1 Oil and Gas Resources and Reserves 7
1.1 Terminology and Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.2 Methods for Resources/Reserve Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2.1 AnalogyBased Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2.2 Volumetric Estimates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2.3 Performance Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
I Fundamentals 15
2 Basic Concepts of Petroleum Geology 17
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.2 The Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.2.1 Clastic Sedimentary Rocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.2.2 Nonclastic Sedimentary Rocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.3 The Origin and Habitat of Petroleum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.3.1 Source Rock and Generation of Petroleum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.3.2 Petroleum Migration and Accumulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.3.3 Classiﬁcation of Petroleum ReservoirForming Traps . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.4 Types of Hydrocarbon Traps on the Norwegian Continental Shelf . . . . . . . . 28
3 Basic Concepts and Deﬁnitions
in Reservoir Engineering 31
3.1 Continuum Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.2 Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.3 Saturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.3.1 Residual Saturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.3.2 Laboratory Determination of Residual Oil and Water Saturation . . . . 34
3.4 Reservoir Pressure and Distribution of Fluid Phases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.5 Pressure Distribution in Reservoirs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4 Porosity 45
4.1 General Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.2 Models of Porous Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.2.1 Idealised Porous Medium Represented by Parallel Cylindrical Pores . . 46
i
4.2.2 Idealised Porous MediumRepresented by Regular CubicPacked Spheres
47
4.2.3 Idealised Porous MediumRepresented by Regular OrthorhombicPacked
spheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.2.4 Idealised Porous MediumRepresented by Regular RhombohedralPacked
spheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
4.2.5 Idealised Porous Medium Represented by IrregularPacked Spheres
with Different Radii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
4.3 Porosity Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
4.4 Measurement of Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
4.4.1 FullDiameter Core Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
4.4.2 GrainVolume Measurements Based on Boyle’s Law . . . . . . . . . . 51
4.4.3 BulkVolume Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
4.4.4 PoreVolume Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
4.4.5 FluidSummation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
4.5 Uncertainty in Porosity Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
4.6 Porosity Estimation from Well Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
4.7 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
5 Permeability 63
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
5.2 Darcy’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
5.3 Conditions for Liquid Permeability Measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
5.4 Units of Permeability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
5.5 Gas Permeability Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
5.5.1 Turbulent Gas Flow in a Core Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
5.6 Factors Affecting Permeability Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
5.6.1 The Klinkenberg Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
5.7 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6 Wettability and Capillary Pressure 83
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
6.2 Surface and Interfacial Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
6.3 Rock Wettability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
6.4 Contact Angle and Interfacial Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
6.5 Capillary Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
6.5.1 Capillary Pressure Across Curved Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
6.5.2 Interfacial Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
6.5.3 Capillary Pressure in a Cylindrical Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
6.6 Capillary Pressure and Fluid Saturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
6.7 Pore Size Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
6.8 Saturation Distribution in Reservoirs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
6.9 Laboratory Measurements of Capillary Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
6.10 Drainage and Imbibition Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
6.10.1 Hysterisis in Contact Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
6.10.2 Capillary Hysterisis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
ii
6.11 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
7 Relative Permeability 111
7.1 Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
7.2 Rock Wettability and Relative Permeabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
7.3 Drainage/Imbibition Relative Permeability Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
7.4 Residual Phase Saturations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
7.5 Laboratory Determination of Relative Permeability Data . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
7.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
8 Compressibility of Reservoir Rock and Fluids 121
8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
8.2 Compressibility of Solids, Liquids and Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
8.2.1 Rock Stresses and Compressibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
8.2.2 Compressibility of Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
8.2.3 Compressibility of Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
8.3 Deformation of Porous Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
8.3.1 Compressibility Measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
8.3.2 Betti’s Reciprocal Theorem of Elasticity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
8.4 Compressibility for Reservoir Rock Saturated with Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
8.5 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
9 Properties of Reservoir Fluids 135
9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
9.2 Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
9.3 Representation of hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
9.3.1 Ternary diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
9.4 Natural gas and gas condensate ﬁelds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
9.5 Oil ﬁelds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
9.6 Relation between reservoir and surface volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
9.7 Determination of the basic PVT parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
9.8 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
II Reservoir Parameter Estimation Methods 153
10 Material Balance Equation 155
10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
10.2 Dry gas expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
10.3 A general oil reservoir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
10.3.1 A1: Expansion of oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
10.3.2 A2: Expansion of originally dissolved gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
10.3.3 B: Expansion of gas cap gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
10.3.4 C: Reduction in HCPV due to expansion of connate water and reduc
tion of pore volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
10.3.5 Production terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
10.4 The material balance equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
iii
10.5 Linearized material balance equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
10.6 Dissolved gas expansion drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
10.7 Gas cap expansion drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
10.8 Water inﬂux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
10.9 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
11 Well Test Analysis 173
11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
11.1.1 Systems of Uunits Used in Well Test Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
11.2 Wellbore Storage Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
11.3 Semi Logarithmic Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
11.3.1 Diffusivity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
11.3.2 Solution of the Diffusitivity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
11.3.3 Gas Reservoir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
11.3.4 The Solution of the Diffusitivity Equation in Dimensionless Form . . . 181
11.3.5 Wellbore Pressure for Semi Logarithmic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
11.4 Semi Steady State Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
11.4.1 Average Reservoir Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
11.4.2 Well Skin Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
11.4.3 Wellbore Pressure at Semi Steady State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
11.5 Wellbore Pressure Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
11.5.1 Transition Time Between Semi Logarithmic Period and Semi Steady
State Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
11.5.2 Recognition of Semi Logarithmic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
11.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
12 Methods of Well Testing 193
12.1 Pressure Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
12.2 Pressure Drawdown Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
12.2.1 Pressure Drawdown Test Under Semi Logarithmic Conditions . . . . . 195
12.2.2 Pressure Drawdown Test Under Semi Steady State Conditions . . . . . 196
12.3 Pressure BuildUp Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
12.4 Pressure Test Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
12.4.1 Miller  Dyes  Hutchinson (MDH) Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
12.4.2 Matthews  Brons  Hazebroek (MBH) Analysis (Horner plot) . . . . . 201
12.5 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
iv
Preface
The topics covered in this book represent a review of modern approaches and practical methods
for analysing various problems related to reservoir engineering.
This textbook, part I Fundamentals and part II Reservoir Parameter Estimation Meth
ods, constitutes the main content of the book. The subjects presented, are based on the course
of lectures in Reservoir Engineering 1 held by the authors at the Rogaland University Centre
in the period from 1989 to 1995. Part III Fluid Flow in Porous Media and part IV Enhanced
Oil Recovery are a collection of subjects extending the fundamental knowledge into areas of
more advanced theoretical description. The last part VProjects Exercises presents quite a few
exercises of the type students are asked to solve at their examination test.
The book contains a short introduction to important deﬁnitions for oil and gas reservoirs
(Chapter 1). The two main parts of the book is related to petrophysics (Chapter 2 to 10), and
related to two important methods in Reservoir Engineering, namely Material Balance (Chapter
11) and Well Testing (Chapter 12, 13 and 14). Modelling of ﬂuid ﬂow in porous media is pre
sented through different examples using various mathematical techniques (Chapter 15 to 20).
Classiﬁcation and description of several methods used in enhanced oil recovery are associated
with examples for oil and gas ﬁelds in the North Sea (Chapter 21 to 27)
The Preface contains a list of some of the most commonly used parameters and systems of
units used in petroleum engineering.
In Chapter 1 some basic deﬁnitions of gas and oil reserves are given and the methods of
their evaluation.
Chapter 2 is a brief introduction to the basics of petroleum geology, with some illustra
tive examples relevant to the Norwegian Continental Shelf. This chapter contains some basic
concepts and deﬁnitions related to the origin, habitat and trapping of petroleum
In Chapter 3 some basic concepts and deﬁnitions used in Reservoir Engineering are pre
sented. Some laboratory techniques are explained and examples of equipment are shown. A
short description of reservoir pressure distribution is also presented.
Chapter 4 introduces porosity and some examples of experimental techniques used to
estimate porosity. Some examples describing the method of error propagation are also given.
Permeability is introduced in Chapter 5. A short deduction of Darcy’s law is given and
some examples of its use is described. Measurements of gas permeability is exempliﬁed and
together with laminar and turbulent gas ﬂow, some additional factors affecting permeability are
discussed.
In Chapter 6, viscosity is introduced and some basic equations, describing laminar ﬂuid
ﬂow are derived. Examples of different viscosity measuring techniques are discusses and some
ﬂow characteristics are mentioned.
1
2
Wettability and capillary pressure are discussed in Chapter 7. In this chapter we intro
duce the term surface energy to replace interfacial tension and an important relation between
surface energies are derived. Examples of the effect of capillary forces are given and different
experimental techniques are discussed.
Relative permeability is introduced brieﬂy inChapter 8. There has been no attempt made,
to give a broad and consistent description of relative permeability in this book. The chapter is
meant as an introduction to basic concepts of relative permeability and possibly an inspiration
for further reading.
In Chapter 9, some basic aspects of compressibility related to reservoir rock and ﬂuids are
introduced. Examples are related to the behaviour of porous reservoir rocks and core samples
under laboratory conditions.
Chapter 10 lists some basic deﬁnitions and properties related to reservoir ﬂuids. Volume
factors and other important relations are explained and examples of their use are given.
The Material Balance Equation is deduced inChapter 11. The equation is applied in sev
eral examples, describing different types of reservoirs, such as gasreservoir and oil reservoirs
with and without a gas cap.
Well test analysis is introduced in Chapter 12. A somewhat simpliﬁed derivation of the
pressure solution for three important production periods are presented, i.e., the wellbore storage
period, the semilogaritmic period and the semisteady state period. Dimensionless parameters
are used and the set of pressure solutions are presented.
Chapter 13 introduces some basic methods of well testing, like drawdown test, buildup
test and combinations of the two, are presented. Examples of two "classical" well test analysis
is also included.
Modern well test analysis, like transient testing techniques, is presented inChapter 14.
Use of type curves and matching techniques are shortly presented.
Part III Fluid Flow in Porous Media gives an introduction to mathematical modelling
of oil displacement by waterﬂooding. This part presents a broad classiﬁcation of models
describing ﬂuid ﬂow in porous media. Basic principles behind equations of Buckley Leverett
theory and their application are presented, as well as various analytical solution techniques.
Some few exercises are included at the end of this part.
Enhanced Oil Recovery is presented in part IV. A basic mathematical description of EOR
methods are given and various methods are classiﬁed. Examples of polymer ﬂooding is pre
sented as well as EOR related to surfactants and different solvents. Various techniques using
WAG, foams and Microbial methods are also brieﬂy described.
Most chapters in part I and II contain several exercises, illustrating the concepts and meth
ods presented, while all exercises in part III and IV are added at the end.
This book does not contain complicated mathematical equations or calculus. The math
ematical prerequisite required are minimal, though necessary. The student should know the
elements of matrix and linear algebra, probability theory and statistics, and also be acquainted
with single and partialdifferential equations and methods of their solution. In part III and IV,
however some slightly more advanced mathematical formalism is used.
A reference list is given at the end of the book. The book does not cover all the relevant
literature, nor is the reference list intended to be a complete bibliography. Only some necessary
references and key publications are included in the reference list.
3
J.R. Ursin & A. B. Zolotukhin
Stavanger, 1997
4
Units and conversion factors
The basic knowledge of units and conversion factors is absolutely necessary in reservoir engi
neering, although the choice of industrial units depend on company, country or simply tradition.
Since the choice of units has been largely a question of preference, the knowledge of conversion
factors is practical necessary.
English and American units are most commonly used in the petroleum industry, but there is
a tendency to turn to SIunits or practical SIunits, especially in the practice of the Norwegian
and the other European oil companies.
In this book we will use both SIunits and industrial units in explaining the theory as well
as in examples and in exercises. Since both set of units are widely used in the oil industry, it is
important to be conﬁdent with both systems, simply due to practical reasons.
A selection of some of the most frequently used parameters are listed in the table below.
The Metric unit is seen as a practical SIunit, often used in displaying data or calculations.
Metric unit = Conversion factor Industry unit,
i.e. metric unit is found by multiplying a given industry unit by an appropriate conversion
factor.
5
Parameter (SI unit) Industry unit Conversion factor Metric unit
Area, m
2
sq mile 2.589988 km
2
acre 4046.856 m
2
sq ft 0.09290304 m
2
sq in. 6.4516 cm
2
Compressibility, Pa
−1
psi
−1
0.1450377 kPa
−1
Density, kg/m
3
g/cm
3
1000.0 kg/m
3
lbm/ft
3
16.01846 kg/m
3
o
API 141.5/(131.5 +
o
API) (γ
sg
)
∗
Flow rate, m
3
/s bbl/d 0.1589873 m
3
/d
ft
3
/d 0.02831685 m
3
/d
Force, N lbf 4.448222 N
pdl 138.2550 mN
dyne 0.01 mN
Length, m mile 1.609344 km
ft 30.48 cm
in. 2.54 cm
Pressure, Pa atm 101.325 kPa
bar 100.0 kPa
lbf/in.
2
(psi) 6.894757 kPa
mm Hg (0
o
C) 1.333224 kPa
dyne/cm
2
0.1 Pa
Mass, kg ton 1000 kg
lbm 0.4535924 kg
Temperature, K
o
C + 273.15 K
o
F (
o
F32)/1.8
o
C
R 5/9 K
Surface tension, N/m dyne/cm 1.0 mN/m
Viscosity, Pas cp (poise) 0.001 Pas
Volume, m
3
acreft 1233.489 m
3
cu ft 0.02831685 m
3
bbl 0.1589873 m
3
U.S. gal 3.785412 dm
3
liter 1.0 dm
3
∗
Spesiﬁc gravity of oil.
6
Chapter 1
Oil and Gas Resources and Reserves
1.1 Terminology and Deﬁnitions
In the period from 1936 to 1964, the American Petroleum Institute (API) set some guiding stan
dards for the deﬁnition of proved reserves. They were presented in a joint publication of API
and the American Gas Association (AGA), "Proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas liquids
and natural gas", in 1946. In 1964, the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) recommended
reserve deﬁnitions following the revised API deﬁnitions. In 1979, the U.S. Security and Ex
change Commission (SEC) issued a newer set of deﬁnitions, whereby also the SPE deﬁnitions
were updated in 1981. In 1983, the World Petroleum Congress issued a set of petroleum reserve
deﬁnitions, which included categories ranging fromproved to speculative reserves [2].
Fig. 1.1 shows a conceptual scheme of the oil and gas resources and reserves, where the
following deﬁnitions are used [2]:
Reserves are estimated volumes of crude oil, condensate, natural gas, natural
gas liquids, and associated substances anticipated to be commercially recoverable
from known accumulations from a given date forward, under existing economic
conditions, by established operating practices, and under current government regu
lations. Reserve estimates are based on geologic and/or engineering data available
at the time of estimate.
The relative degree of an estimated uncertainty is reﬂected by the categorisation of reserves
as either "proved" or "unproved"
Proved Reserves can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be recoverable
under current economic conditions. Current economic conditions include prices
and costs prevailing at the time of the estimate.
Reserves are considered proved is commercial producibility of the reservoir is
supported by actual engineering tests.
Unproved Reserves are based on geological and/or engineering data similar to
those used in the estimates of proved reserves, but when technical, contractual,
economic or regulatory uncertainties preclude such reserves being classiﬁed as
proved. They may be estimated assuming future economic conditions different
from those prevailing at the time of the estimate.
7
8 Chapter 1. Oil and Gas Resources and Reserves
Undiscoveed
Nonrecoverable
Resources
Recoverable
Resources
Reserves
Cumulative
Production
Proved
Reserves
Unproved
Reserves
Probable
Reserves
Possible
Reserves
Discovered
Total Oil and Gas Resource
Figure 1.1: Conceptual scheme for oil and gas resources and re
serves.
Unproved reserves may further be classiﬁedprobable and possible, see Fig. 1.1.
Probable Reserves are less certain than proved reserves and can be estimated with
a degree of certainty sufﬁcient to indicate they are more likely to be recovered than
not.
Possible Reserves are less certain than proved reserves and can be estimated with
a low degree of certainty, insufﬁcient to indicate whether they are more likely to
be recovered than not.
The estimation of reserves will depend upon the actual mode of petroleum recovery, which
may involve either a naturaldrive mechanism improved by water or gas injection, or some
special technique of enhanced oil recovery (EOR).
In general, "possible" reserves may include:
• Reserves suggested by structural and/or stratigraphic extrapolation beyond areas classi
ﬁed as probable, based on geological and/or geophysical interpretation.
• Reserves in rock formations that appear to be hydrocarbonbearing based on logs or
cores, but may not be productive at a commercial level.
• Incremental reserves based on inﬁll drilling are subject to technical uncertainty.
1.2 Methods for Resources/Reserve Estimation 9
• Reserves attributable to an improved or enhanced recovery method when a pilot project
is planned (but not in operation) and the rock, ﬂuid and reservoir characteristics are such
that a reasonable doubt exists whether the estimated reserves will be commercial.
• Reserves in a rock formation that has proved to be productive in other areas of the ﬁeld,
but appears to be separated from those areas by faults and the geological interpretation,
indicates a relatively low structurally position.
1.2 Methods for Resources/Reserve Estimation
1.2.1 AnalogyBased Approach
Another producing reservoir with comparable characteristics can be used as a possible analogue
for the reservoir under consideration, either by a direct welltowell comparison or on a unit
recovery basis. This can be done by determining an average oil or gas recovery per well in
the analogue reservoir (e.g., 100,000 bbl/well) and applying a similar or adjusted recovery
factor to the wells in the reservoir considered. The unitrecovery approach refers to a recovery
calculated in barrels per acrefoot or Mcf per acrefoot.
In an analogue approach, one has to consider similarities of well spacing, reservoir rock
lithofacies, rock and ﬂuid properties, reservoir depth, pressure, temperature, pay thickness and
drive mechanism. All possible differences between the analogue reservoir and the reservoir in
question need to be considered to make a realistic adjustment of the recovery estimates.
The use of an analogue may be the only method available to estimate the reserves in a situ
ation where there are no solid data on well performance or reservoir characteristics. However,
an analoguebased approach is also the least accurate and little reliable method of petroleum
reserve estimation, simply because perfect analogues can seldom be found.
1.2.2 Volumetric Estimates
The methods of reserve estimation based on reservoir data are volumetric and can be divided
into deterministic and probabilistic (stocastic) estimates. The main difﬁculty in a volumetric
estimate of resources/reserves is in the transfer of data obtained at a small scale (core analysis,
lithofacies data, well logs, etc.) into a much larger scale ( i.e. data "upscaling" for interwell
space).
Deterministic Methods
The principle of a deterministic approach to resources/reserve estimates is to "upscale" the
information derived from the wells and supported by seismic survey, into the interwell space
by using an interpolation technique.
The main parameters used for a volumetric estimate in this approach are:
• The reservoir "gross" isopach map, which means the bulk thickness of the reservoir rocks
(formation).
• The reservoir "net" isopach map, which means the cumulative thickness of the permeable
rock units only. The NettoGross ratio (N/G) is an important parameter indicating the
productive portion of the reservoir.
10 Chapter 1. Oil and Gas Resources and Reserves
• The reservoir rock porosity (as a volumebased weighed average):
φ =
∑
i
φ
i
A
i
h
i
∑
i
A
i
h
i
,
where φ is the local porosity, A
i
is a subarea and h
i
is a subthickness (of permeable rock).
• The permeability and netthickness product (kh
N
) is important for the estimation of well
production capacity:
(kh
N
) = h
N
∑
i
k
i
h
i
∑
i
h
i
=
N
G
∑
i
k
i
h
i
,
where k
i
is the local permeability (other symbols as above).
• Volumebased average saturation of water, gas and oil. For example water saturation:
S
w
=
∑
i
S
wi
φ
i
A
i
h
i
∑
i
φ
i
A
i
h
i
.
Plotting these parameters as contoured maps (isopachs, isoporosity, isopermeability, etc.)
provides the crucial information on their variation and distribution in the reservoir and makes
it possible to evaluate the reservoir pore volume and its fractions saturated with oil and gas
(hydrocarbon volume). The numerical value of hydrocarbon resources/reserve estimate their
represents an outcome of "integrated" map analysis.
Stochastic Methods
An alternative approach is a probabilistic estimation of resources/reserves, which takes more
account of the estimate uncertainty. Stochastic reservoir description is usually based on the pro
cedure of randomnumber generator. This numerical technique assumes that the main reservoir
properties (porosity, permeability, N/G, ect.) all have random, possibly normal, frequency dis
tributions, with the range of values included by core and welllog data. The maximum and
minimum values are speciﬁed for each of the reservoir parameters and the random number
generator then "drowns data", so to speak, and then simulates their actual density distribution
in the whole reservoir.
In practice, it is necessary to repeat the stochastic simulation for different "seeds" (initial
boundary values) in order to asses and quantify the actual variation of a given parameter. Each
numerical realisation bears an uncertainty for the reservoir characterisation, where the prob
abilistic rather than deterministic, is an estimate of resources/reserves. Different realisations
lead to different volumetric estimates, with different probabilities attached. The cumulative
frequency distributions of these estimates, that is used to asses their likelihood will be a very
unclear formulation. See Fig. 1.2.
In common usage [8] we have:
– An estimate with 90 % or higher probability is the level regarded as aproven value.
– An estimate with 50 % or higher probability is the level regarded as aproven + probable
value.
1.2 Methods for Resources/Reserve Estimation 11
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
o
f
c
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e
p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
Value Min Max
0.0
1.0
Probability, that a given
value of resources will
be at least as great
as shown
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
Min Max Value
Figure 1.2: Example of stochastic volumetric estimate based on a se
ries of randomnumber simulations.
– An estimate with 10 % or higher probability is the level regarded as aproven +probable
+ possible value.
As more information on the reservoir becomes available, the cumulative frequency graph
may change its shape and the uncertainty of our resource/reserve estimates may decrease, see
Fig. 1.3.
More generally, the problem of certainty can be considered in terms of "fuzzy" [61], prob
abilistic and deterministic estimates based on the data available at a particular time, as seen
in Fig. 1.4. A comparison of these estimates may be more revealing that each of them is in
isolation.
At the very early stages of ﬁeld appraisal, the data are usually too limited for using statis
tical analysis and, hence, a fuzzy estimate of the resources/reserves may be best or only option
[22, 28, 56]. The lack or scarsity of data in such cases is compensated by a subjective assess
ment of the reservoir characteristics (i.e. the shape of the distribution and the maximum and
minimum values of a given reservoir parameter), Based on the knowledge from other reservoirs
or simply a theoretical guess. A rectangular distribution means no preference and a triangular
distribution means that strong preference distributions are used.
When more data have been collected and statistical analysis becomes possible, aprobabilis
tic estimate can be made. The range in the possible values of the reservoir parameters would
then be narrower, compared to a fuzzy assessment. When the data available are abadundant, a
deterministic estimate can be made based on a well speciﬁed value of a particular parameter
for a particular part (zone, subunit or layer) of the reservoir.
1.2.3 Performance Analysis
The methods of performance analysis presently used include:
• Analysis based on Material Balance Equation (MBE) [33, 34].
• Reservoir Simulation Models (RSM) [10, 45].
12 Chapter 1. Oil and Gas Resources and Reserves
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
o
f
c
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e
p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
Value Min Max
0.0
1.0
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
o
f
c
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e
p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
Value Min Max
0.0
1.0
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
o
f
c
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e
p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
Value Min Max
0.0
1.0
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
o
f
c
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e
p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
Value Min Max
0.0
1.0
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
o
f
c
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e
p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
Value Min Max
0.0
1.0
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
o
f
c
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e
p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
Value Min Max
0.0
1.0
Predrilling Discovery Appraisal
Delineation/
early production
Mature
production
Late time
depletion
Figure 1.3: Changes in the uncertainty resources estimate with in
creasing data acquisition (after Archer and Wall, 1992).
• Decline Curve Analysis (DCA) [53].
The aim of all of these methods is to obtain the best reservoir performance prediction on
the basis of available data.
The MBE method is based on the data obtained from previous reservoir performance and
PVT analysis, but involves some assumptions for the reservoir driving mechanism in order
to minimise the range of possible predictions from the dataset. The method is thus adjusted
differently to reservoirs containing oil, gas or oil with a gas cap (primary or secondary).
The RSM method involves a numerical simulation technique, with the matching of the
production and the reservoir’s previous performance (history). The discrepancy between the
simulation results (prediction) and the available data is minimised by adjusting the reservoir
parameters and taking into account the most likely reservoir drive mechanism (history match).
The DCA method is to predict future performance of the reservoir by matching the ob
served trend of the production decline with one or several standard mathematical methods of
the production ratetime (hyperbolic, harmonic, exponential, ect.). If successful, such a perfor
mance analysis allows to estimate both the reserves and the future performance of the reservoir.
The following "decline curves" from production wells are commonly used in the DCA:
– Production rate vs. time.
– Production rate vs. cumulative oil production.
– Water cut vs. cumulative oil production.
1.2 Methods for Resources/Reserve Estimation 13
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
o
f
c
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e
p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
Value
0.0
1.0
M.L.V V.P.V
V.O.V
Fuzzy
Probabilistic
Deterministic
Figure 1.4: The concept of uncertainty in resources/reserves estima
tion illustrated by fuzzy, probabilistic and deterministic
approach (data set).
– Gasoil ratio vs. cumulative production.
– Percentage oil production vs. cumulative oil production.
– The (p/z) ratio vs. cumulative gas production.
Some of these decline curves are shown in Fig. 1.5.
14 Chapter 1. Oil and Gas Resources and Reserves
0
0 0
Cumulative oil producction Cumulative oil producction
Cumulative oil producction
Economic
limit
Economic
limit
Economic
limit
Economic
limit
G
q
0
Np
Np
Np Gp
q
Time
O
i
l
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
,
%
100
(
p
z
)
Figure 1.5: Different ways of data representation for a decline curve
analysis.
Part I
Fundamentals
15
Chapter 2
Basic Concepts of Petroleum Geology
2.1 Introduction
Reservoir Engineering is a part of Petroleum Science that provides the technical basis for the
recovery of petroleum ﬂuids from subsurface sedimentaryrock reservoirs.
The Fig. 2.1 below indicates the place and role of Reservoir Engineering in the broad ﬁeld
of Petroleum Science.
Geology and
Geophysics
Reservoir
Engineering
Production
Engineering
Facilities
Engineering
Reservoir correlation
Reservoir characterization
Geochemical studies
Workover reserve analysis, well completion design, production
facility design, production log interpretation, prediction of
production schedules
Design proposals for
separation, treating, metering
and pipeline facilities
Final facility design and
operation
Reserve estimates for well
proposal evaluation
Reserve estimates, material balance calculations, fluid flow
equations, reservoir simulation, pressure transient analysis,
well test design and evaluation
Reservoir screening for
improved recovery projects
Improved recovery project
design and maintenance
Figure 2.1: Reservoir engineering and petroleum science.
This chapter pertains to the basic concepts of Petroleum Geology and covers the following
17
18 Chapter 2. Basic Concepts of Petroleum Geology
main topics:
• The source rock of hydrocarbons.
• The generation, maturation, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons.
2.2 The Basic Concepts
Petroleum is a mineral substance composed of hydrocarbons and produced from the natural
accumulations of organic matter of a faunal and/or ﬂoral provenance. Petroleum is a gaseous,
liquid or semisolid substance, present in the pore space of porous rocks, referred to as reservoir
rocks, which are mainly of sedimentary origin.
2.2.1 Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
Sedimentary rocks results from the deposition of sedimentary particles, known as clastic mate
rial or detritus (from the Latin "worn down"), consisting of mineral grains and rock fragments.
Sedimentary particles are derived from weathered and fragmented older rocks, igneous, meta
morphic or sedimentary, usually with some chemical changes. Sediment comprising loose
mineral detritus or debris is referred to as clastic sediment (from the Greek word "klastos",
meaning broken). Some clastic sediments consist of the accumulations of skeletal parts or
shells of dead organisms, commonly fragmented, and are referred to as bioclastic rocks (see
next section). The particles of clastic sediment may range widely in size, and the predominant
grainsize fraction is the primary basis for classifying clastic sediments and clastic sedimentary
rocks. As shown in Table 2.1 clastic sediments can be divided into 4 main classes: gravel, sand,
silt, and clay [49], where mud is a mixture of clay and silt, possibly including also some very
ﬁne sand. The narrower the grainsize range of a given sediment, the better its "sorting". Both
the grain size and sorting have direct implications for the sediment permeability to ﬂuids.
Table 2.1: Deﬁnition of grainsize and the terminology for sediments
and sedimentary rocks.
Sediment Grainsize limits Unconsolidated Consolidated
grainsize fraction in mm sediment rock
Boulder More than 256 Boulder gravel Boulder conglomerate
∗
Cobble 64 to 256 Cobble gravel Cobble conglomerate
∗
Pebble 4 to 64 Pebble gravel Pebble conglomerate
∗
Granule 2 to 4 Granule grawel Granule coglomerate
∗
Sand 1/16 to 2 Sand Sandstone
Silt 1/256 to 1/16 Silt Siltstone
Clay Less than 1/256 Clay Claystone (clayshale, if ﬁssile)
Clay & slit mixture Mud Mudstone (mudshale, if ﬁssile)
∗
The term "gravelstone" is preferred by some authors on semantic basis [51].
2.2 The Basic Concepts 19
2.2.2 Nonclastic Sedimentary Rocks
Chemical Deposits
Some sedimentary rocks contain little or no clastic particles. Such a sediment, formed by the
precipitation of minerals from solution in water, is achemical sediment. It forms by means of
either biochemical or purely chemical (inorganic) reactions [51]. The primary porosity of such
rocks is practically zero, and their possible porosity is totally dependent on the development of
secondary porosity, chieﬂy in the form of microfractures.
Biogenic Deposits
Sedimentary rocks commonly contain fossils, the remains of plants and animals that died and
were buried and preserved in the sediment as it accumulated. A sediment composed mainly
or entirely of fossil remains is called a biogenic sediment. If the fossil debris has not been
homogenised by chemical processes, the deposit can be regarded as a bioclastic sediment [51].
Main nonclastic rocks are: limestone, dolomite, salt, gypsum, chert, and coal. Chalk is a
special type of biogenic limestone, composed of the sheletal parts of pleagic coccolithophorid
algea, called coccoliths. The main types of sedimentary rocks and their chemical compositions
are shown in list below, containing main sedimentary rock types and their chemical composi
tion of categories [37].
Sandstone a siliciclastic rock formed of sand, commonly quartzose or arhosic, cemented with
silica, calcium carbonate, iron oxide or clay.
Chemical composition: SiO
2
. Density: ∼ 2.65 g/cm
3
.
Shale a ﬁssile rock, commonly with a laminated structure, formed by consolidation of clay or
mud ( mainly siliciclastic)
Argillite (mud rock) – any compact sedimentary rock composed mainly of siliciclastic mud.
Chemical composition: SiO
2
.
Dolomite a carbonate rock, consisting largely of the mineral dolomite (calcium magnesium
carbonate)
Chemical composition: CaMg(CO
3
)
2
. Density: ∼ 2.87 g/cm
3
.
Limestone a carbonate rock consisting wholly or mainly of the mineral calcite.
Chemical composition: CaCO
3
. Density: ∼ 2.71 g/cm
3
.
Calcarenite a sandstone composed of carbonate grains, typically a clastic variety of limestone.
Chemical composition: CaCO
3
. Density: ∼ 2.70 g/cm
3
.
Marl a friable rock consisting of calcium carbonate and siliciclastic mud/clay.
Chemical composition: SiO
2
+CaCO
3
. Density: ∼ 2.68 g/cm
3
.
Salt (rock salt) – a chemical rock composed of the mineral halite.
Chemical composition: NaCl.
20 Chapter 2. Basic Concepts of Petroleum Geology
Gypsum a chemical, evaporitic rock composed of the mineral gypsum
Chemical composition: CaSO
4
2H
2
O.
Anhydrite a chemical, evaporitic rock composed of the mineral anhydrite.
Chemical composition: CaSO
4
.
Some of the typical reservoir rocks are shown in Fig. 2.2
2.3 The Origin and Habitat of Petroleum
2.3.1 Source Rock and Generation of Petroleum
Local large concentrations of organic matter in sedimentary rocks, in the form of coal, oil or
natural gas are called the fossil fuels.
A rock rich in primary organic matter is called a source rock, because it is capable of
releasing large amounts of hydrocarbons in natural burial conditions. Usually this is ashale
or mudrock which itself is a very common rock type, consisting about 80% of the world’s
sedimentary rock volume. Organic carbonrich shale and mudrock are characteristically black
or dark greyish in colour, which indicates a nonoxidised primary organic matter.
Many hypotheses concerning the origin of petroleum have been advanced over the last
years. Currently, the most favoured one is that oil and gas are formed from marine phytoplank
ton (microscopic ﬂoating plants) and to a lesser degree from algae and foraminifera [51]. In the
ocean, phytoplankton and bacteria are the principal of organic matter buried in sediment. Most
of organic matter is trapped in clay mud that is slowly converted into shale under burial. Dur
ing this conversion, the organic compounds are transformed (mainly by the geothermal heat)
into petroleum, deﬁned as gaseous, liquid or semisolid natural substances that consist mainly
of hydrocarbons.
In terrestrial sedimentary basins, it is plants such as trees, bushes, and grasses that con
tribute to most of the buried organic matter in mud rocks and shales. These large plants are rich
in resins, waxes, and lignins, which tend to remain solid and form coal, rather than petroleum.
Many organic carbonrich marine and lake shales never reach the burial temperature level
at which the original organic molecules are converted into hydrocarbons forming oil and nat
ural gas. Instead, the alteration process is limited to certain waxlike substances with large
molecules. This material, which remains solid, is called kerogen, and is the organic substance
of socalled oil shales. Kerogen can be converted into oil and gas by further burial by mining
the shale and subjecting it to heat it in a retort.
Petroleum is generated when the kerogen is subjected to a sufﬁcient high temperature in
the process of the sediment burial. The alteration of kerogen to petroleum is similar to other
thermalcracking reactions, which usually require temperatures greater than 60
o
C. At lower
temperatures, during the early diagenesis, a natural biogenic methane called marsh gas, is
generated through the action of microorganisms that live near the ground surface.
A temperature range between about 60
o
C and 175
o
C is most favourable for the generation
of hydrocarbons, and is commonly called theoil window. See Fig 2.3.
At temperatures much above 175
o
C, the generation of liquid petroleum ceases and the for
mation of gas becomes dominant. When the formation rock temperature exceeds 225
o
C, most
of the kerogen will have lost its petroleumgenerating capacity [49],as illustrated by Fig. 2.3 .
2.3 The Origin and Habitat of Petroleum 21
Figure 2.2: Typical reservoir rocks.
The long and complex chain of chemical reactions involved in the conversion of raw or
ganic matter into crude petroleum is called maturation. Additional chemical changes may
occur in the oil and gas even after these have been generated or accumulated. This explains,
for example, why the petroleum taken from different oil ﬁelds has different properties, de
spite a common source rock. Likewise, primary differences in the source composition may be
reﬂected in the chemistry of the petroleum.
22 Chapter 2. Basic Concepts of Petroleum Geology
Generation Intensity
Biogenic Methane
Heavy
Light
Oil
Wet Gas
Dry Gas
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,
°
C
100
175
225
315
60
Dry
Gas
Zone
Wet
Gas
Zone
Oil
Zone
Immature
Zone
Figure 2.3: Generation of petroleum vs. burial temperature.
Two types of evidence support the hypothesis that petroleum is a product of the decompo
sition of natural organic matter [51],
• oil has the optical properties of hydrocarbons that are known only to derive from organic
matter and
• oil contains nitrogen and certain other compounds that are known to originate from living
organic matter only.
Oil source rocks are chieﬂy marine shales and mudrocks. Sampling of mud on the conti
nental shelves and along the bases of continental slopes has shown that the shallowly buried
mud contains up to 8% organic matter. Similar or even higher total organiccarbon (TOC)
content characterizes many ancient marine shales. Geologists conclude therefore that oil is
originated primarily from the organic matter deposited in marine sediments.
The fact is that most of the world’s largest hydrocarbon ﬁelds are found in marine sedimen
tary rock successions representing ancient continental shelves. However, some lake sediments
may be just as oilprone as marine source rocks. Many oil ﬁelds in various parts of the world
are in ancient lacustrine deposits (formed at the bottom or along the shore of lakes, as geo
logical strata). Fig. 2.4 shows the distribution of the world’s sedimentary basin and petroleum
accumulations (from [51]).
2.3 The Origin and Habitat of Petroleum 23
 Areas where major
amounts of oil and gas
have been found
 Areas of ocean deeper than
2000m underlain by thick
accumulations of sedimentary rock
Legend:
Figure 2.4: World’s main sedimentary basins and petroleum accu
mulations.
2.3.2 Petroleum Migration and Accumulation
The accumulation of petroleum occur in only those areas, where geological conditions have
provided the unique combination of both hydrocarbon prone source rocks and hydrocarbon
traps.
Hydrocarbons are less dense than water. Once released from the source rock, they thus
tend to migrate upwards in the direction of the minimum pressure, until they either escape at
the ground surface, or an impervious barrier, called atrap.
In a trap, the oil and gas accumulate by displacing pore water from the porous rock. The top
may be imperfectly sealed, which means that gas and possibly also some oil may "leak" to yet
higher lying traps or up to the ground surface. The part of the trap that contains hydrocarbons
is called a petroleum reservoir.
Water generally underlines the hydrocarbons in a trap. The water bearing part of the trap
is called an aquifer, and is hydrolically connected with the reservoir. This means that any
pressure change in the aquifer will also affect the reservoir, and the depletion of the reservoir
will make the aquifer expand into this space.
Both oil and gas are generated together, in varying proportions, from a source rock which
results in a primary gas cap above the oil in the reservoir. Likewise, a secondary gas cap may
develop when the reservoir pressure has decreased and the lightest hydrocarbon begin to bubble
out from the oil. Some "leaky" or limitedcapacity traps may segregate oil and gas that have
been generated together, such that these accumulate in separate reservoirs.
24 Chapter 2. Basic Concepts of Petroleum Geology
In summary, several factors are required for the formation of a petroleum reservoir [49]:
1. There must be a source rock, preferably rich in primary organic matter (carbon rich
marine or lacustrine shale). This source rock must be deeply buried to reach efﬁcient
temperatures to cause the organic matter to mature and turn into petroleum.
2. There has to be a migration pathway that enables the shalereleased petroleum to migrate
in a preferential direction.
3. There must be a reservoir rock that is sufﬁciently porous and permeable to accumulate
the petroleum in large quantities.
4. There must be a trap that is sealed sufﬁciently to withhold the petroleum. Otherwise,
the majority of petroleum will bypass the porous rock and be dispersed or escape to the
ground surface.
5. An impermeable seal or caprock, is critical in preventing the petroleum from leaking out
from the reservoir or escaping to the surface.
If any of these key factors is missing or inadequate, a petroleum reservoir ﬁeld cannot be
formed. A large isolated reservoir or group of closely adjacent reservoirs is referred to as an
oil ﬁeld.
2.3.3 Classiﬁcation of Petroleum ReservoirForming Traps
In this section, a general classiﬁcation of petroleum reservoirforming traps is discussed (after
[1]). In broad terms, one may distinguish between structual traps (related to tectonic struc
tures) and sratigraphic traps (related to the sealing effect of unconformities and rocktype, or
lithofacies, changes).
Domes and Anticlines
Domes and anticlines are structures formed by the tectonic uplift and/or folding of sedimentary
rocks. When viewed from above, a dome is circular in shape as in Fig. 2.5, whereas an anticline
is an elongate fold as in Fig. 2.6.
Salt Domes
This type of geological structure is caused by the upward intrusion of a diapiric body of salt,
volcanic rock, or serpentine. In pushing up or piercing through the overlaying sedimentary
rocks, the diapir may cause the formation of numerous traps on its ﬂanks, in which petroleum
may accumulate, as seen in Fig. 2.7. Some salt domes may be highly elongated, rather than
cylindrical, and are called salt walls (e.g. southern North Sea region). Salt itself is a perfect
sealing rock.
2.3 The Origin and Habitat of Petroleum 25
Im
b
p
r
e
m
e
a
le
Bed
Porous Strata
G
A
S
O
IL
W
A
T
E
R
Figure 2.5: Oil and gas accumulation in a dome structure.
I
m
le
p
r
m
a
e
b
e
B
e
d
Porous Strata
G
A
S
O
IL
W
A
T
E
R I
e
m
e
m
e
p
r
a
b
l
S
trata
Figure 2.6: Oil and gas accumulation in an anticline structure.
Fault Structures
Many petroleum traps are related to faults, which commonly displace permeable rocks against
the impervious one. The fault plane, where lined with a shearproduced gouge or heavily
cemented by the percolating groundwater fragments of rock, acts on impermeable barrier that
further increases the trapping effect on the migration of oil and gas. See Fig. 2.8.
Structures Unconformity
This type of structure is a sealing unconformity, with the permeable rocks tilted, erosionally
truncated and covered by younger impermeable deposits. A reservoir may be formed where
the petroleum is trapped in the updip part of the bluntly truncated and sealed, porous rock unit,
as seen in Fig. 2.9.
26 Chapter 2. Basic Concepts of Petroleum Geology
Gas
Oil
Oil
Oil
Water
Water
Salt Mass
Figure 2.7: Hydrocarbon accumulation associated with a salt dome.
Gas
Oil
Water
Fault
Figure 2.8: Hydrocarbon accumulation related to a fault.
Lenticular Traps
Oil and gas may accumulate in traps formed by the bodies of porous lithofacies (rock types)
embedded in impermeable lithofacies, or by the pinchouts of porous lithofacies within imper
meable ones, as seen in Fig. 2.10.
Examples of such lenticular traps include: ﬂuvial sandstone bodies embedded in ﬂoodbasin
mudrocks, deltaic or mouthbar sandstone wedges pinching out within offshore mudrocks, and
turbiditic sandstone lobes embedded in deep marine mudrocks. Similar traps occur in various
limestones, where their porous lithofacies (e.g. oolithic limestone or other calcarenites) are
embedded in impermeable massive lithofacies; or where porous bioclastic reefal limestones
pinch out in marls or in mudrocks.
The approximate percentages of the world’s petroleum reservoirs associated with those
2.3 The Origin and Habitat of Petroleum 27
Gas
Oil
Water
Impermeable
Beds
Figure 2.9: Oil and gas trapped below an unconformity.
Oil
Water
Tightincreasing
Shale Content
Figure 2.10: Petroleum trap formed by lithofacies change (Sand
stone pinchout).
major trap types are given in Fig. 2.11.
On of the presentday Earth’s surface, over half of the continental areas and adjacent ma
rine shelves have sediment covers either absent or too thin to make prospects for petroleum
accumulation. Even in an area where the buried organic matter can mature, not all of it re
sults in petroleum accumulations. The following statistical data may serve as a fairly realistic
illustration [49]:
• Only 1% by vol. of a source rock is organic matter,
• < 30% by vol. of organic matter matured to petroleum,
• > 70% by vol. of organic matter remains as residue and
• 99% by vol. of petroleum is dispersed or lost at the ground surface in the process of
migration, and only 1% by vol. is trapped.
These data lead to the following estimate: only 0.003 vol.% of the world’s source rocks
actually turn into petroleum that can be trapped and thus generate our petroleum resources.
28 Chapter 2. Basic Concepts of Petroleum Geology
Structural
Traps
Stratigraphic
Traps
Combination
Traps
F
a
u
l
t
s
S
a
l
t
D
i
a
p
i
r
s
U
n
c
o
n
f
o
r
m
i
t
y
R
e
e
f
O
t
h
e
r
S
t
r
a
t
i
g
r
a
p
h
i
c
C
o
m
b
i
n
a
t
i
o
n
0.75
0.50
0.25
0
A
n
t
i
c
l
i
n
e
s
Figure 2.11: Percentages of world’s petroleum accumulations asso
ciated with the major traps types.
2.4 Types of Hydrocarbon Traps on the Norwegian Continental
Shelf
Structural traps, particularly fault and dome structures, are the most common type of trap in the
Norwegian Continental Shelf [4]. Stratigraphic traps are far less common for this region, al
though there are several reservoirs associated with unconformities or porous lithofacies pinch
outs (e.g. ﬂuvial sandstone in the Snorre ﬁled and turbiditic sandstone in the Frigg and Balder
ﬁelds).
Table 2.2 summarises the regional information about some of the hydrocarbon ﬁelds be
longing to the most common types of traps in the Norwegian continental shelf [4].
2.4 Types of Hydrocarbon Traps on the Norwegian Continental Shelf 29
Table 2.2: Types of petroleum trap in the main ﬁelds of the Norwe
gian Continental Shelf [4].
Field Type of Trap Reservoir Rock Rock Age
AGAT Stratigraphic Sandstone Cretaceous
BALDER Stratigraphic Sandstone Tertiary
DRAUGEN Stratigraphic Sandstone Jurassic
EKOFISK Dome Chalk Cretaceous
ELDFISK Dome Chalk Cretaceous
EMBLA Structural Sandstone Carboniferous
FRIGG Stratigraphic Sandstone Tertiary
GULLFAKS Structural Sandstone Jurassic
HEIDRUN Structural Sandstone Jurassic
MIDGARD Structural Sandstone Jurassic
OSEBERG Structural Sandstone Jurassic
SNORRE Structural Sandstone Jurassic
SN
˙
IHVIT Structural Sandstone Jurassic
STATFJORD Structural Sandstone Jurassic
TROLL Structural Sandstone Jurassic
VALHALL Dome Chalk Cretaceous
30 Chapter 2. Basic Concepts of Petroleum Geology
Chapter 3
Basic Concepts and Deﬁnitions
in Reservoir Engineering
3.1 Continuum Mechanics
The present understanding of the subsurface processes relevant to reservoir engineering is
based on the physical concepts of continuum mechanics [12]. According to these concepts,
a porous rock formation saturated with ﬂuids forms a continuum, which means that all the
components involved (rock, water, oil and/or gas) are present in every element, or volumetric
part, of the reservoir space, even if the elementary volume considered is very small and ap
proaches zero. This conceptual approach allows us to develop a useful theory for the ﬂow of
liquid and gas through a porous medium, called theﬁltration theory. All of the most important
numerical simulation programs (ECLIPSE, MORE, FRANLAB, FRAGOR, UTCHEM, etc.)
are based on this theory.
The ﬂow of ﬂuids that occurs in the partial volume of a porous rock, even if very small, can
only be described qualitatively, because of the great complexity of the phenomenon. However
there are some regularities in the behaviour of the "rockﬂuids" systems that can be described
by continuum mechanics. For the purpose of the ﬁltration theory, the laws of continuum me
chanics are considered to be effective only if the elementary volume is sufﬁciently large to
render the number of pores and rock grains very large or "innumerable". This condition makes
the average parameters of the porous medium sufﬁciently representative for a description of
the ﬂuid ﬂow processes occurring in the rock. If the elementary volumes are too small and
comparable to the rock’s pore or grain size, the ﬁltration theory cannot be successfully applied.
The need for this concept assumption can be explained as follows. Let us consider the ﬂow
of liquids and gas in a natural reservoir, with the scale of the ﬂow phenomenon varying from
very small to large, as seen in Fig. 3.1. In Fig. 3.1, many physical phenomena (capillary effects,
ﬂuid adhesion effects associated, etc.) occur at a scale comparable to the rock’s grain size or
the dimension of a fractured rock’s fragment (10
−4
−10
0
m).
At a large scale, with the elementary volumes considered on the order of 10
2
−10
4
m,
the effect of the microscale phenomena "average" and can more readily be parameterizied.
Likewise, the concepts of continuum mechanics can be applied if the reservoir heterogeneity
is considered at a macroscale level (lithofaces variation, bedding, ect.), whereas all micro
heterogeneities on a scale comparable to the grain size are being considered as constants in
31
32
Chapter 3. Basic Concepts and Deﬁnitions
in Reservoir Engineering
A B C D
Fracture
A
B
Well
~ 10 m
3
~ 10 m
0
~ 10 m
2
~ 10 m
4
C
Figure 3.1: Structure of a fracturedrock reservoir at different scales
of observation.
the equations of ﬂow (parametrized connatewater saturation, residualoil saturation, etc.) or
described by some empirical relationships (functions). The fundamental deﬁnitions in the ﬁl
tration theory include the distribution betweenporosity (i.e. the rock’s ﬂuid storage capacity)
and permeability (i.e. the rock’s ﬂuid ﬂow capacity), as well as the consideration ofﬂuid satu
ration (i.e. the pore volume percent occupied by water, oil and gas, respectively).
3.2 Porosity
The porosity constitute the part of the total porous rock volume which is not occupied by rock
grains or ﬁne mud rock, acting as cement between grain particles. Absolute and effective
porosity are distinguished by their access capabilities to reservoir ﬂuids. Absolute porosity is
deﬁned as the ratio of the total void volumeV
p
a
, whether the voids are interconnected or not,
to the bulk volume V
b
of a rock sample,
φ
a
def
=
V
p
a
V
b
. (3.1)
Effective porosity implies the ratio of the total volume of interconnected voidsV
p
to the
bulk volume of rock,
φ
def
=
V
p
V
b
. (3.2)
Effective porosity depends on several factors like rock type, heterogeneity of grain sizes
and their packing, cementation, weathering, leaching, type of clay, its content and hydration,
etc. It should be noted that porosity is a static parameter, unlike permeability which makes
sense only if liquid or gas is moving in porous medium.
3.3 Saturation
Let us consider a representative elementary volume of the reservoir, with the pores ﬁlled with
oil, gas and water. In volumetric terms, this can be written as follows:
3.3 Saturation 33
V
p
=V
o
+V
g
+V
w
, (3.3)
which leads to the deﬁnition of saturation, S, as a fraction of the pore volume occupied by a
particular ﬂuid:
S
i
def
=
V
i
V
p
, i = 1, ..., n
where n denotes the total number of ﬂuid phases present in the porous medium.
Consequently,
n
∑
i=1
S
i
= 1.
If two ﬂuids coexist (say, oil and water), they are distributed unevenly in the pore space
due to the wettability preferences. See Fig. 3.2. Simply, the adhesive forces of one ﬂuid against
the pore walls (rockgrain surface) are always stronger than those of the other ﬂuid. In the vast
majority of petroleum reservoirs, both siliclastic and carbonate, the pore water is the wetting
phase and oil is a nonwetting phase.
Rock
Water
Oil
Figure 3.2: Distribution of water and oil phases in a waterwet
porous medium.
Importantly, the ﬂuid saturation (S
o
, S
g
and S
w
) in a reservoir varies in space, most notably
from the wateroil contact to the reservoir top (see ﬁgures in previous chapter), and also in
time during the production. In short, different parts of the reservoir may have quite different
ﬂuid saturations, and also the saturation in any elementary volume of the reservoir changes
progressively during the production.
3.3.1 Residual Saturation
Not all the oil can be removed from the reservoir during production. Depending on the produc
tion method, or the actual "drive mechanism" of the petroleum displacement, the oil recovery
factor may be as low as 510% and is rarely higher than 70%. Part of the oil will remain as
residue, this is called the residual oil. One has to distinguish between the residual oil and pos
sibly gas saturation reached in a reservoir after the production stage, and the residual saturation
34
Chapter 3. Basic Concepts and Deﬁnitions
in Reservoir Engineering
of ﬂuid phases in a reservoirrock sample after a well coring operation. A fresh, "peelsealed"
core sample is taken to the laboratory, where the reservoir saturation and the oilrecovery factor
are estimated. The laboratory process is illustrated in Fig. 3.3, where water is displacing the
initial oil in the core sample.
Water
Oil
Water
Sample holder
Core sample
Figure 3.3: Evaluation of residual oil saturation S
or
by a laboratory
displacement from a core sample.
If the pore volume V
p
of the core sample in known, then
S
or
=
V
oi
−V
o
V
p
, (3.4)
where V
oi
is the initial volume of trapped oil in the core sample, andV
o
is the displaced or
produced oil.
3.3.2 Laboratory Determination of Residual Oil and Water Saturation
The cores recovered from wells contain residual ﬂuids (depleted due to the drillingﬂuid inva
sion, the changes in pressure and temperature, etc.) that are assumed to reﬂect:
• The ﬂuid saturation at the reservoir conditions.
• The possible alterations due to the drillingﬂuid invasion into the core.
• The efﬁciency of possible oil displacement from the reservoir rock represented by the
core.
The modern techniques of coresamples collection prevent dramatic alterations of the rock
ﬂuid characteristics, (foambased drilling ﬂuid, rubber sleeves containing the core samples and
maintaining their reservoir pressure, deep freezing of retrieved cores, etc.)
Two laboratory techniques are commonly used for determining the residual oil and water
saturation,
• a high temperature retort distillation method and
• the DeanStark method.
3.3 Saturation 35
The Retort Distillation Method
The core sample is weighed and its bulk volume measured or calculated. The sample is then
placed in a cylindrical metal holder with a screw cup at the top and a hollow stem projecting
from the bottom. The top is sealed and the sample holder is placed in a retort oven. A ther
mostat controller raises the temperature of the core to a selected level, at which point the water
within the core is vaporised and recovered. The temperature is then increased to∼ 650
o
C
(1200
o
F) to vaporise and then distil oil from the sample. The vaporised ﬂuids are ﬁrst collected
in the sample holder and then released vertically downwards through the hollow stem (down
draft retort). They are subsequently condensed and measured in a calibrated receiving tube.
See Fig. 3.4.
Temperatur
controller
Oil
Water
Insulated
oven
Heating
elements
Sample cup
Condensing
tube
Water
bath
Receiving
tube
Termocouple
Water
inlet
Screen
Figure 3.4: The high temperature retort distillation method.
N.B.! Samples are usually destroyed in this test due to the high temperature and for this
reason smalldiameter samples or "plugs" (small cores from the well core), are normally used.
The calculation of the oil and water saturation is straightforward. The following parameter
values are derived from the laboratory test:
36
Chapter 3. Basic Concepts and Deﬁnitions
in Reservoir Engineering
• V
b
, ρ
r
– the sample bulk volume and rock density, determined prior to the experiment.
• V
o
;V
w
– the recovered oil and water volumes, registered during the test..
• V
p
– the pore volume, which is calculated.
The water and residual oil saturation are calculated as follows:
S
w
=
V
w
V
p
, and S
o
=
V
o
V
p
, (3.5)
where the saturation are fractional parts of the pore volume. Frequently, saturation are also
given in %.
The DeanStark Apparatus for Measuring Initial Fluids
When the core to be analysed is weighed, the measurement includes the weight of rock grains,
and the pore ﬂuid. The sample is then placed in the tare apparatus (to be sure that no sand grains
are lost from the core sample during its analysis, which might otherwise lead to an erroneously
high oil saturation!) and this unit is suspended above a ﬂask containing a solvent, such as
toluene, as shown in Fig. 3.5.
There are several requirements for choosing a proper solvent,
• it must have a boiling temperature higher than that of water,
• it must be immiscible with water and
• it must also be lighter than water.
Toluene satisﬁes all of those requirements.
When heat is applied to the solvent, it vaporises. The hot solvent vapour rises, surrounds
the sample and moves up to the condensing tube, where it is cooled and condensed. The
condensate collects into the calibrated tube until the ﬂuid there reaches the spill point, where
upon the solvent condensate drips back onto the sample containing the reservoir ﬂuids. The
solvent mixes with the oil in the sample and both are returned to the solvent ﬂask below. See
Fig. 3.5. The process continues until the sample’s temperature has risen above the boiling point
of water. At that point, the water vaporises, rises in the condensing tube, condenses therein
and falls back into the calibrated tube. Because it is heavier than the solvent, it collects at
the bottom of the tube, where its volume can be directly measured. When successive readings
indicate no additional water recovery, the water volume is recorded for further calculations.
After all the oil and water have been recovered from the sample, it is dried and weighed again.
The difference between the original and ﬁnal weights equals to the weight of the oil and water
originally present in the sample. Because the water collected in the calibrated tube is distilled,
with a density of 1.0 g/cm
3
and a known volume, the weight of oil in the sample can be
calculated. This information is subsequently combined with the estimated porosity of the clean,
dry sample, the volumes of the oil and water can be converted into percent porespace fraction
(saturation).
