change of circumstances that can create a hazardous situation or of a dormant hazard that could not be totally eliminated or controlled. life jackets and other protective equipment at all appropriate times will also protect users from injury. employee type and age. “Specifications for Accident Prevention Signs and Tags. cranes are receiving required preventative maintenance. aprons. and how to avoid the hazard. it is important that NCDOL be proactive in taking action to address safety concerns and work to prevent further incidents. taglines to guide the load. When a hazard cannot be eliminated or its risk reduced by any of the first three methods.) Table 1 North Carolina crane-related accidents Date 03/27/07 01/30/06 12/01/05 05/07/04 09/16/02 08/01/01 08/01/01 03/23/00 05/04/00 06/29/98 SIC 1791 1622 5084 1799 1791 3443 3443 1791 1791 3441 Accident Description Crushed by crane Struck by crane boom Crushed by two cranes Struck by crane Crushed by falling crane Fall from crane collapse Fall from crane collapse Struck by loose crane boom Struck by crane Struck by falling steel from crane Employee Type Laborer Laborer Laborer Rigger/operator Laborer Laborer Laborer Tower erector Construction worker Material Handler Employee Age 25 48 48 33 30 20 37 26 34 59 2 . hard hats. 5. Special procedures and training. and that proper documentation is maintained by the employer. Often a combination of several of these five preventive measures is necessary to control a life-threatening hazard. Signs and labels are not substitutes for eliminating or guarding the hazard. training and audits must be employed to guarantee that a viable. This will be an ongoing effort for inspection of mobile cranes. and Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practices (SAE) J115. In light of all the tower crane fatalities in the news during the last 18 months. Tower cranes include hammerhead tower cranes. what harm will result. then planning. tower cranes and derricks at job or work sites throughout the state. The table below presents a summary of North Carolina crane-related accidents for June 1998–June 2007.” 4. safety shoes. Signals. lifelines. “Signs. safety glasses. with the word DANGER written in white letters on an oval red background with a black border. climber tower cranes.145. Mobile cranes include truck-mounted cranes. goggles. and Barricades. self-erector tower cranes and mobile tower cranes. Rather. Warnings should also inform users as to why the specified safeguard must be used.standard industrial classification (SIC). crawler cranes. All counties are included in this part of the construction emphasis program. They must be very explicit and state what the hazard is. inspection of tower and mobile crane operation is now added to our Special Emphasis Program referenced in Operational Procedures Notice (OPN) 123H. as well as a high number of other crane related fatalities and accidents North Carolina has experienced. training and outreach efforts. the employer/operator are following OSHA and ANSI requirements for the particular crane they are operating. Therefore. “Safety Signs.” 29 CFR 1910. Requirements for signs and labels are set forth in Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards. (Reports indicate date. fixed tower cranes. The signs for life-threatening hazards should be pictorial if possible. luffing boom tower cranes.200. continuing regimen will effect avoidance of the hazard.

hammerhead (3433). and rail mounted (3434).g. Excluded crane types include gantry (3432).2 12..0 6.g.1 2.. overhead power lines) Fall from crane structure or cab Transportation (e. truck.1 100.0 Table 3 Struck by mobile crane-related occupational injury deaths by industry: United States. These specific codes were selected to limit the analysis to types of mobile cranes.6 100. boom collapse.E. mobile.8 15.6 10.S. crane part or hoisted load) Contact with electrical current (e. According to CFOI data. monorail and underhung (3435). forestry.3 percent) of these fatalities (Table 2).C.2 2. and pillar (3437). portal.. A NIOSH review of CFOI data identified 719 cases between 1992 and 2002 in which a mobile crane† was the primary or secondary source of a fatal injury [NIOSH 2004].g. overhead (3436). and storage and retrieval hoist systems (3438).9 4. and fishing Other Total † Percent 52. 1992–2002 Number of deaths Struck by falling or swinging object (e. (3439). Forty-four (15 percent) occurred in manufacturing (Table 3). floating (3431). and uncontrolled hoisted loads.1 percent) of the 719 CFOI cases.3 24.National Injury Data The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) is a multisource data system maintained by the U.1 12.0 153 44 35 20 14 12 6 6 290 The following occupational injury and illness source codes for cranes were included: unspecified (3430). Table 2 Events resulting in mobile crane-related occupational injury deaths: United States.8 4. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to identify work-related deaths in the United States.1 2. A previous NIOSH alert [NIOSH 1995] addressed crane-related electrocution hazards.8 percent) of 290 mobile crane-related fatalities in which the victim was struck by an object (such as an uncontrolled hoisted load or crane part) occurred in construction. 3 . 1992–2002 Number of deaths Construction Manufacturing Transportation and public utilities Services Wholesale trade Mining Agriculture.2 10. tower. This alert primarily addresses injuries and deaths when workers are struck by falling or swinging objects resulting from crane stability issues related to tip-over. Electrocution fatalities due to cranes contacting overhead power lines or other electrical sources accounted for 173 (24. 153 (52. moving crane from site to site) Caught in crane moving parts Other Total 290 173 88 76 73 19 719 Percent 40. Incidents in which the victim was struck by an object such as an uncontrolled hoisted load or part(s) of a mobile crane accounted for 290 (40. and N.

2 Types of Cranes Generally Used in the Workplace Rough Terrain and Wheel-Mounted Telescoping Boom Figure 1 Wheel-Mounted Crane—Telescoping Boom (Single Control Station) Operator’s station (Fixed) Hydraulic Boom Figure 2 Wheel-Mounted Crane—Telescoping Boom (Multiple Control Station) Operator’s station (Fixed) 4 .

Latticework Boom Figure 3 Wheel-Mounted Crane (Multiple Control Station) Hydraulic Boom Figure 4 Commercial Truck-Mounted Crane—Telescoping Boom 5 .

Tower Crane Figure 5 Hammerhead Counterjib pendant Top Tower Boom (jib) pendants Cab Turntable Counterweight Counterjib Boom (jib) Trolley Lower load block Tower (mast) Concrete footing Tower Crane Figure 6 Luffing Boom Pendant Boom hoist ropes A-frame (gantry) Boom (jib) Machine deck Cab Turntable Counterweight Tower (mast) Concrete footing 6 .

Articulated Boom Figure 7 Commercial Truck-Mounted Remote Control Trolley Boom Figure 8 Trolley Boom Crane 7 .

Crawler-Mounted Latticework Boom Cranes Figure 9 Crawler Crane 8 .

On an average. The crane owner and job supervisor must ensure that their crane operators are qualified and competent. so there usually is not enough time given by this type of deenergization to keep someone from being shocked again.3 Analysis of Eight Hazards Common to Most Cranes This part analyzes eight hazards common to most cranes. description. All too often no prejob safety planning is done. the electric utility’s distribution system is automatically deenergized by a reclosure switch to avoid the blowing of intervening fuses. reasons why the hazard occurs. prime contractor. Power Line Contact Definition Power line contact is the inadvertent contact of any metal part of a crane with a high-voltage power line. Risks Presented by Power Line Contact Power line contact is the greatest risk to be found in craning operations. In some circumstances. construction management. not only in machine operations but in load capacity calculations as well. Sometimes the person who is electrocuted is touching the crane or getting on or off of it when the hoist line or boom inadvertently comes into contact with an energized power line. because the circuit is automatically reenergized several seconds later. The best hazard prevention method to avoid such an occurrence is to position the crane to keep a 10-foot clearance so the boom or hoist line cannot reach the power lines. In too many instances. Contact also frequently occurs during pick-and-carry operations when loads are being transported under energized power lines. Each year approximately 150 to 160 people are killed by power line contact. so when the crane arrives at the worksite. Because of the large number of employers involved in controlling the workplace—landowner. electric utilities—planning is necessary to establish the person in charge. Why Crane Power Line Contacts Occur Power line contact usually occurs because no one considered the need for specific hazard prevention measures to avoid using cranes near power lines. The lack of qualifications on the part of crane operators figures prominently into these hazards. Description Most power line contacts occur when a crane is moving materials adjacent to or under energized power lines and the hoist line or boom touches a power line. Minimum competent personnel requirements are included in Part 4. But this can be very misleading. those guiding the load and those closely involved in the particular craning operation need visual guidance from the ground so they are made aware of the danger zone and can conduct all of their work outside of this dangerous area. Preventive Measures The key to avoiding power line contact is prejob safety planning. The crane operator. subcontractors crane rental firms. Many times people assume that the power line is deenergized when the sparks stop at the point of contact. A single individual should have overall supervision and coordination of the project and must initiate positive direction to ensure that prejob safety planning is done before any cranes arrive at the worksite. Cranes and power lines should not occupy the same work area. Each analysis includes a definition. and about three times that number are seriously injured. A single contact can result in multiple deaths and/or crippling injuries. risks presented by the hazard. when a crane comes into contact with a power line and sufficient ground fault is created. The area within a radius of 9 . Planning is one of the greatest accident deterrents available in the workplace. work areas encompass existing power lines that have clearances acceptable for normal roadway traffic but not for cranes. eight out of 10 of the victims were guiding the load at the time of contact. the workers are placed in a hurried set of circumstances that burdens them with unreasonably dangerous tasks. preventive measures and any applicable OSHA requirements.

riggers and signalers. cement block. 10 . A safer purchase choice would be non-conductive. relocate. pneumatic-powered or remote radio control systems. If the danger zone can be penetrated by a crane boom. barriers. Use of these devices must be consistent with the product manufacturer’s recommendations. without any planning to separate cranes from power lines. In the event the boom contacts a power line. Sole reliance upon the performance of crane operators. buildings and other objects have upon power lines. has resulted in many deaths. etc. fences. See more than one visual target at a time. ALWAYS notify the power company before you begin crane operations near power lines. Cage-type boom guards. Figure 10 Power Lines Properly Guarded to Prevent Contact With a Crane DANGER ZONE UNSAFE FOR CRANE OPERATIONS DO NOT lift or make boom movements inside the barricaded area. Truck-mounted trolleys or articulated crane booms that utilize an electrical remote control system to load or unload bricks.10 feet in any direction from power lines is an unsafe work area and must be clearly marked off on the ground by marker tape. Overcome the camouflaging characteristics that trees. but such devices are not substitutes for maintaining the 10-foot clearance. which is most important. insulated links and proximity warning devices provide safety backups for operators. Map and barricade the 30-foot wide danger zone (15 feet on each side of the power line poles). Such equipment should never be used near power lines. everyone at the worksite has the visual clues to ensure that the crane is positioned so that the boom and hoist line cannot intrude into the danger zone created by the power lines. It is extremely difficult for a crane operator to: • • • Judge accurately clearances between a crane and power lines simply through the use of vision. trusses and other building supplies have also caused many injuries and deaths. Sometimes a crane operator cannot judge the clearance of the boom from the power Line because the boom blocks the operator’s view to the right. the individual holding the control box at the end of the electrical control cable is usually electrocuted instantly. the electric utility must be notified to deenergize. Figure 10 shows how to map this danger zone surrounding power lines so it is impossible for the boom in any position or the hoist line to come closer than 10 feet and intrude into the danger zone. even though the same route had been taken previously. bury or insulate the lines while the crane is operating in that location. That way. Pick-and-carry operations with mobile cranes often result in power line contact.

While Traveling With No Load and Boom/Mast Lowered Voltage (Nominal. kV. over 50 to 200 means up to and including 200 kV. Figure 11 illustrates the prohibited zone around a power line.000 Minimum Clearance Distance (Feet) 4 6 10 16 20 (as established by the power line owner/operator or qualified engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution) Over 1.Controls for flatbed-mounted cranes that are located where they can be operated by an individual standing on the ground leaves the operator vulnerable to the initial fault current path in the event the boom strikes a power line. kV.000 Minimum Clearance Distance (Feet) 10 15 20 25 35 45 (as established by a qualified engineer or by the owner or operator of the power line who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution) Over 1. For example.75 to 50 Over 50 to 345 Over 345 to 750 Over 750 to 1. Table 4 shows the safe working distance from power lines.000 11 . B. Table 4 Minimum Clearance Distances From Power Lines A. While Operating Voltage (Nominal.75 Over . Alternating Current) Up to 50 Over 50 to 200 Over 200 to 350 Over 350 to 500 Over 500 to 750 Over 750 to 1. Alternating Current) Up to 0.000 Note: The value that follows “to” is up to and includes the value.

Figure 11 Danger Zone for Cranes and Lifting Personnel Near Electrical Transmission Line This area should be avoided Prohibited zone: See Table 4 Personnel must NOT be handled in this area This area should be avoided Prohibited zone: See Table 4 Boom must not be positioned beyond this line Personnel must NOT be handled in this area 12 .

• • • • • • Overloading Definition Overloading occurs when the rated capacity of a crane is exceeded while a load is being lifted and maneuvered. Today’s crane operator is confronted with a number of variables that affect lifting capacity: 1. call the electric company to find out what voltage is on the lines.000 volts (50kV) or more. get closer than 10 feet plus 4 inches for each 10kV over 50kV. make sure the minimum distance between the lines and any part of the crane is 10 feet plus 4 inches for each 10kV over 50kV. LOOK UP! ALWAYS. 2. This has occurred even with outriggers extended.0913—Cranes and derricks—Power line safety Working Around Power Lines: Stay Away Always Do Never Do • NEVER get closer than 10 feet to an overhead power line! • NEVER work at a site without checking for power lines. ALWAYS survey the site for overhead power lines.180(b)—Crawler locomotive and truck cranes—General requirements 29 CFR 1910.180(j)—Crawler locomotive and truck cranes—Operations near overhead lines 29 CFR 1910. • • • ALWAYS keep a safe distance of at least 10 feet between you and your equipment from the power lines. resulting in upset or structural failure. • NEVER take a chance without consulting first with the electric company to find out what voltage the lines carry. The ability to extend a hydraulic boom increases the radius and reduces lifting capacity. The ability to lower a boom increases the radius and reduces its capacity. • NEVER allow the observer to perform another job while helping the operator to maintain a safe clearance. ALWAYS. when using crane and/or equipment near energized power lines of 50. • NEVER work near power lines until you are certain that they have been de-energized and grounded or insulated by the electric company. • NEVER forget that overhead power lines could be energized. LOOK UP! • NEVER. ALWAYS request an observer to assist you where it is difficult to maintain the desired clearance by visible means.OSHA Requirements • • • • 29 CFR 1910. when in doubt. ALWAYS ask the electric company to either deenergize and ground the lines or install insulation while you are working near them.000 volts (50kV) or more.333(c)(3)—Selection and use of work practices—Working on or near exposed energized parts— Overhead lines 13 NCAC 07F . 13 . On some models the weight of a boom without a load can create an imbalance and cause some high-reach hydraulic cranes to upset when the boom is positioned at a low angle. ALWAYS treat overhead power lines as if they were energized. ALWAYS require that the only job of the observer is to help the operator maintain the safe clearance. • NEVER work with ladders and tools if they have not been rated nonconductive. • NEVER use cranes and/or alone where it is difficult by visible means to maintain the desirable clearance. ALWAYS make sure ladders and tools are nonconductive. when using cranes and/or equipment near energized power lines of 50. Description Cranes can easily upset from overloading.

warn the operator as rated capacity is approached. tipping the load and upsetting the crane.) All of these variables create conditions that lead to operators inadvertently exceeding the rated capacity. Such systems can sense the actual load as related to boom angle and length. 14 . 4. However. instinct or experience to determine whether the load is too heavy and may not respond fast enough when the crane begins to feel light.S. such charts are complex. The operator may neglect to extend the outriggers and affect the crane’s stability. However. Approximately 3 percent of upsets result in death.000 hours of crane use. formal training should be provided for all crane operators. 6. load-measuring systems evolved. The variables may also lead to structural failure of the crane.000 Crane Upset Occurrences During a 20-Year Period Approximately 15% 39% 15% 14% 6% 7% 4% Also reported: 3% 8% 20% Deaths Lost-time injuries Significant property damage other than the crane In travel mode Making swing with outriggers retracted Making a pick with outriggers retracted Making a pick or swing with outriggers extended Making a pick or swing. (Fundamental to a lift are prelift determinations of the weight of the load and the net capacity of the crane—07F . the only control to avoid upset from overload has been reliance upon an operator’s performance and the use of load charts. length or radius. and 20 percent in damage to property other than the crane. Table 5 Analysis of 1. Risks Presented by Overloading It is estimated that one crane upset occurs during every 10.0916(a)–(c). The ability to lower a boom while extending a boom quickly reduces lifting capacity. 8 percent in lost time. The operator must always know the weight of the load. Preventive Measures During the last 30 years much progress has been made in the availability of systems to prevent crane upset due to overloading. The crane’s tipping capacity can vary when the boom is positioned at the various points of the compass or clock in relation to its particular carrier frame. on-the-job training can be adequate if the trainer is qualified. Today most U. With the advent of solid-state micro-processing electronics. 5. Optimally. For years. the crane may break before it tips. That is. to ensure a working knowledge of crane load charts. Crane operation is no longer a “seat-of-the-pants” skill but requires both planning and training in the use of the latest technologies such as load-measuring systems. There are after-market suppliers of these devices for older model cranes. and stop further movement. crane manufacturers are promoting the sale of load-measuring systems as standard equipment on new cranes. Load-measuring systems automatically prevent exceeding the rated capacity at any boom angle. under certain loads and at particular configurations. Nearly 80 percent of these upsets can be attributed to predictable human error when the operator inadvertently exceeds the crane’s lifting capacity.3. The operator may mistakenly rely upon perception. use of outriggers unknown Outrigger failure Other activity Why Overloading Occurs Overloading occurs when poorly trained personnel are allowed to operate cranes. This is why employers must ensure their operators’ competence (see Table 5).

Why Outriggers Are Not Used Supervisors and managers may unjustifiably rely upon their operators’ knowledge of the need for outriggers. with wheels completely off the ground.OSHA Requirements • • • • • • NC. When outriggers are being used.000 pounds per square foot. On all types of cranes where floats are used OSHA requires that they be securely attached. Outrigger pads must be positively attached to the connecting cylinder. design changes to overcome this hazard are needed. Determining the load weight is generally viewed as the responsibility of the site supervisor. well-designed blocking or cribbing is needed under the outriggers.0909—Cranes and derricks—Design. These actions increase the lifting radius so upset occurs. Management should assure itself that every crane operator is competent. Based on the load weight. The newer aerial basket trucks have hydraulic systems with interlocks that preclude boom operation until outriggers are fully extended and fully supporting the crane. If circumstances are such that outriggers cannot be fully extended. Description Many cranes upset because the use of outriggers is left to the discretion of the operator. Management may also fail to insist that equipment brought onto the project be equipped with available safeguards. 15 .179(b)(5)—Overhead and gantry cranes—Rated load marking 29 CFR 1910. The operator must still be able to determine or estimate load weights. be free of defects and be of sufficient width and length to prevent shifting or toppling under load.000 pounds per square foot to dry hard clay that can support 4. construction and testing Failure to Use Outriggers.180(h)(3)—Crawler locomotive and truck cranes—Moving the load 13 NCAC 07F . However. then capacities in the on-rubber chart must be used. Soil failure occurs because the ground is too soft or the outrigger pads are not big enough. or the outriggers have inadequate floats or pads. Stat. For example. sometimes an operator cannot extend the outriggers because of insufficient space or a work circumstance that arises when planning is not done. the use of outriggers is not voluntary. Or outrigger pads may be too small to support the crane even on hard ground. Soft Ground and Structural Failure Definition Crane upset can occur when an operator does not extend the outriggers or when a crane is positioned on soft ground. Some aerial basket designs include limit switches to prevent boom movement until outriggers are extended and in place to avert upset. When poor soil is encountered. such as interlocks to restrict boom movement when outriggers are retracted. The surest way to avoid an accident is to make the machine inoperable until the operator activates necessary safeguards.0916(a)–(c)—Cranes and derricks—Operation of equipment 13 NCAC 07F . It also requires that blocking used to support outriggers be strong enough to prevent crushing.180(c)—Crawler locomotive and truck cranes—Load ratings 29 CFR 1910. who must inform the operator before the lift is made. the operator knows if it is necessary to use outriggers. Load capacity charts are based either on the use of fully extended outriggers or on “rubber.000 pounds per square foot to wellcemented hardpan that can support as much as 10. Risks Presented by the Failure to Use Outriggers An analysis of some 1. Preventive Measures Since such a high proportion of accidents occur when outriggers are not extended. Outriggers have collapsed because they were overloaded. Gen. §95-129(1)—the General Duty Clause 29 CFR 1910. carrier tires must not be supporting weight. defective or located on inadequate foundation. to evaluate and verify the weight provided. They must be clear of the ground.” for rubber-tired cranes.000 crane accidents (see Table 5) has shown that half of the incidents involving outriggers occurred when the crane operator was either swinging the cab or extending or lowering a boom without outriggers extended. Soils range from wet sand that can only support 2.

When the hoist block or headache ball touches the suspended. This device is a weighted ring around the hoist line that is suspended on a chain from a limit switch attached to the boom tip. When an operator must use two controls. the hoist line can be inadvertently broken. It can also be wired to intercede and stop the hoisting. 2.OSHA Requirements • • 29 CFR 1910. Then. When two-blocking occurs on latticework booms. but causing damage that will result in failure at a later time. the flypole action of a long boom is sufficient to break the hoist line.180(h)(3)(ix)—Crawler locomotive and truck cranes—Handling the load 13 NCAC 07F . Two-blocking incidents can also occur without resulting in actual failure. The weight of the load plus the weight of the boom on a latticework boom (when combined with a little extra stress when lifting a load) can cause the hoist line to break if two-blocking occurs. In many circumstances. Ordinarily. Often a whip action is created when a crawler crane with a long boom without a load is “walking” and the headache ball and empty chokers can drift up to the boom tip. the chance of error is increased.0909—Cranes and derricks—Design. Over the years. The circuitry is no more complex than an electric door bell. When a hoist line two-blocks. causing the hoist line to break and the hook and load to fall. Risks Presented by Two-Blocking Hundreds of deaths and crippling injuries have resulted from two-blocking occurrences. Description Both latticework and hydraulic boom cranes are prone to two-blocking. Why Two-Blocking Occurs Two-blocking occurs because the crane operator is often visually overtaxed. Most occurrences probably went unrecorded because no one was injured when the hoist line failed and dropped the hook and/or load. Preventive Measures Anti-two-blocking devices have long been available. both latticework and hydraulic boom cranes will two-block when the hook is near the tip and the boom is lowered. but industry acceptance of these devices as a preventive measure has lagged. On hydraulic cranes the hydraulic valving can be sequenced to pay out the hoist line when the boom is being extended. There are several ways to prevent two-blocking: 1. if the crane crawler goes over a rock or bump. the hoist line picks up the weight of the boom and lets the pendant guys go slack. weighted ring. while the operator is busy watching the pathway of travel to avoid any rough ground that can violently jerk the crane. 16 . The power of the hydraulic rams that extend hydraulic booms is often sufficient to break the hoist line if two-blocking occurs. there have probably been thousands of two-blocking occurrences that have broken the hoist line. it assumes the weight of the boom and relieves the pin-up guys of the load. the limit switch opens and an alarm warns the operator. OSHA requires an anti-two-blocking device or a two block damage prevention feature where cranes are used to hoist personnel. construction and testin Two-Blocking Definition Two-blocking occurs when the hoist block or hook assembly comes into contact with the boom tip. thus avoiding two-blocking. If the load line breaks while supporting a worker on a boatswain’s chair or several workers on a floating scaffold or a load above people. If operators fail to pay out the load line while extending the boom. one for the hoist and one for the hydraulic boom extension. An anti-two-blocking device can be used. endangering workers below. a catastrophe can result. he or she does not watch the boom tip. He or she is unable to watch the load and headache ball or hook simultaneously.

Many amputations have been caused by unguarded moving parts within the crane. adjustment and maintenance from time to time.179(n)(4)(I)—Overhead and gantry cranes—Handling the load—Hoist limit switch 13 NCAC 07F . have been crushed by such pinchpoints. Adequate boom length can be ensured to accommodate both the boom angle and sufficient space for rigging. within the crane are pinchpoints to which employees may be exposed. is a pinchpoint where people can be crushed or squeezed between the carrier frame and the crane cab. especially oilers. etc. a boom length of 150 percent of the intended lift is required for a boom angle of 45 degrees or more. truck-mounted cranes. To avoid bringing the hook and headache ball into contact with the boom tip. Workers are. which serves as a shelter for the engine and hoist system. Description A pinchpoint is created by the narrow clearance between the rotating superstructure (cab) of a crane and the stationary carrier frame. The machinery that runs the crane requires oiling. Analysis of such occurrences shows that the victims usually entered the danger zone to access: • • • • • the water jug the tool box the outrigger controls an area to perform maintenance an area for storage of rigging materials In all of the known cases where someone entered the danger zone and was caught in a pinchpoint. Crane cabs are usually used for storage of lunch buckets.3. Many people. Many unguarded gears. the danger zone was outside the crane operator’s vision. Many unguarded moving parts are found in the machinery space.179(g)(5)(iv)—Overhead and gantry cranes—Switches 29 CFR 1910.0920(4)(e)(iv)—Cranes and derricks—Hoisting personnel Pinchpoints Definition There are two types of crane pinchpoints: 1. Risks Presented by Pinchpoints Many deaths or serious injuries have been recorded as a result of being crushed between the cab and carrier frame. Why Workers Are Crushed by the Rotating Cab Workers have been crushed by the rotating cab because management failed to ensure that the crane was adequately barricaded and that all incentives to enter the swing zone were removed. Preventive Measures The swing area of the crane cab and counterweight must be barricaded against entry into the danger zone.. spreader bars and straps. crawler cranes and other mobile cranes. Survivors have stated that they believed the crane operator was not going to rotate or slew the boom at that particular moment. This hazard is inherent in rough terrain cranes. tools and supplies. belts. exposed to the hazard of the rotating cab and the hazard created by the many unguarded moving parts of the crane. rotating shafts. 2. therefore. such as slings. 17 . When a crane must be used in a confined space. another dangerous pinchpoint is the close clearance between the rotating cab/counterweight and a wall. OSHA Requirements • • • 29 CFR 1910. or the crane cab and an adjacent wall or other structure. Within the swinging radius of the rotating superstructure of a crane in areas in which people may be working. post or other stationary object.

tool boxes and rigging materials from crane cabs would reduce the incentive to enter the danger zone. signalers. OSHA Requirements • • • 13 NCAC 07F . preventing the rigger. The crane boom may obstruct the operator’s range of vision on the right side. Why People Are Injured by Movement of the Load or the Crane People are injured during craning when management fails to provide an effective communication system for the crane operator and signalers to ensure that all are aware of any changes in circumstances. In many instances the work environment requires that loads be lifted to or from an area that is outside of the view of the operator. and the crane operator must rely upon others to ensure safe movement of the load being handled. Often signalers have not been adequately trained to perform their important task. the risk of accident becomes very high. the operator must contend with many blind spots on the right side of the crane. ironworkers or other workers may be working in the immediate vicinity of a crane. Many people are affected by a crane’s movement. Often a load is lifted several stories high. The installation of rear view mirrors for the crane operator provides an added safeguard so the operator can see into the turning area of the cab and counterweight.180(i)(6)—Crawler locomotive and truck cranes—Swinging locomotive cranes Numerous OSHA standards address machine guarding and the guarding of moving parts Obstruction of Vision Definition Safe use of a crane is compromised when the vision of an operator. Description There are two general categories for obstructions of operators’ vision: • • obstruction by the crane’s own bulk obstruction by the work environment The crane size alone limits the operator’s range of vision and creates many blind spots. riggers. and employees cannot see what the others are doing. carpenters. 3. Many situations arise in craning activities that can almost instantaneously turn a simple lift into a life-taking catastrophe: 1. 2. oiler and others affected by the crane’s movement from having direct eye contact with the crane operator. They also may be out of the range of vision of the crane operator.The removal of water jugs.0916(n)—Cranes and derricks—Operation of equipment 29 CFR 1910. preoccupied with their tasks and unaware of the activity of the crane. starting with prejob conferences and continuing with daily planning to address any changes that need to be made. Welders with their hoods on. 18 . Risks Presented by Obstruction of Vision When operators. signaler. Both the lack of awareness on the part of others and the obstructed vision of the crane operator contribute to craning accidents. When a cabcontrolled mobile crane is moved or travels back and forth. oilers and others cannot see each other or the suspended load. rigger or signaler is blocked. the use of radios and telephones is much more effective than relying upon several signalers to relay messages by line of sight. Preventive Measures The key to a safe craning operation is the planning of all activities. To overcome the hazard of blind spots while loads are being lifted.

Why Crane Operators Are Crushed When a Crane Upsets Crush-resistant cabs are not routinely installed on cranes. the lightweight sheet metal cab is easily crushed. usually trapping the operator before escape is possible. graders. bottom dumps. Description This type of crane is easily overturned on road shoulders or other embankments during travel from one location to another. Risks Presented by Travel Upsets Numerous travel upsets have been recorded. rear dumps. It should also be recognized that OSHA requires the windows of cranes to be made of safety glass or the equivalent.0919(b)—Cranes and derricks—Signals Travel Upset in Mobile Hydraulic Cranes (Rough-Terrain and Wheel-Mounted Telescoping Boom) Definition Because of a high center of gravity.The use of automatic travel alarms is an effective way to warn those in the immediate vicinity of crane travel movement in pick-and-carry functions.” and the operator has no safe sanctuary in this type of cab to prevent serious injury. OSHA Requirements • • • • • 29 CFR 1910. fifth wheel attachments. compactors. and various other pieces of equipment. loaders.0916(a)–(c)—Cranes and derricks—Operation of equipment 13 NCAC 07F . water wagons.179(I)—Overhead and gantry cranes—Warning device 29 CFR 1926. are rarely stable on side slopes beyond 35 degrees. Crawler tractors can remain stable up to a 57 degree side slope. rollover protection system (ROPS) standards were developed by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) for tractors (both crawler and wheel). When the mobile hydraulic crane upsets on the left side where the operator’s cab is located. 19 . Beginning in the late 1960s. The crane manufacturer or an after-market supplier should be contacted for installation of a crush-resistant cab and seatbelt. Mobile hydraulic cranes. rough-terrain cranes do encounter slopes of over 35 degrees that could cause upset. Preventive Measures In the 1950s it was recognized that protective canopies that would resist the crushing effect of rollover could be designed and fabricated for heavy crawler-type bulldozers. The same technology could be applied to mobile hydraulic cranes so operators would have the protection of a crush-resistant cab in the event of upset. The lightweight sheet metal cab on almost all types of cranes is also vulnerable to crushing during upset from overloading as discussed in “Overloading. however. a mobile hydraulic crane can easily upset and crush the operator between the boom and the ground.16(a)—Rules of construction 29 CFR 1926.201(b)—Signaling—Crane and hoist signals 13 NCAC 07F . which does not introduce visible distortion that will interfere with the safe operation of the crane. Death and crippling injuries from rollover and falling objects have been substantially reduced because of ROPS. Boom Disassembly on Latticework Boom Cranes Definition If a boom is not blocked. Because of their versatility with four-wheel drive and four-wheel steer. scrapers. improper disassembly can cause it to collapse upon those who are removing pins under the boom while the boom is suspended.

If the lower pins connecting boom sections are knocked out by workers who are under the boom. (See Dickie. d. Double-ended pins that can be removed while one is standing beside the boom by driving the pin in from the outside. Not enough time is allotted to meet the task deadline.41 at 78. Welded lugs that prevent pins from being entered the wrong way. Workers are unfamiliar with the equipment. Risks Presented by Boom Disassembly There are at least three circumstances that lead to accidents when latticework boom sections are being dismantled: 1. the boom can collapse upon them. Figure 3. such as: a.) b.40 at 78). This requires the pin to be inserted inside facing out and can only be removed by driving it from the outside in. Preventive Measures 1. Crane Handbook. 3.. Boom collapse occurs on truck. D. 4. Figure 12 should be posted in the crane cab and Figure 13 should be attached to each boom section. D. (See Dickie. 2.or crawler-mounted cranes when the boom is lowered to a horizontal position and suspended from the boom tip with pendant guys. Figure 3.) c.E. Plan boom disassembly location and procedures that are consistent with the manufacturer’s instructions.0916—Cranes and derricks—Operation of Equipment 20 . D. OSHA Requirements • 13 NCAC 07F . and can only be removed by driving from the outside in.E.39 at 78. Use blocking or cribbing on each boom section. Crane Handbook. Screw pins with threads that insert or retract the pin. 3. but the boom is not blocked.. Why Workers Are Crushed by Latticework Booms During Disassembly Workers are crushed during disassembly of latticework booms when there is a lack of supervision to ensure that the manufacturer’s disassembly procedures are followed. Be sure that comprehensive text warning of this hazard and informing of ways to avoid it is contained in operators’ manuals. Post warnings at pin connections. A poor location is chosen for dismantling.E.Description Latticework booms are disassembled for shortening. Figure 3. Use one of several types of pins that substantially reduce the risk of crushing. Step pins that can only be inserted from inside facing out. (See Dickie.. Crane Handbook. resulting in death or serious injuries. 2. lengthening or transporting.

Figure 12 Unsafe (Upper) and Safe (Lower) Way to Block a Boom Section 21 .

Figure 13 Sign to Be Attached on Each Boom Section 22 .

OSHA published a notice of proposed rule in the Federal Register on Oct. Hazard Prevention Requirements Preconstruction Planning Most crane accidents could have been easily prevented if basic considerations had been given to the safe use of cranes and had such considerations been incorporated at the preconstruction planning meeting. The committee began meeting in August 2003 and completed its task in July 2004. which comprised members from all sectors of the regulated community and from organized labor.4 Crane Safety Programs North Carolina Cranes and Derricks Standards Due to significant changes in construction consensus standards and requests from several industry stakeholders. Signalers and Others Riggers. signalers and others who work with cranes should have qualifications similar to those of the operator. In July 2002. with an effective date of Oct. use of cranes and derricks on barges. Subpart N. designed to protect employees from the hazards associated with hoisting equipment when used to perform construction activities. necessary lifting capacity. this on-site job hazard analysis is necessary to ensure that craning operations can be done safely.. Riggers. federal OSHA has been working since 1998 on an update to 29 CFR Part 1926. After years of review. The planning stage meeting is the best time to address hazard avoidance. Rules Review Commission.C. OSHA announced its intent to use the negotiated rulemaking process to revise Subpart N and established the Cranes and Derricks Negotiated Rulemaking Advisory Committee (C-DAC). a specific job hazard analysis should be conducted to ensure that preconstruction planning is adequate. After five high-profile crane accidents killed 15 people in 2008. blind lifts requiring communication. Just as an unqualified operator can make a life-threatening error during lifting operations. organization and grouping to promote ease in reading and understanding by the regulated community in North Carolina). 2009. Labor Commissioner Cherie Berry was approached by members of industry and asked to consider enacting updated occupational safety and health standards for those employees in North Carolina who operate and work around cranes. 1. These changes will affect establishments across a variety of different construction industries with work involving cranes and derricks. Although each of these events occurred in states other than North Carolina. When prejob planning has been neglected. These events highlighted the inherently dangerous nature of work involving not only tower cranes but all types of cranes. While nationwide tower crane accidents have been in the news. the committee submitted a proposed revision to Subpart N to OSHA on July 13. the national interest and concern warrant action. Job Hazard Analysis Before actual craning operations are begun at the jobsite. signaler or anyone else involved in lifting operations can cause an accident. 2004. 2008. the inappropriate actions of an inexperienced rigger. the commissioner decided to take the proactive approach and proposed adopting new rules for cranes and derricks that mirror the federal consensus document with some minor exceptions (e. 9. a final rule is not expected from OSHA for at least one year. Two recent tower crane accidents—one in New York and one in Florida—resulted in multiple fatalities. due to a number of factors affecting the federal rulemaking process. and special circumstances requiring two or more cranes to lift a single load can be discussed and preventive measures can be taken. hazards inherent to power lines. Planning before actual crane operations begin can eliminate major craning hazards from the jobsite and make operations more efficient. However. most of the crane-related injuries and deaths in North Carolina involve mobile type cranes such as crawler cranes and truck cranes. There. As a result of these meetings.g. 23 . As a result. All 27 of the proposed rules have been approved by the N.

signalers. the signal person shall know and understand the standard method for hand signals. A notice of the current inspection should be posted in the crane. Normally.251 and 13 NCAC 07F . all parties. Lifting Capabilities During preconstruction planning. Cranes that cannot be certified must be removed from service until all necessary repairs are made and the equipment is reinspected.Hand Signals Before any lifts are commenced. when a load is being hoisted.180(h)(3)(xvi) states: “… A tag or restraint line shall be used when rotation of the load is hazardous. lifting requirements should be analyzed by an engineer competent to establish whether the crane to be used has adequate lifting capability.5. The North Carolina standard states that “If hand signals are used.0920(7)(c). Modes of communication must be agreed upon in preconstruction planning and in the job hazard analysis. 24 .903(89)) Signaling Devices On lifts where the signalers are outside the direct view of the operator due to elevation or in blind areas.184. 29 CFR 1910.0915. must refamiliarize themselves with appropriate hand signals. Annual crane inspections are required by 29 CFR 1910. Often signals vary from job to job and region to region.179(j).5-2004.” (13 NCAC 07F .181(d) and 13 NCAC 07F . the lay or twist in wire rope causes rotation when the load becomes suspended.3-2004 and ASME B30. Rigging Practices The requirements for slings to support loads are well defined in OSHA standards 29 CFR 1910. either a telephone or radio is necessary. 29 CFR 1910.180(d). including the crane operator. Preventive Maintenance Cranes require ongoing service and preventive maintenance. The job hazard analysis should also verify that the crane to be used has sufficient boom length for the lift. OSHA standard 29 CFR 1910. and the requirements for rigging equipment are defined in 29 CFR 1926. Controlling the Load The use of tag lines to control movement of the load is very important. Annual Inspections A number of business firms are certified to perform annual crane inspections. It is best to ensure that everyone is familiar with the hand signals outlined in ANSI/ASME B30. Preventive maintenance programs should be documented according to the crane manufacturer’s recommendations. riggers and others involved.0919(c)(1)) The standard references ASME B30. (13 NCAC 07F . Mobile and Locomotive Cranes (see Figure 16).” Wire Rope Requirements It is very important to comply with the crane manufacturer’s recommendations for the type of wire rope to be used for various hoist lines or pendants.

Heel or Base Section Boom Foot or Heel Pin Turntable or Swing Circle Outriggers Pads or Floats Carrier Frame Center of Rotation 25 . Runner. Bridle Harness or Outer Ball Inner Ball Gantry or A-Frame Headache Ball Main Hoist or Load Line Main Block or Main Load Block Boom Jib.Figure 14 Dynamics of Setting Up a Crane Figure 15 Crane nomenclature Jib Pendants Jib Mast or Stay Head or Tip Section Boom Pendants Bridle. Whip or Auxiliary Line Carrier Crane Upper or Upperworks Boom Foot.

thumb pointing down. forefinger pointing up. flex fingers in and out as long as load movement is desired. Arm extended. (Auxiliary Hoist). RAISE BOOM. 26 . Arm extended. then use regular signals.) RAISE THE BOOM AND LOWER THE LOAD. thumb pointing up. fingers closed. Use one hand to give any motion signal and place other hand motionless in front of hand giving the motion signal. (Hoist slowly shown as example. move hand in small horizontal circle. flex fingers in and out as long as load movement is desired. LOWER THE BOOM AND RAISE THE LOAD. With forearm vertical. LOWER BOOM. fingers closed. USE MAIN HOIST. LOWER. With arm extended downward. With arm extended. Tap fist on head.Figure 16 Standard Hand Signals for Controlling Crane Operations HOIST. then use regular signals. thumb pointing upward. forefinger pointing down. Tap elbow with one hand. thumb pointing downward. MOVE SLOWLY. USE WHIPLINE. move hand in small horizontal circle. With arm extended.

EXTEND BOOM (Telescoping Boom). One fist in front of chest with thumb tapping chest. point with finger in direction of swing of boom. One fist in front of chest. (For land cranes only. hand open and slightly raised. Clasp hands in front of body.SWING. RETRACT BOOM (Telescoping Boom). TRAVEL. making a circular motion about each other. indicating direction of travel. make pushing motion in direction of travel. Travel opposite track in direction indicated by circular motion of other fist.) TRAVEL. Use both fists in front of body. Arm extended. DOG EVERYTHING.) EXTEND BOOM (Telescoping Booms). Both arms extended. 27 . EMERGENCY STOP. Both fists in front of body with thumbs pointing toward each other. palm down. (Both Tracks). RETRACT BOOM (Telescoping Booms). (One Track) Lock the track on side indicated by raised fist. Arm extended. move arms back and forth horizontally. Both fists in front of body with thumbs pointing outward. STOP. move arm back and forth horizontally. palms down. thumb pointing outward and heel of fist tapping chest. forward or backward. TRAVEL. One Hand Signal. Arm extended forward. One Hand Signal. rotated vertically in front of body. (For land cranes only.

Cable Controlled Power Cranes. Forestry. Mobile Power Crane and Excavator Standards. Power Crane and Shovel Association. Ill. DOESTD-1090-2001.4) SAE J115—Safety Signs SAE J159—Crane Load Moment System SAE J185—Access Systems for Off-Road Machines SAE J220—Crane Boomstop SAE J375—Radius-of-Load and Boom Angle Measuring System SAE J376—Load Indicating Devices in Lifting Crane Service SAE J765—Crane Load Stability Test Code SAE J820—Crane Hoist Line Speed and Power Test Code SAE J881—Lifting Crane Sheave and Drum Sizes SAE J959—Lifting Crane. and Interpretations Prior to the 6th Edition ANSI Z35. Power Crane and Shovel Association. Wire-Rope Strength Factors SAE J983—Crane and Cable Excavator Basic Operating Control Arrangements SAE J987—Crane Structures Method of Test SAE J999—Crane Boom Hoist Disengaging Device SAE J1028—Mobile Crane Working Area Definitions SAE Jl040c—Performance Criteria for Rollover Protective Structures (ROPS) for Construction. Bureau of the Construction Manufacturer’s Association. PSCA Standard No. 202-783-3998 ANSI Standards ANSI B15.0900 North Carolina Occupational Safety and Health Standards for General Industry (29 CFR 1910) North Carolina Occupational Safety and Health Standards for the Construction Industry (29 CFR 1926) U. USDOL/OSHA North Carolina Cranes and Derricks Standard. Department of Energy (DOE). Hydraulic Excavators and Telescoping Boom Cranes. v. Shovels. 1978–1980 Inclusive.References OSHA Requirements Crane or Derrick Suspended Personnel Platforms. Hillside.. Power Crane and Shovel Association.1—Safety Standards for Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus ANSI C2—National Electrical Safety Code ANSI/IEEE C2 National Electrical Safety Code Interpretations. Bureau of the Construction Manufacturer’s Association. Power Crane and Shovel Association. April 2001 Pocket Reference Guide for Power Line Clearance.S. and Clamshells. 28 . Institute of the Ironworking Industry. OSHA 3100 (Revised 2002).1—Specifications for Accident Prevention Signs Recommended Guidance (Society of Automotive Engineers. Draglines. and Mining Machines SAE J1063—Cantilevered Boom Crane Structures Method of Test SAE J1180—Telescoping Boom Length Indicating System SAE J1238—Rating Lift Cranes on Fixed Platforms Operating SAE J1257—Rating Chart for Cantilevered Boom Cranes SAE J1289—Mobile Crane Stability Ratings SAE J1332—Rope Drum Rotation Indicating Device Bureau of the Construction Manufacturer’s Association. 800-552-7744 Wire Rope Slings pocket reference guide. 1961–1977 Inclusive ANSl/IEEE C2 National Electrical Safety Code Interpretations.2. DOE Standard Hoisting and Rigging (Formerly Hoisting and Rigging Manual). Hoes. Bureau of the Construction Manufacturer’s Association. Earthmoving. 1. 13 NCAC 07F . Construction Safety Council. PSCA Standard No. SAE Handbook. Mobile Hydraulic Crane Standards.

17 Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge.22 Articulating Boom Cranes ASME B30.15 Mobile Hydraulic Cranes (Note: B30. and Truck Cranes ASME B30. "Mobile Crane Working Area Definitions” 29 . National Fire Protection Association. Construction Safety Association of Ontario.15 is included in the latest edition of B30.21 Manually Lever Operated Hoist ASME B30. “Rough Terrain Forklift Trucks” ASME PALD.15-1973 has been withdrawn. Top Running Trolley Hoist) ASME B30. Inc. Underhung Hoist ASME B30. 1975.4.12 Handling Loads Suspended From Rotorcraft ASME B30.3 Construction Tower Cranes ASME B30.18 Stacker Cranes (Top or Under Running Bridge.11 Monorails and Underhung Cranes ASME B30. Safety and Health Requirements Manual. “Forks and Fork Carriers for Powered Industrial Fork Lift Trucks” Construction Safety Association (CSA) of Ontario "The Rigging Handbook" Society of Automotive Engineers. Single Girder.27. Multiple Girder. Cranes and Hoists.7 Base Mounted Drum Hoists ASME B30.10 Hooks ASME B30.1 Jacks ASME B30. and B30. B30. National Electrical Code.5 Crawler. B30. Chapter 6. ASME B30 SERIES TYPE CRANE/EQUIPMENT ASME B30. Army Corps of Engineers. Article 610.24 Container Cranes¹ ASME B30.26.S.E.9 Slings ASME B30. U.4 Portal.1.8 Floating Cranes and Floating Derricks ASME B30.24.5) ASME B30.28 are in the development stage ASME B56.13 Storage/Retrieval (S/R) Machines and Associated Equipment ASME B30.2 Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge.6 Derricks ASME B30.23 Personnel Lifting Systems ASME B30.26 Rigging Hardware¹ ASME B30. EM 385-1-1. The revision of B30.16 Overhead Hoists (Underhung) ASME B30.19 Cableways ASME B30. “Low Lift and High Lift Trucks” ASME B56. Department of the Army. “Portable Automotive Lifting Devices” ASME MH11. Locomotive.25 Scrap and Material Handlers ASME B30. (SAE) SAE J1028.20 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices ASME B30. D. Crane Handbook. Multiple Grider With Top or Under Running Trolley Hoist ASME B30. Tower.14 Side Boom Tractors ASME B30.6. and Pedestal Cranes ASME B30.28 Balance-Lifting Units¹ ¹B30.27 Material Placement of Systems¹ ASME B30.Dickie.

Material hoists. In doing so. Overhead and gantry cranes. Crawler.553. 7.16.17.180.Guidelines for Hoisting and Rigging Activity The U. and maintenance of hoisting equipment in hostile environments Nondestructive testing/nondestructive examination requirements for such items as hooks. Department of Energy (DOE) Hoisting and Rigging Standard. Aerial lifts). however.20. Derricks. welds. Overhead Hoists (Underhung). equipment operators. Personnel Lifting Systems.555. Elevators. Overhead hoists. 1926. Derricks 1910. ASME B30. Hoists. however others may also benefit from compilation of information as provided in this industry guide. Crawler locomotive and truck cranes. 1926. 4. ASME B30. ASME B30. B30. Slings).184. 1910. and Truck Cranes. quotes verbatim or paraphrases (with minor editorial changes for consistency) the requirements of the U. and Conveyors (i. inspection. 1910. B30.2. 1926. 14. 12. Conveyors.550. Occupational Safety and Health Standards for General Industry.21. critical. 30 .552. subdivided into 10 parts (sample table of content provided on next page). Hooks.554. DOE-STD-1090-2001 has 17 chapters. Management responsibility and accountability Operator/inspector training and qualification requirements Definition of critical lifts and the additional requirements for making them The need and responsibilities of a person-in-charge for critical lifts The need and responsibilities of a designated leader for ordinary lifts The definition and special requirements for preengineered production lifts Special requirements for the testing. Locomotive.9. DOE is owner and primary user of the source document (available on internet in public domain). 1926. used here as source document.23. 10. 8. 5. and elevators. Base-mounted drum hoists. Occupational Safety and Health Regulations for Construction. ANSI/ASME B30. ASME B30. Subpart N-Crane. is intended as a reference document to be used by supervisors. The following list provides examples of recognized consensus standards as pertained to OSHA and ANSI/ASME standards addressed here: 29 CFR 1910. Slings. all chapters or sections within the document are not addressed in this industry guide. Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices. 11. 6.556. and hooks Operating practices for hoisting and rigging operations Rigging information and load tables Good and bad rigging practices. and rigging accessories Design standards for such equipment as cranes. ASME B30. Although DOE-STD-1090-2001 was established for operations at DOE sites.179. Manually Lever Operated Hoist. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). therefore various sections have been condensed/consolidated and provided in this OSHNC industry guide (Crane Safety). 1926. 9. Material provided here has same number sequence as source document. personnel hoist. 2. Overhead and Gantry Cranes. Single Girder Underhung Hoist).5.S. The DOE standard occasionally goes beyond the minimum general industry standards established by OSHA and ANSI. DOE-STD-1090-2001 offers a significant amount of information and guidelines applicable to many other employers or personnel involved in hoisting and rigging activity. Helicopters. 1910. safety personnel.181.e. Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge.S. slings. line managers. forklifts. The DOE’s Hoisting and Rigging Standard.e.10. and spreader bars Special requirements for inspection and load-testing of hoisting and rigging equipment/accessories Hook latch requirements for cranes. and any other personnel responsible for safety of hoisting and rigging. 3. other employer sites may also benefit from relevant information and applicable standards or guidelines it offers. ASME B30. Subpart N-Material Handling and Storage (i.551. 29 CFR 1926. 1926. and oftentimes hazardous hoisting and rigging work found within the DOE complex. 13. it addresses the following items which are not covered in detail in the general industry standards: 1. DOE-STD-1090-2001. diversified. and also delineates the more stringent requirements necessary to accomplish the extremely complex. 1926. Cranes and derricks.

Preengineered Productions Lifts Chapter 4 .Overhead and Gantry Cranes Part 4 Chapter 8 .Mobile Cranes Part 5 Chapter 10 .Critical Lifts Chapter 3 .Wire Rope and Slings Part 7 Chapter 12 .Miscellaneous Lifting Devices Chapter 17 .Forklifts Trucks Part 6 Chapter 11 .Lifting Personnel Part 3 Chapter 5 .Procurement Guidelines Concluding Material .Rigging Accessories Chapter 13 .Construction Hoisting and Rigging Equipment Requirements Part 10 Chapter 16 .Below-The-Hook Lifting Devices Part 9 Chapter 15 .Terminology and Definitions Part 2 Chapter 2 .References Appendix A .DOE-STD-1090-2001 Table of Contents Part 1 Summary of Changes Table of Contents History and Background Acknowledgment Introduction Chapter 1 .Personnel Qualification and Training Chapter 7 .Hostile Environment Chapter 6 .Load Hooks Part 8 Chapter 14 .Hoists Chapter 9 .

The outer strands form a “cage” and at times displace the core. and the like. BENDING STRESS: Stress on wires of a wire rope imposed by bending. causing it to take on the appearance of a birdcage. cranes. BACK STAY: Guy used to support a boom or mast or that section of a main cable. ANSI: American National Standards Institute. BRAKE. Illustrations are included for clarity. or cableway. COUNTER TORQUE: A method of stopping motion in which the power to the motor is reversed to develop torque in the opposite direction. load stabilizers. 1-1 Chapter 1 Terminology and Definitions . rams. ACCELERATION STRESS: Additional stress imposed due to increasing load velocity. PARKING: A device to prevent the movement of a stationary vehicle. AREA. HOLDING: A brake that sets automatically and that prevents motion when power is off. METALLIC: Sum of the cross-sectional areas of individual wires in a wire rope or strand. BECKET LOOP: A loop of small rope or a strand of rope fastened to the end of a large wire rope to facilitate installation. BOOM LINE: A wire rope for supporting or operating the boom on derricks. as on a suspension bridge. ATTACHMENT: A device other than conventional forks or load backrest extension. AUXILIARY HOIST: Supplemental hoisting unit of lighter capacity and usually higher speed than the main hoist. BRAKE. bending stress does not affect the normal life of the wire rope. ABRASION: Surface wear. BOOM (CRANE): A member hinged to the rotating superstructure and used for supporting the hoisting tackle. When sheaves and drums are of suitable size.DOE-STD-1090-2001 CHAPTER 1 TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS The following are specialized terms commonly used when discussing hoisting and rigging operations. Popular types are fork extension clamps. BATTERY-ELECTRIC TRUCK: An electric truck in which the power source is a storage battery. BIRDCAGE: A colloquialism describing the appearance of a wire rope that is forced into compression. side shifters. DRAG: A brake that provides stopping force without external control. leading from the tower to the anchorage. ALTERNATE LAY: Lay of wire rope in which the strands are alternately regular and lang lay. BAIL: A U-shaped member of a bucket. and booms. BRAKE. and the like. or other fitting. Many may not be used in this standard but are included for general information. The terms are arranged in alphabetical order. BASKET OR SOCKET: The conical portion of a socket into which a splayed rope end is inserted and secured with zinc. BIRDCAGING: The twisting of fiber or wire rope in an isolated area in the opposite direction of the rope lay. This stress need not be added to direct load stresses. shovels. draglines. socket. BRAKE: A device used for slowing or stopping motion by friction or electromagnetic means. rotating devices. AUTHORIZED: Assigned by a duly constituted administrative or regulatory authority. BRAKING. APPOINTED: Assigned specific responsibilities by the employer or the employer's representative. mounted permanently or removably on the elevating mechanism of a truck for handling the load.

CLEARANCE: The distance by which one object clears another. BUMPER (BUFFER): An energy-absorbing device for reducing impact when a moving overhead crane or trolley reaches the end of its permitted travel. BRIDLE SLING: A sling composed of multiple legs (branches). CLOSING LINE: Wire rope that closes a clamshell or orange-peel bucket and then operates as a hoisting rope. MECHANICAL: A method of slowing motion by friction. COIL: Circular bundle of wire rope not packed on a reel. DYNAMIC: A method of controlling crane motor speeds when in the overhauling condition to provide a retarding force. COLLECTOR: Contacting device mounted on a bridge or trolley and used to collect current from the conductor system. Choker rope. such as forks (see Figure 10-3). CABLE: A term loosely applied to wire ropes. CLIP: A fitting used to clamp two parts of wire rope. CLOSED SOCKET: A wire-rope fitting consisting of an integral becket and bail. BULL RING: The main large ring of a sling to which sling legs are attached. CARRIAGE: A support structure for forks or attachments. CENTER: A single wire or fiber in the center of a strand around which the wires are laid. CHOKER ROPE: A short wire-rope sling used to form a slip noose around the object to be moved or lifted (see Figure 1-1). consists of two grooved plates and bolts. CABLE-LAID WIRE ROPE: A type of wire rope consisting of several independent wire ropes laid into a single wire rope. wire strands. CENTER CONTROL: The position near the center of a truck cab from which the operator controls movement of the truck. walkways. CANTILEVER TRUCK: A self-loading counterbalanced or noncounterbalanced truck equipped with cantilever load-engaging means. BRIDGE TRAVEL: Horizontal travel of the crane parallel with runway rails. Figure 1-1. that carries the trolley or trolleys. trucks. CAB: The operator's compartment. BREAKING STRENGTH: The measured load required to break a wire rope or chain. and electrical conductors. and drive mechanisms. or the clear space between them. generally roller-mounted. CABLE CROWD ROPE: A wire rope used to force the bucket of a power shovel into the material being handled. STRAND: A fitting used to form a loop at the end of a length of strand. traveling vertically within the mast of a cantilever truck. or when two moving cranes or trolleys come into contact.DOE-STD-1090-2001 BRAKING. consisting of girders. CLAMP. the top ends of which terminate in a fitting that latches onto the lifting hook. BRAKING. REGENERATIVE: A form of dynamic braking in which the electrical energy generated is fed back into the power system. railings. Chapter 1 Terminology and Definitions 1-2 . BRAKING. CIRCUMFERENCE: Measured perimeter of a circle circumscribing the wires of a strand or the strands of a wire rope. CLEVIS: A U-shaped fitting with pins. manila ropes. BRIDGE: The part of a crane.

CRANES. CORROSION: Chemical decomposition by exposure to moisture.. Jib Crane: A fixed crane with a vertical rotating member supported at the bottom (also at the top in some types) from which an arm extends to carry the hoist trolley. number of wires per strand. alkalies. but it may be equipped with a separate engine controlled from the superstructure (see Figures 15-1.g. The base is usually propelled by an engine in the superstructure. or other destructive agents. supplied as part of the jib crane. SPRING RETURN: A controller that. or on existing structural members (e. and a ratcheting lever. 15-9. CONDUCTOR: Wire. 15-5. 15-6. tees. when released. angles. during normal transporting. COVER WIRES: The outer layer of wires. truck cranes. Cab-Operated Crane: A crane controlled by an operator in a cab located on the bridge or trolley. CORRUGATED: A term used to describe the grooves of a sheave or drum when worn so as to show the impression of a wire rope. operating machinery. except that the bridge for carrying the trolley or trolleys is rigidly supported on two or more legs running on fixed rails or other runway. will return automatically to a neutral position. two hooks. Jib cranes are most commonly mounted on a vertical column. It may be fiber. 15-7. CRANE: A machine used for lifting and lowering a load vertically and moving it horizontally and that has a hoisting mechanism as an integral part of it. TYPES OF: Automatic Crane: A crane that. Gantry Crane: A crane similar to an overhead crane. CONICAL DRUM: Grooved hoisting drum of varying diameter. and 15-10). CONSTRUCTION (WIRE ROPE): Refers to the design of wire rope. 15-3. a wire strand. and crawler cranes. hand-operated device consisting of a housing. CORE: The center member of a wire rope around which the strands are laid. or an independent wire rope. Mobile Crane: For the purposes of this chapter. that is used for miscellaneous pulling. when activated. COUNTERBALANCED TRUCK: A truck equipped with load-engaging means wherein.DOE-STD-1090-2001 COME-ALONG: A portable. o A wheel-mounted crane consists of a rotating structure with power plant. all the load is external to the polygon formed by the wheel contacts (see Figure 10-3). operates through a preset cycle or cycles. acids. CORING LINE: Wire rope used to operate the coring tool for taking core samples during the drilling of a well. bars. CONTROLLER: An operator's device for regulating the power delivered to a motor or other equipment. a length of chain or wire rope. Cantilever Gantry Crane: A gantry or semigantry crane in which the bridge girders or trusses extend transversely beyond the crane runway on one or both sides. 1-3 Chapter 1 Terminology and Definitions . mounted on a base or platform equipped with axles and rubber-tired wheels for travel. and boom. a wall-mounted jib crane). CONTROLLER. CONTINUOUS BEND: Reeving of wire rope over sheaves and drums so that it bends in one direction (as opposed to reverse bend). and arrangement of wires in each strand. mobile cranes are defined as wheel-mounted cranes. including number of strands. Floor-Operated Crane: A crane whose operation is controlled by use of a pendant in the hands of an operator on the floor or on an independent platform. or special sections mounted to transmit current to the collectors.

