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Skripsi Rifa'atul Mahmudah "Analisis Usaha Jamur Tiram"

Skripsi Rifa'atul Mahmudah "Analisis Usaha Jamur Tiram"

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THESIS

OYSTER MUSHROOM BUSINESS ANALYSIS IN PEKUNCEN SUBDISTRICT IN BANYUMAS REGENCY

BY: RIFA’ATUL MAHMUDAH C1J006019

FACULTY OF ECONOMICS JENDERAL SOEDIRMAN UNIVERSITY PURWOKERTO 2011

THESIS

OYSTER MUSHROOM BUSINESS ANALYSIS IN PEKUNCEN SUBDISTRICT IN BANYUMAS REGENCY

To Fulfill some of the requirements needed to earn a Bachelor’s Degree from Faculty of Economics Jenderal Soedirman University

BY: RIFA’ATUL MAHMUDAH C1J006019

FACULTY OF ECONOMICS JENDERAL SOEDIRMAN UNIVERSITY PURWOKERTO 2011

ii

THESIS

OYSTER MUSHROOM BUSINESS ANALYSIS IN PEKUNCEN SUBDISTRICT IN BANYUMAS REGENCY

BY: RIFA’ATUL MAHMUDAH C1J006019

Received and Validated In Date:……………….

Advisor I

Advisor II

Dra. Neni widayaningsih, MM NIP. 19630322 198901 2 001

Drs. Sukiman, MP NIP. 19560910 198601 1 001

Knows Head of Economics and Development Studies Department Faculty of Economics Jenderal Soedirman University

Drs. Hary Pudjianto, M.M NIP. 19590110 198601 1 001

iii

STATEMENT

My Signature below: Name Student Number Major Faculty : Rifa’atul Mahmudah : C1J006019 : International Economics and Development Studies : Economics, Jenderal Soedirman University “Oyster Mushroom

I here by stated that I write the thesis entitled

Business Analysis In Pekuncen Subdistrict In Banyumas Regency”, it is not a plagiarism or by others. The things related to other people’s are written in quotation and include in bibliography. If it is then proved that I cheat, I am ready to take the responsibilities including the withdrawal of my academic degree.

Purwokerto, August 2011

Rifa’atul Mahmudah C1J006022

iv

FOREWORD

Bismillahirrahmanirrohim... Grace to Allah SWT, which has bestowed His grace and guidance, so that writing a thesis titled "Oyster Mushroom Business Analysis In Pekuncen Subdistrict in Banyumas Regency" can be resolved properly.. Writing of the writer do in order to meet one of the requirements to achieve a Bachelor of Economics at the Faculty of Economics, University of Jenderal Sudirman. In preparing this essay the author got a lot of help from various parties, so 1n this occasion I’d like to thanks to Mrs. Dra. Neni Widayaningsih, MM. as first advisor and Drs. Sukiman, MP. as second advisor who has provided guidance and direction to the compilation of this thesis, to Mrs. Barokatuminalloh, SE, MSc. as a thesis examiner who is willing to provide suggestions and constructive criticism for the perfection of this thesis. And thank you for my beloved mother, brothers and sisters who have provided assistance and support, both morally and materially. Finally, the writer convey an apology to the readers if there are mistakes in this thesis and the writer hope that this thesis can be beneficial to all parties in need.

Purwokerto, August 2011

Writer

v

SUMMARY

The study is titled "Oyster Mushroom Business Analysis In Pekuncen Subdistrict in Banyumas Regency". Purpose of this study was to determine the amount of net income and Break event point (BEP), assess feasibility and determine the level of business efficiency of oyster mushrooms in Pekuncen subdistrict in Banyumas Regency. The research method used is survey method. Samples taken are the oyster mushroom growers in Pekuncen subdistrict in Banyumas Regency as many as 30 people. Analytical methods used were Break event point (BEP), Return On Investment (ROI) and Return Cost ratio (R / C). The results showed that the BEP level is above the breakeven point. The ROI is 53 percent, higher than the interest rate that commercial banks only 7.25 percent, this suggests the oyster mushroom farms worth the effort. Then the whole R / C ratio obtained from the oyster mushroom farms of 1.53 means that each Rp 1.00 fee that is used to generate revenue of Rp 1.53. So oyster mushroom farm in Pekuncen subdistrict in Banyumas regency is efficient and can be developed because farmers receiving is higher than the production costs incurred by farmers. Based on these conclusions, it is obtained by the implication that the oyster mushroom farm in Pekuncen Subdistrict in Banyumas regency needs to be developed because the business is profitable, and at the proper value to be developed and can be run efficiently. In addition there is need for development of oyster mushroom growers and the support of BPPT Pekuncen subdistrict and private oyster mushrooms to make the efforts more advanced, profitable and efficient.

vi

TABLE OF CONTENT

Page TITLE PAGE ................................................................................................. ENDORSEMENT PAGE .............................................................................. STATEMENT ................................................................................................. FOREWORD .................................................................................................. SUMMARY .................................................................................................... TABLE OF CONTENT ................................................................................. LIST OF TABLE............................................................................................ LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................... LIST OF APPENDIX .................................................................................... I. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................. A. Background ......................................................................................... B. Formulation of Research Problems ..................................................... ii iii iv v vi vii ix xi xii 1 1 3 4 5

C. Research Objectives ............................................................................. D. Benefits Research .................................................................................

II. LITERATURE REVIEW MODEL AND RESEARCH FRAMEWORK ....................................................................................... A. Literature Review ................................................................................. 1. Oyster Mushroom Business ........................................................... 2. Oyster mushrooms ......................................................................... 3. Farm Income and Costs.................................................................. 4. Break Event Poin (BEP)................................................................. 5. Return On Investment (ROI) .......................................................... 6. Efficiency ...................................................................................... B. Research Model and Hypothesis Formulation ..................................... 6 6 6 8 12 14 16 16 18

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1. Formulation Research Model ......................................................... 2. Previous Results ............................................................................. 3. Research Hypothesis ...................................................................... III. RESEARCH METHODS AND TECHNICAL DATA ANALYSIS .............................................................................................. A. Research Methods ............................................................................... B. Technical Data Analysis ...................................................................... IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION .............................................................. A. Overview Research Areas .................................................................... B. General state of Respondents ……….. ................................................ C. Analysis Results and Discussion .......................................................... V. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS ............................................. A. Conclusion............................................................................................ B. Implications .......................................................................................... REFERENCES ............................................................................................... APPENDIX ....................................................................................................

18 20 22

23 23 28 33 33 36 38 53 53 53 55 57

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LIST OF TABLE

Table 1. Total of oyster mushroom farmers population in 2010 …………............. 2. The total area of Pekuncen subdistrict specified according to land use situation in 2009…………................................................................... 3. The composition according to the livelihoods of the population in the Pekuncen subdistrict in 2009 …………............................................... 4. The composition of the population by level of education in the Pekuncen subdistrict in 2009 …………. ................................................... 5. Age farmer respondents in oyster mushroom farms in the district in 2011 Pekuncen ........................................................................................... 6. Education farmer respondents of oyster mushroom farms in Pekuncen subdistrict in 2011…………. .................................................... 7. Oyster Mushroom Farm Production Costs in Pekuncen subdistrict in October 2010 - April 2011…………. ........................................................ 8. Average Production Cost per farmer of Oyster Mushroom Farming in Pekuncen subdistrict October 2010 - April 2011…………. ................ 9. Average Production Cost per m² of Oyster Mushroom farming in Pekuncen subdistrict October 2010 - April 2011…………. ...................... 10. Results The average production per farmer of Oyster Mushroom Farming in the Pekuncen subdistrict of October 2010 - April 2011…………. ........................................................................................... 11. Average Production per m² at Oyster Mushroom Farming in Pekuncen Subdistrict October 2010 - April 2011 …………. .................... 12. Average income per farmer of Oyster Mushroom farming in Pekuncen subdistrict October 2010 - April 2011…………. ...................... 13. Average income per m² of Oyster Mushroom farming in Pekuncen subdistrict October 2010 - April 2011…………. ......................................

page 24

34

35

36

37

37

42

44

43

44

45

45

46

ix

14. Average Net Income per Farmer of Oyster Mushroom farming in Pekuncen subdistrict October 2010 - April 2011…………. ...................... 15. Average Net Income per m² of Oyster Mushroom farming in Pekuncen subdistrict October 2010 - April 2011…………. ...................... 16. Average Break-Even Point per m² of Oyster Mushroom Farming in Pekuncen subdistrict October 2010 - April 2011…………. ...................... 17. The average Return On Investment (ROI) of Oyster Mushroom Farming in Pekuncen subdistrict October 2010 - April 2011…………. ........................................................................................... 18. Oyster Mushroom business Efficiency in Pekuncen subdistrict October 2010 - April 2011 …………. .......................................................

46

47

48

50

52

x

LIST OF FIGURES

Figures 1. Scheme framework Thought ......................................................................

Page 20

xi

LIST OF APPENDIX

Appendix 1. Mushroom Growers Identity ...................................................................... 2. The detail of Fixed cost of Oyster Mushroom Farms in Pekuncen subdistrict in Oktober 2010 ........................................................................ 3. The detail of Variable cost of Oyster Mushroom Farms in Pekuncen subdistrict in Oktober 2010 ....................................................... 4. Total cost of Oyster Mushroom Farms in Pekuncen subdistrict in Oktober 2010.............................................................................................. 5. Total Revenue, Profit, and R / C of Oyster Mushroom Farm in the Pekuncen subdistrict in Oktober 2010 ....................................................... 6. Calculation of Break Even Point (BEP) of Oyster Mushroom in the Pekuncen Subdistrict in October 2010 ....................................................... 7. The calculation of Return On Investment (Roi) At Oyster Mushroom Farming in Pekuncen Subdistrict in October 2010.................. 8. Questionnaire ............................................................................................