3.3 Saturation 37
Condensing
tube
Flask
Solvent
Tare
Sample
Water
Solvent
Offset
calibrated
tube
Figure 3.5: The DeanStark apparatus.
N.B. The samples in the process are not destroyed and can be further used in other mea
surements, i.e., pore volume pycnometry or perhaps capillary measurements, ect..
The calculation of the oil and water saturation is straightforward. The following parameters
are derived from the laboratory test:
• W
i
– the initial weight of the core sample, determined prior to the tests.
• W
d
– the weight of the dry, clean core sample, determined directly after the tests.
• φ, V
b
– the rock’s porosity and the core sample’s bulk volume, determined after the tests.
• V
w
– the reservoir volume of water, registered during the test.
• V
o
– the recovered volume of oil, which is calculated.
Water and oil (residual) saturation is calculated according to Eqs. (3.5), where both the
retort distillation method and the DeanStark method are capable of yielding ﬂuid saturation
values within ±5% of the true values.
38
Chapter 3. Basic Concepts and Deﬁnitions
in Reservoir Engineering
3.4 Reservoir Pressure and Distribution of Fluid Phases.
The migration and accumulation of petroleum in a reservoir leads to the replacement of the
original pore water by gas and oil , even though the rock pores remain "waterwet" (i.e, their
walls are covered with a thin ﬁlmof water). The density difference makes the gas accumulate at
the top of the reservoir, and the oil directly below. Water underlies the petroleum, as an aquifer,
but is continuously distributed throughout the reservoir as the wetting ﬂuid. See Fig. 3.6.
GOC
OWC
FWL
crest
0.0 1.0
S
W
D
e
p
t
h
Gas cap
Gas
Oil zone
Oil
Water zone
Water
Water zone
c
Figure 3.6: The distribution of ﬂuid phases in a reservoir.(S
w
is the
water saturation.)
The following ﬂuid interfaces in the reservoir are important:
• The GasOil Contact (GOC) – a surface separating the gas cap from the underlying oil
zone (also referred to as the oil "leg" or oil "column"). Below the GOC, gas can be
present only as a dissolved phase in oil.
• The OilWater Contact (OWC) – a surface separating the oil zone from the underlying
water zone. Below the OWC, oil is generally absent.
• The FreeWater Level (FWL) – an imaginary surface at which the pressure in the oil
zone equals to that in the water zone, i.e. p
o
= p
w
. In other words, FWL is the oilwater
contact in the absence of the capillary forces associated with a porous medium, i.e. in a
well.
However, the term "oilwater contact" does not have a single, unique meaning in reservoir
engineering considerations. The continuos distribution of water saturation in the reservoir zone
(see S
w
in Fig. 3.6) affects strongly the relative mobility of the oil phase, which in turn makes
it necessary to distinguish the following saturation interfaces:
• The FreeOil Level (FOL) – the level above which the oil saturation is sufﬁciently high
to allow full oil mobility (100% oil productivity) and the water saturation is low enough
to make water immobile. In most reservoirs, this is the level whereS
o
exceeds ca. 70%,
which means S
w
< 30%.
• The Economic OWC – the level above which enough oil will be mobile, rendering the
whole overlying part of the reservoir economical viable. In most reservoirs, this is the
3.4 Reservoir Pressure and Distribution of Fluid Phases. 39
level where S
o
exceeds ca. 50%, although the actual threshold value may vary, depending
upon reservoir conditions.
• The Productive OWC – The level above which oil become mobility. This may meanS
w
as high as 8085% and S
o
of merely 1520%.
• The EdgeWater Level – which is the OWC as deﬁned earlier (level of S
w
= 100%),
located below the productive oilwater contact. In strict terms, this is not always the
"100% water level", as our common terminology refers to it, because the oil saturation
may still be in the order of some percent. This is the base of the reservoir, or the oil col
umn level below which the capillary forces render oil completely arrested, or "imbibed",
by the rock pores (such that only thermal distribution can possibly remove the oil from
the "deadend" pores). Therefore, some engineers prefer to refer to this surface as the
capillary oil displacement level or threshold pressure level.
Needless to add, the distribution of these surfaces is of crucial importance when it comes
to physical (ﬂuid dynamics) and economical (oil recovery) considerations. The interfaces are
usually determined on the basis of analysis and well (drillstem) tests. The FWL would then
appear to be the only rockindependent OWC, representing the absolute base of the oil column,
as shown in Fig. 3.6.
The total pressure at any reservoir depth, due to the weight of the overlying ﬂuid saturated
rock column, is called the overburden pressure, p
ov
.
The total pressure at any depth is the sum of the overlaying ﬂuidcolumn pressure (p
f
) and
the overlaying grain or matrixcolumn pressure (p
m
), as sketched in Fig. 3.7, and thus,
p
ov
= p
f
+ p
m
.
Pressure
D
e
p
t
h
FP GP
Overburden
pressure
(OP)
underpressure
overpressure
normal hydrostatic
pressure
Figure 3.7: Overburden pressure as the combined grain and ﬂuid
column pressure.
40
Chapter 3. Basic Concepts and Deﬁnitions
in Reservoir Engineering
Because the overburden pressure p
ov
is constant at any particular depth D, then the differ
ential overburden pressure is zero, i.e. [21]:
dp
f
=−dp
m
.
This means that any reduction of the ﬂuid pressure, as it occurs during production, will
lead to a corresponding increase in the grain pressure. Rock compressibility is therefore an
important parameter to be considered when petroleum (preferably oil) production is estimated.
3.5 Pressure Distribution in Reservoirs
The hydrostatic water pressure at any depthD, can be calculated as follows:
p
w
(D) =
D
D
0
(
dp
dz
)
w
dz + p
w
(D
0
), (3.6)
where (dp/dz)
w
denotes the pressure gradient of the water phase at depthz, and D
0
is an arbi
trary depth with a known pressure (for instance, the pressure at the sea bottom or the pressure
at the sea surface). The hydrostatic pressure is therefore identical to the water pressure, at any
reservoir depth, as long as there is a continous phase contact in the water, all the way up to the
sea surface.
If the hydrostatic pressure gradient considered to be constant we can write,
p
w
(D) = (
dp
dD
)
w
(D−D
0
) + p
w
(D
0
), (3.7)
and if D
0
is taken at the sea level, the equation becomes,
p
w
(D) = (
dp
dD
)
w
D+14.7 (in psia), or
p
w
(D) = (
dp
dD
)
w
D+1.0 (in bar) (3.8)
Typical "normal" pressure gradients for the water, oil and gas phases are:
(dp/dD)
w
= 0.45 psi/ft = 10.2kPa/m,
(dp/dD)
o
= 0.35 psi/ft = 7.9 kPa/m,
(dp/dD)
g
= 0.08 psi/ft = 1.8 kPa/m
Abnormally high or low reservoir pressure can appear when the reservoir is "sealed" off
from the surrounding aquifer, as a result of geological processes. The reservoir pressure can
then be corrected, relative the hydrostatic pressure, by using a constant (C) in the above pressure
equations. The constant C accounts for the fact that the reservoir pressure is not in hydrostatic
equilibrium, where the pressure in the reservoir is somewhat higher or lower than otherwise
expected.
The water pressure for a general reservoir is then as follows,
p
w
(D) = (
dp
dD
)
w
D+14.7+C, (in psia,) (3.9)
3.5 Pressure Distribution in Reservoirs 41
where C is positive when overpressure is observed and negative for a underpressured reser
voir.
In order to evaluate the pressure distribution in a reservoir, let us consider the reservoir
which crosssection, as shown in Fig. 3.8 (see also [21]).
Gas
Oil
Water
GOC
OWC
FWL D
e
p
t
h
,
f
t
5000
5250
5500
5510
Figure 3.8: Crosssection of a reservoir.
Assuming normal pressure condition, we can evaluate the ﬂuidphase pressures at the dif
ferent reservoir "key" levels.
• Water phase:
(p
w
)
FWL
= 0.45 5510+14.7 = 2494.2 psia
(p
w
)
OWC
= 0.45 5500+14.7 = 2489.7 psia
(p
w
)
GOC
= 0.45 5250+14.7 = 2377.2 psia
(p
w
)
top
= 0.45 5000+14.7 = 2264.7psia
• Oil phase:
(p
o
)
FWL
= = 0.35 5510+C
o
= 2494.2psia
which gives: C
o
= 565.7psia
(p
o
)
OWC
= 0.35 5500+565.7 = 2490.7psia
(p
o
)
GOC
= 0.35 5250+565.7 = 2403.2psia
(p
o
)
top
= 0.35 5000+565.7 = 2315.7psia
• Gas phase:
(p
g
)
GOC
= 0.08 5250+C
g
= 2403.2psia
which gives: C
g
= 1983.2psia
(p
g
)
top
= 0.08 5000+1983.2 = 2383.2 psia
The different phase pressures (water, oil and gas) are derived from a common reference
which normally is the FWL pressure, (p
w
)
FWL
. At this level there is no pressure difference
42
Chapter 3. Basic Concepts and Deﬁnitions
in Reservoir Engineering
between water and oil and the two pressures are identical, i.e., (p
w
)
FWL
= (p
o
)
FWL
. Ideally
there is no oil present in the zone between the FWL and the OWC, since the oil pressure is too
low to allow the oil phase to enter the pore space (the largest pore throats). Accordingly, the
OWC becomes the level in the reservoir where the water saturation becomes less than one and
consequently the water saturation is ideally considered to be 100% in this zone.
Similar to the FWL, the deﬁnition of the GOC, is the level in the reservoir where the pres
sures in the oil and gas phases are identical. Often this pressure is referred to as thereservoir
pressure.
Different phase pressures are observed at the same elevation in the reservoir, as seen in
Fig 3.9. The pressure difference between two coexisting phases is calledcapillary pressure and
denoted (P
c
)
i j
, where the subscripts i and j refer to oilwater, gasoil or gaswater.
Pressure, psia
Treshold
capillary
pressure
D
e
p
t
h
,
f
t
5000
5000
5250
5250
5500
5500
5510
5510
Gas
Oil
Water
GOC
OWC
FWL
2250
W O G
2375 2500
Figure 3.9: Pressure distribution in a reservoir (hypothetical exam
ple).
The capillary pressure at the top of the reservoir, shown in Figs. 3.8 and 3.9, can be evalu
ated as follows,
(P
c
)
top
ow
= (p
o
)
top
−(p
w
)
topt
= 2315.7−2264.7 = 51.0 psi(a) = 3.5 bar
(P
c
)
top
go
= (p
g
)
top
−(p
o
)
top
= 2383.2−2315.7 = 67.5 psi(a) = 4.6 bar
(P
c
)
top
gw
= (p
g
)
top
−(p
w
)
top
= 2383.2−2264.7 = 118.5 psi(a) = 8.1 bar
The capillary calculations and the Fig. 3.9, show that the phase pressures are different at
the same elevation in the reservoir, and that the capillary pressure is additive, i.e. [7]:
(P
c
)
gw
= (P
c
)
ow
+(P
c
)
go
, (3.10)
At static (initial reservoir) conditions, the distribution of phases within a reservoir is gov
erned by counteracting gravity and capillary forces. While gravity forces tend to separate
3.5 Pressure Distribution in Reservoirs 43
reservoir ﬂuids accordingly to their densities, the capillary forces, acting within and between
immiscible ﬂuids and their conﬁning solid substance, resist separation. The balance of these
two forces result in an equilibrium distribution of phases within the reservoir prior to its devel
opment, as shown in Fig. 3.6
Example: Water pressure in a vertical cylindrical tube
The water pressure at a depth D is found using Eq. 3.6, where p
w
(D
0
) is the atmo
spheric pressure, p
atm.
.
The water pressure at any depth is,
p =
F
A
⇒ dp = d
F
A
,
where F/A is force due to water weight per crosssection area. We may there
fore write the pressure change as,
dp = d
mg
A
= d
ρ
w
gV
w
A
= d
ρ
w
gAD
A
=ρ
w
gdD
In the equation above, ρ
w
is the water density, g is the gravitational constant
and D is the water depth.
Substituting the last results into Eq.3.6 we obtain the following general formula
for water pressure at depth D,
p
w
(D) =
D
0
ρ
w
gdD+ p
atm.
.
NB! The pressure variation in a reservoir is determined by the ﬂuid densities
alone (when the gravitational coefﬁcient is considered constant).
.
44
Chapter 3. Basic Concepts and Deﬁnitions
in Reservoir Engineering
3.6 Exercises
1. Determine the porosity and lithology of a core sample, given the following data:
Weight of dried core sample: 259.2 g
Weight of 100% watersaturated core sample: 297g
(the density of water is 1.0 g/cm
3
)
Weight of core sample in water: 161.4 g
Deﬁne the terms absolute and effective porosity and decide which term to use when
characterising the core sample.
2. A laboratory cylindrical cup contains 500cm
3
water and weighs 800 g. Carbonate sand
(limestone, CaCO
3
) is poured into the cup until the level of sand and water coincide.
Calculate the bulk volume and porosity of this saturated porous medium knowing that
the total weight of cup and its content (water and limestone) is 2734 g. How do you
deﬁne the porosity ?
3. A glass cylinder has been ﬁlled with dolomite grains up to the 2500cm
3
mark. The mass
of dolomite is 4714 g. Calculate and characterise the sand’s porosity.
4. Estimate numerically the change in carbonaterock porosity caused by a complete dolomi
tization of calcite, accounting to the chemical reaction,
2CaCO
3
+Mg
2+
=CaMg(CO
3
)
2
+Ca
2+
,
will yield a carbonate rock’s porosity of 13% .
5. Calculate the porosity of a sandstone core sample given the data from core analysis:
Bulk volume of dried sample: 8.1 cm
3
,
Weight of dried sample: 17.3 g,
Sand grain density: 2.67 g/cm
3
.
6. Calculate the density of formation water when the pressure gradient is measured,dp/dz
= 10.2 kPa/m.
7. Areservoir water pressure of 213bar is measured at a subsea depth of 2000m. Evaluate
the pressure situation in the reservoir and determind whether there is an over /underbur
den pressure, when the water pressure gradient is 10.2kPa/m.
8. Formation water salinity will inﬂuence hydrostatic pressure estimation. Given that un
certainty in salinity may lead to an uncertainty in water density of ∆ρ = 1.11  1.31
g/cm
3
, determine the pressure change inside a reservoir where the depth from thetop
down to the FWL is 150 m.
(answ. 1. 28%, effective, 2.65 g/cm
3
, sandstone, 2. 41%, absolute, 3. 34%, absolute, 4.
4%, 6. 20%, 7. 1.4 g/cm
3
, 8. 8.1 bar, 9. 3 bar)
Chapter 4
Porosity
4.1 General Aspects
According to the deﬁnition, already presented, the porosity is the ﬂuidstorage capacity of a
porous medium, which means the part of the rock’s total volume that is not occupied by solid
particles. It should also be noted that porosity is astatic parameter, deﬁned locally as an average
over the representative elementary volume of porous rock media considered.
Genetically, the following types of porosity can be distinguished :
• Intergranular porosity.
• Fracture porosity.
• Microporosity.
• Vugular porosity.
• Intragranular porosity.
Rock media having both fracture and intergranular pores are called doubleporous or fracture
porous media.
Fromthe point of viewof pores susceptibility to mechanical changes one should distinguish
between consolidated and unconsolidated porous media. A consolidated medium means a rock
whose grains have been sufﬁciently compacted and are held together by cementing material.
An important characteristic of consolidated porous media is the ability to restore elastically, to
a great extent, to their shape (volume) after the removal of the overburden pressure.
Porosity is a statistical property dependent on the rock volume taken into consideration.
If the volume selected is too small, the calculated porosity can deviate greatly from the "true"
statistical average value [35]. Only a volume selected large enough (a representative volume)
will result in a representative and correct statistical average (see Fig. 4.1).
4.2 Models of Porous Media
The geometric character of rock’s permeable pore space is in reality quite complicated, and
may vary greatly from one rock type to another. In practice, it is impossible to counter the
45
46 Chapter 4. Porosity
Domain of
microscopic
effects
Domain of
porous
medium
Homogeneous
medium
Inhomogeneous
medium
Grain
Bulk
volume
0
1.0
0.0
V
b
Figure 4.1: Deﬁnition of a representative elementary volume for
porosity measurements [35].
poresystem geometry in a detailed and faithful way. Therefore, several idealised models have
been developed to approximate porous rock media and their varied characteristics.
4.2.1 Idealised Porous Medium Represented by Parallel Cylindrical Pores
V
b
V
p
Figure 4.2: Idealised porous medium represented by a system of par
allel cylindrical pores (pipes).
Estimation of porosity accounting to this model, see Fig. 4.2, is as follows:
φ =
V
p
V
b
=
πr
2
n m
2rn 2rm
=
π
4
= 0.785, or 78.5%,
where r is the pipe radius and m n is the number of cylinders contained in the bulk volume.
It is rather obvious that rocks do not have pores like this and that this model gives a unre
alistically high porosity value. This model may though, be used in some situations where ﬂuid
ﬂow under simpliﬁed conditions is modelled.
4.2 Models of Porous Media 47
4.2.2 Idealised Porous Medium Represented by Regular CubicPacked Spheres
2
r
Figure 4.3: Idealised porous medium represented by a regular sys
tem of cubicpacked spheres.
The estimation of porosity according to this model, see Fig. 4.3, is as follows:
V
b
= (2r)
3
and V
m
=
1
8
(
4
3
πr
3
) 8 =
4
3
πr
3
,
and
φ =
V
b
−V
m
V
b
=
8r
3
−
4
3
πr
3
8r
3
= 1−
π
6
= 0.476 or 47.6%
where V
m
is the "matrix" volume or the volume of bulk space occupied by the rock.
4.2.3 Idealised Porous Medium Represented by Regular OrthorhombicPacked
spheres
2
r
60
o
Figure 4.4: Idealised porous medium represented by a regular sys
tem of orthorhombicpacked spheres.
The estimation of porosity according to this model, see Fig. 4.4, is as follows:
V
b
= 2r 2r h = 4r
2
2r sin(60
o
) = 4
√
3r
3
and V
m
=
4
3
πr
3
,
where h is the height of the orthorhombicpacked spheres. The matrix volume is unchanged
and thus,
48 Chapter 4. Porosity
φ = 1−
V
m
V
b
= 1−
4πr
3
12
√
3r
3
= 1−
π
3
√
3
= 0.395 or 39.5%
4.2.4 Idealised Porous Medium Represented by Regular RhombohedralPacked
spheres
2
r
45
o
Figure 4.5: Idealised porous medium represented by regular system
of rhombohedralpacked spheres.
The estimation of porosity according to this model, see Fig. 4.5 and it follows from Fig. 4.5
that,
h =
4r
2
−2r
2
=
√
2r,
where h is the height in the tetrahedron and
V
b
= 2r 2r
√
2r = 4
√
2r
3
and V
m
=
4
3
πr
3
,
which gives
φ = 1−
4πr
3
12
√
2r
3
= 1−
π
3
√
2
= 1−0.74 = 0.26 or 26.0%
4.2.5 Idealised Porous Medium Represented by IrregularPacked Spheres with
Different Radii
Real reservoir rock exhibits a complex structure and a substantial variation in grain sizes and
their packing, which results in variation of porosity and other important reservoir properties,
often associated with the hetrogeniety of porous medium.
Fig. 4.6 shows an example of an idealised porous medium represented by four populations
of spheres (I  IV) sorted by different radii and the histogram showing the hypothetical grain
size distribution.
By drawing a graph with radii of the spheres plotted on the horizontal axis and heights
equal to the corresponding frequencies of their appearance plotted on the vertical axis, one can
obtain a histogram of distribution of particles (spheres) in sizes.
4.2 Models of Porous Media 49
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
r
I
I
II
II
III
III
IV
IV
Figure 4.6: Idealised porous medium represented by an irregular sys
tem of spheres with different radii.
The different models, described above, may serve as a "mental image" or idealised con
cretization of a rather complex porous structure of porous rocks. The advantage of idealised
models, in general and in particular in the case of porous media, is the opportunity they offer for
simple quantiﬁcation and representation of characteristic parameters. Since rock porosity has
so many representations, it is important to maintain a representative image, though idealized,
of the rock porosity, for further analysis and improved undersanding.
Example: Porous medium of irregular system of spheres
A porous medium is blended with three types of sediment fractions: ﬁne pebble
gravel with porosity (φ
pebble
= 0.30), sand (φ
sand
= 0.38) and ﬁne sand (φ
f .sand
=
0.33).
The three sediments are mixed in such proportions that the sand ﬁlls the pore
volume of the ﬁne pebbles and that the ﬁne sand ﬁlls the pore volume of the sand.
The volume of ﬁne pebble gravel is equal to the bulk volume, i.e.,V
b
= V
pebble
.
Since the sand ﬁlls the pore volume of the pebble and the ﬁne sand the pore volume
of the sand, the following table is listed:
Volume of sand: V
sand
= φ
pebble
V
pebble
.
Volume of ﬁne sand: V
f .sand
= φ
sand
V
sand
.
Pore volume of ﬁne sand: V
p
= φ
f .sand
V
f .sand
.
The total porosity is then deﬁned,
φ =
V
p
V
b
=
φ
f .sand
φ
sand
φ
pebble
V
pebble
V
pebble
,
= 0.3 0.38 0.33 = 0.037.
The porosity of the porous medium is ∼ 4%.
.
50 Chapter 4. Porosity
4.3 Porosity Distribution
The multiple sampling of porosity measurements for reservoir rocks at different depths and in
different wells gives a data set that can then be plotted as a histogram, to reveal the porosity’s
frequency distribution. See Fig. 4.7. The distribution may appear to be unimodal (left) or
polymodal (right). Such histograms may be constructed separately for the individual zones,
or units, distinguished within the reservoir, and thus give a good basis for statistical estimates
(mean porosity values, standard deviations, etc.).
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
Porosity
Min Max
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
Porosity
Min Max
Figure 4.7: Unimodal and polymodal porosity distributions.
Numerical simulation of ﬂuid ﬂow in porous media, related to laboratory tests on core sam
ples as well as full ﬁeld production estimation, require a realistic picture of the rock porosity
and its variation throughout the reservoir. This picture is not easily obtainable since porosity
is measured locally (in the well) and porosity extrapolations introduce large uncertainty in the
estimated average values.
The grouping of porosity data according to the reservoir zones, depth proﬁle or graphical
coordination, may reveal spatial trends in the porosity variation , see Fig. 4.8. The recognition
of such trends is very important for the development of a bulk picture of the reservoir as a
porous medium and representation of the reservoir porosity in mathematical simulation models
(reservoir characterisation, lateral correlation, numerical modelling, etc.)
Mechanical diagenesis (compaction) and chemical diagenesis (cementation) have a pro
found effect on a sedimentary rock’s porosity. This burial effect is illustrated by the two typical
examples of sand and clay deposits in Fig. 4.9.
4.4 Measurement of Porosity
4.4.1 FullDiameter Core Analysis
A fulldiameter core analysis is used to measure the porosity of rocks that are distinctly hetero
geneous, such as some carbonates, and ﬁssured, vugular rocks, for which a standard coreplug
analyse is unsuitable. The same coreplug is a nonrepresentative elementary volume for this
type of rock. The porosity measurement in such rocks requires samples that are as large as can
be obtained (portions of fulldiameter drilling cores). In heterogeneous rocks, the local poros
ity may be highly variable, as it may include microporosity, intergranular porosity, vugues,
4.4 Measurement of Porosity 51
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Porosity
D
e
p
t
h
Figure 4.8: Examples of trends of porosity distribution in the depth
proﬁles of two reservoir sandstone.
sand
clay
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800
P
o
r
o
s
i
t
y
Depth, m
Figure 4.9: Sediment compaction burial and porosity change.
fractures, or various combinations of these. A fulldiameter core sample usually has a diameter
of 5 inches (12.5 cm) and the length of 10 inches (25 cm).
The fulldiameter core technique does not differentiate between the actual types of porosity
involved, but yields a singe porosity value that represents their effective combination. Several
laboratory techniques used for porosity measurements, and the procedure is generally similar
for fulldiameter cores and core "plugs".
4.4.2 GrainVolume Measurements Based on Boyle’s Law
This gas transfer technique involves the injection and decompression of gas into the pores of a
ﬂuidfree (vacuum), dry core sample, see Fig. 4.10. Either the pore volume or the grain volume
can be determined, depending upon the instrumentation and procedures used.
52 Chapter 4. Porosity
Sample
Chamber
Valve Valve
Reference
volume
Pressure
gauge
Pressure
regulator
To gas
pressure
source
Figure 4.10: Porosity measurements based on the Boyle’s law.
To perform the laboratory measurement, Helium gas is often used due to its following
properties,
• the very small size of helium molecules makes the gas rapidly penetrate small pores,
• helium is an inert gas that and will not be absorbed on the rock surfaces and thus yield
erroneous results.
Other gases, such as N
2
and CO
2
, might be good alternatives to Helium. The advantage of
CO
2
is it’s hydrophilic ability, which increase the effect of dehydrating the core sample. N
2
is
also used, simply due to its availability.
The Calculation of the Grain Volume
Using the ideal gas law,
pV = nRT
where the temperature, T= const, one obtains p
1
V
1
= p
2
V
2
, and in the case of vacuum inside
the sample chamber (Fig. 4.10,
p
1
V
re f
= p
2
(V
re f
+V
s
−V
g
),
where V
re f
, V
s
and V
g
are the reference volume, the volume of the sample chamber and the
grain volume, respectively. See Fig. 4.10.
Assuming adiabatic conditions, one obtains,
V
g
=
p
2
V
re f
+ p
2
V
s
−p
1
V
re f
p
2
, (4.1)
where p
1
denotes initial pressure in the reference cell, and p
2
the ﬁnal pressure in the system.
Successive measurements will increase the accuracy, due to effects of dehydration of the porous
core sample.
4.4 Measurement of Porosity 53
4.4.3 BulkVolume Measurements
This technique utilizes the Archimedes’ principle of mass displacement:
1. The core sample is ﬁrst saturated with a wetting ﬂuid and then weighed.
2. The the sample is then submerged in the same ﬂuid and its submerged weight is mea
sured.
The bulk volume is the difference between the two weights divided by the density of the
ﬂuid.
Fluids that are normally used are,
• water which can easily be evaporated afterwards,
• mercury which normally not enters the pore space in a core sample due to its nonwetting
capability and its large interfacial energy against air.
The laboratory measurements, using this technique, are very accurate, where uncertainties
in the order of ± 0.2%, is normally obtained.
Example: Uncertainty analysis in measuring the bulk volume using Archimedes’
principle.
The bulk volume of a porous core sample can be measured in two steps, ﬁrst by
weighing the sample in a cup of water; m
1
(assuming 100% water saturation) and
then weighing the sample in air as it is removed from the cup; m
2
.
The bulk volume is then written,
V
b
=
m
2
−m
1
ρ
w
.
Differentiating the equation above gives us,
dV
b
=
∂V
b
∂m
2
dm
2
+
∂V
b
∂m
1
dm
1
+
∂V
b
∂ρ
w
dρ
w
,
dV
b
=
m
2
−m
1
ρ
w
¸
dm
2
m
2
−m
1
−
dm
1
m
2
−m
1
−
dρ
w
ρ
w
.
If the density measurement as well as the two massmeasurements above, is
considered to be independent measurements, the relative uncertainty in the bulk
volume is written,
∆V
b
V
b
2
= 2
∆m
(m
2
−m
1
)
2
+
∆ρ
w
ρ
w
2
,
where the uncertainty introduced in the process of weighing the two masses is
considered to be identical, i.e., ∆m = ∆m
1
= ∆m
2
.
54 Chapter 4. Porosity
The uncertainty equation above may also be written,
∆V
b
V
b
2
= 2
∆m
ρ
w
V
b
2
+
∆ρ
w
ρ
w
2
.
If the relative uncertainty in determined the water density is estimated to 0.1%
and the weighing accuracy is equal to 0.1 g, we ﬁnd a relative uncertainty in the
bulk volume of approximately 0.5%. The bulk volume of the core sample is ap
proximately 30 cm
3
and water density is assumed equal to 1g/cm
3
.
(Note that the uncertainty related to the assumption of 100% water saturation
prior to the ﬁrst mass measurement, in some experimental tests could be larger
than the effective uncertainty related to the measuring technique.)
.
4.4.4 PoreVolume Measurement
Pore volume measurements can be done by using the Boyle’s law, where the sample is placed
in a rubber sleeve holder that has no voids space around the periphery of the core and on the
ends. Such a holder is called the Hassler holder, or a hydrostatic load cell, see Fig. 4.11.
Hydrostatic
pressure
To flow
meter
Rubber tubing
Core sample
Flow into
core
Figure 4.11: Hydrostatic load cell (Hassler holder) used for a direct
measurement of pore volume.
Helium or one of its substitutes is injected into the core plug through the end stem. The
calculation of the pore volumeV
p
is as follows:
p
0
V
p
+ p
1
V
re f
= nRT (4.2)
p
2
(V
p
+V
re f
) = nRT (4.3)
and
V
p
=
(p
1
−p
2
)
(p
2
−p
0
)
V
re f
where (p
1
> p
2
> p
0
)
It is important to notice that the Hassler core holder has to be coupled to a volume of known
reference V
re f
, as seen in Fig. 4.10, when the pore volumeV
p
, is measured.
4.4 Measurement of Porosity 55
4.4.5 FluidSummation Method
This technique is to measure the volume of gas, oil and water present in the pore space of a
fresh or preserved (peelsealed) core of known bulk volume. If the core has been exposed to
the open air for some time, some of the oil and water can evaporate and the saturation will be
measured inaccurately.
The volumes of the extracted oil, gas and water are added to obtain the pore volume and
hence the core porosity.
The core sample is divided into two parts. One part (ca. 100 g) is crushed and placed in a
ﬂuidextraction retort (see ﬁgure in previous chapter), where the metalholder unit has a cap to
prevent the evaporation of gases at the top.
The vaporised water and oil originally contained in the pores, move down and are subse
quently condensed and collected in a calibrated glassware, where their volumes are measured.
The second part of the rock sample (ca. 30 g) with a roughly cylindrical shape, is weighed
and then placed in a pump chamber ﬁlled with mercury (a pycnometer) in which its bulk vol
ume is determined, measuring the volume of the displaced mercury. Then the pressure of the
mercury, p
Hg
, is raised to 70 bar (1000 psi). At this pressure, the mercury enters the sample and
compresses the gas, ﬁlling the pore space originally occupied with the gas. With an appropriate
calculation, the volume of the mercury "imbibed" in the rock gives the gas volumeV
g
.
The bulk volume and weight of the fresh sample allow the computation of the effective bulk
density of the rock. This in turn is used to convert the weight of the ﬁrst part of the sample,
which was 100 g (to be retorted), into an equivalent bulk volume.
The oil, water and gas volumes are each calculated as fractions of the bulk volume of the
rock sample and the three values are added to yield the porosity value .
The laboratory procedure provides the following information:
• First subsample gives the rock’s weight W
s1
and the volumes of oil V
o1
and water V
w1
are
recorded.
• Second subsample gives the volume of gasV
g2
and the rock’s bulk volumeV
b2
.
From the second subsample, the fraction of the bulk volume occupied by gas (i.e., the
fraction of the gasbulk volume) can be calculated,
f
g
=
V
g
2
V
b
2
= φS
g
where the subscript 2 is omitted for f
g
, S
g
, and φ, because these values are representative for
both parts of the sample.
Denoting the apparent bulk density of the ﬂuidsaturated rock sample asρ
app
, we can write,
W
s
1
=V
b
1
ρ
app
and W
s
2
=V
b
2
ρ
app
→V
b
1
=V
b
2
W
s
1
W
s
2
The formation oil and watervolume factor are calculated as follow,
f
o
=
V
o
1
V
b
1
= φS
o
,
f
w
=
V
w
1
V
b
1
= φS
w
,
56 Chapter 4. Porosity
and the sum of the ﬂuidvolume factor then gives the porosity value:
f
o
+ f
w
+ f
g
= φ(S
o
+S
w
+S
g
) = φ
Example: Use of pycnometer in matrix volume calculation.
The pycnometer is a labtool occasionally used for measuring bulk and pore vol
umes of core samples. A pycnometer is in principle a contained volume, a cell,
where a deﬁned amount of mercury can be injected or withdrawn. The sketch
below illustrates the working principle of the pycnometer.
V
0
Hg
Figure 4.12: Sketch of the pycnometer.
In order to deﬁne the matrix volume, V
m
of a core sample, the following mea
suring steps are carried out:
1. The pycnometer cell is fully saturated with mercury.
2. The pycnometer piston is withdrawn and a gas (air) volume of V
0
is mea
sured.
3. The core sample is placed in the cell, and the cell volume is sealed. The
equilibrium condition inside the cell is written; p
0
(V
0
−V
m
), where p
0
is the
atmospheric pressure and V
m
is the matrix of the sample (the rock’s grain
volume).
4. Mercury is injected into the cell and a new gas volume,V
1
and gas pressure,
p
1
is measured. NB: The mercury does not enter the pore system of the core
sample, due to its high interfacial tension. (Mercury, as laboratory ﬂuid, has
become less popular due to its toxic characteristics and is quite often replaced
by other ﬂuids.)
5. New equilibrium is reached and we write; p
1
(V
1
−V
m
).
Finally, the matrix volume is found as follows:
V
m
=
p
1
V
1
−p
0
V
0
p
1
−p
0
.
.
4.5 Uncertainty in Porosity Estimation 57
4.5 Uncertainty in Porosity Estimation
Experimental data is always contaminated with measuring uncertainty. For characteristic pa
rameter estimation, like determination of the porosity, we will expect the uncertainty in the
measured parameters to introduce an error in the estimate of the porosity found.
Porosity will normally be a function of V
p
, V
m
and/or V
b
. Since the three parameters are
dependent, i.e.
V
b
=V
p
+V
m
, (4.4)
only two of them should appear in the uncertainty analysis.
If we deﬁne porosity as,
φ =
V
p
V
b
,
we may differentiate the equation and we obtain,
dφ
φ
=
dV
p
V
p
−
dV
b
V
b
.
The pore and bulk volumes are independent measurements, i.e., the resultsV
p
and V
b
are
independent parameters and so are their uncertainties, ∆V
p
and ∆V
m
.
The relative error or uncertainty in the porosity is then given by
∆φ
φ
=
∆V
p
V
p
2
+
∆V
b
V
b
2
. (4.5)
In laboratory experiments we wish to reduce uncertainties to a minimum. Eq. (4.5) tells
us that it is not sufﬁcient to reduce the uncertainty in only one of the measured parameters,
leaving the other unchanged, since the total relative uncertainty is mainly inﬂuenced by the
largest relative uncertainty.
Example: Error propagation
From laboratory measurements one has estimated the relative uncertainty related
to the pore volume to be, ´V
p
/V
p
= 5.0% and the relative uncertainty related to
the matrix is, ´V
m
/V
m
= 7%.
The porosity is deﬁned,
φ =
V
p
V
b
=
V
p
V
p
+V
m
.
We could start to differentiate the porosity with respect toV
p
and V
m
, given the
equation above, but instead we intend to differentiate Eq. (4.4) and then substitute
the results into Eq. (4.5).
Differentiation of Eq. (4.4) gives,
´V
b
V
b
2
=
´V
p
V
p
+V
m
2
+
´V
m
V
p
+V
m
2
,
58 Chapter 4. Porosity
and substitution in Eq. (4.5) gives,
´φ
φ
=
´V
p
V
p
2
+
´V
p
V
p
+V
m
2
+
´V
m
V
p
+V
m
2
,
or written differently,
´φ
φ
=
(1+φ
2
)
´V
p
V
p
2
+
(1−φ)
2
´V
m
V
m
2
.
If the porosity is, φ = 0.2 (or 20%), then the relative uncertainty in the porosity
is ∼ 7.57% and the porosity with uncertainty is written,
φ ±´φ = (20 ±1.5)%.
Note that if the equation φ =V
p
/(V
p
+V
m
) is differentiated directly, the result
would be slightly different because the differentiation was used only once, com
pared to the process above where a two step differentiation is performed. Every
extra operation in the error propagation increases the ﬁnal uncertainty.
.
4.6 Porosity Estimation from Well Logs
Porosity of reservoir rock can be estimated not only by using methods, as has been described
above, but also from geophysical well logs, often called wireline logs. This method of porosity
evaluation is not very accurate, but has the advantage of providing continous porosity data.
Once these logs are obtained and converted into a porosity log, they can be calibrated using
coresample porisity data and serve as additional reliable source of porosity distribution evalu
ation.
Porosity can be estimated from:
• Formation resistivity factor (F).
• Microresistivity log (from which F can be derived).
• Neutron  gamma log.
• Density (gamma  gamma) log.
• Acoustic (sonic) log.
The Formation resistivity factor is deﬁned as the ratio of the resistivity of the porous sample
saturated with an ionic solution R
o
of the bulk resistivity of the same solutionR
w
, i.e. [23]
F =
R
o
R
w
. (4.6)
The Formation resistivity factor measures the inﬂuence of pore structure on the resistance
of the core sample. There are several relationships which can be used for the porosity evaluation
using Fvalues [23],
4.6 Porosity Estimation from Well Logs 59
• F = φ
−m
, where m is the cementation constant (Archie, 1942).
• F = (3−φ)/2φ (Maxwell, 1881).
• F = X/φ, where X is the electric tortuosity of the sample (Wyllie, 1957).
For more information regarding porosity evaluation using geophysical well logs, see refer
ence [7, 23, 37].
60 Chapter 4. Porosity
4.7 Exercises
1. Calculate the bulk volume of a preserved (parafﬁncoated) core sample immersed in
water, given the following data:
weight of dry sample in air: 20 g,
weight of dry sample coated with parafﬁn: 20.9 g (density of parafﬁn is : 0.9 g/cc),
weight of coated sample immersed in water: 10 g (density of water is: 1g/cc)
Determine the rock’s porosity, assuming a sandgrain density of 2.67 g/cc.
2. Calculate the bulk volume of a dry core sample immersed in mercury pycnometer, given
the following data:
weight of dry sample in air: 20 g,
weight of mercuryﬁlled pycnometer at 20
o
C: 350 g,
weight of mercuryﬁlled pycnometer with the sample at 20
o
C; 235.9 g.
density of mercury: 13.546 g/cc.
3. Determine the sandstone’s grain density and porosity, given the following data:
weight of crushed dry sample in air: 16 g,
weight of crushed sample plus absorbed water: 16.1 g,
weight of waterﬁlled pycnometer: 65 g,
weight of waterﬁlled pycnometer with the sample: 75 g.
4. Determine the sandstone’s grain volume and porosity using Boyl’s law, given the follow
ing data:
volume of chamber containing the core sample: 15 cc,
volume of chamber containing air: 7 cc,
bulk volume of core sample: 10 cc
5. Calculate the effective porosity of a sandstone sample using the following data:
weight of dry sample in air: 20 g,
weight of saturated sample in air: 22.5 g,
density of water is : 1.0 g/cc),
weight of saturated sample in water: 12.6 g.
6. A core sample is saturated with an oil (ρ
o
= 35
o
API), gas and water. The initial weight
of the sample is 224.14 g. After the gas is displaced by water (ρ
w
=1g/cm
3
), the weight
is increased to 225.90 g. The sample is the placed in aSoxhlet distillation apparatus, and
4.4 cm
3
water is extracted. After drying the core sample, the weight is now 209.75 g.
The sample bulk volume, 95 cm
3
is measured in a mercury pycnometer.
Find the porosity, water saturation, oil saturation, gas saturation and lithology of the core
sample. (Notice that the oil density is ρ[g/cm
3
] = 141.4/(131.5 +ρ[
o
API]), when the
water density at that particular temperature and pressure is 1g/cm
3
)
7. Another core sample is brought to the laboratory for compositional analysis, where 80
g of the sample is placed in a mercury pycnometer and the volume of gas found is 0.53
cm
3
. A piece of the same sample, weighing 120 g is placed in a retorte, where the water
and oil volume is measured to 2.8 cm
3
and 4.4 m
3
, respectively. A third piece of the
4.7 Exercises 61
sample, weighing 90 g is placed in a pycnometer and the bulk volume is measured to
be 37.4 cm
3
. Assume oil and water densities as in the exercise above and ﬁnd the same
characteristic parameters.
8. Calculate the porosity of the sample described below:
mass of dry sample: 104.2 g,
mass of water saturated sample: 120.2 g,
density of water 1.001 g/cm
3
,
mas of saturated sample immersed in water: 64.7g.
Is this effective porosity or the total porosity of the sample? What is the most probable
lithology of the matrix material? Explain .
9. A core, 2.54 cm long and 2.54 cm in diameter has a porosity of 22%. It is saturated with
oil and water, where the oil content is 1.5cm
3
.
a) What is the pore volume of the core?
b) What are the oil and water saturations of the core?
10. If a formation is 2.5 m thick, what is the volume of oilinplace (in m
3
and in bbl) of a
40.47 hectare large area, if the core described in the excercise above is representative of
the reservoir?
Answer to questions:
1. 24.3%, 2. 9.95 cm
3
, 3. 2.67 g/cm
3
, 1.6%, 4. 20%, 5. 25%, 6. 19%, 14.5%, 75.8%, 9.6%,
2.73 g/cm
3
, 7. 16%, 35.1%, 55.1%,10%, 2.69 g/cm
3
, 8. 29%, 2.64 g/cm
3
, 9. 2.831 cm
3
, 53%,
47%, 10. 738235.6 bbl
62 Chapter 4. Porosity
Chapter 5
Permeability
5.1 Introduction
Permeability in a reservoir rock is associated with it’s capacity to transport ﬂuids through a
system of interconnected pores, i.e. communication of interstices. In general terms, the per
meability is a tensor, since the resistance towards ﬂuid ﬂow will vary, depending on the ﬂow
direction. In practical terms, however, permeability is often considered to be ascalar, even
though this is only correct for isotropic porous media.
If there were no interconnected pores, the rock would be impermeable, i.e., it is natural
to assume that there exists certain correlations between permeability and effective porosity.
All factors affecting porosity will affect permeability and since rock permeability is difﬁcult
to measure in the reservoir, porosity correlated permeabilities are often used in extrapolating
reservoir permeability between wells.
Absolute permeability could be determined in the laboratory by using inert gas (nitrogen
is frequently used) that ﬁlls the porous rock sample completely and limits the possibility of
chemical interaction with the rock material to a minimum. Since the gas molecules will pen
etrate even the smallest porethroats, all pore channels are included in the averaging process
when permeability is measured.
When several phases or mixtures of ﬂuids are passing through a rock locally and simulta
neously, each ﬂuid phase will counteract the free ﬂow of the other phase’s and a reduced phase
permeability (relative to absolute) is measured, i.e. effective permeability.
5.2 Darcy’s Law
The ﬁrst important experiments of ﬂuid ﬂow through porous media, were reported by Dupuit in
1854, using waterﬁlters. His results showed that the pressure drop across the ﬁlter is propor
tional to the water ﬁltration velocity. In 1856 Henry Darcy proved that ﬂow of water through
sand ﬁlters, obeys the following relationship:
q = K A
h
∆l
, (5.1)
63
64 Chapter 5. Permeability
where h is a difference in manometer levels, i.e. hydrostatic height difference,
A is crosssectional area of the ﬁlter,
∆l is thickness of the ﬁlter in the ﬂow direction and
K is a proportionality coefﬁcient.
In Darcy’s experimental results, as in Eq. (5.1), viscosityµ, was not included because only
water ﬁlters were investigated and hence, the effects of ﬂuid density and viscosity had no real
experimental signiﬁcance.
Experiments repeated after Darcy, have proved that if the manometric level, h, is kept
constant, the same ﬂow rate (or ﬂow velocity) is measured, irrespective of the orientation of
the sand ﬁlter (see Fig. 5.1).
Datum
plane
θ = 90
o
0 < < 90
o o
θ θ = 90
o
θ
I II III
Figure 5.1: Orientation of the sand ﬁlter with respect to the direction
of gravitation.
The pressure difference across the sand ﬁlter in Fig. 5.1, for the 3 cases are given,
I : ∆p
I
= ρg(h−∆l),
II : ∆p
II
= ρg(h−∆l sinθ),
III : ∆p
III
= ρgh,
where ∆l is the thickness or length of the sand ﬁlter in the ﬂow direction.
Since the water velocity is proportional to the manometric level (observation made by
Darcy), the ﬂow velocity is proportional to,
v ∝ (∆p+ρg∆z),
where ∆z is the elevation in the gravitational ﬁeld. (∆z accounts for the inclined ﬂow direction
relative to horizontal ﬂow.)
If the sand ﬁlter is made longer, a reduced ﬂow velocity is expected and similarly if the
water is replaced by a ﬂuid of higher viscosity, a reduced ﬂow velocity is expected.
5.2 Darcy’s Law 65
v ∝
1
µ
∆p+ρg∆z
∆l
.
The proportionality, above, can be replaced by equality, by introducing a proportionality
coefﬁcient k,
v =
k
µ
∆p+ρg∆z
∆l
, (5.2)
where k is the permeability.
The pressure at any point along the ﬂow path is related to a reference height or datum plane
z
0
, where ∆z = z −z
0
and e.g. z
0
= 0 at a level where the reference pressure is 1 atm. A
pressure difference ∆(p+ρgz) = (p+ρgz)
2
−(p+ρgz)
1
will create a ﬂuid ﬂow between the
two points, unless the pressure p is equal to the static pressure −ρgh. In these cases no ﬂow
is expected and static equilibrium is established, as observed in any reservoir where the ﬂuid
pressure increases with depth.
Fluid ﬂow in a porous rock is therefore given by the pressure potential difference ∆(p +
ρgz), i.e. the sum of pressure difference and elevation in the gravity ﬁeld. In a historical
context, the pressure potential has been associated with the energy potential (energy pr. mass)
and the following deﬁnition has been used,
Φ
def
=
p
ρ
+gz.
Substituting the pressure potential difference ∆Φ in Eq. (5.2), one can rewrite the equality
equation based on Darcy’s deduction,
q = A
k
µ
ρ
∆Φ
∆l
where k is the permeability of the porous medium (ﬁlter, core sample/plug, etc.), µ is the
viscosity of the ﬂuid and l is the length of the porous medium in the direction of ﬂow andΦ is
the pressure potential. The ﬂow rate q = dV/dt, is volume pr. time.
The Darcy’s law in differential form is,
q = A
k
µ
ρ
dΦ
dl
= lim
∆l→0
A
k
µ
ρ
∆Φ
∆l
. (5.3)
For linear and horizontal ﬂow (parallel to the xaxis) of incompressible ﬂuid, the elevation
is constant, i.e. dz/dx = 0, and Dracy’s law is written,
q =−A
k
µ
dp
dx
, (5.4)
where the minus sign "", in front of the pressure gradient term, compensates for a negative
pressure gradient in the direction of ﬂow (since ﬂuids move from high to low potential). Ve
locity and ﬂow rate are pr. deﬁnition positive parameters (see the example below).
At this point it is important to notice that the permeability, k, is introduced in Eqs. (5.4)
and (5.3), as a proportionality constant and not as a physical parameter. The permeability
does pr. deﬁnition, not carry any characteristic information about the porous medium. When
66 Chapter 5. Permeability
permeability is related to the transport capability of the porous medium, as often is the case
in practical situations, the fact that this information about the porous medium is missing in
Eq. (5.4), is often overlooked. The proportionality constant k, called permeability, describes
not only the porous medium transport capability, as such, but represents all information about
the porous medium etc., which is otherwise not described by any of the other parameters in
Eq. (5.4).
Example: Linear horizontal core ﬂow
The minus sign "" in the horizontal ﬂow equation Eq. 5.4 is justiﬁed by consider
ing linear core ﬂow.
Let’s assume a constant liquid ﬂow rate q, through a core sample, as shown
in Fig. 5.2. The pressures p
1
, p
2
and the positions x
1
, x
2
are labelled according to
standard numbering and orientation.
x
x
2
p
1
p
2
x
1
q q
Figure 5.2: Horizontal ﬂow in a core sample.
Assuming a homogeneous porous medium and integration from position 1 to
2, the pressure term is written as follows,
dp
dx
=
p
2
−p
1
x
2
−x
1
=−
p
1
−p
2
x
2
−x
1
,
where p
1
> p
2
in positive ﬂow direction. Since x
2
obviously is larger than x
1
,
the value of dp/dx is pr. deﬁnition negative, i.e. the minus sign "" is needed to
balance the equation.
.
The ﬂuid velocity related to the crosssection areaA is called the superﬁcial (i.e. ﬁltration)
or bulk velocity, and the linear ﬂow velocity is written,
u =
q
A
=−
k
µ
dp
dx
. (5.5)
The real velocity of ﬂuid ﬂow in the pores is called theinterstitial (true) velocity, v
pore
and
is necessarily higher than the bulk velocity, since the ﬂow crosssection area is, on average,φ
times smaller than the bulk crosssection A. The directions of pore ﬂow are inclined relative
to the general ﬂow direction and a characteristic inclination angle α is assigned to describe
this effect. This effect will increase the pore velocity even more, as illustrated in Fig. 5.3. If,
in addition, the porous medium contains a residual saturation of a nonﬂowing phase, e.g. a
connate water saturation S
wc
, the pore ﬂow velocity is affected through the reduction of the
5.2 Darcy’s Law 67
ﬂow crosssection area. The sum of these effects will cause the pore ﬂow velocity to become
considerably higher than the bulk velocity,
v
pore
=
q
A
1
φ
1
1−S
wc
1
cos
2
α
. (5.6)
α
α
z
x
y
v
q
v
pore
Figure 5.3: Pore ﬂow velocity in a porous medium.
Experimental tests from different porous rocks have shown that an average inclination an
gle, α ·36
o
and that this angle may vary between 12
o
to 45
o
. If a typical porosity of 25% and
a connate water saturation of 10% are assumed, then the pore velocity will be about 7 times
higher than the bulk velocity.
Example: Linear inclined core ﬂow
When the direction of ﬂow is inclined, with an angle θ to the horizontal ﬂow
direction, the gravitational force has to be considered, since the ﬂuids are moving
up or down in the gravitational ﬁeld.
In order to keep a constant ﬂow rate q, through a porous medium of length ∆l,
a pressure difference ∆p is applied. See Fig. 5.4.
l
l
2
p
1
p
2
l
1
q
q
x
θ
r
g
Figure 5.4: Core ﬂow at a dip angle θ to the horizontal axis
Flow at an angle to the horizontal direction is described by Eq. (5.3), where the
minus sign is describing linear ﬂow,
q =−A
k
µ
d(p+ρgz)
dl
.
68 Chapter 5. Permeability
z is the elevation in the gravitational ﬁeld and from Fig.5.4 it’s evident that
z = l sinθ, where l is the direction of ﬂow. The ﬂow equation becomes,
q =−A
k
µ
dp
dl
−A
k
µ
ρgsinθ.
Integration from position 1 to 2, gives
q+A
k
µ
ρgsinθ
∆l = A
k
µ
∆p.
The pressure difference is given,
∆p =
µ∆l
Ak
q+ρg∆l sinθ,
where horizontal linear ﬂow is ∆p
θ=0
= q(µ∆l)/(Ak).
In order to maintain a constant ﬂow rate through the core sample, the pressure
difference needs to be adjusted relative to the inclination angle (dip angle). In a
updip situation, as in Fig. 5.4, the pressure difference has to be larger relative to
the horizontal case, since the ﬂuid is pushed upwards in the gravitational ﬁelds,
i.e.,
0 ≤θ < 90
o
⇒ ∆p ≥∆p
0
−90
o
< θ < 0 ⇒ ∆p <∆p
0
.
5.3 Conditions for Liquid Permeability Measurements.
Permeability in core samples is measured in the laboratory using Darcy’s law for horizontal
ﬂow, Eq. (5.4). In these tests, some important conditions have to be satisﬁed before permeabil
ity could be estimated from the measured data. These conditions are the following:
• Horizontal ﬂow.
• Incompressible ﬂuid.
• 100% ﬂuid saturation in the porous medium.
• Stationary ﬂow current, i.e. constant crosssection in ﬂow direction.
• Laminar ﬂow current (satisﬁed in most liquid ﬂow cases).
• No chemical exchange or  reactions between ﬂuid and porous medium.
5.4 Units of Permeability 69
q
∆p
slope;
a = Ak/ l µ∆
Figure 5.5: Experimental determination of liquid permeability.
Having satisﬁed all the above conditions, permeability is found by integrating the linear
ﬂow equation where the permeability is experimentally determined using the formula,
q =
Ak
µ∆l
∆p, (5.7)
where the ﬂow rate q and the pressure difference ∆p are the measured data. Permeability is
found by plotting the measured data as shown in Fig. 5.5.
The linear best ﬁt through all experimental datapoints will give a slope, from which the
permeability can be calculated using Eq. (5.7) [54].
The importance of linear representation of the measured data is the advantage of visual
inspection, which may reveal nonlinear effects in the data, e.g. at high or low ﬂow rates, or
uncertainty in laboratory measurements, e.g. large spread in data around the linear ﬁt.
5.4 Units of Permeability
Dimensional analysis applied to the Darcy’s law, shows that permeability has the dimension of
surface area, L
2
. It is not convenient to measure permeability of porous media in cm
2
or in m
2
.
By convention the unit for the permeability is called theDarcy. The following deﬁnition of the
Darcy has been accepted:
The permeability is 1 Darcy if a ﬂuid with viscosity of 1cp is ﬂowing at a rate of 1
cm
3
/s through a porous medium with a crosssection of 1cm
2
, creating a pressure
difference of 1 atm/cm.
Applying Darcyunits to Eq. (5.4), we get the following equality:
1
cm
3
s
=−1cm
2
1D
1cp
−
1atm
1cm
,
where the Darcyunits are preferably used in connection with laboratory tests.
There are two systems of units which are widely used in petroleum ﬁeld engineering;
• Field units.
• SI units (international system of units).
70 Chapter 5. Permeability
The value 1 Darcy is deﬁned in SIunits by substitution:
q = 10
−6
m
3
s
,
µ = 1cp = 10
−3
kg
m s
,
dp
dl
= 1
atm
cm
= 1.01 10
5
Pa
cm
= 1.01 10
7
kg
m
2
s
2
and
A = 10
−4
m
2
k =
qµ
A dp/dl
= 0.987 10
−12
m
2
= 0.987µm
2
.
Here: µm
2
= (µm)
2
.
It follows from these evaluations that,
1 D = 0.987 µm
2
.
Instead of the unit 1 Darcy, the 1/1000 fraction is used, which then is called millidarcy
(mD).
It is important to remember that permeability is a tensor, which means that permeability
might have different values in different directions. Vertical permeability (i.e. normal to the
bedding of formations) is usually much lower in comparison than the horizontal permeability
(measured along the bedding of formations). In its turn, the horizontal permeability can be
different in different directions. These permeability features should be taken into account while
measuring permeability.
Example: Core sample liquid permeability.
A cylindrical core sample is properly cleaned and all remains of hydrocarbons are
removed from the pore space. The core is saturated with water and then ﬂushed
horizontally. The core length is 15cm, it’s diameter is 5 cm and the water viscosity
is 1.0 cp.
The permeability might be determined by plotting the data in a "rate/pressure"
diagram, as shown in Fig. 5.5, or more directly, by calculating the permeability
value for each datapair, using the formula,
k =
µ∆l
A
q
∆p
,
where A = π(d/2)
2
and d is the core sample diameter.
The pressure drop ∆p, is measured for three different ﬂowrates and perme
ability is calculated using the above formula,
q
w
[cm
3
/s] 1.0 3.0 10.0
∆p [atm] 7.2 24.5 76.0
k [D] 0.106 0.093 0.101
5.5 Gas Permeability Measurements 71
The average or representative permeability is k = 0.1 D or 100 mD.
Laboratory measurements, always contain uncertainty related to the technol
ogy used to obtain the labdata. This uncertainty could be examined by plotting
the datapairs in an appropriate way, e.g. as shown in Fig. 5.5. The advantage
of dataplotting, compared to straight forward calculations, as in this example, is
the opportunity to verify that the data used in the averaging process are "good" or
representative .