DOCKBOARD: A portable or fixed device for spanning the gap or compensating for the difference in level between loading platforms and carriers. CYLINDRICAL DRUM: Hoisting drum of uniform diameter. and a hydraulic unit. Remote-Operated Crane: A crane controlled by an operator not in a pulpit or a cab attached to the crane. air. The hydraulic unit moves the boom up and down at a pivot point for the purpose of raising. radio-controlled crane). Power-Operated Crane: A crane whose mechanism is driven by electricity. Commercial truck-mounted cranes are included in this category (see Figures 15-3. transporting in the lowered position. mounted on an automotive truck equipped with a power plant for travel. DESIGNATED: Selected or assigned by the employer or the employer's representative as being qualified to perform specific duties. DEFLECTION: o Sag of a rope in a span.. Shop cranes have a capacity of 4 tons (8000 pounds) or less. or internal combustion. Shop Crane: A Portable Automotive Lifting Device (PALD). DOG-LEG: Permanent short bend or kink in a wire rope caused by improper use. A crawler crane consists of a rotating superstructure with power plant. Jib Crane. Wall-Mounted Jib Crane: See Cranes. Pulpit-Operated Crane: A crane operated from a fixed operator station that is not attached to the crane. 15-7. by any method other than pendant or rope control (e. with or without a trolley. DESIGNATED LEADER: “An individual assigned responsibility for hoisting and rigging activities requiring more than one person”. It is a traveling-type crane and operates on a runway attached to the side wall or line of columns. the other end of the bridge being supported by a truck running on an elevated rail or runway. and replacing automotive engines. an upright mast.g. DIESEL-ELECTRIC TRUCK: An electric truck in which the power source is a generator driven by a diesel engine. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | o DESIGN FACTOR: Ratio of ultimate strength to the design working stress. Any deviation from a straight line. DECELERATION STRESS: Additional stress imposed on a wire rope due to decreasing the load velocity. usually measured at midspan as the depth from a chord joining the tops of the two supports. self contained hydraulic and pneumatic-hydraulic crane characterized by a pair of laterally spaced legs. and 15-10). Chapter 1 Terminology and Definitions 1-4 . transmissions and other components. o Overhead Traveling Crane: A crane with a movable bridge carrying a movable or fixed hoisting mechanism and traveling on an overhead fixed-runway structure. supported from a side wall or line of columns of a building. Wall-Mounted Crane: A crane having a jib. CRITICAL DIAMETER: Diameter of the smallest bend for a given wire rope that permits the wires and strands to adjust themselves by relative movement while remaining in their normal positions. operating machinery and boom. Semigantry Crane: A gantry crane with one end of the bridge rigidly supported on one or more legs that run on a fixed rail or runway. DIAMETER: Distance measured across the center of a circle circumscribing the wires of a strand or the strands of a wire rope.DOE-STD-1090-2001 o A truck-mounted crane consists of a rotating superstructure with power plant that operates machinery and boom. hydraulics. removing. mounted on a base equipped with crawler treads for travel (see Figures 15-2 and 15-8). a pivoting boom with a boom extension and hook. 15-9. Types Of.

1-5 Chapter 1 Terminology and Definitions . FITTING: Any accessory used as an attachment for wire rope. It may be smooth or grooved. FORK HEIGHT: The vertical distance from the floor to the load-carrying surface adjacent to the heel of the forks with the mast vertical.DOE-STD-1090-2001 DRAGLINE: Wire rope used to pull an excavating or drag bucket. GROMMET: A seven-strand wire-rope sling made from one continuous length of strand or an endless synthetic-web sling. FLEET ANGLE: Angle between the position of a rope at the extreme end wrap on a drum and a line drawn perpendicular to the axis of the drum through the center of the nearest fixed sheave. EQUALIZER: A device used to compensate for unequal length or stretch of a hoist rope. brake and gear case. railing. END CONTROL: An operator-control position that is located at the end opposite the load end of the truck. FORKLIFT TRUCK: A high-lift self-loading truck equipped with load carriage and forks for transporting and tiering loads (see Figure 10-3). GALVANIZE: To coat with zinc to protect against corrosion. | | FIRST POINT: The first setting on the operator's controller that starts crane motion (slowly) in each direction. This limit is approximately 55–65 percent of breaking strength of steel-wire ropes. walk. trolley. GAS-ELECTRIC TRUCK: An electric truck in which the power source is a generator driven by an LP-gas or gasoline engine. ELECTRIC TRUCK: A truck in which the principal energy is transmitted from power source to motor(s) in the form of electricity. DRIVE: Motor. FAIL-SAFE: A provision designed to automatically stop or safely control any motion in which a malfunction could occur. FLAT ROPE: Wire rope made of parallel alternating right-lay and left-lay ropes sewn together by relatively soft wires. ELASTIC LIMIT: Limit of stress beyond which a permanent deformation takes place within the material. and in the case of reach trucks. used to engage and support loads. DRUM: A cylindrical-flanged barrel of uniform (cylindrical drum) or tapering (conical drum) diameter on which a wire rope is wound for operation or storage. FATIGUE: The tendency of a material to break under repeated stress. FIBER CORES: Cords or rope made of vegetable fiber used in the core of a wire rope. GALVANIZED WIRE: Wire coated with zinc. FLAG: Mark or marker on a rope to designate position of load. GALVANIZED STRAND: Strand made of galvanized wire. cross shaft. EYE OR EYE SPLICE: A loop with or without a thimble formed in the end of a wire rope. FORKS: Horizontal tine-like projections. or hoist. EQUALIZING THIMBLES: A special type of fitting used as a component part of some wire-rope slings. with the forks extended. or gear cases used to propel bridge. coupling. FIBER CENTERS: Cords or rope made of vegetable fiber used in the center of a strand. and operator's cab. FLATTENED STRAND ROPE: A wire rope with either oval or triangular strands that present a flattened rope surface. EQUALIZING SLINGS: Slings composed of wire rope and equalizing fittings. DRIVE GIRDER: A girder on which is mounted the bridge drive. GALVANIZED ROPE: Rope made of galvanized wire. normally suspended from the carriage.

usually galvanized. shipping fixture. LAY LENGTH: The lengthwise distance on a wire rope in which a strand makes one complete turn around the rope's axis (see Figure 1-2). GROOVES: Depressions in the outer surface of a sheave or drum for positioning and supporting a rope.DOE-STD-1090-2001 GROOVED DRUM: Drum with grooved outer surface to accommodate and guide a rope. Rope Lay Left Lay: o Strand: Strand in which the cover wires are laid in a helix having a left-hand pitch. lower. HOIST. HIGH-LIFT TRUCK: A self-loading truck equipped with an elevating mechanism designed to permit tiering. shipping. HIGH-LIFT PLATFORM TRUCK: A self-loading truck equipped with an elevating mechanism intended primarily for transporting and tiering loaded skid platforms (see Figure 10-3). similar to a right-hand screw. Popular types are high-lift platform trucks (see Figure 10-3). HOOK LOAD: The total live weight supported by the hook of a crane. or other hoisting equipment. spreader bars. including the load. IDLER: Sheave or roller used to guide or support a rope. or installation. lifting. KINK: Permanent distortion of wires and strands resulting from sharp bends. o Figure 1-2. derrick. for holding a structure in position. HOIST: A device that applies a force for lifting or lowering. LEVER OPERATED: A lever-operated manual device used to lift. or container designed specifically to facilitate supporting. Rope: Rope in which the strands are laid in a helix having a left-hand pitch. LANG-LAY ROPE: Wire rope in which the wires in the strands and the strands in the rope are laid in the same direction. INTERNALLY LUBRICATED: Wire rope or strand having all wires coated with lubricant. similar to a left-hand screw. or pull a load and to apply or release tension. INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE TRUCK: A truck in which the power source is a gas or diesel engine. LAGGING: External wood covering on a reel of rope or a strand. similar to a right-hand screw. and other tackle not part of the load but supported by the hook and required for the handling of the load. INDEPENDENT WIRE-ROPE CORE: Wire rope used as the core of a larger rope. similar to a left-hand screw. GUY LINE: Strand or rope. storage. Chapter 1 Terminology and Definitions 1-6 . HANDLING FIXTURE: A cradle. slings. loading. INNER WIRES: All wires of a strand except surface or cover wires. HOLDING LINE: Wire rope on a clamshell or orange-peel bucket that holds the bucket while the closing line is released to dump the load. o Right Lay: o Strand: Strand in which the cover wires are laid in a helix having a right-hand pitch. Rope: Rope in which the strands are laid in a helix having a right-hand pitch. structure. or handling a component during fabrication.

by wrapping with soft wire. upset.DOE-STD-1090-2001 LIFT: o o Maximum safe vertical distance through which a hook can travel. Load-bearing parts which. operation-specific training. rope. detailed procedures. damage that would result in delay to schedule or other significant program impact such as loss of vital data. MAGNET: An electromagnetic device carried on a crane hook and used to pick up loads. would result in no more than stoppage of the equipment without causing dropping. and independent review and approval of the entire process. LOAD: The total weight superimposed on the load block or hook. MAIN HOIST: The hoist mechanism provided for lifting the maximum-rated load. 1-7 Chapter 1 Terminology and Definitions . | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | LOAD-BEARING PARTS: Any part of a material-handling device in which the induced stress is influenced by the hook load. LIFT. swivel. LOAD-BACKREST EXTENSION: A device extending vertically from the fork carriage frame. significant release of radioactivity or other hazardous material or other undesirable conditions. LOW-LIFT TRUCK: A self-loading truck equipped with an elevating mechanism designed to raise the load only sufficiently to permit horizontal movement (see Figure 10-3). A primary load-bearing part is a part the failure of which could result in dropping. between a definite range of unit stress on a wire rope and the corresponding elongation. independent of the nature of the load to be lifted. LOAD CENTER (FORKLIFTS): The horizontal longitudinal distance from the intersection of the horizontal load-carrying surfaces and vertical load-engaging faces of the forks (or equivalent load-positioning structure) to the center of gravity of the load. pins. specialized lifting fixtures. if failed. heavy tape. production-type lifting operation. and frame suspended by the hoisting ropes. LOAD BLOCK: The assembly of hook or shackle. MESSENGER STRAND: Galvanized strand or bronze strand used to support telephone and electrical cables. LIFT. within the elastic limit. o LIFT. or loss of control of the load are not considered to be primary load-bearing parts. LINE: A rope used for supporting and controlling a suspended load. NARROW-AISLE TRUCK: A self-loading truck intended primarily for right-angle stacking in aisles narrower than those normally required by counterbalanced trucks of the same capacity (see Figure 10-3). in which the probability of dropping. or collision is reduced to a level acceptable to the responsible manager by preliminary engineering evaluation. sheaves. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY: Mathematical quantity giving the ratio. or similar materials. PREENGINEERED PRODUCTION: Repetitive. undetectable damage that would jeopardize future operations or the safety of a facility. or uncontrolled motion of the load. under service or slack conditions. MOUSING: A method of bridging the throat opening of a hook to prevent the release of load lines and slings. upset. ORDINARY: Any lift not designated as a critical lift or a preengineered production lift. MAN TROLLEY: A trolley having an operator's cab attached to it. The hoisting of a load. MARLINE SPIKE: Tapered steel pin used in splicing wire rope. CRITICAL: A lift for which the application of requirements applicable to ordinary lifts would not adequately eliminate or control the likelihood or severity of the following: o o o personnel injury or significant adverse health impact (onsite or offsite). bearing. upset.

PERSON-IN-CHARGE (PIC): The manager or other responsible person (other than the equipment operator) known to be qualified and appointed to be responsible for the safe handling of critical loads. the wheels fitting into spaces between the bottom boards. ORDER-PICKER TRUCK. and evaluate discontinuities. OPEN SOCKET: A wire-rope fitting consisting of a basket and two ears with a pin. before being fabricated into the strands.025 mm). to the helical form they assume in the wire rope. NONROTATING WIRE ROPE: See Rotation-Resistant Wire Rope. and experience. OVERHEAD GUARD: A framework fitted to a truck over the head of a riding operator. pull. so as to raise the pallet off the floor for transporting (see Figure 10-3). PRECISION LOAD POSITIONING DEVICES: A rigging accessory designed specifically to precisely raise and lower a load through a limited range of lifting/lowering motion (stroke). power-driven vehicle used to carry. training. has a load-engaging means. and to measure geometrical characteristics. QUALIFIED: A person who. PREFORMED WIRE ROPE: Wire rope in which the strands are permanently shaped. (30 cm) stroke and can position a load within 0. or professional standing. defects. in order to detect. and other imperfections. which is movable. NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT): See NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION. controllable by an operator stationed on a platform. Chapter 1 Terminology and Definitions 1-8 . has successfully demonstrated an ability and competence to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter and work. to the helical form they assume in the strand. by possession of a recognized degree. PROOF TEST: A nondestructive tension test performed to verify construction and workmanship of slings or rigging accessories. PRESTRESSING: Stressing a wire rope or strand before use under such a tension and for such a time that stretch that would otherwise occur once the load is picked up is largely nonexistent. stack. or who. locate. (0. PREFORMED STRAND: Strand in which the wires are permanently shaped. before being fabricated into the rope. in ways that do not impair future usefulness and serviceability. and composition. or tier material. properties. The truck may be capable of self-loading and/or tiering (see Figure 10-3). measure.DOE-STD-1090-2001 NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION (NDE): The development and application of technical methods to examine materials or components. HIGH-LIFT: A truck. push. to assess integrity. by extensive knowledge. These devices commonly include a built-in load scale and in such cases may also serve as a load-indicating device. POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK: A mobile. PUBLIC CARRIER: A for-hire company engaged in the public transportation of goods. lift.001 in. certificate. PEENING: Permanent distortion of outside wire in a rope caused by pounding. and is intended for (manual) stock selection. nonmotorized or motorized low-lift truck equipped with wheeled forks of dimensions sized to go between the top and bottom boards of a double-faced pallet. QUALIFIED ENGINEER/QUALIFIED ENGINEERING ORGANIZATION: An engineer or engineering organization whose competence in evaluation of the type of equipment in question has been demonstrated to the satisfaction of the responsible manager. PALLET TRUCK: A self-loading. Standards units typically have 12 in.

girders. regular-lay outer strands. RIDER TRUCK: A truck that is designed to be controlled by a riding operator. ROLLERS: Relatively small-diameter cylinders or wide-faced sheaves used for supporting or guiding ropes. REVERSE BEND: Reeving of a wire rope over sheaves and drums so that it bends in opposite directions. REEL: The flanged spool on which wire rope or strand is wound for storage or shipment. also the maximum load that an industrial truck or a sling. SEIZING WIRE: A soft-annealed-iron wire. SEIZE: To securely bind the end of a wire rope or strand with seizing wire or strand. QUALIFIED RIGGER: One whose competence in this skill has been demonstrated by experience satisfactory to the appointed person. SELF-LOADER: A truck with tires that can fit between the top and bottom boards of a double-faced pallet. in the safe operation of the equipment to be used. Shackle. 1-9 Chapter 1 Terminology and Definitions . and skill. REACH TRUCK: A self-loading truck.DOE-STD-1090-2001 QUALIFIED INSPECTOR: One whose competence is recognized by the responsible manager and whose qualification to perform specific inspection activities has been determined. including satisfactory completion of both written and operational tests to demonstrate knowledge. verified. RATED CAPACITY: The maximum hook load that a piece of hoisting equipment is designed to carry. SEIZING STRAND: Small strand. shackle. usually of seven wires. RUNNING SHEAVE: A sheave that rotates as the load block is raised or lowered. having load-engaging means mounted so it can be extended forward under control to permit a load to be picked up and deposited in the extended position and transported in the retracted position (see Figure 10-3). NOTE: At the option of the user. ROTATION-RESISTANT WIRE ROPE: Wire rope consisting of a left-lay. nine inner wires. RUNWAY: Assembly of rails. SERVE: To cover the surface of a wire rope or strand with a wrapping of wire. SEALE: A strand construction having one size of cover wires with the same number of one size of wires in the inner layer and each layer having the same length and direction of lay. SAFE WORKING LOAD: Load that a rope may carry economically and safely. and attested to in writing. competence. NOTE: The term “rigger” or “qualified rigger” in this standard refers to the function performed. REGULAR-LAY ROPE: Wire rope in which the wires in the strands and the strands in the rope are laid in opposite directions. RIGGING: The hardware or equipment used to safely attach a load to a lifting device. SHACKLE: A type of clevis normally used for lifting (see Figure 1-3). Most common construction is one center wire. brackets. hook. REEVING: A system in which a rope travels around drums or sheaves. lang-lay inner rope covered by right-lay. or other rigging tackle is designed to carry. generally high-lift. The art or process of safely attaching a load to a hook by means of adequately rated and properly applied slings and related hardware. Figure 1-3. made of soft-annealed-iron wire. a rated capacity can be assigned that is less than the design-rated capacity. and framework on which a crane operates. and in no way relates to the worker's classification in any union or bargaining unit. and nine cover wires. QUALIFIED OPERATOR: One who has had appropriate and approved training.

Worker Protection Management). supplier. LIMIT: A switch that is operated by some part or motion of a power-driven machine or equipment to alter the electrical circuit associated with the machine or equipment. SWITCH. SPIRAL GROOVE: Groove that follows the path of a helix around a drum. SPAN: The horizontal. SWITCH. testing. the advisability of which depends on the facts in each situation. or characteristics are knowingly misrepresented by the vendor. or other means indicate that it may not conform to established Government or industryaccepted specifications or national consensus standards.DOE-STD-1090-2001 SHALL: A word indicating that an action is mandatory. Mechanical: A loop or eye formed in the end of a wire rope by pressing or swaging one or more metal sleeve over the wire rope junction. Hand Tucked: A loop or eye formed in the end of a rope by tucking the end of the strands back into the main body of the rope in a prescribed manner. BRAIDED: Very flexible slings composed of several individual wire ropes braided together. not grooved. Splice. and metal mesh made into forms.1. EMERGENCY STOP: A manually or automatically operated electric switch to cut off electric power independently of the regular operating controls. called nonrunning because of its slight movement. SHEAVE. STEEL-CLAD ROPE: Rope with individual strands spirally wrapped with flat steel wire. distributor. SIDE PULL: That portion of a hoist pull acting horizontally when the hoist lines are not operated vertically. SUSPECT/COUNTERFEIT ITEMS (S/CI): A suspect item is one in which visual inspection. SHOULD: A word indicating a recommended action. breaking. STAINLESS-STEEL ROPE: Wire rope made of chrome-nickel steel wires having great resistance to corrosion. SLINGS. Splice. ELECTRIC: A device for making. A counterfeit item is a suspect item that has been copied or substituted without legal right or authority to do so or one whose material. synthetic web. RUNNING: A sheave that rotates as the load block is lifted or lowered. SLINGS: Wire ropes. or manufacturer (see Figure 1-5). SWAGED FITTINGS: Fittings in which wire rope is inserted and attached by a cold-forming method. with or without fittings. SPLICING: Interweaving of two ends of rope to make a continuous or endless length without appreciably increasing the diameter. SMOOTH-FACED DRUM: Drum with a plain. center-to-center distance of runway rails. similar to the thread of a screw. Also refers to making a loop or eye in the end of a rope by tucking the ends of the strands. NONRUNNING (EQUALIZER): A sheave used to equalize tension in opposite parts of a rope. face. SIDE LOADER: A self-loading truck. generally high-lift.1-6 “Implementation Guide For Use With Suspect/Counterfeit Requirements” of DOE O 440. NOTE: (refer to DOE G 440. for handling loads. STRAND: An arrangement of wires helically laid about an axis or another wire or fiber center to produce a symmetrical section. chains. or changing the connections in an electrical circuit. having load-engaging means mounted in such a manner that it can be extended laterally under control to permit a load to be picked up and deposited in the extended position and transported in the retracted position (see Figure 10-3). SWITCH. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Chapter 1 Terminology and Definitions 1-10 . performance. SHEAVE: A grooved wheel or pulley used with a rope to change direction and point of application of a pulling force. SHEAVE.

and hoisting mechanism moving on the bridge rails in a direction at right angles to the crane runway. TROLLEY TRAVEL: Horizontal travel of a trolley at right angles to runway rails. The one or more persons designated to sign verify. trucks. cold drawn from a rod. Figure 1-4. MAIN: A switch controlling the entire power supply to a crane or other equipment. certified records. Thimble. bearings. calculation. thereby preventing further movement of the load block and creating shock loads to the rope and reeving system. procedure. THIMBLE: Grooved metal fitting to protect the eye of a wire rope (see Figure 1-4). TIERING: The process of placing one load on or above another. and structural-supporting hoist mechanism and load girts. based on personal observation.DOE-STD-1090-2001 SWITCH. It consists of a barrel and right. WIRE ROPE: Wire strands laid helically around an axis or a core. power-propelled truck used to carry. lift. stack. TURNBUCKLE: A device attached to wire rope for making limited adjustments in length. TROLLEY GIRTS: Structural members that are supported on the trolley trucks and that contain the upper sheave assemblies. or tier material (see Figure 10-3). often called the disconnect switch. pull. push. axles. TWO-BLOCKING: The act of continued hoisting in which the load-block and head-block assemblies are brought into physical contact. trolley drive. report. WEDGE SOCKET: Wire-rope fitting in which the rope end is secured by a wedge. VERIFICATION: A procedure in which a design. instruction. drawing. WHEEL BASE: Distance between centers of outermost wheels for bridge and trolley trucks. WIRE (SHAPED): A single continuous length of metal either cold drawn or cold rolled from a rod. TINNED WIRE: Wire coated with tin. that a specific action has been performed in accordance with specified requirements. POWERED INDUSTRIAL: A mobile. TRUCK. TAPERING AND WELDING: Reducing the diameter of the end of a wire rope and welding it to facilitate reeving. or document is checked and signed by one or more parties. WHEEL LOAD: The load on any wheel with the trolley and lifted load (rated load) positioned on the bridge to give maximum-loading conditions. WIRE (ROUND): Single continuous length of metal. TROLLEY TRUCK: An assembly consisting of wheels. TROLLEY: A unit consisting of frame.and left-hand threaded bolts. 1-11 Chapter 1 Terminology and Definitions . or direct reports. TAG LINE: A rope used to prevent rotation of a load.

DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure. Chapter 1 Terminology and Definitions 1-12 . 1-5.

DOE-STD-1090-2001 CHAPTER 2 CRITICAL LIFTS 2-i Chapter 2 Critical Lifts .

Crane orientations. dimensions. Operating procedures and special instructions to operators including rigging precautions and safety measures to be followed as applicable. and below-the-hook lifting devices. or quality control) before the lift is made. If required by the critical lift procedure. h. Load vectors. Practice lifts should be done by the same crew. Rigging sketches that include (as applicable): i. and any hazardous or toxic materials that are present 2. iii. c. quality assurance. vii. Identification and rated capacity of slings.” and shall be present at the lift site during the entire lifting operation. iv. load movement path. Other factors affecting equipment capacity. Ensure that the requirements are met for ordinary lifts specified in each section of this standard for each particular equipment category. “Terminology and Definitions. ii.DOE-STD-1090-2001 2. d. Identification of the items to be moved. ix. Methods of attachment. rigging accessories. A pre-lift meeting involving participating personnel shall be conducted prior to making a critical lift. f. Only designated. viii. The operating organization shall appoint a Person-In-Charge (PIC) for the entire operation.2 CRITICAL-LIFT REQUIREMENTS a. Lifting points. g. Load-indicating devices. e. Identification of operating equipment to be used by type and rated capacity 3. vi. using the same lifting equipment. Chapter 2 Critical Lifts 2-2 . lifting bars. Conditions for a practice lift should closely simulate actual conditions involving: weight. The procedure and rigging sketches shall be reviewed and approved by the responsible manager (or designee) and the responsible oversight organization (such as safety. and other relevant factors. v. b. qualified signalers shall give signals to the operator. Boom and swing angles. the operator shall obey a STOP signal at all times. The critical lift plan/procedure shall be reviewed and questions shall be resolved. designated. and center of gravity of the load. 4. This person shall meet the definitions of appointed. the weight. The PIC shall ensure that a pre-job plan or procedure is prepared that defines the operation and includes the following: 1. However. no matter who gives the signal. Experienced operators who have been trained and qualified to operate the specific equipment to be used shall be assigned to make the lift. Sling angles. a practice lift shall be done before the critical lift. and qualified as described in Chapter 1. rigging selection and configuration.

DOE-STD-1090-2001 CHAPTER 4 LIFTING PERSONNEL 4-i Chapter 4 Lifting Personnel .

use. would be more hazardous or is not possible because of structural design or worksite conditions. 2. with the qualified operator.23. 4. For each personnel lifting procedure. The procedures for entering and leaving the personnel platform and the points at which persons will enter and leave the device be reviewed. b.. aerial lift. The designated leader and the crane operator shall determine that: 1. c. The use of a crane to hoist employees on a personnel lift platform is prohibited. Test reports be kept on file and be readily available to appointed personnel. b. stairway.2 Designated Leader 4. The operator does not feel physically or mentally fit to perform the operation. After proof-testing. persons to be lifted.1. and shall be repeated for any employees newly assigned to the operation.1 Personnel Lifting Evaluation a. the personnel lift platform. 4. The statement. d. stairway. a. rigging. This meeting shall be held at each new work location. The manager specifically responsible for the overall work function to be performed shall determine that the erection. A statement describing the operation and its time frame shall be included. A meeting. be corrected and another proof-test conducted. c. and hook block shall be proof-tested by a qualified inspector to 125 percent of the personnel platform's rated capacity by holding it suspended for 5 minutes with the test load suitably distributed on the personnel platform. 2.1. except when the erection.1 GENERAL This chapter specifies the operation. and dismantling of conventional means of reaching the worksite. and inspection requirements for the use of personnel lift platforms or baskets suspended from mobile or overhead cranes. The operator has been working for more 10 hours prior to the start of the lift or the lift will not be completed before the operator has been working for 12 hours. signaler. design. ladder. Any modification to the personnel lift platform or rigging requires retesting. At each new job site prior to hoisting personnel. such as a personnel hoist. and dismantling of conventional means of reaching the work site (i. The Designated Leader shall ensure: 1.550(g) “Cranes and Derricks” and ASME B30. 6. The Authorizing Manager shall appoint a Designated Leader for the entire personnel lifting operation. scaffold. “Personnel Lifting Systems. and the person responsible for overall worksite safety to plan is held prior to the trial lift to review the procedure. any deficiencies revealed by inspection. testing. or by the proof test. the manager responsible for the task shall authorize the use of a crane-suspended work platform and attest to the need for the operation through a written justification attesting to that need. The Designated Leader shall ensure that a pre-job plan is prepared that defines the operation. aerial lift. Cribbing mats under tracks or 4-1 Chapter 4 Lifting Personnel . shall be retained at the job site.DOE-STD-1090-2001 4. The operator did not have at least eight hours off. use.e. after being approved by the authorizer. 3. elevating work platform or scaffold.” 3. or elevating work platform) would be more hazardous or is not possible because of structural design or worksite conditions. This chapter implements the requirements of 29 CFR 1926. The manager specifically responsible for the overall work function shall not allow or require any operator to lift personnel under the following circumstances: 1. 5. ladder. The crane is uniformly level within 1 percent of level grade and firm footing exist under both crawler tracks or under each outrigger float. immediately prior to the work shift containing the person.

2. The crane (mobile) is moved and set up in a new location or returned to a previously used location. When the lift route is changed. person(s) to be lifted. Chapter 4 Lifting Personnel 4-2 . After the trial lift. signaler(s). 3.4.4. the operator and signaler shall be conduct a trial lift. Prior to hoisting personnel in a personnel lift patform ensure that: 1. 2.3 Lifting Personnel a. 3.3 Trial Lift a. and shall be repeated for any employees newly assigned to the operation.DOE-STD-1090-2001 blocks under outrigger floats are used as necessary to provide a firm and substantial footing. 4. The trial lift shall be repeated whenever: a.1.1. The trial lift shall include: 1. No hazardous conditions exist with the platform and its associated rigging. b. The hoist line is not wrapped around any part of the platform. 1. Crane systems. 4. 3.2 Pre-Lift Inspection 5. 4. and safety devices are activated and functioning properly.1. 2. the ground crew. The number of employees occupying the platform does not exceed the number required for the work being performed. 6. A visual inspection of the crane.4. b. Hoist ropes are free of kinks. unless the operator determines that the safety of the hoisted personnel is not affected. The personnel lift platform is not loaded in excess of its rated load capacity. The total weight of the loaded personnel lift platform (including personnel) and related rigging does not exceed 50 percent of the crane rating under the planned conditions of use. and personnel lift platform shall be conducted by a qualified inspector. Cranes equipped with outriggers have outriggers extended in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. 2. This meeting shall be held at each new work location. The platform shall be lifted a few inches and inspected to ensure that it is secure and properly balanced. before personnel initially enter the personnel lift platform. 2. Multiple-part lines are not twisted around each other.4 4. Procedures for entering and leaving the platform.1 Lifting Operations Pre-Lift Meeting a. No interferences exist.1. can be in the platform for the trial lift. Points at which persons will enter and leave the platform. operator aids. Materials and tools to be used during the actual lift. 4. including: 1. Any defects found that create a safety hazard shall be corrected prior to hoisting personnel. 3. Special precautions if personnel will perform work from the suspended platform. 7. controls. 2. and the designated leader shall be held each shift to plan and review procedures to be followed. if secured to prevent displacement. If a different crane operator is assigned. Making the trial lift from the location where personnel will enter the platform to each location where the platform will be hoisted and positioned. prior to lifting personnel: 1. 4.1. 4. Each shift. Loading the unoccupied personnel platform to at least the maximum anticipated load. A meeting attended by the operator. It is acceptable to perform a single trial lift on each shift for all locations to be reached from a single setup position. rigging.

the electrode holders shall be protected from contact with metal components of the personnel platform. Operators of cranes hoisting personnel in a personnel lift platform shall: 3. Ensure that no lifts are made on another of the crane’s load lines while personnel are suspended on the personnel lift platform. If the personnel lift platform cannot be landed. their tools. sleet. 2. 2. Cranes shall not travel while personnel are in the platform. the operator or signaler. 6. In situations where direct visual contact with the operator is not possible and the use of a signaler would create a hazard for that person. 4. Wear body harnesses with lanyards attached to the lower load block or overhaul ball. Suspended personnel lift platforms shall be used only for personnel. set all brakes and locks on the lift crane before personnel perform any work. or to a structural member within the platform that is capable of supporting a fall impact. g. Operate the crane so that lowering will be power-controlled (no free-fall). e. b. cautious manner with no sudden movements of the crane or the platform. Ropes are properly seated on drums and sheaves. Use tag lines to control motion of occupied personnel lift platforms unless their use creates an unsafe condition. 7. the requirements of 29 CFR 1926. c.106 (Occupational Safety and Health Regulations for Construction) shall also apply. The lifting or lowering speed shall not exceed 100 ft/min (30 m/min). direct communication alone (such as a two-way radio) may be used. 5.DOE-STD-1090-2001 5. 4. After the personnel lift platform is positioned. and in direct communication with. f. or toe board of the suspended personnel platform. 8. and positioning to avoid pinch points. electric storms.2 km/hr). The primary attachment is centered over the platform. 3. Remain at the controls when the personnel lift platform is occupied. They shall not be used for transporting bulk materials. When welding is being performed from the personnel lift platform. 6. 4-3 Chapter 4 Lifting Personnel . ensure it is tied to the structure before personnel get off or on. Personnel lift platforms should not be used in winds greater than 20mph (32. The crane has an anti two-block device installed and operational. d. ice. Execptions to this provision shall be approved by the manager specifically responsible for the overall work function and precautions to be taken documented in the personnel lift plan. or other adverse weather conditions that could affect the safety of personnel. 6. When working above water. Not stand on or work from the top rail. midrail. Before commencing or continuing the lift. Remain in continuous sight of. Ensure movement of the personnel lift platform is performed in a slow. lowering. 5. consult with the designated leader when ever there is any doubt as to the safety of the lift. Employees being hoisted or working in a personnel lift platform shall: 1. Keep all parts of their bodies inside the suspended personnel lift platform during raising. controlled. 7. level. and sufficient materials to do their work. snow. The crane is with in 1 percent of 1.

f. (See Figure 4-1).” 2. g. not personnel. “Personnel Platform. “General. i. e. or hose rupture. Positive Hooks j. Cranes and derricks with variable-angle booms shall be equipped with a boom-angle indicator that is readily visible to the operator. boon extensions without positive stops are prohibited for personnel lifting. h.DOE-STD-1090-2001 4. lower load blocks. eliminating the hook throat opening. Chapter 4 Lifting Personnel 4-4 . engine failure. Cranes shall have a means to prevent retraction of hydraulically or pneumatically activated outriggers or stabilizers in the event a hydraulic or pneumatic line fails. without failure. A personnel lift platform that is supported from the crane's hook which meets the requirements of Section 4. at least seven times Figure. d. A positive-acting device shall be used that prevents contact between the load block or overhaul ball and the boom tip (anti-twoblocking device). at all times. Crane load lines shall be capable of supporting. Alternatively. at least ten times the maximum intended load. except where rotation resistant rope is used. 4-1.4. In addition to the general requirements in Section 4. or other attachment assemblies shall be of the type that can be closed and locked. or an accurate determination of the load radius to be used during the lift shall be made prior to hoisting personnel. Cranes with telescoping booms shall be equipped with a device to indicate clearly to the operator. jib type.2 MOBILE CRANES Mobile cranes are designed and intended for handling materials. nut and retaining pin may be used.” the following requirements shall be met when lifting personnel with a mobile crane: a. Cranes having booms in which lowering is controlled by a brake without aid from other devices which slow the lowering speeds is prohibited. Pendant supported. Hydraulic cranes shall have check valves or other devices that will prevent uncontrolled movement in the event of system failure. the boom's extended length. an alloy anchor type shackle with a bolt. c.1. or a system shall be used that deactivates the hoisting action before damage occurs in the event of a two-blocking situation (two-block damage-prevention feature). Personnel are permitted to ride only in one of the following: 1. b. A personnel basket attached directly to the boom which is approved by the crane manufacturer. the maximum intended load. the lines shall be capable of supporting without failure. Hooks on overhaul ball assemblies.

including sliding or folding types. 5. 4-2. Perimeter protection consisting of a top rail approximately 45 in. if installed. A minimum design factor of five. a toe board at least 4 in. personnel shall be protected by overhead protection on the personnel lift platform when there is an overhead hazard. A plate specifying its empty weight and its rated load capacity or maximum intended load. and a midrail approximately halfway between the top rail and the toe board.DOE-STD-1090-2001 4. Rough edges exposed to contact by employees surfaced (ground smooth) to prevent injury. the manufacturer shall provide welding procedures.1.1 Platform Design and Construction 8. 2. Where special steels or other materials are used.4 PERSONNEL LIFT PLATFORM 4. The personnel lift platform and suspension system shall be designed by a qualified person competent in structural design and familiar with national consensus standards governing personnel platform design. A grab rail inside the personnel lift platform to minimize hand exposure. All welding of the platform shall be performed by a qualified welder in accordance with ANSI/AWS D1. shall have a positive acting device to restrain the gate from accidental opening. b. (115 cm) high. Nevertheless.4.27 cm). because many platform design and construction features can be observed and should be known by the platform user. Sufficient headroom shall be provided to allow employees to stand upright in the platform. Swinging type access gates shall open only to the interior of the personnel lift platform. 3. (1. d. 9. 4. (See Figure 4-2) the following key design and construction requirements are presented: a. In addition to wearing hard hats. Chapter 4 Lifting Personnel Figure. The personnel lift platform shall have: 1. Welds shall be inspected by a qualified inspector c. High-visibility color or marking for easy identification. Personnel Lift Platform 4-6 . 7. 6. The sides of the platform enclosed from the toe board to the midrail with solid construction or expanded metal having openings no greater than ½ in. Anchorage points within the platform for attaching personnel fall protection lanyards. Platform access gates. There is no attempt to comprehensively address platform design and construction in this chapter. (10 cm) high.

iv.” or Chapter 9. The platform manufacturer shall furnish complete inspection criteria for the platform users. “Mobile Cranes. 3. 4.5 INSPECTIONS All equipment used in the lifting of personnel shall be inspected.5.” iii.2. toe board. by a designated person. Dated inspections records for the platform shall be made.1. or a qualified person. Platform controls c. slings. The inspection is to identify conditions that have been specifically indicated by the platform manufacturer. 4. Platform and suspension system markings to ensure all information is legible.5. dated records for the hoisting equipment and personnel lift platform shall be made and kept by the platform user for the duration of the personnel lift operation. ii.5.5. vi. i.2 Hoisting Equipment a. v. At least once every 12 months. a. a periodic inspection of the platform shall be performed by a qualified inspector in accordance with the instructions provided by the manufacturer.1 Periodic Inspection Personnel Lift Platform a. The last periodic inspection records shall be kept with the platform and available for review. a.1 4. welds and bolts.1 Frequent Inspection General Attachment mechanisms. Special purpose items: i. and any motion controls shall be inspected at least each day. tested.2 The platform Rigging components Fasteners All safety features and attachments. ii. Platform flooring. Hoisting equipment shall be inspected in accordance with requirements of Chapter 7. 4. shackles. 4. or as required by the personnel lift platform manufacturer. top rail. Overhead protection. The platform.2 4.5. Gate locking mechanisms.1. attachment points. “Overhead & Gantry Cranes. etc. as potentially creating a hazardous operating condition. The criteria shall address all inspection frequency classifications and shall cover: 1. and maintained to protect against failure during lifting operation. before use. 2. 3. Platform structure: i. midrail. Fall protection device anchorage points. Master links. Platforms which have been out of service for 12 or more consecutive months shall receive a periodic inspection prior to use. Personnel Lift Platform 4. b. bolt-ups.5.DOE-STD-1090-2001 4. b. For frequent inspections. Prior to initial use and at each new job the platform shall be inspected by a qualified inspector in accordance with the instructions provided by the manufacturer. Perimeter protection. 2. Chapter 4 Lifting Personnel 4-8 . and barrier form toe board to midrail. suspension system. c. Suspension attachment points.2. Visually inspect items such as the following: 1. Load supporting members. 4.

when used. shall not be a substitute for any requirements of this section. The following steps shall be taken when lifting personnel in Condition A: 1.7 4. also called a “wire watcher. Power Lines are de-energized and grounded. c.1 LIFTING PERSONNEL NEAR ELECTRICAL POWER LINES General the prohibited zone. In addition to Electrical Hazard Warning Signs required on all mobile cranes. 6.3 Condition B a. 3. to the power line to aid in visually locating the prohibited zone. shall be of a nonconductive type. The “wire watcher” shall be in constant communication with the crane operator.7. Power line movements. When lifting personnel near electrical power lines. Tag lines to the personnel platform. Proximity warning devices. No person outside the platform or crane cab shall be permitted to touch the crane. the Designated Leader. The clearance specified in Table 4-1 shall be considered. and a qualified representative of the electrical utility organization shall take place. load line or platform unless the “wire watcher” indicates it is safe. load line. or personnel platform becoming a conductive path. In addition to Electrical Hazard Warning Signs required on all mobile cranes. the fully extended boom length shall be considered (See figure 4-4). 7. 3. 9. a. The following steps shall be taken when lifting personnel in Condition B: 1. 2. insulated links or boom cages. 4. load line. 4. As a minimum. caused by wind shall be considered. Electrical Hazard Warning Signs shall be posted inside the personnel lift platform. A meeting. 8. a qualified representative from the electrical utility organization shall be on site to verify that the power lines are de-energized and grounded. The electrical utility organization shall de-energize the power lines.7. Regardless of whether the crane boom will be fully extended. personnel platform. The following conditions must be considered when lifting personnel near electrical power lines: 4.DOE-STD-1090-2001 4. horizontal and vertical. 5.” whose sole responsibility is to maintain proper clearance. Before lifting personnel.7. 4. the power lines shall be visible grounded to avoid the possibility of electrical feedback. Electrical Hazard Warning Signs shall be posted inside the personnel lift platform. Procedures to safely complete the lift shall be established. if used. 2. Lifting personnel near electrical power lines is not allowed unless there is no less hazardous way to perform the job. or other visibility enhancing devices. Power lines are energized with the equipment outside the prohibited zone but working within a fully extended boom length of Chapter 4 Lifting Personnel 4-10 . such as dry rope made of polypropylene or polyethylene fiber.2 Condition A a. b. Consider attaching ribbons. on the job site. or machine components will enter the prohibited zone (See figure 4-3). 5. between the Personnel Lift Authorizing Manager. Cranes shall not lift personnel under electrical power lines if any combination of boom. balls. The required clearances to the power lines shall be continuously monitored by a signal person. (The safest and preferred condition). Operation of the boom or the platform over power lines should be avoided. it is advisable to perform the lift so there is not possibility of the crane. Poor perception of distance and multiple potential contact points make this very hazardous.

a. shall not be a substitute for any requirements of this section.2 m) (1.5 m) (4. Lifting personnel in this condition is strictly prohibited.1 m) 4-11 Chapter 4 Lifting Personnel .7 m) (13.7 m) b. Proximity warning devices.1 m) ( 4.6 m) ( 6.1 m) ( 7. if used.75 Over 50 Over 345 Over 750 to to to to to 0. When operating near high-voltage power lines: Normal voltage (phase to phase) Minimum required clearance Over Over Over Over Over 50 200 350 500 750 to to to to to to 50 kV 200 kV 350 kV 500 kV 750 kV 1000 kV 10 ft 15 ft 20 ft 25 ft 35 ft 45 ft ( 3. Power lines are energized with the equipment inside the prohibited zone (See Table 4-1).3 m) (3. 4.4 Condition C a. While in transit with no load and boom or mast lowered: Normal voltage (phase to phase) Minimum required clearance Over 0.9 m) (6.75 kV 50 kV 345 kV 700 kV 1000 kV 4 ft 6 ft 10 ft 16 ft 20 ft (1.7. Safe working distance from power lines. insulated links or boom cages.DOE-STD-1090-2001 10. Table 4-1.6 m) (10.

DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure 4-3 Danger Zone for Cranes and Lifting Personnel Near Electrical Transmission Line Chapter 4 Lifting Personnel 4-12 .

DOE-STD-1090-2001 4-13 Chapter 4 Lifting Personnel .

Couplings & Bearings 13 Pawls. Any unusual conditions observed during the inspection should be noted in the Remarks section. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1. DEFECT OK NA NO. WALL. MAKE RATED CAPACITY DATE LOAD TEST INSPECTION REPORT The following checklist identifies the items to be inspected prior to the load test. and inspections completed below. Gears. Qualified inspector shall verify all steps prior to load test.) 7-19 Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes . structural cracks. Ratchets. Spuds. and Ladders Bridge and Trucks Bridge Wheels and Bearings Trolley and Rails Trolley Wheels and Bearings Crane Alignment Runway Rail & Clamps 18 Controllers 19 Relays and Coils 20 Conductors and Collectors 21 Panel Wiring 22 Resistors 23 Bypass Switches 24 Limit Switches 25 Contactor (Electrical) 26 Motors 27 Gauges 28 Lighting System 29 Heater and Switches 30 Operator's Cab 31 Safety 32 Chain and Sprockets 33 Structural 34 Wire Rope Drum and Machinery Foundation 10 Bumpers/Endstops 11 Brake System 12 Drive Shafts. Craftsmen shall initial and date all tests. 2. CRANE ITEM DEFECT OK NA CRANE ITEM Load Hook & Blocks Wire Rope and End Connections Handrails.DOE-STD-1090-2001 EXHIBIT I (SAMPLE FORM) BRIDGE. work. Walkways. etc. GANTRY CRANE LOAD TEST FORM EQUIPMENT NO. misalignment. & Windlocks 14 Sheaves 15 Warning Devices 16 Capacity Signs 17 Main Disconnect REMARKS (Unusual conditions—noises. NOTES: NO.

DOE-STD-1090-2001 CHAPTER 6 PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION AND TRAINING 6-i Chapter 6 Personnel Qualification and Training .

designated leaders. b. and first-line supervisors. persons-in-charge (PIC).DOE-STD-1090-2001 6. This chapter delineates the requirements for the qualification and training of operators. 6-1 Chapter 6 Personnel Qualification and Training . riggers. trainers. Personnel who are designated to operate equipment or perform work covered by this standard shall be qualified and trained to the level of proficiency consistent with assigned tasks. maintenance personnel. inspectors.1 GENERAL a.

Have adequate hearing. b.2. 7. with or without corrective lenses. 6. Have physical strength. Be able to distinguish colors. Operators and operator trainees shall meet the following physical qualifications. field of vision. Be at least 18 years old. and emergency control skills. Show no evidence of physical defects or of emotional instability that could be a hazard to themselves or others. Show no evidence of being subject to seizures or to loss of physical control. under the direct supervision of qualified personnel. Have normal depth perception.1 General Only qualified personnel or trainees. 1. could interfere with their safe performance. Be able to distinguish colors. Operators shall be required by the employer to satisfactorily pass a written examination covering operational characteristics. 5. Medical examinations may be required to determine these conditions. operate. b. Where any deficiency of an upper or lower extremity exists. Have adequate hearing. coordination. Have no detectable or known disease or physical restriction that would render them incapable of safely operating equipment or carrying out rigging duties. The actual or simulated operation shall enable trainees to demonstrate basic knowledge and skills at a level that ensures the safety of personnel and equipment. with or without corrective lenses. | | 8. in the opinion of the examiner. or which. inspect. Qualification shall be limited to the type of equipment for which the operator is being evaluated. such evidence may be sufficient cause for disqualification. and sufficient reaction speed to meet the demands of equipment operation. 1. Have vision of at least 20/30 Snellen in one eye and 20/50 in the other. or which. Operators shall be required by the employer to pass a practical operating skill evaluation. Operators whose jobs do not require binocular vision (operation of cranes with television cameras or periscope optics) shall have distant visual acuity of 20/30 in one eye and no specific visual requirement for the other eye. Have vision of at least 20/30 Snellen in one eye and 20/50 in the other. 4. if color differentiation is required for operation. for a specific operation.2 QUALIFICATION 6. with or without a hearing aid. with or without a hearing aid. 3. and no tendencies to dizziness or similar potentially hazardous characteristics. manual dexterity. controls.2 Operators of Cab-Operated and Pulpit-Operated Cranes a. 4. coordination. the acceptability of a candidate shall be the decision of the supervisor. and sufficient reaction speed to meet the demands of equipment operation. 6. coordination. in the opinion of the examiner. if color differentiation is required for operation. Show no evidence of physical defects or of emotional instability that could be a hazard to themselves or others. medical judgments and tests may be required. hoists. for a specific operation. such evidence may be sufficient Chapter 6 Personnel Qualification and Training 6-2 . Operators and operator trainees shall meet the following physical qualifications. 5. Have physical strength.DOE-STD-1090-2001 6.3 Operators of Mobile Cranes a. regardless of position. 2. regardless of position. or powered forklift trucks: a. 2. c.2. such evidence shall be sufficient reason for disqualification.2. 3. or perform maintenance on cranes. after consulting with the designated physician. who meet the following requirements shall be allowed to rig. Understand spoken and written English or a language generally in use at the work location. In these cases. 6. could interfere with their safe performance.

coordination. Fire.4 Operators of Truck Mounted Cranes Capacity 1 Ton or Less a. 8. 5. Satisfactory completion of a combination written and verbal test on load/capacity chart usage covering various crane configurations. Operators shall satisfactorily complete a combination written and verbal test on load/chart usage that covers a selection of the configurations (the crane may be equipped to handle) for the type crane for which qualification is being sought. in the language of the crane manufacturer's operation and maintenance instruction materials. Medical examinations may be required to determine these conditions. and emergency control skills such as response to: 1. write. b. 2. and no tendencies to dizziness or similar potentially hazardous characteristics. 3. Qualification shall be limited to the type of equipment for which the operator is being evaluated. Shall successfully pass with a negative result. Demonstrate their ability to read. including: 1. Maneuvering skills. g. 2. Satisfactory completing of a written examination covering safety. Trainee qualification requirements shall include but not limited to the following: 1. Pre-start and post-start inspection. Operators shall demonstrate their ability to read. Securing the crane. Operator physical examinations shall be required every three years or more frequently if supervision deems it necessary. in the language of the crane manufacturer's operations and maintenance instruction materials. a substance abuse test. 7. e. such evidence shall be sufficient reason for disqualification. 10. Have no detectable or known disease or physical restriction that would render them incapable of safely operating equipment or carrying out rigging duties. controls. 2. 4. after consulting with the designated physician. the acceptability of a candidate shall be the decision of the supervisor. comprehend. Have normal depth perception. 3. The operator shall complete a practical operating skill evaluation test (actual or simulated). and controls of the type crane for which they are being qualified. manual dexterity. Qualification shall be limited to the type of equipment for which the operator is being evaluated. | | | | | | | | | | | | 6-3 Chapter 6 Personnel Qualification and Training . 9. Control malfunction. Physical qualifications shall be based on specific job requirements. As well as characteristic and performance questions appropriated to the crane type for which qualifications is sought. operational characteristics and limitations. 6. Shutdown. and exhibit arithmetic skills and load/capacity chart usage. comprehend and exhibit arithmetic skills and load/capacity chart usage. c. Where any deficiency of an upper or lower extremity exists. d. In these cases. The level of testing will be determined by the standard practice for the industry where the crane is employed and this test shall be confirmed by a recognized laboratory service. 4. b. Show no evidence of being subject to seizures or to loss of physical control. 3. Power line contact. f. Operators shall be required by their employer to pass a practical operating skill evaluation. Operators shall be required by the employer to satisfactorily pass a written examination covering operational characteristics.2. 6. demonstrating proficiency and basic knowledge in handling the specific type crane for which the operator is being evaluated. field of vision. medical judgments and tests may be required. Loss of stability.DOE-STD-1090-2001 cause for disqualification. write.

c. The actual or simulated operation shall enable personnel to demonstrate basic knowledge and skills at a level that ensures the safety of personnel and equipment. e. Exercise authority to start and stop work activities. b.7 Riggers Riggers shall be required to pass a practical rigging skill evaluation that requires the use of rigging equipment in safe configurations. 6. Direct operations if an accident or injury occurs. Job efficiency and safety. In addition. Operators shall be required by their employer to pass a practical operating skill evaluation. “Qualification. Selection of proper equipment/tools. d.9 Designated Leader The designated leader shall have sufficient knowledge and experience to accomplish the following responsibilities: a.2. Personnel assignments and responsibilities. Physical qualifications shall be based on specific job requirements. b. c. Recognition and control of hazardous or unsafe conditions. Physical qualifications shall be based on specific job requirements. f. e. Ensure that a signaler is assigned.” | | | | | | Chapter 6 Personnel Qualification and Training 6-4 . Ensure that the weight of the load is determined and that proper equipment and accessories are selected. Operators shall be required by the employer to pass a practical operating skill evaluation. c. Necessary administrative requirements.10 Inspectors a. Direct operations in the case of an accident. b.2. 6.5 Operators of Floor-Operated Cranes a. h. f. Critical-lift documentation.DOE-STD-1090-2001 6. Ensure that personnel involved understand how the lift is to be made.6 Operators of Forklift Trucks a. Qualified inspectors shall have the necessary knowledge and experience to properly inspect hoisting and rigging equipment. See general and crane specific qualification requirements in Section 6. Qualification shall be limited to the type of forklift for which the operator is being evaluated. The PIC shall understand the rules and procedures implemented at the site to ensure that the following are completed: a. the PIC shall a. and is identified to the operator. g. b.2.2. Ensure that equipment is properly set up and positioned. d. 6.2. Employees who operate cranes to perform crane inspections shall be trained and qualified to operate the crane on which the inspection is being performed.2. c. b. The actual or simulated operation shall enable operators to demonstrate basic knowledge and skills at a level that ensures the safety of personnel and equipment. Stop the job when any potentially unsafe condition is recognized.8 Person-In-Charge (PIC) The PIC shall have the necessary knowledge and experience of the specific type of equipment and the hazards of critical lifts to direct the safe completion of the operation. 6. Direct the lifting operation to ensure that the job is done safely and efficiently. b.2. if required. 6. The actual or simulated operation shall enable operators to demonstrate basic knowledge and skills at a level that ensures the safety of personnel and equipment. Survey the lift site for hazardous or unsafe conditions. Qualification shall be limited to the type of equipment for which the operator is being evaluated.

Crane operation by maintenance personnel shall be limited to those crane functions necessary to perform maintenance on the crane or to verify the performance of the crane after maintenance has been performed. Employees who perform maintenance activities on equipment covered by this standard should have an understanding of the following criteria: 1. See general and crane specific qualification requirements in Section 6. Documentation requirements for maintenance and repair. Maintenance and repair procedures recommended by the manufacturer or responsible maintenance/engineering organization. Supervisors should ensure that employees fully understand the importance of safety and that they recognize their own authority and responsibility to stop work when safety is questionable. “Qualification.” 7. Crane operation by crane inspectors shall be limited to those crane functions necessary to perform the inspection on the crane. 3.2.13 Maintenance Personnel a.2. with safety as top priority. 2. 5. Employees who operate cranes to perform crane maintenance shall be trained and qualified to operate the cranes on which maintenance is being performed. Access to operating instructions to perform adjustments. | | | | | | Wiring diagrams. The tools to safely accomplish their | | | | | 6. Parts information furnished by the manufacturer or the responsible maintenance/engineering organization. The supervisor shall be familiar with applicable rules and procedures implemented at the site to ensure that hoisting and rigging work under their control is done efficiently and safely.2. 6-5 Chapter 6 Personnel Qualification and Training . work.12 First-Line Supervisors The first-line supervisor of hoisting and rigging operations should be knowledgeable of the specific types of hoisting and rigging operations under their supervision and their operational hazards. c.11 Instructors Instructors responsible for developing or presenting hoisting and rigging training programs shall meet the qualification standards specified by the responsible training organization. | | | b. 4. Manufacturers' recommendations as to points and frequency of lubrication and levels and types of lubricant to be used. 6. 6.2. 6.DOE-STD-1090-2001 c.

and floor-operated cranes. This checklist must be tailored to suit actual conditions. 6. Lessons learned. Chapter 6 Personnel Qualification and Training 6-6 . Score standards shall be set for each examination by the training organization. Operating characteristics. Limit switches. b.2 Operators of Cab-Operated. Organizations that employ personnel who operate. 21. simulated field training. Rigging. c. Records and documents. Applicable standards and regulations. Terminology and definitions. 1. and Floor-Operated Cranes a. Traveling with load. Electrical hazards.DOE-STD-1090-2001 6. Safety features of equipment. Inspections/tests.3 TRAINING 6. 15.1 General a. computer-aided training. and operating procedures. The initial training of operators shall include: 1. Pulpit-Operated. on-the-job training (OJT). 11. 7. 16. capabilities. 4. under the direction of a qualified operator or instructor who is designated by management to instruct in the operation of hoisting equipment. Management shall determine the course of action for persons receiving negative evaluations.3. 5. rig. 1. classroom training. This may include. and forklifts as an incidental part of their normal work assignment. Environmental hazards—weather. d. Persons who may operate pendant-controlled cranes. 8. but is not limited to. 13. 20. 18. 10. Critical lifts. effects of variables. 17. limitations. testing technique. Operators should be able to demonstrate a knowledge of equipment operating characteristics. and witnessing a demonstration of the operator's skills. and test difficulty.3. Load dynamics. 9. Load weight estimation. or perform maintenance on equipment covered in this standard shall provide training programs. manual hoists. pulpit-operated. Persons whose principal assignment is the performance of hoisting and rigging work. Emergency procedures. The following checklist contains basic factors with which an operator should be familiar. including a means of evaluation. Lifting personnel. b. 2. safety features. 12. 6. Two-blocking. The minimum passing score will depend on the subject. 3. The training organization shall use training methods best suited for the students and the subject material. including results of written and oral evaluation. Only qualified and authorized operators or operator trainees under the direct supervision of a qualified operator shall be permitted to operate cab-operated. | | 2. and training by equipment manufacturer or commercial training companies. 19. inspect. 14. to ensure that the personnel are competent to perform the operations. Traveling without load. c. Training programs for operators should address two levels of required performance. 2. Applicant training on equipment for which qualification is sought. Hand signals. Instructor review of the applicant's knowledge. Ropes and reeving. warning signals.