Page 58 60 62 64 66 68 71 72

xii

I. INTRODUCTION

A. Background Generally, understanding of agriculture is a human activity includes farming, animal husbandry, fishery and forestry. Most of the people's livelihood in Indonesia as farmers, evidenced by Indonesian’s BPS data in February 2011 that the number of farmers in Indonesia reached 42,47 million persons or about 38,16 percent of Indonesia's population works in agriculture. So, the agricultural sector is important for development of our country. As an economic activity, agriculture can be viewed as a system called agribusiness. In the frame of this mind system, the management of premises and the selection of seeds (varieties, strains, etc.) are usually termed as the aspect of "upstream" from the farm, while the distribution, processing, and marketing aspects are included in "downstream". Cultivation and harvest are part of the aspect of the production process. All directed into aspects are important and how the

investments are

every aspect

of a strategic consideration. The

importance of agriculture as a source of food providers and one of the sectors of the economy builder for both the farmer and the country's economy expected to continue to grow. One of the activities in agriculture sector that is supporting the economic sector development is plant cultivation. Oyster mushroom is one type of crops that can be cultivated. Oyster mushroom is a delicious and nutritious food containing

2

high protein, rich minerals, fat, calories, phosphorus, iron, calcium, and carbohydrates. For protein content, fairly high, which is about 10.5 to 30.4%. Composition and nutrient content per 100 grams of oyster mushrooms is

367 calories, 10.5-30.4 % protein, 56.6% carbohydrates, 1.7 to 2.2 percent fat, 0.20 mg thiamine, 4.7 - 4.9 mg of riboflavin, 77,2 mg niacin, and 314.0 mg of calcium. Calories are 100 grams kj/100 with 72% unsaturated fat. Fiber

mushrooms are very good for digestion. The fiber reaches 7.4 to 24.6 percent (Wikipedia, 2010). Because of the taste and nutrients of Oyster mushroom, it causes a high enough of demand than any other of mushroom. So that it has high economic value and can improve the economy and welfare for the mushroom growers. Oyster mushroom cultivation can be said to include business that still relatively new. Oyster mushroom cultivation in Indonesia initiated and introduced to farmers in 1988 in the village of Cisarua of Lembang subdistrict in Bandung regency of West Java. At that time, farmers and entrepreneurs are still very small. Around 1995, farmers in Lembang area which was originally a flower farmers, chicken farmers and cattle farmers began to move into the oyster mushroom farmers, though still in the household scale. During its development, several large-scale domestic industries join to form CV and a legal entity. Then from the Lembang subdistrict it spread to various regions in Indonesia. One of the areas in Indonesia as the cultivation of oyster mushrooms is Pekuncen subdistrict in Banyumas regency. Nowadays, there are 30 existing oyster mushroom growers in Pekuncen subdistrict.

3

B. Formulation of Research Problems In carrying out the oyster mushroom farm in the aimed of increasing the farmer’s benefit also need to consider the efficiency of the mushroom growers because the levels of efficiency achieved reflects the success of mushroom growers in running their farm, whether profit, loss, or just return of capital that can be immediately taken action to improve business farming and increase

business profits. But high profits are not indicate a high efficiency. According Lefwitch (1981) profit is the difference between revenue and costs, while business were said to be efficient when the total income is greater than the total cost. Levels of efficiency also can be determined by comparing the input and output. The amount of revenue and efficiency in a farming system is strongly influenced by the scale of its business. As for the difference in scale of course, can make a difference in the input sused. Less precise combination of factors of production in farming using will affect productivity in oyster and profits (earnings) of the vast amount

farmers. Extensive effort

mushroom farms is

kumbung/mushroom’s house and the number of seedlings planted in baglog mushrooms. Generally, the greater scale of production of oyster mushrooms to be produced will be higher and cost is low. So it will increase farmer’s income and will further affect the economic efficiency of oyster mushrooms farming. The oyster mushrooms business conditions in the Pekuncen subdistrict in Banyumas regency are still largely managed with simple possession of the limited land, little capital, and it is not a core business. Usually, farmers rarely take into account the revenues and expenses carefully whether the farm is

4

profitable, loss, or just return of capital (break even), and whether or not managed efficiently. Lack of skills and knowledges of farmers about the management problems are the causes. As an effect, the management of oyster mushroom cultivation does not achieve the expected results with the optimal level of income . There are many problems based on the description: 1. Can the oyster mushroom farming bring benefits to the mushroom growers in the Pekuncen subdistrict in Banyumas regency? 2. How is the business feasibility in relation to invested capital in oyster mushroom farms in the Pekuncen subdistrict Banyumas regency? 3. how the oyster mushroom farm in the Pekuncen subdistrict in Banyumas regency been efficient?

C. Research Objectives The research purposes are: 1. To determine the amount of net income (profit) and Break Even Point (BEP) of oyster mushroom farms in the Pekuncen subdistrict in Banyumas regency. 2. To determine the feasibility of business connected with the capital invested in oyster mushroom farms in the subdistrict of Pekuncen in Banyumas regency. 3. To determine the level of efficiency of oyster mushroom farm in subdistrict of Pekuncen Banyumas regency.

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D. Benefits Research The benefits of research include: 1. For the farmers, the results of this research are expected to provide evident information on cost of productions and oyster mushroom farm incomes so the economical efficiency can be achieved and can obtain the optimal net revenue. 2. For the government, it is expected to give inputs relating to the development of policies and measures in agriculture especially food crops. 3. This research can be used as information for other researchers in the future.

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II. LITERATURE REVIEW MODEL AND RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

A. Literature Review 1. Oyster Mushroom Business Just like any other business ventures, venture of Oyster Mushroom is also done with the aim of seeking maximum benefit. Oyster mushroom is one type of mushroom which is currently a healthy alternative as a viable food consumed. Besides the taste is delicious - even similar to the chicken - also has a considerable beneficial nutrients, so it's been a choice for society as a viable food consumed. Its increasing the market demand for oyster mushroom growing. The success of Oyster Mushrooms will be more easily remember the number of supporting factors which easily obtained of Oyster Mushroom. The following are factors which support the oyster mushrooms into successful business, among others: a. Market is very high absorption and increasing b. A small of possibility of the market stagnation because it is the people's daily consumption. c. Skill needs is not so high d. Oyster mushroom cultivation knows no season, so it can generate continuously throughout the year. e. Oyster mushrooms are a delicious alternative food, healthy and nutritious. f. Not cause environmental pollution. profits

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g. Former compost growing media can be used for fish pond fertilizer, fish feed mixture, mixed fodder, and the media maintaina worm. In an effort of oyster mushrooms will certainly encounter obstacles or barriers. The existence of the inhibiting factors are the cause of the onset of problems and obstacles that require separate handling of the oyster mushroom growers. Here mushrooms: a. Raw material shortage The oyster mushroom growers in Pekuncen subdistrict using sawdust as a medium of oyster mushroom cultivation, the farmers claimed to get the sawdust is often difficult given the amount of oyster mushroom farmers a lot, so sometimes it is a factor inhibiting business in the area of oyster mushrooms Pekuncen subdistrict. b. Oyster Mushroom Price Fluctuation Although the business of oyster mushrooms enough to give hope to farmers because the mildew of mushroom is very promising market opportunities, but also sometimes mushroom growers is plagued by the instability in the market price of oyster mushrooms. Fluctuations in the market price of the oyster mushroom is also very difficult to anticipated. Although these constraints are generally only temporary but it proved very influential on a small scale mushroom growers and beginners. are some kinds of factors that hamper business of oyster

8

2. Oyster mushrooms Mushroom consist of various types, there are adverse and there are

beneficial for human life. Harmful mushroom such as pathogenic which cause of disease in humans, animals and plants. Among humans such as beneficial fungi: Penicillium that produces penicillin antibiotics, mushroom that play a role in the process of fermented foods such as soy sauce, tempeh, tape, tauco and others. In fact, many types of musroom that can be consumed (eaten), among others, mushroom, oyster mushroom, shiitake mushroom, Agaricus mushrooms

(campignon) and mushroom. Today the cultivation of edible mushrooms have been a lot of people do that is using agricultural wastes as growing media. Cultivation of edible mushrooms is one way to overcome shortages of food and nutrition and diversify food consumption patterns of the people. Oyster mushrooms are one of the wooden mold that has been cultivated people. For one production period of oyster mushroom were six months, its 12 months for planting time and 4 months for harvest time. Oyster mushrooms that can already be harvested will be able to continue in the harvest every 3 days until the mushroom growing media (baglog) has been depleted nutrients.

Growing media or substrates that are commonly used are alba sawn (sengon), but actually any sawn can be used, certainly is not poisonous, then mixed with other materials with specific comparisons. There are several things to consider in the oyster mushroom cultivation efforts, including:

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a.

The composting process

Before put the seeds, planting materials should be composted for 15 days with the following stages:
1)

Sawdust that has to dry completely soaked with clean water in a container for night.

2)

Drain (until the fists do not break), then add the lime and bekatul and stir until blended. Let the pile for 5 days.

3) 4)

Stir the stack while add the TSP fertilizer and leave for two 5 days. Stirred the material and add the plaster. Allow longer stack up to 5 days, then the composting process has been completed.

b.

Packaging process

Insert the materials have been composted growing media into a plastic bag. Bent at both ends of plastic bags into the base,
then filled

and

compacted

plastic bags till can stand up like a bottle. Fill the plastic bags approximately ¾ parts, then bent into the ¼. To put the filled plastic bags (polybags) in the inverted position of the bent / folded into placed under.

c.

Sterilization Process

Prepare the broiler drum tools and equipment. Place the Sarangan approximately 1/3 the drum from the bottom. Fill the drum with clean water approximately ¼ of the drum. Turn on the stove, while insert the planting medium into a

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large heat-resistant plastic that protrude into the upper drum. This sterilization process is carried out for 6-8 hours at a temperature of 90-95 C.

d.

Mechanical planting (inoculation)

After the sterilization process is complete, taken the polybags from the drum and allowed until its cool. When it is cold, the process of inoculation can be done by entering the seed at the top, try to evenly on the upper surface of the media in polybags. To attach the plastic to be strong, includ polybags pralon piece (ring)
to the

tip

then covered with pieces of newspaper and tied with rubber

bands. Inoculation should not be more than 24 hours after the sterlisation.

e.

Maintenance and Incubation

Polybags that had been in inoculation placed on shelves that have been provided. Shelves should be placed in a room that the temperature and humidity are not affected by outside. Stable temperature and humidity to growth is 24-28 C and humidity 80-90 %. Polybags is left for 6-8 weeks until the mycelium grows a plastic bag so it meets a solid white color.

f.

Opening polybags

After polibag colored compact pistil (age 4-6 weeks), then the polybags can be opened by removing the rubber and paralon ring. Then open the plastic to get the mushroom growing medium of air as much as possible.

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g.

Mushroom Harvesting

After a week of opening, the mushroom will usually form the body / clump of mushrooms and there are ready for harvest. Age mushrooms from the "whacky" / would mushroom to harvest about 3 days.

h.

Polybags Treatment.