.
5.5 Gas Permeability Measurements
Due to certain interactions between the liquids and the porous rock, absolute permeability is
routinely measured in the laboratory by ﬂowing gas (usually inert gas) through the core sample.
Because gas is a highly compressible substance, i.e. the gas rate is pressure dependent, the
Darcy’s law may not be utilised directly. Considering mass ﬂow of gasqρ, one can write,
qρ =−A
kρ
µ
dp
dx
,
where ρ is the density of the gas at certain pressure.
It follows from the perfect gas law (pV = nRT) that,
ρ(p) =
ρ(p
0
)
p
0
p, or simply ρ =
ρ
0
p
0
p,
which when substituted into the previous equation equation yields,
qρ =−A
kρ
0
p
µp
0
dp
dx
. (5.8)
Here the subscript "0" refers to a certain pressure value, for instance, the pressure at normal
or standard conditions.
Taking into account the invariant quantity,
qρ = q
0
ρ
0
,
one ﬁnally obtains,
q
0
=−A
kp
µp
0
dp
dx
, (5.9)
or integrated from p
1
to p
2
,
q
0
= A
k
2µp
0
p
2
1
−p
2
2
∆l
. (5.10)
Another useful form in which Eq. (5.10) can be written is,
q
0
= A
k
µ
p
p
o
∆p
∆l
, (5.11)
72 Chapter 5. Permeability
where p = (p
1
+ p
2
)/2 is a mean (average) pressure in the core during the measurements.
Combining the invariant mass ﬂow; qρ =qρ and the results generated from the perfect gas
law; ρ p = ρp with Eq. (5.11), one obtains,
q =−A
k
µ
∆p
∆l
, (5.12)
where q is the mean or average ﬂow rate. Eq. (5.12) has exactly the same form as Darcy’s
law for horizontal liquid ﬂow, except for the fact that the ﬂow rate is the mean ﬂow rate. In a
homogeneous porous rock, the mean ﬂow rate is equal to the gas rate at the centre of the core
sample.
The Hassler core holder is commonly used for permeability measurements. It provides
measurements of permeability in both vertical and horizontal directions.
For permeability measurements in the vertical direction gas is injected through the core
plug in the axial direction (see Fig. 5.6, left). The core plug is placed in an impermeable rubber
sleeve protecting the gas ﬂow at the outerface of the core plug.
High air
pressure
Core sample
Rubber tubing
Low air
pressure
To flow
meter
High air
pressure
Rubber
disk
Low air
pressure
To flow
meter
Metal plug
Screen
Screen
Flow
directions
Figure 5.6: Full diameter vertical and horizontal permeability mea
surement apparatus (from IHRDC, 1991).
Horizontal permeability measurements require a sealing of the top surfaces of the core with
nonpermeable rubber disks (see Fig. 5.6, right). The area of cylindrical surface at the inﬂow
and outﬂow openings is covered with a screen and the sample is then placed into the core
holder. Under high air pressure the rubber tubing is collapsed around the core. Low pressure
air is introduced into the center of the holder and passes through the rubber boot and intersects
with the screen, and then ﬂows vertically through the screen. The air then ﬂows through the full
diameter sample along its full height and emerges on the opposite side, where the screen again
allows free ﬂow of the air to exit. The screen are selected to cover designated outer segments
of the full diameter sample. In most cases the circumference of the core is divided into four
equal quadrants. In this test the ﬂow length is actually a function of the core diameter, and the
crosssectional area of ﬂow is a function of the length and diameter of the core sample.
It is common to furnish two horizontal permeability measurements on all full diameter
samples. The second measurement is made at the right angles to the ﬁrst.
5.5 Gas Permeability Measurements 73
Example: Core sample gas permeability.
A gas permeability test has been carried out on a core sample, 1in in diameter and
length. The core has been cleaned and dried and mounted in a Hassler core holder,
of the type seen in Fig. 5.6.
The gas is injected and the pressure, p
1
measured, at one end of the core sam
ple, while the gas rate, q
2
is measured at the other end, at atmospheric pressure,
i.e., p
2
= 1atm.
The gas permeability could be estimated using Eq. (5.10), written as follows,
q
2
= A
k
2µp
2
p
2
1
−p
2
2
∆l
.
Given the pressure p
1
and the gas rate q
2
, the mean pressure in the core sample,
p and the pressure drop across the core, ∆p, are calculated from the equation
above. The gas permeability k is found as a function of the mean core pressure.
The following data is given:
p
1
[mmHg] q
2
[cm
3
/min] p [atm.] ∆p [atm.] k [mD]
861 6.4 1.066 0.133 6.8
1276 35.6 1.33 0.667 6.3
2280 132.8 2.00 2.00 5.0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Reciprocal pressure: 1/p
m
[1/atm.]
2
3
4
5
6
7
P
e
r
m
e
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
:
k
[
m
D
]
Figure 5.7: Gas permeability plotted as the reciprocal of mean pres
sure.
Note that the gas permeability is pressure dependent. As the mean pressure in
the core sample increases it is expected that the gas permeability will approach the
absolute (liquid) permeability, since at such high pressure the gas itself, will start
to behave as a liquid.(This asymptotic limit is not reached unless the pressure, e.g.
in air, is more than 1000 bar.)
74 Chapter 5. Permeability
The absolute gas permeability of the core sample is therefore found as the
asymptotic value of permeability, when p →∞or more conveniently, when 1/p →
0, as seen in Fig.5.7. The data, taken from the table is plotted and the absolute per
meability is found k
liquid
= 3.0mD.
.
5.5.1 Turbulent Gas Flow in a Core Sample
When gas permeability in core samples are measured, turbulent ﬂow may be experienced in
parts of the pore system, preferably in the larger pores and pore channels.
In order to adjust for the occurance of turbulence, the horizontal ﬂow equation can be
expanded by adding a term particularly describing the turbulent ﬂow situation. For this purpose
the Fanning Eq. (5.13), is used describing turbulent ﬂow in a circular tube [7],
v
2
=
R
ρF
∆p
∆x
, (5.13)
where R is the tube radius, ρ is the gas density and F is the Fanning friction factor characteris
ing the tube (i.e. roughness, wetting, etc.).
According to the Fanning equation one may assume that pressure drop across a pore chan
nel is proportional to the square of the average gas velocity in the pore.
The horizontal ﬂow equation, including a turbulent term can be written as,
∆p
∆x
=
µ
k
v +βv
2
,
where v is the average or mean ﬂow velocity and β is the turbulent constant .
Considering the average gas ﬂow velocity, v = q/A and rearranging the above equation
somewhat, one gets,
∆p
∆x
A
µ
1
q
=
1
k
+
β
Aµ
q.
In an experimental situation one normally do not know the average core rateq. Instead the
gas rate is measured at the exhaust end, q
0
. Recall from above the relation,
q =
p
0
p
q
0
.
Substituting for average gas rate in the horizontal ﬂow equation one gets an equation par
ticularly adapted for experimental application,
A
∆xµp
0
∆pp
q
0
=
1
k
+
β p
0
Aµ
q
0
p
. (5.14)
Eq. (5.14) is a linear equation where 1/k is the constant term.
In order to use Eq. (5.14), special care has to be taken to how data is plotted. Since
p = (p
1
+p
2
)/2 and ∆p = (p
1
−p
2
), are both functions of p
1
, one of them has to be kept ﬁxed
when producing linear plots.
Assuming there are three sets of data; set a, b and c. For each set there are three measure
ments; 1, 2 and 3, all together nine measurements.
5.5 Gas Permeability Measurements 75
p
a
∆p
a,1
q
0,a,1
p
a
∆p
a,2
q
0,a,2
p
a
∆p
a,3
q
0,a,3
p
b
∆p
b,1
q
0,b,1
p
b
∆p
b,2
q
0,b,2
p
b
∆p
b,3
q
0,b,3
p
c
∆p
c,1
q
0,c,1
p
c
∆p
c,2
q
0,c,2
p
c
∆p
c,3
q
0,c,3
For each data set; a, b and c, a straight line is plotted through the measured data points and
the constant 1/k is evaluated, as shown in the Fig. 5.8.
q /p
0 m
p
ma
p
mb
p
mc
1/k
a
1/k
b
1/k
c
A
p
p
x
p
q
∆
∆
ν
m
0
0
Figure 5.8: Plotting linear data where the average pressure p = p
m
is
kept constant.
The three permeability values found form Fig. 5.8; k
a
, k
b
and k
c
are now plotted, in accor
dance with the linear Eq. (5.14), as shown in the Fig. 5.9.
k
a
k
c
k
b
1/p
m
k
,
D
k
L
Figure 5.9: Absolute permeability as function of inverse average
pressure, p = p
m
When turbulence is considered, gas permeability is found using a step like plotting process,
where data having the same average core pressure are plotted together in the ﬁrst step. Sec
ondly, permeabilities are plotted as functions of the inverse average pressure, from where the
absolute (liquid) permeability is found.
76 Chapter 5. Permeability
5.6 Factors Affecting Permeability Values
General considerations show that permeability is a characteristic parameter describing ﬂow
behaviour in porous media. Since the permeability is introduced as a proportional coefﬁcient
in Darcy’s law, it is evident that other characteristics than the porous medium have important
inﬂuence on the numeric value of the permeability. In the case of overburden pressure, exper
iments have shown that the permeability is even more dependent on the overburden pressure
than the porosity.
Permeability measurements are also (sometimes strongly) affected by the ﬂuid, e.g. used
in laboratory tests, due to some interaction between the ﬂuid and the porous medium. To avoid
this effect, gases (helium, nitrogen, carbondioxide and air) are often used for permeability
measurements. The use of gases introduce other problems, such as turbulent ﬂow behaviour,
increased uncertainty in gas rate measurements and at low pressure, theKlinkenberg effect.
It follows from Eq. (5.11), that the rock permeability to gas is not the same as for liquids,
since gas permeability is pressure dependent, i.e. k = k(p),
k =
q
o
µ
A
p
o
p
∆l
∆p
, (5.15)
where the latter statement means that different average core pressures p, provide different val
ues of the rock permeability to gas.
These facts should be considered when permeability from laboratory measurements is re
lated to reservoir permeability.
5.6.1 The Klinkenberg Effect
It has been observed that at low average pressures, measurements of gas permeability give
erroneously high results, as compared to the nonreactive liquid permeability measurements
(absolute permeability). This effect is known as the gas slippage effect or as the Klinkenberg
effect, investigated by Klinkenberg in 1941. Klinkenberg found that the gas permeability of a
core sample varied with both the type of gas used in the measurements and the average pressure
p, in the core.
One of the conditions for the validity of Darcy’s law, as presented in Eqs. (5.7) or (5.11), is
the requirement of laminar ﬂow, i.e. that the ﬂuid behaves "classically" with respect to inter
molecular interactions in the gas. At low gas pressure, in combination with small (diameter)
pore channels, this condition is broken.
At low p, gas molecules are often so far apart, that they slip through the pore channels
almost without interactions (no friction loss) and hence, yield a increased ﬂow velocity or ﬂow
rate. At higher pressures, the gas molecules are closer together and interact more strongly
as molecules in a liquid. Compared to laminar ﬂow, at a constant pressure difference, the
Klinkenberg dominated ﬂow will yield a higher gas rate than laminar ﬂow,
q
Klinkenberg
> q
laminar
.
Experiments show that when gas permeability is plotted versus the reciprocal average pres
sure p, a straight line can be ﬁtted through the data points. Extrapolation of this line to inﬁnite
mean pressure, i.e. when 1/p →0, gives the absolute (liquid) permeability. The permeability
5.6 Factors Affecting Permeability Values 77
1.2 1.6 2.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
0.0
0.0 0.4 0.8
Reciprocal Mean Pressure, 1/bar
G
a
s
P
e
r
m
e
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
,
m
D
He
N
2
CO
2
Liquid or absolute
permeability, k
L
Figure 5.10: Klinkenberg permeability determination.
value at 1/p →0 is comparable to the permeability obtained if the core were saturated with a
nonreactive liquid (see Fig. 5.10.
In early core analysis the Klinkenberg permeability was estimated by using a steadystate
technique for permeability measurements, at different mean pressures p, or by using the fol
lowing correlation’s;
k
m
= k
L
1+
b
p
, (5.16)
where k
m
and k
L
are the measured and the absolute (liquid) permeability, respectively. The
parameter b depends on the type of gas used and reﬂects, to some extent, properties of the rock
(Fig. 5.10).
Corrections to measured gas permeability due to the Klinkenberg effect are normally mod
erate to small corrections, as seen for the table below.
Noncorrected Klinkenberg corrected
permeability, [mD] permeability, [mD]
1.0 0.7
10.0 7.8
100.0 88.0
1000.0 950.0
In most laboratory measurements of gas permeability, it is safe to neglect the Klinkenberg
effect if the gas pressure is higher than 10 bar. In reservoirs, the pressure will be much higher
and consequently the signiﬁcance of the Klinkenberg effect of no importance.
Example: Onset of the Klinkenberg effect
The onset of the Klinkenberg effect is considered in a system comprised of a bun
dle of identical capillary tubes. For such a system, using Poiseuille’s law for tube
ﬂow, it is shown that the permeability can be written,
78 Chapter 5. Permeability
k =
π
4
r
2
8
, (5.17)
where r is the individual tube radius.
Irrespective of the fact that a bundle of cylindrical tubes is far from being a
realistic model of a porous medium, one can estimate the permeability at which
the Klinkenberg effect starts to become a signiﬁcant effect.
As an example helium gas might be chosen in the ﬂow experiment. Helium
has a mean free path, λ
He
=0.18 10
−6
m at atmospheric pressure and temperature
of 20
o
C [59]. At higher pressures, lower mean free paths are observed, i.e. λ <
λ
He
.
Since the Klinkenberg effect is said to become important when themean free
path of the gas and the size (diameter) of the pore channels are comparable, there
is a maximum permeability limit, below which the Klinkenberg effect becomes
active.
Substituting the helium mean free path for the diameter of the tube radius in
Eq. (5.17); r = λ
He
/2, it follows,
k
He
=
π
4
(λ
He
/2)
2
8
, (5.18)
Using helium gas, the Klinkenberg effect would be active at standard condi
tions in a "porous" medium, as above, for permeabilities less thank
He
= 0.8 mD. In
an experiment where N
2
or CO
2
is used, the expected mean free paths are shorter
and consequently the permeability limits are lower than in theHe case.
For many gases, the mean free paths of their molecules at standard conditions
(room temperature and atmospheric pressure) are in the range: 0.01 to 0.1 µm,
whereas the mean free paths of CO
2
and N
2
are respectively 0.04 µm and 0.06
µm.
.
5.7 Exercises 79
5.7 Exercises
1. Prove that the numeric constant for convertingdyn/cm
2
to atm, is equal to 1.013310
6
,.
2. Darcy’s law is given,
q = A
k
µ
∆p
∆L
,
where; k:[Darcy], µ:[cp], A:[cm
2
], q:[cm
3
/s], L:[cm] and p:[atm].
Convert this equation to "Oil Field Units" where; k:[mD], µ;[cp], A:[ f t
2
], q:[bbl/d],
L:[ft] and p:[psi].
3. The cylindrical pore model consists of cylindrical tubes stacked on top of each other.
Assuming a tube radius equal to r and that the ﬂuid ﬂow velocity through the tubes, is
given by Poiseuilles equation,
v =
r
2
8µ
∆p
∆l
.
a) Calculate the porosity of the cylindrical pore model φ,
b) Show that the permeability is written as k = φr
2
/8.
c) Consider the average permeability of a serial coupling of two tubes with tube radius
R and r, where R r. Find an expression for the average permeability and evaluate
the consequences of relative increase/decrease in the pore radius, as shown in the
ﬁgure below.
∆l
∆l
r R
4. A reservoir has cylindrical geometry where the following parameters are deﬁned;
p
e
[atm] Pressure at the outer boundary
p
w
[atm] Pressure in the well
r
w
[cm] Well radius
r
e
[cm] Radius at the outer boundary
h [cm] Reservoir height
Use Darcy’s law to derive a general equation for a cylindrical reservoir in the cases of
horizontal ﬂow, when we have,
a) incompressible ﬂuid and
b) ideal gas.
80 Chapter 5. Permeability
5. Use the laws of Darcy and Poiseuilles to estimate the lowest measurable permeability of
a sandstone core sample, without detecting the Klinkenberg effect. The measurements
are done under laboratory conditions, usingN
2
.
6. Calculate the air permeability, in two ways, for a cylindrical core sample where the
following data is given. Verify that the two approaches used above give the same answer.
(Use the equation for gas rate at the efﬂuent endq
o
and the equation for the average gas
rate q.)
Length 3.0 in, p
1
55 psig,
Diameter 1.5 in, p
2
20 psig,
q
b
75 cm
3
/s, Atm. pressure 13 psia,
p
b
14.65 psia, µ 0.0185 cP.
q
b
and p
b
is the ﬂow rate and back pressure, respectively.
(NB: p
psia
= p
psig
+ p
atm.pressure
)
7. An oil well is producing from a cylindrical reservoir with a drainage area of 20 acres.
Calculate the well pressure, given the following data:
r
w
= 6 in, µ = 5 cP,
k = 75 mD, h = 10 ft,
p
e
= 5000 psia, q = 175 BOPD,
BOPD is short for "Barrel of Oil Produced per Day".
Calculate the pressure in the reservoir at a distance 5 ft from the well. What is the
pressure drop from the well to this position, in percentage of the total pressure difference
in the reservoir?
8. Show that the average permeability
¯
k for n horizontal layers, stacked on top of each other
(in parallel), is given by the formula [8] (see Figure below),
¯
k =
∑
n
j=1
k
j
h
j
∑
n
j=1
h
j
,
where k
j
and h
j
are the permeability and thickness of the layers.
k
1
k
2
k
3
h
1
h
2
h
3
q
q
9. Linear ﬂow in horizontal layers.
Calculate the total ﬂow rate in f t
3
/d at the pressure p
b
for gas ﬂow through parallel
layers, where the following data is given:
5.7 Exercises 81
width 200 ft, length 400 ft, p
atm.
15.0 psia,
h
1
2 ft, k
1
200 mD, p
in
500 psig,
h
2
6 ft, k
2
150 mD, p
out
400 psig,
h
3
4 ft, k
3
400 mD, p
b
14.65 psia.
Gas viscosity µ
g
= 0.0185cp. (Notice: p
psia
= p
psig
+ p
atm.
)
10. Show that the average permeability of rectangular porous media coupled in series is
given by the formula [8] (see Figure below),
¯
k =
∑
n
j=1
L
j
∑
n
j=1
L
j
/k
j
,
where L
j
is the length of the media in the direction of ﬂow.
k
1
k
2
k
3
L
1
L
2 L
3
L
q q
11. Linear and horizontal ﬂow through linear beds in series.
Calculate the total oil rate bbl/d through all media, when the following data is given:
width 100 ft, height 50 ft, µ
o
10 cP,
L
1
100 ft, k
1
100 mD, p
in
100 psig,
L
2
200 ft, k
2
50 mD, p
out
50 psig,
L
3
200 ft, k
3
200 mD, p
atm.
15.0 psia,
12. Show that the average permeability for n radial layers in a cylindrical reservoir is given
by the formula [8] (see Figure below),
¯
k =
ln(r
e
/r
w
)
∑
n
j=1
ln(r
j
/r
j−1
)/k
j
,
where r
e
and r
w
is the radius to the outer boundary of the reservoir and the well radius,
respectively. k
j
is permeability to the layer with outer radius r
j
.
Are the formulas above valid both for gas and liquid ﬂow?
13. Radial and horizontal ﬂow through cylindrical layers.
An oil well has a intermediate zone with reduced reservoir permeability k
1
. Calculate
the pressure at the outer boundary p
e
when the oil rate is 100 bbl/d and the following
data is given:
r
w
6 in, k
1
50 mD, p
w
2000 psia,
r
1
10 ft, k
2
200 mD, µ
o
5 cp,
k
3
330 ft, h 20 ft.
82 Chapter 5. Permeability
What is the pressure at outside the damaged zone (r
1
) ?
14. Absolute permeability of a core sample is being measured by water ﬂooding. The core
sample is mounted in a transparent cylindrical tube, as shown in the ﬁgure below, and
the airwater surface is monitored as function of time.
The tube is placed in a vertical position and the water is assumed to ﬂow through the
whole core sample, evenly distributed over the surface.
Calculate the absolute permeability of the sample when the air–water surface uses 400
seconds to move 18 cm.
Water
Core
sample
q
82 cm
100 cm
2 cm
Additional data;
Density of water 1 g/cm
3
Water viscosity 1 cp
Gravitational constant 980 cm/s
2
Thickness of core sample 2 cm
Answers to questions:
3. π/4, 5. 0.1 mD, 6. 0.1 D, 7. 262 atm, 288 atm,
9. 1.57 10
6
f t
3
/d, 11. 4710 bbl/d, 13. 2272 psi, 14. 1 D.
Chapter 6
Wettability and Capillary Pressure
6.1 Introduction
The exploitation of hydrocarbons is a complex process of controlling interactions in systems
involving crude oil, water, gas and rock formations. In such complicated systems, it is impor
tant to recognise the effect of the surface properties of oil/rock, water/rock and, in combination,
the interface oil/water. A central property, when giving an overall picture of the interfacial con
ditions, is the surface or interfacial tension (or more correctly the surface or interfacial energy).
This property is very sensitive to chemical changes at the interface.
In this chapter, the interaction between wettability and surface tension is revealed. Due
to the great signiﬁcance of the surface/interfacial tension, several experimental methods have
been developed in order to measure this physical property. Some of the most commonly used
techniques are reviewed.
6.2 Surface and Interfacial Tension
An interface is known as the boundary region between two adjacent bulk phases. The equilib
rium bulk phases can be:
• Liquidvapor (LV).
• Liquidliquid (LL).
• Liquidsolid (LS).
• Solidvapor (SV).
(Gases are basically miscible and thus, no interfacial tension is observed between gases.)
Any surface that is in the state of lateral tension, leads to the concept ofsurface tension.
For curved interfaces, the deﬁnition is similar but slightly more complex. The surface tension,
denoted by σ, can be related to the work or energy required to establish the surface area.
If two ﬂuids, say water and oil is forming an interface, as seen in Fig. 6.1, the molecules at
tached to the oilwater interface do necessarily have less kinetic energy than the bulk molecules,
on average. The molecules on or close to the interface may not move with the same degree of
freedom and speed, due to the constraint put on them by the interface. Since the total energy of
83
84 Chapter 6. Wettability and Capillary Pressure
the molecules is mainly a function of temperature, the potential energy of molecules attached
to the interface is greater than the potential energy of the bulk molecules.
water
oil
Figure 6.1: Molecular motion in bulk and close to the oilwater in
terface.
Generally speaking, a molecule at a surface is in a state of higher potential energy than a
bulk molecule, due to anisotropy and intermolecular interactions. This means that energy is
required to move a molecule from the interior to the surface of a phase, i.e., to increase the
surface area of the system. Since a proportionality exist between surface area and potential
energy of the system of molecules and since equilibrium is reached at minimum potential
energy (actually minimum Gibbs energy), the surface area of a system is always minimised.
Keeping the temperature, pressure and amount of material in the system constant, the fol
lowing expression for surface tension may be written,
σ =
∂G
∂A
T,p,n
i
. (6.1)
Here G is the Gibbs free energy and A is the surface area. The unit of surface tension is
therefore, the unit of energy pr. area, i.e., J/m
2
or more commonly N/m. Note, that what is
called surface or interface tension is in fact surface or interface energy and quite often it is more
advantageous to use the energy perspective than it is to deal with tension and forces.
The surface tension between a pure liquid and its vapour phase is usually in the range of 10
to 80 mN/m. The stronger the intermolecular attractions in the liquid, the greater is the work
needed to bring bulk molecules to the surface, i.e., the larger is the interfacial tensionσ. In
Table 6.1 some typical values for surface  and interfacial tensions are listed.
6.3 Rock Wettability
Laboratory experiments have proved that rock wettability affects oil displacement. The term
wettability can be deﬁned as "the tendency of one ﬂuid to spread or to adhere to a solid surface
in the presence of other immiscible ﬂuids" [29].
The evaluation of reservoir wettability can be made through measurements of interfacial
tensions, i.e., tensions acting at the ﬂuidﬂuid and rockﬂuid interfaces, and thecontact angle.
Note that wettability itself is a microscopic characteristic, that has to be measured by using
microscale laboratory investigation techniques.
6.3 Rock Wettability 85
Table 6.1: Surface tension, σ
LV
and interfacial tension to water, σ
LW
for some liquids at temperature, T = 293
o
K. Note: Sur
face tension σ
LV
, is here deﬁned as the interfacial tension
between a liquid and its vapor.
Liquid σ
LV
(mN/m) σ
LW
(mN/m)
Water 72.8 –
noctane 21.7 51.7
ndodecane 25.4 52.9
nhexadecane 27.5 53.8
dichoromethane 28.9 27.7
benzene 28.9 35.0
mercury 476.0 375.0
The angle θ is inﬂuenced by the tendency of one of the ﬂuids, i.e. water, of the immiscible
pair, to spread on the pore wall surface in preference to the other (oil). The qualitative recog
nition of preferred spread is called a wettability preference, and the ﬂuid which spreads more
is said to be the wetting phase ﬂuid. Contact angles are measured, by convention, through the
ﬂuid whose wettability is studied or through the ﬂuid which is wetting the solid surface. A ta
ble of typical ﬂuid pairs of interest in reservoir engineering is shown in the Table 6.2, together
with contact angles and interfacial tensions [8].
Table 6.2: Fluid pair wettability under reservoir and laboratory con
ditions.
System Conditions
Wetting Nonwetting T = temperature θ σ
phase phase P = pressure (dynes/cm)
Brine Oil Reservoir, T, P 30 30
Brine Oil Laboratory, T, P 30 48
Brine Gas Laboratory, T, P 0 72
Brine Gas Reservoir, T, P 0 (50)
Oil Gas Reservoir, T, P 0 4
Gas Mercury Laboratory, T, P 140 480
The degree of wettability exhibited, depends both on the chemical compositions of the
ﬂuid pair, particularly the asphaltine content of the oil, and on the nature of the pore wall.
Pure quartz sandstone or calcite surfaces are likely to be wetted preferentially by water. The
presence of certain authigenic clays, particularly chamosite, may promote oil wet character.
The differences in contact angle somehow indicate different wettability preferences which
86 Chapter 6. Wettability and Capillary Pressure
can be illustrated by the following rule of thumb presented in Table 6.3 and in Fig. 6.2 [19].
Table 6.3: Wettability preference expressed by contact angle.
Contact angle values Wettability preference
0 – 30 Strongly water wet
30 – 90 Preferentially water wet
90 Neutral wettability
90 – 150 Preferentially oil wet
150 – 180 Strongly oil wet
s s s
o
o
o
w
w
w
θ = 0 θ = 90 θ ~ 180
Figure 6.2: Example of wetting preference.
6.4 Contact Angle and Interfacial Tension
With two immisible ﬂuids (oil and water) present in the reservoir, there are three interfacial
tension parameters to be assessed; σ
os
, σ
ws
and σ
wo
. The three interfacial tension are not
independent parameters, and in order to reveal the relationship between them a "gedanken"
experiment is carried out on a droplet of water, surrounded by oil, placed in a contact with a
waterwet reservoir rock, as seen in Fig. 6.3.
R
θ
θ
r
h
Water
Oil
Rock
Figure 6.3: Geometry of the water droplet in oil, placed in a contact
with a waterwet reservoir rock.
The following deﬁnitions will be used:
• surface tension between the oil and solid; σ
os
,
6.4 Contact Angle and Interfacial Tension 87
• surface tension between the water and solid; σ
ws
,
• interfacial tension between the oil and water phases; σ
ow
,
• contact angle at the oilwatersolid interface measured through the water;θ,
• surface area of the water droplet; A
d
,
• area of the reservoir rock occupied by the water droplet; A
s
.
The water droplet is assumed to be in equilibrium with the surrounding medium. A small
deformation of the surface area, will deform the droplet slightly and force the droplet to expand
on the solid surface. The deformation is described by the equilibrium equation, expressing the
change in energy due to the change in area.
σ
ws
dA
s
+(−σ
os
dA
s
) +σ
ow
dA
d
= 0 (6.2)
Elaborating on Eq. (6.2), the following relationships are valid (see also Fig. 6.3),
A
s
= πr
2
⇒ dA
s
= 2πrdr
A
w
=π(r
2
+h
2
) ⇒ dA
w
= 2π(rdr +hdh)
V
w
=
πh
6
(3r
2
+h
2
)
Incompressible liquids give,
dV
w
=
∂V
w
∂r
dr +
∂V
w
∂h
dh = 0,
which leads to
dh =−
2rh
h
2
+r
2
dr.
Using these results, Eq. (6.2) is rewritten,
σ
ws
−σ
os
+σ
ow
1−
2h
2
h
2
+r
2
= 0, (6.3)
and taking into account that (see Fig. 6.3),
Rsinθ = r
Rcosθ = R−h
and
(1−
2h
2
h
2
+r
2
) = cos θ,
a ﬁnal result is obtained,
σ
os
−σ
ws
= σ
ow
cos θ, (6.4)
which is known as the YoungDupre equation [15].
88 Chapter 6. Wettability and Capillary Pressure
6.5 Capillary Pressure
Capillary pressure may be deﬁned as the pressure difference across a curved interface between
two immiscible ﬂuids. By convention, the P
c
term is positive for unconﬁned immiscible ﬂuid
pairs, where P
c
is deﬁned as the pressure difference between the non wetting and the wetting
phase.
P
w
P
o
Water
Oil
*
*
Figure 6.4: Pressure difference across a curved (spherical) interface.
Using an example with an oil drop ﬂoating in water where the density of oil and water are
assumed similar, as seen in Fig. 6.4, the capillary pressure is written,
P
c
= p
o
−p
w
.
If the droplet is small, one may assume the interfacial tension to be far more important
than the gravitational force acting on the droplet and thus, since the surface area is minimised,
the droplet takes the form of a perfect sphere. A small perturbation, i.e. a small reduction of
the sphere volume, is described by an equation taking into account the energy change due to
the volume and the surface change. The equilibrium condition is ecpressed as the change in
potential and surface energy,
p
w
dV +σ
ow
dA = p
o
dV.
Substituting deﬁnition of the capillary pressure p
c
, in the latter equation, one we succes
sively obtain,
P
c
= σ
ow
dA
dV
= σ
ow
dA
dr
dV
dr
−1
= σ
ow
8πr
4πr
2
= σ
ow
2
r
.
Capillary pressure can be of signiﬁcant magnitude, since this is the energy needed to form
a droplet that can pass through a porous channel . Taking typical values of a pore radius and
an interfacial tension of oil and water, the capillary pressure can be obtained by the following
evaluation:
r ∼1µm and σ
ow
= 0.025
N
m
⇒P
c
·10
4
N
m
2
= 0.5 bar
6.5.1 Capillary Pressure Across Curved Surfaces
For two immiscible liquids as part of a real physical system, a spherical interface is an odd
observation. Normally, a curved surface is characterised by two radii of curvature;R
1
and R
2
,
as seen in Fig 6.5.
6.5 Capillary Pressure 89
Figure 6.5: Curved surface and radii of curvature.
With a pressure difference across the interface in the two phases, the interface will show
a net curvature with the larger pressure on the concave side. The relationship between the
pressure difference ∆p = P
c
and the curvature is given by Laplace equation,
P
c
= σ
1
R
1
+
1
R
2
, (6.5)
where R
1
and R
2
are the principal radii of curvature and σ is the interfacial tension. For a
spherical droplet R
1
= R
2
= r and ∆p = 2σ/r. Across a planar interface/surface R
1
= R
2
=∞
and ∆p = 0.
Example: Surface tension and surface energy
The process of displacing water through a porous medium is comparable to the
formation of droplets of sizes equal to the capillary pore throats.
What is then the energy needed to transform 1 cm
3
of pure water to droplets
with an average radius of 1 µm, when the surface tension of water to vapor is 0.073
mN/m?
The energy in question, is the energy needed to increase the initial water sur
face A, of the initial volume V to N number of droplets with area, A
d
and volume
,V
d
.
The area increase is,
∆A = N A
d
−A =
V
V
d
A
d
−A =
3
r
V −A,
where the droplet area and volume are respectively; 4πr
2
and (4/3)πr
3
.
Since the increased area ∆A is directly proportional to the increase in potential
energy ∆E
p
, which can be expressed by Eq. (6.1),
∆E
p
= σ
air,w
∆A =σ
air,w
3
r
V −A
.
If the initial water area is considered to be small (or negligible) to the area of
the droplets, a potential energy equal to about 0.22J is found.
90 Chapter 6. Wettability and Capillary Pressure
.
6.5.2 Interfacial Tension
Assuming pairs of immicsible unconﬁned ﬂuids the following phenomena, as illustrated in
Fig. 6.6 can be observed, depending on the sign of interfacial tension:
σ > 0
σ < 0
σ ~ 0
Figure 6.6: Formation of interface as function of the sign of the in
terfacial tension in pairs of immicsible unconﬁned ﬂuids.
• When the surface tension is positive, σ > 0, conﬁned molecules, have a preference for
keeping their own company. The surface against the second type of molecules is min
imised and in the case of small droplets, spherical interfaces are formed.
• In the cases when σ ≈ 0, liquids are classiﬁed as "truely" miscible. In these cases no
preference with respect to mixing of the two ﬂuids is observed. (However, diffusion will
lead to mixing of the two ﬂuids.)
• When the surface tension is negative, σ < 0, molecules of one type will prefer (have
afﬁnity for) the company of the second type of molecules. We may observe a chemical
reaction where the ﬁnal state is stable in time. An example of such a process is the
hydrophilic ability of pure ethanol to mix with air more or less instantaneously.
6.5.3 Capillary Pressure in a Cylindrical Tube
When a nonwetting ﬂuid is displacing a wetting ﬂuid, as is the case when oil is displacing
water in a waterwet porous rock, a curved interface is formed in the capillary tube. To reveal
the relation between the capillary pressure, the interfacial tension and the radius in a cylindrical
tube, two immiscible ﬂuids (oil + water) are conﬁned in a cylindrical capillary of radiusr
c
, as
shown in Fig. 6.7.
Using the Eq. (6.5) for the pressure difference between the two sides of the interface,
6.5 Capillary Pressure 91
θ
c
θ
c
r
c
R Water
Oil
Figure 6.7: Idealised model of a pore channel ﬁlled with two immis
cible ﬂuids forming a curved interface between them.
p
o
−p
w
= σ
ow
1
R
1
+
1
R
2
,
where R
1
and R
2
are main radii of the curvature, expressing the radius of the interfacial surface
R by means of the contact angle θ
c
and the capillary radius r
c
in the cylindrical tube. When
R
1
= R
2
= R and
R =
r
c
cosθ
c
,
the capillary pressure is written,
P
c
= p
o
−p
w
= σ
ow
1
R
1
+
1
R
2
=
2σ
ow
cos θ
c
r
c
, (6.6)
where Eq. (6.6) is the capillary pressure in a cylindrical tube of radiusr.
Example: Oil  water displacement in a capillary tube
Displacement processes in porous media are very often a competition between
viscous and capillary forces. In this example, the process by which oil displaces
water in a cylindrical tube is considered in analogy with the production of oil from
a waterwet reservoir where oil is forced through capillary pores which initially
contained water.
Consider a dynamical situation, as sketch in Fig. 6.8 where the oil front has
reached a position x in to the cylinder (pore). The pressure drop along the cylin
drical tube is partly the viscous pressure drop ∆p
o
+ ∆p
w
, in the oil and water
zone and partly the capillary pressure drop, P
c
across the oilwater interface:
∆p
V
= ∆p
o
+∆p
w
=
q
Ak
[µ
o
x +µ
w
(L−x)] ,
P
c
=
2σ
ow
cosθ
r
.
92 Chapter 6. Wettability and Capillary Pressure
Water Oil
0
x
L
∆p
o
∆p
c
∆p
w
Figure 6.8: Crosssection view of a cylindrical "pore channel".
The ﬂow rate is q = Av, where A and v is respectively the crosssection area
and the pore velocity. The permeability of the tube is known as,k = r
2
/8, and r is
the tube radius.
The strength between the two forces is considered by simply comparing their
pressure drops,
∆p
V
P
c
= 4
¸
vµ
o
σ
ow
cosθ
x
r
+
vµ
w
σ
ow
cosθ
L−x
r
.
In the equation above, the relation vµ/(σ cosθ) is the only term contain
ing dynamical parameters. In analogy with the deﬁnition of Reynolds number, a
dimensionless number could be deﬁned,
N
c
=
vµ
σ cosθ
.
The Capillary number N
c
, describes the competition between the viscous and
the capillary force.
In a situation where the two forces are assumed to be equally important, i.e.
∆p
v
/P
c
∼1, a set of "typical values" could be chosen and the average pore velocity
is found,
∆p
V
/P
c
= 1
θ = 60
o
L/r = 5
µ
o
≈µ
w
= 1mPa s
σ
ow
= 50mN/m
v
pore
≈1.3m/s.
Reservoir ﬂow is commonly considered to be of the order of 1 foot pr. day,
which is equal to 3.5 µm/s. From this comparison , it is obvious (even when the
appropriate bulk velocity u = v
pore
/(φ(1−S
r
)cos
2
α) is taken into account) that
under reservoir ﬂow conditions, capillary forces are totally predominant and that
viscous forces play a minor role when microscopic ﬂowpattern is considered. This
means that the capillary forces alone decide which pore channels are going to be
swept and which are not, in the reservoir.
The Capillary number for reservoir ﬂow becomes N
c
= 1.5 10
−5
(using the
numbers above), while the Capillary number at the "breaking point" when the
viscous force becomes equally important to the capillary force is 8 10
−3
.
6.6 Capillary Pressure and Fluid Saturation 93
The capillary number for ﬁeld waterﬂoods ranges from 10
−6
to 10
−4
. Labo
ratory studies have shown that the value of the Capillary number is directly related
to the ultimate recovery of oil, where an increase in the Capillary number im
plies an increase in the oil recovery. The Capillary number is generally varied by
increasing the ﬂow rate (pore velocity) and/or lowering the interfacial tension.
.
6.6 Capillary Pressure and Fluid Saturation
Results from drainage and imbibiation laboratory experiments have shown that the capillary
pressure P
c
= p
o
−p
w
is dependent on the following parameters (see Fig. 6.9):
• surface tensions; σ
os
, σ
ws
and σ
ow
,
• contact angle measured through the water phase; θ
c
,
• rock porosity; φ,
• rock permeability; k,
• ﬂuid saturations; S
w
and S
w
σ
ow σ
ow
θ
c
θ
c
σ
ws
σ
ws
σ
os
σ
os
Oil
Oil
Water
Water
Oilwet Waterwet
Figure 6.9: Wettability of oilwatersolid system.
The task is to deﬁne (if possible) a correlation between capillary pressureP
c
and the param
eters, mentioned above, being responsible for the numeric variation of the capillary pressure in
the experiments.
Relying upon the data obtained, the following dependency can be expressed,
P
c
= f (φ, k, σ
os
, σ
ws
, σ
ow
, θ
c
, S
o
, S
w
) (6.7)
Since some of the parameters are dependent on others,
S
o
= 1−S
w
,
σ
os
−σ
ws
= σ
ow
cosθ
c
,
the list of independent parameters is shortened and Eq. (6.7) is written;
P
c
= f (φ, k, σ
ow
cosθ
c
, S
w
) (6.8)
A dimensional analysis of Eq. (6.8) can be carried out using the following notation for
dimensions,
94 Chapter 6. Wettability and Capillary Pressure
M – mass, L – length, and T – time,
which gives the following dimensions for all the parameters in Eq. (6.8):
[P
c
] = M L
−1
T
−2
, [k] = L
2
, [σ
ow
cosθ
c
] = M T
−2
,
[φ] = 1, [S
w
] = 1
(6.9)
Comparing all the parameters of the righthand side of Eq. (6.8), it appears that both di
mension parameters k and σ
ow
have independent dimensions. This means that dimension of
the capillary pressure can be deﬁned through dimensions of those parameters, i.e.,
[P
c
] = [k]
α
[σ
ow
cosθ
c
]
β
.
Using notation (6.9), the last relation is written in the form,
M L
−1
T
−2
= L
2α
M
β
T
−2β
,
which is followed by,
M : 1 = β,
L : −1 = 2α, ⇒ α =−1/2 and β = 1.
T : −2 = −2β,
Thus, a dimensionless parameter F can be composed,
F =
P
c
σ
ow
cosθ
c
√
k,
and by making use of this result, Eq. (6.8) can be rewritten in dimensionless form,
F = F(φ, S
w
),
or using the initial notation,
P
c
=
σ
ow
cosθ
c
√
k
F(φ, S
w
).
It can be shown that parameters φ and S
w
and their functions, can only appear in correla
tions where they form a product,
P
c
=
σ
ow
cosθ
c
√
k
F
1
(φ) F
2
(S
w
) (6.10)
Thus by using the dimension analysis (the πtheorem) [11], the number of independent
variable parameters is reduced and an almost exact formof the correlation between the capillary
pressure P
c
, ﬂuids and rock parameters is obtained.
The following correlation is widely used for reservoir simulation tasks [13, 15],
P
c
=
σ
ow
cosθ
c
(k/φ)
J(S
w
), (6.11)
where J(S
w
) is known as the Jfunction (after Leverett).
6.7 Pore Size Distribution 95
6.7 Pore Size Distribution
It is obvious that the capillary pressure is strongly affected by the distribution of pore chan
nel sizes, represented by the 1/r relationship. The capillary pressure does also represent the
response of interfacial tensions and rock wettability. Generally, is the capillary pressure char
acteristic of the reservoir heterogeneity.
To reveal the relation between the capillary pressure and the microscopic heterogeneity of
the reservoir, the following example is considered: An idealised model of the porous medium
consisting of cylindrical capillaries with different radii r
i
, where all pore channels have the
same type of wettability and, as a consequence, a ﬁxed contact angleθ
c
. It is also assumed, that
a certain invariant distributionfunction χ(r) deﬁnes a fraction of pore channels with capillary
radii belonging to the interval (r, r +dr) as,
χ(r) =
n(r, r +dr)
N
,
where N is the total number of pore channels.
Let V
i
be the pore volume of a single capillary with radiusr
i
and V be the total pore volume
of the porous medium considered, i.e.,
V =
N
∑
i=1
V
i
.
Now let us consider a process of imbibition for a strongly waterwet rock initially saturated
with oil, as shown in Fig. 6.10.
Water Oil
Rock
Figure 6.10: Illustration of imbibition process in an idealised model
of porous medium.
Assume that at the starting point, the pressure in the oil phase p
o
, is high enough to protect
the water invading the pore channels. Then gradually decreasing the outlet pressure (pressure
in the oil phase), the water will invade the pores. It is quite obvious that the water enters only
those capillary channels with capillary pressureP
c
, exceeding the difference between the outlet
and inlet pressure ∆p
o
(t). Hence, at a certain time only those channels will be ﬁlled with water,
which satisfy the condition,
P
c
≥∆p
o
(t),
96 Chapter 6. Wettability and Capillary Pressure
or, substituting Eq. (6.6) into the last inequality,
r
c
≤
2σ
ow
cos θ
c
∆p
o
(t)
.
Then the volume of water which has invaded the porous medium can be deﬁned as,
V
c
= N
r
c
0
χ(r)πr
2
ldr,
where l is the length of a single pore channel.
Deﬁning the total pore volume as,
V = N
∞
0
χ(r)πr
2
ldr,
the relations between the water saturation S
w
, and the capillary pressure P
c
, is
S
w
=
V
c
V
=
r
c
0
χ(r)r
2
dr
∞
0
χ(r)r
2
dr
, and
P
c
=
2σ
ow
cos θ
c
r
c
, (6.12)
which explicitly indicates that microscopic reservoir heterogeneity strongly affects the capillary
pressure.
Since the pore size distribution varies between the different layers in a reservoir, it is ex
pected that the capillary pressure curve shape will also vary from layer to layer. This phe
nomenon is frequently observed in laboratory tests, by using a mercury injection technique, on
core samples taken from different elevations in the same well.
Example: Pore size distribution and capillary pressure curve
In this example, it will be shown how data from a mercury drainage experiment
could be used to produce a capillary pressure curve and how these data could be
used further, to deﬁne the pore size distribution for the core sample tested.
First, the core sample is properly cleaned, dried and placed in vacuum for some
time, before it is sealed in a mercury pycnometer. A series ofN+1, representative
pressure measurements p
i
, is recorded inside the pycnometer and the injection
volume V
i
is read as the pore sample is invaded by more and more mercury. The
experimental data is as follows:
p
Hg
p
0
p
1
p
2
p
3
p
N
V
Hg
V
0
V
1
V
2
V
3
V
N
The capillary pressure P
c
, is here the pressure difference between the mercury
pressure p
Hg
, and the gas pressure in the core sample p
g
,
P
c
= p
Hg
−p
g
=
2σ cosθ
r
.
6.7 Pore Size Distribution 97
The gas is the wetting phase since mercury deﬁnitely does not wet any core
sample. The wetting saturation is therefore written,
S
g
= 1−S
Hg
=
V
N
−V
i
V
N
−V
0
.
Based on the data in the table above, the following parameters are calculated,
S
g
1 S
1
S
2
S
3
0
r r
0
r
1
r
2
r
3
r
N
P
c
P
c,0
P
c,1
P
c,2
P
c,3
P
c,N
The pore size distribution D(r) is representing the relative increase in pore
volume as function of the pore throat radius,
D(r)
de f
= −
1
∆V
dV
dr
,
where ∆V =V
N
−V
0
and dV =V
i
−V
i−1
, taken from the above tabulated data. The
minus sign "" is added due to convenience.
The pore size distribution is then rewritten,
D(r) =−
1
∆V
1
dr
∂V
∂S
∂S
∂P
c
dP
c
.
Remembering the deﬁnition of the wetting phase saturation
S
g
= (V
N
−V)/(V
N
−V
0
), one may write,
∂S
∂V
=−
1
∆V
⇒
∂V
∂S
=−∆V,
and by substituting in the pore size distribution equation, one gets,
D(r) =
1
dr
dP
c
(∂P
c
/∂S)
.
Using the deﬁnition of the capillary pressure P
c
= 2σ cosθ/r, gives
dP
c
=
∂P
c
∂r
dr =−
P
c
r
dr.
Substituting this last expression into the pore size distribution, one gets,
D(r) =−
P
c
r
1
(∂P
c
/∂S)
.
Fig. 6.11 shows the two curves for the capillary pressure and the pore size
distribution, respectively. When P
c
(S
g
) is known, then D(r) can be calculated,
using the following steps.
1. For a certain gas saturation S
g
, the corresponding capillary pressureP
c
(S
g
) is
calculated.
98 Chapter 6. Wettability and Capillary Pressure
Pore radius, r
P
o
r
e
r
a
d
i
u
s
d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
,
D
(
r
)
C
a
p
i
l
l
a
r
y
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,
P
c
Water saturation, S
w
Incremental
Mercury
Injection
D(r)
P
c
r
dS
w
dP
c
=
Figure 6.11: Capillary pressure curve and corresponding pore size
distribution [8].
2. The pore radius related to this pressure is r = 2σ cosθ/P
c
.
3. The tangent to the curve P
c
(S
g
) through the coordinate (S
g
, P
c
(S
g
)) gives the
slope deﬁned by ∂P
c
/∂S.
In Fig. 6.11 the pore size distribution is drawn in accordance with the enumer
ated list.
.
6.8 Saturation Distribution in Reservoirs
The equilibrium ﬂuid saturation distribution in a petroleum reservoir, prior to production is
governed by the pore space characteristics. This is as a result of the nonwetting phase, nor
mally hydrocarbons, entering pore space initially occupied by the wetting ﬂuid, normally water,
during migration of hydrocarbons from a source rock region into a reservoir trap. A pressure
differential is required for the nonwetting phase to displace wetting phase and this is equivalent
to a minimum threshold capillary pressure and is dependent on pore size.
The physical signiﬁcance of threshold pressure in an oil reservoir may be appreciated by
the analogy with a capillary rise of water in different vertical glass tubes suspended in an open
tray of water, as seen in Fig. 6.12. Since P
c
∝ 1/r it is observed that entry of the nonwetting
phase should be most difﬁcult in the smallest tube (highest threshold pressure). For a waterair
system, the following relation exist,
P
c
= gρ
w
h, ⇒ P
c(3)
> P
c(2)
> P
c(1)
where r
3
< r
2
< r
1
.
The threshold capillary pressure, found in reservoir is proportional to the height above the
free water level (FWL), where a 100% water saturation is found.
The FWL is a property of the reservoir system, while an oilwater contact observed in a
particular well will depend on the threshold pressure of the rock type present in the vicinity of
the well.
6.8 Saturation Distribution in Reservoirs 99
h
1
h
3
h
2
Figure 6.12: Capillary water elevation in cylindrical tubes as func
tion of tube radii.
The relation between height above the free water level and the capillary pressure is derived
from consideration of the gravitycapillary pressure force equilibrium. Using a free water level
as the datum plane and deﬁning its position in the reservoir as the place where the oil phase
pressure p
o
equals the water phase pressure p
w
, one obtains,
P
c(FWL)
= p
o
−p
w
= 0.
At some height h, above FWL, the pressures are,
p
o
= p
FWL
−ρ
o
gh
p
w
= p
FWL
−ρ
w
gh
Therefore, the capillary pressure at a depth equivalent toh above the FWL is,
P
c
= p
o
−p
w
= (p
FWL
−ρ
o
gh) −(p
FWL
−ρ
w
gh) = gh(ρ
w
−ρ
o
)
Since P
c
= P
c
(S
w
, r) there exist a dependence,
h = h(S
w
, r),
which indicated that saturation at height h, will depend on both the water saturation and the
pore radius (see example: "Equilibrium in a capillary channel"),
h
S
w
=
2σ
ow
cosθ
c
rg(ρ
w
−ρ
o
)
.
Similarly, the threshold height h
t
is equivalent to the height of an observed wateroil contact
above FWL. In a particular rock type, this height is given,
h
t
=
P
ct
g(ρ
w
−ρ
o
)
.
In real reservoir systems it is expected that a number of rock type units or layers will
be encountered. Each unit can have its own capillary pressure characteristic and the static
saturation distribution in the reservoir will be a superposition of all units, as seen in Fig. 6.13.
100 Chapter 6. Wettability and Capillary Pressure
FWL
OWC
OWC
OWC
OWC
Well
k
1
k > k > k > k
1 4 3 2
k
2
k
3
k
4
Figure 6.13: Observed wateroil contacts and their relationship with
free water level (FWL) in a layered reservoir with a
common aquifer [8].
Example: Equilibrium in a capillary tube
In this example, the relation between elevation of water above FWL in reservoirs
is coupled to the pore dimension (pore radius).
Equilibrium in a vertical water wet capillary tube, as shown in Fig. 6.14, is
related to the saturation of water in a reservoir, where oil is the nonwetting ﬂuid.
For a small perturbation ∆h, a small part of the tube surface will experience
a change in ﬂuid coverage, when oil is replacing water as being the contact ﬂuid.
The change in surface energy, caused by oil displacing water in a small fraction of
the capillary tube (see close up in Fig. 6.14), is given by the difference in surface
tension (or surface energy),
∆E
s
= 2πr(σ
os
−σ
ws
)∆h.
Water
w
Oil
o
∆h
h
r
Figure 6.14: Perturbation around equilibrium in a waterwet capil
lary tube.
6.9 Laboratory Measurements of Capillary Pressure 101
The corresponding potential energy change, due to change in elevation is writ
ten,
∆E
p
= πr
2
∆h(ρ
w
−ρ
o
)gh.
If small perturbations close to equilibrium are considered, the surface and
the potential energy changes is expected to be equal, i.e. ∆E
s
= ∆E
p
. Using the
Young Dupre equation, the following relation is given,
σ
ow
cosθ =
g
2
(ρ
w
−ρ
o
)rh.
In a oil reservoir where the ﬂuids are well deﬁned , i.e. where the densities
and the oil water interfacial tension are known parameters, the pore radiusr and
the height above FWLh are reciprocal variables. This means that the saturation of
initial water present in the reservoir above a certain height h is localised in those
pores having a radii less than r.
From the above consideration, the capillary pressure has a "dual" characteris
tic,
P
c
= g(ρ
w
−ρ
o
)h =
2σ
ow
cosθ
r
,
where the capillary pressure is the pressure difference between oil and water
phase at a certain elevation h in the reservoir, and at the same time, the pressure
difference across a curved surface in inside a pore channel of radiusr. This dual
characteristic of the capillary pressure gives the condition for the coexistence of
oil and water in porous rock.
.
6.9 Laboratory Measurements of Capillary Pressure
Laboratory measurements of capillary pressure are based on the fact thatP
c
∝σ cos θ/r, where
r characterizes the porous medium with respect to the pore throats and the pore size distribu
tion . This implies that for any given porous medium and any pairs of ﬂuids, the following
relationship is valid,
P
c1
(σ cos θ
c
)
1
=
P
c2
(σ cosθ
c
)
2
.
Practical use is made of this relationship in conducting laboratory tests with ﬂuids other
than reservoir condition ﬂuids. For example, air and brine with a (σ cos θ
c
)
lab
value of 72
dynes/cm may be used to measure capillary pressure for air brine in the laboratory. The
relationship for the reservoir oilbrine pair capillary pressure is obtained using the appropriate
value of (σ cos θ
c
)
res
=26 dynes/cm, where,
P
c,res
= P
c,lab
(σ cosθ
c
)
res
(σ cosθ
c
)
lab
.
102 Chapter 6. Wettability and Capillary Pressure
The migration of hydrocarbons into an initially water ﬁlled reservoir rock and subsequent
equilibrium vertical saturation distribution is modelled in the laboratory by a nonwetting phase
displacing a wetting phase (drainage capillary pressure test). Air and brine are frequently used
as the pseudo reservoir ﬂuids, and the displacement is affected by increasing air pressure in
a series of discrete steps in water saturated core plugs sitting on a semipermeable porous
diaphragm. As a result of an increase in pressure (equivalent to P
c
since P
c
= p
air
− p
brine
)
the water saturation decreases and its value is established by weighting the core plugs. The
apparatus layout is shown in Fig. 6.15.
Core plug
Capillary
contact
powder
Neoprene
diaphragm
Screen
Porous
plate
Air
pressure
Figure 6.15: Gasliquid drainage capillary pressure measurement.
Portion of liquid in saturated core is displaced at a par
ticular pressure level by either gas or liquid. Liquid sat
uration measured after equilibrium saturation has been
reached. Repetition for several successive pressure lev
els [8].
In laboratory tests the ﬁnal irreducible wetting phase saturation value is often beyond the
breakdown pressure of the porous plate and is sometimes obtained by centrifuge spinning at
a rotational force equivalent to about 150 psi (10.34 bar), and measuring the quantity of any
produced wetting phase.
The pore size distribution in a given rock type is usually determined by a mercury injection
test. Although this test is destructive, in the sense that the sample cannot be used again, it has
the advantage that high pressures can be attained, where mercury, the nonwetting phase with
respect to air, can be forced into very small pores.
Example: Height of water  oil transition zone.
A laboratory airbrine capillary pressure of 1.25 bar has been measured in a reser
voir core sample at residual water saturation. The airbrine interfacial tension is
0.070 N/m and the brineoil interfacial tension for the reservoir ﬂuids is 0.022
N/m.
The height of the wateroil transition zone is the height from FWL and up to
the point in the reservoir where connate water saturation is reached,
6.10 Drainage and Imbibition Processes. 103
h
res
=
P
c,res
g(ρ
brine
−ρ
oil
)
,
where P
c,res
is the capillary pressure in the reservoir at this water saturation. ρ
brine
and ρ
oil
is respectively 1074 kg/m
3
and 752 kg/m
3
.
In the case of identical wetting preferences for the core sample and the reser
voir, one may assume proportionality between capillary pressure and the interfa
cial tension in the two situations,
P
c,res
= P
c,lab
σ
res
σ
lab
.