Where they are located. Stability. Steering and maneuvering. Operating instruction. shall include results of written and/or oral evaluation. and operating procedures. and witnessing a demonstration of the operator's skills. effects of variables.3 Mobile Crane Operators a. Only qualified and authorized operators shall be permitted to operate powered forklift trucks. Load charts. ii. 5.b and c. 7. 5. The following checklist contains basic factors with which a forklift truck operator should be familiar.4 Operators of Truck Mounted Cranes Capacity 1 Ton or Less a. 2. Forklift truck controls and instrumentation: i. safety features.3. and witnessing a demonstration of the operator's skills.3.2. capabilities. interactive computer learning. 3. Outriggers. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 6-7 1. 6. 26. How they work. 6. 6.3. d. 8. under the direction of a qualified operator or instructor. Operator trainees may operate powered forklift trucks under the direct supervision of a qualified operator or trainer and only where such operation does not endanger the trainee or other employees. Warning devices. | | | | | 6. Assembly and disassembly. b. Evaluation of the operator’s performance in the workplace including results of written and oral evaluation. c. Operators shall meet the criteria specified in paragraphs 6. and precautions for the type of forklift truck the operator will be authorized to operate. iii. b. Operating practices. Fire protection. Only qualified and authorized operators or operator trainees under the direct supervision of a qualified operator shall be permitted to operate mobile cranes. Operators should be able to demonstrate a knowledge of equipment operating characteristics. 2. 23. Crane setup. lecture. Operator aids. 4. 3. b. Lifting operations involving multiple cranes. Engine or motor operation.capacity 1 ton or less. videotape. Chapter 6 Personnel Qualification and Training . 2. written material).DOE-STD-1090-2001 22. c. The initial training of operators shall include applicable training on equipment for which qualification is sought. What they do..g.5 Forklift Truck Operators a. discussion.3. Access and egress. 24. limitations. A combination of formal instruction (e. Differences between the forklift truck and the automobile. Crane components. Refueling. 3. 4. Instructor review of the applicant's knowledge. warnings. 25. Practical training (demonstrations performed by the trainer and practical exercises performed by the trainee). The initial training of operators shall include: 1. and they should also be able to demonstrate an understanding of the following: 1. Only qualified and authorized operators or operator trainees under the direct supervision of a qualified operator shall be permitted to operate truck mounted cranes . This checklist must be tailored to suit actual conditions.

DOE-STD-1090-2001 CHAPTER 7 OVERHEAD AND GANTRY CRANES 7-i Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes .

top-running single-girder bridge with underhung trolley hoists (Figure 7-2). the angle of whose worm prevents the load from accelerating as it is being lowered) shall be equipped with a controlled-braking means in addition to the holding brake to control speed of lowering. The power supply for the runway conductors shall be controlled by a switch or circuit-breaker located on a fixed structure.1. If this is selected.1. On floor.3. Markings on the bridge. shall be tested in accordance with Section 7.DOE-STD-1090-2001 7.6 Power Shutoff 7. and load block shall be legible from the ground or floor.1 GENERAL Overhead and gantry cranes include top-running single. 2.1. there shall be at least two means of egress from the crane. or one whose load-supporting components have been modified. A nonconductive rope attached to the main disconnect device on a floor-operated crane. and monorails/underhung cranes (Figure 7-3).4 Egress On cab-operated cranes. 7. and capable of being locked in the OPEN position. This device shall be mounted on the bridge or footwalk near the runway collectors. Each independent hoisting unit shall be equipped with at least one holding brake applied directly to the motor shaft or some part of the gear train. b.1. 7. A rerated crane.5 Hoist Brakes a. On cab-operated cranes. 7-1 Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes . a. “Testing. and arranged to permit departure under emergency conditions.1. An under-voltage trip for a main circuit-breaker. One of the following types of floor.or multiple-girder bridge with top-running trolley hoists (Figure 7-1). There shall be provisions for locking the device in the OPEN position unless the crane is the only load on a lockable switch or circuit-breaker that is accessible from the floor. Each independent hoisting unit (except worm-geared hoists.2 Rated-Load Marking The rated capacity shall be marked on each side of the crane. c. operated by an emergency stop button in the pendant push-button station or the pulpit.1 Operator Training/ Qualification Operators of overhead cranes shall be trained and qualified as required in Chapter 6. Modifications and reratings must be approved by the cognizant safety organization. “Rated-Load Marking. b.2.3 Modification Cranes may be modified or rerated provided that the modifications or supporting structures are analyzed thoroughly by a qualified engineer or by a manufacturer of cranes.1. If the crane has more than one hoisting unit.” The new rated capacity shall be displayed in accordance with Section 7. an enclosed switch or circuit-breaker (with provisions for locking in the OPEN position) shall be provided in the leads from the runway conductors. c. an enclosed disconnect device shall be provided in the leads from the runway conductors. each hoist shall have its rated capacity marked on it or on its load block. remote.” 7. 1. 7. the rope shall be suspended adjacent to the operating ropes if manual controllers are used. and pulpit-operated disconnects shall be provided. remote. When the operator opens this switch or circuit-breaker. accessible from the floor. trolley. Holding brakes on hoists shall be applied automatically when power is removed.1. “Personnel Qualification and Training. A means of opening this device shall be located within reach of the operator when the operator is in the operating position. or near the pendant push-button station if magnetic controls are used. remote from each other. or pulpit-operated cranes. the holding brakes should set.” 7.

Top-running single. Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes 7-2 .or multiple-girder bridge with top-running trolley hoist.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure 7-1.

Top-running single-girder bridge with underhung trolley hoist. 7-3 Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes .DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure 7-2.

DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure 7-3. Monorails and underhung cranes. Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes 7-4 .

b. or the pulpit. 7.1. The hoisting motion of all cranes shall have an overtravel-limit switch/device in the hoisting direction to stop the hoisting motion. Lower-travel limit switches/devices should be provided for all hoists where the load block enters pits or hatchways in the floor.1.DOE-STD-1090-2001 3.9 Maintenance History The maintenance history of the crane shall be retained throughout its service life. 7-5 Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes .7 Hoist-Limit Switch The crane shall not be loaded beyond its rated capacity except for test purposes. a. A main-line contactor operated by a switch or push button on the pendant push-button station.8 Load Limits 7. the remote-control station.1. as described in Section 7. 7.3.

repair.2. Hoist rope for significant wear. Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes 7-6 . 3. and other areas subject to wear or abrasion.” for additional hook requirements). and other operating parts of the equipment shall be checked during each inspection and shall be in good working order. Dated and signed inspection reports shall be kept on file and shall be readily available.2. extreme temperatures. Chain. Controls and operating mechanisms for proper operation. and other parts of air systems for leakage. Hooks for cracks. 5. all new. 2. sprockets. Inspections of repaired and modified cranes may be limited to the provisions affected by the alteration. if used. crushing. 7. or modification as determined by a qualified person. 4.5 Monthly Rope. valves. The operator or other designated person shall visually inspect the following items for damage. load indicators. Lines. Heavy service—operating at 85 to 100 percent of rated load or in excess of 10 lift cycles/hr as a regular specified procedure. 7. wear.1 General hoist has not been in regular service (records are not required): 1.2. or repaired cranes shall be inspected by a qualified inspector to ensure compliance with applicable provisions of this chapter. 2. and corrosion.2. Operators or other designated personnel shall visually inspect items such as the following each day or prior to first use if the b. controls. hoist rope or chain hooks 7. Hoist chain for nicks.4 Daily Preoperational Check a.2 Crane Service Crane service is defined as follows: a. All safety devices.2.2 INSPECTIONS 7. for proper operation.e. Parts found to be defective during any inspection or nondestructive examination shall be replaced or repaired as directed by the responsible line manager or that person's designated representative. modified. Severe service—operating at normal or heavy service under abnormal operating conditions (i. and Hook Inspection a. excessive wear. or deformation of any load-bearing part of the equipment. Lower the hook block to its lowest position and examine for any condition that could result in an appreciable loss of strength. gouges. Hoist upper-limit switch/device for proper operation at the beginning of each shift or prior to use if hoist has not been in regular service.. reinstalled. birdcaging. b. b.3 Initial Inspection Prior to their initial use. The inspection shall be made by running out as much of the rope or chain as is necessary to visually examine those portions that flex over sheaves. Normal service—operating at less than 85 percent of rated load and not more than 10 lift cycles/hr except for isolated instances. 6. 7. “Load Hooks. c. kinking. deformation and damage from chemicals (see Chapter 13. and the like. distortion.DOE-STD-1090-2001 7. Hook latch. corrosive atmospheres). Operators or other designated personnel shall examine deficiencies and determine whether they constitute a hazard and whether a more detailed inspection is required. wear. 7. There shall be no apparent damage. Brakes shall work satisfactorily and load brakes shall be designed to hold any load up to at least 125 percent of the rated capacity of the equipment without slipping or overheating. and corrosion. or other deficiency that might reduce capacity or adversely effect the safety of the crane: 1.

“Daily Preoperational Check. bumpers. g.6 Frequent Inspection In addition to the requirements of Section 7.. Load. rivets. Before the crane is returned to service. 7-7 Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes . Components for deformation. The qualified inspector shall examine deficiencies and determine whether they constitute a safety hazard and whether the crane should be removed from service until it is repaired. and push-button stations (not limited to these items). 2. b. d. This form is intended to be a sample only and is not intended to be mandatory. | | a. f. which appears at the end of this chapter. 3. deformation. b. locking and clamping devices. electric. k. Hoist braking system for proper operation. Bolts. Chain-drive sprockets for excessive wear and chains for excessive stretch. linings. Hooks for damage from chemicals. Operators or other designated personnel shall visually inspect the crane at the following intervals (records are not required): 1. b. Hoist chain for nicks. cracks. d.” these inspections shall include the following: 1. crushing. Chapter 1). Normal service—monthly. and corrosion. 3. Hoist rope or chain reeving for compliance with hoist manufacturer's recommendations. limit switches. Electrical apparatus for signs of any deterioration of controllers. Hooks for cracks. Hoist rope for significant wear. distortion. deformation. Operators or other designated personnel shall examine deficiencies and determine whether a more detailed inspection is required. A qualified inspector shall perform a complete inspection at the following intervals: 1. diesel. e. Parts such as pins. c.DOE-STD-1090-2001 c. 7. c. Signed and dated inspection records shall be kept on file and shall be readily available.2. latch engagement (if provided).7.2. birdcaging.2. or having more than 15 percent in excess of normal throat opening.2. Observations during operation. correct deficiencies that could reduce its capacity or adversely effect its safety. j. Check for suspect/counterfeit parts (see Terminology and Definitions. In addition to the requirements of Section 7. shafts. A sample load test form is included as Exhibit I. cracks. or other power plants for improper performance or noncompliance with other applicable standards. cracks. Severe service—daily to weekly. kinking. 7.2. and corrosion. gears. Sheaves and drums for cracks or wear. and pins for being loose or absent. pawls. Dated and signed inspection records shall be kept on file and shall be readily available. 2. nuts. Heavy service—weekly to monthly. or distortion. g. wear. and evidence of heat damage. master switches. or corrosion. damage from chemicals. h. d. f. and other indicators over their full range for any significant inaccuracies.7 Periodic Inspection a. contacts. Heavy service—semiannually. Brake-system parts. “Frequent Inspections. gouges. and latches for excessive wear.” periodic inspections shall include the following: a. i. Normal service—yearly. e.6. and stops for wear. rollers. Severe service—quarterly. 3.1 Cranes 7. c. 2.4. bearings. wind. Gasoline.

cause. Function labels for legibility. Conditions such as the following shall be sufficient reason for questioning rope safety and considering replacement: 1.3 a. 4. or wear of outside wires (see Table 7-1). frequency rates of operation. Nondestructive examination of hooks and of welds. A dated and signed report of the rope inspection. Operate the crane under load in raising and lowering directions. 1. 7. without detaching it from the hoist drum. 5. severity of environment. 2. Safety of rope operation depends on this remaining strength.2 a. birdcaging. m. Chain (Welded Link) 4. 6. the crane manufacturer.7. or any other damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure. which interrupt power or cause a warning to be activated.7. or 4 broken wires in one strand in one rope lay. If the chain binds. bearings. or other suspect load-bearing parts when required by the inspector. Replacement rope and connections shall have a strength at least as great as the original rope and connections furnished by the crane manufacturer. crushing. including results. Reduction of rope size below nominal diameter. This inspection shall include examination of the entire length of the rope. The chain should feed smoothly into and away from the sprockets. 12 randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay. whether due to loss of core support. Evidence of heat damage from any 7. or is noisy. Corroded. c. Reductions from nominal diameter greater than those listed in Table 7-1. or riveting used to secure the retaining members for soundness. No precise rules can be given for determining the exact time to replace rope because many variables are involved. All rope on cranes that have been idle for 1 month or more due to shutdown or storage shall be inspected before the crane is returned to service. after allowance for deterioration disclosed by inspection. first see that it is clean and properly lubricated. such as parts passing over sheaves (these are points most subject to deterioration). Kinking. crushing.DOE-STD-1090-2001 or more than 10 degree twist from the plane of the unbent hook (see Chapter 13 for additional hook requirements). Worn outside wires. Any deviation from the original size. Hook retaining nuts or collars and pins. welds. 5. 3. n. d. jumps. bent. Safety in this respect depends largely on the use of good judgment by an appointed person in evaluating remaining strength in a used rope. In running ropes. Wire Rope 7. o. Wear of one-third of the original diameter of outside individual wires. Testing of motion limit devices. The number and distribution or concentration of broken outside wires. A qualified inspector shall inspect all ropes at least annually. or improperly applied end connections.2. The qualified inspector shall carefully note any deterioration such as described below resulting in appreciable loss of original strength and determine whether further use of the rope constitutes an acceptable risk. percentage of capacity lifts. and observe the operation of the chain and sprockets. or a qualified person. and exposure to shock loads. worn. 2. Corroded or broken wires at end connections. Never use discarded rope for slings. 3. cracked. b. e. If Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes 7-8 . shall be filed. internal or external corrosion. b. More frequent intervals shall be determined by a qualified person and shall be based on such factors as expected rope life as determined by experience on the particular installation or similar installations. grade. f.2. for proper performance (each motion shall be inched or operated at low speed into the limit device with no load on the crane). Kinking. l. or unstranding. cutting. or construction shall be specified by a rope manufacturer. Sections of rope that are normally hidden during inspection or maintenance procedures.

weld spatter. proceed as follows: 1.7. Slacken the chain and move adjacent links to one side to inspect for wear at the contact points. clean and properly lubricate it. Select an unworn. f. Examine visually for gouges. 7. corrosion.4 mm) chain for powered hoists or is 2. (0. Repairing the load chain by welding or any other means shall not be attempted by anyone other than the chain manufacturer. or damage. (38 mm) c. 2. Suspend the hoist in normal position and apply a light load of approximately 50 lb (23 kg). corrosion. If the used chain exceeds a crane manufacturer's recommended length or. using a caliper-type gauge. Conditions such as the following shall be sufficient reason for questioning safety and for considering replacement: 1. g. When a chain is replaced. disassemble and inspect the mating parts (sprockets. the used chain is 1. inspect the chain and mating parts for wear. i. If the trouble persists. Select a 12-in. and replace if necessary.4 Chain (Roller) Rope diameter Up to 5/16 in. (13 mm) Over 1/2 in. guides. observing the operation of the chain and sprockets. Replacement chain shall be the same size. nicks. (1.2 mm) 1/16 in. 2. (356 mm) overall. Suspend the chain vertically under tension and. (29 mm) Over 1 1/8 in. or distorted links. grade. unstretched length of the chain (e. (0. nicks. (1. distortion. to 1/2 in. or other damage. If instructions are not available. The existence of gouges. (305 mm) to 14 in.. e. in the absence of such a recommendation.5 percent longer than the unused chain for hand-operated chain. 7-9 Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes . proceed as follows: 1.8 mm) 3/64 in. (19 mm) Over 3/4 in.DOE-STD-1090-2001 the trouble persists. Table 7-1. Discarded load chain shall not be used for slings. jumps. Maximum allowable reduction from Nominal diameter 1/64 in. distortion. The chain should be cleaned before inspection. If wear is observed or stretching is suspected.4 mm) 1/32 in.g. to 1 1/8 in. the chain should be measured according to the hoist manufacturer's instructions. replace the chain. or is noisy.2. measure the outside length of any convenient number of links approximately 12 in. at the slack end).5 percent longer than the unused a. stripper) for wear. b. the chain shall be measured according to the crane manufacturer's instructions. and construction as the original chain furnished by the crane manufacturer unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer due to working conditions. j.6 mm) 3/32 in. (305-mm) section of chain that normally travels over the load sprocket. to 1 1/2 in. which change the direction but not the tension in the chain. (8 mm) Over 5/16 in. (2. The chain shall be installed without any twist between the hoist and an anchored end on either the loaded side or the slack side. Load-chain links that pass over the load sprocket on edge (alternate to those that lie flat in the pockets) should be installed with the welds away from the center of the sprocket. h. 3. Maximum allowable rope reductions. If the chain binds. If instructions are not available. d. and distorted links. 2. Test the crane under load in raising and lowering directions. weld spatter. Measure the same number of links in the used sections and calculate the percentage of increase in length. If wear is observed or stretching is suspected. This precaution is not required on idler sprockets. to 3/4 in. inspect the chain and mating parts for wear.

2. d. grade.6 above are reason for questioning chain safety and considering its replacement. (6. g. ii. 1 through 5 above. Cranes that have been idle for 1 month or more but less than 6 months shall be inspected before being placed in service according to the requirements listed above in Section 7. “Periodic Inspection.3 mm) in any 5-ft (1. Check for straightness in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the rollers.b. c. Replace if the chain has a bow exceeding 1/4 in. Determine elongation by measuring with a caliper from the edge of one chain pin to the corresponding edge of another pin. (305 mm) compared to new or unstretched chain values. Additional inspection shall be made by removing the chain from the crane and cleaning it thoroughly. (6.2. vi. Side plates that are spread open.7.2. or weld spatter.4.DOE-STD-1090-2001 3. 4. Repairing of roller chain by welding or heating shall not be attempted. Rollers that do not run freely with light finger pressure. Corrosion.2. e. Deficiencies as stated in paragraph 7. f. and construction as the original chain furnished by the crane manufacturer unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer due to working conditions..3 mm) in 12 in. If elongation exceeds 1/4 in.7.7. “Frequent Inspection.4.6. Pins turned from original position. Inspect for twist. Gouges. a. Roller chain.52-m) section. the chain shall be replaced. Cranes that have been idle for 6 months or longer shall be inspected before being placed in service according to the requirements listed above in Section 7. iv. Joints that cannot be flexed by easy hand pressure. Replace if the twist in any 5-ft (1. discarded or new. 7. shall not be used for slings. Deficiencies such as those listed below shall be carefully examined and a determination shall be made as to whether they constitute a safety hazard: i. Roller chain shall be replaced if any of the conditions exist as stated inparagraphs 7.” b.52-m) section exceeds 15 degrees. pitting.b. nicks. v.2.” Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes 7-10 . Replacement chain shall be the same size. 5.8 Cranes Not in Regular Service iii. 6. or discoloration.

Transport the test load by means of the trolley for the full length of the bridge. Trolley travel. The replacement of load chain and rope is specifically excluded from this requirement. 4.a. or replaced. +0 percent of stipulated values. including the following functions: 1. Lifting and lowering. d. 2. Limit switches/devices. The trip setting of hoist-limit devices shall be determined by tests with an empty hook traveling at increasing speeds up to the maximum speed. modified. g. Test loads shall not be less than 100 percent or more than 125 percent of the rated capacity. Hoist the test load a sufficient distance to ensure that the load is supported by the crane and held by the hoist brakes. 7. Testing shall consist of the following operations as minimum requirements: 1. b. Operational testing of altered. If wire rope clips are used. and indicating devices. repaired. or modified cranes shall be tested by a designated person to ensure compliance with this chapter. repaired. in one direction with the trolley as close to the extreme right-hand end of the crane as practical. 5. then verify that the rope is properly seated. Bridge travel. and in the other direction with the trolley as close to the extreme left-hand end of the crane as practical. 2. The crane should be cycled several times with a load equal to or greater than the maximum operational load. f.1.a above. h. then check and retighten nuts to the wire rope clip or wire rope manufacturer’s recommended torque value. Personnel shall be kept clear of the test load while it is suspended. 3. Prior to initial use.3. if provided. or whose rated capacities have been affected shall be tested by or under the direction of a qualified inspector b.1 Operational Tests 2. If wire rope clips or wedge socket end connection are installed during wire rope installation: 1. c. all new or reinstalled cranes and cranes in which the load sustaining parts have been altered. repaired. an operational test of the crane shall be made in accordance with para. 3. e.DOE-STD-1090-2001 7.1 prior to putting the crane back in service. repair. 7. A written report confirming the rated load testing of the crane shall be furnished by the inspector.3. The transporting of test loads as required by paragraph 7. limiting. 7-11 Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes . Test weights shall be accurate to within -5 percent. shall be done insofar as interfering equipment/structures permit and in accordance with recommendations from the manufacturer or a responsible engineering organization. Transport the test load by means of the bridge for the full length of the runway. If a wedge socket is used. test loads should not be carried over critical systems or components.3 TESTING 7.3. stopping by the a. reinstalled. normally 100percent of the rated capacity.3. however. Locking. 3. brakes. The actuating mechanism of the upper-limit device shall be located so that it will trip the device under all conditions and in sufficient time to prevent contact of the hook or load block with any part of the trolley or crane. unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer or a qualified person. 4.2 Rated Load Test a. or modification as determined by a qualified person.2. or modified cranes whose load sustaining parts or rated capacities have not been affected may be limited to the functions affected by the alteration. However. i. Prior to initial use. Lower the test load. all new.

Use warning signs and barriers on the floor beneath the crane where overhead maintenance work creates a hazard. Dated records should be kept where readily available to appointed personnel. Maintenance personnel shall take the following precautions before performing maintenance on a crane: 1. If manufacturer’s recommendations are no longer available. Install a guard or barrier between adjacent runways for the length of the established work area to prevent contact between persons performing maintenance and any crane on the adjacent runway. All moving parts of the crane for which lubrication is specified shall be regularly lubricated. Unreel or uncoil rope as recommended by the rope manufacturer and with care to avoid kinking or inducing a twist. crush. Store rope to prevent damage or deterioration. Those sections of rope located over sheaves or otherwise hidden during inspection and maintenance procedures require special attention when the rope is being lubricated. d. 2. and types of lubricant to be used. Replacement parts shall be at least equal to the original manufacturer's specifications. place stops or signalers full-time at a visual vantage point to observe the approach of active cranes and prohibit contact by the active cranes with the idle crane. a qualified person shall establish the program’s requirements. Perform a lockout/tagout procedure. Place all controllers in the OFF position.DOE-STD-1090-2001 7. d. use some method to prevent unlaying the strands. 7. Ensure that lubricant applied as part of a maintenance program is compatible with the original lubricant and is also a type that does not hinder visual inspection. Maintain rope in a well-lubricated condition to reduce internal friction and prevent corrosion. b.1 Operating Equipment | | | | a. or induce sharp bends in it. During installation. avoid dragging the rope in dirt or around objects that will scrape. nick. Before cutting rope. or with the maintenance equipment. Move the crane to a location where it will cause the least interference with other cranes and operations. If the runway remains energized. c.2 Wire-Rope Maintenance Personnel using wire rope shall ensure proper care by doing the following: a. e. c. Heat affected zones of flame cut wire rope shall not be allowed to bear load. Place any attached loads on the ground or floor. maintenance of lubricant levels. 5. A preventive maintenance program shall be established and based on the recommendation of the crane manufacturer.4. with persons performing maintenance. Follow manufacturer's recommendations as to points and frequency of lubrication. Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes 7-12 . Check lubricating systems for delivery of lubricant. 7. 4. 3. 6.4 MAINTENANCE 7.4. b.

d. an appointed person shall classify each lift into one of the DOE-specified lift categories (ordinary. critical. and only after making 7.5. Also. Contacts with runway stops or other cranes shall be made with extreme caution. lower. Your immediate supervisor shall participate in this determination. adjust or repair them before operations begin. or any defects are known. If adjustments or repairs are necessary. i. Sound a warning signal (if furnished) during travel. 7. At the initial stage of the planning process. do not close it until it has been determined that no one is on or close to the crane. an operator has the authority to stop and refuse to handle loads until the matter has been resolved by supervisory personnel.5. Operators shall be held directly responsible for the safe operation of their equipment. m. If any controls do not operate properly. g. o. Do not lift. Whenever there is any question as to the safety of the activity. Do not engage in any practice that will divert your attention while operating the crane. immediately switch all controllers to the OFF position. Do not operate cranes without complying with the requirements of Chapter 6. this testing requirement is considered to have been satisfied for the completion of that lift. Become familiar with your equipment and its proper care. p. anchor the bridge on outside cranes. 7-13 Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes . At the beginning of each work shift.2 Hoist-Limit Switch/Device a. immediately notify the supervisor. Exercise extreme care to avoid two-blocking. Before closing the main switch. 7. do this with particular care for the safety of persons on or below the cranes. b. If a power failure occurs during operation. particularly when approaching personnel. or travel the crane while anyone is on the load or hook. report them promptly to the responsible supervisor. notify the next operator of the defects at shift change. b. However. Do not hoist two or more separately rigged loads in one lift. The following shall apply to all personnel involved in overhead and gantry crane operation. test the upper-limit switch/device of each hoist under no load. Secure outdoor cranes before leaving them. l. e. test the limit switch again before the next lift. Do not close the switch until the warning sign has been removed by the person who placed it there. n. c. “inch” the block into the limit switch or run it in at slow speed. Operate all controls before beginning a new shift. Do not use the final hoist-limit switch/ device that controls the upper limit of travel of the load block as an operating control. even though the combined load is within the crane's rated capacity. If you are ordered to engage with or push other cranes. certain that any persons on the other cranes are aware of what action is to be taken. ensure that all controllers are in the OFF position.1 Conduct of Operator a. If a lift is in progress during a shift change. When the wind-indicating alarm is given. Lock and tag the main positive electrical control switch in the OPEN position before any crane maintenance is performed. If you find the crane's main or emergency switch open when starting on duty. b.5.5 OPERATION a. k. Ensure that a 10BC or larger fire extinguisher is installed in the cab of cab-operated cranes. or preengineered production). h. f. If there is a warning sign on the switch. j. If the switch/device does not operate properly. do not remove it unless you placed it there. The extinguisher shall be maintained in a serviceable condition.3 Standard Hand Signals The standard hand signals for DOE use shall be as specified in the latest edition of the ASME B30 standards for the particular type of crane or hoist being used (see Figure 7-4). c. or the first time the crane is used during a shift.DOE-STD-1090-2001 7.

STOP. hand open and slightly raised. palm down. and left. and move hand in small horizontal circles. Arm extended forward.) MAGNET IS DISCONNECTED. (Hoist slowly shown as example. forefinger pointing down. Hold up one finger for block marked “1” and two fingers for block marked “2. motion. jerk hand horizontally. make pushing motion in direction of travel.” Regular signals follow. MULTIPLE TROLLEYS. TROLLEY TRAVEL. palms up. With forearm vertical. finger closed. move hand in small horizontal circles. Figure 7-4. hold palm down. forefinger pointing up. thumb pointing in direction of EMERGENCY STOP. Extend arm. Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes 7-14 . Standard hand signals for controlling overhead crane operation. Palm up. Crane operator spreads both hands apart. moving hand rapidly right position rigidly. Extend arm. Extend arm downward. BRIDGE. MOVE SLOWLY. LOWER. Use one hand to give any motion signal and place other hand motionless above hand giving the motion signal.DOE-STD-1090-2001 HOIST.

it should be determined that the rope is properly seated on the drum and in the sheaves. The weight of the load shall be determined prior to making the lift. Obey a STOP signal no matter who gives it. the signaler shall communicate directly with the operator. a second person (relay signaler) shall be stationed where he or she can see both the signaler and the crane operator and signals can be relayed to the operator.5. Hoist rope shall not be kinked. The load does not contact any obstructions. The load is lifted slowly until it clears the ground or other support to minimize swinging. 5. a. Multiple-part lines shall not be twisted around each other. Ensure the load is attached to the load-block hook by means of slings or other approved devices.4 Identification of Signalers 7. test the hoist brakes by raising the load a few inches and applying the brakes. This requirement may be waived by the responsible manager when the lift is very closely controlled or personnel are required to wear special clothing for protection from a hazardous environment. Before starting to hoist. except for authorized testing described in Section 7.6 Attaching the Load a. The operator shall obey signals only from the designated signaler. All personnel including the qualified rigger shall be clear of the load. The relay signaler shall also be clearly identified by the items described in the previous paragraph. During hoisting.5 Size of Load 1. 2. take care to ensure that: 7. The hook shall be positioned above the center of gravity of the load in such a manner as to minimize swinging when the load is lifted. b. and orange vest. Do not wrap the hoist rope around the load. 7-15 Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes . All personnel acting as signalers during crane operations shall be clearly identified to the crane operator by using the following (one or more. b.3. The crane and rigging equipment shall not be loaded beyond its rated capacity.7 Moving the Load a. Avoid carrying loads above people.5. Ensure that the hoist rope is free from kinks or twists. d. 3. 7. c. 3. f.5. note the following conditions: 1. as required by the responsible manager): orange hardhat. 2. A “dry run” shall be conducted in areas where clearance is limited. a. Take care to make certain that the sling clears all obstacles. The person appointed to direct the lift shall see that the load is well secured and properly balanced in the sling or lifting device before it is lifted more than a few inches. b. There is no sudden acceleration or deceleration of the moving load. c. 4. d. Cranes shall not be used for side pulls except when specifically authorized by an appointed person who has determined that the stability of the crane is not endangered and that load-bearing parts of the crane will not be overstressed. Any slippage or downward motion is unacceptable. not through a third person. b. Where voice (direct or two-way radio) communication is used. Each time a load approaching the rated capacity is handled. e.DOE-STD-1090-2001 7. If there is a slack-rope condition. orange gloves. c. In those cases where the crane operator cannot see the signaler.5.

The designated leader's responsibility shall include the following: 1. Direct the lifting operation to ensure that the job is done safely and efficiently. j. or otherwise control the load. i. Stop the job when any potentially unsafe condition is recognized. d. Direct operations if an accident or injury occurs. 7. Ensure that the weight of the load is determined. guidelines for safe operation shall be established through consultation with the appropriate safety organization. 7. 2. If the responsible manager decides that it is necessary to work on a suspended load. Do not lower the hook below the point where less than two full wraps of rope remain on the hoisting drum. Ensure that personnel involved understand how the lift is to be made. Survey the lift site for hazardous/ unsafe conditions. 8. snub. and that rated capacity is not exceeded. and turn off the power source before leaving the crane unattended. 6. shall visually examine the crane in accordance with Section 7. place controls in the OFF position. and is identified to the operator. “Critical Lifts. e. The requirements of all preceding paragraphs in Section 7. The operator. critical. specific verbal instructions for the particular job.5.8 Ordinary Lifts a. Ensure that equipment is properly set up and positioned. h.5. Tag lines should be used as required to guide. If the lift is being made by only one person. 4.9 Critical Lifts See Chapter 2. 3. or preengineered production) before the lift is planned. if required. g. Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes 7-16 .2. unless required to do otherwise by an approved emergency procedure. k. or a designated person. An appointed person shall classify each lift into one of the DOE categories (ordinary. that proper equipment and accessories are selected. Hoisting and rigging operations for ordinary lifts require a designated leader who shall be present at the lift site during the entire lifting operation. Leadership designation may be by written instructions. 5. The operator. sound the warning signal. b. Place any attached load on the ground or floor. Suspended loads that must be worked on shall be secured against unwanted movement. or clearly defined responsibilities within the crew's organizational structure. or a designated person.” for critical-lift requirements.4. Ensure that a signaler is assigned. Work on suspended loads is prohibited under normal conditions. c.” also shall apply to ordinary lifts. that person assumes all responsibilities of the designated leader.DOE-STD-1090-2001 g. shall ensure that the crane is still within the inspection interval. When the load or hook approaches personnel.5. “Operation. f. 7.

DOE-STD-1090-2001 Exhibit I is intended to be a sample form only. other forms developed to facilitate required inspection/testing are acceptable. In cases where the equipment manufacturer does not include inspection/testing criteria. 7-17 Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes . The equipment manufacturer’s inspection/testing criteria supercede any other criteria.

work. Craftsmen shall initial and date all tests. & Windlocks 14 Sheaves 15 Warning Devices 16 Capacity Signs 17 Main Disconnect REMARKS (Unusual conditions—noises. 2.) 7-19 Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes . WALL. etc. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1.DOE-STD-1090-2001 EXHIBIT I (SAMPLE FORM) BRIDGE. misalignment. Qualified inspector shall verify all steps prior to load test. MAKE RATED CAPACITY DATE Page 1 of 4 LOAD TEST INSPECTION REPORT The following checklist identifies the items to be inspected prior to the load test. and inspections completed below. GANTRY CRANE LOAD TEST FORM EQUIPMENT NO. Gears. Ratchets. NOTES: NO. Spuds. and Ladders Bridge and Trucks Bridge Wheels and Bearings Trolley and Rails Trolley Wheels and Bearings Crane Alignment Runway Rail & Clamps 18 Controllers 19 Relays and Coils 20 Conductors and Collectors 21 Panel Wiring 22 Resistors 23 Bypass Switches 24 Limit Switches 25 Contactor (Electrical) 26 Motors 27 Gauges 28 Lighting System 29 Heater and Switches 30 Operator's Cab 31 Safety 32 Chain and Sprockets 33 Structural 34 Wire Rope Drum and Machinery Foundation 10 Bumpers/Endstops 11 Brake System 12 Drive Shafts. structural cracks. CRANE ITEM DEFECT OK NA CRANE ITEM Load Hook & Blocks Wire Rope and End Connections Handrails. DEFECT OK NA NO. Walkways. Couplings & Bearings 13 Pawls. Any unusual conditions observed during the inspection should be noted in the Remarks section.

Set crane up for load test and qualified inspector verify inspection is complete prior to load test. stopping by the brakes. or modified cranes prior to initial use. Page 2 of 4 3. damage. Move the test load back into the original position and lower the test load. Qualified inspector shall verify all steps below. Rig test weight to hoist hook using appropriate slings. Load test shall be performed on all new. with an empty hook traveling at increasing speeds up to the maximum speed. + 0% of stipulated values. or permanent deformation. 7. brake. repaired. 5.DOE-STD-1090-2001 EXHIBIT I (continued) BRIDGE CRANE AND FOLLOW UP CHECKS NOTES: 1. Ensure during operation that the trolley runs true on the bridge. Check for bridge motor. Transport the test load by means of the bridge for the full length of the runway. Slowly lower the test load to the floor. Load test crane at 125% of rated capacity. Hoist the test load a sufficient distance to ensure that the load is supported by the crane and held by the hoist brakes. Ensure that the bridge runs true on the runway rails and that no undue girder deflection occurs. INITIAL 1. Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes 7-20 . 6. Check trolley motor. deformation. visually inspect the following load-bearing parts for signs of wear. and gear-case overheating. The actuating mechanism of the limit device shall be located so that it will trip the device under all conditions and in sufficient time to prevent contact of the hook or load block with any part of the trolley or crane. 3. 4. and deterioration: Craftsmen shall initial all steps completed below. 2. and gear case for overheating. 8. The trip setting of hoist-limit devices shall be determined by tests. first in one direction with the trolley as close to the extreme right-hand end of the crane as practical and next in the other direction with the trolley as close to the extreme left-hand end of the crane as practical. Hold the load for 10 min or the time required to check all primary load-bearing parts while under load for slippage. 9. In no case shall the load test exceed 125% of rated capacity. At the completion of the load test. 2. 4. Transport the test load by means of the trolley for the full length of the bridge. Test weights shall be accurate to -5%. brake.

and C. g. B. or seams.DOE-STD-1090-2001 EXHIBIT I (continued) DEFECTIVE/OK/NA a. INITIAL 10. “Wire Rope and Slings. or magnetic-particle examination. c. b. c. A. with a center punch. d. f. liquid penetrant examination. For ease in measuring. b. (Present) Visually inspect the rope drum for: a. b. Page 3 of 4 Visually inspect rope in accordance with Chapter 11. c. e.” a. Qualified inspector shall perform nondestructive tests on hook by visual examination. Establish three marks. Lubricate hook bearing and latch pin as applicable. e. Bridge track Bridge wheels Trolley track Trolley wheels Gears Magnetic brakes Blocks. set distances on an even number of inches. Rope diameter: (Previous) Wear Kinks Broken wires Other signs of deterioration. d. linear indications. Acceptance: No cracks. Hooks having more than 10% wear in the throat section or 5% elongation of the shank shall be replaced. Hooks with more than 15% normal (new hook) throat opening shall be replaced. Wear Deformation Deterioration. 7-21 Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes . Hooks with more than 10 degree twist from the normal (new hook) plane of the hook shall be replaced. laps.

Wear and deformation 2. in. Signs of opening between Point A and Point B Load Test Inspection Date Qualified Inspector Operated By Actual Load Test lb in. Cracks and twisting 3. in.DOE-STD-1090-2001 EXHIBIT I (continued) BEFORE LOAD TEST Length AB Length BC AFTER LOAD TEST Length AB Length BC Check for: 1. Page 4 of 4 Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes 7-22 . in.

DOE-STD-1090-2001
EXHIBIT I I (SAMPLE FORM) Page 1 of 2

OVERHEAD CRANE PRE-OPERATIONAL CHECKLIST (Records Are Not Required) CRANE NO. CAPACITY TYPE LOCATION SHIFT 12 3

OPERATORS NAME: 1. WALK AROUND INSPECTION

INSTRUCTIONS: Check all items. Inspect and indicate as: Satisfactory - S, Unsatisfactory - U, or Not Applicable - NA S /U/ NA 2. a b c d e * f MACHINERY INSPECTION Holding Brake Load Control Brake Covers Secured Upper Sheaves Wire Rope * * * S/U/ NA

a Foundations b Access c Secured Items d Walkways/Handrails e Bridge, Drive Motor f Bridge Brake

Hooks: Cracks, Wear, Deformation, * Throat Opening, Latch Operation Fluid Leaks Batteries Electric Motors Electric Panels Runway/Bridge Conductors Runway/Bridge Collectors

g Hydraulics h Couplers/Connection Rods i End Trucks j Rail Sweeps k Windlocks/Chock/Stops l Housekeeping *

g h i j k l

m Electrical Guards n o p q Festoon System Warning Tags/Signs Exposed Electrical Hazards Trolley Stops *

7-23

Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes

DOE-STD-1090-2001
EXHIBIT II (continued) OVERHEAD CRANE PRE-OPERATIONAL CHECKLIST (Records Are Not Required) 3. OPERATOR CAB INSPECTION S/U/ NA 4. OPERATION INSPECTION S/U/ NA Page 2 of 2

a Housekeeping b Warning Tags c Cab Door(s) d Fire Extinguisher e Controls Identification f Electrical Enclosures g Pendant Strain Relief h Visibility/Windows i Safety Devices j Warning/Indicator Light k Alarms *

a b c d e f g h i j k l

Power Supply Relay Manual Reset Stop Button/Control Pendant Buttons Upper Limit/Main Upper Limit/Auxiliary Lower Limit/Main Lower Limit/Auxiliary Bridge Controls Bridge Brake Trolley Control Main Hook

*

* * * *

* * * * *

m Auxiliary Hook n o p Work Area Runway Stops Travel Limit Relays

* *

INSTRUCTIONS: Inspect all applicable items each shift of operation. Suspend all operations immediately when observing an unsatisfactory condition for asterisked (*) items. In addition, suspend operation when any unsafe condition is observed and immediately notify supervisor. Other conditions not affecting safety shall be noted under “Remarks” and reported to supervisor. REMARKS:

Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes

7-24

DOE-STD-1090-2001
EXHIBIT III (SAMPLE FORM) PERIODIC CRANE INSPECTION REPORT MECHANICAL ITEMS MAKE: STATUS CODE: ITEM Bridge - Alignment - Girders (camber) - Rails - Walks, Ladders, Railings - Trucks to Girder Connection - Trucks - Wheels, Driver * - Wheels, Idler * - Wheels, Bearings * - Axles & Coupling * - Squaring Shaft - Squaring Shaft Bearings - Squaring Shaft Couplings - Motor Coupling * - Gear Reducer - Gear Reducer Oil Seals - Axle Pinion - Axle Gear - Runway Alignment CAPACITY: LOCATION: Page 1 of 2

SR - Should be Replaced NR - Needs Repair R - Repaired SN - See Notes N/A - Not Applicable OK CODE ITEM - Cam Followers/Guide* - Runway End-Stops - Railway Sweeps / Safety Lugs - Energy Absorbing Bumpers Mono Rail - Girders - Girder Supports - Sway Braces Misc. - Clearances Overhead (3") - Clearances Lateral (2") Rated Load Markings: - Each Side of Crane Bridge - Each Hoist/Load Block Trolley Drive - Wheels, Driver * - Wheels, Idler * - Wheels Bearings * - Axles & Couplings - Motor Couplings * Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes OK CODE

7-25

DOE-STD-1090-2001
EXHIBIT III (continued) (SAMPLE FORM) ITEM - Gear Reducer - Gear Reducer Oil Seals - Axle Pinion - Axle Gear - Cam Followers/Guides * - Energy Absorbing Bumpers - End Stops Hoist (M - Main) (A - Auxiliary) - Hook - Hook Bearing - Sheaves * - Sheave Bearings * - Equalizer Sheave * - Rope/Chain - Rope Anchors OK CODE ITEM - Drum Grooving - Drum Shafts - Motor Pinion - Motor Gear - Intermediate Pinion - Intermediate Gear - Drum Pinion - Drum Gear - Hoist Case Bearing - Mechanical Load Brake* - Fricton Disc* - Pawl * - Pawl Shifter - Ratchet or Band - Motor Coupling * - Hoist Case Coupling * Needs Immediate Action: OK Page 2 of 2

CODE

Notes:

Circle One:

PASS

FAIL SIGNATURE: DATE:

INSPECTOR (print):

Items with * to be inspected prior to use as part of the Pre-Operational check and lubricated as needed. All other items to be inspected and lubricated annually.

Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes

7-26

Contactors .A. Brake Linkage .H.A.A.H. Motor Bearings .H.H.H. Brake Shoes & Discs . Brake Linkage .Should be Replaced NR .M.Trolley Contactors .H. Motor Brushes * .Needs Repair R .For Magnetic Control .H.A.Trolley Brake Linkage . Brake Coil .M. Brake Lining * .Trolley Motor Brushes * Controls .DOE-STD-1090-2001 EXHIBIT IV (SAMPLE FORM) OVERHEAD CRANE PERIODIC INSPECTION REPORT ELECTRICAL ITEMS MAKE: STATUS CODE: ITEM Brakes .Trolley Motor Bearings .A. Brake Coil .M.M.Push-button Station .M.M.H.Hydraulic Brake Bleeder * Motors .H.M.Not Applicable OK CODE ITEM . Brake Linings * .H. Overhead Relays CAPACITY: LOCATION: Page 1 of 2 SR . Brake Shoes & Disc .Trolley Motor rings .Bridge Motor Rings .M.A.H.Trolley Brake Shoes & Disc .H.Bridge Motor Brushes * .Master Switches .M.Trolley Brake Lining * . Contactors .H.Trolley Brake Coils .Bridge Contactors .Repaired SN .H.H.See Notes N/A .Bridge Motor Bearings . Motor Rings Misc OK CODE 7-27 Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes . Overhead Relays .

Segments * . All other items to be inspected and adjusted annually.Trolley Collectors * . Finger Tips * ..H.A..Trolley Overhead Relays .Trolley Finger Tips * .A.DOE-STD-1090-2001 EXHIBIT IV (continued) (SAMPLE FORM) ITEM Controls (continued) . Resistors .Trolley Resistors . Limit Switch Contacts .H.A.H..Control Wiring ..H.Fuses (Sizes ..Power Wiring .M..) .Mainline Switch .A..H.M.Runway Collectors * . Resistors .Bridge Overhead Relays .Runway Conductors OK Page 2 of 2 CODE Notes: Circle One: PASS FAIL SIGNATURE: DATE: INSPECTOR (Print): Items with * to be inspected prior to use as part of the Pre-operational check and lubricated as needed.H.M..Bridge Segments * Needs Immediate Action: OK CODE ITEM Resistors ... Finger Tips* .. Segments * .H.Bridge Conductors . Limit Switch Contacts For Manual Drum Control ..M.Bridge Resistors Mainline .Bridge Finger Tips * .... Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry Cranes 7-28 .Trolley Segments * .H.

DOE-STD-1090-2001 CHAPTER 9 MOBILE CRANES 9-i Chapter 9 Mobile Cranes .

deformation. 7. excessive wear.2. and other operating parts of the equipment shall be checked during each inspection and shall be in good working order. Operators or other designated personnel shall visually inspect the crane at daily to monthly intervals (records are not required). c. All safety devices for malfunction. Crane hooks and latches for deformation. 4. level. Anti-two-block. or irregularity. All control mechanisms for maladjustment.5 Frequent Inspection a. wear. excessive wear. 5. “Preoperational Check. signs of excessive deterioration. The operator or other designated person shall visually inspect the following items for damage. damage from chemicals. birdcaging. Dated and signed inspection reports shall be kept on file and shall be readily available. b. cracks.” by a qualified inspector to ensure compliance with the applicable provisions of this chapter. and contamination by lubricants or other foreign matter that could interfere with proper operation.2. 9. 3. Signed and dated inspection records shall be kept on file and shall be readily available.2.6 shall be removed from service and replaced. Operators or other designated personnel shall visually inspect items such as the following each day or prior to use if the crane has not been in regular service (records are not required): 1. or deformation of any load-bearing part of the equipment.3. A hoist rope with any of the conditions noted in the replacement criteria in Section 9. crushing. 3.3 Daily Preoperational Check a. 6. tanks.2 Initial Inspection Prior to initial use. 2. Lines. Hooks for cracks. 2. Rope reeving for noncompliance with crane manufacturer's recommendations. regular motion without any hesitation. Booms for damage or deformation of structural components. controls. “Periodic Inspection. All control mechanisms for maladjustment interfering with proper operation. binding.2 INSPECTIONS 9. and evidence of heat damage. Equipment shall operate with a smooth. 4. and wear.2.1 General whether they constitute a safety hazard. and corrosion. e.2. These inspections shall. Operators or other designated personnel shall examine deficiencies and determine Hydraulic systems for proper oil 9. latch engagement (if provided). f. correct deficiencies that could reduce its capacity or adversely effect its safety. Critical items such as brakes and crane hooks.6. all new or modified cranes shall be inspected as required in Section 9. Chapter 9 Mobile Cranes 9-6 . valves. Hoist ropes for kinking. 9. d. two-block warning. and two-block damage prevention systems for proper operation. Hoist ropes. abnormal vibration. Lower the hook block to its lowest position and examine for any condition that could result in an appreciable loss of strength. b. 2. or other deficiency that might reduce capacity or adversely effect the safety of the crane: 1.DOE-STD-1090-2001 9. and other parts of air or hydraulic systems for leakage. in addition to the requirements of Section 9.” include the following: 1. Before the crane is returned to service. All safety devices.2.2. b. 9. Electrical apparatus for malfunctioning. load indicators. gross shimmy.2. boom angle and radius indicators. pumps.4 Monthly Inspection a. and accumulation of dirt or moisture. There shall be no apparent damage.

rollers. deformed. Dated and signed inspection records shall be kept on file and shall be readily available.2. magnetic-particle. “Monthly Inspection. gears. e. cracked. f. Deformed.” and 9. Evidence of leakage at the surface of the flexible hose or its junction with the metal couplings. Hooks damaged from chemicals. or cracks. The qualified inspector shall examine deficiencies and determine whether they constitute a hazard. improper performance. Shaft seal leaks. Load. Excessive wear of chain drive sprockets and excessive chain stretch. b. 6.6. Evidence of excessive abrasion or scrubbing on the outer surface of a hose. Operators or other designated personnel shall examine deficiencies and determine whether a more detailed inspection is required. d.2. bearings. l. Chapter 1). i. in addition to the requirements of Sections 9. Complete inspections of the crane shall be performed by a qualified inspector at 1. see Chapter 13. Blistering or abnormal deformation of the outer covering of the hydraulic or pneumatic hose. c. and locking devices. and locking devices. and pins for being loose or absent c. Excessively worn or damaged tires. boom angle. Worn. or other power plants for improper performance or noncompliance with safety requirements. h. d.4 . depending on the crane's activity. m. c. Inspect for: a. 9. or other suitable crack-detecting inspections should be performed at least once a year. Unusual noises or vibration.2. severity of service. or blockage of air passages. and ratchets. shafts. and environment. linings. c. c.2. Gasoline. for malfunctioning. Check for suspect/counterfeit parts (see Terminology and Definitions. braking. 9. pawls.2. and other operating aids over their full ranges for any significant inaccuracies (if calibration is required. “Load Hooks. | | d. These inspections shall. or fitting (means shall be taken to eliminate the interface of elements in contact or to otherwise protect the components).3 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Pumps and Motors e. and Tubing Inspect for: a. Chapter 9 Mobile Cranes 9-7 . Excessive wear on brake and clutch system parts. for leakage. 9.6. it shall be done by a qualified person).6 Periodic Inspection a. or having more than 15 percent in excess of normal throat opening or more than 10 degree twist from the plane of the unbent hook (dye-penetrant. deformation. nuts.1 Cranes n. or distorted parts such as pins.” include the following. k. “Frequent Inspection. Loose bolts or fasteners. Inspect for: a. 9. Tires for recommended inflation pressure.2 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Hose.5. electrical.DOE-STD-1090-2001 5. Bolts.6. Steering. Leakage at threaded or clamped joints that cannot be eliminated by normal tightening or recommended procedures. This form is intended to be a sample only and is not intended to be mandatory. b. rigid tube. cracked. diesel. rivets.2. which appears at the end of this chapter. d. b. g. Cracked or worn sheaves and drums. or corroded members in the crane structure and entire boom. b.to 12-month intervals. j. Leaks at joints between sections. Radiators and oil coolers.” for additional hook requirements). A sample load test form is included as Exhibit I. or missing structural members or parts. Boom sections for damaged. Fittings. Rust on piston rods and control valves when crane has been idle.

Reduction of rope size below nominal diameter. 9. cracked. (19 mm) Over 3/4 in.4 mm) (8 mm) Over 5/16 in. f. crushing. Loose or deformed rod eyes or connecting joints. A qualified inspector shall inspect wire ropes at least annually. or cylinders. This inspection shall include examination of the entire rope length without detaching it from the drum. 9.2. The number and distribution or concentration of broken outside wires. b. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Valves operation. 1.7 Wire Rope a. and exposure to shock loads. c. Further checking will be necessary to determine the origin of the problem before corrective action can be taken. (0. motors. The qualified inspector shall take care when inspecting running rope where rapid deterioration could occur. 5. c. 2. f. Excessive heating of the fluid. Metal chips or pieces on the filter may denote failure in pumps. 9.6 mm) 3/32 in. Sticking spools.6.2. (29 mm) Over 1 1/8 in. or other rubber components. b. frequency rates of Chapter 9 Mobile Cranes 9-8 .2. Sections of the rope at or near terminal ends where corroded or broken wires may protrude. Loss of operating speed. Corroded.2. g.2 mm) 1/16 in. (2. or wear of outside wires (see Table 9-2). d. equalizer sheaves. such as described below. Rod seal leakage. The qualified inspector shall carefully note any deterioration.DOE-STD-1090-2001 e. (38 mm) 1/32 in. such as in the following: 1. d.5 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Cylinders Inspect for: a. nicked. Leaks at spools or joints. Table 9-2. or unstranding. or improperly applied end connections. Drifting caused by fluid leaking across the piston. Kinking. Loss of pressure.4 mm) 9. Maximum allowable reduction Rope diameter from nominal diameter Up to 5/16 in. b.6. Corroded or broken wires at end connections.6. whether due to loss of core support. to 1/2 in. or other sheaves where rope travel is limited. percentage of capacity lifts. that results in appreciable loss of original strength and determine whether further use of the rope constitutes an acceptable risk. e. (0. 2.6. More frequent intervals shall be determined by a qualified person and shall be based on such factors as expected rope life as determined by severity of environment. Leaks at welded joints. bent.6 Hydraulic Filters 4. (13 mm) Over 1/2 in. to 1 1/8 in. to 1 1/2 in. Cracks in valve housing.4 Inspect for: a. (1.8 mm) 3/64 in. to 3/4 in. (1. Worn outside wires. cutting. Sections in contact with saddles. Failure of relief valves to attain correct pressure setting (relief valve pressures shall be checked as specified by the manufacturer). Evidence of rubber particles on the filter element may indicate deterioration of the hose. 1/64 in. worn. Improper return of spool to neutral position. Scored. or dented cylinder rods. Dented case (barrel). Maximum allowable rope reductions. 6. “O” ring. e. 3. internal or external corrosion.

Replacement rope shall be the same size.5 before being placed in service. cause. after allowance for deterioration disclosed by inspection. grade. 9. or any other damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure. or 3 broken wires in one strand in one rope lay. because of their higher susceptibility to damage. Rotation-resistant ropes. more than two broken wires in one lay in sections beyond end connections or more than one broken wire at an end connection. All rope that has been idle for a month or more due to shutdown or storage of a crane on which it is installed shall be inspected before it is placed in service. 5. 9-9 Chapter 9 Mobile Cranes . i. 4.DOE-STD-1090-2001 c.6 before being placed in service.2. Inspection records shall be retained throughout the service life of the hook or load block and shall be readily available. additional inspection of this part of the rope is required. One outer wire broken at the point of contact with the core of the rope that has worked its way out of the rope structure and protrudes or loops out from the rope structure. This inspection shall be for all types of deterioration and shall be performed by an appointed person whose approval shall be required before further use of the rope. In rotation resistant ropes. g. A written and dated report of the rope condition shall be filed. 2. because of the difficulties of inspection and the important nature of these ropes.2. d. crushing. The qualified inspector shall take care when inspecting certain ropes such as the following: 1. No precise rules can be given for determining the exact time to replace wire rope because many factors are involved. In standing ropes.2. 7. 2. b. according to the requirements of Section 9. a continuing inspection record shall be maintained. f. Never use discarded wire rope for slings.8 Cranes Not in Regular Use a. Safety in this respect depends largely on the use of good judgment by an appointed person in evaluating remaining strength in a used rope. Kinking. h. Reduction from nominal diameter greater than the amounts listed in Table 9-2. 6 randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay. Standby cranes shall be inspected at least semiannually. Evidence of heat damage from any 8. c.6. The internal deterioration of rotation-resistant ropes may not be readily observable.2. Conditions such as the following shall be sufficient reason for questioning wire-rope safety and for considering replacement: 1. Cranes exposed to adverse environments should be inspected more frequently. Boom hoist ropes. 9. two randomly distributed broken wires in six rope diameters or four randomly distributed broken wires in thirty rope diameters.2. In running ropes. e. A crane that has been idle for more than 6 months shall be given a complete inspection according to the requirements of Section 9. Safety of rope operation depends on this remaining strength. Wear of one-third the original diameter of outside individual wires.7 Load Hooks/Load Blocks Load hooks/load blocks that have been changed out shall be inspected by a qualified inspector before returning the crane to service. birdcaging. A crane that has been idle for 1 month or more but less than 6 months shall be given an inspection according to the requirements of Section 9. 6. unless otherwise recommended by a rope or crane manufacturer due to actual working-condition requirements. and construction as recommended by the crane manufacturer. 3. In order to establish data as a basis for judging the proper time for replacement.

A written report shall be furnished by the inspector showing test procedures and confirming the adequacy of repairs or alterations.3 TESTING 9. The replacement of rope is excluded from this requirement. Safety devices. 9. “Terminology and Definitions”). Test weights shall not exceed 110 percent of the rated capacity and shall be accurate to within -5 percent. replaced. Swinging mechanism. Test reports shall be kept on file and shall be readily available to appointed personnel.DOE-STD-1090-2001 9. c. person shall determine if repairs made to a crane are extensive and require a rated load test. e. or if repairs are routine maintenance and require only operational testing. a functional test of the crane under a normal operating load should be made prior to putting it back in service.1 Operational Tests The following shall be tested during an initial test: a. Boom extension and retraction mechanism.3. NOTE: Load tests shall not be conducted in locations where the lift meets the definition of a critical lift (see Chapter 1. Boom lifting and lowering mechanisms. Travel mechanism. Load lifting and lowering mechanisms. d.2 Rated Load Test a. However. A designated or authorized Chapter 9 Mobile Cranes 9-10 . b. all cranes in which load-sustaining parts have been modified. Prior to initial use.3. +0 percent of stipulated values. f. or repaired shall be load-tested by a qualified inspector or under the direction of that inspector. b. c.

work. misalignment. Qualified inspector shall verify the inspection is completed. structural cracks. Equipment shall be inspected by maintenance personnel prior to load test. signs. Any unusual conditions observed during the inspection should be noted in the Remarks section.DOE-STD-1090-2001 EXHIBIT I (SAMPLE FORM) MOBILE CRANE LOAD TEST LICENSE OR EQUIPMENT NO. 2. HOUR METER-ODOMETER TOTAL MAKE DATE Page 1 of 4 RATED CAPACITY LOAD TEST INSPECTION REPORT The following checklist identifies the items to be inspected prior to the load test.) SAFETY ITEMS: (Fire extinguisher. NOTES: NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1. CRANE ITEM Brake DEFECT OK NA CRANE ITEM Wire Rope Cracked or Worn Sheaves & Drums Limit Switch (Anti-Two-Blocking) Boom Master Clutch Steering Clutches Hydraulic Pump Hydraulic Controls Hydraulic Hoses 13 Hoist Clutch Lining 14 Hoist Drum Bands 15 Open Gears 16 Boom Jibs (Where Applicable) NO. guards. Craftsmen shall initial and date all tests.) 9-29 Chapter 9 Mobile Cranes . and inspections completed below. etc. etc. CARRIER ITEM 1 2 3 4 Steering Gears and Connections Brakes (Service and Hand) Tires and Wheels General Lubrication OPERATING TEST OVERALL CONDITION DEFECT OK NA 10 Mechanical Controls 11 Drive Chains 12 Swing Clutches REMARKS (Unusual conditions—noises. DEFECT OK NA NO.