Each polybags that had overgrown mushroom mycelium can grow many times,
distances of harvest are 2-3 days. Harvesting can last for 3-4 months with 75% of

the total weight of dry sawdust to the substrate. In order to encourage mold many times it is necessary maintenance. The maintenance is as follows:
1)

Media polybags that had once grown mushrooms, dredged or cut of

the

former from 0.5 to 1 cm. Then injected with a solution of vitamin B complex about 30 cc (2 grains of Vit. B complex were dissolved in 1.5 liters of clean water). 2) Sprayed the polybags media every morning and afternoon water, do not look dry surface.
3)

with clean

For media that has been growing mushrooms polybag ssecond, third and so on are treated the same as point 1 and 2, only the amount of injected vitamin B complex which decrease sproportional to the media reduced the cut / removed.

i.

Disease Eradication

If the sterilization process flawlessly and used equipment clean and sterile, then there is no contamination on the substrate. If there polibag contaminated /affected by the disease, polybags should be thrown away in order to not spread and cause a

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decline in production. The equipment used at the time of planting (inoculation) must be observed and maintained to keep them clean and sterile. Equipment for sterile, heated/dyed with boiling water and then spread with 70% alcohol.

Sterilization equipment must be maintained during the inoculation so the media polibag not contaminated. Planting seeds of cultivated mushrooms are also closed and sterile place. Then, when mixing the ingredients planting medium should be wear a mask so steam reaction products of these materials are not inhaled into the lungs.

3. Farm Income and Costs

a. Understanding Income of Oyster Mushroom Farming A business is run in order to obtain the results of production and profits. Rural communities’ main business is farming, and then to increase their income, farmers should be able to carry out farming well. by Hernanto, F. (1996) farmers' income level is strongly influenced by the amount of production costs incurred, in addition to the vast arable farmer-managed will affect the level of farming efficiency which in turn will affect the level of income. Oyster mushroom farm income is income earned by organizing activities mushroom farming. The amount depends on income levels of the products obtained and the sale price. A business will be profitable if the total revenue greater than its total costs. Total revenue is total revenue from the sale of farm output. Revenues obtained from the calculation of the amount of product

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produced multiplied by the price per unit of product. The total income of farmers can be formulated as follows (Boediono, 2002): TR = Q x P Description: TR = Total Revenue Q = Number of production generated P = price of unit output From these functions means the increasing of revenue affected by high and low prices in addition to the output (ceteris paribus). High production is technically describes a successful business but not necessarily economically beneficial because it must be related to costs incurred and revenues earned. Any attempt to gain new revenue economically rational can be said if the profit obtained in the form of net income. Oyster mushroom farm net income from the difference between total revenues with total costs that can be formulated as follows (Boediono, 2002):

π = TR - TC
Description:

π = profit
TR = Total Revenue

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TC = total cost b. Oyster mushroom farming costs Cost is the amount of money that was decided for the purchase or payment of goods inputs (production factors) used in the production process. Generally, production costs can be defined as all expenditures made by the company to obtain the factors of production and raw materials to be used to create goods and services (Sukirno, 2005). In the short term there is a fixed factor and variable inputs, so that its production cost caused by the production process that also involves fixed costs and variable costs. Fixed costs are costs incurred to finance the production of production factors that are fixed and not changed even though the amount produced varies, such as depreciation and building rental costs. On the other hand, variable costs are costs incurred by the company to hold the factors of production which varies in character depending on the amount of product produced, for example purchases cost of raw materials, wages, transportation costs, (Suparmoko, 1998). 4. Break Event Point (BEP) Ahyari (1992) states that the break event point or principal home state is value where revenue equals the cost of production. Thus at the time of oyster mushroom farmers no profit and no loss. If this revenue is given the symbol TR (total revenue or equal to total revenue receipts) while the cost to be borne by the farmer is given the symbol TC (total cost or equal to the total cost), then the principal home state is achieved when the TR - TC.

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In BEP determines there are some things that should be known that the cost or capital (whether fixed or variable capital), sales price and production levels. Or capital costs must be separated into fixed costs and variable costs. The amount of variable costs in totality will vary according to changes in production volume, while the amount of fixed costs in totality does not change even if there are changes in production volume (Rahardi, 2000). Furthermore, the BEP can be calculated using the following equation: a. BEP for acceptance (Rahardi, 2000);

BEP Rupiah =

b. BEP production volume (Ahyari, 1992) BEP occurs when TR = TC

P. Q =

Q Description:

=

TR = total revenue on average TC = total average cost TFC= total fixed cost average P = the average selling price Q = average number of production

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5. Return On Investment (ROI) Return On Investment (ROI) is the value of the benefits obtained from any amount of money invested in a certain period. This ROI analysis is an analytical technique used to measure the effectiveness of the overall company operations. Generally the size of the ROI is determined by: a. The ability of entrepreneurs in generating profits. b. The ability of entrepreneurs in the return of capital. c. The use of outside capital to enlarge the company. Enhance business ROI by increasing the profit margin (the amount of operating profit expressed as a percentage and net sales) is associated with efforts to enhance efficiency in the sector of production, sale and use of working capital. Enhance the business turnover of assets used in operations is the wisdom of investing funds in various asset both current assets and fixed assets. The size of ROI can be determined by the formula (Rahardi, 2000)

ROI =

6. Efficiency The main purpose of a business other than making a profit is also trying to achieve high efficiency because a large profit is not necessarily efficient. An attempt has high efficiency when the business has a substantial net income and

17

reflects the ratio (comparison) is good from the value of total revenue and total cost. Business efficiency is the ratio between net incomes or earnings to capital or the entire cost of which is used to generate revenue. The higher level of efficiency means more efficient use of capital business. The amount of business efficiency can be calculated by comparing the receipts and expenditures. Return Cost Ratio or R / C can be known by calculating how much revenue earned by the end of business, then proceed to calculate the costs incurred. If the ratio between revenues and costs of greater than 1 (one)it meant the business is profitable. Mathematically, R / C can be formulated as follows, (Soekartawi, 2002): a=R/C R = Py.y C = FC + VC a = {(Py.y) / (FC + VC)} Description: a=R/C R = revenue C = cost FC = fixed costs

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VC = variable cost Py = price of output y = output In relation to the efficient introduction of the concept of technical efficiency (technical efficiency), efficiency of the price (price efficiency), and economic efficiency (economic efficiency). Economic efficiency is achieved if farmers are able to allocate factors of production such that high production can be achieved. If farmers can benefit greatly from the results of farming such as the influence of price, the farmers are said to allocate production factors in the efficiency of the price. This way can be taken for example by buying the factors of production at a cheap price, sell at high prices. Furthermore, if farmers can increase production with the price of production factors which can be pressed but sell the product at high prices, then the farmer has been doing technical efficiency and efficiency at the same price. Such a situation often referred to as economic efficiency (Soekartawi, 1987).

B. Research Model and Hypothesis Formulation 1. Formulation Research Model In the operations, farmers are always trying to allocate resources optimally, so that revenue can be maximized. The maximum income will affect the achievement of the efficiency of oyster mushroom farming. Farmers' income

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is determined by the value of production produced, while the production value is determined depending on the size of the production cost which consists of two factors namely input variables consist of labor costs, the cost of composting, the cost of maintenance and others who may be called as well as variable costs oyster mushroom farming as well as fixed inputs consisting of large kumbung and equipment that can be called the fixed costs of the oyster mushroom farming. Mushroom farmer's income derived from production gross receipts that is by counting the number of oyster mushrooms are sold, this is a gross income of oyster mushroom farmers. further to determine the total income from farming oyster mushrooms, farmers must calculate all the costs included in cost of production. From these calculations can know the total income from oyster mushroom farmers, so that breeders can know whether the state wins, losses or capital behind it, and can be known also whether the oyster mushroom farming worth conducting and whether the oyster mushroom farming is an efficient business. The efficiency of oyster mushrooms farming can be found by doing a comparison between total revenue and costs of production during the production process. From these calculations can know the level of the ratio between the value of revenues and expenses. By Soekartawi (1989) a business said to be efficient if the value of the ratio between total revenues with greater cost 1 (R / C> 1) and is said not efficient when the ratio between revenues and costs less than 1 (R / C <1). The higher the level of business efficiency, the greater the benefits. The schematic framework of this study is described as follows:

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Variable cost cost Total Fixed cost Business efficiency profit Input Output Total revenue

Figure 1. Scheme framework Thought

2. Previous Results In this section will describe some results of previous studies which is a reference in this study. Some results of previous studies related to this research are: a. Rina Pratiwi (2005) Her research titled "Analisis Usaha Pembenihan Ikan Gurami Pada Usaha Perikanan Daran Di Desa Beji, Kecamatan Kedungbanteng Kabupaten Banyumas." The research concluded that hatchery fish carp farming is done in Beji village advantageous because it is through volume production and acceptance at the time of the BEP and the farm is worth conducting because it has the ROI is higher than bank interest that is equal to 0.59 or 59 percent, while the level bank interest only at 6 percent. Overall R / C ratio obtained from farming carp hatchery

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at 1.59. This means that each Rp 1.00 fee that is used will generate revenue of USD 1.59. So carp hatchery farm in the village of Beji is efficient and can be developed for farmers receiving more than the production costs incurred by farmers. b. Nunung Harsono (2008) Her research titled "Efisiensi Ekonomi Usaha Ternak Ayam Ras Pedaging Pola Kemitraan Dan Mandiri Di Kecamatan Kesugihan Dan Maos Kabupaten Cilacap”. The research concluded that there are differences in income between broiler breeder business partnership and self-sufficient in the Kesugihan and Maos subdistrict in Cilacap regency. Efficiency of broiler business in the Kesugihan and Maos subdistrict that use a partnership more efficient than using independent pattern. Broiler businesses that use a partnership to obtain the average economic efficiency of the three strata of 1.74 while the broiler business that uses independent pattern of the average economic efficiency of the three strata are 1.53. c. Agusta Rizqi kurniawan (2011) His research titled "Analisis Usaha Ternak Ayam Petelur Di Kabupaten Banyumas." The results showed that the business of laying chicken farms in Banyumas already economically efficient because of the economic efficiency of the analysis obtained by the R / C is greater 1. Contribution of income from farming of laying hens on total family income is relatively large (more than 50 percent). This indicates that most respondents' family income derived from

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farming of laying hens. Secaara general per capita income of farmers meet the standards of KHL in Banyumas regency. 3. Research Hypothesis The hypothesis of this research are: a. Oyster mushrooms business in Pekuncen subdistrict in Banyumas regency could be benefit for the farmers. b. Oyster mushrooms business in Pekuncen subdistrict in Banyumas regency feasible to be developed. c. Oyster mushrooms business in Pekuncen subdistrict in Banyumas regency has been efficient.