Combining these two equation, the height of the transition zone is found,
h
res
=
σ
res
σ
lab
P
c,lab
g(ρ
brine
−ρ
oil
)
,
which gives, h
res
= 12.5 m.
.
6.10 Drainage and Imbibition Processes.
When two or more ﬂuids ﬂow through a porous medium simultaneously, the phase pressures
p
i
, generally speaking, are not identical. The difference between the phase pressures of two
coexisting phases is deﬁned as the capillary pressure. The capillary pressure is inversely pro
portional to a generalised interfacial curvature, which is usually dominated by the smallest
local curvature (radius) of the interface, as illustrated in Fig. 6.16.
r
R
oil
water
rock
Figure 6.16: Local curvature of the interface of two coexisting liq
uids.
An idealised permeable medium is considered by the arrangements of decreasing pore sizes
(a single pore bounded by the decreasing sizes sphere assemblage) and initially saturated with
a wetting phase (w) into which a nonwetting phase (nw) is alternatively injected and then
104 Chapter 6. Wettability and Capillary Pressure
withdrawn. The forcing of a nonwetting phase into a pore (nonwetting saturation increasing)
is a drainage process. The reverse (wetting saturation increasing) is animbibition process. We
imagine the pores have an exit for the wetting ﬂuid somewhere on the right.
Beginning at zero nonwetting saturation, injection up to the saturation shown incondition
1 in Fig. 6.17, is ﬁrst considered. At static conditions, the pressure difference between the exit
and entrance of the assemblage is the capillary pressure at that saturation. When the wetting
ﬂuid is introduced into the pore from the right, the nonwetting ﬂuid disconnects leaving a
trapped or nonﬂowing glob in the largest pore (condition 2).
The capillary pressure curve from condition 1 to condition 2 is an imbibition curve that is
different from the drainage curve because it terminates (P
c
= 0) at a different saturation. At the
static condition 2, the entrance  exit pressure difference is zero since both pressures are being
measured in the same wetting phase.
1
3 4
5
6
Oil
Water
Rock
5
1
2 4 6
3
C
a
p
i
l
l
a
r
y
p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Nonwetting phase saturation
2
Figure 6.17: The distribution of a nonwetting phase at various satu
rations.
Going from condition 2 to condition 3 is a second drainage process, that results in even
higher nonwetting saturation, a higher capillary pressure, and a higher trapped nonwetting
phase saturation after imbibition (condition). At the highest capillary pressure (condition 5), all
pores of the subtracted volume contain the non wetting phase, and a post  imbibition trapped
saturation is maximum. The capillary pressure curve going from the largest nonwetting phase
saturation to the largest trapped nonwetting phase saturation is the imbibition curve (condition
6). Note, that the termination of any imbibition curve is at zero capillary pressure.
This representation, being quite simple, explains many features of actual capillary pres
sure curves. Imbibition curves are generally different from drainage curves, but the difference
shrinks at high nonwetting phase saturations where more of the originally disconnected globs
6.10 Drainage and Imbibition Processes. 105
are connected. This phenomenon is called trapping hysteresis or drag hysteresis and is caused
by differences in advancing and receding contact angles.
6.10.1 Hysterisis in Contact Angle
When oil is moving to cover a rock surface which previously has been wetted by water, it
has been experimental proven that the contact angle is smaller than in the case when water is
replacing oil, over the same surface.
This effect is called the hysterisis in contact angle and has to do with the inherent memory
of a physical system, which relates prehistoric events to present experience. In practical terms
this means that the back and forth movement is energy dependent, typical for nonreversible
systems.
The hysterisis is detected by measuring the advancingθ
a
, and residing θ
r
contact angles of
an oil drop suspended between two horizontal plates (made of polished rock material; quartz
or calcite) submerged in water, as shown in Fig. 6.18. One plate is ﬁxed and the other can
move smoothly to either side. The oil drop is left to age between the plates for some time, until
the two contact angles are equal. When the mobile plate is moved, the two contact angles are
measured. The test is repeated after some time, when the two angles have stabilised.
s
oil
water
θ
r
θ
a
Figure 6.18: Measurement of hysterics in contact angle.
The hysterics observed, where the receding angle is smaller than the advancing angle, is
an expression of the fact that energy is lost in cyclic systems. In relation to multiphase ﬂow in
porous media, the hysterics has two important effects:
• One is to stabilise the capillary surfaces (interfaces) between the ﬂuids in the pore system,
such as to preserve the ﬂuid distribution in the reservoir, unless a ﬁnite capillary pressure
difference is imposed.
• The second effect is related to the dissipation of energy towards the capillary walls, when
the interface is advancing through the pore. The effect of this dissipation of energy is
experienced as a resistance towards ﬂow and is often materialised through "rip off" of
small droplets, which then becomes practically immobile.
6.10.2 Capillary Hysterisis
It is seen that capillary pressure depends both on wetting phase saturation and the direction of
its variation. A typical curve of the capillary pressure in case of twophase ﬂow, is shown in
the Fig. 6.19.
106 Chapter 6. Wettability and Capillary Pressure
P
cb
P
(
S
)
c
w
S
nc
S
w
S
wc
1.0 0.0
1
2
3
Figure 6.19: Typical type of capillary pressure curve for a twophase
ﬂow problem: 1 drainage, 2 imbibition and 3 secondary
drainage.
Two ways in which one phase can be substituted by the other in a porous medium are usu
ally considered. The ﬁrst is the process of displacement where the wetting phase is displaced
by the nonwetting one, and the second is the process of imbibition, where the nonwetting
phase is displaced by the wetting one. The value P
cb
is deﬁned as threshold capillary pressure
which should be exceeded to provide displacement. If displacement is preceded by imbibition
the capillary pressure curve is as the curve 3 in the Fig. 6.19, which is different from the curve
1. The presence of two different curves of imbibition and displacement is called capillary hys
teresis. The presence of the negative capillary pressure near the saturation pointS
w
= S
nc
was
ﬁrst discovered by Welge (1949). The hysteresis effect i demonstrated by the two curves 2 and
3 in Fig. 6.19.
6.11 Exercises 107
6.11 Exercises
1. Calculate the energy needed to transform 1 cm
3
of water into droplets with an average
radius of 1 µm. In analogy with displacement processes in porous media, assume an
interfacial tension σ
o,w
= 0.025 N/m.
2. Show that the general expression for capillary pressure
P
c
= σ
1
R
1
+
1
R
2
,
could be written
P
c
=
2σ cos θ
r
,
for a cylindrical tube. Deﬁne the parameters; r, R
1,2
, θ and σ.
3. A capillary glasscylinder is positioned vertically in a cup of water. Calculate the height
of water inside the cylinder when the inner diameter is 0.1 cm. The surface tension
between water and air is 72 dyn/cm, and the water is assumed to wet the glass 100 %.
4. In order to displace water by air form a porous plate, a pressure of 25 psig is needed.
Find the diameter, given in µm, of the largest pore channel disconnecting the porous
plate, when the surface tension σ
air,w
is 72 dyn/cm.
5. A horizontal cylinder, ﬁlled with oil, is 0.1m long and has a inner diameter of 0.01 mm.
The oil has a viscosity similar to water, 1 mPa s. What is the pressure drop along the
cylinder, when the average ﬂow velocity is found to be 0.01mm/s ?
An equal amount of water and oil is pumped through the cylinder and the water and oil
is assumed to move through the tube as droplets, with an average length of 0.03mm pr.
droplet. The advancing contact angle is 40
o
and the receding angle is 20
o
. Calculate the
pressure drop through the tube, assuming the same ﬂowvelocity as above. The interfacial
tension between water and oil is 25 mN/m.
6. A core sample is placed in a core holder in a centrifuge. The radial distance to the
core sample is given by the two position vectors r
1
and r
2
. The length of the sample is
therefore; r
2
−r
1
. At a rotation frequency ω, air will displace some of the water in the
sample. The radial distance r
d
, corresponds to the threshold pressureP
d
at that particular
rotation frequency. See the ﬁgure below.
a) Show that the pressure difference for one phase is given by:
P
2
−P
1
=
1
2
ρω
2
(r
2
2
−r
2
1
), when P
2
= P(r
2
), P
1
= P(r
1
)
b) Show that
P
c
(r) =
1
2
∆ρω
2
(r
2
2
−r
2
)
108 Chapter 6. Wettability and Capillary Pressure
ω
r
S
w
r
1
r
2
r
d
1.0
0.0
when its known that
P
c1
= P
c
(r
1
) =
1
2
∆ρω
2
(r
2
2
−r
2
1
)
and when
P
d
=
1
2
∆ρω
2
(r
2
2
−r
2
d
)
It is assumed that P
c2
= P
c
(r
2
) = 0.
c) The water saturation can be written,
S
w1
= S
w
(r
1
) =
d(
¯
S
w
P
c1
)
dP
c1
when r
1
∼r
2
, assuming the length of core sample to be short compared to the radius
of rotation. (This is an approximation, only partly true.)
Use the equations above to derive the a formula giving the capillary pressure as
function of the water saturation (P
c
–curve), when the capillary pressure is given in
kPa.
The following data is given for a core sample, saturated with seawater and rotated
in air.
r
1
= 4.46 cm
r
2
= 9.38 cm
∆ρ = 1.09 g/cm
3
V
p
= 8.23 cm
3
RPM
∗
415 765 850 915 1005 1110 1305
∆V[cm
3
] 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.15 0.30 0.50 1.10
RPM 1550 1835 2200 2655 3135 3920 4850
∆V[cm
3
] 2.20 2.90 3.61 4.21 4.72 5.24 5.75
RPM
∗
: Rotation pr. Minute and ∆V: produced volume.
6.11 Exercises 109
7. In the laboratory, a capillary pressure difference of 5 psi has been measured between
water and air in a core sample. Calculate the corresponding height above the OWC in
the reservoir from where the core originates, when the following information is given
(assume capillary pressure at the OWC to be zero).
Laboratory Reservoir
σ = 75dyn/cm σ = 25dyn/cm
∆ρ
w/air
= 1.0g/cm
3
∆ρ
o/w
= 0.2g/cm
3
8. In a laboratory experiment, capillary data from two water saturated core samples was
obtained by using air as the displacing ﬂuid.
1000 mD core sample 200 mD core sample
P
c
[psi] S
w
P
c
[psi] S
w
1.0 1.00 3.0 1.00
1.5 0.80 3.6 0.90
1.8 0.40 4.0 0.60
2.2 0.20 4.5 0.30
3.0 0.13 5.5 0.20
4.0 0.12 7.0 0.18
5.0 0.12 10.0 0.18
Calculate the distribution of vertical water saturation in the stratiﬁed reservoir given by
the ﬁgure below, i.e. determine S
w
as function hight in the reservoir.
12 ft
4 ft
6 ft
3 ft
4 ft
5 ft
FWL
Additional data:
Laboratory: σ
w/air
= 50dyn/cm
Reservoir: σ
o/w
= 23dyn/cm
ρ
o
= 0.81g/cm
3
ρ
w
= 1.01g/cm
3
9. Use the air  water capillary pressure curve for laboratory conditions, below, to calculate
the saturations; S
o
, S
g
and S
w
at the reservoir level (hight) 120 f t above the oilwater
contact (assume P
c
= 0 at this level). The distance between the contacts (OWC and
GOC) is 70 f t.
Additional data:
110 Chapter 6. Wettability and Capillary Pressure
Laboratory: σ
w/air
= 72dyn/cm
Reservoir: σ
o/g
= 50dyn/cm
σ
w/o
= 25dyn/cm
ρ
o
= 53lb/ f t
3
ρ
w
= 68lb/ f t
3
ρ
g
= 7lb/ f t
3
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Water saturation [%]
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
C
a
p
i
l
l
a
r
y
p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
[
p
s
i
]
10. An oil water capillary pressure experiment on a core sample gives the following results:
P
c,o/w
[psi] 0 4.4 5.3 5.6 10.5 15.7 35.0
S
w
[%] 100 100 90.1 82.4 43.7 32.2 29.8
Given that the sample was taken from a point 100 ft above the oilwater contact, what
is the expected water saturation at that elevation? If the hydrocarbon bearing thickness
from the crest (top) of the structure to the oilwater contact in 175 ft, what is the average
water saturation over this interval? (ρ
w
= 64lbs/ f t
3
and ρ
o
= 45lbs/ f t
3
)
11. If we assume an interfacial tension; σ cosθ = 25 dyn/cm and a permeability and porosity
respectively 100 mD and 18 %, in the exercise above, we may construct the capillary
curve for a laboratory experiment using mercury as nonwetting phase. In the laboratory
experiments one assume the lithology to be unchanged, but the permeability and porosity
to be respectively 25 mD and 13 %. Find laboratory capillary curve when the interfacial
tension to mercury is 370 dyne/cm.
Answers to questions:
1. ∆E = 0.075J, 3. h = 3cm, 4. d = 0.5µm, 5. ∆p = 3.2mbar, ∆p = 29bar, 7. h = 5.8m, 9.
S
o
= 0.2, S
g
= 0.62 , S
w
= 0.36, 11. S
w
= 0.41.
Chapter 7
Relative Permeability
7.1 Deﬁnitions
Relative permeability is a concept used to relate the absolute permeability (100% saturation
with a single ﬂuid) of a porous system, to the effective permeability of a particular ﬂuid in the
system, when that ﬂuid occupies only a fraction of the total pore volume.
When measuring a ﬂowrate of a ﬂuid versus the pressure difference in a core sample, we
can obtain (single phase ﬂow),
q =
k
e
A
µ
´p
´x
,
and
k
e
=
q
A
µ´x
´p
.
Here k
e
is called effective permeability. For 100% saturation, the effective permeability is
identical to the absolute permeability; i.e. k
e
= k.
In multiphase ﬂow a generalisation of Darcy law has been accepted [12],
q
j
= k
je
A
µ
j
´p
j
´x
,
where j denotes a ﬂuid phase j, and k
je
is called the effective (phase) permeability.
According to the last equation we can obtain,
k
je
=
q
j
A
µ
j
´x
´p
j
.
In a vast number of laboratory experiments it has been observed that a sum of effective
permeability’s is less than the total or absolute permeability, i.e.,
n
∑
j=1
k
je
< k.
Moreover, effective (phase) permeability was noticed to be a function of quite a number of
parameters, such as: ﬂuid saturation, rock property, absolute permeability, ﬂuid property, and
reservoir conditions (pressure, temperature),
k
je
= f (k, p, T, S
1
, S
2
, . . . , S
n
, . . .) j ∈ [1, n].
111
112 Chapter 7. Relative Permeability
In two phase systems the latter relationship is expressed as functions of a single (by con
vention, wetting) saturation.
The effective permeability can be decomposed into the absolute permeability and the rela
tive permeability, as shown below,
k
e j
= k
r j
k.
The relative permeability is a strong function of the saturation of phaseS
j
. Being a rock
ﬂuid property, the functionality between k
r j
and S
j
is also a function of rock properties (e.g.
pore size distribution) and wettability. It is not, in general, a strong correlation between relative
permeability and ﬂuid properties, though when certain properties (e.g. interfacial tension)
change drastically, relative permeability can be affected [40].
It is important to note that the phase permeability is a tensorial function (as the absolute
permeability) and that the relative permeability is not.
Though there have been attempts to calculate relative permeability on theoretical grounds,
by far the most common source of them, has been experimental measurements. This implicates
that it is important to keep deﬁnitions of mobility, phase permeability and relative permeability
separate and clear.
Functions k
j
(S
j
) depend both on the structure of the porous medium and on the saturation
distribution of the phases. However in mathematical modelling of twophase and multiphase
ﬂowit is conventional to assume that relative permeabilities are the functions of saturation only.
This assumption considerably simpliﬁes the task of laboratory experiments carried out in order
to determine relative permeabilities.
In the presence of two coexisting phases, the typical curves of relative permeability are as
shown in Fig. 7.1.
S
wc
S
w
S
nc
k
c k
w
1.0
1.0
0.0
0.0
Figure 7.1: Typical type of relative permeability characteristics for a
twophase ﬂow, where S
w
is the wetting phase and S
n
is
the nonwetting phase.
One important feature in the behaviour of the rel.perm.curves should be emphasised. If
saturation of one of the phases becomes less than some deﬁnite value: S
w
< S
wc
or S
n
< S
nc
,
then the corresponding relative permeability for that phase becomes zero and the phase be
comes immobile. This means that continuity of the phase is broken or disturbed and the phase
7.2 Rock Wettability and Relative Permeabilities 113
remains in a passive or loose state. The values S
jc
, j = w, where n
1
are deﬁned as residual
saturation of the ith phase. Let us note that those values depend on thermodynamic condition
of the reservoir (reservoir pressure, temperature, number of phases, type of rock, etc.).
7.2 Rock Wettability and Relative Permeabilities
It should be noted that evaluations of phase and relative permeabilities can be done through
measurements of capillary pressure, which shows the evidence of strong correlation between
them. Because of certain links between them, we would expect microheterogeneity and rock
wettability to have a certain inﬂuence on relative (phase) permeability. Typical wateroil rela
tive permeabilities are presented for strongly waterwet and oilwet formations in Fig. 7.2 (left)
and 7.2 (right), respectively.
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
Oil
Water
S
w
k
r
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
Oil
Water
S
w
k
r
Figure 7.2: Characteristics of typical relative permeability for a two
phase ﬂow, where S
w
is the wetting phase and S
n
is the
nonwetting phase (left: a waterwet formation and right:
an oilwet formations).
The difference in the ﬂow properties that indicates different wettability preferences can be
illustrated by the following rule of thumb [29]:
1
Here w and n denote wetting and nonwetting phase, respectively.
114 Chapter 7. Relative Permeability
Waterwet Oilwet
Connate water satura
tion
Usually greater than
20 to 25 percent PV
Generally less than 15
percent PV, frequently
less than 10 percent
Saturation at which
oil and water per
meabilities are equal
(crossover saturation)
Greater than 50 per
cent water saturation
Less than 50 percent
water saturation
Relative permeabili
ties to water at maxi
mum water saturation;
i.e. ﬂoodout
Generally less than 30
percent
Greater than 50 per
cent and approaching
100 percent
Let us note that the endpoint values of the relative permeabilities are usually (if not always)
less than 1 and which are measures of wettability. The nonwetting phase occurs in isolated
globules, several pore diameters in length, that occupy the center of the pores. Trapped wetting
phase, on the other hand, occupies the cavities between rock the grains and coats the rock
surfaces. Thus we would expect the trapped nonwetting phase to be a bigger obstacle to the
wetting phase, then the trapped wetting phase is to the nonwetting phase. The wetting phase
endpoint relative permeability will, therefore, be smaller than the nonwetting phase endpoint.
The ratio of wetting to nonwetting endpoints proves to be a good qualitative measure of the
wettability of the medium. For extreme cases of preferential wetting, the endpoint relative
permeability to the wetting phase can be 0.05 or less. Others view the crossover saturation
(k
r2
= k
r1
), of the relative permeabilities is a more appropriate indicator of wettability, perhaps
because it is less sensitive to the value of the residual saturations (see the rule of thumb, above).
7.3 Drainage/Imbibition Relative Permeability Curves
In a gasoil systems, the direction of displacement is particularly important, as the process can
represent a drainage process, such as gas drive (gas displacing oil immiscibily) or an imbibition
process, such as:
1. Movement of an oil zone into receding depleting gas cap.
2. Movement of an aquifer into receding depleting gas cap.
In gasoil systems the third phase, water, which is always present in the reservoir, is consid
ered to stay at irreducible saturation and play no part in the displacement processes. It is there
fore argued that experiments in the laboratory can be conducted with or without irreducible
water present and that effective permeabilities could be correlated to total liquid saturation
(S
L
), rather than gas saturation. The relation is based on a deﬁnition of liquid saturation,
S
L
= S
o
+S
w
= 1−S
g
.
7.4 Residual Phase Saturations 115
1.0
1.0
0.0
S
gc
S
g
S
gmax
k
ro
k
rg
k
=
k
/
k
r
o
1.0
1.0
0.0
S
gr
S
g
S
gmax
k
ro
k
rg
k
=
k
/
k
r
o
Figure 7.3: Gasoil relative permeabilities [8].
In a system where gas saturation increases from zero, as in a liquid drainage process, it
is observed that gas does not ﬂow until some critical gas saturation (S
gc
) has been attained.
This is attributed to the physical process of the gas phase becoming continuous through the
system, as a condition for gas ﬂow. In liquid imbibition processes (gas saturation decreasing
from a maximum initial value) the gas permeability goes to zero when the residual or trapped
gas saturation (S
gr
) is reached. See Fig. 7.3.
7.4 Residual Phase Saturations
As we know from the previous discussion, increasing pressure gradients force the nonwetting
phase into the pore channels, causing the wetting phase to retreat into the concave contacts
between the rock grains and other cavities in the pore body. At very high pressure differences,
the wetting phase approaches monolayer coverage and a low saturation.
The residual nonwetting phase is trapped in the large pores in globules several pore di
ameters in length. Repeated experimental evidence has shown that under most conditions, the
S
nwr
could be as large as S
wr
.
According to experimental observations there is a strict evidence of a relationship between
residual nonwetting or wetting phase saturations and the socalled local capillary number. This
relationship is called the capillary desaturation curve (CDC). Typically, these curves are plots
of percent residual (nonﬂowing) saturation for the nonwetting (S
nwr
) or wetting (S
wr
) phases
on the y axis versus a capillary number on a logarithmic x axis. The capillary number N
c
is a
dimensionless ratio of viscous forces to local capillary forces, and can be variously deﬁned.
One of the examples is shown below (after Dombrovsky and Brownell):
N
c
=
k [ ∇
Φ[
σ
ow
cosθ
c
116 Chapter 7. Relative Permeability
where
Φ is the potential of ﬂow.
10 10 10 10 10 10
7 6 5 4 3 2
Wetting phase
Normal range
waterfloods
Nonwetting
critical N
c
30
20
10
0
Nonwetting
phase
Wetting
critical N
c
Capillary number N
c
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l
n
o
n

w
e
t
t
i
n
g
o
r
w
e
t
t
i
n
g
s
a
t
u
r
a
t
i
o
n
,
%
Figure 7.4: Schematic capillary desaturation curve [40].
It is important to mention that chemical additives reduce capillary forces at the interface
of the oil/water system, resulting in increased capillary number N
c
and reduced residual oil
saturation, being either wetting or nonwetting phase. The reduction of interfacial tension at
the interface allows the trapped oil to become mobile and be displaced by the water.
7.5 Laboratory Determination of Relative Permeability Data
Laboratory determination of effective permeability is generally conducted as a special core
analysis test on representative and carefully preserved core plug samples. A reservoir condition
test is conducted at reservoir pore pressure conditions and reservoir temperatures with real
or simulated reservoir ﬂuids. Such reservoir condition tests may model displacement under
unsteady state, or steady state conditions. Different equipment arrangements for those test are
shown in Figs. 7.5 and 7.6.
Unsteady state rel.perm. test simulate the ﬂooding of a reservoir with an immiscible ﬂuid
(gas or water). The determination of rel. perm. is based on observation of the fractional ﬂow
of displacing phase ﬂuid from the outlet end of the core plug and its relationship with satu
ration. The displacement theory of Buckley and Leverett is combined with that of Weldge in
a technique described by Johnson, Bossler and Naumann [38]. The detection of the break
through time of the displacing phase at the outlet core face is critical in the representation of
relative permeability, and severe errors can occur with heterogeneous samples. Flow rates are
determined according to the method of Rappoport and Leas in order to minimize the effect
of capillary pressure forces in retaining wetting phase ﬂuid at the outlet end face discontinu
ity. The unsteady state or dynamic displacement test is most frequently applied in reservoir
analysis of strong wetting preference, and with homogeneous samples.
For reservoirs with more corescale heterogeneity and with mixed wettability, the steady
state laboratory test is preferred. The steady state process provides simultaneous ﬂow of dis
placing and displaced ﬂuids through the core sample at a number of equilibrium ratios. At each
7.5 Laboratory Determination of Relative Permeability Data 117
Hg
res.
Ruska
pump
Hg
Brine Oil
Chart
recorder
Oil
colector
Sample
3 way
valve
Brine
colector
Hg
Hg
B
r
i
n
e
Oil
Chart
recorder
0  50 psig
Transducer
Oil
colector
Sample
3 way
valve
Brine
colector
Soltrol
O
i
l
S
o
l
t
r
o
l
300
cc
300
cc
1000
cc
Figure 7.5: Unsteady state relative permeability measurement at
constant rate (above) and at constant pressure (below).
ratio from 100% displaced phase to 100% displacing phase an equilibrium condition must be
reached at which the inﬂow ratio of ﬂuids equals to the outﬂow ratio, and at which the pressure
difference between inlet and outlet is constant. At such a condition the Darcy law equation is
applied to each phase to calculate effective permeability at the given steady state saturation.
Capillary pressure tends to be ignored and a major difﬁculty is the determination of saturation
at each stage. Between ﬁve and ten stages are usually needed to establish rel.perm. curves.
118 Chapter 7. Relative Permeability
Hg
res.
Hg
Oil
res.
Brine
Oil
Oil
Chart
recorder
Sample
Constant displacement
Ruska pumps
Pressure
transducer
Figure 7.6: Steady state relative permeability measurement [8].
7.6 Exercises
1. Use Darcy’s law for radial ﬂow and show that the fractional ﬂow for water, f
w
, can be
written:
f
w
=
q
w
q
w
+q
o
=
1
1+k
ro
µ
w
/k
rw
µ
o
Assume the capillary forces to be negligible anddP
o
/dr = dP
w
/dr.
The following laboratory data is given:
S
w
k
ro
k
rw
P
lab
c
[psi]
1.00 0.00 1.00 1.0
0.90 0.04 0.78 3.4 ρ
o
= 0.85g/cm
3
0.80 0.14 0.58 3.9 ρ
w
= 1.00g/cm
3
0.70 0.29 0.39 4.5 σ
res.
= 22dyn/cm
0.60 0.49 0.23 5.7 σ
lab
= 75dyn/cm
0.50 0.73 0.09 8.4 µ
o
= 15.0cp
0.40 1.00 0.00 18.0 µ
w
= 1.0cp
0.30 1.00 0.00 ∞
Use critical oil saturation, S
oc
= 0.05 and the data above to construct a graph showing
the water fraction as function of height above the WOC.
What is the water fraction at 15 m above the WOC ?
7.6 Exercises 119
2. The laboratory data below is recorded at stationary conditions, measuring the relative
permeability for a oilwater injection experiment.
q
o
[cm
3
/time] q
w
[cm
3
/time] ∆P [psi] V
w
[cm
3
]
90 0 49.25 2.17
75 5 91.29 2.87
60 9 109.52 3.63
45 20 123.30 4.65
30 34 137.05 5.93
15 85 164.30 7.95
0 122 147.00 9.86
V
w
is the volume of water in the core sample, determined by weighing. q
o
and q
w
is the
oil and water rate through the sample, respectively. ∆P is the pressure drop.
Additional data is given:
Absolute permeability 16.7 mD length of core sample 9 cm
Diameter of core sample 3.2 cm Oil viscosity 2.0 cp
Water viscosity 1.1 cp Porosity 0.20
1 atm. equals 14.65 psi
Draw the rel.perm. curves for k
ro
and k
rw
using the data above.
Answers to questions:
1. 25%
120 Chapter 7. Relative Permeability
Chapter 8
Compressibility of Reservoir Rock and
Fluids
8.1 Introduction
Compressibility is a universal phenomenon, of signiﬁcant importance where all substances are
compressible, some more compressible than others. Compressibility is therefore an important
"drive mechanism" in underground petroleum production.
Oil and gas are naturally existing hydrocarbon (HC) mixtures, quite complex in chemical
composition which exist at elevated temperatures and pressures in the reservoir. When pro
duced to the surface, the temperature and pressure of the mixture are reduced, where the state
of the HC mixture at the surface depends upon the composition of the HC ﬂuid found in the
reservoir. The ﬂuid remaining in the reservoir at any stage of depletion undergoes physical
changes as the pressure is reduced due to removal of quantities of oil, gas and initial water
from the reservoir.
It is necessary to study the physical properties of these naturally existing HC and in partic
ular, their variation with pressure and temperature, in order to fully understand and control the
production process. This information is important in estimating the performance of the ﬂuids
in the reservoir.
Compressibility, as physical phenomenon, plays a key role in general underground petroleum
production. Nearly all production of oil, gas and formation water is related to volume expan
sion when the reservoir pressure decreases due to removeal of reservoir ﬂuids.
8.2 Compressibility of Solids, Liquids and Gases
For a mixture of HC it is quite obvious that pressure and temperature are essential parameters.
The state of equilibrium is deﬁned by these two parameters and consequently also the phase
behaviour of the ﬂuid, i.e. the fractional volume of oil and gas.
In the case of formation rock and the saturation of ﬂuids contained therein, pore volume
and ﬂuid changes due to the pressure decline is the dominating phenomenon, responsabile for
reservoir ﬂuid production, since the reservoir temperature changes slightly or remain constant
in most cases. Volumes of reservoir ﬂuid brought to the surface will experience change in both
121
122 Chapter 8. Compressibility of Reservoir Rock and Fluids
pressure and temperature, i.e. the ﬁnal state of oil and gas is characterised by volume changes
due to both drop in pressure and in temperature.
The general behaviour of materials can be described by the compressibility and expansion
terms;
c = −
1
V
∂V
∂ p
T
, (8.1)
β =
1
V
∂V
∂T
p
, (8.2)
where c is the isothermal compressibility, c ≥0 and β is the isobaric thermal expansion, β ≥0.
In practice, it is normal to use an average compressibility factor of the different HC com
ponents. In relation to reservoir production, it is common practise to distinguish between the
following deﬁnitions of compressibility:
• Rock matrix compressibility; c
r
.
• Rock bulk compressibility; c
b
.
• Liquid compressibility (oil or initial water); c
o
and c
w
.
• Gas compressibility; c
g
.
8.2.1 Rock Stresses and Compressibility
When rocks are subjected to external load or force, internal stresses are developed and if the
stresses are sufﬁciently strong, deformation such as volume and shape changes of the rock will
be the result. The stresses on any plane surface through a rock sample under in situ. conditions
are composed of a normal stress vector (perpendicular to the plane) and two shear stresses,
parallel to the plane surface. The general stress condition may be characterised by a stress
tensor, with nine components as shown in Fig. 8.1. The stress tensor is often written in matrix
form;
¸
σ
x
τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
yx
σ
y
τ
yz
τ
zx
τ
zy
σ
z
¸
Due to the general conditions of equilibrium, the stress tensor will be symmetric around
the diagonal, which means that τ
xy
= τ
yx
and so on. There are thus only six independent stress
components in the stress tensor:
3 normal stresses: σ
x
, σ
y
and σ
z
and
3 tangential (shear stresses): τ
xy
, τ
yz
, τ
zx
.
Underground gas and oil reservoirs experience stresses due to the overload of rock material
and water and the lateral conﬁnement stresses exerted on the reservoir from the surrounding
rock masses, see Fig. 8.2. It is possible to show that there exist one set of ortogonal axis with
8.2 Compressibility of Solids, Liquids and Gases 123
σ
z
σ
y
σ
x
τ
zy
τ
zy
τ
zx
τ
zx
τ
xy
τ
xy
z
x
y
Figure 8.1: Stress conditions of formation rock media.
σ
z
σ
y
σ
x
Figure 8.2: Principal stresses on reservoir rock..
respect to which all shear stresses are zero and the normal stresses have their extreme values.
These stresses are called the principal stresses
For most reservoirs, the principal normal stresses are orientated as shown in Fig. 8.2, where
the major principle stress σ
z
is acting parallel to the force of gravity, while the two lateral
stresses σ
x
and σ
y
are acting in the horizontal plane, e.g. σ
z
> σ
x
, σ
y
.
The average normal stress is generally deﬁned by,
σ =
1
3
(σ
x
+σ
y
+σ
z
). (8.3)
The collective action of the principal stresses will cause the rock material to deform. The
relative longitudinal deformation is given by theprincipal strain,
ε
i
=
∆l
i
l
i
=
l
i
−l
/
i
l
i
, where i = x, y, z, (8.4)
where l
i
is the initial length of the rock in the i’th direction, l
/
is the length after deformation.
The sum of principal strains will give the relative volume change∆ε = (ε
x
+ε
y
+ε
z
), where
ε
V
=∆V/V. (In case of nonzero shear stresses, a displacement or rotation of the rock may be
experienced.)
The stress  strain relationship is dependent on several parameters of which the following
are the most important; the composition and lithology of the rocks, the degree of cementation
of the rock material, the type of cementing material, the compressibility of the rock matrix, the
porosity of the rock material and the pressure and temperature in the reservoir.
124 Chapter 8. Compressibility of Reservoir Rock and Fluids
In the following, the rock will be assumed to be isotropic, which means equal properties
in all directions. For simplicity, it is also assumed that the stresses are refered to the principal
stress directions.
Within the elastic limit of volume deformation of any rock material, Hooke’s law states
that there exist a proportionality between stress, σ and strain, ε, where σ
1
, σ
2
and σ
3
are the
principar stress directions.
σ
1
= Eε
1
, (8.5)
where E is the Young’s modulus of elasticity and the subscript indicate change in stress and
strain in the same direction and where the stresses normal to this direction are constant.
If a cylindrical rock sample is subjected to a compressive stress, σ
1
, parallel to its long
axis, it will shorten, ε
1
and the diameter will increase. The ratio of transverse strain to the axial
strain is expressed by the Poisson ratio ν. If the transverse strain is deﬁned by ε
2
and ε
3
, then
the transverse deformation is given,
ν =
ε
2
ε
1
=
ε
3
ε
1
, (8.6)
where ε
1
is the principal strain direction.
The signiﬁcance of Poisson’s ratio, coupling axial and transverse strain, indicates that de
formation along one principal axis is caused by a combination of all three principal stresses.
This observation is presented in Hooke’s law in three dimensions:
Eε
x
= σ
x
−ν(σ
y
+σ
z
), (8.7)
Eε
y
= σ
y
−ν(σ
x
+σ
z
), (8.8)
Eε
z
= σ
z
−ν(σ
x
+σ
y
). (8.9)
In writing Hooke’s law this way, the strains are reddered to the condition of zero stresses.
It is often convenient to write Hooke’s law in changes of stresses, ∆σ
x
etc. In that case srain
are refered to the initial conditions.
The total deformation due to all three principal stresses acting on the rock material is given
by ∆V = (ε
x
+ε
y
+ε
z
)V. Using Hooke’s law, Eqs. (8.7) to (8.9), the relative volume change is
given,
∆V
V
=
3σ(1−2ν)
E
(8.10)
Relative volume deformation of the rock is also described by the compressibility Eq. (8.1)
on differential from,
∆V
V
= c
r
∆σ. (8.11)
In introducing c
r
, one assumes that the rock is completely solid with no pores or cracks
within it.
Combining equation Eq. (8.10) and Eq. (8.11) proves that the compressibility and the elas
ticity are "two sides of the same case",
8.2 Compressibility of Solids, Liquids and Gases 125
c
r
=
3(1−2ν)
E
, (8.12)
where also the elastic constants E and ν, refer to the solid rock material.
In Eq.(8.12) the important relation between the compressibility and the elastic properties
of the rock material is established. Under the assumption that the deformation of the rock is
within the range of the elasticity (see Fig. 8.3), compressibility is constant, i.e.
dV
V
=−c
r
dσ, (8.13)
according to Eq.(8.1) the deformed volumeV is equal to,
V =V
0
e
−c
r
(σ−σ
0
)
·V
0
[1−c
r
(σ −σ
0
)]. (8.14)
The approximation is valid when c
r
∆σ is small, i.e. c
r
(σ −σ
0
) <1.
V
p p
0
V
0
0
Within the range
of elasticity
Figure 8.3: Deformation of rock bulk volume under conditions of
elastic behaviour (constant compressibility factor).
The dimension of compressibility c
r
is reciprocal pressure, as follows from Eq.(8.1) or
(8.14), i.e.
[c
r
] = [σ]
−1
For normal reservoir rock like quarts, the compressibility is;c
quarts
∼2.5 10
−6
bar
−1
.
8.2.2 Compressibility of Liquids
Deformation of liquids can be explained, following the same chain of arguments as seen for
solid (rock) material. Within the elastic limit of the liquid, one can expect the compressibility
to be constant and in accordance to Eq.(8.1) and in analogy with Eq.(8.14),
V
l
=V
l
0
e
−c
l
(p−p
0
)
·V
l
0
[1−c
l
(p−p
0
)], (8.15)
126 Chapter 8. Compressibility of Reservoir Rock and Fluids
where the last approximation is valid whenc
l
(p−p
o
) <1.
Various liquids may behave quite differently depending on the composition of that liquid.
Water is not particularly compressible and has a compressibility factorc
w
∼ 4.6 10
−5
bar
−1
.
Oil, on the other hand, may have a varying compressibility factor, depending on the compo
sition of oil, i.e. the mixture of light and heavy HC and the amount of gas contained in the
oil.
Black oils may have a compressibility ∼25 10
−5
bar
−1
, while light oils can have substan
tially higher compressibility, depending on the content of the solution gas.
8.2.3 Compressibility of Gases
Experience tells us that gases are very compressible. Gas compressibility can be deﬁned
equally to solids and liquids, using the deﬁnition in Eq.(8.1), in an attempt to consistently
describe the nature of compressibility as a universal characteristic, also valid for gases.
In the case of a perfect gas,
pV = nRT, (8.16)
where
p: absolute pressure of the gas phase,
V: volume which it occupies,
T: absolute temperature of gas,
n: number of moles of gas equal to its mass divided
by its gaseous molecular weight and
R: the gas constant.
Combining Eqs.(8.1) and (8.16) one obtain,
c
g
=−
1
V
∂V
∂ p
=
1
p
. (8.17)
Form this deduction it must be conclude that compressibility of gases is notconstant, but
varies as the reciprocal pressure (under the assumption of constant temperature).
Example: Compressibility of real gas
The real gas law is,
pV = znRT,
where z is the deviation factor, expressing the nonideal deviation from perfect gas
behaviour.
Since compressibility describes the volume deformation, we may assume the
volume to be a function of pressure, temperature and a nonideal factor, i.e. V =
V(p, T, z).
Differentiation of the volum function,
dV =
∂V
∂ p
dp+
∂V
∂T
dT +
∂V
∂z
dz,
= −
V
p
dp+
V
T
dT +
V
z
dz.
8.2 Compressibility of Solids, Liquids and Gases 127
At reservoir condition, T is constant and consequently,
−
1
V
dV
dp
=
1
p
−
1
z
dz
dp
.
Compressibility for real gases in the reservoir is then given by,
c
g
=
1
p
−
1
z
dz
dp
.
The deviaton factor z, is a nontrivial function of pressure and temperature.
The zfactor is usually expressed as a function of the socalled pseudo reduced
pressure p
pr
and pseudo reduced temperature T
pr
, as seen in Fig. 8.4, i.e.
z = z(p
pr
, T
pr
),
where pseudo reduced pressure and temperature are deﬁned as,
p
pr
=
p
p
pc
, T
pr
=
T
T
pc
,
where p
pc
and T
pc
are pseudo critical pressure and pseudo critical temperature,
respectively.
Z
p
pr
1.0
0
T
pr
n
T
pr
T
pr
1
Figure 8.4: zfactor as a function of pseudo reduced pressurep
pr
and
temperature T
pr
.
Critical pressure and temperature for a mixture of m numbers of HC compo
nents are deﬁned,
p
pc
=
m
∑
i
n
i
p
ci
, T
pc
=
m
∑
i
n
i
T
ci
,
where p
ci
and T
ci
are critical pressure and temperature of the different HC compo
nents and n
i
is the volume fraction or the mole fraction of each component given
by Avogadro’s law.
.
128 Chapter 8. Compressibility of Reservoir Rock and Fluids
8.3 Deformation of Porous Rock
The elastic deformation or compressibility of porous rock is complicated by the fact that it is
subjected to an external conﬁning stressσ, and in addition to an internal pore pressure p, acting
on the surface of the pore walls. The total external stress acting on the porous rock is partly
counterbalanced by the pore presssure and the forces acting through the rock matrix. This is
depicted in Fig. 8.5, where the total stress will be the pressure acting on the outer surface, while
the pore pressure and the forces acting through the rock matrix are the counteracting pressures
[62].
p
p
σ
σ
σ
Figure 8.5: Stresses working on a porous rock.
Experience in rock and soil mechanics has shown that the deformation of porous and pre
meable materials depend on the effective stress which is the difference between the applied
total stress and the pore pressure. Effective stress was originally introduced by Terzaghi and is
deﬁned as,
σ
/
= σ −p, (8.18)
later the deﬁneition of effective stress has been generalized to,
σ
/
= σ −αp,
where the constant α, often called the Biot constant is a number equal or less than one,α ≤1.
For most reservoir rocks α will become close to one and may be neglected. It should be
noted however that the consept of effective stress does not follow from strictly theoretical
considerations, but must be regarded as a close approximation. For porous rocks, the stresses
in Hooke’s law should be replaced by effective stresses.
When a reservoir is produced the reservoir pressure will in most cases be reduced. The
overburden load will however remain more or less constant and thus the vertical effective
stress will increase, causing compaction of the reservoir rock. The horizontal stresses may
also change with pore pressure and the development of complete stress conditions may be
difﬁcult to determine.
For reservoir engineering, it is ﬁrst of all the volumetric behaviour that is important. The
volumetric changes are given by the average applied stress and one will therefore for simplicity
in the following assume a hydrostatic applied stress ﬁeld on the porous rock.
8.3 Deformation of Porous Rock 129
Variation of the effective stress on the rock due to withdrawal of reservoir ﬂuid (oil, gas or
initial water) will cause deformation in the bulk volumeV
b
, as well as deformation in the pore
volume V
p
. Generally, both the external stress σ and the pore pressure p may provoke changes
in the bulk or/and pore volume. The bulk and pore volume are therefore deﬁned as function of
both external stress and pore pressure, i.e.
V
b
= V
b
(σ, p),
V
p
= V
p
(σ, p). (8.19)
Differentiation of Eqs. (8.19) gives the relative volume change,
dV
b
V
b
=
1
V
b
∂V
b
∂σ
dσ +
1
V
b
∂V
b
∂ p
dp,
dV
p
V
p
=
1
V
p
∂V
p
∂σ
dσ +
1
V
p
∂V
p
∂ p
dp. (8.20)
Using Eq. (8.1) the deﬁnition of isothermal compressibility, a set of four compressibilities
may be deﬁned and Eq. (8.20) is written,
dV
b
V
b
= −c
bσ
dσ +c
bp
dp,
dV
p
V
p
= −c
pσ
dσ +c
pp
dp, (8.21)
where the "minus" sign demonstrates the fact that when σ increases, both the bulk and pore
volume will decrease, while when p increases, then the bulk and pore volume will increase.
The four compressibilites deﬁned in Eqs. (8.21) are all not independent and through elastic
theory it is possible to resolve the relation between them. The purpose of this process is to
express the pore compressibility as function of the compressibilities of bulk volume and rock
material, c
p
= c
p
(c
b
, c
r
).
8.3.1 Compressibility Measurements.
If a porous rock sample is brought to the laboratory and the external stressσ, on the sample
is increase while the pore pressure is kept constant dp = 0, as seen in Fig. 8.6, left, Eqs. (8.21)
gives,
dV
b
V
b
=−c
bσ
dσ, (8.22)
Since c
bσ
depends on the elastic moduli of the matrix rock material and the geometry of
the pore space, it must in general be considered to be an independent parameter, characterised
as the bulk compressibility, i.e. c
bσ
= c
b
.
If, on the other hand, the rock sample is exposed to an external stress equal to the internal
pressure, such that dσ = dp, see Fig. 8.6, right, then Eqs. (8.21) is written,
130 Chapter 8. Compressibility of Reservoir Rock and Fluids
σ σ = p
dp = 0
Figure 8.6: Stresses working on a porous rock.
dV
b
V
b
= (−c
b
+c
bp
)dσ,
dV
p
V
p
= (−c
pσ
+c
pp
)dσ, (8.23)
where dσ = dp and where c
bσ
= c
b
.
When the pore pressure increases/decreases equally to the conﬁning stress, then the effect
of the pores with respect to the deformation of the porous rock, is only related to the rock matrix
material itself. Seen from the outside the material would behave as a completly solid rock.
Under these condition, the compressibility of the rock sample is equal to the compressibility
of the rock material c
r
. From Eqs. (8.23), the following relation between compressibilities are
deduced;
−c
b
+c
bp
= −c
r
,
−c
pσ
+c
pp
= −c
r
, (8.24)
where the minus sign for c
r
reﬂects the fact that the rock will compress under these conditions.
8.3.2 Betti’s Reciprocal Theorem of Elasticity.
If both the external stress and the pore pressure are changing, then the bulk and pore volume
are deformed accordingly,
dV
b
= dV
b
(σ) +dV
b
(p),
dV
p
= dV
p
(σ) +dV
p
(p), (8.25)
where dV(σ) is the volume change relative to the external stress and dV(p) is the volume
change relative to the pore pressure.
Betti’s theorem states that the hypothetical work given by the volume expansion of the bulk
volume due to the pore pressure dV
b
(p) times the change in the external stress dσ, is equal to
the work given by the volume expansion of the pore volume due to the external stressdV
p
(σ)
times the change in the pore pressure dp, i.e.
8.4 Compressibility for Reservoir Rock Saturated with Fluids 131
dV
b
(p) dσ = dV
p
(σ) dp. (8.26)
Using Eqs. (8.21) in Eq. (8.26), one gets,
−V
b
c
bp
dp dσ =−V
p
c
pσ
dσ dp, (8.27)
where c
bp
= c
b
. The minus sign for the ﬁrst term reﬂects that the force and displacement are in
opposite directions. Since porosity is deﬁnedφ =V
p
/V
b
, the bulk compressibility is given,
c
bp
= φc
pσ
(8.28)
Combining Eqs. (8.24 and Eq. (8.28) on gets,
c
p
=
c
b
−(1+φ)c
r
φ
, (8.29)
where c
pp
= c
p
is the pore volume compressibility. This formula, developed by Geertsma [31],
relates the pore compressibility to the bulk and rock compressibilities which are the parameters
normally measured, like in experiments sketched in Fig. 8.6.
8.4 Compressibility for Reservoir Rock Saturated with Fluids
Compressibility of homogenous matter like the rock material c
r
and the contained saturations
of ﬂuids, e.g. oil, water and/or gas, are all deﬁned by Eq. (8.1). A discrete version of this
deﬁnition, where the pressure drop ∆p is sufﬁciently small, gives
c =
1
V
∆V
∆p
⇒ ∆V = cV∆p. (8.30)
The compressibility of the ﬂuids c
f
contained in the pore volume is deﬁned by the com
pressibility of the different phases; c
w
, c
o
and c
g
. Since the pore volume is expanded by the
ﬂuid phase volumes: V
f
= V
w
+V
o
+V
g
, a change in the pore pressure will cause the ﬂuid
volume to change. The ﬂuid compressibility is written,
∆V
f
= ∆V
w
+∆V
o
+∆V
g
,
c
f
= c
w
V
w
V
p
+c
o
V
o
V
p
+c
g
V
g
V
p
,
= c
w
S
w
+c
o
S
o
+c
g
S
g
, (8.31)
where S is the ﬂuid phase saturation (S
w
+S
o
+S
g
= 1).
Of interest in relation to the production of oil and gas, is the total compressibility of the
rock  ﬂuid system. This compressibility accounts for the expansion of ﬂuid, given by the ﬂuid
compressibility c
f
and the reduction of the pore volume when the pore pressure is reduced,
given by c
p
in Eq. (8.29),
132 Chapter 8. Compressibility of Reservoir Rock and Fluids
c
t
= c
p
+c
f
,
=
c
b
−(1+φ)c
r
φ
+c
w
S
w
+c
o
S
o
+c
g
S
g
,
=
1
φ
[c
b
−(1+φ)c
r
+φ(c
w
S
w
+c
o
S
o
+c
g
S
g
)]. (8.32)
The effective HC compressibility is a useful term, related to the pore space occupied by the
hydrocarbons,
c
HC
= c
o
S
o
+c
g
S
g
.
An equally important term is the effective compressibility responsible for the expansion
of initial water and reduction of the pore volume, when pressure is released as a result of HC
production. This term, a nonHC compressibility is deﬁned,
c
non−HC
=
c
b
−(1+φ)c
r
+φc
w
S
w
φ
.
Example: Porosity variation in the reservoir
When the reservoir pore pressure is reduced, due to oil or gas production, the
equilibrium of stresses in the reservoir is changed. This change in the effective
stress on the rock material will cause the porosityφ =V
p
/V
b
to change.
By differentiation the porosity one gets,
dφ
φ
=
dV
p
V
p
−
dV
b
V
b
. (8.33)
Substituting Eqs. (8.21) in Eq. (8.33) and remembering that c
pp
is the pore
compressibility c
p
and c
bσ
is the bulk compressibility c
b
,
dφ
φ
= (c
p
dp−c
pσ
dσ) −(c
bp
dp−c
b
dσ). (8.34)
Combining Eqs. (8.24) and Eq. (8.29) with Eq. (8.34) gives,
dφ =−c
b
(1−φ) −c
r
d(σ −p), (8.35)
where the porosity change dφ is proportional to the change in the effective stress.
It should be noted that in this case, the dependence on the effective stress is an
exact theoretical result.
Under reservoir conditions, the conﬁnement stress is constant, i.e. dσ = 0 and
thus the change in porosity is,
∆φ = c
r
c
b
c
r
(1−φ) −1
∆p, (8.36)
where the pressure drop ∆p, due to ﬂuid production from the reservoir is small
enough to keep the material within the elastic limit.
8.4 Compressibility for Reservoir Rock Saturated with Fluids 133
In a nonporous rock, i.e. when φ →0, the bulk compressibility will be equal
to the rock matrix compressibility, c
b
= c
r
, which then deﬁne the lower bound,
where by c
b
/c
r
≥ 1. In typical sandstone porous rocks, the ratio c
b
/c
r
is often
found to be between 4 to 100. For sandstone reservoirs with a typical porosity
larger than 510 %, the terms in the bracket in Eq. (8.36) will always be positive.
When the pore pressure is reduced, p
1
> p
2
(Fig. 8.7), a porosity deforma
tion is observed, φ
1
> φ
2
, i.e. the porosity is reduced in the reservoir when the
pressure is reduced, which is an important drive mechanism for undersaturated oil
reservoirs.
p
1
p
2
V :
p
φ
1
φ
2
Figure 8.7: Constant conﬁnement pressure and reduced pore pres
sure leads to a reduction in the pore volume.
.
Example: Porosity variation in formation core samples
Reservoir porosity is seen to decrease with the pore pressure, under the assumption
of constant conﬁnement stress. What about the porosity change in rock samples
which are brought to the surface for further experimental investigations? This
question is quite important since laboratory measurements on core material from
wells, is one of the very few direct sources of information available regarding
reservoir characteristics.
Eq. (8.35) gives the porosity change relative to the change in the pressure dif
ference (σ − p). At initial conditions in the reservoir, the pressure difference is
normally such that the conﬁnement pressure is larger than the pore pressure, i.e.
(σ −p)
R
> 0. In the laboratory or at normal atmospheric condition, the conﬁne
ment pressure and the pore pressure will be close to equal, i.e. (σ −p)
L
= 0.
For a porous rock sample, where the bulk and rock matrix compressibilities
are such that (c
b
(1 −φ) −c
r
) > o, which is the case for practically all porous
rock materials, the porosity will increase when the rock sample is brought to the
surface, i.e. φ
R
< φ
L
.
.
134 Chapter 8. Compressibility of Reservoir Rock and Fluids
p
R
p
L
φ
R
φ
L
Figure 8.8: Variation of bulk volume during surfacing of core mate
rial.
8.5 Exercises
1. The reservoir pressure is 1923 psi, connate water saturation is 0.24 and gas saturation is
0.31.
Find the total compressibility and the effective hydrocarbon compressibility when the
following ﬂuid and formation compressibility are known; c
o
= 10 10
−6
psi
−1
, c
w
= 3
10
−6
psi
−1
, c
g
= 1/p psi
−1
and c
r
= c
b
= 5 10
−6
psi
−1
.
2. A reservoir with an initial pressure of 6500 psia has an average porosity of 19 %. Bulk
compressibility is 3.810
−6
psi
−1
, and estimated abandonment pressure is 500 psia.
Find the formation porosity when the ﬁeld is abandoned?
3. A gas reservoir has a gas deviation factor (at 150
o
F),
p [psia] 0 500 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
z 1.00 0.92 0.86 0.80 0.82 0.89 1.00
Plot z versus p and graphically determine the slope at 1000 psia, 2200 psia and 4000
psia. Then, ﬁnd the gas compressibility at these pressures.
Answers to questions:
1. 171.4 10
−6
psi
−1
, 224.6 10
−6
psi
−1
, 2. 18.6 %,
3. 1.11 10
−3
psi
−1
, 0.45 10
−3
psi
−1
, 0.14 10
−3
psi
−1
Chapter 9
Properties of Reservoir Fluids
9.1 Introduction
Production of oil and gas can be compared to a process where volumes of the reservoir ﬂuids
are transformed to the stock tank volumes of oil and gas, see Fig. 9.1. During this process both
pressure and temperature are signiﬁcantly changed. The reservoir production rates of oil and
gas will in the event of continuously decreasing pressure and temperature transform, where the
phase ratio of oil and gas is changed as well as the gasoil ratio and the composition of both
phases.
Q = V / t
gn gn
∆ ∆
Q = V / t
g g
∆ ∆
Q = V / t
on on
∆ ∆
Q = V/ t
o o
∆ ∆
Reservoir
Sea
Figure 9.1: Volume transformation of oil and gas.
Primary reservoir production takes place without any temperature change, while the reser
voir pressure drops substantially near the well. The composition of oil and/or gas will therefore
changed slightly during production. In an oil reservoir we may experience the shrinkage of oil
due to the solution gas liberation near the well and in a rich gas reservoir we expect condensa
135
136 Chapter 9. Properties of Reservoir Fluids
tion of liquid hydrocarbons (oil) when the pressure is reduced.
When the reservoir ﬂuid is produced and brought to the surface, pressure is further reduced
through different stages of separation. In these processes, temperature is also reduced and
consequently the composition of oil and gas undergoes signiﬁcant change.
In this chapter focus is put on some characteristic aspects of hydrocarbon mixtures and the
separation of oil and gas as function of pressure and temperature. We will look at how oil and
gas behave in the reservoir and their expansion to stock tank condition.
9.2 Deﬁnitions
The process by which the different hydrocarbon (HC) components form phases through various
chemical reactions is governed by a natural (entropy driven) development towards equilibrium
or the lowest energy level. This could be expressed more precisely referring to the Gibbs phase
rule.
The Gibbs phase rule shows a relationship among the number of componentsN
C
,
number of phases N
P
, number of chemical reactions N
R
, and degrees of freedom
N
F
, where;
N
F
= N
C
−N
P
+2−N
R
.
The number 2 accounts for the intensive properties p, T, and N
C
−N
R
deﬁnes the
number of independent components.
For a pure component (like H
2
O), then N
C
−N
R
= 1 and
N
F
= 3−N
P
.
For pure components the phase rule says that no more than three phases can form at any tem
perature and pressure, i.e.
When N
P
= 1 N
F
= 2 Both intensive properties can be changed
arbitrarily
When N
P
= 2 N
F
= 1 Only one intensive property can be
independent – there are three lines
on a (p, T)plot reﬂecting this occurrence
(sublimation line, melting point line, and
vapour pressure line)
When N
P
= 3 N
F
= 0 No degrees of freedom – a single triple
point in the phase diagram
We know that water may appear in different phases like ice, liquid and vapour, all depend
ing on temperature and pressure. The coexistence of different phases, is shown in Fig. 9.2.
The different regions are separated by phase boundaries. The phase boundary between water
and vapour ends in a critical point where the two phases cease to coexist. Beyond this point,
for temperatures T > T
C
and pressures p > p
C
, there is no distinct difference between water
and vapour, hence we call this state the ﬂuid state. (For pure water, i.e. H
2
O, the critical
temperature is 374.1
o
C and the critical pressure is 218.3 atm.)