DOE-STD-1090-2001 CHAPTER 10 FORKLIFT TRUCKS 10-i Chapter 10 Forklift Trucks .

"Safety Standard for Low and High Lift Trucks.5. the designation 1500 @ 24 means 1. such as those prescribed 10-1 Chapter 10 Forklift Trucks . f. Guidelines may also be taken from this chapter regarding pallet trucks and other small miscellaneous non-powered lift trucks (see Figure 10-4). Weight Capacity d.” For forklift trucks purchased after December 1984. and trucks intended for hazardous locations (see ASME B56. the rated capacity of the truck/attachment combination shall be established by the truck manufacturer. 2. electric trucks. inspection. inspection. The rated capacity of an attachment/truck combination shall not be exceeded. b. Designation of compliance with the mandatory requirements of ASME B56.. Section 7. "Nameplates and Markings").500-lb (680-kg) capacity at 24-in. “Personnel Qualification and Training. but training." applicable to the manufacturer. by Underwriters Laboratories. c. Inc. testing.1.3 Nameplate(s) and Marking Attachments almost always affect rated capacity of the truck. Model number Every truck shall have appended to it a durable. Maximum hydraulic pressure (on hydraulically actuated attachments) 4.4 Attachments Rated capacity is the maximum weight the truck can transport and stack at a specified load center and for a specified load elevation. and maintenance requirements for industrial trucks powered by electric motors or internal-combustion engines. In addition to the above requirements.1 Fork Arm Data 10. 10. legibly inscribed with the following information: a. e. operating.1. 10.1.3. or decals shall be changed accordingly. (600-mm) load center. Weight of truck. Trucks shall not be used or tested above their rated capacities. Batteries for use in electric trucks shall have the battery weight legibly stamped on the battery tray near the lifting means as follows: Service Weight _____lb(kg). each fork arm shall be clearly stamped with its rated capacity in an area readily visible and not subject to wear. a corrosion-resistant nameplate with the following information is required: 1. See Figures 10-3 for examples of powered industrial trucks.DOE-STD-1090-2001 10-1 GENERAL This chapter specifies operation. operation.1. 5. Capacity. maintenance. b On every removable attachment (excluding fork extensions).1. Type designation to show conformance with the requirements. Truck model and truck serial number. For example. When a forklift truck is equipped with an attachment. corrosion-resistant nameplate(s).1. and testing requirements for non-powered equipment shall be based on the manufacturer's instructions and recommendations. and maintenance instruction plates.2 Rated Capacity 10. additional information is required (and allowed) on nameplates on high-lift trucks. Rated capacity. 10. a. Serial number on hydraulically actuated attachments 3.1. tags.1 Operator Training/ Qualification Operators of forklift trucks shall be trained and qualified as described in Chapter 6. and Factory Mutual Research Corporation.

but it cannot protect against every possible impact. it should not be considered a substitute for good judgement and care in load handling. gong.1. Therefore. including order picker trucks. The bottom of the top tiered load is not higher than 72 in. 2.6. tags.1. whistle. Vertical movement of the lifting mechanism is restricted to 72 in. shall be equipped with an overhead guard manufactured in accordance with ASME B56. 10. b.1. auxiliary directional lighting shall be provided on the truck. 10. The using organization shall determine if operating conditions require the truck to be equipped with additional sound-producing or visual devices (such as lights or blinkers). or other sound-producing device(s). 10. Where general lighting is less than 2 lumens per square foot.1000. Consult truck nameplate.7 Overhead Guards An overhead guard is intended to offer protection to the operator from falling objects.1. operation. Rough terrain forklift trucks shall be fitted with an overhead guard manufactured in accordance with ASME B56. (3000 mm) from the ground where tiered. b. and shall be responsible for providing and maintaining such devices. b. 10." NOTE: The above information should be provided by the attachment manufacturer.DOE-STD-1090-2001 6. a. Table Z-1 Limits For Air Contaminants. ii.8 Fire Hazard Areas Powered forklift trucks for operation in fire hazard areas shall be of the type recommended in ANSI/NFPA 505 (“Powered Industrial Trucks.1. Chapter 10 Forklift Trucks 10-2 . or decals shall be changed accordingly. unitized or containerized) loads are handled. "Capacity of truck and attachment combination may be less than capacity shown on attachment. Every truck shall be equipped with an operator-controlled horn. There is protection against falling objects from adjacent high stack areas. Only stable (preferably interlocked. (1800 mm) or less from the ground. The operation of forklift trucks may effects the concentrations of carbon monoxide and oxygen in the work location.5 Modifications Modifications or additions that affect capacity or safe operation shall not be performed without prior written approval from the forklift truck manufacturer. Backup or motion alarms that sound continuously may be warranted in special cases but generally are less effective than operator-controlled devices. and maintenance instruction plates. High lift rider trucks. Concentrations of these materials in the work location must meet the requirements of 29 CFR 1910. The truck will be operated only in an area where: i. Capacity. unless the following conditions are met: Work Atmosphere a. 1. (1800 mm) and the top is not more than 120 in.6 Warning Devices a.1. iii. Type Designation and Areas of Use”). The following instructions (or equivalent).9 10. Occupational Safety and Health Standards for General Industry.

(Sheet 1 of 6) 10-3 Chapter 10 Forklift Trucks . Types of Trucks.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure 10-3.

(sheet 2 of 6) Chapter 10 Forklift Trucks 10-4 . Types of Trucks.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure 10-3.

DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure 10-3. Types of Trucks. (sheet 3 of 6) 10-5 Chapter 10 Forklift Trucks .

Types of Trucks.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure 10-3. (sheet 4 of 6) Chapter 10 Forklift Trucks 10-6 .

Types of Trucks.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure 10-3. (sheet 5 of 6) 10-7 Chapter 10 Forklift Trucks .

DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure 10-3. Types of Trucks. (sheet 6 of 6) Chapter 10 Forklift Trucks 10-8 .

DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure 10-4.Small Miscellaneous Truck GA99 0029 10-9 Chapter 10 Forklift Trucks . Manually Operated Pallet Trucks GA99 0028 .

2. Type DY Forklifts — diesel-powered units that have all the safeguards of the type DS units except that they do not have any electrical equipment. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) or Factory Mutual (FM)]. Type LP Forklifts — liquefied-petroleumgas-powered units having minimum acceptable safeguards against inherent fire hazards Chapter 10 Forklift Trucks 10-10 . under certain conditions. Type ES Forklifts — electrically powered units that are provided with all the requirements for the type E units and that have additional safeguards to the electrical system to prevent emission of hazardous sparks and to limit surface temperatures d. and that also have electric motors and all other electrical equipment completely enclosed e. fuel. special exhaust. and electrical systems b.2 TYPE DESIGNATIONS AND AREAS OF USE 10.1. and. fuel. These markers shall be distinctive in shape.. Type E Forklifts — electrically powered units having minimum acceptable safeguards against inherent fire and electrical shock hazards c. or electrical systems) or other modifications against inherent fire hazards: a. see Figure 10-2. National Electrical Code The following units are not suitable for use in hazardous areas since they include only minimum safeguards against inherent fire hazards: a. or for Class II. Hazardous-Area Signs. Type D Forklifts — diesel-powered units having minimum acceptable safeguards against inherent fire hazards b. type EX units are specifically tested and classified for use in Class I.2.1.1 Type Designation 10. Type G Forklifts — gasoline-powered units having minimum acceptable safeguards against inherent fire hazards d.g. constructed.. Type EE Forklifts — electrically powered units that are provided with all the requirements for the type E and ES units.e. Group G locations as defined in NFPA 70. including ignition. Group D. Type DS Forklifts — diesel-powered units that are provided with all the requirements for the type D units and that have additional safeguards to the exhaust.2 Hazardous Areas It is essential to use proper equipment in hazardous (explosive) areas. ES. fibers. and assembled so that the units may be used in atmospheres containing specifically named flammable vapors. The entrance to hazardous areas shall be posted with a sign to identify the type of forklift truck permitted. they are equipped with temperature-limitation features c. 10. Durable markers indicating the designation of the type of truck for use in hazardous areas shall be applied to each side of the vehicle in a visible but protected area.1 Non-Hazardous Areas The following units are suitable for use in hazardous areas since they are equipped with additional safeguards (i. Type EX Forklifts — electrically powered units that differ from type E. or EE units in that the electrical fittings and equipment are designed. a.DOE-STD-1090-2001 10. b. dusts. or the truck shall be clearly marked as to the area(s) it is not to enter.2. Trucks approved for use in hazardous areas shall have the manufacturer’s label or some other identifying mark indicating approval for the intended use by a recognized national testing laboratory [e. as indicated in Figure 10-1.

and electrical systems g. in addition to all the requirements for the type G units.2 Specific Areas of Use The atmosphere or location where the powered forklift is to be used shall be classified. and electrical systems. Class III — locations where easily ignitable fibers or filings are present but are not likely to be suspended in quantities sufficient to produce ignitable mixtures. are provided with additional safeguards to the exhaust. fuel. fuel. Class II — locations that are hazardous because of the presence of combustible dust.2. are provided with additional safeguards to the exhaust. a. c. d. Type GS Forklifts — gasoline-powered units that. Location classifications are described as follows: 10-11 Chapter 10 Forklift Trucks . in addition to the requirements for the type LP units. II. Unclassified — locations not possessing atmospheres defined as Class I. b. Class I — locations in which flammable gases or vapors are present or may be present in the air in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures. Type LPS Forklifts — liquefied-petroleumgas-powered units that.DOE-STD-1090-2001 f. 10. or III locations.

EX.7 cm) high. Chapter 10 Forklift Trucks 10-12 . (12. (10 cm) square. and DY are 5 in. Figure 10-1. The rest are 4 in. The signs shall have black borders and lettering on a yellow background.DOE-STD-1090-2001 NOTE: The markers for EE. Markers to identify type of industrial truck.

shall be installed on the sign. The sign shall have the word “caution” in yellow letters on a black background. A marker identical to the one used on the side of the truck as shown in Figure 10-1. The body of the sign shall have black letters on a yellow background. (40 cm). (28 cm). NOTE: The minimum width of the sign is 11 in. Building signs for posting at entrance to hazardous areas. 10-13 Chapter 10 Forklift Trucks .DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure 10-2. the minimum height is 16 in.

DOE-STD-1090-2001 CHAPTER 11 WIRE ROPE AND SLINGS 11-i Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings .

Strand Core—This type of core has a single strand used as the core. As the name implies. all wire rope is made right lay. Wire-rope cores. d. c. unless otherwise stated.2 WIRE ROPE 11. Left-lay rope is a special-purpose rope. Figure 11-3. is understood to be right regular lay. Figure 11-2 shows ropes with right and left lays combined with regular and lang lays.DOE-STD-1090-2001 11. the rope has a regular lay. cotton and jute are sometimes used for the core. 3. 11. Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings 11-4 . Lay length is the lengthwise distance measured along a wire rope in which a strand makes one complete revolution about the rope's axis. In smaller ropes. This type is generally confined to the smaller ropes as a substitute for IWRC. When the strands and the wires have an opposite lay direction.1 Wire-Rope Lays a. b. in a left-lay rope.2 Wire-Rope Cores a. With few exceptions. Fiber Core (FC) or Sisal Core— Sisalanna is the most common fiber that is used in the manufacture of wire-rope cores. Figure 11-2.2. an IWRC is usually specified. The most common types of cores include the following (see Figure 11-3): 1. In a right-lay rope. an IWRC is a separate small-diameter wire rope that is used as the core for a larger wire rope. Wire-rope lays. A rope has a lang lay when the strands and the individual wires have the same lay direction. 2. A standard wire rope. Wire rope consists of multistrand metal wires wrapped around a suitable core material.2. the strands twist to the left. The strand core may or may not have the same cross section as the surrounding strands. When severe crushing or flattening of the rope is encountered. e. the strands twist to the right around the core like a conventional screw thread. Wire-rope cores are carefully designed and must be precisely manufactured to close tolerances to ensure a perfect fit in the rope. Independent Wire-Rope Core (IWRC)—The primary function of the core is to provide adequate support for the strands.

This construction is used on industrial equipment. maintain rope in a well-lubricated condition. 3. 11. b. Car pullers often use this rope. 2. b. 6 × 19 Warrington—The alternating large and small outer wires make this rope an all-around performer.2.3 Wire Rope for General Purposes 11. Table 11-2 provides breaking strengths for 6 × 19 wire ropes with FC and IWRC cores. The principal types of ropes in this classification include: 1. 6 × 19F—The most popular and versatile of all wire ropes and the most flexible is the 6 × 19F classification. the ropes in this classification will show better performance than the coarser 6 × 19 construction. Store rope to prevent damage or deterioration. Unreel or uncoil rope as recommended by the rope manufacturer or a qualified person and with care to avoid kinking or inducing a twist. 6 × 37 2-operation—A 6 × 37 2-operation strand has 18 outer wires. Those sections of rope in contact with sheaves or otherwise hidden during inspection and maintenance procedures require special attention when lubricating rope. Refer to other sections in this standard.2. use some method to prevent unlaying of the strands. c.DOE-STD-1090-2001 11. This rope is considered the perfect compromise between maximum abrasion resistance and maximum flexibility. Figure 11-4 shows four varieties of 6 × 19 wire ropes with FCs and IWRCs. and in miscellaneous hoisting.1 6 × 19 Classification a. Before cutting a rope. e. 6 × 19 Seale—The 6 × 19 Seale is a rugged wire rope for applications involving heavy wear. crush. or induce sharp bends. The resistance to wear is gained by a slight sacrifice in flexibility. The 6 × 19 Warrington is used for general-purpose hoisting.2. for specific inspection requirements. avoid dragging the rope in the dirt or around objects that will scrape. b. Ensure that lubricant applied as a part of a maintenance program is compatible with the original lubricant and is also a type that does not hinder visual inspection. d. nick. diameter in the 6 × 37 classification.2. 3. The principal types of ropes in this classification include: 1. the small outer wires quickly show the effect.2 6 × 37 Classification a. they will outlast a 6 × 19 rope. 6 × 41—A 6 × 41 rope is used widely for ropes over 1-in. and it is widely used for slushers and drag scrapers. Figure 11-5 shows three varieties of 6 × 37 wire rope with FC and IWRC cores.3. 6 × 29F—A 6 × 29F is used for applications requiring a flexible rope slightly more resistant to wear than the 6 × 37 2-operation rope. churn drills. The object of rope lubrication is to reduce internal friction and to prevent corrosion. Table 11-3 provides breaking strengths for 6 × 37 wire ropes with FC and IWRC cores. Under conditions of repeated bending. During installation. based on the equipment being used. 4. 2. 11-5 Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings .2. Inspection requirements vary depending on what type of equipment the wire ropes are used on. Most applications can use a rope from this classification. for flexible slings. 11. when abrasion is severe.5 Wire-Rope Maintenance Personnel using wire rope shall ensure proper care by doing the following: a. Heat-affected zones of flame cut wire rope shall not be allowed to bear load.4 Wire-Rope Inspections A qualified inspector shall inspect wire ropes at least annually. 11. it is the most versatile of all ropes made. Unless prohibited by other considerations. and miscellaneous slings.3. When sheaves and drums are fairly small and abrasive conditions are not severe. the 6 × 16F makes an excellent rope for small draglines and similar uses. 6 × 16F—Slightly more abrasion resistant than the 6 × 19F.

) 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 ½ 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1½ 1 5/8 1 3/4 1 7/8 2 2 1/4 2½ 2 3/4 Weight (lb per ft) 0.0 11.1 17.19 7.4 2.7 3.0 208.3 32.8 6.25 0.69 0.0 10.00 13.0 154.0 253.000 lb Improved Plow steel plow steel 1.0 88.0 11.0 140. Breaking strength of wire rope (6 × 19 classification).4 5.0 226.0 148.0 122.7 23.44 0.03 3.03 2.5 8.0 128.90 5. 6 × 19 classification of wire rope.30 Breaking strength in tons of 2.0 64.0 7.50 3.7 13.0 152.11 0.23 0.0 8.5 70.04 8.0 163.8 4.91 11.6 14.0 166.33 3.8 44.1 57.1 5.60 2.3 1.39 6.23 4.0 103.8 11.1 25.5 23.0 38.4 34.0 16.40 8.34 0.1 4.5 81.63 0.0 182.0 65.6 2.51 0.0 280.5 2.00 12.3 15.8 28.4 40.10 0.75 3.4 79.0 328.7 48.76 2.0 280.) 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 ½ 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1½ 1 5/8 1 3/4 1 7/8 2 2 1/4 2½ 2 3/4 6 × 19 (IWRC) Weight (lb per ft) 0.0 60.0 73.56 0.96 4.90 1.10 Breaking strength in tons of 2.60 4.0 235.1 95.5 21.5 7.4 6.6 30.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure 11-4.0 Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings 11-6 .40 0.07 0.0 Rope diameter (in.0 138.0 41.5 53.0 113.63 6.4 1.8 52.6 10.65 5.0 301.0 111.0 130.0 305.0 169.10 10.3 16.0 210.0 119.1 103.31 0. 6 × 19 (FC) Rope diameter (in.99 1.9 4.06 0.5 96.0 87.8 12.18 0. Table 11-2.0 193.6 2.0 260.35 1.23 2.23 1.16 0.000 lb Improved Plow steel plow steel 1.

0 167.3 5.9 10.75 5.72 13.0 196.22 3.20 7.33 0.85 9.0 379.0 55.96 2.0 118.0 347.4 2.22 0.0 11-7 Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings .19 1.84 4.2 21.0 263.000 lb Improved Plow steel plow steel 2.7 104.2 2.3 52.16 2.5 16.0 142.0 293.0 5.49 0.0 113.0 142.6 80.1 9.0 130.45 6.96 1.5 38.9 7.11 0.) 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 ½ 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1½ 1 5/8 1 3/4 1 7/8 2 2 1/4 2½ 2 3/4 3 Weight (lb per ft) 0.10 0.30 0.0 216.00 6.5 3.0 182.49 4.0 5. 6 × 37 (FC) Rope diameter (in.5 105.4 12.23 6.0 245.000 lb Improved Plow steel plow steel 2.) 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 ½ 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1½ 1 5/8 1 3/4 1 7/8 2 2 1/4 2½ 2 3/4 3 6 × 37 (IWRC) Weight (lb per ft) 0.0 68.5 30.0 Rope diameter (in.9 7.5 14.89 15.0 315.7 42.09 4.1 96.2 10.43 0.9 29.18 0.0 353.0 242.1 4.0 11.5 82.66 12.64 10.42 2.30 1. Breaking strength of wire rope (6 × 37 classification).2 27.0 269.87 1.0 39.0 121.3 13.0 129.0 201.55 1.5 74.16 0.0 225.69 11.0 155.71 2.61 0.5 9.7 23.0 61.6 17.95 Breaking strength in tons of 2.7 4.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure 11-5.0 153.35 Breaking strength in tons of 2.0 96.0 90.39 0.5 110.4 5.1 88.24 0.0 20. 6 × 37 classification of wire rope.0 49.7 59.0 289.4 15.5 44.66 3.4 8.93 3.6 32.0 139. Table 11-3.2 36.5 6.6 73.0 323.8 12.82 8.2 22.0 153.50 5.1 65.67 0.5 47.8 4.54 0.

Published working loads for chain slings are usually based on 25–33 percent of the breaking strength. the slings must be of unequal length. choker hitch.414) tension in each sling leg. 5. Each sling leg. the crane hook or point of suspension must be directly above this point. Load = 1. straight pull. d. 1. Sling = 2-legged bridle. verified by a qualified rigger. when the center of gravity is closer to one point of the sling attachment than to the other. Sling stresses and sling angles will also be unequal (see Figure 11-6). b.1 General a.2 Safe Load a. Features that affect the rated capacity of the sling and that shall be considered in calculating the design factor are: 1. Number of parts in the sling. However. While slight variations are usually permissible.1.DOE-STD-1090-2001 11. if the crane hook is too far to one side of the center of gravity. giving a total of 707 lb (500 lb × 1. Two legs should be considered to carry the load because in normal lifting practice. | | Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings 11-8 .3. Type of hitch (e. 1. Diameter of curvature around which the sling is bent. Select multiple-leg slings so as not to introduce a working load in direct tension in any leg greater than that permitted. To make a level lift. 2. Rigging shall be configured such that slings do not reeve or slip through the hook. dangerous tilting will result and should be corrected at once. the 500-lb load would be multiplied by the load-angle factor in the chart. must have a rated capacity of at least 707 lb.. 4. and then rig the load so that it will lift level and true. If rigging techniques. All ratings are in pounds (lbs). 2. Therefore. Each of the two legs would lift 500 lb if a vertical lift were made. The center of gravity of an object is a point around which the entire weight may be concentrated. Slings shall have a minimum design factor appropriate to the type of material as specified in the appropriate section.1.3.g. The rated capacity or working load limit (WLL) of a sling varies depending on the type of hitch. 11. Angle with horizontal = 45 degrees. b. For this reason.3.3 SLINGS 11.000 lb. c.1 Load Angle Factor a. The rated capacity tables in this section show the applications for which the various safe loads apply when the slings are new. therefore. ensure that the load is evenly distributed then full use of three legs is allowed. Angle of loading and load center of 6. gravity. Figures 11-8 and 11-9 provide information for determining the total rated capacity of 3-leg and 4-leg bridle slings. To attach the load. position the crane hook directly above the center of gravity. there is a 45 sling angle involved. Nominal breaking strength of material from which it is constructed.414. Splicing or end-attachment efficiency. or basket hitch). Load angle factor from Figure 11-7 = 4. b. 3. locate the center of gravity. Special rigging techniques verified by a member of a qualified engineering organization shall be required to prove that a load is evenly distributed over four or more sling legs. the load will not be uniformly distributed on all legs. The following is an example of selecting a sling using the load angle factors shown in Figure 11-7. 3. 11.

DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure 11-6. Balancing loads. 11-9 Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings . Relationship of load angle and lifting efficiency. Figure 11-7.

3 Design Factor In general. suitable safe loads are listed. as shall sudden dynamic loading that can build up a momentary overload sufficient to break the sling. Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings 11-10 .3.5 Sling Storage Personnel using slings shall ensure that they are stored properly as follows: a. Endless-loop slings (grommet construction) and single-part slings with single-rope legs. the normal angle formed in the rope body as it passes through the choking eye is 120 degrees or greater [do not confuse the choke angle with the angle of inclination of the load (see Figure 11-10)]. thus making them more flexible than wire-rope slings. 11.3. The design factor for wire-rope slings shall be a minimum of 5:1 based upon breaking strength.1. These are divided into different groups or types as follows: 1. based on wide experience and sound engineering practice. Rotation-resistant wire rope shall not be used for wire-rope slings. double-rope legs. 11. Overloading shall be avoided. moisture. or multiple-part rope legs.3. Chains should not be lubricated when in use. burlap padding. d. Braided slings are made by braiding ordinary wire ropes together. Four-leg bridle slings. Different kinds of slings have been developed for specific purposes. 2. The size of a braided sling is determined by the diameter of one wire rope and the number of ropes in the cross section of the sling. wire-rope slings are made up of 6 × 19 or 6 × 37 classification wire rope.4 Sling Care Proper care and usage are essential for maximum service and safety.1. equalizing double-rope legs. such as hooks (which will straighten without breaking) or links (which will deform beyond usefulness before breaking) cannot be assigned a definite numerical design factor. Consult (load) Tables 11-4 through 11-9 and Figure 11-10. For smaller angles. extreme heat.DOE-STD-1090-2001 11. Three-leg bridle slings. e. Do not store synthetic-web slings where the temperature exceeds 200 degrees F (93 degrees C). wipe slings clean to remove as much dirt and abrasive grit as possible and relubricate wire rope and chain slings to extend their useful life. or wood blocking. Slings may require segregated storage as determined on a case-by-case basis. c.2 Wire-Rope Slings a. Do not store metal-mesh slings in areas where the temperature exceeds 550 degrees F (288 degrees C) or 200 degrees F (93 degrees C) if elastomer covered. b. The total load that can be safely lifted with slings depends on the rating of the slings and the manner in which they are attached to the load. reduce the rated load to the percentages given in Figure 11-10. or multiple-part rope legs. corrosive action. Wire-rope slings shall be protected from sharp bends and cutting edges by means of corner saddles.1. In general. Slings should be stored in racks (preferably vertical) and in designated locations when not in use. Two-leg bridle slings with single-rope legs. or kinking. When a wire rope sling is used in a choker hitch.3. 5. c. Rated load in load capacity Tables 11-4 through 11-9 are for angles of 120 degrees or greater. b. a design factor of 5:1 is maintained throughout this section. However. d. 3. In such cases. Do not store slings in a location where they will be subjected to mechanical damage. Before storage and periodically during storage. 4. Special slings and combinations. 11. certain sling fittings.

11-11 Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings . Determination of capacity—4-leg bridle sling.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure 11-8. Determination of capacity—3-leg bridle sling. Figure 11-9.

800 4.000 32.800 6.000 6.000 5.000 7.000 44.800 22.9) Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings 11-12 .280 1.000 12.000 26.000 6.600 7.000 28.600 10.000 42.000 112.400 24.100 1.184/ANSI/ASME B30.500 2.800 8.000 36.000 42.000 36.000 50.000 8.000 64. in inches 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 ½ 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 *1 1/4 *1 3/8 *1 ½ *1 5/8 *1 3/4 *2 Wire Rope/6 × 19 and *6 × 37 IPS IWRC Notes: (1) These values only apply when the D/d ratio is 25 or greater (choker and basket hitches) D = Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bent d = Diameter of rope (2) Choker hitch values apply only to choke angles greater than 120 degrees.000 56.000 14.600 20.200 4.400 3.000 1.800 19.000 38.000 28.000 36.200 3.400 11.600 15.000 32.000 70.200 24.000 52.000 26.400 14.000 36.000 52.000 48.000 26.200 3.000 4.400 11.000 22.200 4.400 11.840 2.000 42.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Table 11-4.000 18.600 12.000 22. Hand tuck splice (IWRC) in pounds Design Factor = 5:1 Dia.000 8.000 92.000 74.000 5.000 Basket or two legs 2.000 72.000 44.000 Choker 820 1.000 16.000 58.000 5. Load capacity of wire-rope slings.000 8.000 56.200 9.000 Dia.600 2. in inches 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 ½ 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 *1 1/4 *1 3/8 *1 ½ *1 5/8 *1 3/4 *2 Vertical 1. (CFR 1910.800 15.800 2.000 1.600 2.000 32.100 1.000 62.400 3.000 18.400 5.000 1.000 36.200 4.000 14.000 32.000 8.000 5.000 4.400 3.000 30.400 6.600 19.000 10.000 84.

800 20.500 2.800 33. Load capacity of wire-rope slings.9) Notes: (1) These values only apply when the D/d ratio is 25 or greater (choker and basket hitches) D = Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bent d = Diameter of rope (2) Choker hitch values apply only to choke angles greater than 120 degrees.800 26.000 Dia.000 52. in inches 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 ½ 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 *1 1/4 *1 3/8 *1 ½ *1 5/8 *1 3/4 *2 Vertical 980 1.600 9.000 56.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Table 11-5.600 7.000 14.600 18.600 40.400 2.800 3.000 34.600 17.400 5.000 74.800 24.000 44.600 5.000 68.000 4.184/ANSI/ASME B30.000 30.000 34.800 20.500 2.000 9.000 34.000 24.000 Choker 760 1.200 9.000 11.960 3.000 34.000 58. 11-13 Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings .000 30.600 6.600 7.600 3.000 1.200 15.000 28.600 5.000 90.400 13.000 80.000 70.700 2.400 8.400 16.600 20.000 980 1.200 2.000 42. Hand tuck splice (Fiber Core) in pounds Design Factor = 5:1 Dia.400 3.800 18.800 22.000 40.000 11.000 48.200 11.800 14.800 10.800 4.000 34.800 10.600 4.000 40.000 52.600 7.000 26.400 13.040 4.200 1.400 8.000 30.000 52. in inches 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 ½ 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 *1 1/4 *1 3/8 *1 ½ *1 5/8 *1 3/4 *2 Wire Rope/6 × 19 and *6 × 37 IPS FC (CFR 1910.000 48.600 13.000 42.000 24.000 5.000 1.700 2.000 6.000 3.600 4.000 60.200 3.000 Basket or two legs 1.800 3.400 16.000 104.600 5.200 2.000 22.200 6.000 28.

000 36.700 2.000 13.800 22.000 50.000 58.600 18.184/ANSI/ASME B30.000 20.000 52.000 30.500 6.000 30.000 28.400 3.800 7.000 25.000 82.800 16.000 32.300 24.580 2.000 70.000 7.800 15.400 4.100 1.000 48.600 9.400 4.000 72.600 18. Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings 11-14 .200 5.000 30.000 86.800 12.400 5. in inches 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 ½ 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 *1 1/4 *1 3/8 *1 ½ *1 5/8 *1 3/4 *2 (CFR 1910.000 64.000 34. Mechanical splice (IWRC) in pounds Design Factor = 5:1 Dia.200 5.400 5.000 30.000 32.500 3.400 24. Load capacity of wire-rope slings.000 34.600 11.000 40.000 50.000 42.200 9.860 2.800 3.000 1.400 3.000 Basket or two legs 2.000 36.000 20.000 66.700 9.000 60.700 13.100 1.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Table 11-6.940 3.600 13.000 17.400 3.000 50.800 11.800 9.400 4.800 9.000 100.200 3.600 4.700 2.000 42.000 64.800 6.700 13.000 38.000 17.000 106.200 7. in inches 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 ½ 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 *1 1/4 *1 3/8 *1 ½ *1 5/8 *1 3/4 *2 Vertical 1.000 128.200 4.000 50.500 6.600 19.000 64.000 4.000 Dia.300 1.9) Notes: (1) These values only apply when the D/d ratio is 25 or greater (choker and basket hitches) D = Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bent d = Diameter of rope (2) Choker hitch values apply only to choke angles greater than 120 degrees.000 84.000 1.000 42.800 8.400 26.000 42.000 1.000 25.000 Choker 840 1.

000 94.800 4.800 8.600 13.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Table 11-7.000 102.000 34.600 4. in inches *1/8 *3/16 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 ½ 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 Vertical 1.600 7.000 Dia.000 42.000 40.000 38.000 54.000 2.184/ANSI/ASME B30.400 3.400 6.000 54. 11-15 Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings .000 42.000 Basket or two legs 3.000 32.800 18.000 92.000 38.600 18.200 9.000 2.200 10.000 132.000 64.000 30.200 3. 8-part braided rope in pounds Design Factor = 5:1 Dia.200 7.000 Choker 1.000 10.600 5.000 94.000 72.600 18.000 72.600 24.600 13.600 13.000 24.000 162.000 52.000 28.000 70.000 124.400 26.600 24.900 4.900 4.000 30.600 16.000 76.400 6.200 6.000 54.200 3.200 9.400 19. in inches *1/8 *3/16 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 ½ 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 Wire Rope/6 × 19 IPS and *7 × 7 Galvanized Aircraft Grade (CFR 1910.000 1. Load capacity of wire-rope slings.000 22.9) Notes: (1) These values only apply when the D/d ratio is 25 or greater (choker and basket hitches) D = Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bent d = Diameter of rope (2) Choker hitch values apply only to choke angles greater than 120 degrees.000 52.200 13.

200 15.200 6.184/ANSI/ASME B30.000 144.000 45 degrees 3.000 38.600 5.000 120. Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings 11-16 .000 108.000 30.000 68. Load capacity of wire-rope slings.000 54.200 15.600 28.000 36.000 144.000 60.000 32.000 84.000 66.000 104.000 146.000 286.000 38.800 10.800 22.000 224. in inches *3/8 *9/16 *5/8 3/4 15/16 1 1/8 1 5/16 1½ 1 11/16 1 7/8 2 1/4 2 5/8 3 Wire Rope/*7 × 6 × 7 and 7 × 6 × 19 IPS IWRC (CFR 1910.000 48.600 17.800 20.000 44.000 112.000 98.600 7.000 Basket or two leg 5.000 28.000 62.000 30.000 78.800 22.200 15.200 14.000 118.000 38.000 158.000 60.000 194.000 84.000 11.000 11.000 42.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Table 11-8. Cable laid grommet-hand tucked in pounds Design Factor = 5:1 Dia.800 16.000 168.000 112.600 11.600 8.000 84.000 60 degrees 4.000 84.000 32.600 6.9) Notes: (1) These values only apply when the D/d ratio is 10 or greater (choker and basket hitches) D = Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bent d = Diameter of rope (2) Choker hitch values apply only to choke angles greater than 120 degrees. in inches *3/8 *9/16 *5/8 3/4 15/16 1 1/8 1 5/16 1½ 1 11/16 1 7/8 2 1/4 2 5/8 3 Vertical 2.000 248.000 52.400 22.800 10.600 5.900 4.000 48.000 84.000 60.000 Choker 1.800 22.000 202.800 13.400 9.000 Dia.000 30 degrees 2.000 7.000 44.

Load capacity of wire-rope slings.200 18.600 5.000 5.000 30 degrees 1.000 34.840 4.800 15.800 10.200 Basket or two leg 3.000 30.800 15.200 22.800 26.000 15.200 20.000 10.000 14.400 15. in inches 1/4 3/8 ½ 5/8 3/4 7/8 11-17 Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings .000 28.200 7.000 7.600 8.000 Choker 1.000 40.000 12.000 22.000 45 degrees 2. in inches 1/4 3/8 ½ 5/8 3/4 7/8 Vertical 1.000 7.000 11.200 20. Strand laid grommet-hand tucked in pounds Design Factor = 5:1 Dia.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Table 11-9.000 Dia.840 4.200 8.000 60 degrees 3.320 3.000 10.

Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings 11-18 .DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure 11-10. Choker hitch rated capacity adjustment.

Loads shall be set on blocks.” 11-19 Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings . as applicable. 2. Wire-rope sling users shall visually inspect all slings each day they are used or prior to use if the sling has not been in regular service (records are not required). 5.3 Operation a. c. f. solvents. Frequency of sling use.3. Ten randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay or five broken wires in one strand in one rope lay. and high temperatures. the proof load shall be equal to the rated capacity but shall not exceed: 1. End attachments that are cracked. f. a periodic inspection (with records) shall be made at least annually by a qualified inspector.load for multiple-leg bridle slings assemblies shall be applied to the individual leg and shall be in accordance with paragraph a.DOE-STD-1090-2001 11. All swaged socket and poured socket sling assemblies shall be proof-tested to the wire rope or fitting manufacturers recommendations but in no case greater than 50 percent of the component wire ropes’ or structural strands’ nominal strength. 11. | | | | | 4. 4. All other sling assemblies shall be proof. e.2. The following shall apply to all personnel who use wire-rope slings: 1. sudden starts and stops dramatically increase the stresses in hoist ropes and slings. Evidence of heat damage.3. Slings shall be immediately removed from service if any of the following conditions are present: 1. 3. chemicals. More frequent intervals should be established if necessary as determined by a qualified person based on: 1. “Rigging Accessories. Experience gained on the service life of slings used in similar circumstances. As a minimum. 3. Corrosion of the rope or end attachments. or worn. Users shall carefully note any deterioration that could result in an appreciable loss of original strength and determine whether further use of the sling would constitute a safety hazard. A sample annual inspection form is included as Exhibit I at the end of this section. 2. 2. Start and stop slowly. Master links to which multiple-leg slings are connected shall be proof-loaded to 200 percent times the force applied by the combined legs.2 Proof-Testing a. +0 percent of stipulated values. Ensure that wire-rope slings are protected against weather. b. Lift slowly until the load is suspended to minimize swinging. 11. deformed.2. Wear or scraping of one-third the original diameter of the outside individual wire. b.tested when specified by the purchaser. 125 percent of the vertical rated capacity for single-leg. This form is intended to be a sample only and is not intended to be mandatory.2. c. d. and b. d. or any other damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure. A written letter of certification by the manufacturer or a pull test witnessed and certified in writing by a qualified person is acceptable. crushing. Do not pull a sling from under a load that is resting on the sling. Severity of service conditions. Test loads described above shall be accurate to within -5 percent.3. Welded end attachments shall not be used unless proof-tested at 2 times rated capacity prior to initial use. birdcaging. 2. Nature of lifts being made. 6. e. 200 percent of the vertical rated capacity for mechanical-splice single-leg slings and endless slings.1 Inspections a. 3. The proof. In addition. Inspection records shall be readily available. hand-tucked slings. Hooks shall be inspected according to Chapter 12. Kinking.

Do not use single-leg wire-rope slings unless proper precautions are taken to prevent suspended loads from rotating. Before use and before storage. Use shackles or adjustable choker hooks when making choker hitches. Do not use knotted slings. 5. 13. v. After the initial load is applied to the rope. Ensure that all personnel stand clear of the suspended load. Do not make a complete turn of wire rope around the crane hook. 14. Slings made with wire rope clips should not be used as a choker hitch (see Figures 11-12 and 11-13). Double-saddle clips or fist-grip clips (Figure 11-14) may be used to make up general-purpose slings provided the sling is derated to 95 percent of wire-rope capacity. 26. 25. sudden loading should be avoided and the rope should be carefully observed while the load is being applied.251. When wire-rope clips are used. 17. ii. 18. 20. 10. and replaced with new slings. The capacity of wire-rope slings is derated by the manufacturer by applying the efficiency factors such as those given in Figure 11-11. In a basket hitch. 16. Permanently remove from service fiber-core rope slings that have been exposed to temperatures in excess of 180 degrees F (82 degrees C). 15. Obtain the manufacturer's written approval for use of wire rope slings of any grade at temperatures between 400 degrees F (204 degrees C) and -60 degrees F (-51 degrees C). discarded. Keep hands and fingers out of the area between the sling and the load. retighten the clip nuts to the recommended torque to compensate for any decrease in rope diameter caused by the load. iv. | | 23. Under these conditions. Avoid handling hot material with wire-rope slings. 22. Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings 11-20 . 8. Ensure that the weight of the load is within the rated capacity of the sling. Broken seizing wire. 12. check wire-rope slings for: i. Ensure that damaged wire-rope slings are rendered unusable. Follow the requirements of 29 CFR 1926. Kinks. 11. Store slings on racks away from moisture and acids when not in use. the rating of the sling must be derated to 80 percent of the wire-rope rating to allow for the inefficiency of the clips. 21. 24. ensure that the load is balanced to prevent slippage. Damage to swaged fittings. Rigging shall be configured such that slings do not reeve or slip through the hook. vi. Do not use wire-rope clips to fabricate wire-rope slings except where the application of slings prevents the use of prefabricated slings or where the specific application is designed by a qualified person. Avoid shock loading. 7. correct spacing.DOE-STD-1090-2001 4. and torque. 9. 19. 6. Use protector pads or blocking at sharp corners. removed from service. 27. iii. Broken or cut wires or strands. Rust or corrosion. Extremely low temperatures (less than 0 degrees F) may cause brittle fractures. Other signs of damage or abuse. Do not use damaged slings. Table H-20 or the manufacturer's recommendation (whichever offers the greater protection) for the number of clips required. Rope clip nuts should be retightened to the recommended torque periodically to compensate for further decrease in rope diameter during usage.

Wire-rope fastenings. Figure 11-13. Wire-rope clips—wrong way. 11-21 Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings . Figure 11-12.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure 11-11. Wire-rope clips—right way. The “U” of the clips should not bear against the live end of the wire rope because of the possibility of the rope being kinked or crushed. while the “U” of the bolt presses against the dead end. Note that the base of the clip bears against the live end of the wire rope.

“Critical Lifts. Slings made of rope with 6 × 19 and 6 × 37 construction and cable-laid slings shall have a minimum clear length of rope 10 times the rope diameter between splices. As a minimum. Locate sling eyes so that: i. 28. handtucked slings. 3. 11. v. or handling equipment. Test weights shall be accurate to within -5 percent. 4. Do not use wedge sockets or wire-rope clips on slings used for critical lifts. 1. rigging. galvanized). 31. sleeves. Double-saddle clips (drop-forged steel. vi. Wire-rope sling eyes with thimbles shall be made with a thimble having a ratio of thimble diameter (D) to rope diameter (d) of 3 or more (D/d greater than or equal 3).2. Grommets and endless slings shall have a minimum circumferential length of 96 times the body diameter of the grommet or endless sling. Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings 11-22 . This information may be stenciled or stamped on a metal tag affixed to the sling.2. (Stenciling or stamping on the swages of a sling eye is not recommended. iii. 125 percent of the vertical rated capacity of single-leg. Ensure that working loads of wire-rope slings do not exceed their rated capacities. The proof. | | 5. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ii. Wire-rope slings used for critical-lift service shall have an initial proof load test. If proof testing cannot be verified. Do not splice slings together.4 Critical Lifts See Chapter 2. Maximum accessibility to the eye is maintained. Figure 11-14. All provisions of paragraph 11. All swaged socket and poured socket sling assemblies shall be proof-tested to the wire rope or fitting manufacturers recommendations but in no case greater than 50 percent of the iii. Master links to which multiple-leg slings are connected shall be proof-loaded to 200 percent times the force applied by the combined legs. As a minimum.DOE-STD-1090-2001 ii. | | | | | | | | | | | | | 7. Braided slings shall have a minimum clear length of rope 40 times the component (individual) rope diameter between the loops or end fittings. 6. Use thimble eyes for slings to be joined end-to-end.3. the proof load shall be equal to the rated capacity but shall not exceed: i.3.” for critical lift requirements. component wire ropes’ or structural strands’ nominal strength. and iii. 8. as applicable. There is no interference with the functioning of hoisting. iv.load for multiple-leg bridle slings assemblies shall be applied to the individual leg and shall be in accordance with paragraph i. ii. mark wire-rope slings with the rated capacity and inspection due date. +0 percent of stipulated values.. ii. 2.a. 200 percent of the vertical rated capacity for mechanical-spliced single-leg slings and endless slings. 30.3. or end fittings.) 29. Adequate clearance is maintained between the attached slings and other parts or surfaces of the component or equipment. the wire-rope sling(s) shall be proof tested before being used to make a critical lift. also shall apply to critical lifts.

l. and rated capacity. The plane of the slinging eye is coincident with the plane of the sling under loaded conditions within ±5 degrees. The size is measured by the link stock. but less shock resistant than wire-rope or braided slings. Attached slings can converge over the center of gravity of the lift. Table 11-10 shows safe loads in pounds per leg which can be carried by various chain-sling arrangements. the safe-load capacity of the whole sling may be increased by 100 percent if the capacity of the master link is not exceeded. they should receive a coating of oil. 9. f. Proper stability can be maintained during lifting and positioning of the item at the installation site.DOE-STD-1090-2001 iv. If chain other than this is used. For long-term storage. Alloy-steel-chain slings shall not be heated above 1. rings. If all legs of a steel-chain sling are hooked back into the master link. Chains should be stored in racks or in designated locations when not in use. Other sling components are similar. reduce working load limits in accordance with the chain manufacturer's recommendations.3 Alloy Steel-Chain Slings a. Attachments: Hooks. Chains should be cleaned periodically to remove abrasive grit and to facilitate inspection. Note the effect of very low hook height and wide leg spreads. Sling angles are not less than 45 degrees with the horizontal. Under these conditions. nor in places exposed to the weather. pear shaped links. condition of chain and other components. v. h. it shall be used in accordance with he recommendations of the chain manufacturer. 11-23 Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings . i. An example of each is shown in Figure 11-15. g. j. Two basic types with many variations are used: basket type and hook type. Chain slings are more rugged and flexible. type. vi. Extremely low temperatures (less than 0 degrees F) may cause brittle fractures. weight of the sling assembly. vii.000 degrees F (537 degrees C) after being received from the manufacturer. welded or mechanical coupling links and other attachments shall have a rated capacity at least equal to that of the alloy steel chain with which they are used or the sling shall not be used in excess of the rated capacity of the weakest component. 11. The total load that can be lifted safely with steel-chain slings depends on the manner by which the slings are attached to the load. This section applies to slings made from grade 80 alloy chain manufactured and tested in accordance with National Association of Chain Manufacturers welded steel chain specifications—1990. d. Alloy Steel-chain slings differ from wire-rope slings in that components using wire are replaced by link chain. sudden loading should be avoided and the load should be lifted a very short distance while the chains are carefully inspected. In addition to marking requirements listed for ordinary lifts. k. Types of chain slings. Chains should not be lubricated when in use because this might make them dangerous to handle. such as the reach. Figure 11-15. The ends of all empty chains should be hooked onto the hoist hook or bull ring. other items may need to be marked as determined on a case-by-case basis. The design factor for steel-chain slings shall be a minimum of 4:1 based upon breaking strength. The safe-load level of any chain sling is a function of three basic factors: size and number of legs. oblong links. and sling angle between legs and horizontal. Chains should never be stored in damp or dirty places. e. When exposed to service temperatures in excess of 600 degrees F (315 degrees C). c.3. b.

In addition to criteria for daily inspections. Perform inspection on an individual-link basis. Assemblies with such defects shall be reconditioned by the manufacturer or discarded. and scores. Check for evidence of heat damage. Accurately measure the reach (inside of crane ring to inside of hook) under no load when new and at each inspection. Master links to which multiple-leg slings are connected shall be proof-loaded to 200 percent multiplied by the force applied by the combined legs. Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings 11-24 . The proof load for multiple-leg bridle slings shall be applied to the individual legs and shall be 200 percent of the vertical rated capacity of a single-leg sling. corrosion. Single-leg and endless alloy-steel chain slings shall be certified as having been proof-tested to 200 percent of the rated capacity prior to initial use. A sample annual inspection form is included as Exhibit II at the end of this section. Do not straighten deformed hooks or other attachments on the job.1 Pre-Use Inspections Steel-chain sling users shall visually inspect all slings before they are used as follows: a. 11. verify stock diameter of link to be within the minimum safe dimensions in the table below. g. Remove from service assemblies if hooks have been opened more than 15 percent of the normal throat opening measured at the narrowest point or twisted more than 10 degrees from the plane of the unbent hook. Reject chain if it does not meet the requirements in the table. assemblies with such defects shall be reconditioned or repaired prior to return to service. abrasions. remove the assembly from service.2 Annual Inspections a. Check for localized stretch and wear. b. Hang chain in a vertical position. Remove from service assemblies with cracked hooks or other end attachments.3. the qualified inspector shall do the following for annual inspections: 1. heat damage. 3. +0 percent of stipulated values.3 Proof-Testing a.3.3. if practicable. and keep a record of increase in length. b. cracks in weld areas. Conduct a link-by-link inspection for the following defects: bent links. scores. cracks in any section of link. 6. This form is intended to be a sample only and is not intended to be mandatory. If the minimum dimensions are reduced below those values specified in Table 11-11. c. Remove the assembly from service if wear at any point of any chain link exceeds that shown in Table 11-11. Reject if discovered. If grooving is noticed. an increase in length may be due to stretch (sign of overload or wear). Lift each link from its seat and visually inspect for grooving. If any link does not hinge freely with the adjoining link. heat damage. Chain should hang reasonably straight if links are not distorted. Test loads shall be accurate to within -5 percent. Remove from service assemblies with deformed master links or coupling links. or markings tending to weaken the links.3. 5. c. or markings tending to weaken the links. 11.3. Reject if discovered. stretched links.DOE-STD-1090-2001 11. 4. d. b.3. for preliminary inspection. remove the assembly from service. e. Annual inspections shall be conducted by a qualified inspector. Check rings and hooks for distortion. f. d. Round out sharp transverse nicks by grinding. Either certification by the manufacturer or a pull test certified by a qualified person is acceptable. 2.

700 72.100 28.100 12.184/ANSI/ASME B30.000 18.300 49.400 67. 11-25 Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings . Hi-Test (Grade 43) Chain and Transport (Grade 70) Chain.300 34. These grades are not recommended for overhead lifting and therefore are not covered in the applicable standards.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Table 11-10.400 102.300 34.800 31.700 72.100 30° Two Legs Size in inches 9/32 3/8 ½ 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/4 12.900 10.200 82.600 125. Alloy steel chain slings in pounds Design Factor = 4:1 Size in inches 9/32 3/8 ½ 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/4 Single Leg 3.000 48.300 60° Two Legs 6.300 20. Rating of multileg slings adjusted for angle of loading between the inclined leg and the horizontal plane of the load.000 59.200 45° Two Legs 4.200 47.100 28.200 47.9) Notes: (1) (2) Other grades of proof tested steel chain include Proof Coil (Grade 28).200 3.000 25.100 12.000 17.600 40.000 18.500 (CFR 1910.500 7.500 7.

Number of legs.3. Reach. 10. 15. Use a suitable pad to prevent gouging or bending of the chain links. Evidence of heat damage. iv. 2. Rust and corrosion. Place wooden blocks or other supports under the load to provide sufficient clearance for the chain. Do not use makeshift or field-fabricated hooks on steel-chain slings. 13.4 Operation a. 11. Do not carry loads on the point or tip of a hook. slings. look for stretched links. Do not set a load on a sling or pull a sling from under a load. at a minimum. Ensure that steel-chain slings used in DOE-controlled areas are marked.) 1/4 3/8 ½ 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/4 Maximum allowable wear (in. ii. Bends or distortions in hooks. Nicks. Protect chain slings from sharp corners that might bend the links. 3. Maximum allowable wear of chains. with: i. Do not assume that a chain sling is safe because it looks new. 8. 12. cracks. iii. Check steel-chain slings for: i. 6. Inspection due date. through a formal procedure. Bending. vi. 7. Uneven lengths when sling legs are hanging free. Sling manufacturer. Maintain latches on hooks in good condition. All defective chain slings should be returned. or inserting the tip of the hook into a link. The following shall apply to all personnel who use steel-chain slings: 1. v. Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings 11-26 . always face the hook opening out and away from the pull of the sling so that the hooks will not slip out when slack is taken out of the sling. 16. and the like. stretching. Chain size (in. do not use it. gouges.) 3/64 5/64 7/64 9/64 10/64 11/64 12/64 16/64 iv. 14. Shorten chain slings by hooking back into the chain.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Table 11-11. check with the supervisor. as well as possible scarring of the load. and recertification. Do not weld or perform local repairs on chain slings. Hook the ends of all empty chain onto the hoist hook or bull ring. Avoid sudden loading of chain NOTE: For other sizes. Avoid unbalanced loads.3. If a chain sling does not look safe. If in doubt. Manufacturer's grade. or shearing of links. rods. iii. 9. Do not use homemade links. Rated load and angle on which the rating is based. Do not shorten by knotting. to the manufacturer for examination. into the master link. and wear. When making choker hitches with chain slings. vii. consult chain or sling manufacturer. 4. bolting. or other nonstandard attachments. ii. repair. Size. 11. makeshift fasteners formed from bolts. or with grab hooks. 5. twisting. v. Do not hammer a chain to force it into position. vi.

11. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | d. The carbon steel used in metal-mesh slings shall be processed to produce the required mechanical properties. h. The coating shall not diminish the rated capacity of a sling. The fabric and handles shall be so joined that: 1. 3. based on types of duty and material classification. k. to the American Iron and Steel Institute standards for Type-302 or Type-304 stainless steel. Where slings have more than one leg. Ensure that the working load does not exceed the rated capacity of the sling. at least. The proof load for multiple-leg bridle slings shall be applied to the individual legs and shall be 200 percent of the vertical rated capacity of a single-leg sling. reduced. e. If proof testing cannot be verified.5 Critical Lifts See Chapter 2. Metal-mesh sling designations. 11-27 Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings . ensure that the tag is affixed to the master link. The load is evenly distributed across the width of the fabric. Other materials may be used. j. fabric. the sling manufacturer should be consulted for specific data. impregnated with elastomers such as neoprene or polyvinyl chloride (PVC). 2. the sling(s) shall be proof tested before being used to make a critical lift. properly derated for other than straight-pull configurations (Table 11-13). consult the manufacturer for specific data.” for critical lift requirements. Sharp edges do not damage the 11.3. b. Except for elastomer-impregnated slings. a. The rated capacity of the sling is not 2. When metal-mesh slings are produced from such materials. “Critical Lifts. The design factor for metal-mesh slings shall be a minimum of 5:1 based upon breaking strength. c. 18. plated.3. g. Metal-mesh slings (Figure 11-16) shall be classified with the designations shown in Table 11-12. The handle shall be designed to ensure: 1. however. No visible permanent deformation after proof-testing.4 Metal-Mesh Slings a. or otherwise suitably coated. 19. i. Metal-mesh slings shall not be used to lift loads greater than the rated capacity. Type Designation Heavy duty Medium duty Light duty Classification Carbon steel Stainless steel Carbon steel Stainless steel Carbon steel Stainless steel 35-CS 35-SS 43-CS 43-SS 59-CS 59-SS f. Master links to which multiple-leg slings are connected shall be proof-loaded to 200 percent multiplied by the force applied by the combined legs. Single-leg and endless alloy-steel chain slings used for critical-lift service shall have an initial proof load test of 200 percent of the vertical rated capacity. Metal-mesh slings may be painted. c. b. all metal-mesh slings covered by this section may be used without derating in a temperature range from -20 degrees F (-29 degrees C) to 550 degrees F (288 degrees C). All metal-mesh slings covered by this section and impregnated with PVC or neoprene shall be used only in a temperature range from 0 degrees F (-18 degrees C) to 200 degrees F (93 degrees C). The material used for stainless-steel metal-mesh slings shall conform. For operation at temperatures outside these ranges or for other impregnations. This information may be stenciled or stamped on a metal tag or tags affixed to the sling.3. Table 11-12.DOE-STD-1090-2001 17. At least the same rated capacity as the fabric.

2. Any distortion or twisting of either end fitting out of its plane. Distortion of either end fitting so the width of the eye opening is decreased by more than 10 percent. 9. Metal-mesh slings shall be removed from service if any of the following defects are present: 1. A 15 percent reduction of the original cross-sectional area of metal at any point around a handle eye. mesh.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure 11-16.3.2 Proof-Testing a. 11. b. 7. b. 10. c. A broken wire in any part of the 6. A broken weld or brazed joint along the sling edge.4. Lack of flexibility due to distortion of the mesh. Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings 11-28 . Reduction in wire diameter of 25 percent due to abrasion or 15 percent due to corrosion.3. Metal-mesh slings shall be certified as having been proof-tested to 200 percent of their rated capacity prior to initial use. Evidence of heat damage. Either certification by the manufacturer or a pull test certified by a qualified person is acceptable. 11. Typical metal-mesh sling.1 Inspections a. 3. Annual inspections shall be made by a qualified inspector. Coated slings shall be proof-tested prior to being coated. Users of metal-mesh sling shall visually inspect all metal-mesh slings before each use. +0 percent of stipulated values. 8. Cracked end fitting. Test loads shall be accurate to within -5 percent. Distortion of the female handle so the depth of the slot is increased by more than 10 percent.4. 5. c. 4. and inspection records shall be kept on file and be readily available.

500 9.500 9.000 12.800 17.900 1.000 7.000 5.600 1.900 2.800 1.200 27.000 7.000 3.900 8.000 2.700 4.200 5.000 21.800 17.000 28.900 19.000 16.000 7.000 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Medium duty 12-ga 43 spirals/ft of mesh width 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 1.400 2.000 2.800 5.500 12.000 8.100 3.000 6.9) 11-29 Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings .000 6.500 2.350 2.000 20.900 10.600 2.000 5.000 2.000 32.000 24.000 7.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Table 11-13.100 16.184/ANSI/ASME B30.600 10.000 14.500 9.000 10.800 6.000 24.600 18.700 4.400 13.000 5.000 3.000 4.300 3.000 10.400 2.800 4.000 8.400 8.700 2.000 10.200 20.500 6.000 2.700 6.900 11.800 10.600 4.000 12.800 3.000 6.000 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Light duty 14-ga 59 spirals/ft of mesh width 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 900 1.400 8.000 3.700 14.000 16.300 900 1.700 4. Load capacity of carbon and stainless-steel metal-mesh slings in pounds Design Factor = 5:1 Sling width(in.000 15.000 12.000 14.000 1.000 10.000 20.000 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 (CFR 1910.700 7.100 13.400 12.000 18.500 2.400 2.300 2.000 8.800 2.000 1.000 10.700 7.400 9.500 10.700 4.000 16.000 15.500 5.600 12.100 8.000 2.800 4.700 24.000 14.400 13.000 12.000 16.000 8.000 1.700 4.500 4.) Heavy duty 10-ga 35 spirals/ft of mesh width 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 1.000 5.000 2.200 6.500 12.400 11.300 14.400 3.600 8.000 6.000 12.500 6.700 22.000 4.) Vertical or choker Basket or two legs 60° Basket or two legs 45° Basket or two legs 30° Basket or two legs Sling width(in.000 8.000 6.