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III. RESEARCH METHODS AND TECHNICAL DATA ANALYSIS

A. Research Methods 1. Type of research This research is a survey research. Survey research is research conducted on large populations and small, who studied data taken from this population in order to discover the events relative, distribution and relationship between variables, sociological and psychological (Mr. I Made Wirartha, 2006). 2. Research Sites This research has been conducted in Pekuncen subdistrict in Banyumas regency. 3. Time Frame Research Research has been conducted on the production period October 2010 – April 2011 4. Research Object The object of this research is the oyster mushroom farmers in Pekuncen Subdistrict in Banyumas regency. 5. Population and Sample In a study, population and study sample is needed. The population is composed of the generality of objects or subjects that have a quantity or subject that has

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the quantity and specific characteristic that is determined by investigators to be studied and drawn conclusions. While the sample is in part from the number and characteristics possessed by this population. The total of population mushroom farmer who has taken are 30 people, divided into three stratum. The division of strata has been done by BPPT (Badan Pertahanan Pangan dan Pertanian). The criteria for determining the broad strata is based on the size of kumbung. The distribution of strata are: Stratum I : Broad of kumbung <20 m²

Stratum II : Broad of kumbung 20 m² - 30 m² Stratum III : Broad of kumbung > 30 m² In detail, the total population of oyster mushroom farmers in Pekuncen Subdistrict in 2010 is shown in the following table: Table 1. Total of oyster mushroom farmers population in 2010 Strata I II III Total Population 18 7 5 30 Percentage (%) 60,00 23,34 16,66 100,00

Source: BPPT of Pekuncen subdistrict

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6. Source of Data The data required in this research consist of: a. Primary data, the data obtained from interviews with respondents of mushroom farmers by using questionnaires that have been prepared. b. Secondary data, the data obtained from the literature such as books and internet. 7. Data Collection Techniques Data collection techniques in this research are by interview, questionnaire and literature. 8. Conceptual definition In this study there are four variables, namely income, production costs

production and economic efficiency. Following definition: a. Income Receipts from the sale of goods and services. b. Production costs The cost to produce that consists of direct materials, direct wages and indirect costs.

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1). Fixed costs Expenses incurred during the production process that magnitude does not depend on the size of the production. 2). Variable costs Expenses incurred during the production process the amount of which dependson the size of the production c. Production The process of producing or manufacturing the goods in great quantities, generally using a machine, either in the form of finished products or semifinished products. d. Economical efficiency Method of production of each output with the cheapest cost. 9. Operational Definition Operational definition is needed to limit the parameters or indicators are in want of researchers in the study so that any study variables are used, then everything just came from the concept (Bungin, 2001). Research on the feasibility analysis of oyster mushrooms in Pekuncen subdistrict in Banyumas regency consists of four variables: revenue, production costs, production and economic efficiency.

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a. Income Oyster mushroom farmer’s income is calculated based on the results of production multiplied by price per kilogram oyster mushrooms that are stated in rupiah (Rp) b. Production costs It is all costs incurred in the oyster mushroom farm, consisting of: 1) Fixed costs Are the costs incurred during the production process. It does not depend on the size of production, the land rented, taxes, equipments and kumbung contraction, which assessed in rupiah (Rp) 2) Variable costs Are the costs incurred during the production process. It depends on the size of production, the labor costs, oyster mushroom seeds, fertilizer, sawdust, and stated in rupiah (Rp). c. Production The definition of production in this research is the amount of production of oyster mushrooms. d. Economic efficiency is by comparing the costs and revenue earned.

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B. Technical Data Analysis 1. To know the profits of oyster mushrooms business, the following calculation is used (Boediono, 2002): Л = TR – TC Description: Л = profit TR = total revenue TC = total cost Test Criteria: If TR > TC: oyster mushroom profitable If TR < TC: oyster mushroom losses 2. To calculate the revenue of oyster mushrooms, sale the following formula is used (Boediono, 2002): TR = P x Q Description: TR = total revenue P = price of unit output Q = total production

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3. To find out the cost of farming oyster mushrooms, the following formula is used (Boediono, 2002): TC = FC + VC Description: TC = total cost FC = fixed costs VC = variable cost 4. To know the breakeven point (BEP), the following formula is used: BEP for acceptance (Rahardi, 2000)

BEP rupiah = BEP production volume (Ahyari, 1992) BEP occurs when TR = TC
T T

P. Q = Description:

TR = total revenue on average TC = total average cost TFC = total fixed cost average

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TVC = variable cost average fixed P = selling price Q = average number of production Test Criteria: If the revenue from the sale of oyster mushroom > revenue of BEP, the oyster mushroom business was profitable. If the revenue from sale of oyster mushrooms < revenue of BEP, the oyster mushroom business was not profitable. 5. The feasibility of business in connection with the capital used, can be formulated as follows (Rahardi, 2000)

ROI = Test Criteria: ROI Value > interest rate of commercial banks, oyster mushroom business was feasible to be developed ROI Value < interest rate of commercial banks, the oyster mushroom business was not feasible to be developed 6. To find out how much the level of efficiency of oyster mushrooms business, the following formula is used (Soekartawi, 2002):

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a=R/C R = Py.y C = FC + VC a = {(Py.y) / (FC + VC)} description: a = business efficiency R = revenue C = cost FC = fixed costs VC = variable cost Py = price of output y = output Test Criteria: If the R / C < 1, it means oyster mushroom business is not profitable so that efficiency needs to be improved If the R / C = 1, it means oyster mushroom business is breakeven (equal, impasse)

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If the R / C> 1, it means oyster mushroom business has been efficient and profitable.

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IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A. Overview of Research Areas

1. Geographic Location Pekuncen subdistrict consists of soil and terrain with rain fall more or less 3907mm/year. Judging from the topography including soil plains with an altitude of approximately 280 m above sea level. While the boundaries of Pekuncen subdistrict are as follows: a. North b. South c. East d. West : Brebes Regency : Ajibarang Subdistrict : Cilongok Subdistrict : Gumelar Subdistrict

2. Regional Area and Land Use The total area of all Pekuncen subdistrict are 92.70 km², consisting of: a. Area of paddy land b. Area of dry soil / land : 1856.441 : 7413.370

To see the areas of Pekuncen Subdistrict according to land use, more details can be seen in table 2 below:

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Table 2. The total area of Pekuncen subdistrict specified according to land use situation in 2009 Land Use Large (ha) Percentage (%) 1. Rice Land 1.856.441 10,0 a. irrigation Technical 73.397 0,39 b. Technical ½ Pengairain 70.015 0,37 c. Irrigation Non-PU 1.443.552 7,78 d. Irrigation Rainfed 269.447 1,45 Dry Land a. Yard / Building b. Tegal / garden c. Padang Shepherd d. State Forest e. plantation People f. Other Total Source: Pekuncen Subdistrict Monograph 2. 7.413.370 925.445 687.152 3.834.710 1.741.245 224.818 18539.592 40,0 4,99 3,70 20,7 9,39 1,21 100

Overall area is 18,539,592 hectares. Most of the dry land forest, reaching 20.7 percent of State or an area of 3834,710 hectares. Dry land plantation on the second largest position is 9.39 percent, or an area of 1741,245 hectares, while the smallest is on a paddy soil irrigation ½ technically only reached 0.37 percent, or an area of 70,015 hectares. 3. Population state The population of Pekuncen subdistrict according to recent records, numbering 65,886 souls which consists of 32,927 men and 32,959 women. Thus the male population than female population is relatively balanced. a. The composition of the population by livelihood Descriptions of the population according to livelihoods in Pekuncen Subdistrict briefly can be seen in Table 3. From Table 3 below shows that most residents in the Pekuncen subdistrict in Banyumas

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regency livelihood

as farm

laborers

who absorb 33.90

percent of the

existing force or as many as 11,894 in habitants. Farmers own ranks second at 33.10 percent or as many as 11,701 people, while the lowest position occupied by the employee / BUMN only by 0.05 percent or as many as 21 people. More detail can be seen in the following table. Table 3. The composition according to the livelihoods of the population in the Pekuncen subdistrict in 2009 Number. Livelihoods Frequency (soul) Percentage (%) 1. farmers own 11.701 33,10 2. Hodge 11.984 33,90 3. businessman 571 1,61 4. industrial workers 1.314 3,72 5. construction worker 1.168 3,30 6. merchant 1.734 4,90 7. transport 635 1,79 8. PNS / Armed Forces 803 2,27 9. Employee / BUMN / 21 0,05 10. retired 406 1,14 11. excavation 48 0,13 12. Other 5.022 14,20 Total 35.317 100,00 Source: Pekuncen Subdistrict Monograph b. Population by Education Level of education is one factor that determines the quality of the population, the higher the education level of a person's expected the higher the productivity of farming. In Table 4 below can be seen that the majority of the population due to poorly educated Pekuncen subdistrict residents who complete primary

school occupies the largest percentage when compared with the population as a whole Pekuncen subdistrict, amounting to 51.40 percent or as many

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as 30,769 people. Population has not finished primary school which was in second place at 12.50 percent oras many as 7471 people. Then sequentially educated population that graduated from junior high, do not complete primary school, graduated high school, no school and year of AK / PT. level of education achieved Pekuncen subdistrict community will influence how to utilize existing resources to improve farm productivity and ultimately improve the standard of living. Data Pekuncen subdistrict resident for more details can be seen in the following table. Table 4. The composition of the population by level of education in the Pekuncen subdistrict in 2009 Frequency Number. Level of education Percentage (%) (soul) 1. Year AK / PT 735 1,22 2. graduated high school 4.969 8,30 3. graduated junior High School 7.004 11,70 4. primary school 30.769 51,40 5. Not complete primary school 6.397 10,70 6. Not yet complete primary 7.471 12,50 7. school 2.505 4,18 no school Total 59.850 100,00 Pekuncen Subdistrict Monograph

B. General state of Respondents 1. Age Farmers Respondents Age level of respondents affects the physical ability to manage their business, meaning that the higher the age the ability to work will decrease. Table 5 below shows that the faction of the age of farmers in farming oyster

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mushrooms in Pekuncen subdistrict mostly aged 41-50 years as many as 13 people. Lowest occupied by respondents with ages 30-40 as many as 6 people, while those aged more than 51 years as many as 11 people. Thus it can be concluded that the seen from the age group, some respondents were of reproductive age. Age composition of the respondent farmers in detail can be seen in the following table. Table 5. Age farmer respondents in oyster mushroom farms in the district in 2011 Pekuncen Number. Age (years) Frequency (soul) Percentage (%) 1. 30 – 40 6 20 2. 41 – 50 13 44 3. > 51 11 36 Total 30 100 Sources: Primary data was processed 2. Respondent education Education level of respondents ranged from elementary school through graduateschool. More data can be seen in table 6 below: Table 6. Education farmer respondents of oyster mushroom farms in Pekuncen subdistrict in 2011 Frequency Number. Level of education Percentage (%) (soul) 1. primary school 14 46,66 2. graduated junior High School 14 46,66 3. graduated high school 2 6,66 Total 30 100,00 Sources: Primary data was processed The level of education have an influence on farmers in adapting technologies and skills in managing their business. This means that the higher the educationlevel of farmers, the sooner in adapting a new technology and is

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expected to be more rational. From the above table that the level of education show oyster mushroom farmers on average are the primary and secondary school that is alike 46.66 percent or as many as 14 people, while the rest are farmers with high school education level of 6.66 percent or as much as 2 people.