9.3 Representation of hydrocarbons 137
p
c
T
c
Critical
point
Ice
Water
Vapour
1 atm.
100 °C
Figure 9.2: PTdiagram for H
2
O.
9.3 Representation of hydrocarbons
Naturally occurring HC are complex in composition and contain a great many members of
parafﬁns (alkanes), naphthenes (cycloalkanes) and aromatic series and often some nonhydrocarbon
impurities.
Some of the components in the parafﬁn series are listed below:
Methane CH
4
C
1
Heptane C
7
H
16
Ethane C
2
H
6
C
2
Octane C
8
H
18
Propane C
3
H
8
C
3
Nonane C
9
H
20
Butane C
4
H
10
C
4
Decane C
10
H
22
Pentane C
5
H
12
C
5
Hexane C
6
H
14
C
6
Some typical nonhydrocarbon impurities are represented by,
Nitrogen N
2
Carbon Dioxide CO
2
Hydrogen Sulphide H
2
S
For mixtures of HC components, C
7
H
16
and higher, it is quite common to writeC
+
7
, mean
ing all component in the series. The C
+
7
characteristic is then the average for all components
higher then C
6
.
In gases, typically light components likeC
1
, C
2
and C
3
dominate the composition. For light
oils, C
4
, C
5
and C
6
are the important components and for heavier oils the presence of various
decanes and asfaltenes are quit common. However, intermediate components likeC
4
−C
5
can be in both gaseous and liquid state depending on prevailing pressure and temperature.
Components C
+
7
are heavy and in most interesting cases of petroleum engineering, can not be
evaporized.
For pure components of oil, say, Ethane (C
2
H
6
) and Heptane (C
7
H
16
), and their mix
ture (50% of C
2
H
6
and 50% of C
7
H
16
) the phase PTdiagram is shown in Fig. 9.3. The PT
characteristics of the pure components are somewhat similar to theH
2
O case, shown in Fig. 9.2.
When two or more HC components are mixed, the phase boundaries form a closed boundary
138 Chapter 9. Properties of Reservoir Fluids
area in the PTdiagram, where the two phases of oil and gas coexists. This area is called the
twophase region and has a characteristic shape for that particular composition.
p
T
Liquid
Gas
p
T
Liquid
Gas
p
T
Liquid
Gas
Liquid +
Gas
a) 100% Ethane b) 100% Heptane c) 50% Ethane 50% Heptane
C
C
C
Figure 9.3: PTdiargam for Ethane, Heptane and their mixture.
The equilibrium state is deﬁned as function of p and T and consequently also the volume
ratio of oil and gas is PTdependent. Volume is therefore a dependent function of p and T,
as shown by the law of real gases. These relations between pressure, volume and temperature
are often referred to as PVTrelations. For a mixture of hydrocarbons, a PVTdiagram can be
drawn, as shown in Fig. 9.4.
G
a
s
G
a
s
L
iq
u
id
L
i
q
u
i
d
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
V
a
p
o
r

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
C
u
r
v
e
C
r
i
t
i
c
a
l
p
o
i
n
t
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
B
u
b
b
l
e
p
o
i
n
t
c
u
r
v
e
D
e
w
p
o
i
n
t
c
u
r
v
e
V
o
l
u
m
e
Figure 9.4: PVT diagram for a mixed component system.
The existence of a super critical ﬂuid region to the right of the critical point where phases
can not be distinguished, is seen in the PTdiagram in Fig. 9.4 (lower right).
The PVdiagram (upper left) shows how the oil volume is increasing when pressure is
9.3 Representation of hydrocarbons 139
decreasing. For a given temperature, we observe a monotonously volume increase or swelling
of the oil phase down to a certain pressure level. At this pressure the volume continues to
increase by separation into coexisting oil  and gas phases. Continued volume increase means
gradually increased gasoil ratio at constant pressure. The twophase region is left when the
pressure starts to decrease again and further volume increase is due to gas expansion only.
Another way of representing the PVT discontinuity, represented by the twophase region,
is to present the intensive property of speciﬁc  or molar volume, see Fig. 9.5.
Gas
Gas
Liquid
Liquid
Temperature
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
T
1
T
1
T
2
T
2
T
3
T
3
T
4
T
4
Specific volume
Twophase
region
Critical
point
Figure 9.5: Pressurespeciﬁc volume diagram for mixed component
system.
Speciﬁc volume is volume occupied by a unit of mass of a substance, i.e. [V
s
] = m
3
/kg
(ft
3
/lb). Molar volume is equal to volume occupied by one mole of a substance, i.e. [V
m
] =
m
3
/kgmole or cm
3
/gmole (ft
3
/lbmole).
For temperatures higher than T
3
, in Fig. 9.5, there is no phase change when pressure is
decreased. For lower temperatures, however, a phase transformation will pass through a two
phase region conﬁned by a bubble point locus and a dew point locus where the oil and gas are
in equilibrium.
The PTdiagram for a more complex mixtures is presented in Fig. 9.6. It is important to
notice that the shape of an envelope ACPCTB depends on the composition of HC mixture,
with the following deﬁnitions:
CP: Cricondenbar – a pressure point, above which a liquid can not be vaporised.
CT: Cricondentherm – a temperature point, above which a gas can not be condensed.
C: Critical Point – a pressure and temperature point, at which two phases become identical.
All the quality lines merge at this point, lines which deﬁnes the fractional oilgas ratio.
A reservoir with initial conditions as indicated by position1 in Fig. 9.6 is what we would
call a gas reservoir. When this reservoir is produced at constant temperature, from1 to 2, no
phase boundary is crossed, i.e. only gas is produced. If, on the other hand, the production
follows the dotted line from 1 to x, then oil will gradually drop out of the gas both in the
reservoir and on the way to location x. The composition of the gas will have changed, where
the heavier components are condensed.
140 Chapter 9. Properties of Reservoir Fluids
A reservoir located at point 3 in Fig. 9.6, should be called a gas condensate reservoir. When
this reservoir is produced at constant temperature, from 1 to 5, condensation of gas in the
reservoir starts as soon as the twophase region is entered, at point 4. When the pressure
continues to decrease, and the dew point line is approached, vaporisation of residual oil can
happen and the gas composition may become richer until the dew point line is crossed. Form
that point onwards, no change in the composition will occur.
As we have mentioned before, the twophase region is characterising the reservoir ﬂuid,
such that an oil reservoir would have a different shaped twophase region than seen in Fig. 9.6.
Having said this, we can imagine that an oil reservoir is located somewhere in the upper left
corner in Fig. 9.6. When this reservoir is produced at constant temperature, no gas will exist in
the reservoir until the bubbel point line is crossed. At this time, solution gas will slowly build
up to a continuous phase and ﬂow towards the well with a considerably higher mobility than
the oil itself.
p
T
Liquid
Gas
CP
A
B
C
CT
80%
60%
40%
20%
1
2
3
4
x
5
Figure 9.6: PT diagram for a complex HC mixture.
9.3.1 Ternary diagrams
Binary diagrams are often used for representing an overall behaviour of hydrocarbons and
for detailed analysis of phase behaviour when the number of components or groups of pure
components, do not exceed three . Natural hydrocarbons are complex mixtures of different
components and are usually represented by pseudocomponents (normally 2 or 3). In order to
predict phase behaviour for such compositions ternary diagrams are often used, see Figs. 9.7
and 9.8.
One of the advantages of ternary diagrams is that they enable us to represent both the
phase compositions and the overall composition of mixture. Let us assume that the overall
composition is represented by point M. Then the overall compositions C
i
can be expressed
through the phase compositions C
i j
,
C
i
=C
i1
S
1
+C
i2
S
2
, i = 1, 2, 3
9.3 Representation of hydrocarbons 141
Plait point
Binodal
curve
Tie line
2phase region
C
2
C
1
C
3
1phase
region
Figure 9.7: Twophase ternary diagram.
Plait
point
Tie line
C
2
C
1
C
3
2phase
region
3phase region
1phase
region
a
b
c
d
e
f
 invariant point
Figure 9.8: Threephase ternary diagram.
Note that the fraction of each component is 1 at their apex and 0 at the opposite edge. Any unit
can be used (mole, weight or volume fraction).
Using the fact that S
1
+S
2
= 1, we can obtain the following expression for the relative
amounts of phases S
i j
in the overall composition,
S
1
=
C
i
−C
i2
C
i1
−C
i2
, S
2
=
C
i
−C
i1
C
i2
−C
i1
,
which is called "the lever rule".
It follows from the Gibbs phase rule that in case of 3 (pseudo) components and 2 phases,
where (p and T are expected to be known), the system has only one degree of freedom. This
means that if one of the parameters is speciﬁed all the other can be easily evaluated.
Fig. 9.8 shows the case when the composition has a 3phase region which is indicated by the
embedded smaller triangle. All sides of this triangle are surrounded by 2 phase regions. There
is no degrees of freedom in the three phase region. It means that the compositions of the three
phases are given by the apexes of the 3 phase triangle (invariant points). Any total composition
M within this triangle gives three phases with the same overall composition. Moving inside the
triangle we can only change the fraction of phases and not the overall composition. The lever
rule enables us to calculate the relative amounts of these phases,
142 Chapter 9. Properties of Reservoir Fluids
S
1
=
a
a+b
, S
2
=
c
c +d
, S
3
=
e
e + f
.
In Figs. 9.7 and 9.8 both triangles have a common baseline, which is usually the case for
surfactant+oil+brine systems.
9.4 Natural gas and gas condensate ﬁelds
In a dry gas ﬁeld, the reservoir temperature is always larger than the critical temperature of the
same gas, i.e. the following initial condition is important,
T
r
> T
CT
.
If initial conditions in the reservoir coincide with point 1 in Fig. 9.6 and gas recovery is
performed in such a way that the pressure will decline from1 to 2, than the dew point line will
never be crossed and only dry gas will exist in the reservoir at any pressure.
When producing the gas to the surface, however, both p and T will decrease and the ﬁnal
state will be at some point x within the twophase envelope, the position of the point being
dependent on surface separation.
Let us imagine initial pressure and temperature at point 3 in Fig. 9.6. During isothermal
depletion liquid will start to condense in the reservoir when the pressure has fallen below the
dew point at 4.
The maximum liquid saturation deposited in the reservoir is when the pressure is between
points 4 and 5 in the twophase region. The condensation is generally rather small and fre
quently below the critical saturation which must be exceeded before the liquid becomes mobile.
The process of condensation is called retrograde liquid condensation, where the retrograde liq
uid condensate is not recovered and, since the heavier components tend to condense ﬁrst, this
represents a loss of a valuable part of the hydrocarbon mixture.
Continued pressure depletion below the point of maximum condensation would lead to re
vaporisation of the liquid condensate. However, this does not occur because once the pressure
falls below point 4 the overall composition and hence, the molecular weight of the HC remain
ing in the reservoir increases and is left behind in the reservoir as retrograde condensate while
the light components are mobile and will be produce.
The composite phase envelope for the reservoir ﬂuids tends to move downwards and to the
right, thus inhibiting revaporisation. Sometimes it is economically advantageous to produce
a gas condensate ﬁeld by the process of gas recycling. Starting at point 3 in Fig. 9.9 and
separating the liquid condensate from the dry gas at the surface and reinjecting the latter into
the reservoir in such a way that the dry gas displaces the wet gas towards the producing wells.
However, in practical ﬁeld developments this is not easily accomplished.
The reservoir pressure is kept almost at the initial level but the composition of the reservoir
gas is gradually changed in such a way, that the phase envelope moves to the left and upwards.
After breakthrough of the dry gas occurs, the injection is terminated and the remaining dry gas
produced. The objective of the gas recycling process is to keep reservoir conditions above/or
to the right from the dew point curve, as seen in Fig. 9.9.
9.5 Oil ﬁelds 143
p
T
Initial
composition
Intermediate
composition
Final
composition
3
Figure 9.9: Development of the gas ﬁeld by the gas recycling pro
cess.
9.5 Oil ﬁelds
Since the oil contains more of the heavier HC components, a phase diagram for oil will be
more elongated in horizontal direction, as compared with gas ﬁelds and as shown in Fig. 9.10.
Initial
composition
Intermediate
composition
Final
composition
p
T
A
B
X
Unfavourable conditions
of production
Figure 9.10: Development of the oil ﬁeld.
If initial conditions in the reservoir coincide with pointA in Fig. 9.10, there will be only one
phase present, namely liquid oil containing dissolved gas. Reducing the pressure isothermally
will eventually bring the oil to the bubble point B. Further reduction in pressure will lead to
solution gas production and the presence of two phases in the reservoir;
• liquid oil, containing an amount of dissolved gas which commensurate with the pressure
and
• liberated gas, originally dissolved in the oil.
144 Chapter 9. Properties of Reservoir Fluids
Keeping production at point X below the bubble point, in Fig. 9.10, the overall reservoir
HC composition will change due to the fact that the gas, being more mobile, will ﬂow with a
much greater velocity than the oil towards the well.
The composition will change to such an extent, that the liquid phase is ﬁnally becoming
less and less mobile. The relative content of heavier components in oil will increase, and the
shape of the phase diagram will change towards more and more unfavourable conditions for oil
production. It is therefore preferable to maintain oil production close to, or above the bubble
point by using water ﬂooding, gas injection or other enhanced oil recovery methods.
The phase diagram for an oil reservoir with a gas cap must necessarily have a phase enve
lope which is characterised by both the gas and oil contained in the reservoir. The twophase
area of the reservoir ﬂuid is overlapping the appropriate oil and gas reservoir, as shown in Fig.
9.11.
p
T
A
Reservoir
gas
Reservoir
oil
Reservoir
fluid
Initial
reservoir
conditions
Figure 9.11: Phase diagram for the oil reservoir with a gas cap.
9.6 Relation between reservoir and surface volumes
The amount of oil and gas produced form the reservoir, measured in standard volume quantities
(at normal pressure and temperature) are converted to reservoir volumes by the use of volume
factors; B
o
, B
g
, R
s
and R. These factors are deﬁned in accordance to Fig. 9.12.
Volumes deﬁned at reservoir conditions (or at the surface) are transformed to surface vol
umes (or reservoir volumes) by use of volume factors. The volume factors are deﬁned by lab
oratory experiments performed on samples taken from the reservoir oil or gas. The deﬁnition
of these factors are [21]:
R
s
: The solution gasoil ratio, which is the number of standard cubic meters (feet) of gas
which will dissolve in one stock tank cubic meter (barrel) of oil when both are measured
at surface conditions.
R
s
=
V
ogn
V
on
¸
Sm
3
Sm
3
.
9.6 Relation between reservoir and surface volumes 145
V
p
V
g
V
ogn
V
on
V
gn
V
o
V
on
V
ggn
Reservoir: , p T Surface: , p T
n n
Figure 9.12: Stock tank production through expansion of reservoir
oil and gas from an oil reservoir.
B
o
: The oil formation volume factor is deﬁned as the volume of oil in cubic meters (or bar
rels) occupied in the reservoir at the prevailing p and T divided by the volume of oil in
stock tank cubic meter (barrel),
B
o
=
V
o
V
on
¸
Rm
3
Sm
3
.
B
g
: The gas formation volume factor is deﬁned as the volume of gas in cubic meters (or
barrels) in the reservoir divided by the volume of the same gas at standard cubic meter
(foot),
B
g
=
V
g
V
ggn
¸
Rm
3
Sm
3
.
R: The gasoil ratio (GOR), is the volume of gas in standard cubic meters (feet) produced
divided by volume of stock tank cubic meter (barrel) of oil at surface conditions,
R =
V
gn
V
on
¸
Sm
3
Sm
3
.
The following useful relationships between the volume factors can be deduced, simply
using Fig. 9.12:
V
gn
= RV
on
(9.1)
V
g
= B
g
(R−R
s
)V
on
(9.2)
V
o
+V
g
= [B
o
+(R−R
s
)B
g
]V
on
(9.3)
146 Chapter 9. Properties of Reservoir Fluids
V
g
= B
g
(1−
R
s
R
)V
gn
(9.4)
The volume factors B
o
, R
s
, B
g
and R are all pressure dependent functions, as seen from
Fig. 9.13.
p
p
p
p
B
o
B
g
p
b
p
b
p
b
p
b
R
s
R
Figure 9.13: Dependency of PVT volum parameters on pressure.
In order to explain the characteristic behaviour of the different volume factors it is natural
to follow a decreasing pressure development, i.e. from right to left in Fig. 9.13.
The oil volume factor B
o
is seen to increase linearly when pressure is decreasing towards
the bubble point pressure p
b
. This increase in B
o
is directly linked to the oil compressibility,
i.e. when pressure is released, then volume is increased. For pressure lower then the bubble
point, solution gas is gradually leaving the oil phase which leads to a shrinking volume of oil.
Finally all gas will evaporate and the oil is said to bedead and B
o
≈1. This process continues
until standard condition is reached.
The solution gasoil ratio R
s
is constant for pressures higher than the bubble point pressure,
since no gas is produced in the reservoir. A unit sample of oil at different pressures (p > p
b
)
will therefore contain the same amount of gas and oil at standard condition. For pressures
lower than the bubble point pressure, we will ﬁnd a decreasing amount of gas in the reservoir
oil sample because some gas has already evaporated and been produced as gas.
In the case of the volum factor for gas, gas in equilibrium with oil can only exist up to its
bubble point pressure. For pressure higher than p
b
, all free gas will be dissolve in the oil. For
decreasing pressure lower than the bubble point pressure, the volume of gas will expand as the
reciprocal pressure.
9.6 Relation between reservoir and surface volumes 147
The gasoil ratio R, shown in Fig. 9.13, is given as a function of decreasing reservoir pres
sure. When the pressure is above the bubble point pressure, no change is observed in the gasoil
ratio at surface condition. Shortly after the reservoir pressure has dropped below the bubble
point pressure, the process of solution gas vaporisation will take place, ﬁrst near the wellbore.
For a short while, the gas is not mobile due to gas saturation below critical gas saturation. The
presence of discontinuous gas will block some of the path ways for the oil and consequently oil
with less gas are being produced. The minimum gasoil ratio is reached as the gas saturation
becomes continuous and starts to ﬂow. When pressure is further decreased, more gas than oil
is produced than initially, since gas liberated in the reservoir is more mobile and therefore is
produced faster than the oil it originally evaporated from.
Example: Importance of the GOR
The GOR is an important parameter, not only because it gives the gasoil ratio as
function of pressure and time, but also because it carries important information
about the mobility ratio of gas and oil in the reservoir.
With reference to Figs. 9.1 and 9.12 we may deﬁne the gasoil ratio for a satu
rated oil reservoir, i.e. with a reservoir pressure lower than bubble point pressure,
R =
V
gn
V
on
=
Q
gn
Q
on
,
where Q
on
= Q
o
/B
o
and where Q
o
is the oil rate in the reservoir. Using the rela
tions Eqs.(9.1)  (9.4) we ﬁnd,
Q
gn
= RQ
on
,
Q
on
= Q
g
/[B
g
(R−R
s
)],
where Q
g
is the gas rate in the reservoir.
Using the GOR, deﬁned above, and the two relations giving the gas and oil
rate, we may write the following expression for the GOR factor,
R =
Q
g
B
g
B
o
Q
o
+R
s
.
For reservoir ﬂow, we assume Darcy’s law to be valid, both for oil and gas
ﬂow, i.e.
Q
i
=
k
i
µ
i
A
dp
i
dr
, i = o, g.
where Q
i
are the reservoir ﬂow rates.
For reservoir ﬂowin the vicinity of the well, we may safely neglect all capillary
effects, and the reservoir gasoil ﬂow ratio is written,
Q
g
Q
o
=
k
g
µ
g
µ
o
k
o
.
Substituting this ratio in the GOR equation, we may express the GOR in terms
of reservoir parameters,
148 Chapter 9. Properties of Reservoir Fluids
R =
k
g
µ
g
µ
o
k
o
B
o
B
g
+R
s
, (9.5)
where the mobility of oil and gas is deﬁned, λ
i
= k
i
/µ
i
, and i = o, g.
Eq.(9.5) gives the relation between gas  and oil mobility in the reservoir and
the observed gasoil ration, where the volume factors B
o
, B
g
and R
s
are known
from laboratory measurements. The GOR as presented in Eq.(9.5) gives a ideal
ized approximation of reservoir dependence and should therefore be interpretated
with care.
Example: Initial reservoir ﬂuids
The deﬁnition of initial in place volumes are somewhat different for oil and gas
reservoirs.
For a general reservoir we may deﬁne the following parameters,
V
R
Reservoir bulk volume.
φ Porosity.
B
o
, B
g
Formation factor.
R
s
Solution gasoil ratio.
The hydrocarbon pore volume, HCPV = V
R
φ, is important in deﬁning the
reserves in an oil reservoir,
Oil reserves: OIIP = HCPV/B
o
,
Gas reserves: GIIP = OIIP R
s
.
The reserves coming from a gas reservoir is deﬁned,
Gas reserves: GIIP = HCPV/B
g
,
Oil reserves: OIIP = GIIP/R
s
.
9.7 Determination of the basic PVT parameters
Conventional analysis of basic PVT parameters follow well established procedures by which
the different volume factors are measured:
• Flash expansion of the ﬂuid sample is used to determine the bubble point pressurep
b
.
• Differential expansion of the ﬂuid sample is used to determine the basic parametersB
o
,
R
s
and B
g
.
• Flash expansion of ﬂuid samples through various separator combinations is used to en
able the modiﬁcation of laboratory derived PVT data to match ﬁeld separator conditions.
The process differential  and ﬂash expansion, shown in Fig. 9.14, illustrates the difference
between ﬂash and differential expansion of the ﬂuid sample.
9.7 Determination of the basic PVT parameters 149
Initial
composition
Final
composition
p
T
p
T
Flash expansion Differential expansion
1
1
1 1
2 2
2 2
3
3
3 3
p > p
i b
p < p
b
p
b
p
b
p
b new
Hg
Gas
Gas
Oil
Oil
Oil
Oil
Oil Oil
Figure 9.14: Flash and differential expansion of ﬂuid samples.
Note that the ﬂash expansion experiment does not change the overall hydrocarbon compo
sition in the cell while in the differential liberation experiment, at each stage, depletion gas is
liberated physically and removed from the cell. Therefore, there is a continous compositional
change in the PVTcell. The remaining hydrocarbones are becoming progressively richer in
heavier components and the average molecular weight is increasing. Consequently ﬂash ex
pansion leaves smaller oil volumes then differential expansion.
Reservoir production is most likely reproduced by a nonisothermal differential expansion,
where multistage separation at the surface is commonly used because differential liberation
will normally yield a larger ﬁnal volume of equilibrium oil than the corresponding ﬂash expan
sion.
150 Chapter 9. Properties of Reservoir Fluids
9.8 Exercises
1. Calculate the density expressed in SIunits,
– for a crude oil API gravity of 57.2 and
– for a natural gas API gravity of 70.7,
when water density is 1000 kg/m
3
at standard condition (1 atm. and 20
0
C).
2. A gas consists of 50% – 50% mixture by weight of two hydrocarbons. The pressure
is increased isothermally until two phases appear. The liquid phase consists of 40%
by weight of the more volatile component and the vapour phase 65% by weight of this
component. What are the weight functions of the liquid and the vapour phase?
3. The following data are obtained in a PVT analysis at 90
0
C.
Pressure [bar] 276 207 172 138 103
Celle (system) volume [cm
3
] 404 408 410 430 450
a) Estimate the bubble point pressure.
The system is recompressed, expanded to 138 bar and the free gas is removed at constant
pressure and then measured by further expansion to standard condition. The contained
liquid volume is 388 cm
3
and the measured gas volume (at 1 atm. and 15.6
0
C) is 5.275
litres.
The pressure is reduced to normal condition, as above, and residual liquid volume is
found to be 295 cm
3
and the liberated gas volume is 21 litres.
Estimate the following PVT parameters,
b) c
o
, liquid compressibility at 207 bar,
c) B
o
factor at 207 bar,
d) B
o
and R
s
at 172 bar and 138 bar and
e) B
g
and z at 138 bar.
4. Calculate the gasoil capillary pressure for the following reservoir:
Gas saturation [%] Elevation [ft]
75 5420
50 5424
25 5426
0 5428
Additional data:
Oil API gravity; 45.1
Gas speciﬁc gravity; 0.65
Oil formation volume factor; 1.18 RB/STB
Gas formation volume factor; 0.0025 RB/SCF
Solution gasoil ratio; 480 SCF/STB
9.8 Exercises 151
Answers to questions:
1. 749.5 kg/m
3
, 699.8 kg/m
3
, 2. 2/3, 3. a) 172 bar, b) 14.1 10
−5
bar
−1
,
c) 1.383 Rm
3
/Sm
3
, d)1.3898 Rm
3
/Sm
3
, 1.315 Rm
3
/Sm
3
,
89.07 Sm
3
/Sm
3
, 71.2 Sm
3
/Sm
3
, e) 0.0079 Rm
3
/Sm
3
, 0.887 4. ρ
o
= 735.5 kg/Rm
3
, ρ
g
= 55.7
kg/Rm
3
.
152 Chapter 9. Properties of Reservoir Fluids
Part II
Reservoir Parameter Estimation
Methods
153
Chapter 10
Material Balance Equation
10.1 Introduction
The basic principle behind the Material Balance Equation is very fundamental:
The mass of hydrocarbons (HC) initially in place is equal to sum of the mass
produced and the mass still remaining in the reservoir,
M
i
=∆M+M.
In material balance calculations we implicitly consider the reservoir as being a tank of
constant volume. The pressure in this tank is deﬁned by the volumetric average pressure,
p =
1
V
i
V
i
pdV,
where V
i
is the initial hydrocarbone volume, i.e. the hydrocarbon pore volume (HCPV).
If we assume the ﬂuid density in the reservoir to be constant during the depletion process,
i.e. ρ ∼constant, we may write the mass conservation law in terms of volume conservation,
V
i
−V =∆V when p
i
→p. (10.1)
Eq.(10.1) is often referred to as the golden principle, where
Expansion = Production.
Even though material balance techniques use crude approximations of the reservoir, with
limited reference to local information, their application and use have proven to be of great
importance in various situations. Being simple in principle, methods based on the material
balance equation are commonly used in the following cases:
• Extrapolation of production curves for oil, water and gas (production decline curve anal
ysis).
• Identiﬁcation of the drive mechanism.
• History matching.
In this chapter we will develop the Material Balance Equation for a general oil and gas
reservoir and illustrate the use of the equation by various examples.
155
156 Chapter 10. Material Balance Equation
10.2 Dry gas expansion
Let us consider a dry gas reservoir where the production is modelled using material balance
calculations. The HCPVis constant in absence of water inﬂux. The production of gas at surface
conditions is G
p
.
The material balance equation given by Eq.(10.1) is slightly redeﬁned where the volumeof
gas in the reservoir initially in place is obviously equal to the volumeof gas in the reservoir at
a given pressure p,
G B
gi
= (G−G
p
)B
g
, (10.2)
where the following deﬁnitions are used,
G: resources of gas initially in place, [Sm
3
],
G
p
: cumulative volume of gas produced, [Sm
3
],
B
gi
: initial gas formation volume factor, [Sm
3
/Rm
3
] and
B
g
: gas formation volume factor at current reservoir pressure, [Sm
3
/Rm
3
].
The relation presented in Eq.(10.2) is illustrated in Fig. 10.1, where the purpose is to visu
alise the transformation of gas volume under reservoir condition to surface conditions. When
a surface volume of G
p
has been produced, the volume of gas left in the reservoir isG−G
p
,
in standard units. At a reservoir pressure p, the volume occupied by the gas in the reservoir, is
equal to (G−G
p
)B
gp
, i.e Eq.(10.2).
G B
gi G [Sm ]
3
p p
n
(GG )B
p g
GG
p
G
p
Figure 10.1: Volume transformation using volume formation factors.
It follows from Eq.(10.2) that,
B
gi
B
g
= 1−
G
p
G
. (10.3)
Using the equation of state for a real gas pV = znRT, and assuming isothermal conditions
of production one can obtain the relations,
B
gi
=
V
i
V
n
=
p
zT
n
zT
p
i
and
10.3 A general oil reservoir 157
B
g
=
V
p
V
n
=
p
zT
n
zT
p
p
,
where the indices i and p refer to the initial and current pressures respectively .
Eq.(10.3) can now be written,
p
z
=
p
z
i
1−
G
p
G
. (10.4)
Using Eq.(10.4), p/z vs. cumulative gas production exhibits a straight line trend, allowing
us to estimate the resources of gas, as shown in Fig. 10.2. Two important characteristics are
displayed by plotting the data as shown in the ﬁgure. When the data follows a linear trend, this
serves as a proof for the assumption of no or negligible water inﬂux during gas production and
that the main driving force behind the production is gas expansion. Secondly, when a straight
line is ﬁtted through the data, the intersection point with the xaxis gives us an estimate for
initial gas in place, G.
G
G
p
0
p
z
( )
i
Figure 10.2: Gas reservoir exhibiting a straight line trend in p/z vs.
cumulative gas production.
10.3 A general oil reservoir
In a general oil reservoir, hydrocarbons will be represented as oil and/or gas. Dependent on
the composition of the ﬂuid, reservoir temperature and initial pressure, there may exist a gas
cap above the oil zone, as schematically indicated in Fig. 10.3. The gas in the gas cap is in
equilibrium with the oil in the oil zone and the volume part of the reservoir occupied by gas
relative to oil is constant.
The following nomenclature is used in the derivation of the material balance equation:
HCPV: Part of pore volume occupied by hydrocarbons.
N: Resources of oil (initial oil in place) inSm
3
.
m: Ratio between the resources of gas in the gas cap and resources of oil in the oil zone
measured at reservoir conditions.
158 Chapter 10. Material Balance Equation
Gas cap
Oil zone
Oil zone
mNB
oi
(Rm )
3
NB
oi
(Rm )
3
Gas cap
C
B
A
Initial reservoir
conditions
Current reservoir
conditions
A, B, C  produced volumes
Figure 10.3: Oil reservoir with a gas cap: Illustration of material bal
ance.
mNB
oi
: Resources of gas (initial gas in place) inRm
3
.
N
p
: Volume of oil produced in Sm
3
.
Production from the oil reservoir (with a gas cap, see Fig. 10.3) is explained as expansion
of the oil zone, volume  A, expansion of the gas cap, volume  B and as expansion of initial
water present plus reduction of pore volume due to expansion of reservoir formation matrix and
possible reduction of bulk volume, volume  C. In dealing with the development of the material
balance equation, it is therefore convenient to break up the expansion term into its components.
Note that we are here considering underground withdrawal of hydrocarbon ﬂuids, measured in
Rm
3
.
A1: Expansion of oil.
A2: Expansion of originally dissolved gas.
B: Expansion of gas cap gas.
C: Reduction in HCPV due to expansion of connate water and reduction of pore volume.
Reservoir expansion is equal to production, hence: ∆V
prod
= A1 + A2 + B + C.
10.3.1 A1: Expansion of oil
The oil (liquid phase) expansion at reservoir condition can be deﬁned as,
V
o
(p) −V
o
(p
i
) =∆V
o
(p).
Here V
o
(p
i
) is the oil volume at initial conditions andV
o
(p) is the volume of the oil initial in
place at pressure p, see Fig. 10.4. ∆V
o
is the volume oil produced at reservoir pressure p.
10.3 A general oil reservoir 159
p p
i
∆V
o
V
o
Figure 10.4: Expansion of oil at reservoir pressure.
Oil expansion is written,
∆V
o
= N B
o
−N B
oi
= N(B
o
−B
oi
), (10.5)
where ∆V
o
is measured in Rm
3
. N is the initial oil in place [Sm
3
] and is deﬁned; N =V
p
(1−
S
w
)/B
oi
, where S
w
is the average water saturation andV
p
the pore volume.
10.3.2 A2: Expansion of originally dissolved gas
At initial conditions oil and gas in the gas cap are in mutual equilibrium . Reducing the pressure
below the bubble point pressure, p
b
will cause the liberation of solution gas.
The total amount of solution gas in the oil is NR
si
, measured in surface volumes. The
amount of gas still dissolved in the oil at current reservoir pressure and temperature isNR
s
,
also in surface volumes. Therefore, the gas volume liberated during the pressure drop, fromp
i
to p, is,
NR
si
−NR
s
= N(R
si
−R
s
).
This gas volume is measured at surface condition, but since we want to express all expanded
volumes at reservoir condition, we have to multiply the surface volume by the volume factor
for gas at reservoir pressure, i.e. B
g
,
∆V
og
= N(R
si
−R
s
)B
g
. (10.6)
10.3.3 B: Expansion of gas cap gas
The expansion of gas cap gas follows the same principle as observed for the expansion/production
of dry gas given by Eq.(10.2),
GB
gi
= (G−G
p
)B
g
.
The total volume of the gas cap as part of the oil volume in the reservoir, measured at
reservoir condition,
GB
gi
= mNB
oi
.
The gas production at current reservoir pressure is then,
160 Chapter 10. Material Balance Equation
G
p
B
g
=
mNB
oi
B
gi
(B
g
−B
gi
).
The expansion of the gas cap (in reservoir volumes) is therefore written,
∆V
gg
= mNB
oi
B
g
B
gi
−1
. (10.7)
10.3.4 C: Reduction in HCPV due to expansion of connate water and reduction
of pore volume
Reduction in HCPV due to expansion of connate water and reduction of pore volume is in
practice equal to the increased production by the same volume. Expansion of connate water
and reduction of pore volume are controlled by the compressibility of water and pore volumes,
i.e. c
w
and c
p
.
The HCPV compressibility as the compressibility for connate water and formation matrix
are deﬁned in accordance with the general law of thermal compressibility,
c =
1
V
∆V
∆p
⇒ ∆V = cV∆p,
where the absolute volume change in the HC pore space due to expansion of connate water and
reduction of pore volume is,
∆V
HCPV
=∆V
w
+∆V
p
.
∆V
w
and ∆V
p
are the volume changes due to expansion of connate water and that due to
reduction in pore volume, respectively.
Using the deﬁnition of compressibility, we get,
∆V
HCPV
= c
w
V
w
∆p+c
p
V
p
∆p.
From previous considerations, we found that: V
w
= S
w
V
p
and V
p
=V
HCPV
/(1−S
w
) and we
get,
∆V
HCPV
=V
HCPV
c
w
S
w
+c
p
1−S
w
∆p,
where the pore volume compressibility is; c
p
= (c
b
−(1+φ)c
r
)/φ and V
HCPV
=V
o
+V
g
=
NB
oi
+mNB
oi
= (1+m)NB
oi
.
The volume expansion due to initial water and reduction in the pore volume, gives the
expansion of the HCPV or volume C,
∆V
HCPV
= (1+m)NB
oi
c
w
S
w
+c
p
1−S
w
∆p. (10.8)
10.4 The material balance equation 161
10.3.5 Production terms
The production of oil and gas at surface conditions is, N
p
+G
p
. The expansion volumes,
A1, A2, B and C, are measured at reservoir conditions. In order to compare the two types of
volumes, we have to transform the production volumes to reservoir volumes, i.e. N
p
B
o
+G
p
B
g
.
Using the relation between gas and oil produced at standard condition, Eqs.(9.1) to (9.4),
G
p
= (R−R
s
)N
p
,
where R is the gasoil ratio (GOR) and R
s
is the solution gasoil ratio.
We can now write the overall production term as,
∆V
prod
= N
p
[B
o
+(R−R
s
)B
g
]. (10.9)
10.4 The material balance equation
Combining Eqs.(10.5) to (10.9) we can write the material balance equation for a general oil
reservoir,
N
p
[B
o
+(R−R
s
)B
g
] = NB
oi
¸
(B
o
−B
oi
) +(R
si
−R
s
)B
g
B
oi
+
m(
B
g
B
gi
−1) +(1+m)(
c
w
S
w
+c
p
1−S
w
)∆p
+(W
e
−W
p
)B
w
. (10.10)
(W
e
−W
p
)B
w
on the righthand side of Eq.(10.10) accounts for water inﬂux into the reservoir
and production of water, respectively.
It is important to notice under which circumstances the material balance equation is devel
oped. The equation gives a static representation of the reservoir and does not include any terms
describing the energy loss in the reservoir due to ﬂuid ﬂow behaviour. The following features
of the MBE should be noted:
• MBE generally exhibits a lack of time dependence although the water inﬂux has a time
dependence.
• Although the pressure only appears explicitly in the water and pore volume compress
ibility terms, it is implicit in all the other terms of Eq.(10.10) since the PVT parameters
B
o
, R
s
and B
g
are functions of pressure. The water inﬂux is also pressure dependent.
• Eq.(10.10) is evaluated, in the way it was derived, by comparing the current volumes at
pressure p to the original volumes at p
i
. Note that the material balance equation is not
evaluated in a stepwise or differential fashion.
10.5 Linearized material balance equation
The linearized material balance equation is particular interesting in connection with reservoir
parameter estimation. Results published in 196364 by Havlena and Odeh opened a wide range
162 Chapter 10. Material Balance Equation
of applications of the MBE to reservoir engineering [33, 34]. The linear form of equation
(10.10) is,
F = N(E
o
+mE
g
+E
c
) +W
e
B
w
, (10.11)
where the following deﬁnitions are used:
The underground withdrawal:
F = N
p
[B
o
+(R−R
s
)B
g
] +W
p
B
w
Expansion of oil and its originally dissolved gas:
E
o
= (B
o
−B
oi
) +(R
si
−R
s
)B
g
Expansion of the gas cap gas:
E
g
= B
oi
B
g
B
gi
−1
Expansion of the connate water and reduction of pore volume:
E
c
= (1+m)
c
w
S
w
+c
p
1−S
w
B
oi
∆p
Eq.(10.11) is especially important for revealing the drive mechanism of the reservoir and
for estimation of initial oil and gas.
10.6 Dissolved gas expansion drive
Fluid samples taken from an oil reservoir, indicate a reservoir pressure larger than the bubble
point pressure, i.e. p > p
b
. From this information alone, important deductions are made:
1. The reservoir ﬂuid exists in only one phase, as undersaturated oil.
2. Production is driven by expansion of undersaturated oil.
3. No gas cap can exist.
4. All produced gas comes from the oil, i.e. R
si
= R
s
= R.
5. Production of oil is controlled by compressibility of oil, water and formation.
With these restrictions in mind, a simpliﬁed material balance equation is written,
N
p
B
o
= NB
oi
¸
B
o
−B
oi
B
oi
+
c
w
S
w
+c
p
1−S
w
∆p
.
We have seen earlier that the slow decline of the volume factorB
o
, for increasing pressures
higher than the bubble point pressure, is described by the law of compressibility,
10.6 Dissolved gas expansion drive 163
c
o
=
1
V
o
∆V
o
∆p
,
where we may use the deﬁnitions; ∆p = p
i
−p, V
o
=V
on
B
oi
and ∆V
o
=V
on
(B
o
−B
oi
). Note the
notation: N =V
on
, in accordance with Fig. 9.12.
Oil compressibility is therefore written,
c
o
=
1
V
on
B
oi
V
on
(B
o
−B
oi
)
∆p
=
B
o
−B
oi
B
oi
1
∆p
, (10.12)
and the simpliﬁed material balance equation above is therefore,
N
p
B
o
= NB
oi
¸
c
o
S
o
+c
w
S
w
+c
p
1−S
w
∆p
.
By introducing a total compressibility; c
t
= c
o
S
o
+c
w
S
w
+c
p
, we may write the equation
above,
N
p
B
o
= N B
oi
c
t
1−S
w
∆p, (10.13)
and by introducing the reservoir pore volume using the expression,V
p
S
o
=N B
oi
, we may ﬁnd
a simple relation between produced oil, N
p
and observed pressure drop, ∆p given by,
N
p
=
V
p
c
t
B
o
∆p.
The linear relationship between oil production N
p
and pressure drop ∆p can be used to
estimate unknown reservoir parameters such as pore volume V
p
or total compressibility c
t
.
Fig. 10.5 shows a linear representation of the data, used to determineV
p
and c
t
.
N
p
∆p
Figure 10.5: Reservoir parameter estimation for dissolved gas ex
pansion data.
164 Chapter 10. Material Balance Equation
c
w
= 3 10
−6
psi
−1
p
i
= 4000 psi B
oi
= 1.2417 RB/STB
c
p
= 8.6 10
−6
psi
−1
p
b
= 3330 psi B
ob
= 1.2511 RB/STB
S
w
= 0.2
Example: Oil recovery factor at bubble point pressure
An undersaturated oil reservoir has been produced down to its bubble point pres
sure. What is the oil recovery at this time when the following parameters are
given?
From Eq.(10.13) we may write,
N
p
N
=
B
oi
B
ob
c
t
∆p
1−S
w
,
where c
t
= c
o
S
o
+c
w
S
w
+c
p
. Using Eq.(10.12) we have the total compressibility,
c
t
=
B
ob
−B
oi
B
oi
∆p
(1−S
w
) +c
w
S
w
+c
p
.
Inserting for the numbers from the table above, we ﬁnd the total compressibil
ity; c
t
= 18.24 10
−6
psi
−1
, and the relative production becomes,
N
p
N
3330psi
= 0.01516,
which gives an oil recovery at the bubble point pressure equal to 1.5%.
.
After some time with continuous production, the reservoir pressure will ﬁnally decrease
below bubble point pressure. When this happens, gas is produced in the reservoir and the
expansion of this gas will become increasingly important for the process of oil production. The
material balance equation Eq.(10.10) can now be expressed as,
N
p
[B
o
+(R−R
s
)B
g
] = N
¸
(B
o
−B
oi
) +(R
si
−R
s
)B
g
+
c
w
S
w
+c
p
1−S
w
∆p
.
When we consider the signiﬁcance of the different expansion factors, we may assume the
gas expansion to be gradually more important than the expansion due to compressibility of
initial water and the formation. Consequently, we may neglect the compressibility term and
write the simpliﬁed material balance equation as,
N
p
[B
o
+(R−R
s
)B
g
] ≈N[(B
o
−B
oi
) +(R
si
−R
s
)B
g
]. (10.14)
The use of this approximate equation is justiﬁed through a comparison of the different
volumes A and C in Fig. 10.3. For reservoir pressures p < p
b
, we will ﬁnd that A C in all
practical cases.
10.7 Gas cap expansion drive 165
R
si
(4000psi) = 510 SCF/STB B
g
(900psi) = 0.00339 RB/SCF
R
s
(900psi) = 122 SCF/STB B
o
(900psi) = 1.0940 RB/STB
Example: Oil recovery below the bubble point pressure
Using the same example as above, we can now calculate the oil recovery down to
a pressure p = 900psi,where the volume factors are given:
The solution gas produced in the reservoir will change the compressibility in
the reservoir drastically. The formula for gas compressibility can be given by
c
g
= 1/V(∆V/∆p), indicating a gas compressibility of c
g
·300 10
−6
psi
−1
. This
is about 15 times larger than the total compressibility at pressures above the bubble
point pressure.
From this simple consideration we may assume all compressibility terms in the
material balance equation, Eq.(10.10), to be negligible compared to the solution
gas compressibility. We may therefore use the approximation Eq.(10.14),
N
p
N
=
(B
o
−B
oi
) +(R
si
−R
s
)B
g
B
o
+(R−R
s
)B
g
,
where R is the gasoil ratio (GOR).
Using the numbers from the tables above, we ﬁnd the oil recovery equal to,
N
p
N
900psi
=
344.4
R+200.7
. (10.15)
In order to numerically deﬁne the oil recovery, information about the GOR is
necessary. On the other hand it is quite obvious that oil recovery is maximised
when R is kept as small as possible, i.e. gas should remain in the reservoir if oil
production is to be optimized.
.
From the example above we may state an improtant production strategy for oil reservoirs,
namely that:
All production should come from the oil zone.
Since the gas is considered as the driving force in the reservoir production, it should, if
possible be produced after the oil is produced. If the gas is produced ﬁrst, we will not only
loose some of the driving force, but the oil will also be smeared out due to the withdrawal of
the gas zone. This oil, due to capillary effects, is most probably lost.
10.7 Gas cap expansion drive
The presence of a gas cap at initial conditions indicates a saturated oil in equilibrium with
the gas. As learned from the example above, production of gas should be minimised since
gas acts as the driving force behind oil production. The wells should therefore be drilled and
166 Chapter 10. Material Balance Equation
completed with the purposed of optimising oil production, keeping as much gas in the reservoir
as possible.
When a gas cap is discovered in connection with an oil reservoir, we can safely neglect
all terms in the material balance equation, Eq.(10.10), containing expansion of connate water
or formation matrix. In the case of gas cap expansion drive we therefore get the somewhat
simpliﬁed material balance equation,
N
p
[B
o
+(R−R
s
)B
g
] =
NB
oi
¸
(B
o
−B
oi
) +(R
si
−R
s
)B
g
B
oi
+m(
B
g
B
gi
−1)
+(W
e
−W
p
)B
w
,
where the linearized material balance equation is,
F = N(E
o
+mE
g
) +W
e
B
w
.
If we could assume no water inﬂux during oil production, i.e. W
e
= 0, the linearized mate
rial balance equation could then be written,
F
E
o
= N +mN
E
g
E
o
, (10.16)
which clearly indicates the advantage with linearization, wheremN is the slope and N is the
constant term (N is the intersection point with the yaxis). The assumption of negligible water
inﬂux is rather plausible for reservoirs with a gas cap since the expansion of initial water and
formation matrix is small compared to the expansion of gas cap gas, unless the aquifer size is
large compared to the oil reservoir.
Example: Linearization of material balance equation
The pressure decline in a saturated oil reservoir with a gas cap is driven by ex
pansion of liberated solution gas E
o
, and gas cap expansion E
g
, as presented in
Eq.(10.16).
In order to estimate initial oil in place N, and the size of the gas cap mN, we
need to know the production data, like produced oil volume at surface condition
N
p
, in addition to the gasoil ratio R. Further information is also acquired with
respect to the different volume factors B
o
, B
g
and R
s
.
The linearized terms used in Eq.(10.16) are deﬁned as below,
F = N
p
[B
o
+(R−R
s
)B
g
],
E
o
= (B
o
−B
oi
) +(R
si
−R
s
)B
g
,
E
g
= B
oi
(
B
g
B
gi
−1),
where we assume no water production or water inﬂux.
For an oil reservoir with a gas cap, we have the following data,
The data in the table above is plotted in Fig. 10.6 which shows a linearization ﬁt
taking into account all data points. From the ﬁgure we ﬁnd the initial oil volume
10.8 Water inﬂux 167
p [psia] F/E
o
10
6
[STB] E
g
/E
o
3150 398.8 4.94
3000 371.8 4.51
2850 368.5 4.29
2700 355.7 4.25
2550 340.6 3.99
2400 340.7 3.93
0 1 2 3 4 5
E
g
/E
o
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
F/E
o
[STB]
Measurements
Linear fit
Figure 10.6: Extrapolation of lineraized gas cap expansion data.
Note that the units on the y axis (F/E
o
) is given in
10
6
STB.
to be N = 109.5 10
6
STB and the slope or gas cap size mN = 58.7 10
6
STB,
indicating a fractional gas cap size of m = 0.54.
.
10.8 Water inﬂux
Water inﬂux is more the rule, than the exception for normal oil and gas production, i.e. we
expect some inﬂux of water to be present in all situations where reservoir production takes
place over some period of time.
Generally we may expect the inﬂux of water to be both time and pressure dependent and
we write,
W
e
= f (p, t),
where f is some function which will depend on the reservoir and the extent and volume of the
aquifer itself.
168 Chapter 10. Material Balance Equation
This picture could be clariﬁed by considering a reservoir model, as shown in Fig. 10.7,
where the periphery pressure (pressure near the boundary) in the aquifer zone is equal top
e
.
The pressure difference induced, will then cause water to ﬂow into the reservoir volume. This
ﬂow will obey Darcy’s law,
q
w
=C(p
e
−p),
where C is a constant depending on the various reservoir parameters.
r
e
p
p
e
q
w
q
w
q
w
q
w
q
w
Figure 10.7: Water inﬂux from external aquifer.
The cumulative water inﬂux can be found by integrating over the time this process takes
place,
W
e
=
t
0
q
w
dt ·
∑
i
q
i
∆t
i
=C
∑
i
∆p
i
∆t
i
.
In the equation above we move from a continuous case to a discrete case by summing over
all pressure drops ∆p for all time periods ∆t.
The use of this equation is important when real data is supposed to be ﬁtted in accordance
with a material balance model. The constant C is adjusted in such a way as to secure the match
between the model and the real data.
Example: Pressure maintenance through water injection
In an attempt to maintain the reservoir pressure we may inject water into the reser
voir. Injection water rate will be proportional to the oil production rate and the
following simpliﬁed material balance equation is applied,
N
p
[B
o
+(R−R
s
)B
g
] =W
p
B
w
.
Key data for a typical oil reservoir is,
N
p
= 10000 STB B
o
= 1.2002 RB/STB R = 3000 SCF/STB
B
g
= 0.00107 RB/SCF R
s
= 401 SCF/STB
10.8 Water inﬂux 169
If pressure is maintained, we can conclude from the data above that the relation
between produced oil and injected water has to be,
W
p
= 4.0N
p
,
measured in [STB].
.
170 Chapter 10. Material Balance Equation
10.9 Exercises
1. The following PVTdata is used in material balance calculations.
p [psia] B
o
R
s
B
g
4000 1.2417 510 –
3500 1.2480 510 –
3330 1.2511 510 0.00087
3000 1.2222 450 0.00096
2700 1.2022 401 0.00107
2400 1.1822 352 0.00119
2100 1.1633 304 0.00137
1800 1.1450 257 0.00161
1500 1.1115 214 0.00196
1200 1.0940 167 0.00249
900 1.0940 122 0.00339
600 1.0763 78 0.00519
300 1.0583 35 0.01066
a) Find the recovery N
p
/N, when the pressure decreases from p
i
= 4000 psia to the
bubble point, p = p
b
.
Compressibility is given; c
w
= 3.0 10
−6
psi
−1
, c
p
= 8.6 10
−6
psi
−1
and connate
water saturation is S
wc
= 0.2.
b) Calculate the recovery N
p
/N for declining pressure, from p
i
= 4000 psia to p =
600 psia.
What is the gas saturation at 600psia, when R = 1000 SCF/STB ?
c) The oil rate is 10000 STB/d at pressure p = 2700 psia and the gasoil ratio is R =
3000SCF/STB.
What is the injection water rate necessary to maintain the production at p=2700
psia ? Use B
w
= 1.0RB/STB.
2. For an oil reservoir with gas cap, the water injection rate is not known. The material
balance equation with no water production is,
N =
N
p
[B
t
+B
g
(R−R
si
)] −W
i
B
w
(B
t
−B
oi
) +(B
g
−B
gi
)mB
oi
/B
gi
,
where B
t
= B
o
+(R
si
−R
s
)B
g
and W
i
is the water volume injected given in STB.
a) Calculate the initial oil in place and the size of the gas cap when the following PVT
and production data is given.
The boiling point pressure is 1850 psia.
10.9 Exercises 171
p [psia] 1850 1600 1300 1000
R
s
[SCF/STB] 690 621 535 494
B
o
[RB/STB] 1.363 1.333 1.300 1.258
B
g
[RB/SCF] 0.00124 0.00150 0.00190 0.00250
B
t
[RB/STB] 1.363 1.437 1.594 1.748
ρ
o
[psi/ft] 0.3014 0.3049 0.3090 0.3132
N
p
[STB] – 3.1 10
8
5.5 10
8
5.9 10
8
R [SCF/STB] – 1100 1350 1800
W
i
[STB] – 1.594 10
8
2.614 10
8
3.12 10
8
Water saturation is 0.24, porosity is 0.17 and the water volume factor is approxi
mately 1.0 RB/STB.
b) Geological information indicates that the reservoir could be approximated to a right
circular cone. Calculate the height of the cone when the pressure at the bottom
level of the oil zone (cone) is 1919 psia ( –the wateroil contact). [Volume of a
right circular cone is πr
2
h/3].
3. Deﬁne an expression giving the gasoil ratio, GOR [SCF/STB] in a reservoir with super
critical gas saturation.
Find the GOR using the following data;
µ
o
=0.8 cp B
o
=1.363 RB/STB
µ
g
=0.018 cp B
g
=0.001162 RB/SCF
k
o
=1000 mD R
s
= 500 SCF/STB
k
g
=96 mD
4. The data in the table below is taken form an oil reservoir.
p N
p
R B
o
R
s
B
g
[psia] [10
6
STB] [SCF/STB] [RB/STB] [SCF/STB] [RB/SCF]
3330 – – 1.2511 510 0.00087
3150 1.024 1050 1.2353 477 0.00092
3000 1.947 1060 1.2222 450 0.00096
2850 2.928 1160 1.2122 425 0.00101
2700 – – 1.2022 401 0.00107
a) First, assume there is no gas cap present and the production mechanism is dissolved
gas drive. Estimate the initial oil volume in the reservoir.
b) Estimate oil production at p = 2700 psia, by a method of comparing R, calculated
from the material balance equation and secondly calculated from the GOR– equa
tion (as done in Exercise 1),
R = R
s
+
k
g
k
o
B
o
µ
o
B
g
µ
g
.
A relation k
g
/k
o
exists experimentaly and the gas saturation dependency has been
established:
172 Chapter 10. Material Balance Equation
log(k
g
/k
o
) = 34.5 S
g
−2.54,
where S
wc
=0.30, µ
o
=1.0 cp and µ
g
=0.1 cp.
c) Data from an other well indicates the existence of a small gas cap. Calculate the
initial oil volume, in view of this new information.
Answer to questions:
1. a) 1.52%, b) 46%, 0.43, c) 39830 STB/d 2. a) 2.22 10
9
STB, 0.49, b) 738 ft, 3. 5505
SCF/STB,
4. a) 122.8 10
6
STB, b) by iteration c) 108.6 10
6
STB
Chapter 11
Well Test Analysis
11.1 Introduction
In order to optimise a development strategy for an oil or gas ﬁeld, we have to consider a reser
voir model capable of realistically predicting the dynamic behaviour of the ﬁeld in terms of
production rate and ﬂuid recovery. Such a model is constructed using geological, geophysical
and well data. The necessary parameters are obtained from direct measurements (cores, cut
tings, formation ﬂuid samples, etc.) and from interpreted data (surface seismic, well logs, well
tests, PVT analysis, etc.). While seismic data and well logs provide a static description of the
reservoir, only well testing data provide information on dynamic reservoir response. The well
test data is therefore a key element in the reservoir model construction, see Fig.11.1.
Geophysics
Interpretation
Reservoir
Engineering
Electric Log PVT, Core Well Test
Geophysical
Model
Log
Model
Well Test
Model
Reservoir Model
Measurement
Figure 11.1: Stages of reservoir modelling.
Interpretation of these data leads to individual "models" (what the geophysicist, the petro
physicist and well analyst think the reservoir looks like). A brief understanding of the fun
damental aspects of well testing is necessary in order to incorporate dynamic well test data
into the reservoir model and it is the function of the reservoir engineer to incorporate these
173
174 Chapter 11. Well Test Analysis
individual models into a cohesive reservoir model [50].
In the initial phase of well tests, pressure measurements are dominated by wellbore storage
effects. During this time, ﬂuid contained in the wellbore and its direct connected volumes are
produced. Then, as the production of the reservoir ﬂuid starts, the ﬂuid near the well expands
and moves towards the area of lower pressure. This movement will be retarded by friction
against the pore walls and the ﬂuid’s own inertia and viscosity. However, as the ﬂuid moves
it will, in turn, create a pressure imbalance and this will induce neighbouring ﬂuid to move
towards the well. This process continues until the drop in pressure, created by the startup
of production, is dissipated throughout the reservoir. The tail portion of the well test data for
the test of sufﬁcient duration, is affected by the interference from other wells or by boundary
effects such as those that occur when the pressure disturbance reaches the edge of a reservoir.
From this time and onwards, the average pressure in the reservoir will decrease in a way similar
to emptying a conﬁned volume, like a tank of gas.
In this chapter we will develop simple models that can explain the measured well test data.