Metal-mesh slings used for critical-lift service shall have an initial proof load test of 200 percent of the vertical rated capacity. Of a minimum breaking strength equal to that of the sling. b. c. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | e. Ensure that all metal-mesh slings have a permanently affixed metal identification tag or tags containing the following information: 1. Avoid twisting and kinking of the legs. l. Avoid shock loading. r. Do not use damaged slings.3. o. k.3. Inspection due date.4 Critical Lifts See Chapter 2. Rated load in vertical. Have uniform thickness and width. 11. c.” for critical lift requirements. ensure that metal-mesh slings are long enough so that the female handle chokes freely on the mesh. m. Do not pull metal-mesh slings from under a load when the load is resting on the sling. The proof load for multiple-leg bridle slings shall be applied to the individual legs and shall be 200 percent of the vertical rated capacity of a single-leg sling. Ensure that all personnel stand clear of the suspended load. j. Of sufficient strength to sustain twice the rated capacity without permanent deformation. In a choker hitch. b. the sling(s) shall be proof tested before being used to make a critical lift. b. When this cannot be done. Do not use metal-mesh slings in which the spirals are locked or are without free articulation. Ensure that sharp corners are padded. q. Synthetic web shall possess the following qualities: 1. Have selvage edges and not be split from its woven width. Ensure that metal-mesh slings have suitable characteristics and rated capacity for the load and environment. or other unapproved methods. 2.4. Manufacturer's name or trademark. i. never on the handle. Securely hitch metal-mesh slings to the load. ensure that the load is balanced.3 Operation a. Fittings shall be: 1. Master links to which multiple-leg slings are connected shall be proof-loaded to 200 percent multiplied by the force applied by the combined legs.5 Synthetic-Web Slings a. Do not shorten metal-mesh slings with knots. a. Keep hands and fingers out of the area between the sling and the load. “Critical Lifts. 2. If proof testing cannot be verified. n. basket. bolts. f. The following shall apply to all personnel who use metal-mesh slings: 1. p. Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings 11-30 . h. Never hammer a sling to straighten a spiral or cross rod or to force a spiral into position. Do not store metal-mesh slings in an area where they will be subjected to mechanical damage or corrosive action. 2. consult the manufacturer for a derating factor or for other means of handling this type of load. Ensure that the weight of the load is within the rated capacity of the sling. 2. Be of sufficient strength to meet the sling manufacturer's requirements. and choker hitches. d. 3. The thread used in the manufacture of a synthetic-web sling shall be of the same type of material as the web. In a basket hitch. g. c.4. Metal-mesh slings used in pairs should be attached to a spreader beam. s. Metal-mesh slings should be long enough to provide the maximum practical angle between the sling leg and the horizontal (minimum practical angle at the crane hook if vertical angles are used). 3.3.DOE-STD-1090-2001 11. In a choker hitch. 11. ensure that the load is balanced to prevent slippage.

With this arrangement. h. The synthetic-web sling capacities listed in Tables 11-14 and 11-15 are approximate only and are based on nylon webbing having breaking strengths between 6. synthetic-web slings are also available with metal end fittings (see Figure 11-18). Leather pads are the most resistant to wear and cutting. but are subject to weathering and gradual deterioration. On the other hand. Endless or Grommet Sling—Both ends of one piece of webbing are lapped and sewn to form a continuous piece. in choker arrangements. as well as straight hitches. do not move when the sling stretches. 11-31 Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings . These treatments also increase the coefficient of friction. The most common are triangle and choker hardware. Free of all sharp edges that would in any way damage the mesh. 2. 3. oils. Reinforcing strips that double or triple the eye's thickness and greatly increase its life and safety can be sewn into the sling eyes.000 lb/in. protective devices offered by most sling manufacturers that minimize these effects (see Figure 11-19). e. adjust to the load. Because load contact points can be shifted with every lift. of webbing width. 5. or as basket slings. Other protective devices include: 1. g. Despite their inherent toughness. affording a better grip when loads with slippery surfaces are to be handled. i. The sling manufacturer shall supply data on these effects. Cotton-faced nylon webbing can be used for hoisting rough-surfaced material. j. and most alkalis. Synthetic-web slings may be coated with elastomers or other suitable material that will provide characteristics such as abrasion resistance. Coatings can be applied to provide added resistance to abrasion and chemical damage. In place of the sewn eyes. both choker and basket hitches. and increased coefficient of friction. bridle hitches. The stitching in all load-bearing splices shall be of sufficient strength to maintain the sling design factor. The design factor for synthetic-web slings shall be a minimum of 5:1 based upon breaking strength. They eventually show signs of abrasion when they are repeatedly used to hoist rough-surfaced products. and they stretch in the same ratio as the sling body. Twisted Eye—An eye-and-eye type that has twisted terminations at both ends. This is necessary for certain applications where the sling edges are subject to damage. 2. They are not recommended in lengths over 6 ft due to the different stretching characteristics of leather and webbing. The capacities are also based on a 5:1 design factor and assume that the end fittings are of adequate strength.or sliding-tube-type wear pads are available for slings used to handle material having sharp edges. They help reduce wear in the sling eyes and thus lengthen sling life. however.000 and 9. The eyes may either be full web width or may be tapered by being folded and sewn to a width narrower than the webbing width. grease. Sleeve. The eye openings are at 90 degrees to the plane of the sling body. 3. Synthetic-web slings are available in a number of configurations as follows (see Figure 11-17): 1. They can be used as vertical hitches. Rated capacities are affected by the type of hitch used and by the angle from the vertical when used as multilegged slings or in basket hitches. nylon. 4. may be rigged. They can be positioned on the sling where required. k. Edge guards consist of strips of webbing or leather sewn around each edge of the sling. Standard Eye and Eye—Webbing is assembled and sewn to form a flat-body sling with an eye at each end and the eye openings in the same plane as the sling body. synthetic-web slings can be cut by repeated use around sharp-cornered objects.DOE-STD-1090-2001 3. Buffer strips of leather. nylon-web wear pads are more resistant to weathering. There are. wear is evenly distributed and sling life is extended. These coatings can be brightly colored for safety or load-rating purposes. d. 6. sealing of pores. and cover both sides of the sling. or other materials that are sewn on the body of a sling protect against wear. Combination hardware consists of a triangle for one end of the sling and a triangle/rectangle choker attachment for the other end. This configuration is also available with either full-width or tapered eyes. f.

Synthetic-web sling types. Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings 11-32 .DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure 11-17.

Effect of low sling angle. Although safe working loads for bridle hitches in the choker or double-basket configuration are provided. and inspection records shall be kept on file and readily available. Distortion of fittings. 1. | | | 8. m.3. 2. 11. Only synthetic-web slings constructed from webbing approved for sling construction by the manufacturer or other qualified person shall be used at DOE locations. 5. Synthetic-web slings.. Test loads shall be accurate to within -5 percent. other than those described in this section [i. as the sling angle decreases. shall be used in accordance with the sling manufacturer's recommendation. CAUTION: Tiedown and/or ratchet strap shall not be used as synthetic-web slings. 3. d. Broken or worn stitches.DOE-STD-1090-2001 l. Acid or caustic burns. tears. The requirements of ASME B30. Master links to which multiple-leg slings are connected shall be proof-loaded to 200 percent times the force applied by the combined legs.e. web slings of all types shall be certified as having been proof-tested prior to initial use. 7. 11. one edge of the web will take all the load. the responsible manager shall ensure that radiation exposure does not exceed 100. and 29 CFR 1910. they should be used only with extreme caution because. punctures.2 Proof-Testing a.000 rad during the life of the sling. Missing or illegible sling identification. Slings shall be removed from service if any of the following defects are visible: 1. surface. This form is intended to be a sample only and is not intended to be mandatory.9 (“Slings”). Section 9-4. b. The proof load for single-leg slings and endless slings shall be 200 percent of the vertical rated capacity. Figure 11-20. A sample periodic inspection form is included as Exhibit III at the end of this section.5. When specified by the purchaser. n. producing a risk of tearing (see Figure 11-20). When it is necessary to use a nylon or polyester sling in a radiation area.5. Conventional three-strand natural or synthetic fiber rope slings are NOT recommended for lifting service and should be used only if conventional sling types are not suitable for a unique application. 11-33 Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings . +0 percent of stipulated values. b. Either certification by the manufacturer or a pull test certified by a qualified person is acceptable.184(h) shall be followed. Users of synthetic-web sling shall visually inspect all slings before each use.3.1 Inspections a. c. 2. 6. Annual inspection shall be made by a qualified inspector. Wear or elongation exceeding the amount recommended by the manufacturer. The proof load for multiple-leg bridle slings shall be applied to the individual legs and shall be 200 percent of the vertical rated capacity of a single-leg sling. 4. Melting or charring of any part of the Snags. polyester round and kevlar fiber (yarn) slings]. or cuts. Knots in any part.

Figure 11-19.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure 11-18. Web and edge protectors. Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings 11-34 . Metal end fittings.

400 1.200 2.800 8.800 5. choker fittings) Web width (in.) Nylon Single Ply Web Slings (6. Follow manufacturer's capacities.800 3.500 5.800 7.400 2.600 17.200 9. Choker hitch values apply only to choke angles greater than 120 degrees.000 28.200 9.800 4. basket hitch and corresponding leg angles.500 1.000 14.400 7.800 6.600 20.400 3.000 20.9) (1) For an endless sling with vertical hitch carrying a load of such size as to throw the legs more than 5 deg.000 14.000 lb/in.800 6.400 5. they vary from manufacturer to manufacturer.500 10.000 7.) Vertical Choker Basket or two legs Web width (in. (2) (3) 11-35 Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings . off vertical use rated load data for eye and eye sling.600 4.400 4.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Table 11-14.400 6.200 9.000 7.800 7.400 4. Load capacity of synthetic web slings in pounds Design Factor = 5:1 (eye and eye. twisted eye.600 12.600 8.600 12.400 4.000 14.184/ANSI/ASME B30.400 2.200 1.000 lb/in.700 3.800 2.400 12.400 19.000 3.800 10.400 2.800 7.200 13.160 6.600 5.200 1 2 3 4 5 6 Nylon Double Ply Web Slings (6.400 1 2 3 4 5 6 (CFR 1910.300 10.320 12.400 3.600 4.800 25.240 8.480 16.600 4.600 14.000 10.200 900 1.100 6.200 2.600 12.700 3.800 9. material) 1 2 3 4 5 6 1.200 24. material) 1 2 3 4 5 6 2.200 9.080 4. triangle fittings.

520 14.640 2. material) 1 2 3 4 5 6 3.560 5.000 lb/in.200 6.800 6.090 13.400 8.000 19.600 1.280 2.260 4.390 19.120 7.680 3.400 12.860 16.520 9. Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings 11-36 .660 24.600 1 2 3 4 5 6 Nylon Double Ply Web Slings (9.210 11.200 6.000 32. Choker hitch values apply only to choke angles greater than 120 degrees.000 9.184/ANSI/ASME B30.400 7.880 11.800 16.300 13.050 6.9) (1) (2) (3) For an endless sling with vertical hitch carrying a load of such size as to throw the legs more than 5 deg.200 2.400 8.770 5.400 8.260 28.000 16.090 15. choker fittings) Web width (in.760 23.780 9.880 11.540 16.270 19.775 23.040 12.200 4. they vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. twisted eye.800 6.600 12.600 3. off vertical use rated load data for eye and eye sling.600 3.400 8.100 9.000 9. basket hitch and corresponding leg angles.120 6. Load capacity of synthetic web slings in pounds Design Factor = 5:1 (eye and eye.000 lb/in.560 3.) Nylon Single Ply Web Slings (9.320 2.200 13.560 1.200 6.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Table 11-15.320 11.280 4.540 8.400 9. Follow manufacturer's capacities.000 16.050 3.520 6.840 5.040 28.200 4.800 17.) Vertical Choker Basket or two legs Web width (in.320 1 2 3 4 5 6 (CFR 1910.540 11.040 11.640 5.520 14. material) 1 2 3 4 5 6 1. triangle fittings.

DOE-STD-1090-2001 Table 11-16. Load capacity of Single Leg Polyester Roundslings in pounds Endless and Eye to Eye Type Design Factor = 5:1

Size (Note 1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
NOTES:

Vertical 2,600 5,300 6,400 10,600 13,200 16,800 21,200 25,000 31,000 40,000 53,000 66,000 90,000

Choker 2,100 4,200 6,700 8,500 10,600 13,400 17,000 20,000 24,800 32,000 42,400 52,800 72,000

Basket or two leg 5,200 10,600 16,800 21,200 26,400 33,600 42,400 50,000 62,000 80,000 106,000 132,000 180,000

60 degrees 45 degrees 30 degrees 4,500 9,300 14,500 18,400 22,900 29,100 36,700 43,300 53,700 69,300 91,800 114,300 155,900 3,700 7,500 11,900 15,000 18,700 23,800 30,000 35,400 43,800 56,600 74,900 93,300 127,300 2,600 5,300 6,400 10,600 13,200 16,800 21,200 25,000 31,000 40,000 53,000 66,000 90,000

Size (Note 1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

(CFR 1910.184/ANSI/ASME B30.9)

1. Roundslings are identified by the vertical rated load shown on the tag. The Size Number in this column have been adopted by the Web Sling and Tiedown Association to describe certain polyester roundslings. They are included for reference only. Other polyester roundslings may have different vertical rated loads. 2, Color guidelines for polyester roundsling covers are widely used to indicate the vertical rated load of roundslngs; however, this is not followed by some manufacturers. Always select and use roundslings by the rated load as shown on the tag, never by color.

Chapter 11 Wire Rope and Slings

11-40

DOE-STD-1090-2001

15.2 DEFINITIONS
APPOINTED: Assigned specific responsibilities by the employer or the employer's representative. AUTHORIZED: Assigned by a duly constituted administrative or regulatory authority to perform a specific function. CRANE, MOBILE: For the purposes of this chapter, mobile cranes are defined as wheel-mounted cranes, truck cranes, and crawler cranes. o A wheel-mounted crane consists of a rotating structure with power plant, operating machinery, and boom, mounted on a base or platform equipped with axles and rubber-tired wheels for travel. The base is usually propelled by an engine in the superstructure, but it may be equipped with a separate engine controlled from the superstructure (see Figures 15-1, 15-3, 15-5, 15-6, 15-7, 15-9, and 15-10). A truck-mounted crane consists of a rotating superstructure with power plant that operates machinery and boom, mounted on an automotive truck equipped with a power plant for travel. Commercial truck-mounted cranes are included in this category (see Figures 15-3, 15-7, 15-9, and 15-10). A crawler crane consists of a rotating superstructure with power plant, operating machinery and boom, mounted on a base equipped with crawler treads for travel (see Figures 15-2 and 15-8). DESIGNATED LEADER: “An individual assigned responsibility for hoisting and rigging activities requiring more than one person”. FORKLIFT TRUCK: A high-lift self-loading truck equipped with load carriage and forks for transporting and tiering loads (see Figure 15-11). LIFT, CRITICAL: A lift for which the application of requirements applicable to ordinary lifts would not adequately eliminate or control the likelihood or severity of the following: o personnel injury or significant adverse health impact (onsite or offsite). significant release of radioactivity or other hazardous material or other undesirable conditions. undetectable damage that would jeopardize future operations or the safety of a facility. damage that would result in delay to schedule or other significant program impact such as loss of vital data. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

o

o

o

o

o

LIFT, ORDINARY: Any lift not designated as a critical lift. PERSON-IN-CHARGE (PIC): The manager or other responsible person (other than the equipment operator) known to be qualified and appointed to be responsible for the safe handling of critical loads.

DESIGNATED: Selected or assigned by the employer or the employer's representative as being qualified to perform specific duties.

Note: In the text, use of the imperative voice (as in “Ensure that the load is balanced”) or of the term “shall” refers to mandatory actions, whereas the term “should” refers to recommended actions. Chapter 15 Construction Hoisting and Rigging Equipment Requirements

15-2

DOE-STD-1090-2001

Figure 15-1. Wheel-mounted crane (single control station).

Figure 15-2. Crawler crane

Figure 15-3. Wheel-mounted crane (Multiple control station).

Figure 15-4. Locomotive crane.

15-3

Chapter 15 Construction Hoisting and Rigging Equipment Requirements

DOE-STD-1090-2001 General note for Figures 15-5 through 15-10: The boom may have a base boom structure of sections (upper and lower) between or beyond which additional sections may be added to increase its length, or it may consist of a base boom from which one or more boom extensions are telescoped for additional length. These illustrations show some types.

Figure 15-5. Wheel-mounted crane -- telescoping boom (Single control station).

Figure 15-6. Wheel-mounted crane -- telescoping boom (Single control station).

Figure 15-7. Wheel-mounted crane -- telescoping boom (Multiple control station).
Chapter 15 Construction Hoisting and Rigging Equipment Requirements

Figure 15-8. Crawler crane -- telescoping boom.

15-4

rider truck. Cantilever truck. forklift truck.DOE-STD-1090-2001 Figure 15-9. 15-5 Chapter 15 Construction Hoisting and Rigging Equipment Requirements . counterbalanced truck.telescoping boom. Figure 15-10. Commercial truck-mounted crane -.nontelescoping boom. High-lift truck. Comerical truck-mounted crane -. Figure 15-11.

or by professional standing. QUALIFIED RIGGER: One whose competence in this skill has been demonstrated by experience accepted as satisfactory by the responsible manager.DOE-STD-1090-2001 QUALIFIED: A person. by possession of a recognized degree or certificate. Chapter 15 Construction Hoisting and Rigging Equipment Requirements 15-6 . verified. QUALIFIED OPERATOR: One whose competence to operate equipment safely and effectively (including the ability to accurately spot and control loads) can be demonstrated to and accepted by responsible management. QUALIFIED ENGINEER/QUALIFIED ENGINEERING ORGANIZATION: An engineer or engineering organization whose competence in evaluation of the type of equipment in question has been demonstrated to the satisfaction of the responsible manager. QUALIFIED INSPECTOR: One whose competence is recognized by the authority having jurisdiction and whose qualification to perform specific inspection activities has been determined. has successfully demonstrated an ability and competence to solve problems relating to the subject matter and work. training. by extensive knowledge. or who. who. and attested to in writing. and experience.

design. except when the erection. stairway. The crane shall be uniformly level within 1 percent of level grade and firm footing exist under both crawler tracks or under each outrigger float. scaffold. signaler. and the person responsible for overall worksite safety to plan and review procedures to be followed. The Authorizing Manager shall appoint a Designated Leader for the entire personnel lifting operation. This meeting shall be held at each new work location. b. Cribbing mats under tracks or blocks under outrigger floats are used as necessary to provide a firm and substantial footing. c. use. immediately prior to the work shift containing the person. testing. 2. A statement describing the operation and its time frame shall be included. Procedures for entering and leaving the personnel platform and the points at which persons will enter and leave the device shall be reviewed. 2. ladder. would be more hazardous or is not possible because of structural design or worksite conditions. such as a personnel hoist. The use of a crane to hoist employees on a personnel lift platform is prohibited. This section implements the requirements of 29 CFR 1926. “Personnel Lifting Systems. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 15-41 Chapter 15 Construction Hoisting and Rigging Equipment Requirements . c. stairway. The operator has been working for more than 10 hours prior to the start of the lift or the lift will not be completed before the operator has been working for 12 hours. or elevating work platform) would be more hazardous or is not possible because of structural design or worksite conditions. At each new job site prior to hoisting personnel.6. b. 15. any deficiencies revealed by inspection. 3. and hook block shall be proof-tested by a qualified inspector to 125 percent of the personnel platform's rated capacity by holding it suspended for 5 minutes with the test load suitably distributed on the personnel platform.e.1 Mobile Cranes/Boom Trucks This section specifies the operation.6. or by the proof test. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 3. elevating work platform or scaffold. the personnel lift platform.1. and dismantling of conventional means of reaching the worksite.2 Designated Leader a.23. After proof-testing.. The manager specifically responsible for the overall work function to be performed shall determine that the erection. d. A meeting is held prior to the trial lift with the designated leader. Test reports shall be kept on file and shall be readily available to appointed personnel. shall be corrected and another proof-test conducted. persons to be lifted.550(g) “Cranes and Derricks” and ASME B30. qualified operator. 5. and dismantling of conventional means of reaching the work site (i. The operator did not have at least eight hours off. The Designated Leader shall ensure that a pre-job plan is prepared that defines the operation. Any modification to the personnel lift platform or rigging shall require retesting. aerial lift. after being approved by the authorizer. The Designated Leader shall ensure: 1. 4.DOE-STD-1090-2001 15. the manager responsible for the task shall authorize the use of a crane-suspended work platform and attest to the need for the operation through a written justification attesting to that need. use. shall be retained at the job site. ladder.1 Personnel Lifting Evaluation a.6. and shall be repeated for any employees newly assigned to the operation. aerial lift.6 LIFTING PERSONNEL 15.1. For each personnel lifting procedure. and inspection requirements for the use of personnel lift platforms or baskets suspended from mobile cranes and/or boom trucks. rigging.” 15. The designated leader and the crane operator shall determine that: 1. The manager specifically responsible for the overall work function shall not allow or require any operator to lift personnel under the following circumstances: 1. The operator does not feel physically or mentally fit to perform the operation. The statement.

unless the operator determines that the safety of the hoisted personnel is not affected. Chapter 15 Construction Hoisting and Rigging Equipment Requirements 15-42 .6. When the lift route is changed. The crane is with in 1 percent of iii.1. The crane (mobile) is moved and set up in a new location or returned to a previously used location. 6. The trial lift shall be made from the location where personnel will enter the platform to each location where the platform will be hoisted and positioned. Multiple-part lines are not twisted around each other. rigging. The trial lift shall include: 1. The primary attachment is centered over the platform.6. Points at which persons will enter and leave the platform. Hoist ropes are free of kinks. The number of employees occupying the platform shall not exceed the number required for the work being performed. The platform shall be lifted a few inches and inspected to ensure that it is secure and properly balanced. Prior to hoisting personnel in a personnel lift platform ensure that: 1. Loading the unoccupied personnel platform to at least the maximum anticipated load. 3.3 Trial Lift a. If a different crane operator is assigned. 15. A visual inspection of the crane. A meeting attended by the operator.4 Lifting Operations 15.1. It is acceptable to perform a single trial lift on each shift for all locations to be reached from a single setup position. 2. 15. No hazardous conditions exist with the platform and its associated rigging. and safety devices are activated and functioning properly. and the designated leader shall be held each shift to plan and review procedures to be followed. 4.1. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 15. 1. 15. level.6. prior to lifting personnel: | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 5. 5.6.2 Pre-Lift Inspection a. 7.4. Ropes are properly seated on drums and sheaves. 3.1 Pre-Lift Meeting a. before personnel initially enter the personnel lift platform. 3. person(s) to be lifted. Procedures for entering and leaving the platform. Any defects found that create a safety hazard shall be corrected prior to hoisting personnel. b.1. The total weight of the loaded personnel lift platform (including personnel) and related rigging shall not exceed 50 percent of the crane rating under the planned conditions of use. The hoist line is not wrapped around any part of the platform.3 Lifting Personnel a. This meeting shall be held at each new work location. The trial lift shall be repeated whenever: i. Crane systems.6.4. No interferences exist. controls. Each shift. 6. and shall be repeated for any employees newly assigned to the operation. can be in the platform for the trial lift. After the trial lift. Special precautions if personnel will perform work from the suspended platform. 2. if secured to prevent displacement.4. the ground crew.DOE-STD-1090-2001 2. the operator and signaler shall conduct a trial lift. 4. The personnel lift platform shall not be loaded in excess of its rated load capacity. 2. including: 1. and personnel lift platform shall be conducted by a qualified inspector. 2. signaler(s). Cranes equipped with outriggers shall have outriggers extended in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. operator aids. Materials and tools to be used during the actual lift.1. 3. ii.

Not stand on or work from the top rail. Personnel lift platforms should not be used in winds greater than 20 mph (32. set all brakes and locks on the lift crane before personnel perform any work. When working above water. Employees being hoisted or working in a personnel lift platform shall: 1. “Personnel Platform. 3. ice. “Operating the Unit. cautious manner with no sudden movements of the crane or the platform. The crane has an anti two-block device installed and operational. their tools. 4. lowering.6.106 (Occupational Safety and Health Regulations for Construction) shall also apply.DOE-STD-1090-2001 8. 6. Cranes shall not travel while personnel are in the platform. Keep all parts of their bodies inside the suspended personnel lift platform during raising. controlled. Remain in continuous sight of. e. ensure it is tied to the structure before personnel get off or on. direct communication alone (such as a two-way radio) may be used.5. If the personnel lift platform cannot be landed.1. A personnel lift platform that is supported from the crane's hook which meets the requirements of Section 15.1. d. 7. sleet. not personnel. Suspended personnel lift platforms shall be used only for personnel. b. 5.1. 3. and in direct communication with. Chapter 15 Construction Hoisting and Rigging Equipment Requirements | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 15-43 . Exceptions to this provision shall be approved by the manager specifically responsible for the overall work function and precautions to be taken documented in the personnel lift plan. Remain at the controls when the personnel lift platform is occupied. Ensure movement of the personnel lift platform is performed in a slow.2 km/hr). consult with the designated leader when ever there is any doubt as to the safety of the lift. g. Use tag lines to control motion of occupied personnel lift platforms unless their use creates an unsafe condition. A personnel basket attached directly to the boom which is approved by the crane manufacturer. the requirements of 29 CFR 1926. or other adverse weather conditions that could affect the safety of personnel. c. Personnel are permitted to ride only in one of the following: 1.6. When welding is being performed from the personnel lift platform. After the personnel lift platform is positioned. 4. b. f. In addition to the general requirements in Section 15. Operate the crane so that lowering will be power-controlled (no free-fall). Operators of cranes hoisting personnel in a personnel lift platform shall: 1. The lifting or | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | lowering speed shall not exceed 100 ft/min (30 m/min). snow. They shall not be used for transporting bulk materials. and positioning to avoid pinch points.” the following requirements shall be met when lifting personnel with a mobile crane: a. Ensure that no lifts are made on another of the crane’s load lines while personnel are suspended on the personnel lift platform. 2. Before commencing or continuing the lift.6. 15. 5. midrail. In situations where direct visual contact with the operator is not possible and the use of a signaler would create a hazard for that person. Cranes and derricks with variable-angle booms shall be equipped with a boom-angle indicator that is readily visible to the operator. and sufficient materials to do their work. or to a structural member within the platform that is capable of supporting a fall impact. 2. Wear body harnesses with lanyards attached to the lower load block or overhaul ball.5 Mobile Cranes/Boom Trucks Mobile cranes are designed and intended for handling materials. or toe board of the suspended personnel platform. the electrode holders shall be protected from contact with metal components of the personnel platform.3. 6. the operator or signaler.” 2. electric storms.

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 2. a toe board at least 4 in. (See Figures 15-19) the following key design and construction requirements are presented: a. boon extensions without positive stops are prohibited for personnel lifting. an alloy anchor type shackle with a bolt. because many platform design and construction features can be observed and should be known by the platform user. without failure. 3. at least seven times the maximum intended load. except where rotation resistant rope is used. A plate specifying its empty weight and its rated load capacity or maximum intended load. at all times.1. and a midrail approximately halfway between the top rail and the toe board. c. jib type.6. Crane load lines shall be capable of supporting. (10 cm) high. g.6. A grab rail inside the personnel lift platform to minimize hand exposure. Cranes having booms in which lowering is controlled by a brake without aid from other devices which slow the lowering speeds is prohibited. j. The personnel lift platform shall have: 1. e. or an accurate determination of the load radius to be used during the lift shall be made prior to hoisting personnel. the manufacturer shall provide welding procedures. 4.6 Personnel Lift Platform 15. All welding of the platform shall be performed by a qualified welder in accordance with ANSI/AWS D1. b. A minimum design factor of five. nut and retaining pin may be used. Perimeter protection consisting of a top rail approximately 45 in.DOE-STD-1090-2001 c. Positive Hooks 5. 15-18. at least ten times the maximum intended load. f. Cranes shall have a means to prevent retraction of hydraulically or pneumatically activated outriggers or stabilizers in the event a hydraulic or pneumatic line fails. 15.6.1 Platform Design and Construction There is no attempt to comprehensively address platform design and construction in this section. eliminating the hook throat opening.1. Welds shall be inspected by a qualified inspector. h. Cranes with telescoping booms shall be equipped with a device to indicate clearly to the operator. (115 cm) high. Pendant supported. d. the boom's extended length. Alternatively. Figure. The sides of the platform enclosed from the toe board to the midrail with solid Chapter 15 Construction Hoisting and Rigging Equipment Requirements 15-44 . (Figure 1518). Anchorage points within the platform for attaching personnel fall protection lanyards. Hydraulic cranes shall have check valves or other devices that will prevent uncontrolled movement in the event of system failure. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | i. 6. A positive-acting device shall be used that prevents contact between the load block or overhaul ball and the boom tip (anti-twoblocking device). or other attachment assemblies shall be of the type that can be closed and locked. Nevertheless. or a system shall be used that deactivates the hoisting action before damage occurs in the event of a two-blocking situation (two-block damage-prevention feature). engine failure. or hose rupture. The personnel lift platform and suspension system shall be designed by a qualified person competent in structural design and familiar with national consensus standards governing personnel platform design. the lines shall be capable of supporting without failure. lower load blocks.1. Hooks on overhaul ball assemblies. Where special steels or other materials are used.

i.6. 4. High-visibility color or marking for easy identification. the slings shall be capable of supporting without failure at least ten times the maximum intended load. Sufficient headroom shall be provided to allow employees to stand upright in the platform. e. 8.DOE-STD-1090-2001 construction or expanded metal having openings no greater than ½ in. g. Personnel Lift Platform d. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 15. seven. Platform access gates.design factor of five with only three legs under stress. at least five times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to that component and guided by the following: 1. Two or three-leg system . h. Four-leg system . wedge sockets. without failure. and other rigging hardware must be capable of supporting. Figure. 9. In addition to wearing hard hats.2 Platform Suspension System a. Wire rope clips. 15-19. (1. natural or synthetic fiber rope shall not be used for the suspension systems. Chain sling suspension systems shall use a minimum of grade 80 chain.design factor of five for each leg. 3. 7. shall have a positive acting device to restrain the gate from accidental opening. f. Rough edges exposed to contact by employees surfaced (ground smooth) to prevent injury.1.27 cm). shackles. Synthetic webbing. Swinging type access gates shall open only to the interior of the personnel lift platform.6. if installed. master links. personnel shall be protected by overhead protection on the personnel lift platform when there is an overhead hazard. c. d. Shackles used in any part of the suspension system shall be a safety type (bolt-type shackle with nut and cotter pin). Sling suspension systems shall utilize a master link or safety type shackle to connect the personnel lift platform to the load line to ensure that the load is evenly divided among the suspension system legs. Where rotation resistant rope is used. b. The sling suspension system attaching the personnel lift platform to the hoist line shall not be used for any other purpose when not hoisting personnel.design factor of | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 2. 15-45 Chapter 15 Construction Hoisting and Rigging Equipment Requirements . Wire rope. including sliding or folding types. All eyes in wire rope slings shall be fabricated with thimbles. or knots shall not be used in suspension system sling assemblies. The suspension system shall be designed to minimize tipping of the platform due to movement of employees occupying the platform. rings. One-leg system .

0914 13 NCAC 07F .0901 13 NCAC 07F .0903 13 NCAC 07F .0913 13 NCAC 07F .0924 13 NCAC 07F .0909 13 NCAC 07F .0921 13 NCAC 07F .0916 13 NCAC 07F .0905 13 NCAC 07F .0923 13 NCAC 07F .0900—Cranes and Derricks Standards Table of Contents 13 NCAC 07F .0906 13 NCAC 07F .0912 13 NCAC 07F .0911 13 NCAC 07F .0904 13 NCAC 07F .0926 13 NCAC 07F .0920 13 NCAC 07F .0918 13 NCAC 07F .0917 13 NCAC 07F .0927 Scope Incorporation by Reference Definitions Operator Qualification and Certification Signal Person Qualification Maintenance and Repair Employee Qualification Training Fall Protection Design. Construction and Testing Equipment with a Rated Hoisting/Lifting Capacity of 2.000 Pounds or Less Equipment Modifications Assembly and Disassembly of Equipment Power Line Safety Wire Rope Inspections Operation of Equipment Operational Aids Safety Devices Signals Hoisting Personnel Tower Cranes Derricks Floating Cranes/Derricks and Land Cranes/Derricks on Barges Overhead and Gantry Cranes Dedicated Pile Drivers Sideboom Cranes Operator Certification—Written Examination—Technical Knowledge Criteria .Section .0907 13 NCAC 07F .0902 13 NCAC 07F .0910 13 NCAC 07F .0919 13 NCAC 07F .0915 13 NCAC 07F .0922 13 NCAC 07F .0908 13 NCAC 07F .0925 13 NCAC 07F .

Such equipment includes: articulating cranes (such as knuckle-boom cranes). dedicated pile drivers. augers or drills and pile driving equipment. concrete buckets. (f) Where provisions of this Section direct an operator. loader backhoes. (3) Automotive wreckers and tow trucks when used to clear wrecks and haul vehicles. rough-terrain. (4) Service trucks with mobile lifting devices designed specifically for use in the power line and electric service industries. (13) Tree trimming and tree removal work. Such attachments. effectively communicate to the relevant persons. (b) Attachments.C. lower and horizontally move a suspended load. luffing boom and self-erecting). mobile cranes (such as wheel-mounted. This Section does not cover: (1) Machinery included in Paragraph (a) of this Rule while it has been converted or adapted for a nonhoisting/lifting use. 2009. (7) Stacker cranes. –1– . straddle cranes.S. floating cranes. derricks. clamshell buckets. overhead and gantry cranes. (d) All Rules of this Section apply to the equipment covered by this Section unless specified otherwise. or other employee to take certain actions. However. (6) Telescopic/hydraulic gantry systems. all-terrain. crawler cranes.C. excavators and concrete pumps. portal cranes. crewmember. October 1. the employer shall establish. (10) Machinery that hoists by using a come-a-long or chainfall. History Note: Authority G. 13 NCAC 07F .0901 SCOPE (a) This Section applies to power-operated equipment used in construction that can hoist. (5) Machinery originally designed as vehicle-mounted aerial devices (for lifting personnel) and selfpropelled elevating work platforms. industrial cranes (such as carrydeck cranes). 95-131. excavators. wheel loaders. personnel platforms. and variations of such equipment.0912(a)(5) and 13 NCAC 07F . DEPARTMENT OF LABOR CHAPTER 07 – OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH SUBCHAPTER 07F – STANDARDS SECTION . and boom truck cranes). (15) Roustabouts. Temporary Adoption Eff. orange peel buckets. (c) Exclusions. grapples. pedestal cranes. drag lines. (12) Gin poles used for the erection of communication towers. (9) Mechanic's truck with a hoisting device when used in activities related to equipment maintenance and repair. tower cranes (such as fixed jib ("hammerhead boom"). to ensure compliance with such provisions.N. multi-purpose machines when configured to hoist and lower (by means of a winch or hook) and horizontally move a suspended load. Such conversions/adaptations include power shovels. such as digger derricks (radial boom derricks). whether crane-attached or suspended include: hooks. ADMINISTRATIVE CODE TITLE 13 – N. commercial truck-mounted. a crane on a monorail. (11) Dedicated drilling rigs.0900 – CRANES AND DERRICKS STANDARDS 13 NCAC 07F . slings or other rigging to lift suspended loads. service/mechanic trucks with a hoisting device. side-boom tractors.0916(n)(2). track loaders. cranes on barges. (2) Power shovels. items listed in Paragraph (c) of this Rule are excluded from the scope of this Section. locomotive cranes.0912(a)(3). backhoes. This Section applies to equipment included in Paragraph (a) of this Rule when used with attachments. (e) The duties of controlling entities under this Section include the duties specified in 13 NCAC 07F . This machinery is also excluded when used with chains. magnets. and enforce work rules. (8) Powered industrial trucks (forklifts). (14) Anchor handling with a vessel or barge using an affixed A-frame.

3 (2004) – Construction Tower Cranes – ($50. History Note: Authority G. Washington Street. or via the internet at www.shop. The cost is one hundred and eighty dollars ($180.asme. Hoists. (4) The Engineering Society for Advancing Mobility Land Sea Air and Space (hereinafter referred to as SAE). –2– . A copy of the applicable standard is available for inspection at the North Carolina Department of Labor or may be obtained from DIN Deutsches Institut fur Normung e. "Base-mounted drum hoists. Mail at 22 Law Drive. 81st Street. A copy of the applicable standard is available for inspection at the North Carolina Department of Labor or may be obtained from The Association of Equipment Manufacturers via U.org..553.00). Warrendale.3 (2005) – Specification for Welding. via telephone at +49 30 2601-0. Mail at 6737 W.00). Florida 33016. Derricks. (D) ANSI/ASME B30. (C) ANSI/ASME B30. Jacks and Slings – ($80. and (B) ANSI/AWS D14.2 (2005) – Overhead and Gantry Cranes – ($58. The cost is three dollars ($3. Hialeah. or via the internet at www. ANSI or ASME) standards referenced below. via telephone at +44(0)20 8996 9001. Copies of the following applicable AWS Codes are available for inspection at the North Carolina Department of Labor or may be obtained from the American Welding Society. 15096-0001.bsigroup. BurggrafenstraBe 6. Cranes." is not incorporated. The costs are as follows: (A) SAE J1063 – Cantilevered Boom Crane Structures – Method of Test (1993) – ($61. and (E) ANSI/ASME B30. The costs are as follows: (A) ANSI/ASME B30. Germany. (B) ANSI/ASME B30. Milwaukee. and (4) 29 CFR 1926.de. (b) The following standards are incorporated by reference and do not include subsequent amendments and editions of the standards. Fairfield. via U. and (C) SAE J987 – Lattice Boom Cranes – Method of Test (2003) – ($61. (5) The Power Crane Shovel Association Standard (PCSA) No. Pennsylvania.S. Part 1926.00).org. Box 2300. Earthmoving. Construction. Mail at 400 Commonwealth Drive. (3) The European Committee for Standardization (hereinafter referenced as CEN).S.00). "Cranes and Derricks. 2.50. 95-131.552. via telephone at (305) 826-6193." is not incorporated. (2) 29 CFR 1926. United Kingdom.sae.00).com. "Overhead hoists. (3) 29 CFR 1926. Copies of the following applicable codes are available for inspection at the North Carolina Department of Labor or may be obtained from SAE International via U. London.awspubs. or via the internet at www.00). New Jersey 07007-2300. 10787 Berlin.org. via telephone at (414) 272-0943.5 (2004) – Safety Standards for Cableways." is not incorporated.00). 389 Chiswick High Road. WI 53214-5647. or via the internet at www. or via the internet at www.1 (2006) – Structural Welding Code Steel – ($392. Copies of the following applicable ASME Codes are available for inspection at the North Carolina Department of Labor or may be obtained from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. or via the internet at www.00).13 NCAC 07F .S. via telephone at (724) 776-4970. The cost is EUR 152. (2) The American Welding Society (hereinafter referenced as ANSI/AWS or AWS). "Material hoists. A copy of CEN EN 13000 (2004) – Cranes – Mobile Cranes are available for inspection at the North Carolina Department of Labor or may be obtained from The British Standards Institution." is incorporated to the extent that it addresses elevators. and elevators. via U. Mail at 2671 W. and Agricultural Equipment – ($88.0902 INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE (a) The provisions of Title 29. 2009. (6) The German Institute for Standardization (DIN). The costs are as follows: (A) ANSI/AWS D1. 2007. W4 4AL.S.00).00).din. Suite 2400. are incorporated by reference except as follows: (1) 29 CFR 1926. (B) SAE J185 – Access Systems For Off-Road Machines (2003) – ($61. Hooks.550.S.554. October 1. The rules of this Chapter shall control when any conflict between these Rules and the following standards exists.7 (2006) – Base-Mounted Drum Hoists – ($50. V. (1) The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (hereinafter referenced as ANSI/ASME. via telephone at (800) 843-2763.00).00). and exclusive of subsequent amendments. personnel hoists. Subpart N of the Code of Federal Regulations promulgated as of November 15.com.aem.14 (2004) – Side Boom Tractors – ($45. Eff.

(12) Boom Length Indicator means the length of the permanent part of the boom (such as ruled markings on the boom) or. the following definitions apply throughout this Section: (1) Assembly/Disassembly means the assembly and disassembly of equipment covered under this Section. (11) Boom Hoist Limiting Device means a device that disengages boom hoist power when the boom reaches a predetermined operating angle. (17) Climbing means the process in which a tower crane is raised to a new working height. It also sets brakes or closes valves to prevent the boom from lowering after power is disengaged. strut. (3) Attachment means any device that expands the range or tasks that can be done by the equipment. horn. either by adding additional tower sections to the top of the crane (top climbing). such that if a support is placed under that point. automatic boom stop device. This includes boom stops. running ropes. boom hoist disconnect.. (10) Boom Angle Indicator means a device which measures the angle of the boom relative to horizontal. or by a system in which the entire crane is raised inside the structure (inside climbing). Blocking is typically used to support latticed boom sections during assembly/disassembly and under outrigger floats. boom hoist hydraulic relief. Typically. pile-driver." (2) Assembly/Disassembly Supervisor ("A/D Supervisor") means an individual who meets this Section's requirements for an A/D supervisor. sheaves. (18) Come-A-Long means a mechanical device typically consisting of a chain or cable attached at each end that is use to facilitate movement of materials through leverage. (5) Bird Caging means the twisting of fiber or wire rope in an isolated area in the opposite direction of the rope lay. This includes a boom hoist disengaging device. "erecting and climbing" replaces the term "assembly. cable supported type or articulating type. and backstops. or dangerous to –3– . telescoping boom stops. irrespective of the person's formal job title or whether the person is non-management or management personnel. in accordance with the American Welding Society or the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. (7) Boatswain's Chair means a single-point adjustable suspension scaffold consisting of a seat or sling (which may be incorporated into a full body harness) designed to support one employee in a sitting position. the object could balance on the support. it is referred to as a boom. (8) Boom (equipment other than tower crane) means an inclined spar. or derricking limiter. if it is moveable up and down. magnet. (6) Blocking (also referred to as "cribbing") means wood or other material used to support equipment or a component and distribute loads to the ground. thereby causing it to take on the appearance of a bird cage. principle horizontal structure) is fixed. (19) Competent Person means a person who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary. the length and vertical angle of the boom can be varied to achieve increased height or height and reach when lifting loads. (9) Boom: if the "boom" (i. With regard to tower cranes. hazardous. or other structural member which supports the upper hoisting tackle on a crane or derrick." and "dismantling" replaces the term "disassembly. (13) Boom Stop means a device that restricts the boom from moving a certain maximum angle and toppling over backward. (14) Boom Suspension Systems means a system of pendants. it is referred to as a jib. Examples include sounds made by a bell. Booms can usually be grouped into general categories of hydraulically extendible. drill. (16) Certified Welder means a welder who meets certification requirements applicable to the task being performed. boom hoist kick-outs. and boom-attached personnel platform. boom hoist shut-off. and other hardware which supports the boom tip and controls the boom angle. latticed section. Examples include an auger.e. (4) Audible Signal means a signal made by a distinct sound or series of sounds. the length of the boom with extensions/attachments.13 NCAC 07F . cantilevered type. belly straps with struts/standoff.0903 DEFINITIONS In addition to the definitions set forth in 29 CFR Part 1910 and 29 CFR Part 1926. attachment boom stops. or whistle. (15) Center of Gravity means the point in an object around which its weight is evenly distributed. as in some computerized systems.

or proximity to situational hazards. or transporting a load suspended on the load hook. Crawler means equipment that has a type of base mounting which incorporates a continuous belt of sprocket driven track. lowering. Crane Level Indicator means a device for determining true horizontal. lifting height. Counterweight means a weight used to supplement the weight of equipment in providing stability for lifting loads by counterbalancing those loads. it can always rotate about the tower center to swing loads. Dedicated Channel means a line of communication assigned by the employer who controls the communication system to only one signal person and crane/derrick or to a coordinated group of cranes/derricks/signal person(s). Crane. and boom mounted on top of a structural gantry which may be fixed in one location or have travel capability.0905 (signal person qualifications) and whose sole responsibility is to watch the separation –4– . pontoons. Crane. Mobile means a lifting device incorporating a cable suspended latticed boom or hydraulic telescopic boom designed to be moved between operating locations by transport over the road. Crane. however. to lower the load. These are referred to in Europe as a crane mounted on a truck carrier. storage bridge cranes. Dedicated Pile-Driver means a machine that is designed to function exclusively as a pile-driver. hoist machinery. and similar equipment. Portal means a type of crane consisting of a rotating upperstructure. While the working boom may be fixed horizontally or have luffing capability. Floating (or Floating Derrick) means equipment designed by the manufacturer (or employer) for marine use by permanent attachment to a barge. vessel or other means of flotation. semigantry. reaches the flange. or other means. These machines typically have the ability to both hoist the material that will be pile-driven and to pile-drive that material. used for lifting. Crane. cantilever gantry. rather than the load hoist brake. Crane. The boom or hook can be lifted or lowered in a vertical direction only. quality and completion. general contractor. Controlled Load Lowering means lowering a load by means of a mechanical hoist drum device that allows a hoisted load to be lowered with maximum control using the gear train or hydraulic components of the hoist mechanism. Tower means a type of lifting structure which utilizes a vertical mast or tower to support a working boom (jib) suspended from the working boom. typically manipulated to extend or retract by power from hydraulic cylinders. pin-connected structural members. Overhead and Gantry includes overhead/bridge cranes. construction manager or any other legal entity which has the overall responsibility for the construction of the projects. and begins to wrap back in the opposite direction. Crane. and who has authorization from his employer to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them. Crane. wheels. wall cranes. Side-Boom means a track-type or wheel-type tractor having a boom mounted on the side of the tractor. Crossover Points means the locations on a wire rope which is spooled on a drum where one layer of rope climbs up on and crosses over the previous layer. Critical lifts are often identified by conditions exceeding a specified percentage of the crane's rated capacity (75%). Land (or Land Derrick) means equipment not originally designed by the manufacturer for marine use by permanent attachment to barges. The tower base may be fixed in one location or ballasted and moveable between locations. Controlling Entity means a prime contractor.(20) (21) (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) (27) (28) (29) (30) (31) (32) (33) (34) (35) (36) (37) (38) (39) employees. The gantry legs or columns usually have portal openings in between to allow passage of traffic beneath the gantry. Assist means a crane used to assist in assembling or disassembling a crane. including its planning. launching gantry cranes. Controlled load lowering requires the use of the hoist drive motor. Articulating means a crane whose boom consists of a series of folding. any more complex issues may be involved. Dedicated Spotter (power lines) means a person who meets the requirements of 13 NCAC 07F . This takes place at each flange of the drum as the rope is spooled on the drum. Crane. Crane. irrespective of whether it travels on tracks. Critical lift means a crane lifting operation involving an exceptional level of risk due to factors such as load weight. vessels. procedural complications. pontoons. Locomotive means a crane mounted on a base or car equipped for travel on a railroad track. Crane. or other means of flotation. Crane.

a.k. and indicates to the operator the percentage of capacity at which the equipment is working. Free Fall (of the load line) means when only the brake is used to regulate the descent of the load line (the drive mechanism is not used to drive the load down faster or retard its lowering). ropes. limitations and specifications. those functions which –5– . Drum Rotation Indicator means a device on a crane or hoist which indicates in which direction and at what relative speed a particular hoist drum is turning. Employer-Made Equipment means equipment designed and built by an employer for its own use. telescoping out. or buzzers may be incorporated as a warning of an approaching overload condition. "hoisting" can be done by means other than wire rope/hoist drum equipment. shackles. recommendations. Fall Restraint System means a fall protection system that prevents the user from falling any distance. Load Moment Limiter (also referred to as Rated Capacity Limiter) means a system which aids the equipment operator by sensing the overturning moment on the equipment. The other components typically include a lanyard.e. Dismantling includes partial dismantling (such as dismantling to shorten a boom or substitute a different component). or luffing out. hoisting. Encroachment means when any part of the crane. and when the rated capacity is reached.e. slings. A functional test is contrasted to testing the crane's structural integrity with heavy loads. Hoisting means the act of raising. and may also include a lifeline and other devices.. booming. Typically. load X radius. lowering or otherwise moving a load in the air with equipment covered by this Section. safety net systems.g. Electrical Contact means when a person. It compares this lifting condition to the equipment's rated capacity. personal fall arrest systems. Functional testing means the testing of a crane. to verify the proper operation of a crane's primary function. Hoist means a mechanical device for lifting and lowering loads by winding rope onto or off of a drum. Lights. Fall Protection Equipment means guardrail systems. e. Insulating Link/Device means an insulating device approved by a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory. Directly Under the Load means a part or all of an employee is directly beneath the load. positioning device systems or fall restraint systems. i. braking. Fall Zone means the area (including the area directly beneath the load) in which it is reasonably foreseeable that partially or completely suspended materials could fall in the event of an accident.(40) (41) (42) (43) (44) (45) (46) (47) (48) (49) (50) (51) (52) (53) (54) (55) (56) (57) (58) (59) (60) (61) between the power line and the equipment. load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories) breaches a minimum clearance distance that this Section requires to be maintained from a power line. The system is comprised of either a body belt or body harness. including the weight of the loadattaching equipment such as the load block. connectors and other necessary equipment. swinging. Jib Backstop) is similar to a boom stop but is for a fixed or luffing jib. along with an anchorage. Load means the weight of the object being lifted or lowered. load X radius. Flange Points means a point of contact between rope and drum flange where the rope changes layers. pontoons. and ensure through communication with the operator that the applicable minimum approach distance is not breached. hoisting. and any other ancillary attachment. As used in this Section. typically done with a light load or no load. the load line and the load (including rigging and lifting accessories). or equipment makes contract or comes in close proximity with an energized conductor or equipment that allows the passage of current. etc.e. Equipment Criteria means instructions. i. vessel or other means of flotation. bells. It compares this lifting condition to the equipment's rated capacity. Jib Stop (a. as that term is defined in 29 CFR 1910.7(b). object. Free Surface Effect means uncontrolled transverse movement of liquids in compartments which reduce a vessel's transverse stability. List means the angle of inclination about the longitudinal axis of a barge. Load Moment Indicator (also referred to as Rated Capacity Indicator) means a system which aids the equipment operator by sensing the overturning moment on the equipment. it shuts off power to those equipment functions which can increase the severity of loading on the equipment. i.

Such devices do not include boatswain's chairs when hoisted by equipment covered by this Section. recommendations. a machine that can rotate and can be configured with removable tongs (for use as a forklift) or with a winch pack. Personal Fall Arrest System means a system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level. certificate. and the conditions of use (including environmental conditions and condition of the material).0917 ("listed operational aids"). When configured with a winch pack. Marine Hoisted Personnel Transfer Device means a device. protocols." that is designed to protect the employees being hoisted during a marine transfer and to facilitate rapid entry into and exit from the device. specifications. Procedures include instructions. lowering. on or above the water. because of the nature and condition of the materials. connectors. Wire type pendants mean a fixed length of wire rope with mechanical fittings at both ends for pinning segments of wire rope together. it is covered by this Section.7(b). Qualified Evaluator (third party) means an independent entity that has demonstrated to the employer its competence to accurately assess whether individuals meet the Qualification Requirements in this Section for a signal person. Operational Controls means levers. pedals and other devices for controlling equipment operation. Nonconductive means that. deceleration device. as that term is defined in 29 CFR 1910. Bar type pendants mean that instead of wire rope. by possession of a degree. Luffing Jib Limiting Device is similar to a boom hoist limiting device. Moving Point-To-Point means the times during which an employee is in the process of going to or from a work station.(62) (63) (64) (65) (66) (67) (68) (69) (70) (71) (72) (73) (74) (75) (76) (77) (78) (79) decrease the severity of loading on the equipment remain operational. Qualified Engineer means an engineer that is licensed as a professional engineer with the North Carolina Board of Examiners for Engineers and Surveyors. except that it limits the movement of the luffing jib. Pendants includes both wire and bar types.g. or a combination of these. warnings. used. Power Lines means electrical distribution and electrical transmission lines. or professional standing. a jib with a hook at the end. Qualified Person means a person who. at least one of which allows it to hoist (by means of a winch or hook) and horizontally move a suspended load. Marine Worksite means a construction worksite located in. It consists of an anchorage. Operational Aids means devices that assist the operator in the safe operation of the crane by providing information or automatically taking control of a crane function. When configured with the tongs.. Nationally Recognized Accrediting Agency means an organization that is accredited by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies (NCCA) or the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) to establish standards for and assess the formal activities of testing organizations applying for or continuing their accreditation. it is not covered by this Section. or a jib used in conjunction with a winch. e. Pendants are typically used in a latticed boom crane system to easily change the length of the boom suspension system without completely changing the rope on the drum when the boom length is increased or decreased. Multi-Purpose Machine means a machine that is designed to be configured in various ways. such as a "transfer net. Qualified Evaluator (not a third party) means a person employed by the signal person's employer who has demonstrated to his employer that he/she is competent in accurately assessing whether individuals meet the Qualification Requirements in this Section for a signal person. a bar is used. or who by knowledge. and a body harness and may include a lanyard. For example. or a jib used in conjunction with a winch. or luffing in. successfully demonstrated to his –6– . the object in question has the property of not becoming energized (that is. a jib with a hook at the end. These include the devices listed in 13 NCAC 07F . it has high dielectric properties offering a high resistance to the passage of current under the conditions of use). and limitations. training and experience. lifeline. switches. telescoping in. diagrams. Proximity Alarm means a device that provides a warning of proximity to a power line that has been approved by a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory.

boom length. This binds the system and continued application of power can cause failure of the hoist rope or other component. Tender means an individual responsible for monitoring and communicating with a diver. level surface designed. comes in contact with the boom tip. 95-131. fixed upper block or similar component. Repetitive Pickup Points means when an operation involves the rope being used on a single layer and being spooled repetitively over a portion of the drum. Upperworks (also referred to as Superstructure or Upperstructure) means the revolving frame of equipment on which the engine and operating machinery are mounted along with the operator's cab. Travel Bogie (also referred to as Bogie) means an assembly of two or more axles arranged to permit vertical wheel displacement and equalize the loading on the wheels. Running Wire Rope means a wire rope that moves over sheaves or drums. Qualified Rigger means a rigger who meets the criteria for a qualified person. Eff. or have never been available from the manufacturer. An existing surface may be used as long as it meets these criteria. radii. overhaul ball.0926). or is operating the equipment during a training period in accordance with Paragraph (f) of this Rule. Special Hazard Warnings means warnings of site-specific hazards (for example.0922).0910). prepared and designated as a path of travel for the weight and configuration of the crane being used to lift and travel with the crane suspended platform.0904 OPERATOR QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION (a) The employer shall ensure that. Trim means the angle of inclination about the transverse axis of a barge.52004.000 pounds or less (see 13 NCAC 07F . derricks (see 13 NCAC 07F . vessel or other means of flotation to return to an upright position after having been inclined by an external force. hook block. Range Control Warning Device means a device that can be set by an equipment operator to warn that the boom or jib tip is at a plane or multiple planes. or similar component. Standing Wire Rope means a supporting wire rope which maintains a constant distance between the points of attachment to the two components connected by the wire rope. Runway means a firm. and other parameters of use. Tagline means a rope (usually fiber) attached to a lifted load for purposes of controlling load spinning and pendular motions or used to stabilize a bucket or magnet during material handling operations. Tilt Up or Tilt Down Operation means raising or lowering a load from the horizontal to vertical or vertical to horizontal.0901. Two Blocking means a condition in which a component that is uppermost on the hoist line such as the load block. Rotation Resistant Rope means a type of wire rope construction which reduces the tendency of a rope to rotate about its axis under load. the work. prior to operating any equipment covered under 13 NCAC 07F .(80) (81) (82) (83) (84) (85) (86) (87) (88) (89) (90) (91) (92) (93) (94) (95) (96) (97) (98) employer an ability to solve/resolve problems relating to the subject matter. the operator is either qualified or certified to operate the equipment in accordance with one of the Options in Paragraphs (b) through (e) of this Rule. or the project. –7– . History Note: 13 NCAC 07F .3-2004 and ASME B30. Usually. proximity of power lines). October 1. pontoons. Exceptions: operator qualification or certification under this Rule is not required for operators of equipment with a rated hoisting/lifting capacity of 2. vessel or other means of flotation. Stability (flotation device) means the tendency of a barge. Rated Capacity means the maximum working load permitted by the manufacturer under specified working conditions. Authority G. this consists of an inner system of core strands laid in one direction covered by an outer system of strands laid in the opposite direction. Standard Method means the hand signals established in ASME B30. Unavailable Procedures means procedures that are no longer available from the manufacturer.S. 2009. Such working conditions typically include a specific combination of factors such as equipment configuration. pontoons. The counterweight is typically supported on the rear of the upperstructure and the boom or other front end attachment is mounted on the front. or sideboom cranes (see 13 NCAC 07F .