C. Analysis Results and Dsicussion 1. Oyster Mushroom Farming in Sub Pekuncen Oyster mushroom farming in Pekuncen Subdistrict regency generally still managed with a simple business in Banyumas well.

scale as

generally, mushroom growers in pekuncen subdistrict make kumbung / mushroom houses inside the house, the farmer simply adding shelves in the room which is used as mushroom house asa place to put baglog. But there are farmers who deliberately makes kumbung /mushroom houses outside the farm house. Starting from an oyster mushroom cultivation training held by village officials who cooperate with an entrepreneur mushrooms in 2004, residents invited to attend the training. Until that time about 80 Pekuncen subdistrict residents were mushroom growers. But in 2006 the number of mushroom growers began to decrease, by reason of the higher production costs along with rising kerosene prices are increasingly scarce as media

sterilization oyster mushrooms.

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In 2009 the dwindling oyster mushroom growers, farmers had to use firewood as a substitute for kerosene as mushroom growers in other regions, but after the conversion of kerosene to gas, people end up using gas instead of kerosene and mushroom farmers were intending to return producing oyster mushrooms. Until now there were 30 oyster farmers who have started production again. 2. Oyster mushroom Farming Profit One of the goals of farmers in farming mushrooms is to earn an income greater than the costs incurred for the oyster mushroom farming activities in order to obtain the net income or earnings. Oyster mushroom farm profit is the difference between total revenue (Total Revenue) with a total cost (Total Cost). Total revenue is the production. product between the unit price by the number of

Total cost is the sum of all expenses incurred during the

production process. To determine whether the oystermushroom farming can benefit or not the farmer then must know the cost, revenue and the BEP obtained in these farms. a. Oyster Mushroom Farming Costs Production costs in oyster mushroom farms covering all expenses incurred during the production process that includes fixed costs and variable costs. Fixed costs on the farm include the cost of the oyster mushroom kumbung depreciation, equipment depreciation and wages make baglog. While the variable costs which include the cost of purchasing seedlings, fine bran,

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sawdust,

gas, plastic bags, limestone,

gypsum,

fertilizers TSP,

calcium,

paralon, plastic 15x30 kg and labor. Breakdown of production costs to be incurred by mushroom growers are as follows: 1) Cost of seedlings Price of oyster mushroom’s seed is Rp 8.000,00 per vial. 2) The cost of fine bran The price is Rp 1.600,00 fine bran per kilogram. 3) Cost of sawdust Price sawdust is Rp 250,00 per kg. 4) The cost of gas The gas used is refilled with the gas price of Rp 15.000,00 5) The cost of plastic bags Plastics are used there are two kinds of plastic, plastic with the size of 15x30 to make baglog and plastic with the size of 0.5 x 20 mm with a length of 40 cm to the sterilization process. The price of plastic at the time of the study are as follows: (a) Plastic baglog : Rp 23.500,00 per pack

(b) Plastic sterilization : Rp 21.000,00 per pack 6) The cost of lime

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Lime price was Rp 5.000,00 per kg 7) The cost of gypsum Price gypsum is Rp 3.500,00 per kg 8) The cost of fertilizer or vitamin Fertilizer or vitamins used is TSP fertilizer and calcium, while the price of TSP fertilizer and calcium at the time of the study are as follows: (a) TSP Fertilizer (b) Calcium 9) Cost paralon Paralon price is Rp 14.000,00 10) Cost of labor Labor costs accounted for either from family or wage labor, labor in use during maintenance and harvesting, while the amount of wages is Rp 15.000,00 per day. 11) The cost of equipment depreciation This calculation is based on the depreciation of production equipment used. Production tools include shovels, hoes, drums, gas stove, kaburator stoves and gas cylinders. 12) Depreciation kumbung mushrooms : Rp 750,00 per kg : Rp 3.000,00 per kg

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These calculations are based on depreciation kumbung mushrooms per production or per 6 months. 13) The cost of making baglog The wage of making baglog is given to make baglog. Wage is Rp 75,00 per baglog. Each farmer has a different broad of kumbung, the amount of production costs incurred by each farmer is different. To determine the costs incurred in the District of oyster mushroom farmers Pekuncen can be seen in Table 7. While the calculations can be seen in appendix 2, 3 and 4. Table 7. Oyster Mushroom Farm Production Costs in Pekuncen subdistrict in October 2010 - April 2011 Averag Averag Average Type of cost Stratum I e Stratum II e Stratum III per m² per m² per m² 1. Variable (Rp) a. Wage labor 12.690.000 28.263 5.005.000 19.627 3.575.000 15.889 b. seed 228.000 508 120.000 470 100.000 444 c. Fine bran 278.400 620 168.000 659 144.000 640 d. Sawdust 272.000 606 145.500 570 125.000 555 e. Gas 540.000 1.203 420.000 1.647 390.000 1.733 f. Plastic sterilization 1.134.000 2.525 924.000 3.623 861.000 3.826 g. Lime 220.000 490 135.000 529 130.000 578 h. Gypsum 91.000 203 49.000 192 52.500 233 i. Tsp fertilizer 13.500 30 10.500 41 7.500 33 j. Calcium 54.000 120 42.000 165 30.000 133 k. Paralon (PVC) 1.008.000 2.245 686.000 2.690 574.000 2.551 l. Plastic baglog 2.115.000 4.710 1.128.000 4.423 963.500 4.282 m. Wage make 1.871.325 4.168 1.062.450 4.166 937.500 4.166 baglog 2. Fixed Costs 1.749.966 3.897 5.140.093 20.157 5.209.905 23.155 Total 22.265.191 49.588 15.035.543 66.824 13.099.905 58.222 Sources: Primary data was processed

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From Table 7 above is known that production costs in farming oyster mushrooms for strata I was Rp 22,265,191 to Rp 15,035,543 stratum II,

whereas for the stratum III of Rp 13,099,905. The biggest cost allocation is to wage laborcosts. Baglog plastic costs on the next sequence, then followed by the cost ofplastic sterilization, wages make baglog, fixed costs, plastic gutter, gas, fine bran, sawdust, seeds, lime, gypsum, calcium, and TSP fertilizer Table 8. Average Production Cost per farmer of Oyster Mushroom Farming in Pekuncen subdistrict October 2010 - April 2011 Total cost Frequency of Average (Rp/person) Strata (Rp) respondents (person) I 22.265.191 18 1.236.955 II 15.035.543 7 2.147.935 III 13.099.905 5 2.619.981 Average 16.800.213 30 2.001.623 Sources: Primary data was processed From Table 8 above can be seen that the average total production cost incurred by each mushrooms farmer in the Pekuncen subdistrict in oyster mushroom farms in one time period for stratum I was Rp 1,236,955 and in stratum II Rp 2,147,935, while for stratum III was Rp 2,619,981 Table 9. Average Production Cost per m² of Oyster Mushroom farming in Pekuncen subdistrict October 2010 - April 2011 Average Broad of kumbung Strata Total cost (Rp) (Rp/person) (m²) I 22.265.191 II 15.035.543 III 13.099.905 Rata-rata 16.800.213 Sources: Primary data was processed 449 255 225 309 49.588,40 58.962,91 58.221,80 55.579,03

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Based on table 9 above can be known magnitude of the average production cost per m² for stratum I reached Rp 49588.40, while the Rp 66824.64 stratum II and stratum III Rp 58221.80. b. Acceptance Oyster Mushroom Farming The aim of a farm is to obtain income that can improve the living standard of farmers. The amount of output per farmer for a single production process can be seen in the table below Table 10. Results The average production per farmer of Oyster Mushroom Farming in the Pekuncen subdistrict of October 2010 - April 2011 Production result Frequency of Average (Rp/ Strata (kg) respondents (person) person) I 4.983 449 276,833 II 2.833 255 404,714 III 2.500 225 500,000 Average 3.439 309 393,849 Sources: Primary data was processed From Table 10 above can be seen that the magnitude of the average production per farmer for a one-time production period in stratum I as much as 276.833 pounds. In stratum II as much as 404.714 pounds and in stratum III as much as 500 pounds. To know the size of the average production per m² on each stratum, can be seen in the following table.