The models give a rather simpliﬁed and idealistic view of the reservoir, characterised by:
• isotropic and homogenous reservoir volume,
• constant porosity,  absolute permeability,  viscosity and  reservoir height (reservoir
thickness),
• test production with relative small pressure gradients, i.e. c∇p ∇p is small (compress
ibility times pressure gradient squared) ,
• horizontal radial ﬂow paths (no cross ﬂow) and
• constant ﬂow rate.
Even though these items place tight restrictions on the reservoir itself, some important
information can be extracted from the models, explaining reservoir behaviour on basis of the
well test data.
The wellbore pressure data is subdivided into three different production periods, each de
scribing characteristic well and reservoir pressure response proﬁle:
1. Wellbore storage period. Production from the wellbore and nearby cavities.
2. Semi logarithmic period. Production from an inﬁnite acting reservoir where no bound
ary effects are observed.
3. Semi steady state period. Production from a conﬁned reservoir (closed volume) where
the interference from the boundary dominates pressure decline.
11.1.1 Systems of Uunits Used in Well Test Analysis
The following systems of units are traditionally used in well test analysis: SIUnits and Field
Units, as presented in Table 11.1.
Some conversion factors mostly used in well test analysis are listed below:
11.2 Wellbore Storage Period 175
Table 11.1: System of units used in well test analysis
Parameter Nomenclature SIunits Field units
Flow rate q Sm
3
/d STB/d
Volume factor B Rm
3
/Sm
3
RB/STB
Thickness h m ft
Permeability k µm
2
mD
Viscosity µ mPas cp
Pressure p kPa psia
Radial distance r m ft
Compressibility c (kPa)
−1
psi
−1
Time t hrs hrs
1 STB/d = 0.159 Sm
3
/d
1 ft = 0.3048 m
1 mD = 0.98710
−3
µm
2
1 cp = 1 mPas
1 psi = 6.895 kPa
11.2 Wellbore Storage Period
Let us consider the initiation of well production at a constant rate at timet
0
=0. First, the ﬂuids
contained in the wellbore itself and its continuous cavities will be produced. This production is
characterised by the expansion of oil and gas in the well, deﬁned by the ﬂuid compressibility,
c
f
and the well storage volume, V
w
.
The deﬁnition of the wellbore ﬂuid compressibility is c
f
= ∆V
w
/(V
w
∆p) and the well
ﬂowrate is qB = ∆V
w
/∆t, where the pressure drop in the well is, ∆p. (B is the wellbore ﬂuid
volume factor, measured in reservoir volume pr. standard volume.)
∆p =
qB
c
f
V
w
t, (11.1)
where ∆p = p
i
−p
w
(t) is the difference between initial and wellbore pressure.
The compressibility is often redeﬁned, where the wellbore storage, c
ws
= c
f
V
w
is used to
characterise particular wells.
Example: Wellbore storage effect
A well has a certain volume capacity for ﬂuids. A real well, with an average well
radius of r
w
= 0.1m, at a well depth of H = 2000m has a volume V
w
, accessible to
ﬂuids close to 17 m
3
.
176 Chapter 11. Well Test Analysis
t, hrs
10 10 10 10
3 2 1 0
Slope = 1
l
o
g
(

)
p
p
i
w
f
Figure 11.2: Logarithmic analysis of the pressure drawdown data at
early times of well testing, i.e. in the wellbore storage
period
If well production is measured in standard cubic meter pr. day [Sm
3
/d] and
time in hours [hr], the well pressure is then given by,
p
i
−p
w
=
qB
24c
ws
t,
and the logarithmic pressure difference can be given by,
log(p
i
−p
w
(t)) = log(t) +log
qB
24c
ws
,
where p
w
is the wellbore pressure.
The latter equation, in a logarithmic scale, exhibits the linear relation between
time and pressure drop. This straight line behaviour seen in Fig. 11.2, has a slope
equal to unity.
The technique of using loglog plots is commonly used in well test analysis for
model recognition, but also as here, for estimation of the wellbore storage constant
c
ws
:
c
ws
=
qB
24(p
i
−p
w
(1hr))
, (11.2)
with p
w
(1 hr) picked from the unit slope line.
.
When the well is opened (shutin) to ﬂow, it is opened at the surface. Due to the wellbore
storage, where the well itself contains a certain volume of compressible ﬂuid, there is a delay
in a ﬂowrate response at the sandface (bottom of the well), as seen in Fig. 11.3. This effect
must be incorporated into the interpretation model of the pressure test data.
11.3 Semi Logarithmic Period 177
q
t
t ∆
Sandface
flow rate
Surface flow rate
∆t
q
t
Sandface
flow rate
t
p
Surface flow rate
∆t
Figure 11.3: The wellbore storage effect on ﬂowrate during the
drawdown (left) and build up tests (right).
11.3 Semi Logarithmic Period
In this section we will focus our attention on what happens in the reservoir when the ﬂuid is
drawn towards the well due to the pressure drop in the wellbore. We shall develop a theory for
ﬂuid ﬂow in a cylindrical and somewhat idealistic reservoir (see introductory remarks). The
production proﬁle in this period is characterised by a semi logarithmic pressure dependence,
hence the title of this section.
11.3.1 Diffusivity Equation
Transport of oil in porous media is generally described by the law of continuity and Darcy’s
law. If we consider a volume element, as shown in Fig.11.4, we may deﬁne the ﬂow of oil in
the xdirection by the equations,
d(ρv
x
)
dx
= −
∂(φρ)
∂t
,
v
x
= −
k
µ
dp
dx
.
where ρ is density, φ is porosity, µ is viscosity, k is permeability and v
x
is ﬂow velocity in
xdirection.
Using an independent coordinate system, we may write the same equations as,
∇ (ρv) = −
∂(φρ)
dt
,
v = −
k
µ
∇p,
Substituting these two equations gives us,
∇
ρ
k
µ
∇p
=
∂(φρ)
∂t
. (11.3)
178 Chapter 11. Well Test Analysis
v
x
v
x+ x ∆
x x
x+ x ∆
p
x
p
x+ x ∆
Figure 11.4: Flow of oil in the xdirection through a volume element.
In accordance with an idealistic view of the reservoir, as mentioned above, we will consider
both permeability and viscosity to be constant, while oil density and reservoir porosity may
vary with pressure, i.e. ρ = ρ(p) and φ = φ(p). From these relations we can deﬁne the liquid
compressibility as well as the matrix compressibility as,
c
l
=
1
ρ
∂ρ
∂ p
and c
m
=
1
φ
∂φ
∂ p
.
Eq.(11.3) is further developed using the newly deﬁned compressibilities, c
l
and c
m
, and we
write,
c
l
∇p∇p+∇
2
p =
1
η
∂ p
∂t
, (11.4)
where η = k/(φcµ) and c = c
l
+c
m
, where c is the total compressibility.
Further simpliﬁcation of Eq.(11.4) rests on the assumption that c
l
∇p∇p <[∇
2
p[, which
is the case in almost all real cases. With this last simpliﬁcation in mind, we can write the
Diffusitivity equation (independent of coordinate systems),
∇
2
p =
1
η
∂ p
∂t
. (11.5)
The diffusitivity equation in cylindrical coordinates gives,
1
r
∂
∂r
r
∂ p
∂r
+
∂
2
∂z
2
=
1
η
∂ p
∂t
. (11.6)
With no crossﬂow in the reservoir, the linearized diffusitivity equation is written,
1
r
∂
∂r
r
∂ p
∂r
=
1
η
∂ p
∂t
. (11.7)
11.3.2 Solution of the Diffusitivity Equation
The solution of the diffusivity equation can be simpliﬁed by usingthe linear source approxi
mation implicating a zero wellbore radius. In case of a constant ﬂow rate the following Initial
and Boundary condition are deﬁned. Initial conditions are described by the pressure startup
conditions in the reservoir, while the boundary condition is deduced from Darcy’s law.
11.3 Semi Logarithmic Period 179
Initial condition:
i) p(r, 0) = p
i
, ∀r,
ii) lim
r→∞
= p
i
, ∀t.
Boundary condition:
r
∂ p
∂r
r=r
w
=
qBµ
2πhk
, ∀t > 0,
Linesource solution: lim
r→∞
r
∂ p
∂r
=
qBµ
2πhk
, ∀t. > 0
In solving the linear diffusitivity Eq.(11.7) we may use the well known Boltzmann trans
formation,
y =
r
2
4t
,
which gives the following partial derivatives:
∂r = (r/2y)∂y and ∂t =−(t/y)∂y.
When the Boltzmann transformation is applied to Eq.(11.7), the variable of time is made
implicit and the diffusivity equation is reduced to only one variable,
∂
∂y
y
∂ p
∂y
=
y
η
∂ p
∂y
. (11.8)
We may solve Eq.(11.8), by direct integration and we get,
y
∂ p
∂y
= K
3
e
−r
2
/(4ηt)
,
where K
3
is a constant that could be deﬁned, using the boundary condition for the linesource
solution, i.e. K
3
= (qBµ)/(4πhk).
Second integration of Eq.(11.8), gives the following expression,
p
i
−p(r, t) =
qBµ
4πhk
∞
r
2
/(4ηt)
e
−s
s
ds. (11.9)
The integral in Eq.(11.9) is known as the Exponential integral and is originally deﬁned as,
Ei(ξ) ≡
ξ
−∞
e
s
s
ds,
−Ei(−ξ) =
∞
ξ
e
−s
s
ds.
The general solution of the linear diffusitivity equation, Eq.(11.7), can then be presented
as,
p
i
−p(r, t) =
qBµ
4πhk
¸
−Ei
−
r
2
4ηt
, (11.10)
where η = k/(φµc).
Values of the function −Ei(−ξ) is tabulated in Table 11.2.
180 Chapter 11. Well Test Analysis
Table 11.2: Table of the function Ei(ξ) for 0.01 ≤ξ ≤ 10.
ξ [−Ei(−ξ)] ξ [−Ei(−ξ)] ξ [−Ei(−ξ)] ξ [−Ei(−ξ)]
0.01 4.0379 0.12 1.6595 0.35 0.7942 0.90 0.2602
0.02 3.3547 0.14 1.5241 0.40 0.7024 1.00 0.2194
0.03 2.9591 0.16 1.4092 0.45 0.6253 1.50 0.1000
0.04 2.6813 0.18 1.3098 0.50 0.5598 2.00 0.0489
0.05 2.4679 0.20 1.2227 0.55 0.5034 2.50 0.0249
0.06 2.2953 0.22 1.1454 0.60 0.4544 3.00 0.0130
0.07 2.1508 0.24 1.0762 0.65 0.4115 4.00 0.0038
0.08 2.0269 0.26 1.0139 0.70 0.3738 5.00 0.0011
0.09 1.9187 0.28 0.9573 0.75 0.3403 7.00 0.0001
0.10 1.8229 0.30 0.9057 0.80 0.3106 10.00 0.0000
11.3.3 Gas Reservoir
The general form of the basic (material balance) equation, given by Eq. (11.7), is valid for both
liquid and gas ﬂow. In the case of more compressible ﬂuids, like gases, some modiﬁcations are
necessary in order to use the diffusivity equation.
Attempting to obtain a linear type of the diffusivity equation for a highly compressible gas
ﬂow, AlHussainy, Ramey and Crawford (1966), replaced the dependent variable p by the real
gas pseudo pressure m(p) in the following manner,
m(p) = 2
p
p
b
p
µz
dp, (11.11)
where p
b
is an arbitrary (datum) pressure.
Using the equation of state for a real gas,
ρ =
Mp
zRT
,
and a pseudo pressure function m(p) from Eq.(11.11) they derived a simpliﬁed linear equation
for a real gas ﬂow:
1
r
∂
∂r
(r
∂m(p)
∂r
) =
1
η
∂m(p)
∂t
, (11.12)
which is precisely the same as Eq.(11.7) where the term p is replaced by a pseudo pressure
function m(p).
It follows from Eq.(11.12) that the behaviour of m(p) vs. time in gas well testing should
have identical trends as pressure vs. time in oil well testing. This fact is commonly used in a
gas well test analysis.
11.3 Semi Logarithmic Period 181
11.3.4 The Solution of the Diffusitivity Equation in Dimensionless Form
In connection with model recognition and practical application of the well test data it is quite
often advantageous to plot the measured data in such a way as to initially compare it with
a standard and well known function. It is therefore convenient to introduce dimensionless
variables, such as,
r
D
=
r
r
w
,
t
D
=
kt
φµcr
2
w
,
p
D
=
2πhk
qBµ
[p
i
−p(r, t)].
Depending on the units preferred; standard or ﬁeld units, the above normalisation can be
written,
SI units:
r
D
=
r
r
w
, t
D
=
0.0036kt
φµcr
2
w
and p
D
=
πhk
1.842qBµ
[p
i
−p(r, t)],
Field units:
r
D
=
r
r
w
, t
D
=
0.000264kt
φµcr
2
w
and p
D
=
πhk
141.2qBµ
[p
i
−p(r, t)],
Using dimensionless variables for the solution of the linear diffusivity equation, as pre
sented in Eq.(11.10), we get,
p
D
(r
D
, t
D
) =−
1
2
Ei
−
r
2
D
4t
D
, (11.13)
where the factor 1/2 in front of the exponential function is of purely historical reasons, related
to the presentation of semi logarithmic data.
11.3.5 Wellbore Pressure for Semi Logarithmic Data
The wellbore pressure (r
D
= 1) is given by,
p
wD
(t
D
) =−
1
2
Ei
−1
4t
D
.
From mathematical tables we have the following approximation,
−Ei(−ξ) =
∞
ξ
e
−s
s
ds ≈(−lnξ −γ) +ξ −
ξ
2
2 2!
+
ξ
3
3 3!
− ,
where γ ·0.5772157 is Euler’s constant.
The interesting question now is related to the validity of the approximation: −Ei(−ξ) ≈
−lnξ −γ, i.e.
p
wD
(t
D
) =−
1
2
Ei
−
1
4t
D
≈−
1
2
ln
1
4t
D
+γ
. (11.14)
182 Chapter 11. Well Test Analysis
We may write the dimensionless wellbore pressure as,
p
wD
(t
D
) ≈ −
1
2
(ln1−ln4−lnt
D
+γ),
≈
1
2
(lnt
D
+0.80907),
where the next term in the series expansion of Eq. (11.14), is 1/(4t
D
), is thought to be insignif
icant.
In order to check the accuracy of this approximation we may look at the relative importance
of the next term not included in the approximation Eq.(11.14), i.e.
Error =
1/(4t
D
)
lnt
D
+0.80907
. (11.15)
If we assume the dimensionless time; t
D
≥25, then we would expect the Error always to
be less then 0.25 %.
In order to illustrate the implication of the restrictiont
D
≥25, we can consider the constraint
on time (in hours), for a "typical" oil reservoir with the following parameters (in ﬁeld units),
k = 100 mD φ = 25 % µ = 1.0 cP
c = 5 10
−6
psi
−1
r
w
= 1 ft
Using the deﬁnition of the dimensionless time in ﬁeld units from above, we ﬁnd that the
real time that passes before the approximation, Eq.(11.14) is valid, is not more than 0.0012 hrs,
or 4.3 seconds. We therefore conclude that the error done in applying the approximation in
Eq.(11.14), is insigniﬁcant for all practical purposes.
In cases where the pressure drop observed in one well is induced by an other well a certain
lateral distance apart from the observation well, we have to consider the restriction imposed
above very carefully. In these cases the approximation may usually not hold.
Generally we may therefore use the following approximation,
p
wD
(r
D
, t
D
) =
1
2
ln
t
D
r
2
D
+0.80907
, (11.16)
with the restriction of t
D
/r
2
D
≥25.
Example: Semi logarithmic analysis of pressure drawdown data
The wellbore pressure is given by the approximation (in dimensionless form),
p
wD
(t
D
) =
1
2
(lnt
D
+0.80907)
Using the deﬁnition of dimensionless variables, given above, we may write,
p
i
−p
w
(t) =
qBµ
2πhk
1
2
ln
kt
φµcr
2
w
+0.80907
.
Rewriting this equation using log term instead of ln and standard units,
11.3 Semi Logarithmic Period 183
p
i
−p
w
(t) =
2.1208qBµ
hk
logt +log
k
φµcr
2
w
−2.0923
,
and in ﬁeld units,
p
i
−p
w
(t) =
162.6qBµ
hk
logt +log
k
φµcr
2
w
−3.2275
.
When the well test data is presented in a semi logarithmic plot as shown in
Figure 11.5, we may use one of the two equations above in order to extract vital
information about the reservoir. In the ﬁgure, some early data originates from
the wellbore storage period and some late data originates from the period when
boundary effects starts to mask the pressure data. These data does not comply with
the straight line and should therefore be disregarded when the semi logarithmic
data is matched.
p
,
k
P
a
t, hrs
10 10 10 10 10 10
3 2 1 0 1 2
Wellbore storage
effect
Outer boundary
effect
Slope m
Figure 11.5: Pressure drawdown data.
The straight line through the semi logarithmic data points in Figure 11.5, is
deﬁned by the equation,
p(t) ∼−mlogt,
where m is the slope of the straight line. This line is compared with the model
above, and from this comparison we get the following equality (using SI  units),
m = 2.1208
qBµ
hk
.
The reservoir permeability, k could be estimated when information about reser
voir height, oil viscosity, oil volume factor and oil rate are known.
.
184 Chapter 11. Well Test Analysis
11.4 Semi Steady State Period
After a period of reservoir production from an inﬁnite reservoir, there comes a period of pro
duction where the inﬂuence from neighbouring wells or reservoir boundaries, such as lateral
extension, faults or sands thinning out, are going to play an increasingly important role. This
period is called the semi steady state period and a steadily decreasing reservoir pressure is
observed (decreased average pressure in a conﬁned reservoir volume). Simultaneously, the
pressure proﬁle in the reservoir is maintained unchanged.
It should be emphasised that this is an idealised model of how we think the reservoir re
sponds to boundaries effects, and as such, prudent interpretation of steady state data is highly
recommendable.
In Figure 11.6, several pressure proﬁles are plotted. At constant well production, the draw
down pressure proﬁle is assumed to be constant, i.e. ∂ p(r)/∂t = constant, in the reservoir.
p
e
p
r
w
r
e
Figure 11.6: Steady state pressure proﬁles.
Since the pressure proﬁle is assumed to be constant, we expect the diffusitivity equation to
be time independent, i.e. a constant K
1
balances the diffusitivity equation,
1
r
∂
∂r
r
∂ p
∂r
= K
1
.
Integration of the time independent diffusivity equation gives,
r
∂ p
∂r
=
1
2
K
1
r
2
+K
2
, (11.17)
where K
2
is also a constant.
The boundary conditions in the semi steady state are partly deﬁned as for the case of the
logarithmic period, but in addition we have assumed that the pressure proﬁle does not signiﬁ
cantly vary after the reservoir boundary limit is reached. At this limit, the reservoir pressure is
steadily decreasing while the pressure proﬁle is conserved.
11.4 Semi Steady State Period 185
Boundary condition in the well:
r
∂ p
∂r
r=r
w
=
qBµ
2πhk
.
Boundary condition at inﬁnite reservoir radius:
r
∂ p
∂r
r=r
e
= 0.
Using the boundary conditions to deﬁne the constantsK
1
and K
2
, and integrating Eq.(11.17)
from the well (r = r
w
), gives,
p(r) = p(r
w
) +
qBµ
2πhk
ln
r
r
w
−
1
2
r
2
r
2
e
, (11.18)
where r
e
is the radial distance to the boundary of the conﬁned reservoir, i.e. r
e
r
w
and so
r
w
/r
e
→0.
11.4.1 Average Reservoir Pressure
The average reservoir pressure is not an observable quantity. The average pressure is a weighted
function of the pressure in the whole reservoir and could be deﬁned as,
p =
r
e
r
w
pdV
r
e
r
w
dV
.
Substituting for p given by Eq.(11.18) and integrating, we ﬁnd the average reservoir pres
sure,
p = p(r
w
) +
qBµ
2πhk
ln
r
e
r
w
−
3
4
, (11.19)
Eq.(11.19) gives the average pressure in a cylindrical reservoir with an outer radius equal
to r
e
and where the well is located in the centre. In real cases, however, the reservoir shape is
seldom cylindrical and more so, the well position is most frequently off centred. In these real
cases we may not use Eq.(11.19) directly. Instead a slight modiﬁed version given by Eq.(11.20)
is used, where A is the top area of the reservoir andC
A
is a parameter characterising the shape
and relative position of the well.
The average pressure for a general reservoir is then written,
p = p(r
w
) +
qBµ
2πhk
1
2
ln
4A
e
γ
C
A
r
2
w
, (11.20)
where γ is Euler’s constant.
In the case of a cylindrical reservoir, with a centred well location, i.e. A = π(r
2
e
−r
2
w
), we
ﬁnd the shapefactor C
A
·4πe
(3/2−γ)
= 31.6206 (Dietz,1965).
186 Chapter 11. Well Test Analysis
11.4.2 Well Skin Factor
When a well is drilled it is always necessary to have a positive differential pressure acting from
the wellbore to the formation to prevent inﬂowof the reservoir ﬂuids (blowout). Consequently,
some of the drilling ﬂuid penetrates the formation and particles suspended in the mud can
partially penetrate the pore spaces, reducing permeability, and creating a socalleddamaged
zone next to the wellbore.
Assuming modiﬁcation of the permeability in the damaged zone (r
w
< r < r
s
) is k
s
, and
within the rest of the reservoir (r
s
< r < r
e
) is k, as shown in Fig. 11.7.
p
e
p
s
p
wf
r
e
r
s
r
w
Figure 11.7: Skin effect caused by formation damage.
For the steady state inﬂow we can write the following equations for a cylindrical reservoir
with a centred well, as stated for formation beds in series,
p
s
−p
w
≈
qBµ
2πk
s
h
ln
r
s
r
w
,
p
e
−p
s
≈
qBµ
2πkh
ln
r
e
r
s
.
Note the approximation made due to the fact that r
e
r
w
and r
e
r
s
.
The total pressure drop from the wellbore through the reservoir is given by,
p
e
−p
w
= p
e
−p
s
+ p
s
−p
w
=
qBµ
2πkh
¸
ln
r
e
r
w
+(
k
k
s
−1)ln
r
s
r
w
, (11.21)
where the last term is called the mechanical skin factor S,
S = (
k
k
s
−1)ln
r
s
r
w
. (11.22)
Hence,
p
e
−p
w
=
qBµ
2πkh
(ln
r
e
r
w
+S), (11.23)
11.4 Semi Steady State Period 187
where the skin is a number characterising the cylindrical volume next to the wellbore.
As seen from Eq.(11.23), the skin may be associated with a characteristic pressure drop
∆p
skin
caused by the reduction in permeability in the skin zone,
∆p
skin
=
qBµ
2πkh
S. (11.24)
From this equation it is evident that when the skin S is positive, an increased pressure drop
towards the well is observed, while when S is negative the pressure drop is less than expected.
Skin is associated with the condition of reservoir permeability in the closed volume next to
the well. If the permeability in the skin zone is reduced, due to drilling or well treatments, then
the well will experience an increased pressure drop in this region while the skin is positive. If
the well, on the other hand, has a permeability higher than expected, then the skin is negative,
i.e.
• Skin factor is positive, S > 0 when k
s
< k and
• Skin factor is negative, S < 0 when k
s
> k.
11.4.3 Wellbore Pressure at Semi Steady State
The reservoir pressure development in a closed reservoir could be compared to the production
from a pressurised closed tank of oil. Production is maintained through volume expansion
where the combined compressibility of oil and reservoir rock ,c, is the important parameter.
The total compressibility of oil and reservoir rock is deﬁned by, c = −dV/(Vdp), which
can be rewritten as,
dp
dt
=−
qB
cV
,
where qB is the oil ﬂow in the reservoir andV = φAh is the reservoir pore volume.
At constant reservoir ﬂow rate, we may integrate from initial pressure, p
i
to the average
pressure p and we get the following simple relation between reservoir pressure and time,
p
i
−p(t) =
qB
cV
t. (11.25)
Combining Eq.(11.19) which describes the semi steady state analysis, with Eq.(11.25), we
get,
p
i
−p(r
w
) =
qBµ
2πhk
1
2
ln
4A
e
γ
C
A
r
2
w
+S
+
qB
cV
t (11.26)
Note that we in Eq.(11.26) have introduced the skinS as an extra term in the equation, account
ing for a partly damaged zone around the well.
Dimensionless variables are introduced, following the same deﬁnitions as for the case of
semi steady state, with the exception of the dimensionless timet
DA
, which is deﬁned,
t
DA
=
kt
φAcµ
. (11.27)
In t
DA
dimensionless time is referenced to the reservoir drainage areaA.
188 Chapter 11. Well Test Analysis
Hence, Eq.(11.26) can be rewritten using dimensionless variables and we get,
p
wD
=
2πt
DA
+
1
2
ln
4A
e
γ
C
A
r
2
w
+S
. (11.28)
11.5 Wellbore Pressure Solutions
To this time we have developed the pressure function for the three periods of reservoir produc
tion, referring to the wellbore storage period, the semi logarithmic period and the semi steady
state period, as if they were independent sequences reservoir production. In reality, well test
data, originating from the different periods are not easily distinguishable and quite a lot of
effort is spent identifying which data belongs to which period of production.
Summing up what we already know, we may write the following three pressure equations,
Well storage period:
p
i
−p
w
=
qB
c
ws
t.
Semi logarithmic period:
p
i
−p
w
=
qBµ
2πhk
1
2
ln
kt
φµcr
2
w
+0.80907+2S
.
Semi steady state period:
p
i
−p
w
=
qBµ
2πhk
2πk
φAcµ
t +
1
2
ln
4A
e
γ
C
A
r
2
w
+S
.
Using the following set of dimensionless variables,
SI units:
r
D
=
r
r
w
, t
DA
=
0.0036kt
φAcµ
, p
D
=
hk
1.842qBµ
(p
i
−p(r, t)),
Field units:
r
D
=
r
r
w
, t
DA
=
0.000264kt
φAcµ
, p
D
=
hk
141.2qBµ
(p
i
−p(r, t),
we get the three wellbore pressure equations in dimensionless form,
Well storage period:
p
WS
wD
=
A
c
D
t
DA
, where c
D
=
c
st
2πhφc
.
Semi logarithmic period:
p
SL
wD
=
1
2
ln
4A
r
2
w
e
γ
t
DA
+2S
.
Semi steady state period:
p
SS
wD
=
2πt
DA
+
1
2
ln
4A
e
γ
C
A
r
2
w
+S
.
11.5 Wellbore Pressure Solutions 189
11.5.1 Transition Time Between Semi Logarithmic Period and Semi Steady State
Period
The difﬁculties in recognising the semi logarithmic data is primarily related to identiﬁcation
of the time when the wellbore pressure, changes from being semi logarithmic to being semi
steady state dominated.
p
wD
p
wD
SL
p
wD
SS
t
DA
semi
logaritmic state
semi
steady state
Figure 11.8: Transition between semi logarithmic period and semi
steady state period.
Since the wellbore pressure development in the two periods are principally different, as
seen in the Fig.11.8, we may deﬁne the transient time when one period is followed by the
other, by the minimum pressure difference min¦p
SS
wD
−p
SL
wD
¦, such that
d(p
SS
wD
(t
DA
) −p
SL
wD
(t
DA
))
dt
DA
= 0.
Carrying out the derivation we ﬁnd the transition time, t
DA
= 1/(4π), which can be transferred
to real time by using the deﬁnition of dimenisonless time.
11.5.2 Recognition of Semi Logarithmic Data
Appropriate plotting of the well test data is an important tool in the process of differentiating
the different reservoir production periods.
In a linearlinear plot as shown in Fig. 11.9, we can identify the semi logarithmic data,
following a non linear time development. For real data, such identiﬁcation could be rather
difﬁcult to perform and therefore of less practical importance.
The purpose of plotting data is partly to be able to identify the different production periods,
but equally important, to facilitate quantitative data analysis. This analysis is mainly performed
by plotting the interesting data linearly, i.e. data plotted as a straight line. This technique is
shown in Fig. 11.10 where we have plotted the semi logarithmic data as shown in Fig. 11.9, in
a linearlog plot. The semi logarithmic data is plotted as a straight line and from the slope of
this line, we can get important reservoir information.
190 Chapter 11. Well Test Analysis
p
wD
p
wD
SL
p
wD
SS
p
wD
WS
t
DA
1/4π
Figure 11.9: Linearlinear plot of well test data..
p
wD
p
wD
SL
p
wD
SS
p
wD
WS
log(t )
DA
1/4π
Figure 11.10: Linearlog plot of well test data.
11.6 Exercises
1. Claculate the dimensionless time t
D
for the following cases,
a) with data:
φ = 0.15 r = 10cm
µ = 0.3cp t = 10s
c = 15 10
−5
atm
−1
k = 0.1D
b) with data: φ, µ and c as above and
r = 10cm t = 1000s k = 0.01D
2. Find the exponential intergrals and pressure drops for the following cases,
a) with data:
φ = 0.12 r = 10cm
µ = 0.7cp t = 1s
c = 10 10
−5
atm
−1
k = 0.05D
h = 2400cm q = 10000cm
3
/s
11.6 Exercises 191
b) with data: φ, µ, c and h as above and
r = 30000cm t = 24h
3. In a reservoir at initial pressure, a well with a ﬂow rate of 400 STB/D is shutin. The
reservoir is characterised by the following parameters:
k= 50 mD φ = 0.3 c= 10 10
−6
psi
−1
h= 30 ft µ = 3.0 cp B
o
= 1.25 RB/STB
r
w
= 0.5 ft
a) At what time, after the shutin, will the approximationEi(−x) =−ln(xe
γ
) be valid
? (Eulers constant γ=0.5772.
b) What is the pressure drawdown in the well after 3 hours of production?
c) For how long must the well produce, at constant ﬂow rate, until a pressure drop of
1 psi is observed in a neighbouring well 2000 f t away?
4. Use the diffusivity equation,
3
∑
i=1
d
dx
i
ρ
dp
dx
i
=
φµ
k
dρ
dt
,
and the expression for the compressibility at constant temperature,
c =
1
ρ
dρ
dp
,
to derive the diffusivity equation for one phase liquid ﬂow. (Assume the liquid com
pressibility to be small and constant for the pressures in mind.) Show that:
3
∑
i=1
d
2
p
dx
2
i
=
φµc
k
dp
dt
.
5. For a reservoir at initial pressure with 3 wells (W1, W2 and W3) where W1 is an obser
vation well, the following data is given:
P
i
= 4483 psia B
o
= 1.15 RB/STB h=30 ft
k
o
= 7.5 mD S
o
= 0.80 c
o
= 8.0 10
−6
psi
−1
µ
o
= 1.15 cp S
w
= 0.20 c
w
= 3.0 10
−6
psi
−1
c
f
= 4.0 10
−6
psi
−1
r
w
= 0.276 ft
Use the total compressibility c
t
= S
o
c
o
+S
w
c
w
+c
f
in the calculations.
A pressure drop of 4439 psi is observed in well W1 after 1600 hours of production at a
constant ﬂow rate of 190 STB/D from well W2 and after 1550 hours of production of 80
STB/D from W3. Well W2 is located 2000 f t north of W1 and W3 is 1900 f t west of
W1.
Estimate the average reservoir porosity between the wells.
192 Chapter 11. Well Test Analysis
Answers to questions:
1. a) 1481, b) 14815, 2. a) 4.895, b) 0.62, 3. a) 15.4 s, b) 51.3 bar, c) 227 hr, 5. 0.175
Chapter 12
Methods of Well Testing
12.1 Pressure Tests
Well testing has become a widely used tool for reservoir characterisation and parameter identi
ﬁcation. The development of well testing has accelerated from rudimentary productivity tests
into a powerful technique which is strengthening the understanding of complex reservoir char
acteristics. Analysis of pressure trends enables us to evaluate several important reservoir pa
rameters and to appraise the drainage zone.
Pressure tests are classiﬁed in accordance with their operation.
• Pressure drawdown test (Fig. 12.1,upper left): The well is opened to ﬂow at a constant
rate causing pressure drawdown.
• Pressure buildup test (Fig. 12.1,upper right): Production of constant ﬂow rate well is
shutin, causing pressure buildup.
• Falloff test (Fig. 12.1,lower left): Injecting at constant rate and injection well shutin,
causing pressure falloff.
• Multiple rate (Fig. 12.1,lower right): Well tested at different ﬂow rates, each lasting until
the ﬂowing pressure stabilises. This is followed by a shutin period, which again lasts
until the pressure stabilises.
Drawdown and buildup tests are the two most common types of well tests and the selection
of which one to use depends on the practical ﬁeld requirements.
A drawdown test simply involves ﬂow rate measurements and pressure decline in a ﬂowing
well. In a conventional drawdown test, the well is ﬁrst shutin until wellbore pressures stabilise,
and then opened and produced at a steady rate while the pressure decrease within the well bore
is monitored.
Unfortunately, ﬂowrates are still measured at the surface in most well tests. Such ﬂowrates
do not reﬂect the true downhole conditions as they are considerably affected by wellbore stor
age, ﬂuid segregation and gas liberation. This poses a problem as well testing theory requires
downhole ﬂow rates.
Buildup tests are basically the opposite of drawdown tests. Instead of measuring pressures
in a ﬂowing well, as in drawdown testing, the well is shutin and the increase or buildup in
193
194 Chapter 12. Methods of Well Testing
q
t
t
0
0
p
q
t
t
0
0
p
q
t
t
0
0
p
q
t
t
0
0
p
Figure 12.1: Methods of well testing.
pressure is monitored. Nevertheless, as with drawdown tests, buildup tests are still affected
by wellbore storage effects during the initial stages or "early time"part of the test. Therefore
pressure readings taken from the beginning of the test has to be ignored and all analysis is done
on the later part of the pressure response, even though it has been realised that this discarded
early time data contains a considerable amount of information.
In practice, it is not so easy to carry out a "pure" drawdown or buildup test as the produc
tion schedule prior to the test, is usually complex. For example, a DrillStem Test (DST) is per
formed by carrying out a series of buildup and drawdown tests in relatively quick succession.
The observed pressure buildup/drawdown response, within a given time, incorporates all the
pressure transient effects caused by every previous stepchange in production rate. However,
multiple rate tests are not as simple as it might appear, while it relies on additional reservoir in
formation as well as complex interpretation of pressure data using analysis based on theoretical
models.
12.2 Pressure Drawdown Test
Drawdown test analysis are done by direct application of the wellbore pressure solutions, pre
sented in the previous chapter.
12.2 Pressure Drawdown Test 195
A plot of pressure versus the log of time (p, log(t)), will show the radial ﬂow solution as a
straight line, see Fig. 12.2. This fact provides us with an easy and seemingly precise graphical
procedure for interpretation of the pressure data. The slope and intercept of the portion of the
curve forming a straight line is used for permeability and skin factor calculations.
The early portion of the data is unfortunately, distorted by wellbore storage and skin effects
as indicated in Fig. 12.2. Well tests have therefore to be made long enough to overcome both
effects and to produce a straight line in a semi logaritmic plot.
But even this approach presents drawbacks. Sometimes more than one "apparent" straight
line appears and analysis ﬁnds it difﬁcult to decide which one to use. An alternative straight
line could be the signature of a fault located near the well.
The latter portion of the pressure transient is affected by the interference from other wells
or by boundary effects such as those that occur when the pressure response reaches the edge of
the reservoir.
12.2.1 Pressure Drawdown Test Under Semi Logarithmic Conditions
From the previous chapter in section "Wellbore pressure solutions", we may formulate the semi
logarithmic pressure solutions inSIunits and Fieldunits as:
SIunits:
p
w
= p
i
−2.1208
qBµ
kh
(logt +log
k
φµcr
2
w
−2.0923+
S
1.151
). (12.1)
Fieldunits:
p
w
= p
i
−162.6
qBµ
kh
(logt +log
k
φµcr
2
w
−3.2275+
S
1.151
). (12.2)
p
,
k
P
a
t, hrs
10 10 10 10 10 10
3 2 1 0 1 2
Wellbore storage
effect
Outer boundary
effect
Slope m
Figure 12.2: Semilogarithmic plot of pressure drawdown test data.
196 Chapter 12. Methods of Well Testing
In Fig. 12.2 we recognise the semi logarithmic data, as the data points being plotted on
a straight line, where m is the slope of the straight line. If we deﬁne the slope as a positive
number,
m =
(p
i
−p
w
(t
1
)) −(p
i
−p
w
(t
2
))
log(t
1
) −log(t
2
)
> 0,
we may use Eqs. (12.1) or (12.2), to deﬁne the reservoir permeability, k. The known mvalue
yields a permeability value.
SIunits: Fieldunits:
k =
2.1208qBµ
mh
[µm
2
], k =
162.6qBµ
mh
[mD].
The skin factor S is conventionally identiﬁed from the same plot, see Fig. 12.2. The linear
pressure at time t = 1 hr is used in Eqs. (12.1) or (12.2) and the skin is directly calculated.
(Note that p
w
(1hr) in the equations below, is a data point on the straight line which needs not
necessarily correspond to an observed pressure.)
SIunits:
S = 1.151
¸
p
i
−p
w
(1hr)
m
−log
k
φµcr
2
w
+2.0923
.
Fieldunits:
S = 1.151
¸
p
i
−p
w
(1hr)
m
−log
k
φµcr
2
w
+3.2275
.
12.2.2 Pressure Drawdown Test Under Semi Steady State Conditions
When the pressure transient is affected by the interference from boundary effects or other
wells, the pressure curve deviates downwards from the straight line behaviour. Sometimes
such disturbances overlap with other kinds of "early time" effects like large scale reservoir
inhomogeneity, neighbouring sealing faults or other pressure disturbing zones. These effects
can completely mask the allimportant pressure response such that proper pressure analysis
becomes impossible.
Under semi steady state test conditions we are investigating a sealedoff reservoir, where
the well is producing from its own drained area. At these late times in the development of
the well test procedure we may likely observe complicated pressure data which is masked
by several effects. Semi steady state tests are therefore normally not preferred when typical
reservoir parameters like permeability, productivity and skin are estimated. The analysis of
semi steady state data is more rigorous than might possible be interpreted by the wellbore
pressure equation.
The semi steady state equation is written,
p
w
(t) = p
i
−
qBµ
2πkh
2πkt
φcµA
+
1
2
ln
4A
e
γ
C
A
r
2
w
+S
, (12.3)
12.3 Pressure BuildUp Test 197
where the pressure is a linear function of time.
Semi steady state data is plotted as a straight line in a lineline plot, as seen in Fig. 12.3.
The asymptotic pressure value p
0
= p
w
(t = 0), in the ﬁgure, enables us to deﬁne the Dietz
shape factor C
A
. In Field Units, Eq. (12.3) can rewritten,
p
0
= p
i
−
162.6qBµ
kh
log
4A
e
γ
r
2
w
−logC
A
+
S
1.151
. (12.4)
t, hrs
0
p
w
f
,
p
s
i
p
o
Figure 12.3: Semi steady state analysis of pressure drawdown data.
12.3 Pressure BuildUp Test
In analysing drawdown data, we could directly apply the "Wellbore pressure solutions" from
the previous chapter, since pressure is decreasing with time, at constant wellbore rate. In the
case of pressure buildup, when the well is closed, the "Wellbore pressure solutions" may not be
used directly. Fortunately, the same equations can be applied since the process, the bottomhole
pressure drawdown is, in principle, similar too the process of pressure buildup.
Normally, the buildup pressure data is considered to be more reliable than the pressure
drawdown data, since the inﬂuence fromdynamical effects near the well is of lesser importance.
If a well is shutin at a certain time t, the noﬂow conditions, as shown in Fig. 12.4, can be
described by a superposition technique.
As a theoretical assumption we may consider the wellbore rate to be both positive,
+q and negative, −q, as indicated in Fig. 12.4. The noﬂow condition is obtained
when the positive and negative well rate are summed, i.e. (+q) +(−q) = 0. Con
sequently, the noﬂow condition can be described by adding the pressure solutions
for the positive ﬂow rate and the pressure solution for the negative ﬂow rate, using
the "Wellbore pressure solutions" (drawdown pressure analysis).
The technique of superposition is depicted in Fig. 12.5. At timet when the well is shutin,
the wellbore pressure is inﬂuenced by the continuos production at positive rate+q causing
the pressure to decrease. The inﬂuence by the negative rate −q is to increase the wellbore
pressure. For times greater than t, we will observe a combined pressure development caused
198 Chapter 12. Methods of Well Testing
q
q = 0
+q
q
time
∆t t
0
Figure 12.4: Pressure buildup test. Representation of a nonﬂowing
well performance by a superposition technique.
by a decreasing pressure due to the positive well rate (−q) and a increasing pressure due to the
negative well rate (−q).
p
i
p ( t)
w
∆
p (t+ t)
w
∆
0
0
t t+∆t
∆t ∆t
∆t
∆t
t
A
A"
B
B"
Figure 12.5: Pressure formation by superposition in buildup tests.
Using wellbore pressure, we deﬁne,
p
w
(∆t): Pressure in the well after shutin.
p
w
(t +∆t): Pressure in the well given by continuos production at
positive well rate.
p
i
−p
w
(∆t): Pressure in the well given by startup of continuos
production at negative well rate (increasing pressure contribution).
12.4 Pressure Test Analysis 199
The superposition principle gives,
p
w
(∆t) = p
w
(t +∆t) + p
i
−p
w
(∆t),
where p
w
on the left side of the equallity is the well shutin pressure, whilep
w
on the right side
is the well ﬂow pressure. Using dimensionless pressures, the well shutin pressure is given,
p
i
−p
w
(∆t) =
qBµ
2πhk
[p
wD
(t
D
+∆t
D
) −p
wD
(∆t
D
)].
If skin is included and the wellbore pressure at shutin is p
w
(∆t
D
= 0) = p
ws
, we have
p
i
−p
ws
=
qBµ
2πhk
[p
wD
(t
D
) +S].
From the above equations, we may derive the following expressions for the wellbore pres
sure.
p
w
(∆t) = p
i
−
qBµ
2πhk
[p
wD
(t
D
+∆t
D
) −p
wD
(∆t
D
)], (12.5)
p
w
(∆t) = p
ws
+
qBµ
2πhk
[p
wD
(t
D
) −p
wD
(t
D
+∆t
D
) + p
wD
(∆t
D
) +S], (12.6)
p
w
(∆t) = p−
qBµ
2πhk
[p
wD
(t
D
+∆t
D
) −p
wD
(∆t
D
) −2πt
DA
]. (12.7)
Pressure buildup data is analysed using the three equations above, where Eq. (12.6) is
applied to estimate the reservoir permeability and skin, while Eq. (12.7) is used to determine
the average pressure p. Eq. (12.7) is derived on the basis of average pressure development,
where
p
i
−p =
qB
c
t
V
t =
qBµ
2πhk
2πt
DA
, t
DA
=
k
φAcµ
t.
It is important to notice that the dimensionless pressures p
D
in Eqs. (12.5) to (12.7) could
represent the equations describing both semi logarithmic period as well as semi steady state
period, i.e. depending on the analysis to be performed, we may chose which set of equations
we think will ﬁt the data best.
12.4 Pressure Test Analysis
Based on Eqs. (12.5) to (12.7), we may perform different analysis, where certain assumptions
are made about the nature of pressure test data. In the following, two examples are give on how
pressure buildup data might be analysed.
12.4.1 Miller  Dyes  Hutchinson (MDH) Analysis
In this analysis [43] we will assume that the semi logarithmic period is long enough to recognise
a straight line behaviour in a semi logarithmic plot, i.e. we need to be able to differentiate
between the three different periods, described in the previous chapter.
200 Chapter 12. Methods of Well Testing
p
i
p(t+ t)~ p(t) ∆
t t+∆t
Figure 12.6: Pressure approximation in MDHanalysis.
Shortly after the well is shutin, at timet, we start to monitor the wellbore pressure p
w
(∆t).
For some period of time we may assumet ∆t and during this period the dimensional pressure
approximation p
wD
(t
D
+∆t
D
) · p
wD
(t
D
) is valid, as depicted in Fig. 12.6.
Combining Eq. (12.6) and the above assumption, gives the wellbore pressure
p
w
(∆t) = p
ws
+
qBµ
2πhk
[p
wD
(∆t
D
) +S]. (12.8)
If the pressure development is assumed to have reached the semi logarithmic state, after
shutin of the well, we may write: p
wD
(∆t) = p
SL
wD
(∆t
D
), with reference to the deﬁnitions of
semi logarithmic solutions in the previous chapter.
Using the deﬁnitions of dimensionless time and pressure for semi logarithmic data, we get
the following pressure expression,
p
w
(∆t) = p
ws
+m
¸
log∆t +log
k
φµcr
2
w
−2.0923+
S
1.151
,
where m is the slope of the linearized semi logarithmic data (see Fig. 12.7) and the number
2.0923 is a conversion factor to SIunits.
SIunits or Field units depends on preference and the following deﬁnitions.
SIunits: m =
2.1208qBµ
hk
and −2.0923
Field units: m =
162.6qBµ
hk
and −3.2275
From Eq. (12.8), we ﬁnd the skin factor by direct substitution, see also Fig. 12.7,
S = 1.151
¸
p
w
(∆t = 1hr) −p
ws
m
−log
k
φµcr
2
w
+2.0923
.
The average reservoir pressure p, could be evaluated on the basis of Eq. (12.7), using the
same approximation as above, namely; p
wD
(t
D
+∆t
D
) · p
wD
(t
D
).
p
w
(∆t) = p−
m
1.151
[p
wD
(t
D
) −p
wD
(∆t
D
) −2πt
DA
].
12.4 Pressure Test Analysis 201
p
w
p
w
( =1hr) ∆t
0.1 1 10 100
∆t
∆t =
φ µ c A
k C 0.0036
A
p
Figure 12.7: MDH analysis of semi logarithmic pressure data.
We shall now assume that the reservoir had reached its semi steady state period before or
shortly after the well was shutin. The interpretation of the different dimensionless pressures
are accordingly,
p
wD
(t
D
) = p
SS
wD
(t
D
) and p
wD
(∆t
D
) = p
SL
wD
(∆t
D
),
and the wellbore pressure is the written,
p
w
(∆t) = p−
m
1.151
[p
SS
wD
(t
D
) −p
SL
wD
(∆t
D
) −2πt
DA
],
= p−
m
1.151
¸
2πt
DA
+
1
2
ln
4A
e
γ
C
A
r
2
w
−
1
2
ln
4∆t
D
e
γ
−2πt
DA
,
= p−
m
1.151
¸
1
2
ln
A
C
A
r
2
w
∆t
D
.
Using SIunits we get,
p
w
(∆t) = p−
m
1.151
¸
1
2
ln
φµcA
0.0036kC
A
∆t
.
If the reservoir has reached its semi steady state period before (or shortly after) the well
was shutin, the average reservoir pressure p is found by following the semi logarithmic line to
the time ∆t = φµcA/(0.0036kC
A
), as shown in Fig. 12.7, where the average pressure is,
p = p
w
∆t =
φµcA
0.0036kC
A
.
12.4.2 Matthews  Brons  Hazebroek (MBH) Analysis (Horner plot)
Following the same approach as in the above section, we have assumed the pressure difference
p
wD
(t
D
+∆t
D
) −p
wD
(t
D
) to be small but ﬁnite, i.e.,
202 Chapter 12. Methods of Well Testing
p
wD
(t
D
+∆t
D
) −p
wD
(t
D
) =
1
2
ln
t +∆t
t
. (12.9)
In practical terms, compared to MDH  analysis, this means that the well could be closed
somewhat earlier in the MBH  analysis [36]. The pressure difference is depicted in Fig. 12.8,
which points out that the time of shutin t
D
, may come earlier and further up on the pressure
decline curve. In Fig. 12.8 we have p
w
(t) ≥ p
w
(t +∆t), while for dimension less pressures
p
wD
(t
D
+∆t
D
) ≥ p
wD
(t
D
), since p
wD
∝ (p
i
−p
w
).
p
i
p(t+ t) ∆
p(t)
t t+∆t
Figure 12.8: Wellbore pressure difference at the shutin time, in
MBH  analysis.
Combining the approximation given by Eq. (12.9) and the wellbore pressure solution Eq. (12.6),
we get
p
w
(∆t) = p
ws
+
m
1.151
¸
−
1
2
ln
t +∆t
t
+ p
wD
(∆t
D
) +S
, (12.10)
where p
wD
(∆t
D
) = p
SL
wD
(∆t
D
), is considered to be in the semi logarithmic period.
Using SIunits this gives,
p
w
(∆t) = p
ws
+m
¸
−log
t +∆t
t
+log∆t +log
k
φµcr
2
w
−2.0923+
S
1.151
,
= p
ws
+m
¸
log
∆t
t +∆t
+logt +log
k
φµcr
2
w
−2.0923+
S
1.151
. (12.11)
Permeability and skin are estimated by plotting the buildup pressures p
w
(∆t) against the
time function ∆t/(t +∆t) on a semi logarithmic plot, as indicated by Eq. (12.11). The slope of
the linear data is m and hence k or kh are found by substitution. The skin is calculated at the
time ∆t = 1, where t +1 ·t is assumed, i.e.,
S = 1.151
¸
p
w
(∆t = 1hr) −p
ws
m
−log
k
φµcr
2
w
+2.0923
.
The pressure p
w
(∆t = 1) is read directly from the plot, as shown in Fig. 12.9.
12.4 Pressure Test Analysis 203
p
w
p
w
( =1) ∆t
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
1
p
∆
∆
t
t+ t
∆
∆
t
t+ t
1
C t
A DA
=
p
i
Figure 12.9: Horner plot. Wellbore pressure data plotted for MBH 
analysis.
The pressure approximation Eq. (12.9) may be applied in a similar way as done above, for
deﬁning the average reservoir pressure p. Substituting Eq. (12.9) in Eq. (12.7), we get
p
w
(∆t) = p−
m
1.151
¸
1
2
ln
t +∆t
t
+−p
wD
(∆t
D
) −2πt
DA
,
= p−
m
1.151
¸
1
2
ln
t +∆t
t
+ p
wD
(t
D
) −
1
2
(ln∆t
D
+0.80907) −2πt
DA
,
= p−
m
1.151
¸
1
2
ln
t +∆t
∆t
+ p
wD
(t
D
) −
1
2
(lnt
D
+0.80907) −2πt
DA
,
= p−
m
1.151
¸
1
2
ln
t +∆t
∆t
+ p
wD
(t
D
) −p
SL
wD
(t
D
) −2πt
DA
. (12.12)
If we then assume that the well is in its semi steady state at the time of shutin, i.e.
p
wD
(t
D
) = p
SS
wD
(t
D
), the we get
p
w
(∆t) = p−
m
1.151
¸
1
2
ln
t +∆t
∆t
−
1
2
ln
4t
D
e
γ
+2πt
DA
+
1
2
ln
4A
e
γ
C
A
r
2
w
−2πt
DA
,
= p−m
¸
log
t +∆t
∆t
A
C
A
r
2
w
1
t
D
. (12.13)
Since t
D
in Eq. (12.13) is a well deﬁned time (time of shutin), we may estimate the average
reservoir pressure as the pressure on the straight line (see Fig. 12.9) at the time,
∆t
t +∆t
=
A
C
A
r
2
w
t
D
=
1
C
A
t
DA
.
If we now assume that the well is in its semi logarithmic state at the time of shutin, i.e.
p
wD
(t
D
) = p
SL
wD
(t
D
), we then get by substitution into Eq. (12.12),
204 Chapter 12. Methods of Well Testing
p
w
(∆t) = p
m
1.151
¸
1
2
ln
t +∆t
∆t
−2πt
DA
At the time ∆t/(t +∆t) = 1, we get
p
w
∆t
t +∆t
= 1
= p+
m
1.151
[2πt
DA
],
= p
qBµ
2πhk
¸
2π
kt
φAcµ
,
= p+
qBt
Vc
, where V = φAh (12.14)
Under semi steady state conditions we have seen that,
p
i
−p =
qBt
Vc
,
and consequently we may write,
p
w
∆t
t +∆t
= 1
= p+(p
i
−p) = p
i
.
The initial reservoir pressure is deﬁned in Fig. 12.9 on the straight line at time∆t/(t +∆t) =
1.
12.5 Exercises 205
12.5 Exercises
1. A well is tested by exploiting it at a constant rate of 1500 STB/d for a period of 100
hours. It is suspected, from seismic and geological evidence, that the well is draining
an isolated reservoir block which has approximately a 2:1 rectangular geometrical shape
and the extended drawdown test is intended to conﬁrm this. The reservoir data and the
ﬂowing bottom hole pressures recorded during the test are detailed below.
h = 20 f t c = 15 10
−6
psi
−1
r
w
= 0.33 f t µ
o
= 1cp
φ = 0.18 B
o
= 1.20RB/STB
Time p
w
Time p
w
Time p
w
(hours) (psi) (hours) (psi) (hours) (psi)
0 3500 (p
i
) 7.5 2848 50 2597
1 2917 10 2830 60 2545
2 2900 15 2794 70 2495
3 2888 20 2762 80 2443
4 2879 30 2703 90 2392
5 2869 40 2650 100 2341
a) Calculate the effective permeability and skin factor of the well.
b) Make an estimate of the area being drained by the well and the Dietz shape factor.
(after L.P.Dake)
2. A discovery well is produced for a period of approximately 100 hours proir to closure
for an initial pressure buildup survey. The production data and estimated reservoir and
ﬂuid properties are listed below.
q = 123STB/d φ = 0.2
N
p
= 500STB µ = 1cp
h = 20 f t B
oi
= 1.22RB/STB
r
w
= 0.3 f t c = 20 10
−6
psi
−1
(c
o
S
o
+c
w
S
w
+c
f
)
A = 300acers
Time p
w
Time p
w
Time p
w
(hours) (psi) (hours) (psi) (hours) (psi)
0.0 4506 1.5 4750 4.0 4766
0.5 4675 2.0 4757 6.0 4770
0.66 4705 2.5 4761 8.0 4773
1.0 4733 3.0 4763 10.0 4775
a) What is the initial reservoir pressure?
b) If the well is completed across the entire formation thickness, calculated the effec
tive permeability.
206 Chapter 12. Methods of Well Testing
c) Calculate the value of the mechanical skin factor.
d) What is the additional pressure drop in the wellbore due to the skin?
e) If it is initially assumed that the well is draining from the centre of a circle, is it
valid to equate p
i
to the asymptotic value log(t +∆t)/(∆t) = 0?
(after L.P.Dake)
3. A reservoir has 3 wells; W1, W2 and W3. Well W1 has been producing at a constant
ﬂow rate of 120 STB/D for 70 hours and is then converted to an observation well. Well
W2, located 2500 f t straight north of well W1, is producing at a ﬂow rate of 190 STB/D.
Well W3, located 1900 f t west of W1, is producing at a rate of 80 STB/D. At the time
when well W1 was shutdown, well W2 had produced for 100 hours and well W3 for 50
hours.
Pressure data from well W1 is given in the table:
∆t [hours] 0 5 10 20 30 40 50 100 150
P
ws
[psia] 4213 4380 4413 4433 4443 4450 4455 4466 4472
∆t 200 250 300 400 500 800 1200 1500 –
P
ws
4473 4474 4478 4480 4470 4461 4448 4439 –
Additional reservoir data:
µ
o
= 0.8 cp B
o
= 1.15 RB/STB c
f
= 4.0 10
−6
psi
−1
S
o
= 0.80 S
w
= 0.20 c
o
= 8.0 10
−6
psi
−1
h = 30 ft r
w
= 0.276 ft c
w
= 3.0 10
−6
psi
−1
Assume that the pressure development in well W1 can be expressed by the formula
below:
P
ws
= P
i
−162.6
Q
1
µB
kh
log
t
1
+∆t
∆t
−70.6
Q
1
µB
kh
¸
Q
2
Q
1
Ei(x
1
) +
Q
3
Q
1
Ei(x
2
)
where
x
1
=
φµc
t
d
2
12
0.00105kt
2
x
2
=
φµc
t
d
2
13
0.00105kt
3
and where d
12
and d
13
is the distance between W1 and W2 and W1 and W3, respectively.
t
1
is the time of production for well W1.
a) Calculate the average reservoir compressibilityc
t
.
b) Estimate the initial pressure P
i
, assuming the interference between well W2 and
W3 is negligible for early pressure data.
c) Calculate the average reservoir oil permeability ,k
o
.
d) Calculate the mechanical skin, S.
e) Use the pressure observation form∆t = 1500 hours to ﬁnd the average reservoir
porosity between the wells.