(A) The written and practical tests shall be administered under circumstances determined by the auditor as meeting test administration standards approved by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies (NCCA) or the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). (D) Have testing procedures for re-certification designed to ensure that the operator continues to meet the technical knowledge and skills requirements in Subparagraphs (i)(1) and (i)(2) of this Rule. (B) The auditor shall be certified to evaluate the administration of the written and practical tests by an accredited crane/derrick operator testing organization (see Paragraph (b) of this Rule). (4) The employer program shall have testing procedures for re-qualification designed to ensure that the operator continues to meet the technical knowledge and skills requirements in Subparagraphs (i)(1) and (i)(2) of this Rule. –8– . practical examinations. it shall: (A) Be accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency based on that agency's determination that industry recognized criteria for written testing materials. (ii) The auditor is not an employee of the employer. (B) Administer written and practical tests that: (i) Assess the operator applicant regarding the knowledge and skills listed in Subparagraphs (i)(1) and (i)(2) of this Rule. facilities/equipment and personnel have been met. (ii) Provide different levels of certification based on equipment capacity and type. (2) Administration of tests. grading. (3) The employer program shall be audited within 3 months of the beginning of the program and every three years thereafter. (2) A certification issued under this Option is: (A) Portable. or (B) Approved by an auditor in accordance with the following requirements: (i) The auditor is certified to evaluate such tests by an accredited crane/derrick operator testing organization (see Paragraph (b) of this Rule). (1) For a testing organization to be considered accredited to certify operators under this Section. (5) Deficiencies. The re-qualification procedures shall be audited in accordance with Subparagraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this Rule. (iii) The approval is based on the auditor's determination that the written and practical tests meet test development criteria approved by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies (NCCA) or the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and are valid and reliable in assessing the operator applicants regarding the knowledge and skills listed in Subparagraphs (i)(1) and (i)(2) of this Rule. (C) Have procedures for operators to re-apply and be re-tested in the event an operator applicant fails a test or is decertified. (B) Valid for five years.(b) Option (1): Certification by an accredited crane/derrick operator testing organization. test administration. (C) The audit shall be conducted in accordance with Generally Accepted Auditing Standards (GAAS) established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). the employer shall ensure that: (A) No operator is qualified until the auditor confirms that the deficiency has been corrected. (c) Option (2): Qualification by an audited employer program. The employer's qualification of its employee shall meet the following requirements: (1) The employee shall pass written and practical tests either: (A) Developed by an accredited crane/derrick operator testing organization (see Paragraph (b) of this Rule). (E) Have its accreditation reviewed by the national recognized accrediting agency at least every three years. If the auditor determines that there is a deficiency in the program.

by written and practical tests. (B) The testing meets the criteria for written testing materials. (C) Supervisor. (D) The licensing department/office has testing procedures for re-licensing designed to ensure that the operator continues to meet the technical knowledge and skills requirements in Subparagraphs (i)(1) and (i)(2) of this Rule. practical examinations. (3) A license issued by a government accredited crane/derrick operator testing organization that meets the requirements of this Option. has determined that the requirements in Parts (e)(2)(A) and (e)(2)(B) of this Rule have been met. (f) Pre-qualification/certification training period. of the operator applicant regarding the knowledge and skills listed in Subparagraphs (i)(1) and (i)(2) of this Rule. (C) The government authority that oversees the licensing department/office. facilities/equipment and personnel approved by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies (NCCA) or the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). the trainee/apprentice is continuously supervised by an individual ("operator's supervisor") who meets the following requirements: (B) –9– . (2) Licensing criteria. (A) Meets the operator qualification requirements of this Rule for operation of equipment only with the jurisdiction of the government entity. (1) For purposes of this Rule. (B) Valid for the period of time stipulated by the issuing entity. (D) Records of the audits of the employer's program are maintained by the auditor for three years and are made available by the auditor to the Deputy Commissioner for Occupational Safety and Health or his designee upon request. (B) The tasks performed by the trainee/apprentice while operating the equipment are within the trainee's ability.S.S. (6) A qualification under this Paragraph is: (A) Not portable. a government licensing department/office that issues operator licenses for operating equipment covered by this Section is considered a government accredited crane/derrick operator testing organization if the criteria in Subparagraph (e)(2) of this Rule are met. (B) Is valid for the period of time stipulated by the licensing department/office. but no longer than five years. military. (2) A qualification under this Paragraph is: (A) Not portable. (1) An employee who is not qualified or certified under this Section is permitted to operate equipment where the requirements of Subparagraph (f)(2) of this Rule are met. While operating the equipment.The program is audited again within 180 days of the confirmation that the deficiency was corrected. (B) Valid for five years. (A) The requirements for obtaining the license include an assessment. an operator is considered qualified is he/she has a current operator qualification issued by the U. (1) For purposes of this Rule. test administration. grading. (2) An employee who has not passed both the written nor practical tests required under this Rule may operate equipment as part of his/her training where the following requirements are met: (A) The employee ("trainee/apprentice") is provided with sufficient training prior to operating the equipment to enable the trainee to operate the equipment safely under limitations established by this Section (including continuous supervision) and any additional limitation established by the employer. military for operation of the equipment. (d) Option (3): Qualification by the U. (C) The auditor files a documented report of the deficiency to the Deputy Commissioner for Occupational Safety and Health or his designee within 15 days of the auditor's determination that there is a deficiency. (e) Option (4): Licensing by a government entity.

and the ability to calculate (manually or with a calculator). or has passed the written portion of a certification test under one of the Options in Paragraphs (b) through (e) of this Rule. (g) Under this Rule. with answers given verbally. including the following: (i) The controls and operational/performance characteristics. cofferdam. (v) Technical knowledge applicable to: (I) The suitability of the supporting ground and surface to handle expected loads. except where the operator's supervisor determines that the trainee's/apprentice's skills are sufficient for this high-skill work. (ii) The operator's supervisor is either a certified operator under this Rule. (E) The trainee/apprentice does not operate the equipment in any of the following circumstances: (i) If any part of the equipment. (ii) Use of. a testing entity may provide training as well as testing services as long as the criteria of the applicable accrediting agency (in the Option selected) for an organization providing both services are met. could get within 20 feet of a power line that is up to 350 kV.The operator's supervisor is an employee or agent of the trainee's/apprentice's employer.0927 meets the requirements of this provision. or within 50 feet of a power line that exceeds 350 kV. (iv) If the equipment is used over a shaft. load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories). (v) For multiple-lift rigging. (iv) For equipment other than tower cranes: the operator's supervisor and the trainee/apprentice shall be in direct line of sight of each other. (iii) Procedures for preventing and responding to power line contact. (ii) If the equipment is used to hoist personnel.0913(b)(1)(A)). In addition. if operated up to the equipment's maximum working radius in the work zone (see 13 NCAC 07F .0927. (i) –10– . (i) Certification criteria. where the operator candidate: (1) Passes a written demonstration of literacy relevant to the work. (h) Written tests under this Rule may be administered verbally. (II) Site hazards. (iii) In multiple-equipment lifts. they shall communicate verbally or by hand signals. or in a tank farm. The trainee/apprentice is supervised by the operator's supervisor at all times. and is familiar with the proper use of the equipment's controls. Use of the requirements in 13 NCAC 07F . For tower cranes: the operator's supervisor and the trainee/apprentice shall be in direct communication with each other. (iv) Technical knowledge similar to the subject matter criteria listed in 13 NCAC 07F . load/capacity information on a variety of configurations of the equipment. (D) Continuous supervision. the operator's supervisor performs no tasks that detract from the supervisor's ability to supervise the trainee/apprentice. (ii) Immediately prior to the break the operator's supervisor informs the trainee/apprentice of the specific tasks that the trainee/apprentice is to perform and limitations that he/she is to adhere to during the operator supervisor's break. (iii) While supervising the trainee/apprentice. (iii) The specific tasks that the trainee/apprentice will perform during the operator supervisor's break are within the trainee's/apprentice's abilities. Qualifications and certifications shall be based on the following: (1) A determination through a written test that: (A) The individual knows the information necessary for safe operation of the specific type of equipment the individual will operate. except for breaks where the following are met: (i) The break lasts no longer than 15 minutes and there is no more than one break per hour. (2) Demonstrates the ability to use the type of written manufacturer procedures applicable to the class/type of equipment for which the candidate is seeking certification.

History Note: Authority G. including the following: (A) Ability to recognize. (2) The effective date of Paragraphs (a) through (j) of this Rule is two years after the effective date of this Rule. (1) Option (1) – Third party qualified evaluator. the items listed in 13 NCAC 07F . the signal person shall know and understand the standard method for hand signals. 95-131. (1) As of the effective date of this Rule. (vi) This Section. the following requirements apply: (A) Operators of equipment covered by this Section shall be competent to operate the equipment safely. (b) If an employer determines that a signal person qualified under Paragraph (c) of this Rule no longer has the understanding and skill required to safely perform the work. –11– . October 1.S. the qualification meets the requirements of Paragraph (a) of this Rule only where the operator is employed by (and operating the equipment for) the employer that issued the qualification. (c) Qualification Requirements. (C) Application of load chart information. The employer shall ensure that the operator is evaluated to confirm that he/she understands the information provided in the training. The signal person has documentation from a third party qualified evaluator showing that the signal person meets the qualification requirements contained in Paragraph (c) of this Rule. the employer shall not allow the individual to continue working as a signal person until re-training is provided and a re-assessment is made in accordance with Paragraph (a) of this Rule that confirms that the individual meets the qualification requirements. until two years after the effective date of this Rule. (3) The documentation for whichever Option is used shall be available while the signal person is employed by the employer. If hand signals are used. (1) "Portable. including the crane dynamics involved in swinging and stopping loads and boom deflection from hoisting loads." Where an operator has a qualification that is not portable under this Rule. The employer has its qualified evaluator assess the individual and determine that the individual meets the qualification requirements contained in Paragraph (c) of this Rule and provides documentation of that determination. the employee shall be provided with the necessary training prior to operating the equipment. (j) Definitions.0905 SIGNAL PERSON QUALIFICATION (a) The employer of the signal person shall ensure that each signal person meets the qualification requirements contained in Paragraph (c) of this Rule prior to giving any signals. (D) Application of safe shut-down and securing procedures. (B) Operational and maneuvering skills. Each signal person shall: (1) Know and understand the type of signals used. from visual and audible observation. including applicable incorporated materials. This requirement shall be met by using either Option (1) or Option (2). (2) Option (2) – Employer's qualified evaluator. 13 NCAC 07F . (2) "Not portable. (3) Have a basic understanding of equipment operation and limitations. (B) The individual is able to read and locate relevant information in the equipment manual and other materials containing information referred to in Part (i)(1)(A) of this Rule. An assessment by an employer's qualified evaluator under this Option is not portable. (2) Be competent in the application of the type of signals used. 2009.(2) (III) Site access.0915(d) (shift inspection). (B) Where an employee assigned to operate machinery does not have the required knowledge or ability to operate the equipment safely. A determination through a practical test that the individual has the skills necessary for safe operation of the equipment. (k) Phase-in. Eff." Any employer of an operator with a certification that is portable under this Section meets the requirements of Paragraph (a) of this Rule with respect to that operator.

October 1. Employees specified in 13 NCAC 07F . (6) Tag-out.0905(c)(1) through (c)(4) through a verbal or written test. (7) Training administration. there is an indication that retraining is necessary.0905 and 13 NCAC 07F .0907 TRAINING (a) The employer shall provide training as follows: (1) Overhead power lines. and crush/pinch points and the hazards addressed in 13 NCAC 07F . (2) The personnel either: (A) Operate the equipment under the direct supervision of an operator who meets the requirements of 13 NCAC 07F . if the brake does not hold. 95-131. October 1. inspection and repair personnel may operate the equipment only where the following requirements are met: (1) The operation is limited to those functions necessary to perform maintenance. characteristics and hazards associated with the type of equipment. (5) Crush/pinch points. History Note: 13 NCAC 07F . (b) Training records. (A) The employer shall ensure that employees required to be trained under this Section are evaluated to confirm that they understand the information provided in the training.0916(g). or (B) Are familiar with the operation.(4) (5) Know and understand the relevant requirements of 13 NCAC 07F . History Note: Authority G. Employees who work with the equipment shall be instructed to keep clear of holes. (4) Competent persons and qualified persons. safe limitations. Employees who will be assigned to work as signal persons shall be trained in accordance with the requirements of 13 NCAC 07F .0904(i). the operator shall first raise the boom a short distance (sufficient to take the load of the boom) to determine if the boom hoist brake needs to be adjusted.0906 MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR EMPLOYEE QUALIFICATION (a) Maintenance.0905(c). Eff. Retraining shall be provided if necessary for re-qualification or re-certification or if the operator does not pass a qualification or certification test.S. (3) Operators. shall be trained in the tag-out procedures in 13 NCAC 07F . (B) Refresher training in relevant topics shall be provided when. (B) Operators shall be trained in the following practices: (i) On friction equipment. 13 NCAC 07F . On other types of equipment. (b) Maintenance and repair personnel shall meet the definition of a qualified person with respect to the equipment and maintenance/repair tasks performed. (A) Operators shall be trained in accordance with the requirements of 13 NCAC 07F . Authority G. Operators and other employees authorized to start/energize equipment or operate equipment controls (such as maintenance and repair employees). whenever moving a boom off a support. Eff. Demonstrate that he/she meets the requirements in 13 NCAC 07F .0919. the same practice is applicable.0916(n) (work area control). Competent persons and qualified persons shall be trained regarding the requirements of this Section applicable to their respective roles. (2) Signal persons.0904 (Operator Qualification and Certification). (ii) Where available. inspect or verify the performance of the equipment. 2009. based on the conduct of the employee or an evaluation of the employee's knowledge. –12– . the manufacturer's emergency procedures for halting unintended equipment movement.S. and through a practical test. 2009. a repair is necessary. 95-131. except that typically there is no means of adjusting the brake.0913(b)(7) shall be trained in accordance with the requirements of that rule.

(1) The employer shall maintain originally-equipped steps. (iii) Prohibited if of the removable type (designed to be installed and removed each time the boom is assembled/disassembled). (2) Paragraphs (c)(1). ladders. (b) Boom walkways. (2) Boom walkway criteria. ladders and guardrails/railings/grabrails in good condition. The most current certification record shall be kept available for review by the Deputy Commissioner of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health or his designee. An employer may accept training records or certificates for previous training if the employer verifies that all training and knowledge is current and applicable to the new employee's job duties. ladders and guardrails/railings/grabrails shall meet the requirements of SAE J1852003. (iv) Where not prohibited. (A) The walkways shall be at least 12 inches wide. 95-131. These shall meet the following criteria: (A) Steps. (d) and (e) of this Rule apply to all equipment covered by this Section except tower cranes. shall have slip-resistant features/properties (such as diamond plate metal. (1) Paragraphs (b). Authority G. the employer shall provide and ensure the use of fall protection equipment for employees who are on a walking/working surface with an unprotected side or edge more than six feet above a lower level as follows: (1) When moving point-to-point: (A) On non-lattice booms (whether horizontal or not horizontal). (B) On lattice booms that are not horizontal. expanded metal. (c) Steps. (ii) Prohibited on booms supported by pendant ropes or bars if the guardrails/railings/attachments could be snagged by the ropes or bars. except for crawler treads.(1) (2) (3) The employer shall certify that each employee has been trained by preparing a certification record which includes: (A) The identity of the person trained. by the provision of devices such as steps. upon request. (f) and (h) of this Rule apply to all equipment covered by this Section. except where infeasible. but not more than. of any type). including the forward and rear positions.S. Eff. except when the employee is at or near draw-works (when the equipment is running). (2) Equipment manufactured more than one year after the effective date of this rule shall be equipped so as to provide safe access and egress between the ground and the operator work station(s). and guardrails/railings/grabrails. 2009. (e) For assembly/disassembly work. (B) The signature of the employer or the qualified person who conducted the training. handholds. October 1. the employer shall provide and ensure the use of fall protection equipment for employees who are on a walking/working surface with an unprotected side or edge more than 15 feet above a lower –13– . in the cab. 45 inches. (1) Equipment manufactured more than one year after the effective date of this Rule with lattice booms shall be equipped with walkways on the boom(s) if the vertical profile of the boom (from cord centerline to cord centerline) is six or more feet. (3) Paragraph (g) of this Rule applies only to tower cranes. guardrails or railings may be of any height up to. handholds. (B) Guardrails. grabrails. and (C) The date that training was completed. (c)(2). (B) Walking/stepping surfaces.0908 FALL PROTECTION (a) Application. guardrails and railings. handholds. railings and other permanent fall protection attachments along walkways are: (i) Not required. strategically placed grip tape. (d) For non-assembly/disassembly work. or slip-resistant paint). or on the deck. History Note: 13 NCAC 07F . (2) While at a work station on any part of the equipment (including the boom.

4 ("Swing Mechanism")." the requirements in Item (2) of this Rule.5-1968. (2) The equipment operator is at the work site and informed that the equipment is being used for this purpose. in the cab. in a cab. 95-131. or on the deck. except when the employee is at or near draw-works (when the equipment is running). all provisions except 5-1.3.5-2004.2 ("Stability (Backward and Forward)"). Power Crane Shovel Association (PCSA) Standard No. (b) In section 5-1. Paragraphs (a).000 pounds: (1) Equipment manufactured prior to the effective date of this Rule shall meet the applicable requirements for design. 2.5 ("Crane Travel"). (c) (first sentence only) and (d).3. History Note: Authority G. from a visual inspection. October 1. (e) In section 5-1. (2) For erecting/dismantling work.3. (2) Anchorages for restraint systems.3 (d).5. Safety Code for Mobile and Locomotive Cranes. Locomotive.502. Paragraphs (a)(2) through (a)(4) (including Subparagraphs). except when the employee is at or near drawworks (when the equipment is running). Paragraph (b).502 would not be met. (A) Personal fall arrest systems and positioning systems shall be anchored to any apparently substantial part of the equipment unless a competent person. (g) Tower cranes. Paragraphs (a) through (d) (including Subparagraphs). construction.2 ("Load Ratings – Where Structural Competence Governs Lifting Performance").502(d)(15). (b)(1). (g) Section 5-1. Restraint systems shall be anchored to any part of the equipment that is capable of withstanding twice the maximum load that an employee may impose on it during reasonably anticipated conditions of use.0909 DESIGN. (1) For non-erecting/dismantling work. load line and rigging) meets or exceeds the requirements in 29 CFR 1926.1.6 ("Controls"). without an engineering analysis. 2009. and (b)(2). –14– . and Truck Cranes. (f) Anchorage criteria. (b) (including Subparagraphs).2 ("Load Hoist Mechanism").1 (c). 13 NCAC 07F . all provisions except 5-1. (2) Mobile (including crawler and truck) and locomotive cranes manufactured on or after the effective date of this Rule shall meet the following portions of ANSI/ASME B30. except that when using rotation resistant rope. (1) Anchorages for fall arrest and positioning device systems. Eff. and testing as prescribed in ANSI B30.level.6. would conclude that the applicable criteria in 29 CFR 1926. (c) Section 5-1. the employer shall provide and ensure the use of fall protection equipment for employees who are on a walking/working surface with an unprotected side or edge more than 15 feet above a lower level. (B) Attachable anchor devices (portable anchor devices that are attached to the equipment) shall meet the applicable anchorage criteria in 29 CFR 1926. (d) In section 5-1.S.1 ("Load Ratings – Where Stability Governs Lifting Performance"). (i) In section 5-1. CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING The following requirements apply to equipment that has a manufacturer-rated hoisting/lifting capacity of more than 2. A fall arrest system may be anchored to the crane/derrick's hook (or other part of the load line) where the following requirements are met: (1) A qualified person has determined that the set-up and rated capacity of the crane/derrick (including the hook. (h) In section 5-1. as applicable: (a) In section 5-1.1 ("Boom Hoist Mechanism"). the employer shall provide and ensure the use of fall protection equipment for employees who are on a walking/working surface with an unprotected side or edge more than six feet above a lower level.3 ("Telescoping Boom").1. Section 1414 (c)(4)(ii)(A) applies. (f) Section5-1. or the applicable German Institute For Standardization (DIN) standards that were in effect at the time of manufacture. Safety Code for Crawler. or on the deck. (h) Anchoring to the load line.

(c). All the strength margins listed in SAE J987-2003. Section 5-1. (k) Section 5-1. In applying the CEN standard. Figure 11). (iii) The work area figure and load chart shall indicate the areas where no load is to be handled.9. shall be met. (i) The following applies to equipment with the cantilevered booms (such as hydraulic boom cranes): All the tests listed in SAE J1063-1993. and (f). (b) Test Option B. shall be performed to load all critical structural elements to their respective limits.1 ("Booms"). (a) Test Option A.(3) (4) (j) Section 5-1. (p) In section 5-1. All the strength margins listed in SAE J1063-1993. (v) Manufacturer-recommended parts of hoist reeving. boom angles.5-2004.9. All equipment covered by this Section shall meet the following requirements: (a) Rated Capacity and Related Information: The information available in the cab (see 13 NCAC 07F .3.7 ("Clutch and Brake Protection"). (iii) Analysis Verification: The physical testing requirements under SAE J1063-1993 and SAE J987-2003 shall be met unless the reliability of the analysis methodology (computer modeling) has been demonstrated by a documented history of certification through strain gauge measuring or strain gauge measuring in combination with other physical testing. (l) In section 5-1. Paragraphs (a). (o) Section 5-1. Table 2. locomotive and truck cranes manufactured prior to the effective date of the Section must conform to Item (1) of this Rule. boom lengths. the following additional requirements shall be met: (i) The following applies to equipment with cantilevered booms (such as hydraulic boom cranes): The analysis methodology (computer modeling) shall demonstrate that all load cases listed in the SAE J1063-1993 meet the strength margins listed in SAE J1063-1993.11 (Miscellaneous Equipment").0916(c)) regarding "rated capacity" and related information shall include the following information: (i) A complete range of the manufacturer's equipment rated capacities. and configurations.4 ("Sheaves"). (B) Alternate ratings for use and nonuse of option equipment which affects rated capacities. shall be performed to load all critical structural elements to their respective limits. jib lengths and angles (or offset). Table 1. (n) Section 5-1. Table 1. –15– . as follows: (A) At all manufacturer's approved operating radii. Table 2. (e). (m) Section 5-1. Prototype testing: mobile (including crawler and truck) and locomotive cranes manufactured on or after the effective date of this Rule shall meet the prototype testing requirements in Test Option A or Test Option B. Table 2.9. (iv) Manufacturer-recommended reeving for the hoist lines shall be shown. (ii) A work area chart for which capacities are listed in the load chart. size.9. Table 2.7.9.7. (ii) The following applies to equipment with pendant supported lattice booms: The analysis methodology (computer modeling) shall demonstrate that all load cases listed in SAE J987-2003 meet the strength margins listed in SAE J987-2003. such as outriggers and extra counterweights. The testing and verification requirements of CEN's EN 13000 (2004) shall be met.5 ("Sheave sizes"). Paragraph (f).3 ("Outriggers"). work areas. shall be met. (Note: an example of this type of chart is in ANSI/ASME B 30.1. (ii) The following applies to equipment with pendant supported lattice booms: All the tests listed in SAE J987-2003. Note: Prototype testing of crawler.4 ("Locomotive Crane Equipment"). and type of wire rope for various equipment loads.

Posted Warnings. Windows with sections designed to be opened shall be designed so that they can be secured to prevent inadvertent closure. may be raised or lowered. ball assemblies and load blocks shall be of sufficient weight to overhaul the line from the highest hook position for boom or boom and jib lengths and the number of parts of the line in use. (A) The cab shall have windows in front and on both sides of the operator. Forward vertical visibility shall be sufficient to give the operator a view of the boom point at all times.(b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Manufacturer-recommended boom hoist reeving diagram. Load Hooks (including latched and unlatched types). windshield wiper. including an indication of the least stable direction. examples of means for maintaining visibility include heater (for preventing windshield icing). (vii) Caution or warnings relative to limitations on equipment and operating procedures. Cabs. and length of rope wire. Examples of means for adjustable ventilation include air conditioner or window that can be opened (for ventilation and air circulation). and (C) The latch shall close the throat opening and be designed to retain slings or other lifting devices/accessories in the hook when the rigging apparatus is slack. (vii) Tire pressure (where applicable). except where the requirements of the SubItem (4)(d)(ii) of this Rule are met. whether free fall is available. or any combination of these. (xiv) The sequence and procedure for extending and retracting the telescopic boom section. type. (B) Routes for the loads are pre-planned to ensure that no employee is required to work in the fall zone except for employees necessary for the hooking or unhooking of the load. sliding) shall be designed to prevent inadvertent opening or closing while traveling or operating the machine. (xi) Whether the hoist holding mechanism is automatically or manually controlled. or with latches removed or disabled. defroster. (ii) Hooks without latches. Posted Warnings required by this Section as well as those originally supplied with the equipment by the manufacturer shall be maintained in legible condition. Hook and ball assemblies and load blocks shall be marked with their rated capacity and weight. (xii) The maximum telescopic travel length of each boom telescopic section. (iii) Windows. (x) Instructions for the boom erection and conditions under which the boom. (xvi) Hydraulic relief valve settings specified by the manufacturer. shall not be used unless: (A) A qualified person has determined that it is safer to hoist and place the load without latches (or with the latches removed/tied-back). (xv) Maximum loads permitted during the boom extending operation. (vi) –16– . Equipment with cabs shall meet the following requirements: (i) Cabs shall be designed with a form of adjustable ventilation and method for clearing the windshield for maintaining visibility and air circulation. (B) Windows may have sections designed to be opened or readily removed. Swinging doors adjacent to the operator shall open outward. Sliding operator doors shall open rearward. or boom and jib combinations. Latching Hooks: (i) Hooks shall be equipped with latches. (ii) Cab doors (swinging. and any limiting conditions or cautions. (xiii) Whether sections are telescoped manually or with power. size. where applicable. fan. An accessible fire extinguisher shall be on the equipment. (ix) Position of the gantry and requirements for intermediate boom suspension (where applicable).

(5)

Windows shall be of safety glass or material with similar optical and safety properties that introduce no visible distortion or otherwise obscure visibility that interferes with the safe operation of the equipment. (iv) A clear passageway shall be provided from the operator's station to an exit door on the operator's side. (v) Areas of the cab roof that serve as a workstation for rigging, maintenance or other equipment-related tasks shall be capable of supporting 250 pounds without permanent distortion. (h) Belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, drums, fly wheels, chains, and other parts or components that reciprocate, rotate or otherwise move shall be guarded where contact by employees (except for maintenance and repair employees) is possible in the performance of normal duties. (i) All exhaust pipes, turbochargers, and charge air coolers shall be insulated or guarded where contact by employees (except for maintenance and repair employees) is possible in the performance of normal duties. (j) Hydraulic and pneumatic lines shall be protected from damage to the extent feasible. (k) The equipment shall be designed so that exhaust fumes are not discharged in the cab and are discharged in a direction away from the operator. (l) Friction mechanisms. Where friction mechanisms (such as brakes and clutches) are used to control the boom hoist or load line hoist, they shall be: (i) Of a size and thermal capacity sufficient to control loads with the minimum recommended reeving. (ii) Adjustable to permit compensation for lining wear to maintain proper operation. (m) Hydraulic load hoists. Hydraulic drums shall have an integrally mounted holding device or internal static brake to prevent load hoist movement in the event of hydraulic failure. The employer's obligations under Items (1) through (3) and Sub-Items (4)(g) through (4)(m) of this Rule are met where the equipment has not changed (except in accordance with 13 NCAC 07F .0911) and it can refer to documentation from the manufacturer showing that the equipment has been designed, constructed and tested in accordance with those Items. Authority G.S. 95-131; Eff. October 1, 2009.

(C)

History Note:

13 NCAC 07F .0910

EQUIPMENT WITH A RATED HOISTING/LIFTING CAPACITY OF 2,000 POUNDS OR LESS For equipment with a maximum manufacturer-rated hoisting/lifting capacity of 2,000 pounds or less: (1) The following Rules of this Section apply: .0901 (Scope); .0903 (Definitions); .0908 (Fall Protection); .0911 (Equipment Modifications); .0912(a) (Ground conditions); .0913 (Power line safety); .0914 (Wire rope); .0916(e) (Authority to Stop Operation); .0916(v) (Free fall/Controlled Load Lowering); .0916(cc) (Multiple Crane Lifts); .0919 (Signals); .0921 (Tower Cranes); .0922 (Derricks); .0923 (Floating Cranes & Land Cranes on Barges); .0924 (Overhead and Gantry Cranes). (2) Assembly/disassembly. (a) 13 NCAC 07F .0912(b), concerning the selection of manufacturer or employer procedures during assembly/disassembly, applies. (b) Components and Configuration. (i) The selection of components and configuration of the equipment that affect the capacity or safe operation of the equipment shall be in accordance with: (A) Manufacturer instructions, recommendations, limitations, and specifications. Where these are unavailable, a qualified engineer familiar with the type of equipment involved shall approve, in writing, the selection and configuration of components; or (B) Modifications that meet the requirements of 13 NCAC 07F .0911 (Equipment Modifications).

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(3)

(4)

(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) History Note:

Post assembly inspection. Upon completion of assembly, the equipment shall be inspected to ensure compliance with Sub-Item (2)(b)(i) of this Rule (see 13 NCAC 07F .0915(c) for post-assembly inspection requirements). (c) Manufacturer prohibitions. The employer shall comply with applicable manufacturer prohibitions. Operation-Procedures (a) The employer shall comply with all manufacturer procedures applicable to the operational functions of the equipment, including its use with attachments. (b) Unavailable operation procedures. (i) Where the manufacturer procedures are unavailable, the employer shall develop and ensure compliance with all procedures necessary for the safe operation of the equipment and attachments. (ii) Procedures for the operational controls shall be developed by a qualified person. (iii) Procedures related to the capacity of the equipment shall be developed and signed by a qualified engineer familiar with the equipment. (c) Accessibility. (i) The load chart shall be available to the operator at the control station. (ii) Procedures applicable to the operation of the equipment, recommended operating speeds, special hazard warnings, instructions and operators manual, shall be readily available for use by the operator. (iii) Where rated capacities are available at the control station only in electronic form: in the event of a failure which makes the load capacities inaccessible, the operator shall immediately cease operations or follow safe shut-down procedures until the rated capacities (in electronic or other form) are available. Safety devices and operational aids. (a) Originally-equipped safety devices and operational aids shall be maintained in accordance with manufacturer procedures. (b) Anti-two blocking. Equipment covered by this Section manufactured more than one year after the effective date of this Rule shall have either an anti-two block device that meets the requirements of 13 NCAC 07F .0917(d)(3), or shall be designed so that, in the event of a two-block situation, no damage will occur and there will be no load failure (such as where the power unit will stall in the event of a two-block). Operator qualifications. The employer shall ensure that, prior to operating the equipment, the operator is trained on the safe operation of the type of equipment the operator will be using. Signal person qualifications. The employer shall ensure that signal persons are trained in the proper use of signals applicable to the use of the equipment. Keeping clear of the load. 13 NCAC 07F .0916(t) applies, except for Part (t)(3)(C) (qualified rigger). Inspections. The equipment shall be inspected in accordance with manufacturer procedures. Hoisting personnel. Hoisting personnel using equipment covered by this Section is prohibited. Design. The equipment shall be designed by a qualified engineer. Authority G.S. 95-131; Eff. October 1, 2009.

(ii)

13 NCAC 07F .0911 EQUIPMENT MODIFICATIONS (a) Modifications or additions which affect the capacity or safe operation of the equipment are prohibited except where the requirements of Subparagraphs (a)(1), (a)(2), or (a)(3) of this Rule are met. (1) Manufacturer review and approval. (A) The manufacturer approves the modifications/additions in writing. (B) The load charts, procedures, instruction manuals and instruction plates/tags/decals are modified as necessary to accord with the modification/addition. (C) The original safety factor of the equipment is not reduced. (2) Manufacturer refusal to review request. The manufacturer is provided a description of the proposed modification/addition, is asked to approve the modification/addition, but it declines to

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review the technical merits of the proposal or fails, within 30 days, to acknowledge the request or initiate the review, and all of the following are met: (A) A qualified engineer who is a qualified person with respect to the equipment involved: (i) Approves the modification/addition and specifies the equipment configurations to which that approval applies, and (ii) Modifies load charts, procedures, instruction manuals and instruction plates/tags/decals as necessary to accord with the modification/addition. (B) The original safety factor of the equipment is not reduced. (3) Unavailable manufacturer. The manufacturer is unavailable and the requirements of Parts (a)(2)(A) and (a)(2)(B) of this Rule are met. (b) Modifications or additions which affect the capacity or safe operation of the equipment are prohibited where the manufacturer, after a review of the technical safety merits of the proposed modification/addition, rejects the proposal and explains the reasons for the rejection in a written response. If the manufacturer rejects the proposal but does not explain the reasons for the rejection in writing, the employer may treat this as a manufacturer refusal to review the request under Subparagraph (a)(2) of this Rule. (c) The provisions in Paragraphs (a) and (b) of this Rule do not apply to modifications made or approved by the U.S. military. History Note: Authority G.S. 95-131; Eff. October 1, 2009.

13 NCAC 07F .0912 ASSEMBLY AND DISASSEMBLY OF EQUIPMENT (a) Ground Conditions. (1) As used in this Rule, the following definitions apply: (A) "Ground Conditions" means the ability of the ground to support the equipment (including slope, compaction and firmness). (B) "Supporting Materials" means blocking, mats, cribbing, marsh buggies (in marshes/wetlands), or similar supporting materials or devices. (2) The equipment shall not be assembled or used unless ground conditions are firm, drained (except for marshes/wetlands), and graded to a sufficient extent so that, in conjunction (if necessary) with the use of supporting materials, the equipment manufacturer's specifications for adequate support and degree of level of the equipment are met. (3) The controlling entity shall: (A) Ensure that the ground preparations necessary to meet the requirements in Subparagraph (a)(2) of this Rule are provided. (B) Inform the user of the equipment and the operator of the location of hazards beneath the equipment to set-up area (such as voids, tanks, utilities) that are identified in documents (such as site drawings, as-built drawings, and soil analyses) if they are available to the controlling entity. (4) If there is no controlling entity for the project, the requirements in Part (a)(3)(A) of this Rule shall be met by the employer that has authority at the site to make or arrange for ground preparations needed to meet Subparagraph (a)(2) of this Rule. (5) If the A/D supervisor or the operator determines that ground conditions do not meet the requirements in Subparagraph (a)(2) of this Rule, that person's employer shall have a discussion with the controlling entity regarding the ground preparations that are needed so that, with the use of suitable supporting materials/devices (if necessary), the requirements in Subparagraph (a)(2) of this Rule can be met. (b) When assembling and disassembling equipment (or attachments), the employer shall comply with either: (1) Manufacturer procedures applicable to assembly and disassembly; or (2) Employer procedures for assembly and disassembly. (A) When using employer procedures instead of manufacturer procedures for assembling or disassembling, the employer shall ensure that the procedures are designed to: (i) Prevent unintended dangerous movement, and to prevent collapse, of all parts of the equipment. (ii) Provide support and stability of all parts of the equipment during the assembly/disassembly process.

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Position employees involved in the assembly/disassembly operation so that their exposure to unintended movement or collapse of part or all of the equipment is minimized. (B) Qualified person. Employer procedures shall be developed by a qualified person. (c) Supervision – Competent-Qualified Person. (1) Assembly/disassembly shall be supervised by a person who meets the criteria for both a competent person and a qualified person, or by a competent person who is assisted by one or more qualified persons ("A/D supervisor"). (2) Where the assembly/disassembly is being performed by only one person, that person shall meet the criteria for both a competent person and a qualified person. For purposes of this Section, that person is considered the A/D supervisor. (d) Knowledge or Procedures. The A/D supervisor shall understand the applicable assembly/disassembly procedures. (e) Review of Procedures. The A/D supervisor shall review the applicable assembly/disassembly procedures immediately prior to the commencement of assembly/disassembly unless the A/D supervisor has applied them to the same type and configuration of equipment (including accessories, if any) so that they are already known and understood. (f) Crew Instructions. (1) Before commencing assembly/disassembly operations, the A/D supervisor shall determine that the crew members understand the following: (A) Their tasks; (B) The hazards associated with their tasks; and (C) The hazardous positions/locations that they need to avoid. (2) During assembly/disassembly operations, before a crew member takes on a different task, or when adding new personnel during the operations, the requirements in Parts (f)(1)(A) through (f)(1)(C) of this Rule shall be met with respect to the crew member's understanding regarding that task. (g) Protecting Assembly/Disassembly Crew Members Out of Operator View. (1) Before a crew member goes to a location that is out of view of the operator and is either in, on or under the equipment, or near the equipment (or load) where the crew member could be injured by movement of the equipment (or load), the crew member shall inform the operator that he or she is going to that location. (2) Where the operator knows that a crew member went to a location covered by Subparagraph (g)(1) of this Rule, the operator shall not move any part of the equipment (or load) until the operator: (A) Gives a warning that is understood by the crew member as a signal that the equipment (or load) is about to be moved and allows time for the crew member to get to a safe position; or (B) Is informed in accordance with a pre-arranged system of communication that the crew member is in a safe position. (h) Working Under the Boom, Jib or Other Components. (1) When pins (or similar devices) are being removed, employees shall not be under the boom, jib or other components, except where the requirements of Subparagraph (h)(2) of this Rule are met. (2) Exception. Where the employer demonstrates that site constraints require one or more employees to be under the boom, jib or other components when pins (or similar devices) are being removed, the A/D supervisor shall implement procedures that minimize the risk of unintended dangerous movement and minimize the duration and extent of exposure under the boom. (i) Capacity Limits. During all phases of assembly/disassembly, rated capacity limits for loads imposed on the equipment, equipment components (including rigging), lifting lugs and equipment accessories shall not be exceeded for the equipment being assembled/disassembled. (j) Addressing Specific Hazards. The A/D supervisor supervising the assembly/disassembly operation shall address the hazards associated with the operation with methods to protect the employees from them, as follows: (1) Site and Ground Bearing Conditions. Site and ground bearing conditions shall be adequate for safe assembly/disassembly operations and to support the equipment during assembly/disassembly (see Paragraph (a) of this Rule for ground condition requirements). (2) Blocking Material. The size, amount, condition and method of stacking blocking shall be sufficient to sustain the loads and maintain stability.

(iii)

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(l) Weight of Components. If it is not sufficient. (11) Loss of Backward Stability. a boom hoist pawl. a qualified engineer familiar with the type of equipment involved shall approve. Equipment used for pile driving shall not have a jib attached during pile driving operations. (2) Post-Assembly Inspection. and when attaching or removing equipment components. (5) Boom and Jib Pick Points. other locking device/back-up braking device. When used to support lattice booms or components. a qualified engineer familiar with the type of equipment involved shall determine this limitation in writing. straps.0916(m)(3) (Rated Capacity) before assembly/disassembly begins in order to prevent exceeding rated capacity limits for the assist crane.Proper Location of Blocking. Reusable shipping pins. The point(s) of attachment of rigging to a boom (or boom sections or jib or jib sections) shall be suitable for preventing structural damage and facilitating safe handling of these components. (p) Pile Driving. or at any time when outriggers are used. (8) Snagging. the following requirements shall be met: (3) –21– . Backward stability shall be considered before swinging the upperworks. (q) Outriggers. The weight of the components shall be readily available. and similar equipment shall be removed and stowed in accordance with manufacturer instructions. blocking shall be appropriately placed to: (A) Protect the structural integrity of the equipment. Wind speed and weather shall be considered so that the safe assembly/disassembly of the equipment is not compromised. the loads that will be imposed on the assist crane at each phase of assembly/disassembly shall be verified in accordance with 13 NCAC 07F . travel. the brake shall be tested to determine if it is sufficient to prevent boom movement. (9) Struck by Counterweights. (m) Components and Configuration. or another method of preventing dangerous movement of the boom (such as blocking or using an assist crane) from a boom hoist brake failure shall be used. links. Once they are removed. which shall not be exceeded.0911 (Equipment Modifications). they must either be stowed or otherwise stored during pile driving operations. (o) Shipping Pins. (7) Stability Upon Pin Removal. Where these are unavailable. limitation. Upon completion of assembly. Where these are unavailable. (10) Boom Hoist Brake Failure. (6) Center of Gravity. (1) The selection of components and configuration of the equipment that affect the capacity or safe operation of the equipment shall be in accordance with: (A) Manufacturer instructions. Manufacturer limitations on the maximum amount of boom supported only by cantilevering shall not be exceeded. measures designed to prevent unintended dangerous movement resulting from an inaccurate identification of the center of gravity shall be used. or (B) Modifications that meet the requirements of 13 NCAC 07F . The boom sections. the selection and configuration of components. When using an assist crane. When the load to be handled and the operation radius require the use of outriggers. and (B) Prevent dangerous movement and collapse. (A) The center of gravity of the load shall be identified if that is necessary for the method of use for maintaining stability. The employer shall comply with applicable manufacturer prohibitions. the equipment shall be inspected to ensure compliance with Subparagraph (m)(1) of this Rule (see section 13 NCAC 07F .0915(c) for post-assembly inspection requirements). boom suspension systems (such as gantry Aframes and jib struts) or components shall be rigged or supported to maintain stability upon the removal of the pins. (n) Manufacturer Prohibitions. The potential for unexpected movement from inadequately supported counterweights and from hoisting counterweights shall be considered. and specifications. Suspension ropes and pendants shall not be allowed to catch on the boom or jib connection pins or cotter pins (including keepers and locking pins). Where reliance is placed on the boom hoist brake to prevent boom movement during assembly/disassembly. in writing. (4) Verifying Assist Crane Loads. (12) Wind Speed and Weather. (B) Where there is insufficient information to accurately identify the center of gravity. (k) Cantilevered Boom Sections.

the following requirements shall be met: –22– . could get closer than the minimum approach distance of the power line permitted under Table A of this Rule. gets closer than 20 feet of a power line that is up to 350 kV or closer than 50 feet of a power line that exceeds 350 kV by implementing the measures specified in Subparagraph (a)(2) of this Rule. (2) None of the pins (top and bottom) on boom sections located between the pendant attachment points and the crane/derrick body shall be removed (partly or completely) when the pendants are in tension. or Option (3). load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories). (2) Preventing encroachment/electrocution. then the employer shall follow the requirements in Subparagraph (a)(2) of this Rule to ensure that no part of the equipment. When lifting loads without using outriggers. October 1. Eff. the manufacturer's procedures shall be followed. as follows: (A) Option (1) – Deenergize and ground. (3) When outrigger floats are used. (B) Be placed only under the outrigger float/pad of the outrigger jack or. History Note: Authority G. or Option (3). load line. Where encroachment precautions are required under Option (2). gets closer to the line than the minimum approach distance. Confirm from the utility owner/operator that the power line has been deenergized and visibly grounded at the worksite. (4) None of the top pins on boom sections located on the cantilevered portion of the boom being removed (the portion being removed ahead of the pendant attachment points) shall be removed (partly or completely) until the cantilevered section to be removed is fully supported. when using outriggers to handle loads. they shall be attached to the outriggers. (i) Determine the line's voltage and the minimum approach distance permitted under Table A of this Rule. under the outer bearing surface of the extended outrigger beam. (C) Option (3) – Table A clearance.S. (B) Option (2) – Clearance. load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories) could get. Ensure that no part of the equipment. 95-131. (5) Outrigger blocking shall: (A) Meet the requirements in Subparagraphs (j)(2) and (j)(3) of this Rule.0913 POWER LINE SAFETY (a) Assembly and Disassembly of Equipment. (1) 13 NCAC 07F . (1) None of the pins in the pendants shall be removed (partly or completely) when the pendants are in tension. 2009. (r) Dismantling (including dismantling for changing the length of booms and jibs). (1) Before assembling or disassembling equipment. the employer shall meet the requirements in Option (1). the employer shall determine if any part of the equipment. deployed as specified in the load chart. except for locomotive cranes (see Subparagraph (q)(6) of this Rule for use of outriggers on locomotive cranes). where the outrigger is designed without a jack. Option (2). (3) None of the pins (top and bottom) on boom sections located between the uppermost boom section and the crane/derrick body shall be removed (partly or completely) when the boom is being supported by the uppermost boom section resting on the ground (or other support). If so. (2) The outriggers shall be set to remove the equipment weight from the wheels. (4) Each outrigger shall be visible to the operator or to a signal person during extension and setting. (6) For locomotive cranes. or load (including rigging and lifting accessories). if manufacturer procedures permit. load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories). the manufacturer's procedures shall be met regarding truck wedges or screws. (ii) Determine if any part of the equipment. closer than 20 feet of a power line that is up to 350 kV or closer than 50 feet of a power line that exceeds 350 kV during the assembly/disassembly process. If so. in the direction or area of assembly.The outriggers shall be either fully extended or.

up to the equipment's maximum working radius.The employer shall conduct a planning meeting with the A/D supervisor. Where Option (3) is used. (3) Assembly/disassembly below power lines prohibited. or other electronic transmission of signals). a visible line of stanchions. a set of visible lineof-sight landmarks (such as a fence post behind the dedicated spotter and a building corner ahead of the dedicated spotter. set to prevent encroachment. There shall be at least one electrocution hazard warning conspicuously posted in the cab so that it is in view of the operator and (except for overhead gantry and tower cranes) at least two on the outside of the equipment. No part of a crane/derrick. they shall be non-conductive. or (ii) Define the work zone as the area 360 degrees around the equipment. whether partially or fully assembled. load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories). operator. (4) Assembly/disassembly inside Table A clearance prohibited. (i) Define a work zone by demarcating boundaries (such as with flags. or line of signs. (6) Power lines presumed energized. telephone. the employer shall: (A) Identify the work zone. equipped with flags or similar high-visibility markings. use equipment that enables the dedicated spotter to communicate directly with the operator. Before beginning equipment operations. is allowed closer than the minimum approach distance under Table A of a power line unless the employer has confirmed that the utility owner/operator has deenergized and (at the worksite) visibly grounded the power line. (1) Hazard assessments and precautions inside the work zone. (IV) Give timely information to the operator so that the required clearance distance can be maintained. in view of the operator. whether partially or fully assembled. (7) Posting of electrocution warnings. (v) An elevated warning line.) (II) Be positioned to effectively gauge the clearance distance. (b) Operation of Equipment. load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories). such as a range control warning device. barricade. (ii) A proximity alarm set to give the operator sufficient warning to prevent encroachment. Examples of a visual aid include a visible line painted on the ground. The dedicated spotter shall: (I) Be equipped with a visual aid to assist in identifying the minimum clearance distance. (5) Voltage information. (iv) A device that automatically limits range of movement.0919(m) (radio. (iii) A device that automatically warns the operator when to stop movement. assembly/disassembly crew and the other workers who will be in the assembly/disassembly area to review the location of the power line(s) and the steps that will be implemented to prevent encroachment/electrocution. The employer shall assume that all power lines are energized unless the utility owner/operator confirms that the power line has been and continues to be deenergized and visibly grounded at the worksite. (A) –23– . No part of a crane/derrick. Such a device shall be set to give the operator sufficient warning to prevent encroachment. the utility owner/operator of power lines shall provide the requested voltage information within two working days of the employer's request. (C) At least one of the following additional measures shall be in place: (i) The employer shall use a dedicated spotter who is in continuous contact with the equipment operator. (III) Where necessary. or a device such as a range limit device or range control warning device) and prohibit the operator from operating the equipment past those boundaries. (B) If tag lines are used. in accordance with 13 NCAC 07F . is allowed below a power line unless the employer has confirmed that the utility owner/operator has deenergized and (at the worksite) visibly grounded the power line.

then the employer shall follow the requirements in Subparagraph (b)(2) of this Rule to ensure that no part of the equipment. (IV) Give timely information to the operator so that the required clearance distance can be maintained. or load (including rigging and lifting accessories). load line. (v) An insulating link/device installed at a point between the end of the load line (or below) and the load. (iv) A device that automatically limits range of movement. (ii) A dedicated spotter who is in continuous contact with the operator. or line of signs. in view of the operator. or Option (3) as follows: (i) Option (1) – Deenergize and ground. (B) If tag lines are used. load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories). barricade. could get closer than 20 feet of a power line that is up to 350 kV or closer than 50 feet of a power line that exceeds 350 kV. equipped with flags or similar high-visibility markings. Examples of a visual aid include a visible line painted on the ground. Option (2). (ii) Option (2) – Clearance. (iii) Option (3) – Table A clearance. (II) Determine if any part of the equipment. (B) –24– . (C) The employer shall erect and maintain an elevated warning line. or Option (3). If so. the following requirements shall be met: (A) The employer shall conduct a planning meeting with the operator and the other workers who will be in the area of the equipment or load to review the location of the power line(s). load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories). gets closer than 20 feet of a power line that is up to 350 kV or closer than 50 feet of a power line that exceeds 350 kV by implementing the measures specified in Subparagraph (b)(2) of this Rule. a visible line of stanchions. Ensure that no part of the equipment. a set of visible lineof-sight landmarks (such as a fence post behind the dedicated spotter and a building corner ahead of the dedicated spotter). use equipment that enables the dedicated spotter to communicate directly with the operator. set to prevent encroachment. gets closer to the line than the minimum approach distance. Such a device shall be set to give the operator sufficient warning to prevent encroachment. at 20 feet from a power line that is up to 350 kV or 50 feet from a power line that exceeds 350 kV (if using Option (2)) or at the minimum approach distance under Table A of this Rule (if using Option (3)). (iii) A device that automatically warns the operator when to stop movement. the dedicated spotter shall: (I) Be equipped with a visual aid to assist in identifying the minimum clearance distance. and the steps that will be implemented to prevent encroachment/electrocution. (III) Where necessary. while operating up to the equipment's maximum working radius in the work zone. If so. such as a range control warning device. Confirm from the utility owner/operator that the power line has been deenergized and visibly grounded at the worksite. (D) The employer shall implement at least one of the following measures: (i) A proximity alarm set to give the operator sufficient warning to prevent encroachment. if operated up to the equipment's maximum working radius in the work zone. could get closer than the minimum approach distance of the power line permitted under Table A of this Rule. Preventing encroachment/electrocution. (II) Be positioned to effectively gauge the clearance distance. Where this measure is selected. they shall be non-conductive. load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories). the employer shall meet the requirements in Option (1).(2) Determine if any part of the equipment. (I) Determine the line's voltage and the minimum approach distance permitted under Table A of this Rule. Where encroachment precautions are required under Option (2).

and visibly grounded at the worksite. Such training shall include: (I) Information regarding the danger of electrocution from the operator simultaneously touching the equipment and the ground. and range control (and similar) device. (ii) Power lines are presumed to be energized unless the utility owner/operator confirms that the power line has been and continues to be deenergized. (E) –25– . proximity alarm. Operations below power lines. Subpart V. (A) No part of the equipment. the transmitter shall be deenergized or the following precautions shall be taken when necessary to dissipate induced voltages: (A) The equipment shall be provided with an electrical ground. (B) Exceptions. Part (b)(4)(A) of this Rule is inapplicable where the employer demonstrates that one of the following applies: (i) The work is covered by 29 CFR 1926. When working near transmitter/communication towers where the equipment is close enough for an electrical charge to be induced in the equipment or materials being handled. (A) Operators and crew assigned to work with the equipment shall be trained on the following: (i) The procedures to be followed in the event of electrical contact with a power line. (IV) The danger of the potentially energized zone around the equipment. (III) The safest means of evacuating from equipment that may be energized. would be more than 20 feet below the plane of a power line that is up to 350 kV. with the boom at true vertical. if used. Power lines presumed energized. (B) Non-conductive rigging or an insulating link/device shall be used. at true vertical. The employer shall assume that all power lines are energized unless the utility owner/operator confirms that the power line has been and continues to be deenergized and visibly grounded at the worksite. 50 feet below the plane of a power line that exceeds 350 kV or more than the Table A minimum clearance distance below the plane of the power line. 50 feet below the plane of a power line that exceeds 350 kV or more than the Table A minimum clearance distance below the plane of the power line. (iv) The employer demonstrates that compliance with Part (b)(4)(A) of this Rule is infeasible and meets the requirements of Paragraph (c) of this Rule. (ii) For equipment with non-extensible booms: The uppermost part of the equipment. Subpart V. except where one of the exceptions in Part (b)(4)(B) of this Rule apply. with the boom in the fully extended position. Where Option (3) is used. (V) The need for crew in the area to avoid approaching or touching the equipment. would be more than 20 feet below the plane of a power line that is up to 350 kV. or other emergency that necessitates leaving the cab. (II) The importance to the operator's safety of remaining inside the cab except where there is an imminent danger of fire. the employer shall not proceed with work until the voltage information requested from the operators of power lines has been received. explosion. Voltage information. (iii) For equipment with articulating or extensible booms: The uppermost part of the equipment.(3) (4) (5) (6) (7) The requirements of Part (b)(2)(D) of this Rule do not apply to work covered by 29 CFR 1926. (iv) The limitations of an insulating link/device. (iii) Power lines are presumed to be uninsulated unless the utility owner/operator or a qualified engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution confirms that a power line is insulated. load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories) is allowed below a power line unless the employer has confirmed that the utility owner/operator has deenergized and (at the worksite) visibly grounded the power line. Training. (VI) Safe clearance distance from power lines.

Table V-1 where both the requirements of this Rule and 29 CFR 1926. lighting conditions. degree of sway in the power line. These procedures shall include: (i) If the power line is equipped with a device that automatically reenergizes the circuit in the event of a power line contact. equipped with flags or similar high-visibility markings. a visible line of stanchions. operational aid.Employees working as dedicated spotters shall be trained to enable them to effectively perform their task. wind conditions. (C) Minimum clearance distance. instead. or a means to prevent power line contact or electrocution. or barricade (not attached to the crane). (III) Where necessary. shall meet the manufacturer's procedures for use and conditions of use. (8) Devices originally designed by the manufacturer for use as a safety device (see 13 NCAC 07F . (B) The employer determines that. load line and load (including rigging and lifting accessories) to a complete stop. to prevent electrical contact. (iii) An elevated warning line. when used to comply with this Section. the minimum clearance distances specified in 29 CFR 1926. time necessary to bring the equipment. (D) A planning meeting with the employer and power line operator (or qualified engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution) is held to determine the procedures that will be followed to prevent electrical contact and electrocution. this provision does not apply to work covered by 29 CFR 1926. (1) Equipment operations in which any part of the equipment. However. in view of the operator (either directly or through video equipment). Examples of a visual aid include a visible line painted on the ground. Table V-1 apply. The dedicated spotter shall: (I) Be equipped with a visual aid to assist in identifying the minimum clearance distance. including training on the applicable requirements of this Rule. (II) Be positioned to effectively gauge the clearance distance. Subpart V. use equipment that enables the dedicated spotter to communicate directly with the operator. Subpart V.950. after consultation with the utility owner/operator. except where the employer demonstrates that the following requirements are met: (A) The employer determines that it is infeasible to do the work without breaching the minimum approach distance under Table A of this Rule.0918). it is infeasible to deenergize and ground the power line or relocate the power line. (ii) Subpart (c)(1)(C)(i) of this Rule does not apply to work covered by 29 CFR 1926. for such work. Subpart V may work closer than the distances in 29 CFR 1926.952(c)(2)(iii) or (iv) are met. Employers covered by 29 CFR 1926. (c) Operation of Equipment Inside the Table A Zone. (iv) Insulating link/device.950. (IV) Give timely information to the operator so that the required clearance distance can be maintained. the employer shall ensure that the automatic reclosing feature of the circuit interrupting device is made inoperative before work begins. The factors that shall be considered in making this determination include conditions affecting atmospheric conductivity. a set of visible lineof-sight landmarks (such as a fence post behind the dedicated spotter and a building corner ahead of the dedicated spotter). and other conditions affecting the ability to prevent electrical contact. load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories) is closer than the minimum approach distance under Table A of an energized power line is prohibited. (B) –26– . (ii) A dedicated spotter who is in continuous contact with the operator. (i) The power line owner/operator or qualified engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution determines the minimum clearance distance that shall be maintained to prevent electrical contact in light of the on-site conditions.

(G) The procedures developed to comply with Part (c)(1)(D) of this Rule are implemented. the employer shall safely stop operations and either develop new procedures to comply with Part (c)(1)(D) of this Rule or have the utility owner/operator deenergize and visibly ground or relocate the power line before resuming work. the barricade shall be as far from the equipment as feasible. (II) For work covered by 29 CFR 1926.An insulating link/device installed at a point between the end of the load line (or below) and the load. (v) Non-conductive rigging if the rigging may be within the Table A distance during the operation. shall meet the manufacturer's procedures for use and conditions of use. (vii) If a tag line is used. (x) Only personnel essential to the operation shall be permitted to be in the area of the crane and load. In areas where obstacles prevent the barricade from being at least 10 feet away. operational aid. when used to comply with this Section. Subpart V. If any part of the equipment while traveling will get closer than 20 feet of the power line.0918). (C) The effects of speed and terrain on equipment movement (including movement of the boom/mast) are considered so that those effects do not cause the minimum clearance distances specified in Table B of this Rule to be breached (D) Dedicated spotter. (2) The employer shall ensure that: (A) The boom/mast and boom/mast support system are lowered sufficiently to meet the requirements of this Paragraph. (xi) The equipment shall be grounded. it shall be of the non-conductive type.950 Table V-1 clearance distances. (H) All employers of employees involved in the work shall identify one person who will direct the implementation of the procedures. (viii) Barricades forming a perimeter at least 10 feet away from the equipment to prevent personnel not authorized by the employer from entering the work area. the operator and the other workers who will be in the area of the equipment or load meet with the utility owner/operator to review the procedures that will be implemented to prevent breaching the minimum approach distance established in Part (c)(1)(C) of this Rule and prevent electrocution. The dedicated spotter shall: (I) –27– . (E) The procedures developed to comply with Part (c)(1)(D) of this Rule are documented and immediately available on-site. or indicating that those procedures are inadequate to prevent electrocution. or a means to prevent power line contact or electrocution. (d) Equipment While Traveling. the employer shall ensure that a dedicated spotter who is in continuous contact with the operator is used. (xii) Insulating line hose or cover-up shall be installed by the utility owner/operator except where such devices are unavailable for the line voltages involved. it shall be used and set to prevent any part of the equipment. (vi) If the equipment is equipped with a device that automatically limits range of movement. (J) Devices originally designed by the manufacturer for use as a safety device (see 13 NCAC 07F . (ix) Workers other than the operator shall be prohibited from touching the load line above the insulating link/device and crane. The person identified in accordance with this paragraph shall direct the implementation of the procedures and shall have the authority to stop work at any time to ensure safety. (I) If a problem occurs implementing the procedures being used to comply with Part (c)(1)(D) of this Rule. (B) The clearances specified in Table B of this Rule are maintained. (1) This Paragraph establishes procedures and criteria that must be met for equipment traveling under a power line on the construction site with no load. the requirement in Subsubpart (c)(1)(D)(iv)(I) of this Rule applies only when working inside the 29 CFR 1926. (F) The employer ensures that the equipment user. load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories) from breaching the minimum approach distance established under Part (c)(1)(C) of this Rule.