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Table 11. Average Production per m² at Oyster Mushroom Farming in Pekuncen Subdistrict October 2010 - April 2011 Production Result Broad of Kumbung Strata Average (kg/ m²) (kg) (m²) I 4.983 449 11,098 II 2.833 255 11,109 III 2.500 225 11,111 Average 3.438 309 11,106 Sources: Primary data was processed From the table above it could be seen the average production for stratum I was 11.098 kilogram per m². For stratum II was 11.109 kilogram per m², and for stratum III was 11.111 kilogram per m². After knowing the size of production, so the revenue of oyster mushrooms farmer is knowable. Revenue of oyster mushroom farming is a multiplication between price and production results. From the following table 12 it could be seen that the average income per respondent for stratum I was Rp 2,076,250, for stratum II was Rp 3,035,357 and for stratum III was Rp 4,000,000 Table 12. Average income per farmer of Oyster Mushroom farming in Pekuncen subdistrict October 2010 - April 2011 Income Frequency of Strata Average (Rp/person) (Rp) Respondent (person) I 37.372.500 18 2.076.250 II 21.247.500 7 3.035.357 III 20.000.000 5 4.000.000 Average 26.206.666 10 3.037.202 Sources: Primary data was processed To know the size of the oyster mushroom farm receipts in the Pekuncen subdistrict per m² it could be seen in the table below

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Table 13. Average income per m² of Oyster Mushroom farming in Pekuncen subdistrict October 2010 - April 2011 Income Broad of Strata Average (Rp/m²) (Rp) Kumbung (m²) I 37.372.500 449 83.234,966 II 21.247.500 255 83.323,529 III 20.000.000 225 88.888,889 Average 26.206.666,67 309,67 85.149,128 Sources: Primary data was processed From the table above, it could be seen that the highest income was stratum III with Rp 88888.889. It is because the price of oyster mushroom in stratum III was Rp 8000. Different from stratum I and stratum II, the price were Rp 7500. It is because farmers in stratum III sold their harvest directly to the seller, while the oyster mushroom farmers in stratum I and II sols their harvest at the collectors which gave the price of Rp 7500. c. Oyster Mushroom Farming Profit Proft (net income) is the difference between total income by total cost. To know the size of the oyster mushroom income per farmer in Pekuncen subdistrict, it could be seen in table 14 below. Table 14. Average Net Income per Farmer of Oyster Mushroom farming in Pekuncen subdistrict October 2010 - April 2011 Net Income Strata Total Revenue (Rp) Total Cost (Rp) (Rp/person) I 2.076.250 1.234.177 842.072 II 3.035.357 2.147.934 887.422 III 4.000.000 2.619.981 1.999.302 Average 3.037.202 2.000.697 1.242.932 Sources: Primary data was processed

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From the results of these calculations, it could be known the average of net income (profit) of oyster mushrooms business per farmer in Pekuncen subdistrict for stratum I was Rp 842.072, followed by stratum II with Rp 887.422. And stratum III with the highest net income of Rp 1.999.302. Table 15. Average Net Income per m² of Oyster Mushroom farming in Pekuncen subdistrict October 2010 - April 2011 Net income Strata Total Revenue (Rp) Total cost (Rp) (Rp/m²) I 83.234,966 49.477,04 33.757,926 II 83.323,529 58.962,91 24.360,615 III 88.888,889 58.221,80 30.667,089 Average 85.149,128 40.698,58 29.595,210 Sources: Primary data was processed Based on table 15, the average net income (profit) per m² oyster mushroom business in Pekuncen subdistrict for stratum I was Rp 33.757,926 for stratum II was Rp 24.360,615 and for stratum III was Rp 30.667,089 d. Break Even Point (BEP) BEP or break-even point can be interpreted as a point or state where the company in its operations did not benefit and did not losses. In other words, the state's gain or loss equal to zero. This can happen when a company in its operations using fixed costs, and sales volume is only sufficient to cover fixed costs and variable costs. If the sale is only sufficient to cover variable costs and some fixed costs, then the company suffers losses, and vice versa would benefit, if sales exceed the variable costs and fixed costs that must be issued. Break even analysis can generally provide information on how the pattern of

48

the relationship between sales volume, cost / cost, and level of benefits to be gained at certain sales levels. Actually, the oyster mushroom business had been feasible and even should be increase because it was still and also farmer's incomes were still above the breakeven point (BEP) in both stratum I, II, and III. Table 16. Average Break-Even Point per m² of Oyster Farming in Pekuncen subdistrict October 2010 - April 2011 Number. Analysis Stratum I Stratum II 1. Fixed cost (Rp) 1.749.966 5.140.093 2. Variable cost (Rp) 20.515.225 9.895.450 3. Production Volume (kg) 11,097 11,109 4. Selling Price (Rp/kg) 7.500,000 7.500,000 5. Acceptance (Rp) 83.234,966 83.323,529 6. Break Even Point a. Production Volume (kg) 6,576 7,861 b. Acceptance (Rp) 16.094,000 41.630,170 Sources: Primary data was processed Mushroom Stratum III 5.209.905 7.890.000 11,111 8.000,000 88.888,888 7,728 41.880,510

The average BEP of oyster mushroom business, in stratum I the volume production as much as 6.576 kilograms per m², while the average volume production produce by oyster mushroom farmers had reached 11.097 kilograms per m². In stratum II the average of BEP as much as 7.861 kilograms per m², while the average volume production produced by oyster mushroom farmers had reached 11.109 kilograms per m², and for stratum III the average BEP of the oyster mushroom farmer as much as 7.728 kilograms per m², while the average volume production produced by oyster mushroom farmers had reached 11.111 kilograms per m².

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Income from selling product at BEP for stratum I was Rp 16.094,000 per m². For stratum II was Rp 4.163,170 per m². And for stratum III was Rp 41.880,510 per m². Because of the income of each farmer either in stratum I, II, and III are greater than the value of income at BEP, it meant oyster mushroom business was profitable. Accordingly the hypothesis that oyster mushroom business in Pekuncen benefit for farmers was accepted. Based on Table 16 above shows that the oyster mushroom farm in Pekuncen subdistrict was able to provide a return for mushroom farmers, thus increasing their family incomes. Although capable of delivering a profit but the profit levels achieved by farmers is still low perceived. This happens because the following factors: 1) The sale price is fluctuating oyster mushrooms on the market are sometimes detrimental to mushroom farmers when selling their crops. This is because sometimes people prefer to buy chicken instead of mushroom because of the tastes. 2) Lack of marketing breadth of oyster mushrooms. So far, the oyster mushroom growers in Pekuncen subdistrict only sell their crops to markets around the course, the reason is when there is a buyer from outside the area who order in large quantities, oyster mushroom growers in Pekuncen subdistrict subdistrict can not fill orders because most farmers produce their own mushrooms and not in a larger scale.

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3. Oyster Mushroom Business Feasibility The main purpose of a business is to obtain financial gain or profit. Therefore the determination of appropriateness of a business that is planned and will be implemented or whether a business is determined by the possibility of financial benefit to be gained. ROI is an analysis tool to determine the operating profit earned in relation to capital employed. To know the size of the ROI can be seen in the table below. Table 17. The average Return On Investment (ROI) of Oyster Mushroom Farming in Pekuncen subdistrict October 2010 - April 2011 Strata Profit (Rp) Capital (Rp) ROI I 33.757,93 49.477,04 0,68 II 24.360,62 58.962,91 0,41 III 30.667,09 58.221,80 0,52 Total 88.785,64 166.661,75 1,61 Average 29.595,21 55.553,917 0,53 Sources: Primary data was processed From the ROI calculation in table 12 above, it could be seen that the ROI was 0.53. This suggested that the ability of the overall capital in generating profits amounted to 0.53 which meant of every Rp 1.00 capital invested would result in a profit of Rp 0.53. To determine that ROI has been efficient or not, the ROI must be compared with interest rate of commercial banks. If the ROI is greater than interest rate it meant oyster mushroom business shows a fairly good prospect and feasible to be cultivated, otherwise if the ROI less than interest rate it meant oyster mushroom business shows a lack of good prospects and not feasible to cultivated. From the above table, the ROI was greater than the

51

interest rate of commercial banks that 7.25 percent which in this case is a reasonable interest rate denominated in rupiah deposits at commercial banks (LPS May 14, 2011). Accordingly the hypothesis that oyster mushroom business in Pekuncen subdistrict feasible to be developed was accepted.

4. The efficiency of oyster mushroom Farming Income or a big pay off is no guarantee that the effort undertaken to provide profit because it could be obtained with a greater expenditure. Therefore, in conducting a business, in order to obtain optimal benefits need to pay attention to the level of economic efficiency effort undertaken. Economical efficiency of oyster mushroom farming is a comparison between the total revenue to total cost. High degree of efficiency illustrates that the total income earned is greater than the total cost. The greater of the total earned income than the total costs incurred, the more efficient farms also carried out so that expected profits from the optimum. To determine whether a business has been efficient or not can be measured using cost return ratio (R/C). Based on the calculations can be known the level of efficiency in the oyster mushroom farm in Pekuncen subdistrict for stratum I was 1.68 for stratum II was 1.41 and for stratum III was 1.52. This is because the oyster mushroom growers in stratum I have kumbung mushrooms indoors, meaning growers in strata I did not specifically make kumbung / mushroom house, the

52

farmer only makes the shelf as a place to put baglogs in their house so not too much cost. While partly the mushroom growers in stratum II make their kumbung in their homes and some have specifically made kumbung mushrooms out of their homes. In contrast to of all mushroom growers in stratum III have kumbung mushrooms outside the home, which means farmers are specifically made kumbung mushrooms, so that farmers in stratum III spending more cost and so the efficiency of the stratum III was smaller than stratum I. More detail can be seen in the following table Table 18. Oyster Mushroom business Efficiency in Pekuncen subdistrict October 2010 - April 2011 Strata Total revenue (Rp) Total cost (Rp) Efficiency I 83.234,966 49.477,04 1,68 II 83.323,529 58.962,91 1,41 III 88.888,889 58.221,80 1,52 Total 85.149,128 55.553,92 4,61 Average 28.383,043 18.517,97 1,53 Sources: Primary data was processed Based on the calculation of cost return ratio (R / C) overall, oyster mushroom business in Pekuncen was already efficient indicated by the value of R / C greater than 1 that was equal to 1.53. R / C 1.53; it meant every expenditure of Rp 1.00 earned revenue amounting to Rp 1.53. Accordingly the hypothesis that oyster mushroom business in Pekuncen had been efficient was accepted.

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IV. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS A. Conclusion 1. Oyster mushroom business in Pekuncen subdistrict had been profitable because it had been passed the volume of production and income at the Break Even Point (BEP). 2. Farming done by mushroom farmer in Pekuncen subdistrict had been said feasible because it the ROI value was higher than banks interest rate that was equal to 0.53 or 53 percent, while the banks interest rate was only 7.25 percent. 3. Overall obtained of R / C ratio from oyster mushroom business were 1,53. It meant that each Rp 1.00 of cost was used to gain acceptance Rp 1.53. So the oyster mushroom business in Pekuncen subdistrict was efficient and could be developed for farmers income more than the production costs.

B. Implications 1. Oyster mushroom farmers could be more pressing on production costs so obtained higher profit for example by replacing one of the costs of production, eg changing the gas with woods that cheaper and easier in getting in the Pekuncen subdistrict. 2. Oyster mushroom farmers were expected to have a concerted effort in raising capital and income, for example by forming farmer groups, so it will be easier in getting informations needed by mushrooms farmers.

54

3.

Given Oyster Mushroom farming is prospective to be developed and there are still requiring capital, so necessary support from the government (BPPT of Pekuncen subdistrict) or financial institutions, especially in terms of credit so farmers could further develop the business and increase revenue.