12.5 Exercises 207
4. An oil well has been producing 1484 STB at a ﬂow rate of 124 STB/D, when it was shut
down. The pressure buildup data is given in the table below:
∆t [hours] 4 8 12 16 20 24
P
ws
[psia] 2857 3027 3144 3252 3283 3298
∆t 28 32 36 40 44 48
P
ws
3308 3315 3323 3331 3338 3342
Additional reservoir data:
µ = 3.2 cp B
o
= 1.21 RB/STB
h = 8.4 ft c
t
= 12 10
−6
psia
−1
φ = 0.02
a) Find the reservoir pressure at the outer boundary, P
e
.
b) Calculate the average reservoir oil permeability, k
o
.
Answers to questions:
1. a) 240 mD, b) 4.5, 2. a) 4800 psi, b) 50 mD, c) 6.0, d) 128 psi, 3. a) 11 10
−6
psi
−1
, b) 4485
psi, c) 7.6 mD, d) 3.5, e) 0.135, 4. a) 3475 psi, b)58 mD.
208 Chapter 12. Methods of Well Testing
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[45] D.W. Peaceman. Fundamentals of Numerical Reservoir Simulation. Elsevier, Amster
dam, 3rd edition, 1977.
[46] G.A. Pope. The application of fractional ﬂow theory to enhanced oil recovery. Society of
Petroleum Engineers Journal, 20(3):191–205, 1980.
[47] E.J. Finnemore R.B. Daugherty, J.B. Franzini. Fluid Mechanics with Engineering Appli
cations. McGrawHill, New York, 1990.
[48] F.W. Sears, M.W. Zemansky, and H.D. Young. University Physics, Seventh Edition.
AddisonWesley, 1986.
[49] R.C. Selley and David C. Morill. GL 101: Basic Concepts of Petroleum Geology. IHRDC
Video Library for Exploration and Production Specialists, Boston, 1991.
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[50] R.C. Selley and David C. Morill. PE 401: Introduction to Well Testing and Measurement
Technique. IHRDC Video Library for Exploration and Production Specialists, Boston,
1991.
[51] Briann J. Skinner and Stephen C. Porter. The Dynamic Earth (An introduction to physical
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[52] S.M. Skjæveland and J. Kleppe, editors. SPOR Monograph. Norwegian Petroleum Di
rectorate, Stavanger, 1992.
[53] H.C. Slider. Practical Petroleum Reservoir Engineering Methods. Petroleum Publishing
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[55] T.D. Streltsova and R.M. McKinley. Effect of ﬂow time duration on buildup pattern for
reservoirs with heterogeneous properties. Paper SPE 11140, 1982.
[56] T. Terano, K. Asai, and M Sugeno. Fussy Systems Theory and Its Applications. Academic
Press, New York, 1992.
[57] D. Tiab and E.C. Donaldson. Petrophysics, Theory and Practice of Measuring Reservoir
Rock and Fluid Transport Properties. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas, 1996.
[58] Ya.M Vainberg, G.A. Virnovsky, and M.I. Shwidler. On some inverse problems of two
phase ﬁltration theory. Numerical Methods for Solving the Incompressible Fluids Filtra
tion Problems, pages 73–78, 1975. (in Russian).
[59] R.C. Weast and M.J. Astle. Handbook og Chemistry and Physics, 62,nd Edition. CRC
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[60] Henry J. Welge. A simpliﬁed method for computing oil recovery by gas or water drive.
Petroleum Transactions, AIME, 195:91–98, 1952.
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4.3 4.4
4.5 4.6 4.7 5
Idealised Porous Medium Represented by Regular CubicPacked Spheres 47 4.2.3 Idealised Porous Medium Represented by Regular OrthorhombicPacked spheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.4 Idealised Porous Medium Represented by Regular RhombohedralPacked spheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.5 Idealised Porous Medium Represented by IrregularPacked Spheres with Different Radii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Porosity Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement of Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 FullDiameter Core Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 GrainVolume Measurements Based on Boyle’s Law . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3 BulkVolume Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.4 PoreVolume Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.5 FluidSummation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uncertainty in Porosity Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Porosity Estimation from Well Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2
47 48 48 50 50 50 51 53 54 55 57 58 60 63 63 63 68 69 71 74 76 76 79
Permeability 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Darcy’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Conditions for Liquid Permeability Measurements. 5.4 Units of Permeability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Gas Permeability Measurements . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.1 Turbulent Gas Flow in a Core Sample . . . 5.6 Factors Affecting Permeability Values . . . . . . . 5.6.1 The Klinkenberg Effect . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wettability and Capillary Pressure 6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Surface and Interfacial Tension . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Rock Wettability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Contact Angle and Interfacial Tension . . . . . . . 6.5 Capillary Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1 Capillary Pressure Across Curved Surfaces 6.5.2 Interfacial Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.3 Capillary Pressure in a Cylindrical Tube . . 6.6 Capillary Pressure and Fluid Saturation . . . . . . 6.7 Pore Size Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.8 Saturation Distribution in Reservoirs . . . . . . . . 6.9 Laboratory Measurements of Capillary Pressure . . 6.10 Drainage and Imbibition Processes. . . . . . . . . 6.10.1 Hysterisis in Contact Angle . . . . . . . . 6.10.2 Capillary Hysterisis . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
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6.11 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 7 Relative Permeability 7.1 Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Rock Wettability and Relative Permeabilities . . . . . . 7.3 Drainage/Imbibition Relative Permeability Curves . . . . 7.4 Residual Phase Saturations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Laboratory Determination of Relative Permeability Data 7.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 . 111 . 113 . 114 . 115 . 116 . 118 121 . 121 . 121 . 122 . 125 . 126 . 128 . 129 . 130 . 131 . 134 135 . 135 . 136 . 137 . 140 . 142 . 143 . 144 . 148 . 150
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Compressibility of Reservoir Rock and Fluids 8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Compressibility of Solids, Liquids and Gases . . . . . . . 8.2.1 Rock Stresses and Compressibility . . . . . . . . . 8.2.2 Compressibility of Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.3 Compressibility of Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Deformation of Porous Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1 Compressibility Measurements. . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.2 Betti’s Reciprocal Theorem of Elasticity. . . . . . 8.4 Compressibility for Reservoir Rock Saturated with Fluids . 8.5 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties of Reservoir Fluids 9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Representation of hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . 9.3.1 Ternary diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Natural gas and gas condensate ﬁelds . . . . . 9.5 Oil ﬁelds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6 Relation between reservoir and surface volumes 9.7 Determination of the basic PVT parameters . . 9.8 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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II Reservoir Parameter Estimation Methods
10 Material Balance Equation 10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 Dry gas expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 A general oil reservoir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3.1 A1: Expansion of oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3.2 A2: Expansion of originally dissolved gas . . . . . . . . . 10.3.3 B: Expansion of gas cap gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3.4 C: Reduction in HCPV due to expansion of connate water tion of pore volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3.5 Production terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 The material balance equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
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10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9
Linearized material balance equation Dissolved gas expansion drive . . . Gas cap expansion drive . . . . . . Water inﬂux . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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11 Well Test Analysis 173 11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 11.1.1 Systems of Uunits Used in Well Test Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 11.2 Wellbore Storage Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 11.3 Semi Logarithmic Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 11.3.1 Diffusivity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 11.3.2 Solution of the Diffusitivity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 11.3.3 Gas Reservoir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 11.3.4 The Solution of the Diffusitivity Equation in Dimensionless Form . . . 181 11.3.5 Wellbore Pressure for Semi Logarithmic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 11.4 Semi Steady State Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 11.4.1 Average Reservoir Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 11.4.2 Well Skin Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 11.4.3 Wellbore Pressure at Semi Steady State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 11.5 Wellbore Pressure Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 11.5.1 Transition Time Between Semi Logarithmic Period and Semi Steady State Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 11.5.2 Recognition of Semi Logarithmic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 11.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 12 Methods of Well Testing 12.1 Pressure Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Pressure Drawdown Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.1 Pressure Drawdown Test Under Semi Logarithmic Conditions 12.2.2 Pressure Drawdown Test Under Semi Steady State Conditions 12.3 Pressure BuildUp Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.4 Pressure Test Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.4.1 Miller  Dyes  Hutchinson (MDH) Analysis . . . . . . . . . 12.4.2 Matthews  Brons  Hazebroek (MBH) Analysis (Horner plot) 12.5 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 . 193 . 194 . 195 . 196 . 197 . 199 . 199 . 201 . 205
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iv
Classiﬁcation and description of several methods used in enhanced oil recovery are associated with examples for oil and gas ﬁelds in the North Sea (Chapter 21 to 27) The Preface contains a list of some of the most commonly used parameters and systems of units used in petroleum engineering. are based on the course of lectures in Reservoir Engineering 1 held by the authors at the Rogaland University Centre in the period from 1989 to 1995. A short deduction of Darcy’s law is given and some examples of its use is described. describing laminar ﬂuid ﬂow are derived. Some laboratory techniques are explained and examples of equipment are shown. and related to two important methods in Reservoir Engineering. Chapter 4 introduces porosity and some examples of experimental techniques used to estimate porosity. The subjects presented. habitat and trapping of petroleum In Chapter 3 some basic concepts and deﬁnitions used in Reservoir Engineering are presented. viscosity is introduced and some basic equations. 13 and 14). Permeability is introduced in Chapter 5. 1 . Some examples describing the method of error propagation are also given. This textbook. some additional factors affecting permeability are discussed. In Chapter 1 some basic deﬁnitions of gas and oil reserves are given and the methods of their evaluation. Modelling of ﬂuid ﬂow in porous media is presented through different examples using various mathematical techniques (Chapter 15 to 20). constitutes the main content of the book. Chapter 2 is a brief introduction to the basics of petroleum geology. The last part VProjects Exercises presents quite a few exercises of the type students are asked to solve at their examination test. In Chapter 6. part I Fundamentals and part II Reservoir Parameter Estimation Methods. Part III Fluid Flow in Porous Media and part IV Enhanced Oil Recovery are a collection of subjects extending the fundamental knowledge into areas of more advanced theoretical description. A short description of reservoir pressure distribution is also presented. namely Material Balance (Chapter 11) and Well Testing (Chapter 12. Examples of different viscosity measuring techniques are discusses and some ﬂow characteristics are mentioned. Measurements of gas permeability is exempliﬁed and together with laminar and turbulent gas ﬂow. The two main parts of the book is related to petrophysics (Chapter 2 to 10). This chapter contains some basic concepts and deﬁnitions related to the origin. with some illustrative examples relevant to the Norwegian Continental Shelf.Preface The topics covered in this book represent a review of modern approaches and practical methods for analysing various problems related to reservoir engineering. The book contains a short introduction to important deﬁnitions for oil and gas reservoirs (Chapter 1).
In part III and IV. In this chapter we introduce the term surface energy to replace interfacial tension and an important relation between surface energies are derived. describing different types of reservoirs. Some few exercises are included at the end of this part. buildup test and combinations of the two. illustrating the concepts and methods presented. Various techniques using WAG. This part presents a broad classiﬁcation of models describing ﬂuid ﬂow in porous media. The chapter is meant as an introduction to basic concepts of relative permeability and possibly an inspiration for further reading. Relative permeability is introduced brieﬂy in Chapter 8.2 Wettability and capillary pressure are discussed in Chapter 7.. Chapter 13 introduces some basic methods of well testing. The student should know the elements of matrix and linear algebra. . some basic aspects of compressibility related to reservoir rock and ﬂuids are introduced. Examples are related to the behaviour of porous reservoir rocks and core samples under laboratory conditions. Dimensionless parameters are used and the set of pressure solutions are presented. There has been no attempt made. while all exercises in part III and IV are added at the end. Examples of polymer ﬂooding is presented as well as EOR related to surfactants and different solvents. like drawdown test. probability theory and statistics. to give a broad and consistent description of relative permeability in this book. however some slightly more advanced mathematical formalism is used. Modern well test analysis. and also be acquainted with single and partialdifferential equations and methods of their solution. is presented in Chapter 14. In Chapter 9. The equation is applied in several examples. are presented. Examples of two "classical" well test analysis is also included. the wellbore storage period. Part III Fluid Flow in Porous Media gives an introduction to mathematical modelling of oil displacement by waterﬂooding. Well test analysis is introduced in Chapter 12. This book does not contain complicated mathematical equations or calculus. nor is the reference list intended to be a complete bibliography. The mathematical prerequisite required are minimal. the semilogaritmic period and the semisteady state period. though necessary. such as gasreservoir and oil. Use of type curves and matching techniques are shortly presented. i. foams and Microbial methods are also brieﬂy described.reservoirs with and without a gas cap. as well as various analytical solution techniques. Most chapters in part I and II contain several exercises. Volumefactors and other important relations are explained and examples of their use are given. Examples of the effect of capillary forces are given and different experimental techniques are discussed. Basic principles behind equations of Buckley. A reference list is given at the end of the book. Chapter 10 lists some basic deﬁnitions and properties related to reservoir ﬂuids. A somewhat simpliﬁed derivation of the pressure solution for three important production periods are presented. Only some necessary references and key publications are included in the reference list.Leverett theory and their application are presented. Enhanced Oil Recovery is presented in part IV. The Material Balance Equation is deduced in Chapter 11.e. like transient testing techniques. A basic mathematical description of EOR methods are given and various methods are classiﬁed. The book does not cover all the relevant literature.
Zolotukhin Stavanger.3 J.R. B. 1997 . Ursin & A.
Metric unit = Conversion factor × Industry unit. country or simply tradition. In this book we will use both SIunits and industrial units in explaining the theory as well as in examples and in exercises. English and American units are most commonly used in the petroleum industry.4 Units and conversion factors The basic knowledge of units and conversion factors is absolutely necessary in reservoir engineering. i. although the choice of industrial units depend on company. Since both set of units are widely used in the oil industry.e. metric unit is found by multiplying a given industry unit by an appropriate conversion factor. simply due to practical reasons. often used in displaying data or calculations. but there is a tendency to turn to SIunits or practical SIunits. it is important to be conﬁdent with both systems. The Metric unit is seen as a practical SIunit. . A selection of some of the most frequently used parameters are listed in the table below. especially in the practice of the Norwegian and the other European oil companies. Since the choice of units has been largely a question of preference. the knowledge of conversion factors is practical necessary.
02831685 0.894757 1.856 0.333224 0.1 1000 0.1589873 0. psi−1 g/cm3 lbm/ft3 o API bbl/d ft3 /d lbf pdl dyne mile ft in. gal liter K mN/m Pa·s m3 m3 m3 dm3 dm3 ∗ Spesiﬁc gravity of oil.48 2. . m3 /s Force. Pa·s Volume.S.0 16. kg/m3 Flow rate. m Pressure.589988 4046. m3 dyne/cm cp (poise) acreft cu ft bbl U. m2 Industry unit sq mile acre sq ft sq in.8 5/9 1.01846 141. Pa Mass.2550 0.15 (o F32)/1.01 1.0 Metric unit km2 m2 m2 cm2 kPa−1 kg/m3 kg/m3 (γsg )∗ m3 /d m3 /d N mN mN km cm cm kPa kPa kPa kPa Pa kg kg K oC Compressibility.5 + o API) 0. N/m Viscosity. atm bar lbf/in.4535924 + 273.448222 138.785412 1. kg Temperature.1589873 3.5 Parameter (SI unit) Area.2 (psi) mm Hg (0o C) dyne/cm2 ton lbm oC oF Conversion factor 2.54 101.4516 0.001 1233.489 0.09290304 6.325 100. N Length.0 6.02831685 4. K R Surface tension.0 0.5/(131.1450377 1000.609344 30. Pa−1 Density.
6 .
"Proved reserves of crude oil. Current economic conditions include prices and costs prevailing at the time of the estimate. which included categories ranging from proved to speculative reserves [2]. natural gas liquids. In 1979. Reserve estimates are based on geologic and/or engineering data available at the time of estimate. natural gas liquids and natural gas". economic or regulatory uncertainties preclude such reserves being classiﬁed as proved. the World Petroleum Congress issued a set of petroleum reserve deﬁnitions.1 shows a conceptual scheme of the oil and gas resources and reserves. Fig. They may be estimated assuming future economic conditions different from those prevailing at the time of the estimate. under existing economic conditions. The relative degree of an estimated uncertainty is reﬂected by the categorisation of reserves as either "proved" or "unproved" Proved Reserves can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be recoverable under current economic conditions. condensate. Reserves are considered proved is commercial producibility of the reservoir is supported by actual engineering tests. Unproved Reserves are based on geological and/or engineering data similar to those used in the estimates of proved reserves. by established operating practices. where the following deﬁnitions are used [2]: Reserves are estimated volumes of crude oil. whereby also the SPE deﬁnitions were updated in 1981. the U.S. natural gas. They were presented in a joint publication of API and the American Gas Association (AGA). 1. the American Petroleum Institute (API) set some guiding standards for the deﬁnition of proved reserves. but when technical. In 1983. and under current government regulations. In 1964. Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) issued a newer set of deﬁnitions. and associated substances anticipated to be commercially recoverable from known accumulations from a given date forward. in 1946. the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) recommended reserve deﬁnitions following the revised API deﬁnitions. contractual.Chapter 1 Oil and Gas Resources and Reserves 1. 7 .1 Terminology and Deﬁnitions In the period from 1936 to 1964.
• Incremental reserves based on inﬁll drilling are subject to technical uncertainty. which may involve either a naturaldrive mechanism improved by water or gas injection.1: Conceptual scheme for oil and gas resources and reserves. In general. The estimation of reserves will depend upon the actual mode of petroleum recovery. • Reserves in rock formations that appear to be hydrocarbonbearing based on logs or cores. but may not be productive at a commercial level. Oil and Gas Resources and Reserves Total Oil and Gas Resource Discovered Undiscoveed Nonrecoverable Resources Recoverable Resources Reserves Cumulative Production Unproved Reserves Possible Reserves Proved Reserves Probable Reserves Figure 1. Possible Reserves are less certain than proved reserves and can be estimated with a low degree of certainty. insufﬁcient to indicate whether they are more likely to be recovered than not.1. or some special technique of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). .8 Chapter 1. Probable Reserves are less certain than proved reserves and can be estimated with a degree of certainty sufﬁcient to indicate they are more likely to be recovered than not. see Fig. Unproved reserves may further be classiﬁedprobable and possible. based on geological and/or geophysical interpretation. "possible" reserves may include: • Reserves suggested by structural and/or stratigraphic extrapolation beyond areas classiﬁed as probable. 1.
1 AnalogyBased Approach Another producing reservoir with comparable characteristics can be used as a possible analogue for the reservoir under consideration. 100.2 Methods for Resources/Reserve Estimation 9 • Reserves attributable to an improved or enhanced recovery method when a pilot project is planned (but not in operation) and the rock. simply because perfect analogues can seldom be found.2.2 Methods for Resources/Reserve Estimation 1.2. but appears to be separated from those areas by faults and the geological interpretation. pay thickness and drive mechanism. . The main difﬁculty in a volumetric estimate of resources/reserves is in the transfer of data obtained at a small scale (core analysis. temperature. rock and ﬂuid properties.2 Volumetric Estimates The methods of reserve estimation based on reservoir data are volumetric and can be divided into deterministic and probabilistic (stocastic) estimates. 1. 1. which means the cumulative thickness of the permeable rock units only. In an analogue approach. either by a direct welltowell comparison or on a unitrecovery basis. indicates a relatively low structurally position. The main parameters used for a volumetric estimate in this approach are: • The reservoir "gross" isopach map. All possible differences between the analogue reservoir and the reservoir in question need to be considered to make a realistic adjustment of the recovery estimates. reservoir depth. an analoguebased approach is also the least accurate and little reliable method of petroleum reserve estimation.000 bbl/well) and applying a similar or adjusted recovery factor to the wells in the reservoir considered.. • The reservoir "net" isopach map. The use of an analogue may be the only method available to estimate the reserves in a situation where there are no solid data on well performance or reservoir characteristics. However. pressure. ﬂuid and reservoir characteristics are such that a reasonable doubt exists whether the estimated reserves will be commercial. etc. lithofacies data.g. The unitrecovery approach refers to a recovery calculated in barrels per acrefoot or Mcf per acrefoot. The NettoGross ratio (N/G) is an important parameter indicating the productive portion of the reservoir. • Reserves in a rock formation that has proved to be productive in other areas of the ﬁeld. which means the bulk thickness of the reservoir rocks (formation). Deterministic Methods The principle of a deterministic approach to resources/reserve estimates is to "upscale" the information derived from the wells and supported by seismic survey.1.e. reservoir rock lithofacies. This can be done by determining an average oil or gas recovery per well in the analogue reservoir (e. into the interwell space by using an interpolation technique. one has to consider similarities of well spacing. data "upscaling" for interwell space).) into a much larger scale ( i. well logs.
• Volumebased average saturation of water. possibly normal. gas and oil. This numerical technique assumes that the main reservoir properties (porosity. Each numerical realisation bears an uncertainty for the reservoir characterisation. etc. – An estimate with 50 % or higher probability is the level regarded as aproven + probable value. so to speak.10 Chapter 1. permeability. • The permeability and netthickness product (khN ) is important for the estimation of well production capacity: ∑ ki hi N (khN ) = hN i = ∑ ki hi . In common usage [8] we have: – An estimate with 90 % or higher probability is the level regarded as aproven value. is an estimate of resources/reserves. ∑i φi Ai hi Plotting these parameters as contoured maps (isopachs. 1. Oil and Gas Resources and Reserves • The reservoir rock porosity (as a volumebased weighed average): φ= ∑i φi Ai hi .) provides the crucial information on their variation and distribution in the reservoir and makes it possible to evaluate the reservoir pore volume and its fractions saturated with oil and gas (hydrocarbon volume). which takes more account of the estimate uncertainty. The cumulative frequency distributions of these estimates. ∑i Ai hi where φ is the local porosity. ect.2. In practice. Stochastic reservoir description is usually based on the procedure of randomnumber generator. and then simulates their actual density distribution in the whole reservoir. Ai is a subarea and hi is a subthickness (of permeable rock). See Fig. Different realisations lead to different volumetric estimates. with different probabilities attached. Stochastic Methods An alternative approach is a probabilistic estimation of resources/reserves. it is necessary to repeat the stochastic simulation for different "seeds" (initial boundary values) in order to asses and quantify the actual variation of a given parameter. isopermeability. . The numerical value of hydrocarbon resources/reserve estimate their represents an outcome of "integrated" map analysis. The maximum and minimum values are speciﬁed for each of the reservoir parameters and the random number generator then "drowns data". that is used to asses their likelihood will be a very unclear formulation. where the probabilistic rather than deterministic. frequency distributions. G i ∑i hi where ki is the local permeability (other symbols as above). For example water saturation: Sw = ∑i Swi φi Ai hi . N/G.) all have random. with the range of values included by core and welllog data. isoporosity.
More generally. hence. aprobabilistic estimate can be made.3 Performance Analysis The methods of performance analysis presently used include: • Analysis based on Material Balance Equation (MBE) [33. 45]. subunit or layer) of the reservoir. • Reservoir Simulation Models (RSM) [10. .2 Methods for Resources/Reserve Estimation 11 1. 1. The lack or scarsity of data in such cases is compensated by a subjective assessment of the reservoir characteristics (i.2: Example of stochastic volumetric estimate based on a series of randomnumber simulations. 56]. compared to a fuzzy assessment. as seen in Fig. 1.0 Frequency of cumulative probability Frequency Probability.2. When more data have been collected and statistical analysis becomes possible. A rectangular distribution means no preference and a triangular distribution means that strong preference distributions are used. a deterministic estimate can be made based on a well. the shape of the distribution and the maximum and minimum values of a given reservoir parameter).3.e. see Fig. 28. – An estimate with 10 % or higher probability is the level regarded as aproven +probable + possible value. Based on the knowledge from other reservoirs or simply a theoretical guess. the cumulative frequency graph may change its shape and the uncertainty of our resource/reserve estimates may decrease. When the data available are abadundant. the data are usually too limited for using statistical analysis and. that a given value of resources will be at least as great as shown 0.4. a fuzzy estimate of the resources/reserves may be best or only option [22.1. 1. As more information on the reservoir becomes available. the problem of certainty can be considered in terms of "fuzzy" [61].0 Min Value Max Min Value Max Figure 1. The range in the possible values of the reservoir parameters would then be narrower. probabilistic and deterministic estimates based on the data available at a particular time. 34].speciﬁed value of a particular parameter for a particular part (zone. A comparison of these estimates may be more revealing that each of them is in isolation. At the very early stages of ﬁeld appraisal.
– Production rate vs. • Decline Curve Analysis (DCA) [53]. cumulative oil production. such a performance analysis allows to estimate both the reserves and the future performance of the reservoir. The RSM method involves a numerical simulation technique. The aim of all of these methods is to obtain the best reservoir performance prediction on the basis of available data. cumulative oil production. The following "decline curves" from production wells are commonly used in the DCA: – Production rate vs. The method is thus adjusted differently to reservoirs containing oil.0 Appraisal Max 0. but involves some assumptions for the reservoir driving mechanism in order to minimise the range of possible predictions from the dataset. gas or oil with a gas cap (primary or secondary). The discrepancy between the simulation results (prediction) and the available data is minimised by adjusting the reservoir parameters and taking into account the most likely reservoir drive mechanism (history match ).0 Delineation/ early production 1. harmonic.0 Min Value Max Figure 1.0 Predrilling 1. time.0 Min Value Max Frequency of cumulative probability Frequency of cumulative probability 0.).0 Frequency of cumulative probability 1. .0 Min Value Max 0. ect.0 Discovery 1.0 Late time depletion Min Value Max 0. exponential. with the matching of the production and the reservoir’s previous performance (history).0 Min Value Max 0.12 Chapter 1.0 Mature production 1. The DCA method is to predict future performance of the reservoir by matching the observed trend of the production decline with one or several standard mathematical methods of the production ratetime (hyperbolic. Oil and Gas Resources and Reserves Frequency of cumulative probability Frequency of cumulative probability 0.0 Min Value Frequency of cumulative probability 1. 1992). – Water cut vs. The MBE method is based on the data obtained from previous reservoir performance and PVT analysis. If successful.3: Changes in the uncertainty resources estimate with increasing data acquisition (after Archer and Wall.
1.0 Deterministic Frequency of cumulative probability Probabilistic Fuzzy 0. .0 V.V V. cumulative oil production.5.L.4: The concept of uncertainty in resources/reserves estimation illustrated by fuzzy.V M. probabilistic and deterministic approach (data set).1.O. – The (p/z) ratio vs. – Percentage oil production vs.V Value Figure 1.P. cumulative production. cumulative gas production.2 Methods for Resources/Reserve Estimation 13 1. – Gasoil ratio vs. Some of these decline curves are shown in Fig.
. Oil and Gas Resources and Reserves q q Np Np 0 Economic limit Cumulative oil producction 0 Economic limit Time 100 p (z ) Oil production. % Np Gp 0 Economic limit Cumulative oil producction 0 Economic limit G Cumulative oil producction Figure 1.5: Different ways of data representation for a decline curve analysis.14 Chapter 1.
Part I Fundamentals 15 .
Chapter 2
Basic Concepts of Petroleum Geology
2.1 Introduction
Reservoir Engineering is a part of Petroleum Science that provides the technical basis for the recovery of petroleum ﬂuids from subsurface sedimentaryrock reservoirs. The Fig. 2.1 below indicates the place and role of Reservoir Engineering in the broad ﬁeld of Petroleum Science.
Reservoir characterization
Geology and Geophysics
Reserve estimates for well proposal evaluation
Reservoir correlation
Geochemical studies Reserve estimates, material balance calculations, fluid flow equations, reservoir simulation, pressure transient analysis, well test design and evaluation
Reservoir screening for improved recovery projects Improved recovery project design and maintenance
Reservoir Engineering
Production Engineering
Workover reserve analysis, well completion design, production facility design, production log interpretation, prediction of production schedules
Facilities Engineering
Design proposals for separation, treating, metering and pipeline facilities
Final facility design and operation
Figure 2.1: Reservoir engineering and petroleum science. This chapter pertains to the basic concepts of Petroleum Geology and covers the following 17
18
Chapter 2. Basic Concepts of Petroleum Geology
main topics: • The source rock of hydrocarbons. • The generation, maturation, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons.
2.2 The Basic Concepts
Petroleum is a mineral substance composed of hydrocarbons and produced from the natural accumulations of organic matter of a faunal and/or ﬂoral provenance. Petroleum is a gaseous, liquid or semisolid substance, present in the pore space of porous rocks, referred to as reservoir rocks, which are mainly of sedimentary origin.
2.2.1 Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
Sedimentary rocks results from the deposition of sedimentary particles, known as clastic material or detritus (from the Latin "worn down"), consisting of mineral grains and rock fragments. Sedimentary particles are derived from weathered and fragmented older rocks, igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary, usually with some chemical changes. Sediment comprising loose mineral detritus or debris is referred to as clastic sediment (from the Greek word "klastos", meaning broken). Some clastic sediments consist of the accumulations of skeletal parts or shells of dead organisms, commonly fragmented, and are referred to as bioclastic rocks (see next section). The particles of clastic sediment may range widely in size, and the predominant grainsize fraction is the primary basis for classifying clastic sediments and clastic sedimentary rocks. As shown in Table 2.1 clastic sediments can be divided into 4 main classes: gravel, sand, silt, and clay [49], where mud is a mixture of clay and silt, possibly including also some very ﬁne sand. The narrower the grainsize range of a given sediment, the better its "sorting". Both the grain size and sorting have direct implications for the sediment permeability to ﬂuids. Table 2.1: Deﬁnition of grainsize and the terminology for sediments and sedimentary rocks.
Sediment grainsize fraction Boulder Cobble Pebble Granule Sand Silt Clay Clay & slit mixture
∗
Grainsize limits in mm More than 256 64 to 256 4 to 64 2 to 4 1/16 to 2 1/256 to 1/16 Less than 1/256
Unconsolidated sediment Boulder gravel Cobble gravel Pebble gravel Granule grawel Sand Silt Clay Mud
Consolidated rock Boulder conglomerate ∗ Cobble conglomerate ∗ Pebble conglomerate ∗ Granule coglomerate ∗ Sandstone Siltstone Claystone (clayshale, if ﬁssile) Mudstone (mudshale, if ﬁssile)
The term "gravelstone" is preferred by some authors on semantic basis [51].
2.2 The Basic Concepts
19
2.2.2 Nonclastic Sedimentary Rocks
Chemical Deposits Some sedimentary rocks contain little or no clastic particles. Such a sediment, formed by the precipitation of minerals from solution in water, is a chemical sediment. It forms by means of either biochemical or purely chemical (inorganic) reactions [51]. The primary porosity of such rocks is practically zero, and their possible porosity is totally dependent on the development of secondary porosity, chieﬂy in the form of microfractures. Biogenic Deposits Sedimentary rocks commonly contain fossils, the remains of plants and animals that died and were buried and preserved in the sediment as it accumulated. A sediment composed mainly or entirely of fossil remains is called a biogenic sediment. If the fossil debris has not been homogenised by chemical processes, the deposit can be regarded as a bioclastic sediment [51]. Main nonclastic rocks are: limestone, dolomite, salt, gypsum, chert, and coal. Chalk is a special type of biogenic limestone, composed of the sheletal parts of pleagic coccolithophorid algea, called coccoliths. The main types of sedimentary rocks and their chemical compositions are shown in list below, containing main sedimentary rock types and their chemical composition of categories [37]. Sandstone a siliciclastic rock formed of sand, commonly quartzose or arhosic, cemented with silica, calcium carbonate, iron oxide or clay. Chemical composition: SiO2 . Density: ∼ 2.65 g/cm3 . Shale a ﬁssile rock, commonly with a laminated structure, formed by consolidation of clay or mud ( mainly siliciclastic) Argillite (mud rock) – any compact sedimentary rock composed mainly of siliciclastic mud. Chemical composition: SiO2 . Dolomite a carbonate rock, consisting largely of the mineral dolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate) Chemical composition: CaMg(CO3 )2 . Density: ∼ 2.87 g/cm3 . Limestone a carbonate rock consisting wholly or mainly of the mineral calcite. Chemical composition: CaCO3 . Density: ∼ 2.71 g/cm3 . Calcarenite a sandstone composed of carbonate grains, typically a clastic variety of limestone. Chemical composition: CaCO3 . Density: ∼ 2.70 g/cm3 . Marl a friable rock consisting of calcium carbonate and siliciclastic mud/clay. Chemical composition: SiO2 +CaCO3 . Density: ∼ 2.68 g/cm3 . Salt (rock salt) – a chemical rock composed of the mineral halite. Chemical composition: NaCl.
during the early diagenesis. and grasses that contribute to most of the buried organic matter in mud rocks and shales. is generated through the action of microorganisms that live near the ground surface. phytoplankton and bacteria are the principal of organic matter buried in sediment. Basic Concepts of Petroleum Geology Gypsum a chemical. 2. . oil or natural gas are called the fossil fuels. the organic compounds are transformed (mainly by the geothermal heat) into petroleum. rather than petroleum. A temperature range between about 60oC and 175oC is most favourable for the generation of hydrocarbons. which indicates a nonoxidised primary organic matter. In terrestrial sedimentary basins. deﬁned as gaseous. At lower temperatures. See Fig 2. Anhydrite a chemical.1 Source Rock and Generation of Petroleum Local large concentrations of organic matter in sedimentary rocks. and is the organic substance of socalled oil shales. At temperatures much above 175oC. the generation of liquid petroleum ceases and the foro mation of gas becomes dominant.3. bushes. and is commonly called the oil window. The alteration of kerogen to petroleum is similar to other o thermalcracking reactions. it is plants such as trees. During this conversion. liquid or semisolid natural substances that consist mainly of hydrocarbons. is called kerogen. Instead. This material.as illustrated by Fig.20 Chapter 2. Some of the typical reservoir rocks are shown in Fig. and lignins. These large plants are rich in resins.3 The Origin and Habitat of Petroleum 2.2 2. 2. which usually require temperatures greater than 60 C. which tend to remain solid and form coal. in the form of coal. Organic carbonrich shale and mudrock are characteristically black or dark greyish in colour.3 . consisting about 80% of the world’s sedimentary rock volume. a natural biogenic methane called marsh gas. Petroleum is generated when the kerogen is subjected to a sufﬁcient high temperature in the process of the sediment burial. because it is capable of releasing large amounts of hydrocarbons in natural burial conditions. Usually this is ashale or mudrock which itself is a very common rock type. evaporitic rock composed of the mineral anhydrite. the most favoured one is that oil and gas are formed from marine phytoplankton (microscopic ﬂoating plants) and to a lesser degree from algae and foraminifera [51]. most of the kerogen will have lost its petroleumgenerating capacity [49]. A rock rich in primary organic matter is called a source rock.3. Most of organic matter is trapped in clay mud that is slowly converted into shale under burial. Many hypotheses concerning the origin of petroleum have been advanced over the last years. the alteration process is limited to certain waxlike substances with large molecules. When the formation rock temperature exceeds 225 C. Chemical composition: CaSO4 . In the ocean. waxes. Kerogen can be converted into oil and gas by further burial by mining the shale and subjecting it to heat it in a retort. Currently. which remains solid. Many organic carbonrich marine and lake shales never reach the burial temperature level at which the original organic molecules are converted into hydrocarbons forming oil and natural gas. evaporitic rock composed of the mineral gypsum Chemical composition: CaSO4 2H2 O.
This explains. Additional chemical changes may occur in the oil and gas even after these have been generated or accumulated.3 The Origin and Habitat of Petroleum 21 Figure 2. Likewise. . The long and complex chain of chemical reactions involved in the conversion of raw organic matter into crude petroleum is called maturation.2. why the petroleum taken from different oil ﬁelds has different properties. for example. primary differences in the source composition may be reﬂected in the chemistry of the petroleum. despite a common source rock.2: Typical reservoir rocks.
Oil source rocks are chieﬂy marine shales and mudrocks.3: Generation of petroleum vs. burial temperature. as geological strata). • oil has the optical properties of hydrocarbons that are known only to derive from organic matter and • oil contains nitrogen and certain other compounds that are known to originate from living organic matter only. Fig. 2. The fact is that most of the world’s largest hydrocarbon ﬁelds are found in marine sedimentary rock successions representing ancient continental shelves. Basic Concepts of Petroleum Geology Generation Intensity Immature Zone 60 Heavy Oil Zone 100 Light Biogenic Methane Oil Wet Gas 175 Temperature. some lake sediments may be just as oilprone as marine source rocks. °C Wet Gas Zone Dry Gas 225 Dry Gas Zone 315 Figure 2. . Two types of evidence support the hypothesis that petroleum is a product of the decomposition of natural organic matter [51].4 shows the distribution of the world’s sedimentary basin and petroleum accumulations (from [51]). Geologists conclude therefore that oil is originated primarily from the organic matter deposited in marine sediments. However. Sampling of mud on the continental shelves and along the bases of continental slopes has shown that the shallowly buried mud contains up to 8% organic matter. Many oil ﬁelds in various parts of the world are in ancient lacustrine deposits (formed at the bottom or along the shore of lakes.22 Chapter 2. Similar or even higher total organiccarbon (TOC) content characterizes many ancient marine shales.
a secondary gas cap may develop when the reservoir pressure has decreased and the lightest hydrocarbon begin to bubble out from the oil. called atrap. This means that any pressure change in the aquifer will also affect the reservoir. from a source rock which results in a primary gas cap above the oil in the reservoir.2. Likewise. 2. Hydrocarbons are less dense than water. and the depletion of the reservoir will make the aquifer expand into this space.Areas of ocean deeper than 2000m underlain by thick accumulations of sedimentary rock Figure 2. which means that gas and possibly also some oil may "leak" to yet higher lying traps or up to the ground surface. In a trap. the oil and gas accumulate by displacing pore water from the porous rock. The top may be imperfectly sealed. The water bearing part of the trap is called an aquifer. where geological conditions have provided the unique combination of both hydrocarbon prone source rocks and hydrocarbon traps.2 Petroleum Migration and Accumulation The accumulation of petroleum occur in only those areas. they thus tend to migrate upwards in the direction of the minimum pressure.3. The part of the trap that contains hydrocarbons is called a petroleum reservoir. Some "leaky" or limitedcapacity traps may segregate oil and gas that have been generated together.4: World’s main sedimentary basins and petroleum accumulations. Both oil and gas are generated together. Water generally underlines the hydrocarbons in a trap.Areas where major amounts of oil and gas have been found . .3 The Origin and Habitat of Petroleum 23 Legend: . such that these accumulate in separate reservoirs. or an impervious barrier. Once released from the source rock. and is hydrolically connected with the reservoir. until they either escape at the ground surface. in varying proportions.
24
Chapter 2. Basic Concepts of Petroleum Geology
In summary, several factors are required for the formation of a petroleum reservoir [49]: 1. There must be a source rock, preferably rich in primary organic matter (carbon rich marine or lacustrine shale). This source rock must be deeply buried to reach efﬁcient temperatures to cause the organic matter to mature and turn into petroleum. 2. There has to be a migration pathway that enables the shalereleased petroleum to migrate in a preferential direction. 3. There must be a reservoir rock that is sufﬁciently porous and permeable to accumulate the petroleum in large quantities. 4. There must be a trap that is sealed sufﬁciently to withhold the petroleum. Otherwise, the majority of petroleum will bypass the porous rock and be dispersed or escape to the ground surface. 5. An impermeable seal or caprock, is critical in preventing the petroleum from leaking out from the reservoir or escaping to the surface. If any of these key factors is missing or inadequate, a petroleum reservoir ﬁeld cannot be formed. A large isolated reservoir or group of closely adjacent reservoirs is referred to as an oil ﬁeld.
2.3.3 Classiﬁcation of Petroleum ReservoirForming Traps
In this section, a general classiﬁcation of petroleum reservoirforming traps is discussed (after [1]). In broad terms, one may distinguish between structual traps (related to tectonic structures) and sratigraphic traps (related to the sealing effect of unconformities and rocktype, or lithofacies, changes). Domes and Anticlines Domes and anticlines are structures formed by the tectonic uplift and/or folding of sedimentary rocks. When viewed from above, a dome is circular in shape as in Fig. 2.5, whereas an anticline is an elongate fold as in Fig. 2.6. Salt Domes This type of geological structure is caused by the upward intrusion of a diapiric body of salt, volcanic rock, or serpentine. In pushing up or piercing through the overlaying sedimentary rocks, the diapir may cause the formation of numerous traps on its ﬂanks, in which petroleum may accumulate, as seen in Fig. 2.7. Some salt domes may be highly elongated, rather than cylindrical, and are called salt walls (e.g. southern North Sea region). Salt itself is a perfect sealing rock.
2.3 The Origin and Habitat of Petroleum
25
d ble Be mea GAS r Impe
OIL
TE WA R
Porous Strata
Figure 2.5: Oil and gas accumulation in a dome structure.
Im
le eab perm
Be d
GAS
OIL
e Imp
ab rme
rata l e St
TE WA
R
Porous Strata
Figure 2.6: Oil and gas accumulation in an anticline structure.
Fault Structures Many petroleum traps are related to faults, which commonly displace permeable rocks against the impervious one. The fault plane, where lined with a shearproduced gouge or heavily cemented by the percolating groundwater fragments of rock, acts on impermeable barrier that further increases the trapping effect on the migration of oil and gas. See Fig. 2.8.
Structures Unconformity This type of structure is a sealing unconformity, with the permeable rocks tilted, erosionally truncated and covered by younger impermeable deposits. A reservoir may be formed where the petroleum is trapped in the updip part of the bluntly truncated and sealed, porous rock unit, as seen in Fig. 2.9.
26
Chapter 2. Basic Concepts of Petroleum Geology
Gas Oil
Water
Oil Oil Salt Mass Water
Figure 2.7: Hydrocarbon accumulation associated with a salt dome.
Fault
Gas Oil Water
Figure 2.8: Hydrocarbon accumulation related to a fault. Lenticular Traps Oil and gas may accumulate in traps formed by the bodies of porous lithofacies (rock types) embedded in impermeable lithofacies, or by the pinchouts of porous lithofacies within impermeable ones, as seen in Fig. 2.10. Examples of such lenticular traps include: ﬂuvial sandstone bodies embedded in ﬂoodbasin mudrocks, deltaic or mouthbar sandstone wedges pinching out within offshore mudrocks, and turbiditic sandstone lobes embedded in deep marine mudrocks. Similar traps occur in various limestones, where their porous lithofacies (e.g. oolithic limestone or other calcarenites) are embedded in impermeable massive lithofacies; or where porous bioclastic reefal limestones pinch out in marls or in mudrocks. The approximate percentages of the world’s petroleum reservoirs associated with those
2.3 The Origin and Habitat of Petroleum
27
Gas Oil Water
Impermeable Beds
Figure 2.9: Oil and gas trapped below an unconformity.
Tightincreasing Shale Content
Oil
Water
Figure 2.10: Petroleum trap formed by lithofacies change (Sandstone pinchout). major trap types are given in Fig. 2.11. On of the presentday Earth’s surface, over half of the continental areas and adjacent marine shelves have sediment covers either absent or too thin to make prospects for petroleum accumulation. Even in an area where the buried organic matter can mature, not all of it results in petroleum accumulations. The following statistical data may serve as a fairly realistic illustration [49]: • Only 1% by vol. of a source rock is organic matter, • < 30% by vol. of organic matter matured to petroleum, • > 70% by vol. of organic matter remains as residue and • 99% by vol. of petroleum is dispersed or lost at the ground surface in the process of migration, and only 1% by vol. is trapped. These data lead to the following estimate: only 0.003 vol.% of the world’s source rocks actually turn into petroleum that can be trapped and thus generate our petroleum resources.
g.75 0.11: Percentages of world’s petroleum accumulations associated with the major traps types. particularly fault and dome structures. 2. Table 2.50 Unconformity Other Stratigraphic 0 Structural Traps Stratigraphic Combination Traps Traps Figure 2.2 summarises the regional information about some of the hydrocarbon ﬁelds belonging to the most common types of traps in the Norwegian continental shelf [4]. Basic Concepts of Petroleum Geology 0. although there are several reservoirs associated with unconformities or porous lithofacies pinchouts (e.28 Chapter 2. ﬂuvial sandstone in the Snorre ﬁled and turbiditic sandstone in the Frigg and Balder ﬁelds).25 Salt Diapirs Combination Anticlines Faults .4 Types of Hydrocarbon Traps on the Norwegian Continental Shelf Structural traps. are the most common type of trap in the Norwegian Continental Shelf [4]. Reef 0. Stratigraphic traps are far less common for this region.
2. Field AGAT BALDER DRAUGEN EKOFISK ELDFISK EMBLA FRIGG GULLFAKS HEIDRUN MIDGARD OSEBERG SNORRE ˙ SNIHVIT STATFJORD TROLL VALHALL Type of Trap Stratigraphic Stratigraphic Stratigraphic Dome Dome Structural Stratigraphic Structural Structural Structural Structural Structural Structural Structural Structural Dome Reservoir Rock Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone Chalk Chalk Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone Chalk Rock Age Cretaceous Tertiary Jurassic Cretaceous Cretaceous Carboniferous Tertiary Jurassic Jurassic Jurassic Jurassic Jurassic Jurassic Jurassic Jurassic Cretaceous .4 Types of Hydrocarbon Traps on the Norwegian Continental Shelf 29 Table 2.2: Types of petroleum trap in the main ﬁelds of the Norwegian Continental Shelf [4].
Basic Concepts of Petroleum Geology .30 Chapter 2.
1. a porous rock formation saturated with ﬂuids forms a continuum. UTCHEM. If the elementary volumes are too small and comparable to the rock’s pore or grain size. The need for this concept assumption can be explained as follows. etc. FRAGOR. ect. 2 At a large scale. even if the elementary volume considered is very small and approaches zero. as seen in Fig.Chapter 3 Basic Concepts and Deﬁnitions in Reservoir Engineering 3. or volumetric part. with the elementary volumes considered on the order of 10 − 104 m. 3. FRANLAB. 3. of the reservoir space.) occur at a scale comparable to the rock’s grain size or the dimension of a fractured rock’s fragment (10−4 − 100 m). This condition makes the average parameters of the porous medium sufﬁciently representative for a description of the ﬂuid ﬂow processes occurring in the rock. bedding. According to these concepts. can only be described qualitatively. For the purpose of the ﬁltration theory.). oil and/or gas) are present in every element. etc. Likewise. called the ﬁltration theory.) are based on this theory. with the scale of the ﬂow phenomenon varying from very small to large. All of the most important numerical simulation programs (ECLIPSE. However there are some regularities in the behaviour of the "rockﬂuids" systems that can be described by continuum mechanics. the effect of the microscale phenomena "average" and can more readily be parameterizied. even if very small. water. the concepts of continuum mechanics can be applied if the reservoir heterogeneity is considered at a macroscale level (lithofaces variation. In Fig.1 Continuum Mechanics The present understanding of the subsurface processes relevant to reservoir engineering is based on the physical concepts of continuum mechanics [12]. the ﬁltration theory cannot be successfully applied. This conceptual approach allows us to develop a useful theory for the ﬂow of liquid and gas through a porous medium. many physical phenomena (capillary effects. Let us consider the ﬂow of liquids and gas in a natural reservoir. The ﬂow of ﬂuids that occurs in the partial volume of a porous rock. ﬂuid adhesion effects associated. whereas all microheterogeneities on a scale comparable to the grain size are being considered as constants in 31 . because of the great complexity of the phenomenon. which means that all the components involved (rock.1. MORE. the laws of continuum mechanics are considered to be effective only if the elementary volume is sufﬁciently large to render the number of pores and rock grains very large or "innumerable".
e. 3. respectively). 3. leaching. oil and gas. Vb (3. etc. its content and hydration. φ= def Vp . whether the voids are interconnected or not. Basic Concepts and Deﬁnitions in Reservoir Engineering A Fracture B C D B A C Well ~ 10 m 3 ~ 10 m 0 ~ 10 m 2 ~ 10 m 4 Figure 3. the rock’s ﬂuid ﬂow capacity).e. φa = def Vpa . to the bulk volume Vb of a rock sample. etc. weathering. the equations of ﬂow (parametrized connatewater saturation. Absolute porosity is deﬁned as the ratio of the total void volume Vpa . heterogeneity of grain sizes and their packing. acting as cement between grain particles. type of clay.1) Effective porosity implies the ratio of the total volume of interconnected voidsVp to the bulk volume of rock. It should be noted that porosity is a static parameter. The fundamental deﬁnitions in the ﬁltration theory include the distribution between porosity (i.2 Porosity The porosity constitute the part of the total porous rock volume which is not occupied by rock grains or ﬁne mud rock. unlike permeability which makes sense only if liquid or gas is moving in porous medium. this can be written as follows: . with the pores ﬁlled with oil.2) Effective porosity depends on several factors like rock type. In volumetric terms.e.3 Saturation Let us consider a representative elementary volume of the reservoir. Absolute and effective porosity are distinguished by their access capabilities to reservoir ﬂuids. gas and water. Vb (3.) or described by some empirical relationships (functions). residualoil saturation. the pore volume percent occupied by water. the rock’s ﬂuid storage capacity) and permeability (i. cementation.1: Structure of a fracturedrock reservoir at different scales of observation. as well as the consideration ofﬂuid saturation (i.32 Chapter 3.
i=1 ∑ Si = 1. or the actual "drive mechanism" of the petroleum displacement. In short. and the residual saturation .recovery factor may be as low as 510% and is rarely higher than 70%.2: Distribution of water and oil phases in a waterwet porous medium. most notably from the wateroil contact to the reservoir top (see ﬁgures in previous chapter).. the adhesive forces of one ﬂuid against the pore walls (rockgrain surface) are always stronger than those of the other ﬂuid. as a fraction of the pore volume occupied by a particular ﬂuid: Si = def Vi . both siliclastic and carbonate. n Vp where n denotes the total number of ﬂuid phases present in the porous medium. the pore water is the wetting phase and oil is a nonwetting phase.3. 3. 3.1 Residual Saturation Not all the oil can be removed from the reservoir during production. this is called the residual oil. oil and water). Importantly. the ﬂuid saturation (So . Sg and Sw ) in a reservoir varies in space. and also in time during the production.3.2. the oil. Simply. Consequently. One has to distinguish between the residual oil and possibly gas saturation reached in a reservoir after the production stage. (3. S.3) which leads to the deﬁnition of saturation. Depending on the production method. different parts of the reservoir may have quite different ﬂuid saturations. they are distributed unevenly in the pore space due to the wettability preferences.. See Fig. In the vast majority of petroleum reservoirs.3 Saturation 33 Vp = Vo +Vg +Vw . n If two ﬂuids coexist (say. .. Water Oil Rock Figure 3. i = 1. Part of the oil will remain as residue. and also the saturation in any elementary volume of the reservoir changes progressively during the production.
deep freezing of retrieved cores. rubber sleeves containing the core samples and maintaining their reservoir pressure. Vp (3. then Sor = Voi −Vo .3. etc. • The efﬁciency of possible oil displacement from the reservoir rock represented by the core. the changes in pressure and temperature. Water Core sample Oil Sample holder Water Figure 3. • The possible alterations due to the drillingﬂuid invasion into the core.4) where Voi is the initial volume of trapped oil in the core sample. . where water is displacing the initial oil in the core sample.34 Chapter 3. Basic Concepts and Deﬁnitions in Reservoir Engineering of ﬂuid phases in a reservoirrock sample after a well coring operation. If the pore volume Vp of the core sample in known. and Vo is the displaced or produced oil.2 Laboratory Determination of Residual Oil and Water Saturation The cores recovered from wells contain residual ﬂuids (depleted due to the drillingﬂuid invasion.) Two laboratory techniques are commonly used for determining the residual oil and water saturation. "peelsealed" core sample is taken to the laboratory. where the reservoir saturation and the oilrecovery factor are estimated.3: Evaluation of residual oil saturation Sor by a laboratory displacement from a core sample. • a high temperature retort distillation method and • the DeanStark method. 3.) that are assumed to reﬂect: • The ﬂuid saturation at the reservoir conditions. The laboratory process is illustrated in Fig. The modern techniques of coresamples collection prevent dramatic alterations of the rock ﬂuid characteristics. (foambased drilling ﬂuid. 3. etc. A fresh.3.
A thermostat controller raises the temperature of the core to a selected level. N.4: The high temperature retort distillation method. at which point the water within the core is vaporised and recovered. The temperature is then increased to ∼ 650o C (1200o F) to vaporise and then distil oil from the sample. The vaporised ﬂuids are ﬁrst collected in the sample holder and then released vertically downwards through the hollow stem ( ownd draft retort).3.4. They are subsequently condensed and measured in a calibrated receiving tube.B.! Samples are usually destroyed in this test due to the high temperature and for this reason smalldiameter samples or "plugs" (small cores from the well core). The calculation of the oil and water saturation is straightforward. The top is sealed and the sample holder is placed in a retort oven. 3. See Fig. The following parameter values are derived from the laboratory test: . Termocouple Insulated oven Heating elements Sample cup Screen Condensing tube Water bath Water inlet Receiving tube Oil Water Temperatur controller Figure 3. The sample is then placed in a cylindrical metal holder with a screw cup at the top and a hollow stem projecting from the bottom.3 Saturation 35 The Retort Distillation Method The core sample is weighed and its bulk volume measured or calculated. are normally used.
• it must be immiscible with water and • it must also be lighter than water. with a density of 1.5) where the saturation are fractional parts of the pore volume. There are several requirements for choosing a proper solvent. • Vp – the pore volume. Because the water collected in the calibrated tube is distilled. . dry sample. 3. the water volume is recorded for further calculations. it vaporises. registered during the test. it is dried and weighed again. and the pore ﬂuid. and So = . When heat is applied to the solvent.. The sample is then placed in the tare apparatus (to be sure that no sand grains are lost from the core sample during its analysis. as shown in Fig. the weight of oil in the sample can be calculated. Vp Vp (3. where its volume can be directly measured. The difference between the original and ﬁnal weights equals to the weight of the oil and water originally present in the sample.5. Basic Concepts and Deﬁnitions in Reservoir Engineering • Vb . determined prior to the experiment. This information is subsequently combined with the estimated porosity of the clean. such as toluene.5. which might otherwise lead to an erroneously high oil saturation!) and this unit is suspended above a ﬂask containing a solvent. 3. condenses therein and falls back into the calibrated tube. The DeanStark Apparatus for Measuring Initial Fluids When the core to be analysed is weighed. At that point. Toluene satisﬁes all of those requirements. • Vo . The hot solvent vapour rises. Frequently.36 Chapter 3. the volumes of the oil and water can be converted into percent porespace fraction (saturation). surrounds the sample and moves up to the condensing tube. The condensate collects into the calibrated tube until the ﬂuid there reaches the spill point. saturation are also given in %. When successive readings indicate no additional water recovery. rises in the condensing tube. where it is cooled and condensed. • it must have a boiling temperature higher than that of water. The water and residual oil saturation are calculated as follows: Sw = Vw Vo . The solvent mixes with the oil in the sample and both are returned to the solvent ﬂask below. it collects at the bottom of the tube. which is calculated. the water vaporises. Because it is heavier than the solvent. where upon the solvent condensate drips back onto the sample containing the reservoir ﬂuids. The process continues until the sample’s temperature has risen above the boiling point of water. See Fig. ρr – the sample bulk volume and rock density.0 g/cm3 and a known volume.Vw – the recovered oil and water volumes. After all the oil and water have been recovered from the sample. the measurement includes the weight of rock grains.
The calculation of the oil and water saturation is straightforward. • Vo – the recovered volume of oil. where both the retort distillation method and the DeanStark method are capable of yielding ﬂuid saturation values within ±5% of the true values. • Wd – the weight of the dry. • φ .3. ect. • Vw – the reservoir volume of water. pore volume pycnometry or perhaps capillary measurements. Water and oil (residual) saturation is calculated according to Eqs. Vb – the rock’s porosity and the core sample’s bulk volume.5).. determined prior to the tests.5: The DeanStark apparatus. clean core sample. N. determined after the tests. which is calculated. The samples in the process are not destroyed and can be further used in other measurements. i.3 Saturation 37 Condensing tube Offset calibrated tube Solvent Water Sample Tare Flask Solvent Figure 3. registered during the test. determined directly after the tests.e.B. . . The following parameters are derived from the laboratory test: • Wi – the initial weight of the core sample. (3.