History Note: Authority G. 95-131. or a qualified person. Minimum clearance distance (feet) 10 15 20 25 35 45 (as established by a qualified engineer or by the owner or operator of the power line who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution) Table B – Minimum Clearance Distances While Traveling With No Load and Boom/Mast Lowered Voltage (nominal. (2) Boom hoist reeving.000 While Traveling Minimum Clearance Distance (feet) 4 (while traveling/boom lowered) 6 (while traveling/boom lowered 10 (while traveling/boom lowered) 16 (while traveling/boom lowered) 20 (while traveling/boom lowered) (as established by the power line owner/operator or qualified engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution. (B) Rotation resistant ropes shall be used for boom hoist reeving only where the requirements of Subparagraph (a)(3) of this Rule are met. kV.75 to 50 Over 50 to 345 Over 345 to 750 Over 750 to 1. the employer shall ensure that: (i) The power lines are illuminated or another means of identifying the location of the lines shall be used.0914 WIRE ROPE (a) Selection and Installation Criteria. Additional precautions for traveling in poor visibility. (A) Fiber core ropes shall not be used for boom hoist reeving.000 Over 1.000 Note: The value that follows "to" is up to and includes the value. Where necessary. (ii) A safe path of travel is identified and used. For example.000 Over 1. 2009. –28– . except for derricks. over 50 to 200 means up to and including 200 kV. (i) (ii) Table A – Minimum Clearance Distances Voltage (nominal. 13 NCAC 07F . or in conditions of poor visibility. (iii) Give timely information to the operator so that the required clearance distance can be maintained. alternating current) Up to 50 Over 50 to 200 Over 200 to 350 Over 350 to 500 Over 500 to 750 Over 750 to 1. alternating current) Up to 0. When traveling at night. the equipment manufacturer. October 1.S. use equipment that enables the dedicated spotter to communicate directly with the operator. in addition to the measures specified in Parts (d)(2)(A) through (d)(2)(D) of this Rule.(E) Be positioned to effectively gauge the clearance distance. kV.75 Over . (1) Selection of replacement wire rope shall be in accordance with the requirements of this Rule and the recommendations of the wire rope manufacturer. Eff.

2(d). The rope shall be used only if the qualified person determines that there are no deficiencies constituting a hazard. (iii) Type III rotation resistant wire rope ("Type III"). more than one broken wire in any one rope lay shall be considered a hazard. and comprises an assembly of two layers of strands laid helically over a center in two operations. The direction of lay of the outer strands is opposite to that of the underlying layer. Such prior uses shall be considered by the qualified person in determining whether to use the rope again. (ii) Rotation resistant ropes may be used as boom hoist reeving when load hoists are used as boom hoists for attachments such as luffing attachments or boom and mast attachment systems.3. in writing.(3) Rotation resistant ropes. Section 5-1. Type I rotation resistant rope is stranded rope constructed to have little or no tendency to rotate or.5-2004. except where the requirements of Subparagraph (a)(3)(C) of this Rule are met.0916(v)(2). (D) Additional requirements for rotation resistant ropes for boom hoist reeving. –29– . (iv) Types II and III shall have an operating design factor of no less than five. (A) Definitions. (II) The requirements in 13 NCAC 07F . It has at least 15 outer strands and comprises an assembly of at least three layers of strands laid helically over a center in two operations. In making this determination. The direction of lay of the outer strands is opposite to that of the underlying layer. non-repetitive lifts). Type III rotation resistant rope is stranded rope constructed to have limited resistance to rotation. (a)(2) through (a)(4). (C) When Types II and III with an operation design factor of less than five are used (for nonduty cycle.3. and 13 NCAC 07F . II and III) shall have an operating design factor of no less than three point five. (i) Types II and III with an operation design factor of less than five shall not be used for duty cycle or repetitive lifts. The direction of lay of the outer strands is opposite to that of the underlying layer. (ii) Rotation resistant ropes (including Types I. (ii) Type II rotation resistant wire rope ("Type II"). except where the wire rope manufacturer and the equipment manufacturer approves the design factor. It has no more than nine outer strands. the following requirements shall be met: (I) The drum shall provide a first layer rope pitch diameter of not less than 18 times the nominal diameter of the rope used. except where the requirements of Subpart (a)(3)(D)(ii) of this Rule are met. Under these conditions. (B) Requirements. (iii) Each lift made under these provisions shall be recorded in the monthly and annual inspection documents. It has at least 10 outer strands and comprises an assembly of two or more layers of strands laid helically over a center in two or three operations. (i) Rotation resistant ropes shall not be used for boom hoist reeving. (b) through (d). (i) Type I rotation resistant wire rope ("Type I"). (iii) Type I shall have an operating design factor of no less than five. (ii) Operations shall be conducted in such a manner and at such speeds as to minimize dynamic effects. except that the minimum pitch diameter for sheaves used in multiple rope reeving is 18 times the nominal diameter of the rope used instead of the value of 16 specified in Section 5-1. transmits little or no torque.0916(v)(1) (irrespective of the date of manufacture of the equipment). the following requirements shall be met for each lifting operation: (i) A qualified person shall inspect the rope in accordance with Subparagraph (b)(1) of this Rule. (III) The requirements of ANSI/ASME B30. if guided. Type II rotation resistant rope is stranded rope constructed to have resistance to rotation.2(a).

(A) A competent person shall complete a visual inspection prior to commencement of crane operations during each shift. where a rope lay is the length along the rope in which one strand makes a complete revolution around the rope. The competent person shall ensure that the following items are reviewed: (i) Rotation resistant wire rope in use. (II) Electrical contact with a power line. except that the use of devices specifically designed for dead-ending rope in a wedge socket is permitted. (6) Prior to cutting a wire rope. (II) Visibly broken wires in rotation resistant ropes: two randomly distributed broken wires in six rope diameters or four randomly distributed broken wires in 30 rope diameters. cracked. (b) Inspection of Wire Ropes. (V) Corroded. (B) Apparent deficiencies. Apparent deficiencies in this category are: (I) Visibly broken wires in running wire ropes: six randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay or three broken wires in one strand in one rope lay. core protrusion or other distortion indicating core failure. crushing. (V) The operating design factor for the boom hoist reeving system shall be not less than five. (III) Electric arc (from a source other than power lines) or heat damage. The inspection shall consist of observation of wire ropes (running and standing) that are reasonably likely to be in use during the shift for apparent deficiencies. (III) A broken strand. (IV) Improperly applied end connections. birdcaging. Apparent deficiencies in this category include the following: (I) In rotation resistant wire rope. (5) Socketing shall be done in the manner specified by the manufacturer of the wire rope or fitting. (III) Visibly broken wires in pendants or standing wire ropes: more than two broken wires in one rope lay located in rope beyond end connections or more than one broken wire in a rope lay located at an end connection. signs of core failure or steel core protrusion between the outer strands. or worn end connections (such as from severe service). including those listed in Part (b)(1)(B) of this Rule. and (IV) A diameter reduction of more than five percent from nominal diameter. (i) Category I. unstranding. (1) Shift inspection. (IV) –30– . (VI) The operating design factor for these ropes shall be the total minimum breaking force of all parts of rope in the system divided by the load imposed on the rope system when supporting the static weights of the structure and the load within the equipment's rated capacity. (II) Corrosion. seizings shall be placed on each side of the point to be cut.All sheaves used in the boom hoist reeving system shall have a rope pitch diameter of not less than 18 times the nominal diameter of the rope used. (C) Critical Review Items. a power-controlled lowering system shall be capable of handling rated capacities and speeds as specified by the manufacturer. (ii) Category II. (VII) When provided. (4) Wire rope clips used in conjunction with wedge sockets shall be attached to the unloaded dead end of the rope only. (iii) Category III. The length and number of seizings shall be in accordance with the wire rope manufacturer's instructions. Apparent deficiencies in this category include the following: (I) Distortion of the wire rope structure such as kinking. bent. Untwisting (opening) of wire rope or booming down is not required as part of this inspection.

(D) Wire rope being used for boom hoists and luffing hoists. (i) If a deficiency in Category I is identified. or (ii) –31– . (iv) Wire rope adjacent to end connections. If the deficiency is determined to constitute a safety hazard. (VI) The qualified person's findings and procedures in Subsubparts (b)(1)(D)(iii)(I) through (b)(1)(D)(iii)(IV) of this Rule are documented. Removal from service. Repair of wire rope that contacted an energized power line is also prohibited. or (II) If the deficiency (other than power line contact) is localized. operations involving use of the wire rope in question shall be prohibited until the wire rope is replaced. or the damage is removed in accordance with all of the requirements and restrictions in Subsubpart (b)(1)(D)(i)(II) of this Rule. (iii) Wire rope at flange points. broken strands. If the deficiency is considered a safety hazard. as follows: (I) Option A. The wire rope may continue to be used if the employer ensures that the following measures are implemented: (I) A qualified person assesses the deficiency in light of the load and other conditions of use and determines it is safe to continue to use the wire rope as long as the conditions established under this paragraph are met. (V) The workers who will conduct the shift inspections are informed of this deficiency and the measures taken under this Paragraph. (IV) A qualified person sets a time limit. the employer shall comply with Option A or Option B. crossover points and repetitive pickup points on drums. (III) A qualified person establishes a specific number of broken wires. (II) A qualified person establishes the parameters for the use of the equipment with the deficiency. the problem is corrected by severing the wire rope in two. Consider the deficiency to constitute a safety hazard where it meets the wire rope manufacturer's established criterion for removal from service or meets a different criterion that the wire rope manufacturer has approved in writing for that specific wire rope. (II) Option B. or the damage removed in accordance with all of the requirements and restrictions in Subsubpart (b)(1)(D)(i)(II) of this Rule. the name of the qualified person and the findings required by this Rule. an immediate determination shall be made by the competent person as to whether the deficiency constitutes a safety hazard. (ii) If a deficiency in Category II is identified. Joining lengths of wire rope by splicing is prohibited. when reached. including a reduced maximum rated capacity. (v) Wire rope at and on equalizer sheaves. The document shall contain the date. particularly at reverse bends. (iv) If a deficiency in Category III is identified. the undamaged portion may continue to be used. operations involving use of the wire rope in question shall be prohibited until: (I) The wire rope is replaced. by which the wire rope shall be replaced. will require the equipment to be taken out of service until the wire rope is replaced or the damage is removed in accordance with all of the requirements and restrictions in Subsubpart (b)(1)(D)(i)(II) of this Rule. not to exceed 30 days from the date the deficiency is first identified. Institute the alternative measures specified in Subpart (b)(1)(D)(iii) of this Rule. (iii) Alternative measures for a Category II deficiency. operations involving use of the wire rope in question shall be prohibited until: (I) The wire rope is replaced. or diameter reduction that.

or (II) If the deficiency is localized. such inspections shall be conducted as soon as it becomes feasible. (II) Those sections that are normally hidden during shift and monthly inspections. Annual/comprehensive. 2009. (i) If the deficiency is determined to constitute a safety hazard. the problem is corrected by severing the wire rope in two. (iii) Exception: In the event an inspection under Part (b)(3)(B) of this Rule is not feasible due to existing set-up and configuration of the equipment (such as where an assist crane is needed) or due to site conditions (such as a dense urban setting). Joining lengths of wire rope by splicing is prohibited. with attention given to: (I) Critical review items listed in Part (b)(1)(C) of this Rule. the undamaged portion may continue to be used.0915(e)(3) (monthly inspection documentation).0916(g)(1). 95-131. (D) The inspection shall be documented according to 13 NCAC 07F .(2) (3) (4) History Note: If the deficiency (other than power line contact) is localized. (V) Wire rope passing over sheaves. Repair of wire rope that contacted an energized power line is also prohibited. (B) Wire ropes on equipment shall not be used until an inspection under this paragraph demonstrates that no corrective action under Part (b)(1)(D) of this Rule is required. (C) If a deficiency is identified. (ii) If the qualified person determines that. (B) In addition. equalizer sheaves or other sheaves where rope travel is limited. (VI) Wire rope at or near terminal ends. an immediate determination shall be made by the qualified person as to whether the deficiency constitutes a safety hazard. wire ropes in use on equipment shall be inspected by a qualified person in accordance with Subparagraph (b)(1) of this Rule (shift inspection). Monthly inspection. until the wire rope is repaired or replaced. the employer shall ensure that the deficiency is checked in the monthly inspections. covering the surface of the entire length of the wire ropes.0915(f)(7) (annual/comprehensive inspection documentation). either the equipment (as a whole) or the hoist with that wire rope shall be tagged-out. the deficiency needs to be monitored. the wire ropes in use on equipment shall be inspected by a qualified person. October 1. at the time of disassembly. (ii) The inspection shall be complete and thorough. Eff. (v) Where a wire rope is required to be removed from service under this Section. at least every 12 months. the undamaged portion may continue to be used. Authority G. as follows: (i) The inspection shall be for deficiencies of the types listed in Part (b)(1)(B) of this Rule. for standing ropes. though not presently a safety hazard.S. (A) Each month an inspection shall be conducted in accordance with Subparagraph (b)(1) of this Rule (shift inspection). the problem is corrected by severing the wire rope in two. in accordance with 13 NCAC 07F . (A) At least every 12 months. (IV) Wire rope subject to reverse bends. operations involving the use of the wire rope in question shall be prohibited until: (I) The wire rope is replaced. (C) The inspection shall be documented according to 13 NCAC 07F . (III) Wire rope in contact with saddles. Joining lengths of wire rope by splicing is prohibited. but no longer than an additional six months for running ropes and. (II) –32– . Rope lubricants that are of the type that hinder inspection shall not be used.

Part (b)(1)(B) of this Rule). If a qualified engineer is needed. (c) Post-assembly. (1) A competent person shall complete a visual inspection prior to commencement of crane operations during each shift. critical part of a control system. the employer shall ensure that the criteria are developed by the qualified person. –33– . (B) Determine if the equipment meets the criteria developed in accordance with Part (c)(2)(A) of this Rule.0915 INSPECTIONS (a) Modified equipment. or in-use operating mechanism). (d) Each shift. (B) The inspection shall include functional testing. where applicable. a qualified person shall: (A) Determine if a qualified engineer familiar with the type of equipment involved is needed to develop criteria for the equipment configuration. (b) Repaired/adjusted equipment. the qualified person shall: (i) Determine if a qualified engineer is needed to develop criteria for the repair/adjustment. shall be inspected by a qualified person after such a repair or adjustment has been completed. load-sustaining structural components. (1) Equipment that has had a repair or adjustment that relates to safe operation (such as a repair or adjustment to a safety device or operator aid. The inspection shall meet the following requirements: (A) The inspection shall ensure that the modifications or additions have been done in accordance with the approval obtained pursuant to 13 NCAC 07F .13 NCAC 07F . (2) Where manufacturer equipment criteria are unavailable. the employer shall ensure that they are developed by a qualified engineer. prior to initial use. (B) Where manufacturer equipment criteria are unavailable or inapplicable. The inspection shall include the following: (A) Control mechanisms for maladjustments interfering with proper operation. The inspection shall meet the following requirements: (A) The qualified person shall determine if the repair/adjustment meets manufacturer equipment criteria (where applicable and available). (1) Upon completion of assembly. load-sustaining structural components. (3) Equipment shall not be used until an inspection under this paragraph demonstrates that the equipment is configured in accordance with the applicable criteria. load hook. or to a critical part of a control system. or in-use operating mechanism) or capacity shall be inspected by a qualified person after such modifications/additions have been completed. (iii) The inspection shall include functional testing (iv) Equipment shall not be used until an inspection under this paragraph demonstrates that the repair/adjustment meets the requirements of Part (b)(1)(A) of this Rule (or. The inspection shall consist of observation for apparent deficiencies. (ii) Determine if the repair/adjustment meets the criteria developed in accordance with Subpart (b)(1)(B)(i) of this Rule. load hook. prior to initial use. If a qualified engineer is not needed. If a qualified engineer is not needed. braking system. power plant. If a qualified engineer is needed. Determinations made in conducting the inspection shall be reassessed in light of observations made during operation. the employer shall ensure that they are developed by a qualified engineer. (2) Equipment shall not be used until an inspection under this Paragraph demonstrates that the requirements of Part (a)(1)(A) of this Rule have been met. power plant. the employer shall ensure that the criteria are developed by the qualified person.0911 (Equipment Modifications). (1) Equipment that has had modifications or additions which affect the safe operation of the equipment (such as modifications or additions involving a safety device or operator aid. braking system. the equipment shall be inspected by a qualified person to ensure that it is configured in accordance with manufacturer equipment criteria. Disassembly is not required as part of this inspection unless the results of the visual inspection or trial operation indicate that further investigation necessitating disassembly is needed.

except that the corrective action set forth in this paragraph shall apply. or corroded. cracks. (B) Sheaves and drums for cracks. and other pressurized lines for deterioration or leakage. shafts. cracked. the jib): (i) Structural members: deformed. wear. bearings. dirt or moisture accumulation. (A) The following information shall be documented by the employer that conducts the inspection: (i) The items checked and the results of the inspection. both shift and after each move and setup. (M) Rails. (3) Documentation. (1) At least every 12 months the equipment shall be inspected by a qualified person in accordance with Paragraph (d) of this Rule (each shift). (E) Hooks and latches for deformation. gears. (B) Each month the equipment is in service it shall be inspected in accordance with Paragraph (d) of this Rule (each shift). hydraulic. rollers and locking devices for distortion. (ii) The name and signature of the person who conducted the inspection and the date. including ground settling under and around outriggers and supporting foundations.0914(b)(1). rail clamps and supporting surfaces when the equipment has rail traveling. rail stops. cracks or wear.(2) (3) (e) Monthly. (I) Tires (when in use) for proper inflation and condition. at least every 12 months. (D) Hydraulic system for proper fluid level.0917 and . the equipment shall be inspected by a qualified person for the following: (A) Equipment structure (including the boom and. If any deficiency in Part (d)(1)(N) of this Rule (safety devices/operational aids) is identified. (N) Safety devices and operational aids for proper operation. damage. in accordance with 13 NCAC 07F . water or other foreign matter. (iii) Welds for cracks. If the deficiency is determined to constitute a safety hazard. breaks. (f) Annual/comprehensive. or wear. (L) Operator cab windows for cracks. linings. ground water accumulation. –34– . failed or corroded. (C) Air. (D) Brake and clutch system parts. or similar conditions. the equipment shall be removed from service until it has been corrected. (C) Parts such as pins. an immediate determination shall be made by the competent person as to whether the deficiency constitutes a safety hazard. if equipped. (ii) Bolts.0918 shall be taken prior to using the equipment. If any deficiency in Parts (d)(1)(A) through (d)(1)(N) of the Rule (or in additional inspection items required to be checked for specific types of equipment in accordance with other Rules of this Section) is identified. or other deficiencies that would hamper the operator's view. (J) Ground conditions around the equipment for proper support. (2) Equipment shall not be used until an inspection under this paragraph demonstrates that no corrective action under Subparagraphs (d)(2) and (d)(3) of this Rule is required. pawls and ratchets for wear. particularly those which flex in normal operation. (1) Control and drive mechanisms for apparent wear of components and contamination by lubricants. signs of apparent deterioration. or damage such as from chemicals or heat. (K) The equipment for level position. rivets and other fasteners: loose. (E) Safety devices and operational aids for proper operation. (2) In addition. the action specified in 13 NCAC 07F . (B) This document shall be retained for a minimum of three months. (H) Electrical apparatus for malfunctioning. (G) Wire rope. (F) Wire rope reeving for compliance with the manufacturer's specifications.

improper return to neutral. (C) This document shall be retained for a minimum of 12 months. brakes. (ii) Threaded or clamped joints for leaks. (N) Outrigger pads/floats and slider pads for wear or cracks. (ii) Leaks. for proper operation. pneumatic and other pressurized hoses. (ii) Rod seals and welded joints for leaks. as follows: (i) Flexible hose or its junction with the fittings for indications of leaks. abrasion or scrubbing. (v) Rod eyes and connecting joints: loose or deformed. electric. (B) The name and signature of the person who conducted the inspection and the date. handrails. (O) Slider pads for wear or cracks. (iii) Outer covering of the hose for blistering. Where the severity of use/conditions is such that there is a reasonable probability of damage or wear (such as loading that may have exceeded rated capacity. (S) Operator seat: unusable. (K) Hydraulic and pneumatic pumps and motors. (iii) Valve housing cracks. (G) Chains and chain drive sprockets for wear of sprockets and chain stretch. rigid tube. (Q) Warning labels and decals originally supplied with the equipment by the manufacturer or otherwise required under this Section: missing or unreadable. fittings and tubing. the deficiency needs to be monitored. handrails. diesel. and leaks. ladders. an immediate determination shall be made by the qualified person as to whether the deficiency constitutes a safety hazard or. the employer shall ensure that the deficiency is checked in the monthly inspections. (iv) Case (barrel) for dents.Gasoline. (P) Electrical components and wiring for cracked or split insulation and loose or corroded terminations. (R) Originally equipped operator seat: missing. (g) Severe Service. (iii) Shaft seals and joints between pump sections for leaks. guards: in unusable/unsafe condition. and locking devices. ladders. (U) Steps. (ii) Loose bolts or fasteners. as follows: (i) Spools: sticking. the equipment shall be removed from service until it has been corrected. condition and proper operation. needs to be monitored in the monthly inspections. it shall be followed). or other power plants for safety-related problems (such as leaking exhaust and emergency shut-down feature). though not presently a safety hazard. (F) –35– . (L) Hydraulic and pneumatic valves. low operating speed. (J) Hydraulic. abnormal deformation or other signs of failure. (T) Originally equipped steps. or fitting for indications of abrasion or scrubbing. nicks. (iv) Relief valves: failure to reach correct pressure (if there is a manufacturer procedure for checking pressure. (3) This inspection shall include functional testing to determine that the equipment as configured in the inspection is functioning properly. as follows: (i) Drifting caused by fluid leaking across the piston. (iv) Outer surface of a hose. as follows: (i) Performance indicators: noise or vibration. (iii) Cylinder rods for scores. shock loading that may have exceeded rated capacity. or dents. (6) If the qualified person determines that. though not yet a safety hazard. (I) Tires for damage or wear. guards: missing. (M) Hydraulic and pneumatic cylinders. (4) If any deficiency is identified. (5) If the qualified person determines that a deficiency is a safety hazard. The following information shall be documented and maintained by the employer that conducts the inspection: (A) The items checked and the results of the inspection. (7) Documentation of annual/comprehensive inspection. (H) Travel steering.

a tag shall be placed in a conspicuous position stating that the function is out of service and not to be used. (f) Leaving the equipment unattended. October 1. including rated capacities (load charts). Whenever there is a concern as to safety. special hazard warnings. History Note: Authority G. the employer shall stop using the equipment and a qualified person shall: (1) Inspect the equipment for structural damage. load hook. 13 NCAC 07F . 2009. the employer shall develop and ensure compliance with all procedures necessary for the safe operation of the equipment and attachments. (2) Procedures for the operational controls shall be developed by a qualified person. the operator shall not activate that switch or control until the sign has been –36– . (1) Tagging out of service equipment/functions. a tag shall be placed in the cab stating that the equipment is out of service and is not to be used. braking system. load-sustaining structural components. such as the use of cell phones (other than when used for signal communications) or other attentiondiverting activities. Additional documentation requirements by the manufacturer are not required. the operator shall not activate the switch or start the equipment until the sign has been removed by a person authorized to remove it. Equipment that has been idle for three months or more shall be inspected by a qualified person in accordance with the requirements of Paragraph (e) of this Rule (Monthly) before initial use. the operator shall immediately cease operations or follow safe shut-down procedures until the rated capacities (in electronic or other form) are available. the qualified person shall inspect those items/conditions. (i) Any part of a manufacturer's procedures regarding inspections that relate to safe operation (such as to a safety device or operator aid. (2) Where rated capacities are available in the cab only in electronic form: in the event of a failure which makes the rated capacities inaccessible. including its use with attachments. (2) Response to tag-out or maintenance/do not operate signs. (g) Tag-out. power plant. recommended operating speeds. (2) In light of the use/conditions. (3) If a deficiency is found. (h) Equipment not in regular use.S. instructions. (e) Authority to Stop Operation. the operator shall have the authority to stop and refuse to handle loads until safety has been ensured. (3) Procedures related to the capacity of the equipment shall be developed and signed by a qualified engineer familiar with the equipment. (d) The operator shall not engage in any practice that diverts his/her attention while actually engaged in operating the crane. Eff. or in-use operating mechanism) that is more comprehensive or has a more frequent schedule than the requirements of this Rule shall be followed. Where the employer has taken the equipment out of service. (B) If there is a warning (tag-out or maintenance/do not operate) sign on any other switch or control. (c) Accessibility of procedures. or until the operator has verified that: (i) No one is servicing. the employer shall follow the requirements in Subparagraphs (f)(4) through (f)(6) of this Rule. (1) The procedures applicable to the operation of the equipment. if so. determine whether any items/conditions listed in Paragraph (f) of this Rule need to be inspected. and operator's manual. (A) If there is a warning (tag-out or maintenance/do not operate) sign on the equipment or starting control. critical part of a control system. (b) Unavailable operation procedures. working on. or otherwise in a dangerous position on the machine. (ii) The equipment has been repaired and is working properly. 95-131. (1) Where the manufacturer procedures are unavailable. Where the employer has taken a function(s) out of service. shall be readily available in the cab at all times for use by the operator. The operator shall not leave the controls while the load is suspended.0916 OPERATION OF EQUIPMENT (a) The employer shall comply with all manufacturer procedures applicable to the operational functions of equipment.prolonged exposure to a corrosive atmosphere).

the operator shall promptly inform the person designated by the employer to receive such information and. or snow on equipment stability and rated capacity. load moment indicator. or until the operator has verified that the requirements in Subparts (g)(2)(A)(i) and (g)(2)(A)(ii) of this Rule have been met. When a local storm warning has been issued. (h) Before starting the engine. this information shall be provided to the operator prior to the lift. the employee (or someone instructed by the employee) shall ensure that the operator is informed that he/she is going to that location. (3) Load weight. or (ii) Pinching/crushing an employee against another part of the equipment or another object. (n) Work Area Control. the employer shall train the employees to understand what these markings signify. If it does. or (B) The operator shall begin hoisting the load to determine. railing or similar barriers to mark the boundaries of the hazard areas. (2) The operator shall not be required to operate the equipment in a manner that would violate Subparagraph (m)(1) of this Rule. (1) Swing radius hazards. (B) To prevent employees from entering these hazard areas. (l) The competent person shall consider the effect of meteorological conditions such as wind. –37– . it shall be verified (before starting to lift) that the rope is seated on the drum and in the sheaves as the slack is removed. then the lift is considered to be a critical lift and the operator shall not proceed with the lift until he/she verifies the weight of the load in accordance with Part (m)(3)(A) of this Rule. the hazard areas shall be marked by a combination of warning signs (such as "Danger – Swing/Crush Zone") and high visibility markings on the equipment that identify the hazard areas. rated capacity indicator. the operator shall verify that all controls are in the proper starting position and that all personnel are in the clear. (i) Storm Warning.removed by a person authorized to remove it. or rated capacity limiter. ice. The operator shall verify that the load is within the rated capacity of the equipment by at least one of the following methods: (A) The weight of the load shall be determined from a reliable source (such as the load's manufacturer). (1) The equipment shall not be operated in excess of its rated capacity. (A) The requirements in Part (n)(1)(B) of this Rule apply where there are accessible areas in which the equipment's rotating superstructure (whether permanently or temporarily mounted) poses a reasonable foreseeable risk of: (i) Striking and injuring an employee. (i) Before an employee goes to a location in the hazard area that is out of view of the operator. warning lines. when requested by the operator. (C) Protecting employees in the hazard area. Exception: where it is neither feasible to erect such barriers on the ground nor on the equipment. rain. by a reliable calculation method (such as calculating a steel beam from measured dimensions and a known per foot weight). In addition. if it exceeds 75 percent of the maximum rated capacity at the longest radius that will be used during the lift operation. the competent person shall determine whether it is necessary to implement manufacturer recommendations for securing the equipment. If adjustments or repairs are necessary. (ii) Erect and maintain control lines. (m) Compliance with rated capacity. the employer shall: (i) Instruct employees assigned to work on the equipment or within the accessible areas of the swing radius of the equipment ("authorized personnel") in how to recognize struck-by and pinch/crush hazard areas posed by the rotating superstructure. using a load weighing device. In addition. where there are successive shifts. (j) The operator shall be familiar with the equipment and its proper operation. (k) If the competent person determines that there is a slack rope condition requiring re-spooling of the rope. to the next operator. or by other equally reliable means.

Only employees needed to receive a load shall be permitted to be within the fall zone when a load is being landed. this requirement applies to the first lift but not to successive lifts. Exception: "J" hooks may be used for setting wooden trusses. Where any part of a crane/derrick is within the working radius of another crane/derrick. (r) The operator shall test the brakes each time a load that is 90 percent or more of the maximum line pull is handled by lifting the load a few inches and applying the brakes. the controlling entity shall institute a system to coordinate operations. (2) Multiple equipment coordination. travel route. In duty cycle and repetitive lifts where each lift is 90 percent or more of the maximum line pull. (ii) An employee is being hoisted. and speed of movement necessary to ensure safety. (3) When employees are engaged in hooking. or (II) Is informed in accordance with a pre-arranged system of communication that the employee is in a safe position. the employer shall ensure that: (A) A competent person supervises the operation. (2) When traveling with a load. (A) The use of equipment in which the boom is designed to free fall (live boom) is prohibited in each of the following circumstances. or in the initial connection of a load to a component or structure and are within the fall zone. except for employees: (A) Engaged in hooking. (1) Boom free fall prohibitions. (i) An employee is in the fall zone of the boom or load. or (C) Operating a concrete hopper or concrete bucket. the employers shall institute such a system. unhooking or guiding a load. or guiding the load. overhead obstructions. the following criteria shall be met: (A) The materials being hoisted shall be rigged to prevent unintentional displacement. boom location. (4) Receiving a load. (ii) –38– . (1) Hoisting routes that minimize the exposure of employees to hoisted loads shall be used. determines if it is necessary to reduce rated capacity. (5) During a tilt-up or tilt-down operation: (A) No employee shall be directly under the load. If there is no controlling entity. (t) Keeping Clear of the Load. (p) The equipment shall not be used to drag or pull loads sideways. (2) While the operator is not moving a suspended load. (o) The boom or other parts of the equipment shall not contact any obstruction. (1) Traveling with a load is prohibited if the practice is prohibited by the manufacturer. tire pressure specified by the manufacturer is maintained. (B) Only employees' essential to the operation shall be in the fall zone (but not directly under the load). (C) For equipment with tires. or (B) Engaged in the initial attachment of the load to a component structure. no employee shall be within the fall zone. (s) Neither the load nor the boom shall be lowered below the point where less than two full wraps of rope remain on their respective drums. and makes determinations regarding load position. no loads shall be lifted over the front area. unhooking. (C) The materials shall be rigged by a qualified rigger. except as permitted by the manufacturer. (u) Traveling with a load. (B) Hooks with self-closing latches or their equivalent shall be used. (v) Free Fall and Controlled Load Lowering. the operator shall not rotate the superstructure until the operator: (I) Gives a warning that is understood by the employee as a signal that the superstructure is about to be rotated and allows time for the employee to get to a safe position. (B) The determinations of the competent person required in Part (u)(2)(A) of this Rule are implemented.Where the operator knows that an employee went to a location covered by Subparagraph (n)(1)(C)(i) of this Rule. (q) On wheel-mounted equipment. ground support.

(iv) The load is over a shaft. (B) An employee is being hoisted. (D) Hydraulic boom cylinders shall have an integrally mounted holding device. (A) An employee is directly under the load. The planning shall meet the following requirements: (A) The plan shall be developed by a qualified person. (aa) Swinging locomotive cranes. (ii) A secondary braking or locking device. (bb) Counterweight/ballast. (vi) Lifting operations are taking place in a refinery or tank farm. or over any part of the area extending the 13 NCAC 07F . or (ii) The equipment is a floating crane/derrick or a land crane/derrick on a vessel/flotation device. (3) Preventing uncontrolled retraction.0921(b)(8). (w) Rotational speed of the equipment shall be such that the load does not swing out beyond the radius at which it can be controlled. (C) The load is directly over a power line. in addition. to allow for controlled boom lowering. (2) Preventing boom free fall. Hydraulic telescoping booms shall have an integrally mounted holding device to prevent boom from retracting in the event of hydraulic failure. A locomotive crane shall not be swung into a position where it is reasonably foreseeable that railway cars on an adjacent track could strike it. (B) The maximum counterweight or ballast specified by the manufacturer for the equipment shall not be exceeded. (v) The load is over a cofferdam. which is manually or automatically engaged. Where the use of equipment with a boom that is designed to free fall (live boom) is prohibited (see Part (v)(1)(A) of this Rule). (B) The use of equipment in which the boom is designed to free fall (live boom) is permitted only where none of the circumstances listed in Part (v)(1)(A) of this Rule are present and: (i) The equipment was manufactured prior to October 31. controlled load lowering is required and free fall of the load line hoist is prohibited. the boom hoist shall have a secondary mechanism or device designed to prevent the boom from falling in the event the primary system used to hold or regulate the boom hoist fails as follows: (A) Friction drums shall have: (i) A friction clutch and.0913. 1984. Table A clearance distance to each side of the power line. Before beginning a crane/derrick operation in which more than one crane/derrick will be supporting the load. a braking device. In each of the following circumstances.The load or boom is directly over a power line. (iii) –39– . until it is determined that cars are not being moved on the adjacent track and that proper flag protection has been established. (B) Hydraulic drums shall have an integrally mounted holding device or internal static brake to prevent boom hoist movement in the event of hydraulic failure. (z) The operator shall obey a stop (or emergency stop) signal. irrespective of who gives it. (C) Neither clutches nor hydraulic motors shall be considered brake or locking devices for purposes of this Section. Table A clearance distance to each side of the power line. (y) The brakes shall be adjusted in accordance with manufacturer procedures to prevent unintended movement. (2) Counterweight/ballast requirements for tower cranes are specified in 13 NCAC 07F . (D) The load is over a shaft or cofferdam. or over any part of the area extending the 13 NCAC 07F . (1) Plan Development. (4) Load line free fall. (x) A tag or restrain line shall be used if necessary to prevent rotation of the load that would be hazardous. the operation shall be planned. (cc) Multiple-Crane / Derrick Lifts – Supplemental Requirements.0913. (1) The following applies to equipment other than tower cranes: (A) Equipment shall not be operated without the counterweight or ballast in place as specified by the manufacturer. except where there are no employees in the fall zone. to back-up the primary brake while the boom is held (such as a secondary friction brake or a ratchet and pawl device).

More protective alternative measures specified by the crane/derrick manufacturer.S. overhaul bail. (c) If a listed operational aid stops working properly during operations. (iii) Mark the boom hoist cable (so that it can easily be seen by a spotter) at a point that will give the spotter sufficient time to signal the operator and have the operator stop the hoist to keep the boom within the minimum allowable radius. shall be followed. 1969.0911. 1992. Plan Implementation. (B) Lattice boom cranes. unless otherwise specified. (b) Operations shall not begin unless the listed operational aids are in proper working order. October 1. if any. on a permanent basis. or by a competent person who is assisted by one or more qualified persons. Eff. at least one of the measures in Subparts (d)(1)(A)(i) through (d)(1)(A)(iii) of this Rule shall be used. the employer shall ensure that it is provided. Operational aids listed in this Paragraph that are not working properly shall be repaired no later than seven days after the deficiency occurs. (3) Anti two-blocking device. the operator shall safely stop operations until the temporary alternative measures are implemented or the device is again working properly. If a replacement part is no longer available.0917 OPERATIONAL AIDS (a) The devices listed in this Rule ("listed operational aids") are required on all equipment covered by this Section. Equipment with a luffing jib shall have a luffing jib limiting device. (ii) Mark the boom hoist cable (so that it can easily be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist to keep the boom within the minimum allowable radius. install mirrors or remote video cameras and displays if necessary for the operator to see the mark. (A) Telescopic boom cranes manufactured after February 28. except to limit the movement of the luffing jib. 2009. 1969. (1) Boom hoist limiting device. Temporary alternative measures (use at least one): (i) Use a boom angle indicator. In addition. or similar component. (B) The supervisor shall review the plan with all employees who will be involved with the operation. and use a spotter when extending the boom. except where the employer meets the specified temporary alternative measures. a boom hoist limiting device is required. Authority G. (B) If the equipment was manufactured on or before December 16. 95-131. the use of a substitute device that performs the same type of function is permitted and is not considered a modification under 13 NCAC 07F . shall be equipped with a device which automatically prevents damage from contact between the load block. –40– . Where the qualified person determines the engineering expertise is needed for the planning. the repair shall be completed within seven days of receipt of the parts. The device(s) shall prevent such damage at all points where two-blocking could occur. (d) Category I operational aids and alternative measures. (2) Luffing jib limiting device. The provisions of 13 NCAC 07F . Exception: If the employer certifies that it has ordered the necessary parts within seven days of the occurrence of the deficiency. (A) The multiple-crane / derrick lift shall be supervised by a person who meets the criteria for both a competent person and a qualified person. and was not originally equipped with a boom hoist limiting device. (A) For equipment manufactured after December 16. Temporary alternative measures: Mark the cable (so that it can easily be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist to prevent two-blocking. Temporary alternative measures are the same as in Part (d)(1)(A) of this Rule. and the boom tip (or upper block or similar component).(2) (3) The plan shall be designed to ensure that the requirements of this Section are met.0919(k) regarding communication with multiple cranes/derricks shall apply. (B) (C) History Note: 13 NCAC 07F .

000 pounds shall have at least one of the following: load weighing device. Temporary alternative measures: Radii or boom angle shall be determined by measuring the radii or boom angle with a measuring device. (4) Load weighing and similar devices. and the part is not received in time to complete the repair in 30 days. or load moment (or rated capacity) limiter. manufactured more than one year after the effective date of this Rule shall be equipped with a device which automatically prevents damage and load failure from contact between the load block. The device(s) shall prevent such damage/failure or provide warning for all points where two-blocking could occur. (5) The following devices are required on equipment manufactured more than one year after the effective date of this Rule: (A) Outrigger position (horizontal beam extension) sensor/monitor if the equipment has outriggers. Exception: If the employer certifies that it has ordered the necessary parts within seven days of the occurrence of the deficiency. or (C) Measure the boom with a measuring device. Temporary alternative measures. Eff. and pile driving work. except where the rated capacity is independent of the boom length. load moment (or rated capacity) indicator. or similar component. and the boom tip (or fixed upper block or similar component). (iv) Temporary alternative measures. overhaul ball.S. Temporary alternative measures: One of the following methods shall be used: (A) Mark the boom with measured marks to calculate boom length. The equipment shall have a boom angle or radius indicator readable from the operator's station. (ii) Lattice boom cranes. 1992. container handling. Mark the cable (so that it can easily be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist to prevent two-blocking. clamshell (grapple). by a reliable calculation method (such as calculating a steel beam from measured dimensions and a known per foot weight). Mark the drum. concrete bucket. 95-131. install mirrors or remote video cameras and displays if necessary for the operator to see the mark. shall be equipped with a device that either automatically prevents damage and load failure from contact between the load block. This information shall be provided to the operator prior to the lift. (B) Hoist drum rotation indicator if the drum is not visible from the operator's station. October 1. (i) –41– . (iii) Exception. Equipment (other than derricks) manufactured after March 29. (3) Boom length indicator if the equipment has a telescopic boom. drop ball. and the boom tip (or fixed upper block or similar component). The requirements in Subparts (d)(3)(B)(i) and (d)(3)(B)(ii) of this Rule do not apply to such lattice boom equipment when used for dragline.Lattice boom cranes manufactured after February 28. 2003 with a rated capacity over 6. magnet. or (B) Calculate boom length from boom angle and radius measurements. History Note: Authority G. (1) Boom angle or radius indicator. Operation aids listed in this paragraph that are not working properly shall be repaired no later than 30 days after the deficiency occurs. overhaul ball. (e) Category II operational aids and alternative measures. marine operations that do not involve hoisting personnel. or similar component. and derricks. or use a spotter. Temporary alternative measures: The weight of the load shall be determined from a reliable source (such as the load's manufacturer). Temporary alternative measures: Radii or jib angle shall be determined by ascertaining the main boom angle and then measuring the radii or jib angle with a measuring device. or by other equally reliable means. (2) Jib angle indicator if the equipment has a luffing jib. In addition. 2009. The device(s) shall prevent such damage/failure at all points where two-blocking could occur. the repair shall be completed within seven days of receipt of the parts. Temporary alternative measures: the operator shall verify that the position of the outriggers is correct (in accordance with manufacturer procedures) before beginning operations requiring outrigger deployment. or warns the operator in time for the operator to prevent two-blocking.

13 NCAC 07F .0918 SAFETY DEVICES (a) Safety Devices. The following safety devices are required on all equipment covered by this Section, unless otherwise specified: (1) Crane level indicator. (A) The equipment shall have a crane level indicator that is either built into the equipment or is available on the equipment. (B) If a built-in crane level indicator is not working properly, the indicator shall be taggedout or removed. (C) This Subparagraph does not apply to portal cranes, derricks, floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks on barges, pontoons, vessels or other means of flotation. (2) Boom stops, except for derricks and hydraulic booms. (3) Jib stops (if a jib is attached), except for derricks. (4) Equipment with foot pedal brakes shall have locks, except for portal cranes and floating cranes. (5) Hydraulic outrigger jacks shall have an integral holding device/check valve. (6) Equipment on rails shall have rail clamps and rail stops, except for portal cranes. (b) Proper operation required. Operations shall not begin unless the devices listed in this section are in proper working order. If a device stops working properly during operations, the operator shall safely stop operations. Operations shall not resume until the device is again working properly. Alternative measures are not permitted to be used. History Note: Authority G.S. 95-131; Eff. October 1, 2009.

13 NCAC 07F .0919 SIGNALS (a) A signal person shall be provided in each of the following situations: (1) The point of operation, meaning the load travel or the area near or at load placement, is not in full view of the operator. (2) When the equipment is traveling, the view in the direction of travel is obstructed. (3) Due to site specific safety concerns, either the operator or the person handling the load determines that it is necessary. (b) Types of signals. Signals to operators shall be by hand, voice, audible, or new signals. (c) Hand signals. (1) When using hand signals, the standard method as established in ASME B30.5-2004, Section 5.3.3.4 shall be used. Exception: where use of the standard method for hand signals is infeasible, or where an operation or use of an attachment is not covered in the standard method, non-standard hand signals may be used in accordance with Subparagraph (c)(2) of this Rule. (2) Non-standard hand signals. When using non-standard hand signals, the signal person, operator, and lift supervisor (when there is one) shall contact each other prior to the operation and agree on the non-standard hand signals that will be used. (d) New signals. Signals other than hand, voice or audible signals may be used where the employer demonstrates that: (1) The new signals provide at least equally effective communications as voice, audible, or Standard Method hand signals, or (2) There is a national consensus standard, as that term is defined in 29 CFR 1910.2(g), for the new signals. (e) Use and Suitability. (1) Prior to beginning operations, the operator, signal person, and lift supervisor (if there is one), shall contact each other and agree on the voice signals that will be used. Once the voice signals are agreed upon, these employees need not meet again to discuss voice signals unless another employee is substituted, there is confusion about the voice signals, or a voice signal is to be changed. (2) Each voice signal shall contain the following three elements, given in the following order: function (such as hoist, boom, etc.), direction; distance or speed; function, stop command. (3) The operator, signal person and lift supervisor (if there is one), shall be able to effectively communicate in the language used.

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The signals used (hand, voice, audible, or new), and means of transmitting the signals to the operator (such as direct line of sight, video, radio, etc.) shall be appropriate for the site conditions. (f) During operations requiring signals, the ability to transmit signals between the operator and signal person shall be maintained. If that ability is interrupted at any time, the operator shall safely stop operations requiring signals until it is reestablished and a proper signal is given and understood. (g) If the operator becomes aware of a safety problem and needs to communicate with the signal person, the operator shall safely stop operations. Operations shall not resume until the operator and signal person agree that the problem has been resolved. (h) Only one person gives signals to a crane/derrick at a time, except in circumstances covered by Paragraph (i) of this Rule. (i) Anyone who becomes aware of a safety problem shall alert the operator or signal person by giving the stop or emergency stop signal. (NOTE: 13 NCAC 07F .0916(z) requires the operator to obey a stop or emergency stop signal). (j) All directions given to the operator by the signal person shall be given from the operator's direction perspective. (k) Communication with multiple cranes/derricks. Where a signal person(s) is in communication with more than one crane/derrick, a system for identifying the crane/derrick that each signal is for shall be used, as follows: (1) For each signal, prior to giving the function/direction, the signal person shall identify the crane/derrick the signal is for, or (2) An equally effective method of identifying which crane/derrick the signal is for shall be used. (l) Hand signal chart. Hand signal charts shall be either posted on the equipment or readily available at the site. (m) Radio, Telephone or Other Electronic Transmission of Signals. (1) The device(s) used to transmit signals shall be tested on site before beginning operations to ensure that the signal transmission is clear and reliable. (2) Signal transmission shall be through a dedicated channel. Exception: Multiple cranes/derricks and one or more signal persons may share a dedicated channel for the purpose of coordinating operations. (3) The operator's reception of signals shall be made by a hands-free system. History Note: Authority G.S. 95-131; Eff. October 1, 2009.

(4)

13 NCAC 07F .0920 HOISTING PERSONNEL The requirements of this Rule are supplemental to the other requirements in this Section and apply when one or more employees are hoisted. (1) The use of equipment to hoist employees is prohibited except where the employer demonstrates that the erection, use, and dismantling of conventional means of reaching the worksite, such as a personnel hoist, ladder, stairway, aerial lift, elevating work platform, or scaffold, would be more dangerous, or is not possible because of the project's structural design or worksite conditions. (2) Use of personnel platform. (a) When using equipment to hoist employees, the employees shall be in a personnel platform that meets the requirements of Paragraph (5) of this Rule. (b) Exceptions: A personnel platform is not required for hoisting employees: (i) Into and out of drill shafts that are up to and including eight feet in diameter (see Item (13) of this Rule for requirements for hoisting these employees). (ii) In pile driving operations (see Item (14) of this Rule for requirements for hoisting these employees). (iii) Solely for transfer to or from a marine worksite in a marine hoisted personnel transfer device (see Item (15) of this Rule for requirements for hoisting these employees). (iv) In storage tank (steel or concrete), shaft and chimney operations (see Item (16) of this Rule for requirements for hoisting these employees). (3) Equipment set-up. (a) The equipment shall be uniformly level, within one percent of level grade, and located on footing that a qualified person has determined to be sufficiently firm and to support the equipment.

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(4)

(5)

Equipment with outriggers shall have them all extended and locked. The amount of extension shall be the same for all outriggers and in accordance with manufacturer procedures and load charts. Equipment criteria. (a) Capacity: use of suspended personnel platforms. The total load (with the platform loaded, including the hook, load line and rigging) shall not exceed 50 percent of the rated capacity for the radius and configuration of the equipment, except during proof testing. (b) Capacity: use of boom-attached personnel platforms. The total weight of the loaded personnel platform shall not exceed 50 percent of the rated capacity for the radius and configuration of the equipment, except during proof testing. (c) Capacity: hoisting personnel without a personnel platform. When hoisting personnel without a personnel platform pursuant to Sub-Item (2)(b) of this Rule, the total load (including the hook, load line, rigging and any other equipment that imposes a load) shall not exceed 50 percent of the rated capacity for the radius and configuration of the equipment, except during proof testing. (d) When the occupied personnel platform is in a stationary working position, the load and boom hoist brakes, swing brakes, and operator actuated secondary braking and locking features (such as pawls or dogs) or automatic secondary brakes shall be engaged. (e) Devices. (i) Equipment (except for derricks) with a variable angle boom shall be equipped with: (A) A boom angle indicator, readily visible to the operator. (B) A boom hoist limiting device. (ii) Equipment with a luffing jib shall be equipped with: (A) A jib angle indicator, readily visible to the operator. (B) A jib hoist limiting device. (iii) Equipment with telescoping booms shall be equipped with a device to indicate the boom's extended length to the operator, or shall have measuring marks on the boom. (iv) Anti-two-block. A device which automatically prevents damage and load failure from contact between the load block, overhaul ball, or similar component, and the boom tip (or fixed upper block or similar component) shall be used. The device(s) shall prevent damage/failure at all points where twoblocking could occur. Exception: This device is not required when hoisting personnel in pile driving operations. Instead, Sub-Item (14)(b) of this Rule specifies how to prevent two-blocking during such operations. (v) Controlled load lowering. The load line hoist drum shall have a system, other than the load line hoist brake, which regulates the lowering rate of speed of the hoist mechanism. This system or device shall be used when hoisting personnel. (NOTE: free fall of the load line hoist is prohibited (see 13 NCAC 07F .0916(v)(4)); the use of equipment in which the boom hoist mechanism can free fall is also prohibited (see 13 NCAC 07F .0916(v)(1)(A)). (vi) Proper operation required. Personnel hoisting operations shall not begin unless the devices listed in this section are in proper working order. If a device stops working properly during such operations, the operator shall safely stop operations. Personnel hoisting operations shall not resume until the device is again working properly. Alternative measures are not permitted. (f) Direct attachment of a personnel platform to a luffing jib is prohibited. Personnel platform criteria. (a) The personnel platform and attachments/suspension system shall be designed for hoisting personnel by a qualified engineer or a qualified person competent in structural design. (b) The system used to connect the personnel platform to the equipment shall allow the platform to remain within 10 degrees of level, regardless of boom angle. (c) The suspension system shall be designed to minimize tipping of the platform due to movement of employees occupying the platform.

(b)

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(6)

(7)

The personnel platform itself (excluding the guardrail system and personal fall arrest system anchorages), shall be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight and at least five times the maximum intended load. (e) All welding of the personnel platform and its components shall be performed by a certified welder familiar with the weld grades, types and material specified in the platform design. (f) The personnel platform shall be equipped with a guardrail system which meets the requirements of 29 CFR 1926, Subpart M, and shall be enclosed at least from the toeboard to mid-rail with either solid construction material of expanded metal having openings no greater than ½ inch (1.27 cm). Points to which personal fall arrest systems are attached shall meet the anchorage requirements in 29 CFR 1926, Subpart M. (g) A grab rail shall be installed inside the entire perimeter of the personnel platform except for access gates/doors. (h) Access gates/doors. If installed, access gates/doors of all types (including swinging, sliding, folding, or other types) shall: (i) Not swing outward. (ii) Be equipped with a device that prevents accidental opening. (i) Headroom shall be sufficient to all employees to stand upright in the platform. (j) In addition to the use of hard hats, employees shall be protected by overhead protection on the personnel platform when employees are exposed to falling objects. The platform overhead protection shall not obscure the view of the operator or platform occupants (such as wire mesh that has up to ½ inch openings), unless full protection is necessary. (k) All edges exposed to employee contact shall be smooth enough to prevent injury. (l) The weight of the platform and its rated capacity shall be conspicuously posted on the platform with a plate or other permanent marking. Personnel platform loading. (a) The personnel platform shall not be loaded in excess of its rated capacity. (b) Use. (i) Personnel platforms shall be used only for employees, their tools, and the materials necessary to do their work. Platforms shall not be used to hoist materials or tools when not hoisting personnel. (ii) Exception: materials and tools to be used during the lift, if secured and distribute in accordance with Sub-Item (6)(c) of this Rule, may be in the platform for trial lifts. (c) Materials and tools shall be: (i) Secured to prevent displacement. (ii) Evenly distributed within the confines of the platform while it is suspended. (d) The number of employees occupying the personnel platform shall not exceed the maximum number the platform was designed to hold or the number required to perform the work, whichever is less. Attachment and rigging. (a) Hooks and other detachable devices. (i) Hooks used in connection between the hoist line and the personnel platform (including hooks on overhaul ball assemblies, lower load blacks, bridle legs, or other attachment assemblies or components) shall be: (A) Of a type that can be closed and locked, eliminating the throat opening. (B) Closed and locked when attached. (ii) Shackles used in place of hooks shall be of the alloy anchor type, with either: (A) A bolt, nut and retaining pin, in place; or (B) Of the screw type, with the screw pin secured from accidental removal. (iii) Where other detachable devices are used, they shall be of the type that can be closed and locked to the same extent as the devices addressed in Sub-Items (7)(a)(i) and (7)(a)(ii) of this Rule. Such devices shall be closed and locked when attached.

(d)

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the competent person shall: (i) Conduct a visual inspection of the equipment. to each location at which the platform is to be hoisted and positioned. Where there is more than one location to be reached from a single set-up position. (c) The competent person shall determine that: (i) Safety devices and operational aids required by this Section are activated and functioning properly. Trial lift and inspection.(8) (9) Rope Bridle. the trial lift shall be repeated prior to hoisting employees in each of the following circumstances: (i) The equipment is moved and set up on a new location or returned to a previously used location. the slings shall be capable of supporting without failure at least ten times the maximum intended load. (iv) The load radius to be used during the lift has been accurately determined. and other rigging hardware) and hooks shall be capable of supporting. upon completion of the trial lift process. their tools and materials necessary to do their work. (ii) Confirm that. (B) Multiple part lines shall not be twisted around each other. unless the competent person determines that the new route presents no new factors affecting safety. to determine whether the trial lift has exposed any defect or problem or produced any adverse effect. (d) Immediately after the trial lift. shall be performed. (e) Immediately prior to each lift: (i) The platform shall be hoisted a few inches and inspected by a competent person to ensure that it is secure and properly balanced. (e) Bridles and associated rigging for suspending the personnel platform shall be used only for the platform and the necessary employees. (ii) The lift route is changed. without failure. and shall not be used for any other purpose when not hoisting personnel. master links. at least five times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to that component.0917 and 13 NCAC 07F . or a single trial lift for all locations. the test weight has been removed. In addition. (d) Eyes in wire rope slings shall be fabricated with thimbles. and personnel platform. (D) If the load rope is slack. rings. each bridle leg shall be connected to a master link or shackle in a manner that ensures that the load is evenly divided among the bridle legs. (iii) The lift will not exceed 50 percent of the equipment's rated capacity at any time during the lift. Where rotation resistant rope is used. (b) –46– . (f) Any condition found during the trial lift and subsequent inspection(s) that fails to meet a requirement of this Section or otherwise creates a safety hazard shall be corrected before hoisting personnel. When a rope bridle is used to suspend the personnel platform.0914(b)(1). base support or ground.0918. Other safety devices and operational aids shall meet the requirements of 13 NCAC 07F . or any other location where employees will enter the platform. shackles. (a) A trial lift with the unoccupied personnel platform loaded at least to the anticipated lift weight shall be made from ground level. (c) Rigging hardware (including wire rope. (C) The primary attachment shall be centered over the platform. (ii) The following conditions shall be determined by a competent person to exist before the lift of personnel proceeds: (A) Hoist ropes shall be free of deficiencies in accordance with 13 NCAC 07F . the hoisting system shall be inspected to ensure that all ropes are properly seated on drums and in sheaves. Proof Testing. either individual trial lifts for each location. (ii) Nothing interferes with the equipment or the personnel platform in the course of the trial lift. (b) The trial lift shall be performed immediately prior to each shift in which personnel will be hoisted.

the equipment operator shall remain at the equipment controls at all times while the platform is occupied. If it is not. with no sudden movements of the equipment or the platform. Work practices. If it is not. The proof test may be done concurrently with the trial lift. (c) After proof testing. or the operator. Where the platform is not equipped with controls. or in the personnel platform. (b) The platform shall be lowered by controlled load lowering. employees occupying the personnel platform shall be provided and use a personal fall arrest system. lowering. (c) Before employees exit or enter a hoisted personnel platform that is not landed. if already in progress. Where the platform is equipped with controls. the operator shall not move the platform until the operator receives confirmation that it is freely suspended. (i) Except over water. braked and held in a suspended position for a minimum of five minutes with the test load evenly distributed on the platform. unless securing to the structure would create a greater hazard. or work from the top or intermediate rail or toeboard. including the safe limitations of the equipment and hazards associated with its operation. the test is repeated. (a) Hoisting of the personnel platform shall be performed in a slow. the platform and rigging shall be proof tested to 125 percent of the platform's rated capacity. (ii) The equipment operator shall be at the equipment controls. The system shall be attached to a structural member within the personnel platform. (d) If the platform is tied to the structure. (ii) Not stand. or use any other means/device to raise their working height. (g) Platforms with controls. a qualified person shall determine if. prior to hoisting employees on the personnel platform. (iii) The platform operating manual shall be in the platform or on the equipment. A qualified personal shall determine if. (a) –47– . the platform shall be secured to the structure where the work is to be performed. it is not safe to lift personnel. shall be terminated). This provision does not apply to an occupant of the platform when necessary to position the platform or while performing the duties of a signal person. or on site and in view of the equipment. If any deficiencies are found that pose a safety hazard. (f) Platforms without controls. shall be terminated). (j) Fall protection. When wind speed (sustained or gusts) exceeds 20 mph at the personnel platform. (i) Employees being hoisted shall remain in direct communication with the signal person (where used). and a competent person determines that the test has been passed. a competent person shall inspect the platform and rigging to determine if the test has been passed. it is not safe to lift personnel. (ii) Other weather and environmental conditions. (d) Personnel hoisting shall not be conducted until the competent person determines that the platform and rigging have successfully passed the proof test. (e) Tag lines shall be used when necessary to control the platform.(10) At each jobsite. and after any repair or modification. or other impending or existing danger. in light of indications of dangerous weather conditions. if already in progress. sit on. (iii) Not pull the platform out of plumb in relation to the hoisting equipment. and horizontal movement. controlled. the platform and rigging shall not be used to hoist personnel unless the deficiencies are corrected. the following shall be met at all times while the platform is occupied: (i) The occupant using the controls in the platform shall be a qualified person with respect to their use. in light of the wind conditions. (h) Environmental conditions. (b) Platform occupants shall: (i) Keep all parts of the body inside the platform during raising. the lifting operation shall not begin (or. the lifting operation shall not begin (or. cautious manner. (i) Wind.