55

REFERENCES

Ahyari, A., 1992. Analisis Pulang Pokok: Pendekatan Garis Lurus, BPFE. Yogyakarta Badan Pusat Statistik, 2010. Pekuncen Dalam Angka, BPS, Banyumas Badan Pusat Statistik, 2011. Statistik Indonesia, BPS, Jakarta. Boediono, 2002. Ekonomi Mikro : Seri Sinopsis Pengantar Ilmu Ekonomi No. 1, BPFE, Yogyakarta. Bungin, Burhan 2001. Metodologi Penelitian Sosial. Airlangga University Press, Surabaya. Henanto, F. 1996. Ilmu Usaha Tani, Penebar Swadaya, Jakarta. Ian Worthington, dkk. 2001. Economics for business. Blending theory and practice. Financial Times. Prentice Hall. Mubyarto. 1995. Pengantar Ekonomi Pertanian, LP3ES, Jakarta. Rahardi, dkk. 2000. Agribisnis Perikanan, Penebar Swadaya, Jakarta Rina Pratiwi. 2005. Analisis Usaha Pembenihan Ikan Gurami Pada Usaha Perikanan Darat Di Desa Kedungbanteng Kabupaten Banyumas, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto. Soekartawi. 1987. Prinsip Dasar Ekonomi Pertanian Dan Aplikasinya, CV Rajawali, Jakarta. --------------. 2002. Analisis Usahatani, Penerbit universitas Indonesia, Jakarta. Sugiyono. 1999. Metode Penelitian Bisnis, Alfabeta, Bandung. Sadono, Sukirno. 2005. Miroekonomi Teori Pengantar. PT. RajaGrafindo. Suparmoko. 1998. Pengantar Ekonomi Mikro. Edisi III. Cetakan Ke-1. BPFE Yogyakarta. Umar, husein. 2005. Metode penelitian untuk skripsi dan tesis bisnis. PT. Rajagrafindo Persada, Jakarta. Wiens Anorga. 2004. Kamus Istilah Ekonomi. Edisi Ekonomis. M2S. Bandung

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Win Hornby, dkk. 2001. Business Economics. Second Edition. Financial Times. Prentice Hall. Wirarta, I Made. 2006. Metodologi penelitian social ekonomi. C.V. Andi Offset. Yogyakarta.

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APPENDIX

58

Appendix 1. Mushroom Growers Identity strata Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Total Name Sudiyah Soni Yeni Supriyadi Suhadi Daldiri Endriah Yono Rudin Sahidi Sa'diyah Suwarto Kusriadi Mawardi Slamet Samsu Budi Kasirah Age 51 43 37 42 52 49 35 39 42 51 43 48 49 52 44 38 33 54 Education SD SMP SMP SD SD SD SMP SMP SD SD SMP SMP SD SMP SMP SMA SMA SD Broad of kumbung(m²) 21 21 24 25 21 24 30 24 25 25 25 21 24 30 30 24 30 25 449

Stratum I

59

Continuation of appendix 1 strata Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total Name Sarip Tasirin Puji Sayuti Sularsih Kasturi Tiwan Age 56 48 38 43 43 52 55 Education SMP SMP SMP SD SD SD SD Broad of kumbung(m²) 36 32 36 35 40 36 40 255

Stratum II

strata

Number 1 2 3 4 5 Total

Name Darsun Darsono Saefudin Kusman Slamet

Age 56 54 48 45 51

Education SD SMP SMP SMP SD

Broad of kumbung(m²) 45 45 48 42 45 225

Stratum III

60

Appendix 2. The detail of Fixed cost of Oyster Mushroom Farms in Pekuncen subdistrict in Oktober 2010 Broad of kumbung (m²) 21 21 24 25 21 24 30 24 25 25 25 21 24 30 30 24 30 25 449 Shrinkage of kumbung (Rp) 36250 36250 93750 97656 36250 93750 117187 43750 97656 43750 97656 36250 43750 117187 117187 43750 117187 93750 1362966 Shrinkage of equipments (Rp) 21500 21500 21500 21500 21500 21500 21500 21500 21500 21500 21500 21500 21500 21500 21500 21500 21500 21500 387000

Strata

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

TFC (Rp) 57750 57750 115250 119156 57750 115250 138687 65250 119156 65250 119156 57750 65250 138687 138687 65250 138687 115250 1749966

Stratum I

Total

61

Continuation of appendix 2 Strata 1 2 3 Stratum 4 II 5 6 7 Jumlah No. Broad of kumbung (m²) 36 32 36 35 40 36 40 255 Shrinkage of kumbung (Rp) 140625 125000 140625 136718 156250 140625 156250 996093 Shrinkage of equipments (Rp) 592000 592000 592000 592000 592000 592000 592000 4144000 TFC (Rp) 732625 717000 732625 728718 748250 732625 748250 5140093

Strata 1 2 Stratum 3 III 4 5 Total

No.

Broad of kumbung (m²) 45 45 48 42 45 225

Shrinkage of kumbung (Rp) 175781 175781 187500 164062 175781 878905

Shrinkage of equipments (Rp) 820500 820500 1049000 820500 820500 4331000

TFC (Rp) 996281 996281 1236500 984562 996281 5209905

Appendix 3. The detail of Variable cost of Oyster Mushroom Farms in Pekuncen subdistrict in Oktober 2010
Wage Labor (Rp) mainte Harvest nance period period 30000 675000 30000 675000 30000 675000 30000 675000 30000 675000 30000 675000 30000 675000 30000 675000 30000 675000 30000 675000 30000 675000 30000 675000 30000 675000 30000 675000 30000 675000 30000 675000 30000 675000 30000 675000 1215000 540000 0 seed (Rp) 12000 12000 12000 12000 12000 12000 16000 12000 12000 12000 12000 12000 12000 16000 16000 12000 12000 12000 228000 Fine bran (Rp) 12800 12800 14400 14400 12800 14400 20800 14400 14400 14400 14400 12800 14400 20800 20800 14400 20800 14400 278400 sawdus t (Rp) 12500 12500 15000 15000 12500 15000 18000 15000 15000 15000 15000 12500 15000 18000 18000 15000 18000 15000 272000 gas (Rp) 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 540000 Plastic steriliza tion (Rp) 63000 63000 63000 63000 63000 63000 63000 63000 63000 63000 63000 63000 63000 63000 63000 63000 63000 63000 113400 0 Lime (Rp) 10000 10000 12500 12500 10000 12500 15000 12500 12500 12500 12500 10000 12500 15000 15000 12500 10000 12500 220000 Gipsu m (Rp) 3500 3500 5250 5250 3500 5250 7000 5250 5250 5250 5250 3500 5250 7000 7000 5250 3500 5250 91000 TSP fertiliz er (Rp) 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 13500 calciu m (Rp) 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 54000 Paralon (PVC) (Rp) 56000 56000 56000 56000 56000 56000 56000 56000 56000 56000 56000 56000 56000 56000 56000 56000 56000 56000 100800 0 Plastic 15x30 kg (Rp) 94000 94000 117500 117500 94000 117500 141000 117500 117500 117500 117500 94000 117500 141000 141000 117500 141000 117500 211500 0 Wage make baglog (Rp) 87525 87525 100050 104175 87525 100050 125025 100050 104175 104175 104175 87525 100050 125025 125025 100050 125025 104175 187132 5

Strata

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

TVC (Rp) 1090075 1090075 1134450 1138575 1090075 1134450 1200575 1134450 1138575 1138575 1138575 1090075 1134450 1200575 1200575 1134450 1188075 1138575 2051522 5

Stratu mI

Total

62

Continuation of appendix 3
Wage Labor (Rp) mainte Harvest nance period period 40000 675000 40000 675000 40000 675000 40000 675000 40000 675000 40000 675000 40000 675000 280000 4725000 seed (Rp) 16000 16000 16000 16000 20000 16000 20000 120000 Fine bran (Rp) 24000 20800 24000 24000 25600 24000 25600 168000 sawdus t (Rp) 20000 18000 20000 20000 23750 20000 23750 145500 gas (Rp) 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 420000 Plastic steriliza tion (Rp) 126000 126000 126000 126000 147000 126000 147000 924000 Lime (Rp) 20000 15000 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 135000 TSP fertiliz er (Rp) 7000 1500 7000 1500 7000 1500 7000 1500 7000 1500 7000 1500 7000 1500 49000 10500 Gipsu m (Rp) calciu m (Rp) 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 42000 Paralon (PVC) (Rp) 98000 98000 98000 98000 98000 98000 98000 686000 Plastic 15x30 kg (Rp) 164500 141000 164500 164500 164500 164500 164500 1128000 Wage make baglog (Rp) 150000 133350 150000 145800 166650 150000 166650 1062450

Strata

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

TVC (Rp) 1408000 1357650 1408000 1403800 1455000 1408000 1455000 9895450

Stratu m II

Total

Wage Labor (Rp) Strata No mainte nance period 40000 40000 40000 40000 40000 200000 Harvest period 675000 675000 675000 675000 675000 3375000 seed (Rp) 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 100000 Fine bran (Rp) 28800 28800 30400 27200 28800 144000 sawdus t (Rp) 25000 25000 26750 23250 25000 125000 gas (Rp) 75000 75000 90000 75000 75000 390000

Plastic steriliza tion (Rp) 168000 168000 189000 168000 168000 861000

Lime (Rp) 25000 25000 30000 25000 25000 130000

Gipsu m (Rp) 10500 10500 10500 10500 10500 52500

TSP fertiliz er (Rp) 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 7500

calciu m (Rp) 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 30000

Paralon (PVC) (Rp) 112000 112000 126000 112000 112000 574000

Plastic 15x30 kg (Rp) 188000 188000 211500 188000 188000 963500

Wage make baglog (Rp) 187500 187500 200025 174975 187500 937500

TVC (Rp)

Stratu m III

1 2 3 4 5

Total

1562300 1562300 1656675 1546425 1562300 7890000

63

64

Appendix 4. Total cost of Oyster Mushroom Farms in Pekuncen subdistrict in Oktober 2010 Broad of kumbung (m²) 21 21 24 25 21 24 30 24 25 25 25 21 24 30 30 24 30 25 449

Strata

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

TFC (Rp) 57750 57750 115250 119156 57750 115250 138687 65250 119156 65250 119156 57750 65250 138687 138687 65250 138687 115250 1749966

TVC (Rp) 1090075 1090075 1134450 1138575 1090075 1134450 1200575 1134450 1138575 1138575 1138575 1090075 1134450 1200575 1200575 1134450 1188075 1138575 20515225

TC (Rp) 1147825 1147825 1249700 1257731 1147825 1249700 1339262 1199700 1257731 1203825 1257731 1147825 1199700 1339262 1339262 1199700 1326762 1253825 22265191

Stratum I

Total

65

Continuation of appendix 4 Strata No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Broad of kumbung (m²) 36 32 36 35 40 36 40 255 TFC (Rp) 732625 717000 732625 728718 748250 732625 748250 5140093 TVC (Rp) 1408000 1357650 1408000 1403800 1455000 1408000 1455000 9895450 TC (Rp) 2140625 2074650 2140625 2132518 2203250 2140625 2203250 15035543

Stratum II

Total

Strata

No 1 2 3 4 5

Stratum III Total

Broad of kumbung (m²) 45 45 48 42 45 225

TFC (Rp) 996281 996281 1236500 984562 996281 5209905

TVC (Rp) 1562300 1562300 1656675 1546425 1562300 7890000

TC (Rp) 2558581 2558581 2893175 2530987 2558581 13099905

Appendix 5. Total Revenue, Profit, and R / C of Oyster Mushroom Farm in the Pekuncen subdistrict in Oktober 2010 strata No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Broad of kumbung (m²) 21 21 24 25 21 24 30 24 25 25 25 21 24 30 30 24 30 25 449 Total baglog 1167 1167 1334 1389 1167 1334 1667 1334 1389 1389 1389 1167 1334 1667 1667 1334 1667 1389 24951 Q (kg) 233 223 267 278 233 267 334 267 278 278 278 233 267 334 334 267 334 278 4983 P / kg (Rp) 7500 7500 7500 7500 7500 7500 7500 7500 7500 7500 7500 7500 7500 7500 7500 7500 7500 7500 7500 TR (Rp) 1747500 1672500 2002500 2085000 1747500 2002500 2505000 2002500 2085000 2085000 2085000 1747500 2002500 2505000 2505000 2002500 2505000 2085000 37372500 TC (Rp) 1147825 1147825 1249700 1257731 1147825 1249700 1339262 1149700 1257731 1203825 1257731 1147825 1199700 1339262 1339262 1199700 1326762 1253825 22215191 Profit (Rp) 599675 524675 752800 827269 599675 752800 1165738 852800 827269 881175 827269 599675 802800 1165738 1165738 802800 1178238 831175 15157309 R/C 1.52244462 1.45710365 1.60238457 1.65774717 1.52244462 1.60238457 1.87043312 1.74175872 1.65774717 1.73197932 1.65774717 1.52244462 1.66916729 1.87043312 1.87043312 1.66916729 1.88805528 1.66291149 1.68229479

Stratum I

Total

66

Continuation of appendix 5 Strata No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Broad of kumbung (m²) 36 32 36 35 40 36 40 255 Total baglog 2000 1778 2000 1945 2222 2000 2222 14167 Q (kg) 400 356 400 389 444 400 444 2833 P / kg (Rp) 7500 7500 7500 7500 7500 7500 7500 7500 TR (Rp) 3000000 2670000 3000000 2917500 3330000 3000000 3330000 21247500 TC (Rp) 2140625 2074650 2140625 2132518 2203250 2140625 2203250 15035543 Profit (Rp) 859375 595350 859375 784982 1126750 859375 1126750 6211957 R/C 1.40145985 1.28696407 1.40145985 1.368101 1.51140361 1.40145985 1.51140361 1.41315149

Stratum II

Total

Strata

No 1 2 3 4 5

Stratum III Total

Broad of kumbung (m²) 45 45 48 42 45 225

Total baglog 2500 2500 2667 2333 2500 12500

Q (kg) 500 500 533 467 500 2500

P / kg (Rp) 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000

TR (Rp) 4000000 4000000 4264000 3736000 4000000 20000000

TC (Rp) 2558581 2558581 2893175 2530987 2558581 13099905

Profit (Rp) 1441419 1441419 1370825 1205013 1441419 6900095

R/C 1.56336657 1.56336657 1.47381337 1.47610399 1.56336657 1.52672863

67

68

Annex 6. Calculation of Break Even Point (BEP) of Oyster Mushroom in the Pekuncen Subdistrict in October 2010 To know the circumstances of a business analysis is used BEP can be calculated using the following formula: a) The BEP based on the volume of production BEP occurs when TR = TC
T T

P. Q =

b) Calculation of the BEP based on the acceptance

BEP rupiah =

BEP calculation of Stratum I a. The BEP based on the volume of production TR = TC P.Q= TC 7500.Q = 79477,04 Q = 79477,04 7500 = 6,597

69

b. Calculation of the BEP based on the acceptance = 8065,236 1- 41523,6 83234,97 = 16094

BEP calculation of Stratum II

a. The BEP based on the volume of production TR = TC P.Q = TC 7500.Q = 58962,91 Q = 58962,91 7500 = 7,861 b. Calculation of the BEP based on the acceptance = 24323,7 1- 34639,22 83323,53 = 41630,17

BEP calculation of Stratum III

a. The BEP based on the volume of production TR = TC P.Q = TC

70

8000.Q = 58221,8 Q = 58221,8 8000 = 7,278

b. Calculation of the BEP based on the acceptance = 27321,8 1- 30900 88888,89

= 41880,51

71

Appendix 7. The calculation of Return On Investment (Roi) At Oyster Mushroom Farming in Pekuncen Subdistrict in October 2010 To determine the feasibility of the business in relation to capital employed, use ROI analysis that is formulated as follows: ROI =

ROI Calculation of Stratum I = 33757,93 49477,04 = 0,682 ROI Calculation of Stratum II = 2436062 58962,91 = 0,413

ROI Calculation of Stratum III = 30667,09 58221,8 = 0,526

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Appendix 8. Questionnaire

DEPARTEMEN PENDIDIKAN NASIONAL UNIVERSITAS JENDERAL SOEDIRMAN FAKULTAS EKONOMI PURWOKERTO

KUESIONER ANALISIS USAHA JAMUR TIRAM DI KECAMATAN PEKUNCEN KABUPATEN BANYUMAS FEBRUARI 2011

A. KEADAAN UMUM RESPONDEN 1. Nama 2. Alamat 3. Umur : : :

4. Pendidikan a. Tidak tamat SD b. SD c. SMP d. SMA e. Akademi/PT 5. Jumlah tanggungan keluarga : 6. Jumlah anggota keluarga dalam satu rumah : 7. Apakah usahatani jamur tiram merupakan pekerjaan pokok? a. Jika ya, apakah memiliki pekerjaan selain usahatani jamur tiram? (Sebutkan) ……….. b. Jika tidak, apakah pekerjaan utamanya? (Sebutkan) ……….. 8. Luas kumbung yang dimiliki =....................m²

73

9. Status tanah yang diusahakan pada pertanyaan 7 adalah : a. Milik sendiri b. Menyewa 10. Jika menyewa, biaya sewa sebesar : Rp ........... 11. Besarnya pajak : Rp ............... 12. Modal yang digunakan : a. Modal sendiri b. Modal pinjaman 1) Bank 2) Koperasi 3) Pribadi 4) Lainnya (sebutkan)……….. 13. Pelaksanaan panenan a. Gotong royong b. Sendiri c. Buruh harian d. Lain-lain (sebutkan)............... 14. Lamanya masa panen: …………. Bulan 15. bagaimana sistem penjualannya? a. Dijual sendiri b. Pada pengepul c. Pada koperasi d. Lain-lain (sebutkan).................

B. BIAYA TETAP 1. Kumbung a. Membuat kumbung 1) Jumlah hari kerja 2) Jumlah tenaga kerja 3) Upah tenaga kerja = ...................... hari = ...................... orang = Rp ......................

74

2. Sekop

: ………… buah

Harga @ Rp……………… Jumlah 3. Cangkul :……………… : ………… buah

Harga @ Rp …………….. Jumlah 4. Drum : ……………… : ………… buah

Harga @ Rp……………… Jumlah 5. Kompor : ………………. : ………… buah

Harga @ Rp …………….. Jumlah : ………………

6. Kaburator kompor : … buah Harga @ Rp …………….. Jumlah : ………………

7. Tabung gas

: ………… buah

Harga @ Rp………………. Jumlah : ……………….

C. BIAYA VARIABEL 1. Bibit : ………… kantong Harga @ Rp……………… Jumlah : ……………..

75

2. Dedak halus: ………… kg Harga @ Rp …………….. Jumlah : ………………

3. Serbuk gergaji: ………. kg Harga @ Rp……………… Jumlah 4. Gas : ……………… : ………… buah

Harga @ Rp …………….. Jumlah : ………………

5. Kantong plastik: ……… bks Harga @ Rp……………… Jumlah 6. Kapur : ……………….. : ………… kg

Harga @ Rp …………….. Jumlah 7. Gips : ……………… : ……….... kg

Harga @ Rp……………… Jumlah : …………..

8. Pupuk TSP: ………… kg Harga @ Rp …………….. Jumlah 9. Kalsium : ……………… : ………… kg

Harga @ Rp……………… Jumlah : ………………

76

10. Paralon

: ………… meter

Harga @ Rp …………….. Jumlah ; ………………

11. Plastik 1,5kg: ……….... buah Harga @ Rp……………… Jumlah : ………………

12. …………… Harga @ Rp …………….. Jumlah : ………………

13. . …………... Harga @ Rp …………….. Jumlah : ………………

D. TENAGA KERJA 1. Masa pemeliharaan 1) Jumlah hari kerja 2) Jumlah tenaga kerja 3) Upah tenaga kerja/hari 4) Jumlah upah tenaga kerja 2. Masa panen 1) Jumlah hari kerja 2) Jumlah tenaga kerja 3) Upah tenaga kerja/hari = ……….. hari = ……….. = Rp ……….. = Rp ………... = ……….. hari = ……….. = Rp ……….. = Rp ……….

4) Jumlah upah tenaga kerja

77

E. PENDAPATAN 1. Hasil produksi satu periode 2. Harga jamur tiram/kg : ………. Kg : Rp……….

F. KEPEMILIKAN ASET 1. Aset yang dimiliki a. Rumah (dengan kondisi: sudah ditembok/belum ditembok) b. Kendaraan (sepeda, sepeda motor, mobil) c. Lainnya (sebutkan) ………….. 2. Status kepemilikan a. Milik sendiri b. Menyewa

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