(10)(f). Subpart V (Power Transmission and Distribution). (c) Held prior to the trial lift at each new work location. (6)(c)(i). An existing surface may be used as long as it meets these criteria. (7). Hoisting personnel in drill shafts. (i) No lifts shall be made on any other of the equipment's load lines while personnel are being hoisted.000 kV. it shall be a firm. 5(a). (5)(c). (k) Other load lines. (3). shall meet the requirements in 29 CFR 1926. prepared and designated as a path of travel for the weight and configuration of the equipment being used to lift and travel with the personnel platform. (5)(b). (m) Traveling – derricks. (ii) Factory-produced boom-mounted personnel platforms that incorporate a winch as original equipment: loads may be hoisted by such a winch while employees occupy the personnel platform only where the load on the winch line does not exceed 500 pounds and does not exceed the rated capacity of the winch and platform. A pre-lift meeting shall be: (a) Held to review the applicable requirements of this Rule and the procedures that will be followed. except for: (A) Equipment that travels on fixed rails. the requirements of 29 CFR 1926. If the operating voltage of the power line exceeds 1. and hoisting personnel within 50 feet of a power line that exceeds 350 kV. except for work covered by 29 CFR 1926. employees to be hoisted. (4)(a). Pre-lift meeting. (C) The exception in this Sub-item does not apply to rubber-tired equipment. (6)(a). (ii) Where employees are hoisted while the equipment is traveling. and the person responsible for the task to be performed. (E) A complete trial run shall be performed to test the route of travel before employees are allowed to occupy the platform. (10)(a). or (B) Where the employer demonstrates that there is no less hazardous way to perform the work. the following criteria shall be met: (A) Crane travel shall be restricted to a fixed track or runway. (c) If using a boatswain's chair: (i) The following Items of this Rule apply: (1). signal person (if used for the lift). Hoisting personnel near power lines. (i) Hoisting of employees while the equipment is traveling is prohibited. except in pile driving operations. (l) Traveling – equipment other than derricks. (10)(h). is prohibited. This trial run may be performed at the same time as the trial lift required by Item (8) of this Rule which tests the lift route. level surface designed. except where it is safer to do otherwise. and shall be repeated for any employees newly assigned to the operation. Hoisting personnel within 20 feet of a power line that is up to 350 kV. (8). (ii) –48– . Paragraphs (1) through (12) of this Rule apply. (b) Attended by the equipment operator. (6)(b)(i). Derricks are prohibited from traveling while personnel are hoisted. (10)(i). (D) The boom shall be parallel to the direction of travel. the following requirements shall be met: (a) The employee shall be in either a personnel platform or on a boatswain's chair. including the attachment point (anchorage) used to comply with Sub-Item (10)(j)(i) of this Rule. (B) Where a runway is used. then the minimum clearance distance shall be established by a qualified engineer or by the owner or operator of the power line who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution. (4)(d). (4)(c).(11) (12) (13) The fall arrest system. (C) Travel shall be limited to boom length. NOTE: When working over or near water.106 apply. (b) If using a personnel platform.502. When hoisting employees into and out of drill shafts that are up to and including 8 feet in diameter.

For telescopic boom cranes. (4)(c). Where the terms "personnel platform" or "platform" are used in these Paragraphs. mark the cable (so that it can easily be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist to prevent two-blocking. (10)(l)." (ii) The employee shall be hoisted in a slow. shall be capable of supporting. (b) If using a personnel platform. (iii) The employee shall be hoisted in a slow. Where the terms "personnel platform" or "platform" are used in these Paragraphs. When hoisting an employee in storage tank (steel or concrete). substitute them with "boatswain's chair. (4)(a). (10)(h). (iv) The employee shall use personal fall protection equipment.(14) (15) (16) (10)(k)(i).S. When hoisting an employee in pile driving operations. the following requirements shall be met: (a) The employee shall be in either a personnel platform or a marine hoisted personnel transfer device. Hoisting personnel for storage tank (steel or concrete). (6)(c)(i). (4)(a). (c) If using a marine hoisted personnel transfer device: (i) The following Items of this Rule apply: (1).502. (4)(d). (8). (9). and use a spotter. including a full body harness. including a full body harness. a boatswain's chair shall be used. controlled descent and ascent. (6)(a). (7). (3)(b). (10)(k)(i). (6)(a). (5)(c). (10)(j)(ii). (c) If using a boatswain's chair: –49– . (9). (5)(b). shaft and chimney operations. (iv) Each employee shall wear a personal flotation device approved by the U. Coast Guard for industrial use. (5)(a) through (5)(e). When hoisting employees solely for transfer to or from a marine worksite. the following requirements shall be met: (a) The employee shall be in a personnel platform or boatswain's chair. Items (2) through (12) of this Rule apply. substitute them with "boatswain's chair. (v) The fall protection equipment shall meet the applicable requirements in 29 CFR 1926. (10)(i). (7). substitute them with "marine hoisted personnel transfer device. Hoisting personnel for pile driving operations. 5(a). without failure. in such a case. (4)(d). (8). (10)(h). or use a spotter. (10)(k)(i). (4)(c). (vii) No more than one person shall be hoisted at a time. (iv) The fall protection equipment shall meet the applicable requirements in 29 CFR 1926. (5)(l). (11) and (12). (10)(a). shaft and chimney operations. attached independent of the crane/derrick. independently attached to the lower load block or overhall ball. (b) For lattice boom cranes. controlled descent and ascent. (vi) The boatswain's chair itself (excluding the personal fall arrest system anchorages). Paragraphs (1) through (12) of this Rule apply. (3). (d) If using a boatswain's chair: (i) The following Items of this Rule apply: (1). (6)(b)(i). the following requirements shall be met: (a) The employee shall be in a personnel platform except where use of a personnel platform is infeasible. (10)(f). its own weight and at least five times the maximum intended load." (ii) The transfer device shall be used only for transferring employees. (iii) The number of employees occupying the transfer device shall not exceed the maximum number it was designed to hold. Where the terms "personnel platform" or "platform" are used in these paragraphs. (b) If using a personnel platform. (10)(a).502. mark the cable (so that it can be easily seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist to prevent two-blocking. (iii) The employee shall use personal fall protection equipment. Items (1) through (12) of this Rule apply. (10)(i). (11) and (12). Hoisting personnel for marine transfer. (11) and (12). (c) If using a personnel platform." (ii) A signal person shall be stationed at the shaft opening.

0912(j)(1) through (j)(9) apply." The employees shall be hoisted in a slow. Where the manufacturer does not specify plumb tolerance. The A/D supervisor shall verify that tower crane foundations and structural supports are installed in accordance with their design. including a full body harness. (3) Foundations and structural supports. 13 NCAC 07F .0912 (assembly and disassembly of equipment) applies to tower cranes (except as otherwise specified). –50– . (4)(c).0912(g). Towers shall be erected plumb to the manufacturer's tolerance and verified by a qualified engineer.(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) History Note: The following Items of this Rule apply: (1). In addition. (4)(d). for self-erecting tower cranes. (11) and (12). (4)(a). October 1. (7) Climbing procedures. climbing and dismantling. Where the terms "personnel platform" or "platform" are used in these paragraphs. its own weight and at least five times the maximum intended load. the crane tower shall be plumb to a tolerance of at least 1:500 (approximately 1 inch in 40 feet). the employer shall: (A) Comply with all manufacturer prohibitions. (1) 13 NCAC 07F . 95-131. The requirements of 13 NCAC 07F . 2009.S. The fall protection equipment shall meet the applicable requirements in 29 CFR 1926. the speed determined by a qualified person. all climbing procedures (including inside climbing and top climbing). (8) Counterweight/ballast. (B) Have a qualified engineer verify that the host structure is strong enough to sustain the forces imposed through the braces. (5)(a). the cranes shall be located so that no crane may come in contact with the structure of another crane. attached independent of the crane/derrick. (8). The boatswain's chair itself (excluding the personal fall arrest system anchorages). climbing and dismantling operations until the crane is secured in a locked position and the competent person in charge indicates it is safe to enter this area. (7)." and the term "disassembly" is replaced by "dismantling. shall be capable of supporting. (B) Loss of backward stability. Authority G. except that the term "assembly/disassembly" is replaced by "erecting. substitute them with "boatswain's chair. (b) Erecting. (6)(c)(i). or rotating portion of the crane during erecting. where the manufacturer does not specify this information. (4) Addressing specific hazards. jib. No more than one person shall be hoisted at a time. Tower crane foundations and structural supports shall be designed by the manufacturer or a qualified engineer. the speed determined by a qualified person. On jobsites where more than one fixed jib (hammerhead) tower crane is installed. (5) Plumb tolerance. (C) Wind speed. (3). Wind shall not exceed the speed recommended by the manufacturer or. Prior to.502. (10)(f). (6)(b)(i). all rules of this Section apply to tower cranes unless specified otherwise. Eff. The employee shall use personal fall protection equipment. the A/D supervisor shall address the following: (A) Foundations and structural supports. controlled descent and ascent. and during. where manufacturer does not specify this information. (10)(k)(i). unless the manufacturer's instructions direct otherwise and only the necessary personnel are permitted in this area. (5)(c). without failure. (10)(h). the following applies: Employees shall not be in or under the tower. (5)(b)." (2) Dangerous areas (self-erecting tower cranes). (10)(a). brace anchorages and supporting floors. (6) Multiple tower crane jobsites. climbing and dismantling. Backward stability shall be considered before swinging selferecting cranes or cranes on traveling or static undercarriages.0921 TOWER CRANES (a) This Rule contains supplemental requirements for tower cranes. (6)(a). In addition to the requirement in 13 NCAC 07F . Cranes may pass over one another. (10)(i). (C) Ensure that no part of the climbing procedure takes place when wind exceeds the speed recommended by the manufacturer or.

(d) Safety devices. Where these are unavailable. (iii) Trolley brake. A spotter shall be used when operations are conducted within 10 feet of the outer or inner trolley end stops. if any.Equipment shall not be erected. Alternative measures are not permitted to be used. the repair shall be completed within seven days of receipt of the parts. (G) The following brakes. dismantled or operated without the amount and position of counterweight or ballast in place as specified by the manufacturer or a qualified engineer familiar with the equipment. (2) The following safety devices are required on all tower cranes unless otherwise specified: (A) Boom stops on luffing boom type tower cranes. (I) Emergency stop switch at the operator's station. (A) –51– . (1) 13 NCAC 07F . Temporary alternative measures: (i) Option A. (1) 13 NCAC 07F . the use of a substitute device that performs the same type of function is permitted and is not considered a modification under 13 NCAC 07F . (e) Operational aids. (B) The maximum counterweight or ballast specified by the manufacturer or qualified engineer familiar with the equipment shall not be exceeded. (ii) Swing brake. (J) Trolley end stops at both ends of travel of the trolley. (H) Deadman control or forced neutral return control (hand) levers. (2) The devices listed in this Rule ("operational aids") are required on all tower cranes covered by this Section.0911. (3) Operations shall not begin unless the operational aids are in proper working order. If a device stops working properly during operations. shall be followed. Operational aids listed in this paragraph that are not working properly shall be repaired no later than seven days after the deficiency occurs. (iv) Rail travel brake. (A) Trolley travel limiting device. (ii) Option B. the operator shall safely stop operations. Operations shall not resume until the device is again working properly. the operator shall safely stop operations until the temporary alternative measures are implemented or the device is again working properly.0918 does not apply to tower cranes. Operations shall not begin unless the devices listed in this section are in proper working order. The trolley rope shall be marked (so it can be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the trolley prior to the end stops. (5) Category I operational aids and alternative measures. Exception: if the employer certifies that it has ordered the necessary parts within seven days of the occurrence of the deficiency. (4) If an operational aid stops working properly during operations. (F) Hydraulic system pressure limiting device. (E) Integrally mounted check valves on all load supporting hydraulic cylinders. a qualified engineer familiar with the type of equipment involved shall approve in writing the size and location of any signs. (C) Travel rail end stops at both ends of travel rail. (B) Jib stops on luffing boom type tower cranes if equipped with a jib attachment. More protective alternative measures specified by the tower crane manufacturer. The size and location of signs installed on tower cranes shall be in accordance with manufacturer specifications. which shall automatically set in the event of pressure loss or power failure: (i) A hoist brake on all hoists. unless otherwise specified. (c) Signs. (3) Proper operation required.0917 does not apply to tower cranes. (D) Travel rail clamps on all travel bogies. The travel of the trolley shall be restricted at both ends of the jib by a trolley travel limiting device to prevent the trolley from running into the trolley end stops. except where the employer meets the specified temporary alternative measures. If a replacement part is no longer available.

The capacity of the hoist shall be limited to prevent overloading. Temporary alternative measures: A spotter shall be used when operations are conducted within 10 feet of either end of the travel rail end stops. The device(s) shall prevent such damage at all points where two-blocking could occur. Temporary alternative measures: The device shall be manually set when required if an electric. Tower cranes manufactured more than one year after the effective date of this Rule shall be equipped with a device that prevents the last two wraps of hoist cable from being spooled off the drum. the weight of the load shall be determined from a reliable source (such as the load's manufacturer). (C) Anti two-blocking device. or similar component. or use a spotter. (A) Boom angle or hook radius indicator. Temporary alternative measures: Mark the cable (so it can be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the boom hoist within the minimum and maximum boom radius. The boom speed shall be automatically reduced prior to the boom reaching the minimum or maximum radius limit. Temporary alternative measure: The operator shall reduce the trolley speed when approaching the trolley end limits. The tower crane shall be equipped with a device which automatically prevents damage from contact between the load block. or use a spotter. (ii) Hammerhead tower cranes manufactured more than one year after the effective date of this Rule shall have a hook radius indicator readable from the operator's station. or by other equally reliable means. including each individual gear ratio if equipped with a multiple speed hoist transmission. Exception: If the employer certifies that it has ordered the necessary parts within seven days of the occurrence of the deficiency. Temporary alternative measures: A radius indicating device shall be used (if the tower crane is not equipped with a radius indicating device. (B) Trolley travel deceleration device. The tower crane shall have a device that prevents moment overloading. (D) Hoist drum lower limiting device. Operational aids listed in this paragraph that are not working properly shall be repaired no later than 30 days after the deficiency occurs. This information shall be provided to the operator prior to the lift. by a reliable calculation method (such as calculating a steel beam from measured dimensions and a known per foot weight). (F) Hoist line pull limiting device. Category II operational aids and alternative measures. Temporary alternative measures: The operator shall ensure that the weight of the load does not exceed the capacity of the hoist (including for each individual gear ratio if equipped with a multiple speed hoist transmission). the repair shall be completed within seven days of receipt of the parts. The range of the boom shall be limited at the minimum and maximum radius. (G) Rail travel limiting device. (i) Luffing boom tower cranes shall have a boom angle indicator readable from the operator's station. In addition. Temporary alternative measures: Mark the cable (so it can be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist prior to the last two wraps of hoist cable being spooled off the drum. Mark the cable (so it can be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist to prevent two-blocking. overhaul ball. Temporary alternative (B) –52– . Temporary alternative measures. the radius shall be measured to ensure the load is within the rated capacity of the crane). (C) Boom hoist deceleration device. hydraulic or automatic type is not functioning.(6) Boom hoist limiting device. The trolley speed shall be automatically reduced prior to the trolley reaching the end limit in both directions. The boom hoist drum shall be equipped with a device to positively lock the boom hoist drum. (E) Load moment limiting device. The travel distance in each direction shall be limited to prevent the travel bogies from running into the end stops or buffers. or use a spotter. and the part is not received in time to complete the repair in 30 days. (iii) Temporary alternative measures: Hook radii or boom angle shall be determined by measuring the hook radii or boom angle with a measuring device. and the boom tip (or fixed upper block or similar component). (H) Boom hoist drum positive locking device.

2009. The following additional items shall be included: (A) Tower (mast) bolts and other structural bolts (for loose or dislodged condition) from the base of the tower crane up or. floor supports and floor wedges where the tower crane is supported by the structure. Displays that are part of load moment limiting devices that display the load on the hook meet this requirement. 13 NCAC 07F . or scaled weights using a scale with a current certificate of calibration.S. braces. basket. The load speed shall be automatically reduced prior to the hoist reaching the upper limit. with or without a boom. October 1. Cranes manufactured more than one year after the effective date of this Rule shall have a device that displays the magnitude of the load on the hook. Wind speed indicator. (B) The upper-most tie-in. it shall be mounted at or above the jib level. (w) through (bb). Temporary alternative measure: The operator shall reduce the hoist speed when approaching the upper limit. (o) through (s). (f) Inspections. (B) The load test shall be conducted in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Load charts shall contain the following information: (A) Rated capacity at corresponding ranges of boom angle or operating radii. and its hoisting mechanism. On self erecting cranes. (1) The following paragraphs of 13 NCAC 07F . (b) Operation – procedures. (B) Specific lengths of components to which the rated capacities apply. (D) Size and construction of rope shall be included on the load chart or in the operating manual. if the crane is tied to or braced by the structure.0922 DERRICKS (a) This Rule contains supplemental requirements for derricks. or by other equally reliable means. A derrick is powered equipment consisting of a mast or equivalent member that is held at or near the end by guys or braces. Load hoist deceleration device. Chicago boom. (d). or a qualified person estimates the wind speed.0915 (Inspections) applies to tower cranes. and variations of such equipment. for loose or dislodged components. guy. the following requirements shall be met: (A) A load test using weights certified in accordance with Chapter 81A of the North Carolina General Statutes. (C) Required parts for hoist reeving. by a reliable calculation method (such as calculating a steel beam from measured dimensions and a known per foot weight). Temporary alternative measures: The weight of the load shall be determined from a reliable source (such as the load's manufacturer). whether temporary or permanently mounted. Load indicating device. Derricks include A-frame. History Note: Authority G. (u). (3) Monthly. (2) Load chart contents. (b). 95-131. Where these instructions are unavailable. In addition to the requirements in 13 NCAC 07F . (f) through (m). –53– . all rules of this Section apply to derricks unless specified otherwise. stiffleg. breast.(D) (E) (F) measure: The operator shall reduce the boom speed when approaching the boom maximum or minimum end limits. shearleg." (2) Post-erection inspections. except that the term "assembly" is replaced by "erection. (3) Load chart location.0915(c).0916 (Operation of Equipment) apply: Paragraphs (a). (1) 13 NCAC 07F . Temporary alternative measures: Use of wind speed information from a properly functioning indicating device on another tower crane on the same site. those above the upper-most brace support. gin pole (except gin poles used for erection of communication towers). This information shall be provided to the operator prior to the lift. The mast/equivalent member or the load is moved by the hoisting mechanism (typically base-mounted) and operating ropes. A device shall be provided to display the wind speed and shall be mounted above the upper rotating structure on tower cranes. shall be conducted after each erection. a qualified engineer familiar with the type of equipment involved shall develop written load test procedures. Eff.

and mast. guy. the load chart shall be readily available at the job site to personnel responsible for the operation of the equipment. (iii) The size. (iv) Be provided with means for attaching guy ropes. (E) The stiffleg connecting member at the top of the mast shall: (i) Permit the mast to rotate freely (when necessary). 1970. For permanently installed derricks with fixed lengths of boom. (D) The mast shall be prevented from lifting out of its socket when the mast is in tension. For derricks that are not permanently installed. with equal spacing. the employer shall ensure that the derrick is not used in an unstable position. (B) Welding of load sustaining members shall conform to recommended practices in ANSI/AWS D14. (c) Construction. a load chart shall be posted where it is visible to personnel responsible for the operation of the equipment. (B) Guy derricks shall not be used unless the employer has the following guy information: (i) The number of guys. (1) General requirements. (E) The mast cap shall: (i) Permit the mast to rotate freely. in addition to the information required in Subparagraph (c)(2) of this Rule. grade. (ii) The amount of tension in guy line rope at anchor. (3) Stiffleg derricks. one end of each shall be connected to the top of the mast and the other end securely anchored. (iii) Be secured to the mast to prevent disengagement during erection. (4) Gin pole derricks. (ii) Withstand the loads imposed by the action of the stifflegs. (C) For guy derricks manufactured after December 18. (2) Guy derricks. (B) The stifflegs shall be capable of withstanding the loads imposed at any point of operation within the load chart range. (ii) Permit deflection of the mast without binding.(A) (B) Permanent installations. (C) The gin pole shall be anchored at the base against horizontal forces (when such forces are present). (iii) Be secured so as to oppose separating forces. except where a qualified person or derrick manufacturer approves variations from these requirements and revises the rated capacity to compensate for such variations. (5) Chicago boom derricks. The fittings for stepping the boom and for attaching the topping lift shall be arranged to: –54– . (ii) The spacing around the mast. Exception: Where the size or spacing of guy lines do not result in the gin pole being stable in both boomed and vertical positions. (A) Derricks shall be constructed to meet all stresses imposed on members and components when installed and operated in accordance with the manufacturer's/builder's procedures and within its rated capacity. (A) Guy lines shall be sized and spaced so as to make the gin pole stable in both boomed and vertical positions. the employer shall have the following guy information: (i) The amount of initial sag or tension. (D) The mast base shall permit the mast to rotate freely with allowance for slight tilting of the mast caused by guy slack. and construction of rope to be used for each guy. (A) The minimum number of guys shall be six.3 – 2005or D1. (ii) Withstand tilting and cramping caused by the guy loads. (C) The mast base shall: (i) Permit the mast to rotate freely (when necessary). (A) The mast shall be supported in the vertical position by at least two stifflegs. Non-permanent installations. (B) The base of the gin pole shall permit movement of the pole (when necessary).1 – 2006.

(iii) The hoist shall not be used unless a competent person determines that the test has been passed. (2) Guy derricks. (2) Base-mounted drum hoists. unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer. (A) The mast base and stifflegs shall be anchored. The caution and stop marks shall be in view of the operator. (iv) Applicable terms in Section 7-0. The stop marks shall correspond to maximum and minimum allowable boom angles. (B) The guys shall be secured to the ground or other firm anchorage. except: 7-1. (ii) The test load shall be lowered.0917(d)(1) (Boom hoist limiting device). (1) 13 NCAC 07F .15 (Fire extinguishers). (B) Accommodate attachment to the upright member of the host structure. (iii) Section 7-1.Permit the derrick to swing at all permitted operating radii and mounting heights between fittings.2. (1) Load anchoring data developed by the manufacturer or a qualified person shall be used. (C) Withstand the forces applied when configured and operated in accordance with the manufacturer's/builder's procedures and within its rated capacity.0917(e)(4) (Load weighing and similar devices). (e) Swingers and hoists. (2) Boom angle aid. swinger mechanisms and hoists shall be suitable for the derrick work intended and shall be anchored to prevent displacement from the imposed loads. load testing shall be conducted in accordance with Parts (e)(2)(B) and (e)(2)(D) of this Rule.1 (Load ratings and markings).0917(e)(1) (Boom angle or radius indicator) and 13 NCAC 07F .2 (Definitions).7 – 2006. (C) The anchorage and guying shall be designed to withstand maximum horizontal and vertical forces encountered when operating within rated capacity with the particular guy slope and spacing specified for the application. (B) Load tests for new hoists. If it is. The employer shall ensure that either: (A) The boom hoist cable is marked with caution and stop marks. (i) Section 7-1. (D) Load test procedure.2. modifications or additions affecting their capacity or safe operation shall be evaluated by a qualified person to determine if a load test is necessary.2 (Construction).3 (Installation). (A) Base mounted drum hoists shall meet the requirements in the following sections of ANSI/ASME B30. (d) Anchoring and guying. (C) Repaired or modified hoists. (B) The mast base and stifflegs shall be designed to withstand maximum horizontal and vertical forces encountered when operating within rated capacity with the particular stiffleg spacing and slope specified for the application. 7-1. This requirement is met where the manufacturer has conducted this testing. (3) Stiffleg derricks. stopped and held with the brake(s). except for 13 NCAC 07F . 13 NCAC 07F .0917 (Operational aids) applies. but not more than 125 percent of rated capacity. or a spotter who is in direct communication with the operator. Hoists that have had repairs. (ii) Sections 7-1. (A) The mast base shall be anchored. or (A) –55– . Load tests required by Parts (e)(2)(B) or (e)(2)(C) of this Rule shall be conducted as follows: (i) The test load shall be hoisted a vertical distance to ensure that the load is supported by the hoist and held by the hoist brake(s). The employer shall ensure that new hoists are load tested to a minimum of 100 percent of rated capacity. (D) Prevent the boom or topping lift from lifting out under tensile forces.13 (Operator's cab). (f) Operational aids. (1) The boom.

new or reinstalled derricks shall be tested by a competent person with no hook load to verify proper operation. (1) Ropes shall not be handled on a winch head without the knowledge of the operator. is used. Derricks manufactured more than one year after the effective date of this Rule with a maximum rated capacity over 6. the operator shall be within reach of the power unit control lever. by a reliable calculation method (such as calculating a steel beam from measured dimensions and a known per foot weight).000 pounds shall have at least one of the following: load weighing device. (4) Documentation. This shall include: (1) Setting all brakes or locking devices. load moment indicator. the derrick operator shall safely stop operations. (B) Raising and lowering the boom through the full range of boom travel. dogs. The test load shall meet the following requirements: (A) Test loads shall be at least 100 percent and no more than 110 percent of the rated capacity. (B) –56– . (B) If using a rock or hairpin anchorage. the full range of its swing. or by other equally reliable means. new or reinstalled derricks shall be load tested by a competent person. it shall be tested accordingly. but in no event shall the test load be less than the maximum anticipated load. If power fails during operations. (iii) Booming the derrick up and down within the allowable working radius for the test load. (C) Swinging in each direction through the full range of swing. (2) Moving all clutch and other power controls to the off position. (3) Load test. (2) While a winch head is being used. (A) Anchorages. The document shall contain the date. or automatically prevents such movement. Tests conducted under this Paragraph shall be documented. unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer or qualified person. modifications or additions affecting the derrick's capacity or safe operation shall be evaluated by a qualified person to determine if a load test is necessary. The document shall be retained until the derrick is re-tested or dismantled. pawls. the qualified person shall determine if testing of the anchorage is needed. rated capacity indicator. stopping and holding the load with the brake(s). shall be approved by a qualified person. (j) Use of winch heads. (E) Actuating locking.An electronic or other device that signals the operator in time to prevent the boom from moving past its maximum and minimum angles. (1) Anchorages. If it is. limiting and indicating devices (if provided). (ii) Swinging the derrick. (i) Power failure procedures. (k) Securing the boom. test results and the name of the tester. (B) The test shall consist of: (i) Hoisting the test load a few inches and holding to verify that the load is supported by the derrick and held by the hoist brake(s). (1) When the boom is being held in a fixed position. if applicable. This information shall be provided to the operator prior to the lift. (C) The derrick shall not be used unless the competent person determines that the test has been passed. or other positive holding mechanisms on the boom hoist shall be engaged. load testing shall be conducted and documented in accordance with Paragraph (g) of this Rule. at the maximum allowable working radius for the test load. Temporary alternative measures: The weight of the load shall be determined from a reliable source (such as the load's manufacturer). (D) Actuating the anti two-block and boom hoist limit devices (if provided). Derricks that have had repairs. If so. This test shall include: (A) Lifting and lowering the hook(s) through the full range of hook travel. (3) Load weight/capacity devices. Prior to initial use. (h) Load testing repaired or modified derricks. Prior to initial use. (g) Post-assembly approval and testing – new or reinstalled derricks. (iv) Lowering. or rated capacity limiter. whichever occurs first. (2) Functional test. including the structure to which the derrick is attached (if applicable).

the following additional items shall be included in the inspections: (1) Daily: Guys for proper tension. and pile driving work.S. warning lines. vessels or other means of flotation. A competent person shall determine if wind is a factor that needs to be considered. (o) 13 NCAC 07F . except for Subparagraph (n)(1)(B)(ii). The requirements of this Rule do not apply when using jacked barges when the jacks are deployed to the river/lake/sea bed and the barge is fully supported by the jacks. or (B) The hazard areas shall be marked by a combination of warning signs (such as "Danger – Swing/Crush Zone") and high visibility markings on the equipment that identify the hazard areas.0916(n) (Work area control) apply. if it needs to be considered. (g) Accessibility of procedures applicable to equipment operation. (b) General requirements. 95-131.0915. (d) Keeping clear of the load. (D) For stiffleg derricks. (B) Foundation supports for continued ability to sustain the imposed loads. wear. secured against the stiffleg. a wind speed and direction indicator shall be used. the requirements of 13 NCAC 07F . Eff. vessels or other means of flotation. drop ball. (n) Inspections. 2009. lifted to a vertical position and secured to the mast. (e) Additional Safety devices. (3) Positive equipment house lock. In addition to the requirements in 13 NCAC 07F . (B) Secured to a stationary member. pontoon. If the crane/derrick does not have a cab: –57– . (1) The requirements of 13 NCAC 07F . all Rules of this Section apply to floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks on barges. and distortion. (A) Gudgeon pin for cracks. container handling. (2) Horn.0917(e)(4) (load weighing and similar devices) does not apply to dragline. at the operator's station. In addition. The operational aids listed in 13 NCAC 07F . This shall be located in the cab or. pontoons. In addition to the safety devices listed in 13 NCAC 07F . the employer shall train the employees to understand what these markings signify. by attachment of a sling to the load block. as nearly under the head as possible.0917 apply. where there is no cab. railings or similar barriers to mark the boundaries of the hazard areas. (l) The process of jumping the derrick shall be supervised by the A/D supervisor. vessels or other means of flotation (vessel/flotation device). If the crane/derrick has a cab. (2) 13 NCAC 07F . (c) Work area control.When taken out of service for 30 days or more. the boom shall be secured by one of the following methods: (A) Laid down. the following safety devices are required: (1) Barge. October 1. (4) Wind speed and direction indicator. clamshell (grapple). concrete bucket. magnet. 13 NCAC 07F . (m) Derrick operations shall be conducted by and supervised by a competent person. unless specified otherwise.0904 (Operator qualification and certification) does not apply.0923 FLOATING CRANES/DERRICKS AND LAND CRANES/DERRICKS ON BARGES (a) This Rule contains supplemental requirements for floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks on barges. (2) Annual. History Note: Authority G. (2) The employer shall either: (A) Erect and maintain control lines. (2) 13 NCAC 07F . pontoons. pontoons. except as follows: (1) An anti two-block device is required only when hoisting personnel or hoisting over an occupied coffer dam or shaft.0916(c) apply. vessel or other means of flotation and trim device. (C) For guy derricks.0918.0916(t) does not apply. The requirements in Paragraphs (c) through (j) of this Rule apply to both floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks on barges. (f) Operational aids.

deterioration. though not yet a hazard. (D) If the qualified person determines that. corrosion and (where applicable) insufficient tension. If any deficiency is identified. the vessel/flotation device shall be removed from service until it has been corrected. If the operator's station is moveable (such as with pendant-controlled equipment). (5) Quadrennial: internal vessel/flotation device inspection. vessel or other means of flotation used to support a floating crane/derrick or land crane/derrick is inspected as follows: (1) Shift. the vessel/flotation device shall be removed from service until it has been corrected. shall be readily available on board. bitts. an immediate determination shall be made by the qualified person as to whether the deficiency constitutes a hazard or. licensed surveyor. (v) Firefighting equipment for serviceability. instructions and operators manual. including wear. (3) The shift and monthly inspections shall be conducted by a competent person. (iv) Four-corner draft readings. pontoons. (E) Firefighting and lifesaving equipment in place and functional. (ii) Cleats. (2) Procedures applicable to the operation of the equipment (other than load charts). The means used to secure/attach the equipment to the vessel/flotation device shall be inspected for proper condition. ladders. and deformation. vessel or other means of flotation used shall be surveyed once every four years by a marine engineer. though not yet a hazard. (B) If any deficiency is identified. If the deficiency is determined to constitute a hazard. recommended operating speeds. life preservers and ring buoys shall be inspected for proper condition. work vests. wear. (B) Rescue skiffs. vessel or other means of flotation used shall be inspected annually by a qualified person who has expertise with respect to vessels/flotation devices. for corrosion. an immediate determination shall be made by the surveyor as to whether the deficiency constitutes a hazard or. and (where applicable) insufficient tension. (2) Monthly. (C) If the deficiency is determined to constitute a hazard. (iii) External evidence of leaks and structural damage. special hazard warning. defective welds. loose or missing fasteners. chocks. an immediate determination shall be made by a qualified person as to whether the deficiency constitutes a hazard. (h) Inspections. pontoons. as appropriate. the employer shall ensure that the barge. marine architect. corrosion. In addition to meeting the requirements of 13 NCAC 07F . needs to be monitored in the monthly inspections. lifelines. The inspection shall include the following items: (i) The items identified in Subparagraphs (h)(1) (Shift) and (h)(2) (Monthly) of this Rule. If the deficiency is determined to constitute a hazard. (D) Chain lockers. including wear. the deficiency needs to be monitored. the employer shall ensure that the deficiency is checked in the monthly inspections.0915 for inspecting the crane/derrick. (4) Annual: external vessel/flotation device inspection. the load charts shall be posted on the equipment. or other qualified person who has expertise with respect to vessels/flotation devices. fuel compartments and battening of hatches for serviceability as a water-tight appliance. storage. and stanchions. (1) –58– . (B) Taking on water. (C) Deckload for proper securing. needs to be monitored in the monthly or annual inspections. capstans. (C) If any deficiency is identified. pontoons. though not presently a hazard. (A) The internal portion of the barge. The vessel/flotation device used shall be inspected for the following: (A) The means used to secure/attach the equipment to the vessel/flotation device shall be inspected for proper condition. (A) The external portion of the barge. the vessel/flotation device shall be removed from service until it has been corrected.Rated capacities (load charts) shall be posted at the operator's station. fenders.

(i) Working with a diver. (3) In addition to the requirements of 13 NCAC 07F . either: (A) A clear line of sight shall be maintained between the operator and tender. (2) The requirements for maximum allowable list and maximum allowable trim as specified in Table M1 shall be met. operational and in-transit loads for the barge. The following additional requirements apply when working with a diver in the water: (1) If a crane/derrick is used to get a diver into and out of the water. (4) The means used to secure the crane/derrick to the vessel/flotation device (see Subparagraph (l)(5) of this Rule) shall not allow any amount of shifting in any direction. TABLE M2 Wind Speed 60 mph 60 mph 60 mph Operated at Rated Capacity Rated capacity plus 25% High boom. no load Minimum freeboard 2 ft 1 ft 2 ft TABLE M3 For backward stability of the boom: Operated at: Wind speed High boom. (2) The operator shall remain at the controls of the crane/derrick at all times. pontoons. pontoons. When using these charts. (A) The manufacturer load charts applicable to operations on water shall not be exceeded. as appropriate. (k) Floating cranes/derricks. no load. though not presently a hazard. full back list 90mph (least stable condition) –59– .0919 (Signals). For equipment designed by the manufacturer (or employer) for marine use by permanent attachment to barges. (D) TABLE M1 Equipment designed for marine use by permanent attachment(other than derricks) Rated Capacity Maximum Allowable List Maximum Allowable Trim 25 tons or less 5 degrees 5 degrees Over 25 tons 7 degrees 7 degrees Derricks designed for marine use by permanent attachment: 10 degrees Any rated capacity (3) 10 degrees The equipment shall be stable under the conditions specified in Tables M2 and M3.0915(e)(3) and (f)(7). vessel or other means of flotation are not exceeded or violated. it shall not be used for any other purpose until all divers are back on board. (j) The employer shall ensure that the manufacturer's specifications and limitations with respect to environmental. except that the documentation for that inspection shall be retained for a minimum of four years. When used for more than one diver. or (B) The signals between the operator and tender shall be transmitted electronically. The quadrennial inspection required in Subparagraph (h)(5) of this Rule shall be documented in accordance with 13 NCAC 07F . The monthly and annual inspections required in Subparagraphs (h)(2) and (h)(4) of this Rule shall be documented in accordance with 13 NCAC 07F . the employer shall comply with all parameters and limitations (such as dynamic/environmental parameters) applicable to the use of the charts. it shall not be used for any other purpose until the diver is back on board. the deficiency needs to be monitored. respectively.If the surveyor determines that. (6) Documentation. vessels or other means of flotation: (1) Load charts.0915(f)(7). the employer shall ensure that the deficiency is checked in the monthly or annual inspections. (B) The load charts shall take into consideration a minimum wind speed of 40 miles per hour.

vessels or other means of flotation: (1) The rated capacity of the equipment (load charts) applicable for use on land shall be reduced to: (A) Account for increased loading from list. The crane/derrick shall be physically attached to the barge. (2) The rated capacity modification required in Subparagraph (l)(1) of this Rule shall be done by the equipment manufacturer. the maximum allowable list and the maximum allowable trim shall not exceed the least of the following: five degrees. or a qualified person who has expertise with respect to both land crane/derrick capacity and the stability of vessels/flotation devices. wave action. or where an amount is not so specified. The wire rope system shall meet the following requirements: (i) The wire rope and attachments shall be of sufficient size/strength to support the side load of crane/derrick. For land cranes/derricks used on barges. (5) The barge. Whichever option is used. (ii) The wire rope shall be physically attached to the vessel/flotation device. vessel or other means of flotation that will be used. In addition. The crane/derrick shall be prevented from shifting by being mounted to a wire rope system. corralling. or Option (4). pontoons. the requirements of Part (l)(5)(E) of this Rule shall also be met. pontoons. pontoons. the amount specified by the crane/derrick manufacturer. pontoons. vessel or other means of flotation used shall be above water. rails system and centerline cable system. (3) List and trim. trim. (C) Have access to void compartments to allow for inspection and pumping. (4) –60– . or other methods of physical attachment. pontoons. and wind. Corralling systems shall not allow any amount of shifting in any direction by the equipment. Rail clamps and rail stops are required unless the system is designed to prevent movement during operation by other means. the amount specified by the qualified person. The crane/derrick shall be prevented from shifting by installing barricade restraints (a corralling system). Option (2). (4) The following conditions shall be met: (A) All deck surfaces of the barge. (A) Option (1) – Physical attachment. (C) Option (3) – Rails. The crane/derrick shall be prevented from shifting by being mounted on a rail system. vessel or other means of flotation. The employer shall meet the requirements in Option (1). (B) Have a subdivided hull with one or more longitudinal watertight bulkheads for reducing the free surface effect. (B) The entire bottom area of the barge. (B) Be applicable to a specified location(s) on the specific barge. strapping the crane/derrick to the vessel/means of flotation with chains. vessel or other means of flotation used shall: (A) Be structurally sufficient to withstand the static and dynamic loads of the crane/derrick when operating at the crane/derrick's maximum rated capacity with all anticipated deck loads and ballasted compartments. (C) Ensure that the conditions required in Subparagraphs (l)(3) and (l)(4) of this Rule are met. under the expected environmental conditions. (5) Physical attachment. (B) Option (2) – Corralling.If the equipment is employer-made. (A) The maximum allowable list and the maximum allowable trim for the barge/pontoons/vessel/other means of flotation shall not exceed the amount necessary to ensure that the conditions of Subparagraph (l)(4) of this Rule are met. vessel or other means of flotation used shall be submerged. (l) Land cranes/derricks. Methods of physical attachment include crossed-cable systems attached to the crane/derrick and vessel/flotation device (this type of system allows the crane/derrick to lift up slightly from the surface of the vessel/flotation device). pontoons. Option (3). bolting or welding the crane/derrick to the vessel/flotation device. Such documents shall be signed by a qualified engineer who is a qualified person with respect to the design of this type of equipment (including the means of flotation). it shall not be used unless the employer has documents demonstrating that the load charts and applicable parameters for use meet the requirements of Subparagraphs (k)(1) through (k)(3) of this Rule. (D) Option (4) – Centerline cable system.

Option (3). overhead/bridge cranes. and operate and the parameters/limitations of such movements and operation. (F) Exception. or qualified person familiar with floating crane/derrick design. Option (3). qualified engineer familiar with floating crane/derrick design. semigantry.(6) The wire rope shall be attached to the crane/derrick by appropriate attachment methods (such as shackles or sheaves) on the undercarriage which will allow the crew to secure the crane/derrick from movement during operation and to move the crane/derrick longitudinally along the vessel/flotation device for repositioning. (2) The requirements of 29 CFR 1910. 95-131. (iii) History Note: 13 NCAC 07F . (1) This Paragraph applies to the following equipment when used in construction and not permanently installed in a facility: overhead and gantry cranes. travel. For mobile auxiliary cranes used on the deck of a floating crane/derrick. wall cranes. October 1. cantilever gantry. (iii) The plan specifies the areas of the deck where the mobile auxiliary crane is permitted to be positioned. apply to the equipment identified in Subparagraph (a)(1) of this Rule. (C) Have access to void compartments to allow for inspection and pumping. (iv) Means shall be installed to prevent the crane/derrick from passing the forward or aft end of the wire rope attachments. (1) This Paragraph applies to the following equipment when used in construction and permanently installed in a facility: overhead and gantry cranes. (v) The plan specifies the dynamic/environmental conditions that shall be present for use of the plan.S. including semigantry. (ii) The plan is designed so that the applicable requirements of this Rule will be met despite the position. and similar equipment. or Option (4) shall be designed by a marine engineer. wheels. vessel or other means of flotation used shall: (A) Be structurally sufficient to withstand the static and dynamic loads of the crane/derrick when operating at the crane/derrick's maximum rated capacity with all anticipated deck loads and ballasted compartments. Option (2) or Option (4). or other means. and others having the same fundamental characteristics. (b) Overhead and gantry cranes that are not permanently installed in a facility. (iv) The deck is marked to identify the permitted areas for positioning. wall cranes. The crane/derrick shall be secured from movement during operation. (2) The following requirements apply to equipment identified in Subparagraph (b)(1) of this Rule: –61– .179(b)(1). storage bridge cranes. except for 1910.0924 OVERHEAD & GANTRY CRANES (a) Permanently installed overhead and gantry cranes. and operation. cantilever gantry. (B) Have a subdivided hull with one or more longitudinal watertight bulkheads for reducing the free surface effect. operation. travel. pontoons. Option (2). Authority G.179. The barge. Eff. launching gantry cranes. (vi) If the dynamic/environmental conditions in Subpart (l)(5)(F)(v) of this Rule are exceeded. travel. irrespective of whether it travels on tracks. 2009. or Option (4) does not apply where the employer demonstrates implementation of a plan and procedures that meet the following requirements: (i) A marine engineer or qualified engineer familiar with floating crane/derrick design develops and signs a written plan for the use of the mobile auxiliary crane. and lack of physical attachment (or corralling. Option (2). the requirement to use Option (1). use of rails or cable system) of the mobile auxiliary crane. storage bridge cranes. the mobile auxiliary crane is physically attached or corralled in accordance with Option (1). (E) The systems/means used to comply with Option (1).

2.2. and . October 1.15. (f)(1) through (4).0909 (Design.0918 (Safety Devices).2 ("General Requirements – Exhaust Gases"). 95-131. except as specified in this Rule. (l).1.0903 apply.7. (9) Section 14. . except the phrase "When required by law. only Paragraphs (d) and (e) apply to dedicated pile drivers.S.3 ("General Requirements – Stabilizers (Wheel-Type Side Boom Tractors")). .11. 2-1. 2-1. except that it applies only to equipment that has been modified or repaired. The following portions of 29 CFR 1910.1 ("Booms"). 2-1.0916(v) (Free Fall and Controlled Load Lowering) applies. 2-1.7.0920. except Subparagraphs (v)(1) through (v)(3). Sideboom cranes in which the boom is designed to free fall (live boom) are permitted only if manufactured prior to the effective date of this Rule.9. 2009. 2-1. (5). (4).7.7. and .2 ("Operator Qualifications"). (12) In section 14-3. 2-2. Paragraphs (j).14.0919.2. . (10) In section 14. (2) Section 14.3. (7). History Note: Authority G.2.0901 through .0917 (Operational Aids). (c) Sideboom cranes mounted on wheel or crawler tractors shall meet the following requirements of ANSI/ASME B30.3. and (m). the definitions in 13 NCAC 07F . (iii) 1910.2. except 13 NCAC 07F .4.1. .2 ("Testing – Rated Load Test")." For those words.179(b)(2) applies only to equipment identified in Subparagraph (b)(1) of this Rule manufactured before September 19.3 ("Moving the Load").13.4 ("General Requirements – Welded Construction").(A) (B) (C) The following Rules in this Section: 13 NCAC 07F .0904 (Operator qualification and certification) applies.S.179: (i) Paragraphs (b)(5). (4) Section 14-1. 2-1. (c) 13 NCAC 07F .0915. "29 CFR 1910. except in 2-3. 2001.3." (11) In section 14.2. .0904 (Operator Qualification and Certification).6. (b) 13 NCAC 07F . (6). (b) 13 NCAC 07F . the following sections of ANSI/ASME B.7.7. 2009.2. 95-131.14. and (i). (7) Section 14-1. except Subpart (v)(1)(B)(i). History Note: Authority G. (f)(1). 2-3. (h).3. 2-1. (e)(1).2.2-2005 apply: 2-1.2. October 1.147 is substituted for ANSI Z244.1.2.1. Paragraphs (e). In addition.14-2004 (Side Boom Tractors): (1) Section 14-1.3.3 ("Side Boom Tractor Travel"). 95-131. 2-1. construction and testing).5 ("Ropes and Reeving Accessories"). and (n). 23. (3) Section 14.6 ("General Requirements – Clutch and Brake Protection").5 applies.1 ("Load Ratings"). 13 NCAC 07F . (g). Paragraph (a).0917(e)(4) (Load weight/capacity devices) applies only to dedicated pile drivers manufactured more than one year after the effective date of this Rule.12. 21. 2-1. History Note: Authority G. (5) Section 14-1.0916.0917(d)(3) (anti two-block device) does not apply. (h)(1). .1.S.14.3 ("Operating Practices").1.0925.0925 DEDICATED PILE DRIVERS (a) The provisions of this Section apply to dedicated pile drivers. 2-1. (3).9.2. (6).8.7.1".1. (6).1.1. –62– .2. 2001. 2-1. (k). (e) 13 NCAC 07F .0926 SIDEBOOM CRANES (a) The provisions of this Section apply. except for "hoist" and "load.179(a). (3).0912(a) (Ground Conditions). (6) Section 14-1. 2-1. 2-1. 13 NCAC 07F . (7).30.5. Eff.0923. Eff. (8) Section 14-1. For equipment manufactured on or after September 19. except that the qualification or certification shall be for operation of either dedicated pile drivers or equipment that is the most similar to dedicated pile drivers.1(b).5. (d) In 13 NCAC 07F . (ii) The definitions in 29 CFR 1910.

(e) The effects of load share and load transfer in multi-crane lifts. (iii) Lifting beams. (q) The effect of side loading.0914. (iii) Pneumatic. 13 NCAC 07F . (2) Site information. the following topics shall be considered: (1) General technical information. (d) The technical limitations of protective measures against electrical measures against electrical hazards: (i) Grounding. (k) How to use the safety devices and operational aids required under 13 NCAC 07F . (g) The basics of machine power flow systems. weight. such as clips. (c) Rigging devices and their use. (b) Wire rope: (i) Background information necessary to understand the inspection and removal from service criteria in 13 NCAC 07F . October 1. (vi) Clamps (beams). (j) Background information necessary to understand the requirements of pre-operation and inspection.0916. (v) Proximity to electric power lines.0904(i). (o) How to obtain dimensions. (h) The significance of the instruments and gauge readings. (ii) Spreaders. (iv) Hydraulic. (v) Saddles (softeners).Eff.0915 and .0927 –63– . (iv) Moving with the load. (ii) Capacity and when multi-part rope is needed. 2009. (iii) Relationship between line pull and safe working load. OPERATOR CERTIFICATION – WRITTEN EXAMINATION – TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE CRITERIA When developing criteria for a written examination to test an individual's technical knowledge of the operation of cranes pursuant to 13 NCAC 07F . (v) Combination. (m) How to calculate net capacity for every possible configuration of the equipment using the manufacturer's load chart. (ii) Electrical. (p) The effects of dynamic loading from: (i) Wind. shackles and wedge sockets. (i) The effects of thermal expansion and contraction in hydraulic cylinders. and center of gravity of the load. (iii) Insulated links. radii. such as: (i) Slings. (r) The principles of backward stability. (n) How to use manufacturer-approved attachments and their effect on the equipment. (iv) Wire rope fittings. (a) The functions and limitations of the crane and attachments. (ii) Stopping and starting. (f) Basic crane terms. (i) Mechanical. and microwave structures. (iv) How to determine the manufacturer's recommended rope for the crane. (iv) Boom cages. (l) The difference between duty-cycle and lifting operations. (iii) Impact loading. (ii) Proximity warning devices.0913 and .

Elements include: (i) Weakness below the surface (such as voids. blocking/cribbing and outriggers or crawlers. tanks. (ii) Power line contact. the crew and the signal person. including poured-in-place and tilt-up. (iii) Loss of stability. (ii) Weaknesses on the surface (such as retaining walls. (vi) Demolition operations. (f) Know how to apply the manufacturer's specifications for operating in various weather conditions. (h) How to verify the weight of the load and rigging prior to initiating the lift. (ii) Hoisting personnel. and traffic. (iv) Hoisting personnel. (v) Two-blocking. (viii) Handling loads out of the operator's vision ("operating in the blind"). (c) Proper procedures and methods of reeving wire ropes and methods of reeving multiplepart lines and selecting the proper load block or ball. (i) How to determine where the load is to be picked up and placed and how to verify the radii. (c) Identification of site hazards such as power lines. (m) Know the proper procedures for operating safely under the following conditions: (i) Traveling with suspended loads. (vii) Using various approved counterweight configurations. (iii) Clamshell/dragline operations. (v) Concrete operations. boom length.(a) (3) How to identify the suitability of the supporting ground/surface to support the expected loads of the operation. carry. (d) How to review operation plans with supervisors and other workers (such as the signal person). (b) How to communicate at the site with supervisors. (e) How to determine if there is adequate room for extension of crawlers or outriggers/stabilizers and counterweights. (o) Know the emergency response procedure for: (i) Fires. depressions). piping. including how to determine working height. (k) How to carry out the shift inspection required in this Section. (ix) Using electronic communication systems for signal communication. (ii) Approaching a two-block condition. load radius. and understand how environmental conditions affect the safe operation of the equipment. and travel clearance. (vii) Operations on water. (iv) Pile driving and extracting. (vi) Lifting loads from beneath the surface of the water. Operations. slopes. (iv) Control malfunction. –64– . (viii) Magnet Operations (ix) Multi-drum operations. (l) Know that the following operations require specific procedures and skill levels: (i) Multi-crane lifts. (j) Know basic rigging procedures. (a) How to pick. (v) Using other than full outrigger/crawler extensions. (b) Proper use of mats. (n) Know the proper procedures for load control and the use of hand-held tag lines. excavations. (g) How to properly level the equipment. (iii) Operating near power lines. loose fill). swing and place the load smoothly and safely on rubber tires and on outriggers/stabilizers or crawlers (where applicable). (e) How to shut down and secure the equipment properly when leaving it unattended. (d) How to react to changes in conditions that affect the safe operation of the equipment.

This includes knowing: (i) The operational limitations of load charts and footnotes. (vii) Where to find and how to use the "parts-of-line" information. 95-131. or outriggers extended or retracted.(4) (vi) Overload. (vi) The work area chart and its relationship to the load chart. History Note: –65– .S. jib erected or offset. (d) Know how to use the load chart together with the load indicators and/or load moment devices. (vii) Carrier or travel malfunction. (iv) What is included in capacity ratings. Eff. (ii) How to relate the chart to the configuration of the crane. October 1. (iii) The difference between structural capacity and capacity limited by stability. Authority G. Use of load charts. crawlers. (a) Know the terminology necessary to use load charts. and various counterweight configurations. (v) The range diagram and its relationship to the load chart. 2009. (b) Know how to ensure that load chart is the appropriate chart for the equipment in its particular configuration and application. (c) Know how to use load charts. (p) Know how to properly use outriggers in accordance with manufacturer specifications.

A Guide to Working With Corrosive Substances (downloadable PDF ONLY) #31. A Guide to Safety in Confined Spaces 1#2. A Guide to Cranes and Derricks #23. A Guide to Voluntary Training and Training Requirements in OSHA Standards 1#9. A Guide to Transportation Safety #43. A Guide to Radio Frequency Hazards With Electric Detonators (downloadable PDF ONLY) #12. Wood Dust and Combustible Dust Hazards (downloadable PDF ONLY) #20. A Guide to Safety and Health in Feed and Grain Mills (downloadable PDF ONLY) #30. A Guide to Working With Electricity #25. Guía OSHA para Pequeños Negocios en Carolina del Norte (Spanish version of #41) #42.C. Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Division: 1#1. A Guide to Safe Scaffolding #40. A Guide to Lead Exposure in the Construction Industry (downloadable PDF ONLY) 1#7. A Guide to Farm Safety and Health (downloadable PDF ONLY) #11. A Guide for Persons Employed in Cotton Dust Environments (downloadable PDF ONLY) 1#6. A Guide to OSHA for Small Businesses in North Carolina #41s. Guía de Protección Contra Caídas en la Industria (Spanish version of #32) #33. A Guide to Personal Protective Equipment #26. A Guide to Bloodborne Pathogens in the Workplace 1#8. A Guide to Manual Materials Handling and Back Safety #27. A Guide to Office Safety and Health (downloadable PDF ONLY) #34. A Guide to Procedures of the N. A Guide to Preventing Heat Stress #38. A Guide to Combustible Dusts . A Guide to Occupational Exposure to Wood. A Guide to Formaldehyde (downloadable PDF ONLY) #32. A Guide to Eye Wash and Safety Shower Facilities #29.C. A Guide to OSHA in North Carolina 1#5. A Guide to Ergonomics #10. A Guide to Asbestos for Industry #18. A Guide to Developing and Maintaining an Effective Hearing Conservation Program #16. A Guide to Machine Safeguarding 1#4. A Guide to Forklift Operator Training #13. A Guide to the OSHA Excavations Standard #15.The following industry guides are available from the N. A Guide to Fall Prevention in Industry #32s. Safety and Health Review Commission (downloadable PDF ONLY) 1#3. A Guide to Emergency Action Planning #41. A Guide to Electrical Safety #19. A Guide to Safety and Health in the Poultry Industry (downloadable PDF ONLY) #35. A Guide to the Safe Storage of Explosive Materials (downloadable PDF ONLY) #14. A Guide to the Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout) #28. A Guide to Construction Jobsite Safety and Health/Guía de Seguridad y Salud para el Trabajo de Construcción #17.

C. 3rd Floor) Local Telephone: (919) 807-2900 Fax: (919) 807-2856 For information concerning education. Raleigh. Statistics and Information Management Bureau Mailing Address: Physical Location: 1101 Mail Service Center 111 Hillsborough St. NC 27699-1101 (Old Revenue Building. Training and Technical Assistance Bureau Mailing Address: Physical Location: 1101 Mail Service Center 111 Hillsborough St. Raleigh. Department of Labor Library Mailing Address: Physical Location: 1101 Mail Service Center 111 Hillsborough St. Suite 202. OSH Complaint Desk: (919) 807-2796*** For statistical information concerning program activities contact: Planning. or visit the NCDOL home page on the World Wide Web: http://www. Suite B. NC 27699-1101 Telephone: (919) 733-7166 Fax: (919) 733-6197 .nclabor. NC 27699-1101 (Old Revenue Building. films. NC 28803-8681) Telephone: (828) 299-8232 Fax: (828) 299-8266 Charlotte District Office (901 Blairhill Road. Suite 205. 2nd Floor) Telephone: (919) 807-2950 Fax: (919) 807-2951 For information about books. NC 28405-1824) Telephone: (910) 251-2678 Fax: (910) 251-2654 ***To make an OSHA Complaint.com. Occupational Safety and Health Division Mailing Address: Physical Location: 1101 Mail Service Center 111 Hillsborough St.C.C. training and interpretations of occupational safety and health standards contact: Education. Raleigh. NC 27699-1101 (Old Revenue Building. periodicals. Department of Labor (Other than OSH) 1101 Mail Service Center Raleigh. NC 27699-1101 (Old Revenue Building. Department of Labor.Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Sources of Information You may call 1-800-NC-LABOR (1-800-625-2267) to reach any division of the N. Raleigh. 5th Floor) Telephone: (919) 807-2848 Fax: (919) 807-2849 N. NC 27699-1101 (Old Revenue Building. 23rd St.. NC 27106-2800) Telephone: (336) 776-4420 Fax: (336) 776-4422 Wilmington District Office (1200 N. vertical files. NC 27603) Telephone: (919) 779-8570 Fax: (919) 662-4709 Asheville District Office (204 Charlotte Highway. 2nd Floor) Telephone: (919) 807-2923 Fax: (919) 807-2924 For information concerning occupational safety and health compliance contact: Safety and Health Compliance District Offices Raleigh District Office (313 Chapanoke Road. Winston-Salem. 3rd Floor) Telephone: (919) 807-2899 Fax: (919) 807-2902 For information concerning migrant housing inspections and other related activities contact: Agricultural Safety and Health Bureau Mailing Address: Physical Location: 1101 Mail Service Center 111 Hillsborough St. audio/slide sets and computer databases contact: N. Suite 200. NC 28217-1578) Telephone: (704) 665-4341 Fax: (704) 665-4342 Winston-Salem District Office (4964 University Parkway. videos.C. NC 27699-1101 (Old Revenue Building. 4th Floor) Telephone: (919) 807-2875 Fax: (919) 807-2876 For information concerning occupational safety and health consultative services and safety awards programs contact: Consultative Services Bureau Mailing Address: Physical Location: 1101 Mail Service Center 111 Hillsborough St. Wilmington. Raleigh. Raleigh. Raleigh. N. Charlotte. Asheville.

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