3.(Sw is the water saturation. Basic Concepts and Deﬁnitions in Reservoir Engineering 3. Gas Gas cap crest GOC Oil zone Depth Oil Water OWC c FWL Water zone Water zone 0. this is the .38 Chapter 3. However.) The following ﬂuid interfaces in the reservoir are important: • The GasOil Contact (GOC) – a surface separating the gas cap from the underlying oil zone (also referred to as the oil "leg" or oil "column"). FWL is the oilwater contact in the absence of the capillary forces associated with a porous medium. The density difference makes the gas accumulate at the top of the reservoir. Water underlies the petroleum. In other words.6) affects strongly the relative mobility of the oil phase. even though the rock pores remain "waterwet" (i. 70%. i.0 SW 1. • The OilWater Contact (OWC) – a surface separating the oil zone from the underlying water zone. gas can be present only as a dissolved phase in oil. The continuos distribution of water saturation in the reservoir zone (see Sw in Fig. in a well. as an aquifer. • The FreeWater Level (FWL) – an imaginary surface at which the pressure in the oil zone equals to that in the water zone. In most reservoirs. this is the level where So exceeds ca. but is continuously distributed throughout the reservoir as the wetting ﬂuid. The migration and accumulation of petroleum in a reservoir leads to the replacement of the original pore water by gas and oil .4 Reservoir Pressure and Distribution of Fluid Phases. unique meaning in reservoir engineering considerations.0 Figure 3. 3.e. their walls are covered with a thin ﬁlm of water). oil is generally absent. which means Sw < 30%. po = pw . i. rendering the whole overlying part of the reservoir economical viable. In most reservoirs. the term "oilwater contact" does not have a single. Below the GOC.6. and the oil directly below. which in turn makes it necessary to distinguish the following saturation interfaces: • The FreeOil Level (FOL) – the level above which the oil saturation is sufﬁciently high to allow full oil mobility (100% oil productivity) and the water saturation is low enough to make water immobile.6: The distribution of ﬂuid phases in a reservoir.e. Below the OWC.e. See Fig. • The Economic OWC – the level above which enough oil will be mobile.
as sketched in Fig. the distribution of these surfaces is of crucial importance when it comes to physical (ﬂuid dynamics) and economical (oil recovery) considerations. Pressure Overburden pressure (OP) FP GP overpressure Depth underpressure normal hydrostatic pressure Figure 3. 50%.or matrixcolumn pressure (pm ).7: Overburden pressure as the combined grain. and thus. This is the base of the reservoir. as our common terminology refers to it.7.column level below which the capillary forces render oil completely arrested. The total pressure at any reservoir depth. as shown in Fig. • The EdgeWater Level – which is the OWC as deﬁned earlier (level of Sw = 100%). 3.and ﬂuid column pressure. The FWL would then appear to be the only rockindependent OWC. representing the absolute base of the oil column.4 Reservoir Pressure and Distribution of Fluid Phases. pov . some engineers prefer to refer to this surface as the capillary oil displacement level or threshold pressure level. or "imbibed". by the rock pores (such that only thermal distribution can possibly remove the oil from the "deadend" pores). due to the weight of the overlying ﬂuid saturated rock column. or the oil. because the oil saturation may still be in the order of some percent. depending upon reservoir conditions. In strict terms. pov = p f + pm .6. this is not always the "100% water level". The interfaces are usually determined on the basis of analysis and well (drillstem) tests. This may mean Sw as high as 8085% and So of merely 1520%. The total pressure at any depth is the sum of the overlaying ﬂuidcolumn pressure (p f ) and the overlaying grain.3. located below the productive oilwater contact. • The Productive OWC – The level above which oil become mobility. is called the overburden pressure. . 39 level where So exceeds ca. Therefore. Needless to add. although the actual threshold value may vary. 3.
This means that any reduction of the ﬂuid pressure. oil and gas phases are: (d p/dD)w = 0.5 Pressure Distribution in Reservoirs The hydrostatic water pressure at any depth D.8 kPa/m Abnormally high or low reservoir pressure can appear when the reservoir is "sealed" off from the surrounding aquifer.2kPa/m. dp )w (D − D0 ) + pw (D0 ). Basic Concepts and Deﬁnitions in Reservoir Engineering Because the overburden pressure pov is constant at any particular depth D. pw (D) = ( dp )w D + 14.45 psi/ft = 10. as long as there is a continous phase contact in the water. dD and if D0 is taken at the sea level.35 psi/ft = 7. and D0 is an arbitrary depth with a known pressure (for instance. can be calculated as follows: D pw (D) = ( D0 dp )w dz + pw (D0 ).9) . pw (D) = ( dp )w D + 14. The reservoir pressure can then be corrected. the pressure at the sea bottom or the pressure at the sea surface). at any reservoir depth. then the differential overburden pressure is zero. as it occurs during production. by using a constant ( ) in the above pressure C equations. all the way up to the sea surface.7 (in psia). (d p/dD)o = 0. [21]: d p f = −d pm . The water pressure for a general reservoir is then as follows.e. where the pressure in the reservoir is somewhat higher or lower than otherwise expected. The constant C accounts for the fact that the reservoir pressure is not in hydrostatic equilibrium. will lead to a corresponding increase in the grain pressure.8) Typical "normal" pressure gradients for the water.40 Chapter 3. or dD dp pw (D) = ( )w D + 1. The hydrostatic pressure is therefore identical to the water pressure. dz (3. i. the equation becomes. (d p/dD)g = 0. Rock compressibility is therefore an important parameter to be considered when petroleum (preferably oil) production is estimated. 3.9 kPa/m. as a result of geological processes.0 (in bar) dD (3.6) where (d p/dz)w denotes the pressure gradient of the water phase at depthz.7) pw (D) = ( (3.) dD (3.08 psi/ft = 1. (in psia. relative the hydrostatic pressure.7 +C. If the hydrostatic pressure gradient considered to be constant we can write.
35 · 5510 +Co = 2494.2psia which gives: Cg = 1983. oil and gas) are derived from a common reference which normally is the FWL pressure. we can evaluate the ﬂuidphase pressures at the different reservoir "key" levels.08 · 5000 + 1983.35 · 5000 + 565.45 · 5510 + 14.45 · 5250 + 14. ft 5500 OWC Water FWL 5510 Figure 3.3.7 = 2264.35 · 5500 + 565. Assuming normal pressure condition. At this level there is no pressure difference .7 = 2489.7psia • Oil phase: (po )FW L = = 0.2 psia (pw )OWC = 0. as shown in Fig.7 psia (pw )GOC = 0.8: Crosssection of a reservoir.2psia which gives: Co = 565.2 psia (pw )top = 0.2 psia The different phase pressures (water. • Water phase: (pw )FW L = 0.7 = 2403.35 · 5250 + 565.2 = 2383.7psia • Gas phase: (pg )GOC = 0.08 · 5250 +Cg = 2403. 3.5 Pressure Distribution in Reservoirs 41 where C is positive when overpressure is observed and negative for a underpressured reservoir.7 = 2490.45 · 5000 + 14. 5000 Gas 5250 GOC Oil Depth.45 · 5500 + 14.7 = 2377.7 = 2494.7psia (po )OWC = 0.7psia (po )GOC = 0. (pw )FW L .2psia (pg )top = 0. In order to evaluate the pressure distribution in a reservoir. let us consider the reservoir which crosssection.8 (see also [21]).7 = 2315.2psia (po )top = 0.
gasoil or gaswater.1 bar gw The capillary calculations and the Fig. (Pc )top = (po )top − (pw )topt = 2315.e. ft 2375 O G 2500 5000 W GOC 5250 5500 Water 5510 OWC FWL 5500 5510 Treshold capillary pressure Figure 3. 3.42 Chapter 3.10) At static (initial reservoir) conditions. The pressure difference between two coexisting phases is calledcapillary pressure and denoted (Pc )i j . Similar to the FWL. as seen in Fig 3. The capillary pressure at the top of the reservoir.5 psi(a) = 4. Accordingly.2 − 2264. Different phase pressures are observed at the same elevation in the reservoir.7 − 2264. While gravity forces tend to separate . Pressure. (pw )FW L = (po )FW L . 3.8 and 3.0 psi(a) = 3. and that the capillary pressure is additive.5 bar ow (Pc )top = (pg )top − (po )top = 2383. where the subscripts i and j refer to oilwater. is the level in the reservoir where the pressures in the oil and gas phases are identical. since the oil pressure is too low to allow the oil phase to enter the pore space (the largest pore throats). Basic Concepts and Deﬁnitions in Reservoir Engineering between water and oil and the two pressures are identical. [7]: (Pc )gw = (Pc )ow + (Pc)go .9. Often this pressure is referred to as thereservoir pressure. the deﬁnition of the GOC. the OWC becomes the level in the reservoir where the water saturation becomes less than one and consequently the water saturation is ideally considered to be 100% in this zone. show that the phase pressures are different at the same elevation in the reservoir.9.2 − 2315. can be evaluated as follows.7 = 51.7 = 118.e.5 psi(a) = 8.9: Pressure distribution in a reservoir (hypothetical example). shown in Figs. i.9.7 = 67.. psia 2250 5000 Gas 5250 Oil Depth. the distribution of phases within a reservoir is governed by counteracting gravity and capillary forces. Ideally there is no oil present in the zone between the FWL and the OWC.6 bar go (Pc )top = (pg )top − (pw )top = 2383. (3. i.
The water pressure at any depth is.6. . where pw (D0 ) is the atmospheric pressure.3.5 Pressure Distribution in Reservoirs 43 reservoir ﬂuids accordingly to their densities. patm. g is the gravitational constant and D is the water depth. We may therefore write the pressure change as. 3.6 Example: Water pressure in a vertical cylindrical tube The water pressure at a depth D is found using Eq. A where F/A is force due to water weight per crosssection area.3. acting within and between immiscible ﬂuids and their conﬁning solid substance. p= F A ⇒ dp = d F . D pw (D) = 0 ρw g dD + patm. . . ρw is the water density.6 we obtain the following general formula for water pressure at depth D. . The balance of these two forces result in an equilibrium distribution of phases within the reservoir prior to its development. Substituting the last results into Eq. as shown in Fig. the capillary forces. 3. NB! The pressure variation in a reservoir is determined by the ﬂuid densities alone (when the gravitational coefﬁcient is considered constant). resist separation. dp = d mg =d A ρw gVw A =d ρw gAD A = ρw g dD In the equation above.
2 g Weight of 100% watersaturated core sample: 297 g (the density of water is 1. Weight of dried sample: 17. 7.67 g/cm3 . 3 bar) . 34%. 4. 4%. 8.1 bar. 2. Estimate numerically the change in carbonaterock porosity caused by a complete dolomitization of calcite. 6. 6. 4.4 g Deﬁne the terms absolute and effective porosity and decide which term to use when characterising the core sample. Calculate the porosity of a sandstone core sample given the data from core analysis: Bulk volume of dried sample: 8./underburden pressure. Evaluate the pressure situation in the reservoir and determind whether there is an over. Sand grain density: 2. The mass of dolomite is 4714 g. given the following data: Weight of dried core sample: 259. 3. Calculate and characterise the sand’s porosity.6 Exercises 1.2 kPa/m. CaCO3 ) is poured into the cup until the level of sand and water coincide. 28%.1. (answ. 1. absolute.44 Chapter 3. Given that uncertainty in salinity may lead to an uncertainty in water density of ∆ρ = 1. 20%.1 cm3 .2 kPa/m. Carbonate sand (limestone. 9. How do you deﬁne the porosity ? 3.d p/dz = 10. 2.31 g/cm3 . determine the pressure change inside a reservoir where the depth from the top down to the FWL is 150 m. will yield a carbonate rock’s porosity of 13% .0 g/cm3 ) Weight of core sample in water: 161. Determine the porosity and lithology of a core sample. effective. 1. 5. 2. 7.3 g. Formation water salinity will inﬂuence hydrostatic pressure estimation. 41%. sandstone.4 g/cm3 . 8. Calculate the density of formation water when the pressure gradient is measured. A glass cylinder has been ﬁlled with dolomite grains up to the 2500cm3 mark. Basic Concepts and Deﬁnitions in Reservoir Engineering 3.65 g/cm3 . absolute. 8. when the water pressure gradient is 10. Calculate the bulk volume and porosity of this saturated porous medium knowing that the total weight of cup and its content (water and limestone) is 2734 g. A reservoir water pressure of 213 bar is measured at a subsea depth of 2000 m. A laboratory cylindrical cup contains 500 cm3 water and weighs 800 g. 2CaCO3 + Mg2+ = CaMg(CO3 )2 +Ca2+ . accounting to the chemical reaction.11 .
the following types of porosity can be distinguished : • Intergranular porosity. it is impossible to counter the 45 . already presented. 4. 4. From the point of view of pores susceptibility to mechanical changes one should distinguish between consolidated and unconsolidated porous media. In practice. It should also be noted that porosity is astatic parameter. If the volume selected is too small. and may vary greatly from one rock type to another.Chapter 4 Porosity 4. the calculated porosity can deviate greatly from the "true" statistical average value [35]. An important characteristic of consolidated porous media is the ability to restore elastically. to a great extent. • Intragranular porosity. A consolidated medium means a rock whose grains have been sufﬁciently compacted and are held together by cementing material. Porosity is a statistical property dependent on the rock volume taken into consideration. • Microporosity. the porosity is the ﬂuidstorage capacity of a porous medium.2 Models of Porous Media The geometric character of rock’s permeable pore space is in reality quite complicated. to their shape (volume) after the removal of the overburden pressure. Genetically. • Vugular porosity. which means the part of the rock’s total volume that is not occupied by solid particles.1). • Fracture porosity.1 General Aspects According to the deﬁnition. Rock media having both fracture and intergranular pores are called doubleporous or fractureporous media. Only a volume selected large enough (a representative volume) will result in a representative and correct statistical average (see Fig. deﬁned locally as an average over the representative elementary volume of porous rock media considered.
1: Deﬁnition of a representative elementary volume for porosity measurements [35]. or 78. poresystem geometry in a detailed and faithful way.0 0 Vb Grain Figure 4.2: Idealised porous medium represented by a system of parallel cylindrical pores (pipes). is as follows: φ= Vp π r 2 · n · m π = = = 0.0 Domain of porous medium Inhomogeneous medium Bulk volume Homogeneous medium 0.5%. It is rather obvious that rocks do not have pores like this and that this model gives a unrealistically high porosity value. Estimation of porosity accounting to this model. Porosity Domain of microscopic effects 1.2. Vb 2rn · 2rm 4 where r is the pipe radius and m · n is the number of cylinders contained in the bulk volume.2.785. see Fig. 4. several idealised models have been developed to approximate porous rock media and their varied characteristics.1 Idealised Porous Medium Represented by Parallel Cylindrical Pores Vb Vp Figure 4. 4. be used in some situations where ﬂuid ﬂow under simpliﬁed conditions is modelled. This model may though. .46 Chapter 4. Therefore.
see Fig. 3 where h is the height of the orthorhombicpacked spheres.4: Idealised porous medium represented by a regular system of orthorhombicpacked spheres. The estimation of porosity according to this model.2. is as follows: √ 4 Vb = 2r · 2r · h = 4r2 · 2r sin(60o ) = 4 3 r3 and Vm = π r3 .3 Idealised Porous Medium Represented by Regular OrthorhombicPacked spheres 60o 2r Figure 4.6% Vb 8r3 6 where Vm is the "matrix" volume or the volume of bulk space occupied by the rock. . The estimation of porosity according to this model.476 or 47. see Fig.4.2 Models of Porous Media 47 4.3.2 Idealised Porous Medium Represented by Regular CubicPacked Spheres 2r Figure 4. is as follows: 1 4 4 Vb = (2r)3 and Vm = ( π r3 ) · 8 = π r3 . The matrix volume is unchanged and thus. 8 3 3 and π Vb −Vm 8r3 − 4 π r3 3 φ= = = 1 − = 0.2.4. 4. 4.3: Idealised porous medium represented by a regular system of cubicpacked spheres. 4.
IV) sorted by different radii and the histogram showing the hypothetical grain size distribution. where h is the height in the tetrahedron and √ √ 4 Vb = 2r · 2r · 2 r = 4 2 r3 and Vm = π r3 .5: Idealised porous medium represented by regular system of rhombohedralpacked spheres.2. 3 which gives φ = 1− π 4π r3 √ = 1 − √ = 1 − 0. The estimation of porosity according to this model.4 Idealised Porous Medium Represented by Regular RhombohedralPacked spheres 45 o 2r Figure 4.5 Idealised Porous Medium Represented by IrregularPacked Spheres with Different Radii Real reservoir rock exhibits a complex structure and a substantial variation in grain sizes and their packing. see Fig. h= 4r2 − 2r2 = √ 2 r.48 Chapter 4. Porosity φ = 1− π Vm 4π r3 = 1− √ = 1 − √ = 0.6 shows an example of an idealised porous medium represented by four populations of spheres (I . which results in variation of porosity and other important reservoir properties. By drawing a graph with radii of the spheres plotted on the horizontal axis and heights equal to the corresponding frequencies of their appearance plotted on the vertical axis. 4.0% 12 2r3 3 2 4. .5 that. often associated with the hetrogeniety of porous medium.5% 3 Vb 12 3 r 3 3 4.26 or 26. one can obtain a histogram of distribution of particles (spheres) in sizes. Fig. 4.74 = 0.395 or 39.2. 4.5 and it follows from Fig.
6: Idealised porous medium represented by an irregular system of spheres with different radii.4.30). it is important to maintain a representative image. . The total porosity is then deﬁned. V f . Vpebble = 0. Example: Porous medium of irregular system of spheres A porous medium is blended with three types of sediment fractions: ﬁne pebble gravel with porosity (φ pebble = 0. of the rock porosity..3 · 0.sand V f .33 = 0. in general and in particular in the case of porous media.sand = φsand Vsand .Vb = Vpebble . Vp Vb φ= = φ f . .sand .2 Models of Porous Media 49 I III IV Frequency II IV III II I r Figure 4.38) and ﬁne sand (φ f . is the opportunity they offer for simple quantiﬁcation and representation of characteristic parameters. The porosity of the porous medium is ∼ 4%.38 · 0. Since the sand ﬁlls the pore volume of the pebble and the ﬁne sand the pore volume of the sand. The advantage of idealised models. Pore volume of ﬁne sand: Vp = φ f . described above. may serve as a "mental image" or idealised concretization of a rather complex porous structure of porous rocks.sand = 0. The three sediments are mixed in such proportions that the sand ﬁlls the pore volume of the ﬁne pebbles and that the ﬁne sand ﬁlls the pore volume of the sand. Since rock porosity has so many representations. i. the following table is listed: Volume of sand: Volume of ﬁne sand: Vsand = φ pebbleVpebble .33). sand (φsand = 0. The different models.sand φsand φ pebbleVpebble . for further analysis and improved undersanding. though idealized.037. The volume of ﬁne pebble gravel is equal to the bulk volume.e.
lateral correlation. Frequency Frequency Min Porosity Max Min Porosity Max Figure 4. distinguished within the reservoir. 4. The porosity measurement in such rocks requires samples that are as large as can be obtained (portions of fulldiameter drilling cores).).9.7. and ﬁssured.8. the local porosity may be highly variable. The distribution may appear to be unimodal (left) or polymodal (right). and thus give a good basis for statistical estimates (mean porosity values. This picture is not easily obtainable since porosity is measured locally (in the well) and porosity extrapolations introduce large uncertainty in the estimated average values. etc. depth proﬁle or graphical coordination. 4. vugues. such as some carbonates. require a realistic picture of the rock porosity and its variation throughout the reservoir. See Fig. etc.4. The same coreplug is a nonrepresentative elementary volume for this type of rock.50 Chapter 4. Numerical simulation of ﬂuid ﬂow in porous media. The recognition of such trends is very important for the development of a bulk picture of the reservoir as a porous medium and representation of the reservoir porosity in mathematical simulation models (reservoir characterisation. as it may include microporosity. The grouping of porosity data according to the reservoir zones. . for which a standard coreplug analyse is unsuitable. to reveal the porosity’s frequency distribution.) Mechanical diagenesis (compaction) and chemical diagenesis (cementation) have a profound effect on a sedimentary rock’s porosity.3 Porosity Distribution The multiple sampling of porosity measurements for reservoir rocks at different depths and in different wells gives a data set that can then be plotted as a histogram. In heterogeneous rocks.1 FullDiameter Core Analysis A fulldiameter core analysis is used to measure the porosity of rocks that are distinctly heterogeneous. 4. intergranular porosity. or units. see Fig.7: Unimodal and polymodal porosity distributions. vugular rocks. 4. standard deviations. may reveal spatial trends in the porosity variation .4 Measurement of Porosity 4. related to laboratory tests on core samples as well as full ﬁeld production estimation. Such histograms may be constructed separately for the individual zones. Porosity 4. This burial effect is illustrated by the two typical examples of sand and clay deposits in Fig. numerical modelling.
dry core sample.4. see Fig.4.3 0.2 0.1 0. 4.4 Measurement of Porosity 51 Porosity + + + + + + + + + Depth + + + + + Figure 4. Several laboratory techniques used for porosity measurements. The fulldiameter core technique does not differentiate between the actual types of porosity involved.5 cm) and the length of 10 inches (25 cm).0 0 300 600 900 clay 1200 1500 1800 Depth.10.5 0. fractures. or various combinations of these.4 Porosity sand 0. depending upon the instrumentation and procedures used. 0. and the procedure is generally similar for fulldiameter cores and core "plugs". .9: Sediment compaction burial and porosity change. m Figure 4.8: Examples of trends of porosity distribution in the depth proﬁles of two reservoir sandstone. 4.2 GrainVolume Measurements Based on Boyle’s Law This gas transfer technique involves the injection and decompression of gas into the pores of a ﬂuidfree (vacuum). A fulldiameter core sample usually has a diameter of 5 inches (12. Either the pore volume or the grain volume can be determined. but yields a singe porosity value that represents their effective combination.
pV = nRT where the temperature. where Vre f . such as N2 and CO2 . one obtains p1V1 = p2V2 . • helium is an inert gas that and will not be absorbed on the rock surfaces and thus yield erroneous results. and p2 the ﬁnal pressure in the system. simply due to its availability. N2 is also used. which increase the effect of dehydrating the core sample. Vs and Vg are the reference volume. p1Vre f = p2 (Vre f +Vs −Vg ). The Calculation of the Grain Volume Using the ideal gas law. The advantage of CO2 is it’s hydrophilic ability. Other gases. 4.10. 4. Successive measurements will increase the accuracy. Vg = p2Vre f + p2Vs − p1Vre f . Helium gas is often used due to its following properties.10: Porosity measurements based on the Boyle’s law. one obtains. Assuming adiabatic conditions. To perform the laboratory measurement. See Fig. respectively. the volume of the sample chamber and the grain volume.10. . Porosity Sample Chamber Reference volume Pressure gauge Valve To gas pressure source Pressure regulator Valve Figure 4. p2 (4. might be good alternatives to Helium. and in the case of vacuum inside the sample chamber (Fig. T = const.52 Chapter 4. • the very small size of helium molecules makes the gas rapidly penetrate small pores. due to effects of dehydration of the porous core sample.1) where p1 denotes initial pressure in the reference cell.
The bulk volume of a porous core sample can be measured in two steps. ∂ m2 ∂ m1 ∂ ρw dVb = dm2 m2 − m1 dm1 d ρw . The laboratory measurements. The bulk volume is the difference between the two weights divided by the density of the ﬂuid. ∆Vb Vb 2 =2 ∆m (m2 − m1 ) 2 + ∆ ρw ρw 2 . Example: Uncertainty analysis in measuring the bulk volume using Archimedes’ principle. dVb = ∂ Vb ∂ Vb ∂ Vb dm2 + dm1 + d ρw . The core sample is ﬁrst saturated with a wetting ﬂuid and then weighed. is considered to be independent measurements.e.2%. The bulk volume is then written.3 BulkVolume Measurements This technique utilizes the Archimedes’ principle of mass displacement: 1. using this technique. ρw Differentiating the equation above gives us. • water which can easily be evaporated afterwards. The the sample is then submerged in the same ﬂuid and its submerged weight is measured. • mercury which normally not enters the pore space in a core sample due to its nonwetting capability and its large interfacial energy against air.4. where uncertainties in the order of ± 0. . i. are very accurate.4. ﬁrst by weighing the sample in a cup of water.4 Measurement of Porosity 53 4. m1 (assuming 100% water saturation) and then weighing the sample in air as it is removed from the cup. − − ρw m2 − m1 m2 − m1 ρw If the density measurement as well as the two massmeasurements above.m2 . 2. the relative uncertainty in the bulk volume is written. is normally obtained.. Fluids that are normally used are. Vb = m2 − m1 . ∆m = ∆m1 = ∆m2 . where the uncertainty introduced in the process of weighing the two masses is considered to be identical.
The calculation of the pore volume Vp is as follows: p0Vp + p1Vre f and Vp = (p1 − p2 ) Vre f where (p1 > p2 > p0 ) (p2 − p0 ) = nRT (4. The bulk volume of the core sample is approximately 30 cm3 and water density is assumed equal to 1 g/cm3 . in some experimental tests could be larger than the effective uncertainty related to the measuring technique. (Note that the uncertainty related to the assumption of 100% water saturation prior to the ﬁrst mass measurement.11: Hydrostatic load cell (Hassler holder) used for a direct measurement of pore volume.2) (4.11.5%.1% and the weighing accuracy is equal to 0.1 g. Helium or one of its substitutes is injected into the core plug through the end stem. where the sample is placed in a rubber sleeve holder that has no voids space around the periphery of the core and on the ends. as seen in Fig.3) p2 (Vp +Vre f ) = nRT It is important to notice that the Hassler core holder has to be coupled to a volume of known reference Vre f . we ﬁnd a relative uncertainty in the bulk volume of approximately 0.4. ∆Vb Vb 2 ∆m =2 ρwVb 2 ∆ ρw + ρw 2 .10.54 Chapter 4. Porosity The uncertainty equation above may also be written.4 PoreVolume Measurement Pore volume measurements can be done by using the Boyle’s law. Such a holder is called the Hassler holder. 4. 4. 4.) . . or a hydrostatic load cell. If the relative uncertainty in determined the water density is estimated to 0. when the pore volume Vp . see Fig. Hydrostatic pressure Core sample Flow into core To flow meter Rubber tubing Figure 4. is measured.
The bulk volume and weight of the fresh sample allow the computation of the effective bulk density of the rock. The oil. From the second subsample. 100 g) is crushed and placed in a ﬂuidextraction retort (see ﬁgure in previous chapter). because these values are representative for both parts of the sample. The second part of the rock sample (ca. Denoting the apparent bulk density of the ﬂuidsaturated rock sample asρapp .4 Measurement of Porosity 55 4. 30 g) with a roughly cylindrical shape. where their volumes are measured.4. One part (ca. Then the pressure of the mercury. into an equivalent bulk volume.e. pHg . ﬁlling the pore space originally occupied with the gas. and φ . If the core has been exposed to the open air for some time. the mercury enters the sample and compresses the gas. is raised to 70 bar (1000 psi). gas and water are added to obtain the pore volume and hence the core porosity. the volume of the mercury "imbibed" in the rock gives the gas volumeVg . oil and water present in the pore space of a fresh or preserved (peelsealed) core of known bulk volume. The core sample is divided into two parts. the fraction of the bulk volume occupied by gas (i.5 FluidSummation Method This technique is to measure the volume of gas.and watervolume factor are calculated as follow. Ws1 = Vb1 · ρapp and Ws2 = Vb2 · ρapp → Vb1 = Vb2 Ws1 Ws2 The formation oil. fg = Vg2 = φ Sg Vb2 where the subscript 2 is omitted for fg . The laboratory procedure provides the following information: • First subsample gives the rock’s weightWs1 and the volumes of oil Vo1 and water Vw1 are recorded. . The volumes of the extracted oil. move down and are subsequently condensed and collected in a calibrated glassware.4. At this pressure. measuring the volume of the displaced mercury. we can write. The vaporised water and oil originally contained in the pores. Vo1 Vb1 Vw fw = 1 Vb1 fo = = φ So . Sg . is weighed and then placed in a pump chamber ﬁlled with mercury (a pycnometer) in which its bulk volume is determined. This in turn is used to convert the weight of the ﬁrst part of the sample. • Second subsample gives the volume of gasVg2 and the rock’s bulk volume Vb2 . With an appropriate calculation. where the metalholder unit has a cap to prevent the evaporation of gases at the top. which was 100 g (to be retorted).. some of the oil and water can evaporate and the saturation will be measured inaccurately. the fraction of the gasbulk volume) can be calculated. water and gas volumes are each calculated as fractions of the bulk volume of the rock sample and the three values are added to yield the porosity value . = φ Sw .
where a deﬁned amount of mercury can be injected or withdrawn. p0 (V0 −Vm ). The sketch below illustrates the working principle of the pycnometer. In order to deﬁne the matrix volume. (Mercury. NB: The mercury does not enter the pore system of the core sample. The pycnometer is a labtool occasionally used for measuring bulk. 4. Mercury is injected into the cell and a new gas volume. Hg V0 Figure 4. where p0 is the atmospheric pressure and Vm is the matrix of the sample (the rock’s grain volume). The pycnometer piston is withdrawn and a gas (air) volume of V0 is measured. New equilibrium is reached and we write. the following measuring steps are carried out: 1. p1 − p0 . p1 (V1 −Vm ). due to its high interfacial tension. 3. The core sample is placed in the cell. .56 Chapter 4. Porosity and the sum of the ﬂuidvolume factor then gives the porosity value: fo + fw + fg = φ (So + Sw + Sg ) = φ Example: Use of pycnometer in matrix volume calculation.and pore volumes of core samples. The equilibrium condition inside the cell is written. as laboratory ﬂuid. and the cell volume is sealed. the matrix volume is found as follows: Vm = p1V1 − p0V0 . Vm of a core sample. has become less popular due to its toxic characteristics and is quite often replaced by other ﬂuids. a cell.V1 and gas pressure. Finally. 2. The pycnometer cell is fully saturated with mercury. A pycnometer is in principle a contained volume. p1 is measured.12: Sketch of the pycnometer.) 5.
∆Vp and ∆Vm . leaving the other unchanged. (4.5 Uncertainty in Porosity Estimation Experimental data is always contaminated with measuring uncertainty. Eq.5) tells us that it is not sufﬁcient to reduce the uncertainty in only one of the measured parameters. Vb Vp +Vm We could start to differentiate the porosity with respect toVp and Vm . (4. since the total relative uncertainty is mainly inﬂuenced by the largest relative uncertainty.4) gives. like determination of the porosity. Vp /Vp = 5. (4.5). we will expect the uncertainty in the measured parameters to introduce an error in the estimate of the porosity found.4) φ= Vp . Vm /Vm = 7%.4. (4. Example: Error propagation From laboratory measurements one has estimated the relative uncertainty related to the pore volume to be. but instead we intend to differentiate Eq. Differentiation of Eq. i.e. the resultsVp and Vb are independent parameters and so are their uncertainties. Vb we may differentiate the equation and we obtain. Porosity will normally be a function of Vp . .5) In laboratory experiments we wish to reduce uncertainties to a minimum. i.0% and the relative uncertainty related to the matrix is. φ= Vp Vp = .5 Uncertainty in Porosity Estimation 57 4. Vb Vb 2 = Vp Vp +Vm 2 + Vm Vp +Vm 2 . Since the three parameters are dependent. Vm and/or Vb . (4.4) and then substitute the results into Eq. φ Vp Vb The pore. given the equation above. (4.e. Vb = Vp +Vm . If we deﬁne porosity as. dVp dVb dφ = − . For characteristic parameter estimation. The porosity is deﬁned. only two of them should appear in the uncertainty analysis.and bulk volumes are independent measurements. The relative error or uncertainty in the porosity is then given by ∆φ = φ ∆Vp Vp 2 + ∆Vb Vb 2 ..
• Density (gamma . Once these logs are obtained and converted into a porosity log. • Neutron .57% and the porosity with uncertainty is written. (4. but also from geophysical well logs. often called wireline logs. If the porosity is. φ = φ (1 + φ 2 ) Vp Vp 2 + (1 − φ )2 Vm Vm 2 . i. Vp Vp 2 + Vp Vp +Vm 2 + Vm Vp +Vm 2 . Note that if the equation φ = Vp /(Vp +Vm ) is differentiated directly. φ = φ or written differently.58 Chapter 4.2 (or 20%). (4. • Microresistivity log (from which F can be derived). φ± φ = (20 ± 1. they can be calibrated using coresample porisity data and serve as additional reliable source of porosity distribution evaluation. then the relative uncertainty in the porosity is ∼ 7. • Acoustic (sonic) log. There are several relationships which can be used for the porosity evaluation using Fvalues [23]. φ = 0. but has the advantage of providing continous porosity data. F= . Porosity and substitution in Eq.5) gives. 4.6) Rw The Formation resistivity factor measures the inﬂuence of pore structure on the resistance of the core sample. . as has been described above.e. Every extra operation in the error propagation increases the ﬁnal uncertainty. compared to the process above where a two step differentiation is performed. The Formation resistivity factor is deﬁned as the ratio of the resistivity of the porous sample saturated with an ionic solution Ro of the bulk resistivity of the same solution Rw .gamma log. This method of porosity evaluation is not very accurate.gamma) log. [23] Ro .5)%. the result would be slightly different because the differentiation was used only once. Porosity can be estimated from: • Formation resistivity factor (F).6 Porosity Estimation from Well Logs Porosity of reservoir rock can be estimated not only by using methods.
37]. 1881). • F = (3 − φ )/2φ (Maxwell. see reference [7. 1942). For more information regarding porosity evaluation using geophysical well logs. where m is the cementation constant (Archie. .4. • F = X /φ .6 Porosity Estimation from Well Logs 59 • F = φ −m . 1957). 23. where X is the electric tortuosity of the sample (Wyllie.
5 + ρ [o API]). given the following data: weight of crushed dry sample in air: 16 g.67 g/cc. weight of mercuryﬁlled pycnometer at 20 oC: 350 g.5 g. weight of dry sample coated with parafﬁn: 20. density of mercury: 13. the weight is increased to 225. weight of crushed sample plus absorbed water: 16.9 g. After drying the core sample.546 g/cc. volume of chamber containing air: 7 cc. and 4. density of water is : 1. where the water and oil volume is measured to 2.4/(131. Calculate the bulk volume of a dry core sample immersed in mercury pycnometer. water saturation. weighing 120 g is placed in a retorte.0 g/cc).90 g. given the following data: weight of dry sample in air: 20 g. Determine the sandstone’s grain density and porosity.6 g. A third piece of the . The sample is the placed in aSoxhlet distillation apparatus. assuming a sandgrain density of 2. The sample bulk volume. 4. gas saturation and lithology of the core sample.53 cm3 . 2. bulk volume of core sample: 10 cc 5. where 80 g of the sample is placed in a mercury pycnometer and the volume of gas found is 0. gas and water. weight of saturated sample in air: 22. weight of saturated sample in water: 12. when the water density at that particular temperature and pressure is 1g/cm3 ) 7. Calculate the bulk volume of a preserved (parafﬁncoated) core sample immersed in water. 235. weight of waterﬁlled pycnometer: 65 g.1 g. Determine the sandstone’s grain volume and porosity using Boyl’s law. 3. After the gas is displaced by water (ρw = 1 g/cm3 ). respectively. 95 cm3 is measured in a mercury pycnometer.14 g.9 g/cc). A core sample is saturated with an oil (ρo = 35o API).7 Exercises 1.9 g (density of parafﬁn is : 0.60 Chapter 4.4 cm3 water is extracted. weight of coated sample immersed in water: 10 g (density of water is: 1g/cc) Determine the rock’s porosity. weight of mercuryﬁlled pycnometer with the sample at 20 o C. 6. The initial weight of the sample is 224. (Notice that the oil density is ρ [g/cm3 ] = 141. Calculate the effective porosity of a sandstone sample using the following data: weight of dry sample in air: 20 g. oil saturation. the weight is now 209.4 m3 . Find the porosity. weight of waterﬁlled pycnometer with the sample: 75 g.8 cm3 and 4. Another core sample is brought to the laboratory for compositional analysis. Porosity 4. given the following data: weight of dry sample in air: 20 g.75 g. A piece of the same sample. given the following data: volume of chamber containing the core sample: 15 cc.
Is this effective porosity or the total porosity of the sample? What is the most probable lithology of the matrix material? Explain .54 cm long and 2.69 g/cm3 .831 cm3 . 2.3%. 2. 75. 9. density of water 1. 14.001 g/cm3 .5%.5 m thick.2 g. 29%.4 cm3 .47 hectare large area. what is the volume of oilinplace (in m3 and in bbl) of a 40. 55. 47%. 24. weighing 90 g is placed in a pycnometer and the bulk volume is measured to be 37. If a formation is 2. 53%. 8.2 g. mass of water saturated sample: 120. 16%.6%. 3. where the oil content is 1. 2. A core.4. 738235. 6. 9. mas of saturated sample immersed in water: 64.10%. 4. 20%.1%. 25%. if the core described in the excercise above is representative of the reservoir? Answer to questions: 1.7 Exercises 61 sample.73 g/cm3 .7 g.5 cm3 .6%.67 g/cm3 . 1. 5. Assume oil and water densities as in the exercise above and ﬁnd the same characteristic parameters. It is saturated with oil and water. 7. 8. 2. Calculate the porosity of the sample described below: mass of dry sample: 104. 2. 2. 35. 9. a) What is the pore volume of the core? b) What are the oil and water saturations of the core? 10.54 cm in diameter has a porosity of 22%. 9.6 bbl . 19%.8%.95 cm3 . 2. 10.64 g/cm3 .1%.
Porosity .62 Chapter 4.
effective permeability. His results showed that the pressure drop across the ﬁlter is proportional to the water ﬁltration velocity. since the resistance towards ﬂuid ﬂow will vary.e. it is natural to assume that there exists certain correlations between permeability and effective porosity.e. the rock would be impermeable. communication of interstices.. each ﬂuid phase will counteract the free ﬂow of the other phase’s and a reduced phase permeability (relative to absolute) is measured. 5.2 Darcy’s Law The ﬁrst important experiments of ﬂuid ﬂow through porous media. depending on the ﬂow direction. In 1856 Henry Darcy proved that ﬂow of water through sand ﬁlters. obeys the following relationship: h . When several phases or mixtures of ﬂuids are passing through a rock locally and simultaneously. all pore channels are included in the averaging process when permeability is measured. If there were no interconnected pores.1 Introduction Permeability in a reservoir rock is associated with it’s capacity to transport ﬂuids through a system of interconnected pores. however. In practical terms.Chapter 5 Permeability 5. Since the gas molecules will penetrate even the smallest porethroats. i.e. i. permeability is often considered to be a scalar. In general terms. porosity correlated permeabilities are often used in extrapolating reservoir permeability between wells. were reported by Dupuit in 1854. All factors affecting porosity will affect permeability and since rock permeability is difﬁcult to measure in the reservoir. even though this is only correct for isotropic porous media. the permeability is a tensor. i. Absolute permeability could be determined in the laboratory by using inert gas (nitrogen is frequently used) that ﬁlls the porous rock sample completely and limits the possibility of chemical interaction with the rock material to a minimum. using waterﬁlters. ∆l q = K ·A 63 (5.1) .
1. (5. In Darcy’s experimental results. II : ∆pII = ρ g(h − ∆l · sin θ ). a reduced ﬂow velocity is expected. θ Datum plane I o θ = 90 II o o 0 < θ < 90 III o θ = 90 Figure 5. h. was not included because only water ﬁlters were investigated and hence. irrespective of the orientation of the sand ﬁlter (see Fig.) If the sand ﬁlter is made longer. The pressure difference across the sand ﬁlter in Fig. i. the same ﬂow rate (or ﬂow velocity) is measured. Experiments repeated after Darcy. I : ∆pI = ρ g(h − ∆l). . III : ∆pIII = ρ gh. 5. v ∝ (∆p + ρ g∆z). is crosssectional area of the ﬁlter. Since the water velocity is proportional to the manometric level (observation made by Darcy). have proved that if the manometric level. hydrostatic height difference.1). Permeability where h A ∆l K is a difference in manometer levels. viscosity µ . is kept constant.e. (∆z accounts for the inclined ﬂow direction relative to horizontal ﬂow.1). 5. the effects of ﬂuid density and viscosity had no real experimental signiﬁcance. a reduced ﬂow velocity is expected and similarly if the water is replaced by a ﬂuid of higher viscosity.64 Chapter 5. the ﬂow velocity is proportional to. as in Eq. is thickness of the ﬁlter in the ﬂow direction and is a proportionality coefﬁcient.1: Orientation of the sand ﬁlter with respect to the direction of gravitation. where ∆l is the thickness or length of the sand ﬁlter in the ﬂow direction. for the 3 cases are given. where ∆z is the elevation in the gravitational ﬁeld.
the elevation is constant. time.e. in front of the pressure gradient term.g. z0 = 0 at a level where the reference pressure is 1 atm. where ∆z = z − z0 and e. i. k dΦ k ∆Φ q=A ρ = lim A ρ . dz/dx = 0. compensates for a negative pressure gradient in the direction of ﬂow (since ﬂuids move from high to low potential).e. q = −A k dp . core sample/plug. ρ Substituting the pressure potential difference ∆Φ in Eq. At this point it is important to notice that the permeability. ∆l→0 µ dl µ ∆l (5.5. Φ= def p + gz. above. v= k ∆p + ρ g∆z . can be replaced by equality. Fluid ﬂow in a porous rock is therefore given by the pressure potential difference ∆(p + ρ gz). k.2 Darcy’s Law 65 v∝ 1 ∆p + ρ g∆z . i. In a historical context.). µ ∆l (5. and Dracy’s law is written. is volume pr. etc. µ is the viscosity of the ﬂuid and l is the length of the porous medium in the direction of ﬂow andΦ is the pressure potential. as observed in any reservoir where the ﬂuid pressure increases with depth.3) For linear and horizontal ﬂow (parallel to the xaxis) of incompressible ﬂuid. deﬁnition. (5. one can rewrite the equality equation based on Darcy’s deduction. is introduced in Eqs. the sum of pressure difference and elevation in the gravity ﬁeld. In these cases no ﬂow is expected and static equilibrium is established. (5. The ﬂow rate q = dV /dt. as a proportionality constant and not as a physical parameter. The pressure at any point along the ﬂow path is related to a reference height or datum plane z0 . µ dx (5. A pressure difference ∆(p + ρ gz) = (p + ρ gz)2 − (p + ρ gz)1 will create a ﬂuid ﬂow between the two points. deﬁnition positive parameters (see the example below). mass) and the following deﬁnition has been used. When .3). The permeability does pr. by introducing a proportionality coefﬁcient k. Velocity and ﬂow rate are pr. µ ∆l The proportionality.2).4) where the minus sign "". k ∆Φ q=A ρ µ ∆l where k is the permeability of the porous medium (ﬁlter. unless the pressure p is equal to the static pressure −ρ gh. The Darcy’s law in differential form is. not carry any characteristic information about the porous medium.4) and (5. the pressure potential has been associated with the energy potential (energy pr.2) where k is the permeability.
a connate water saturation Swc . ﬁltration) or bulk velocity. . The pressures p1 . on average. deﬁnition negative. Assuming a homogeneous porous medium and integration from position 1 to 2.4 is justiﬁed by considering linear core ﬂow. This effect will increase the pore velocity even more. 5. Since x2 obviously is larger than x1 . The ﬂuid velocity related to the crosssection area A is called the superﬁcial (i.e. p2 and the positions x1 . p1 q x1 x2 x p2 q Figure 5.2. since the ﬂow crosssection area is. (5. i. If. through a core sample. 5. The directions of pore ﬂow are inclined relative to the general ﬂow direction and a characteristic inclination angle α is assigned to describe this effect. Example: Linear horizontal core ﬂow The minus sign "" in the horizontal ﬂow equation Eq.2: Horizontal ﬂow in a core sample. The proportionality constant k. u= q k dp =− .66 Chapter 5. the minus sign "" is needed to balance the equation. as often is the case in practical situations. as such. dp p1 − p2 p2 − p1 =− . A µ dx (5. the value of d p/dx is pr. the fact that this information about the porous medium is missing in Eq. v pore and is necessarily higher than the bulk velocity.φ times smaller than the bulk crosssection A. as shown in Fig. the porous medium contains a residual saturation of a nonﬂowing phase.3. called permeability. Let’s assume a constant liquid ﬂow rate q. and the linear ﬂow velocity is written.5) The real velocity of ﬂuid ﬂow in the pores is called the interstitial (true) velocity. = dx x2 − x1 x2 − x1 where p1 > p2 in positive ﬂow direction. e. Permeability permeability is related to the transport capability of the porous medium. the pore ﬂow velocity is affected through the reduction of the . but represents all information about the porous medium etc.g. as illustrated in Fig. in addition. (5.. describes not only the porous medium transport capability. is often overlooked. which is otherwise not described by any of the other parameters in Eq.4). the pressure term is written as follows.e. x2 are labelled according to standard numbering and orientation. 5.4).
where the minus sign is describing linear ﬂow. In order to keep a constant ﬂow rate q. through a porous medium of length ∆l. The sum of these effects will cause the pore ﬂow velocity to become considerably higher than the bulk velocity.3). If a typical porosity of 25% and a connate water saturation of 10% are assumed. 5.2 Darcy’s Law 67 ﬂow crosssection area. v pore = 1 q1 1 .4. Experimental tests from different porous rocks have shown that an average inclination angle. µ dl . See Fig. p2 p1 l2 q l1 r q l g θ x Figure 5. a pressure difference ∆p is applied. (5.3: Pore ﬂow velocity in a porous medium. Example: Linear inclined core ﬂow When the direction of ﬂow is inclined.4: Core ﬂow at a dip angle θ to the horizontal axis Flow at an angle to the horizontal direction is described by Eq.6) z vpore α α x vq y Figure 5. with an angle θ to the horizontal ﬂow direction. since the ﬂuids are moving up or down in the gravitational ﬁeld. the gravitational force has to be considered. α 36o and that this angle may vary between 12o to 45o . A φ 1 − Swc cos2 α (5. then the pore velocity will be about 7 times higher than the bulk velocity. q = −A k d(p + ρ gz) .5.
the pressure difference has to be larger relative to the horizontal case. q = −A k dp k − A ρ g sin θ . gives k k q + A ρ g sin θ ∆l = A ∆p.3 Conditions for Liquid Permeability Measurements. 5. where l is the direction of ﬂow. In a updip situation. the pressure difference needs to be adjusted relative to the inclination angle (dip angle).e.4). (5.68 Chapter 5.4. Ak where horizontal linear ﬂow is ∆pθ =0 = q(µ ∆l)/(Ak). 5.4 it’s evident that z = l sin θ . • Laminar ﬂow current (satisﬁed in most liquid ﬂow cases). as in Fig. These conditions are the following: • Horizontal ﬂow. In these tests.e. since the ﬂuid is pushed upwards in the gravitational ﬁelds. Permeability z is the elevation in the gravitational ﬁeld and from Fig. i.reactions between ﬂuid and porous medium. • 100% ﬂuid saturation in the porous medium. The ﬂow equation becomes. 0 ≤ θ < 90o ⇒ ∆p ≥ ∆p0 −90o < θ < 0 ⇒ ∆p < ∆p0 . some important conditions have to be satisﬁed before permeability could be estimated from the measured data. . i. Permeability in core samples is measured in the laboratory using Darcy’s law for horizontal ﬂow.5. ∆p = µ ∆l q + ρ g∆l sin θ . Eq.. µ dl µ Integration from position 1 to 2. constant crosssection in ﬂow direction. • Incompressible ﬂuid. µ µ The pressure difference is given. In order to maintain a constant ﬂow rate through the core sample. • No chemical exchange or . • Stationary ﬂow current.
It is not convenient to measure permeability of porous media in cm2 or in m2 .5. The linear best ﬁt through all experimental datapoints will give a slope. or uncertainty in laboratory measurements.7) where the ﬂow rate q and the pressure difference ∆p are the measured data. q= Ak ∆p. 5.4). shows that permeability has the dimension of surface area. By convention the unit for the permeability is called theDarcy. • Field units. Applying Darcyunits to Eq. • SI units (international system of units). Having satisﬁed all the above conditions. large spread in data around the linear ﬁt. a = Ak / µ∆ l ∆p Figure 5. µ ∆l (5. at high or low ﬂow rates. (5. creating a pressure difference of 1 atm/cm. e.g.7) [54].4 Units of Permeability 69 q slope. .4 Units of Permeability Dimensional analysis applied to the Darcy’s law. from which the permeability can be calculated using Eq. Permeability is found by plotting the measured data as shown in Fig. There are two systems of units which are widely used in petroleum ﬁeld engineering. 5. permeability is found by integrating the linear ﬂow equation where the permeability is experimentally determined using the formula.g. s 1cp 1cm where the Darcyunits are preferably used in connection with laboratory tests.5: Experimental determination of liquid permeability.5. L2 . e. (5. which may reveal nonlinear effects in the data. The following deﬁnition of the Darcy has been accepted: The permeability is 1 Darcy if a ﬂuid with viscosity of 1cp is ﬂowing at a rate of 1 cm3 /s through a porous medium with a crosssection of 1cm2 . The importance of linear representation of the measured data is the advantage of visual inspection. we get the following equality: 1 cm3 1D 1atm = −1cm2 − .
0 76.987µ m2 . It follows from these evaluations that. which then is called millidarcy (mD).106 3. Example: Core sample liquid permeability. by calculating the permeability value for each datapair. the horizontal permeability can be different in different directions. In its turn.0 7.70 Chapter 5. 1 D = 0. 5.01 · 107 2 2 and dl cm cm m s −4 2 A = 10 m qµ k = = 0. A · d p/dl Here: µ m2 = (µ m)2 . is measured for three different ﬂowrates and permeability is calculated using the above formula. These permeability features should be taken into account while measuring permeability. A cylindrical core sample is properly cleaned and all remains of hydrocarbons are removed from the pore space. which means that permeability might have different values in different directions. The permeability might be determined by plotting the data in a "rate/pressure" diagram.e.5 0. Vertical permeability (i. The pressure drop ∆p. k= µ ∆l q . normal to the bedding of formations) is usually much lower in comparison than the horizontal permeability (measured along the bedding of formations). using the formula. Instead of the unit 1 Darcy.0 0. the 1/1000 fraction is used. It is important to remember that permeability is a tensor. The core is saturated with water and then ﬂushed horizontally. s kg .0 24. qw [cm3 /s] ∆p [atm] k [D] 1. ms q = 10−6 µ = 1 cp = 10−3 dp Pa kg atm = 1 = 1.987 · 10−12 m2 = 0. or more directly. as shown in Fig.2 0.01 · 105 = 1.5.987 µ m2 . The core length is 15 cm.093 10. Permeability The value 1 Darcy is deﬁned in SIunits by substitution: m3 . it’s diameter is 5 cm and the water viscosity is 1. A ∆p where A = π (d/2)2 and d is the core sample diameter.0 cp.101 .
g.1 D or 100 mD. This uncertainty could be examined by plotting the datapairs in an appropriate way. one ﬁnally obtains. q0 = −A or integrated from p1 to p2 . Taking into account the invariant quantity. is the opportunity to verify that the data used in the averaging process are "good" or representative . always contain uncertainty related to the technology used to obtain the labdata.e. for instance. qρ = q0 ρ0 . µ dx where ρ is the density of the gas at certain pressure. 2µ p0 ∆l k p ∆p .10) can be written is. .8) Here the subscript "0" refers to a certain pressure value.5. Because gas is a highly compressible substance. or simply ρ = p.5. Considering mass ﬂow of gasqρ . It follows from the perfect gas law (pV = nRT ) that. qρ = −A k ρ0 p d p . as in this example. 5. 5. the Darcy’s law may not be utilised directly.5 Gas Permeability Measurements 71 The average or representative permeability is k = 0. p0 p0 which when substituted into the previous equation equation yields. as shown in Fig. compared to straight forward calculations. one can write. ρ (p) = ρ (p0 ) ρ0 p. q0 = A kp d p .5 Gas Permeability Measurements Due to certain interactions between the liquids and the porous rock. i. q0 = A (5. the pressure at normal or standard conditions. µ po ∆l (5. e. µ p0 dx (5. Laboratory measurements. the gas rate is pressure dependent. absolute permeability is routinely measured in the laboratory by ﬂowing gas (usually inert gas) through the core sample. (5. qρ = −A kρ d p .9) k p2 − p2 1 2 .10) Another useful form in which Eq. µ p0 dx (5.11) . The advantage of dataplotting.
The second measurement is made at the right angles to the ﬁrst. 1991). The core plug is placed in an impermeable rubber sleeve protecting the gas ﬂow at the outerface of the core plug. Combining the invariant mass ﬂow. one obtains. In this test the ﬂow length is actually a function of the core diameter. It is common to furnish two horizontal permeability measurements on all full diameter samples. 5. The Hassler core holder is commonly used for permeability measurements. left).6: Full diameter vertical and horizontal permeability measurement apparatus (from IHRDC. ρ p = ρ p with Eq.11). The air then ﬂows through the full diameter sample along its full height and emerges on the opposite side.12) where q is the mean or average ﬂow rate. Under high air pressure the rubber tubing is collapsed around the core. Low pressure air is introduced into the center of the holder and passes through the rubber boot and intersects with the screen. and then ﬂows vertically through the screen. 5. The screen are selected to cover designated outer segments of the full diameter sample.12) has exactly the same form as Darcy’s law for horizontal liquid ﬂow. µ ∆l q = −A (5. and the crosssectional area of ﬂow is a function of the length and diameter of the core sample. Metal plug Screen Core sample Low air pressure High air pressure Screen To flow Low air meter pressure Rubber disk To flow meter Flow directions High air pressure Rubber tubing Figure 5. qρ = qρ and the results generated from the perfect gas law. In most cases the circumference of the core is divided into four equal quadrants. where the screen again allows free ﬂow of the air to exit.6. For permeability measurements in the vertical direction gas is injected through the core plug in the axial direction (see Fig.6. Horizontal permeability measurements require a sealing of the top surfaces of the core with nonpermeable rubber disks (see Fig. (5. In a homogeneous porous rock. The area of cylindrical surface at the inﬂow and outﬂow openings is covered with a screen and the sample is then placed into the core holder.72 Chapter 5. the mean ﬂow rate is equal to the gas rate at the centre of the core sample. (5. k ∆p . . except for the fact that the ﬂow rate is the mean ﬂow rate. right). Eq. Permeability where p = (p1 + p2 )/2 is a mean (average) pressure in the core during the measurements. It provides measurements of permeability in both vertical and horizontal directions.
7: Gas permeability plotted as the reciprocal of mean pressure.667 2. The gas is injected and the pressure.8 p [atm.133 0. the mean pressure in the core sample. in air. p2 = 1atm. of the type seen in Fig.) . is more than 1000 bar. since at such high pressure the gas itself.0 7 6 Permeability: k [mD] 5 4 3 2 0 0. i.. written as follows.10).00 k [mD] 6.5 Gas Permeability Measurements 73 Example: Core sample gas permeability. q2 = A k p2 − p2 1 2 . ∆p.3 5. 1in in diameter and length. As the mean pressure in the core sample increases it is expected that the gas permeability will approach the absolute (liquid) permeability. The gas permeability could be estimated using Eq. Note that the gas permeability is pressure dependent. (5.g.4 0. p1 measured. The core has been cleaned and dried and mounted in a Hassler core holder.6 0.5. q2 is measured at the other end. while the gas rate.8 1 Reciprocal pressure: 1/p m [1/atm. e.] 0.4 35. The gas permeability k is found as a function of the mean core pressure.e.066 1. 5. A gas permeability test has been carried out on a core sample.] 1. will start to behave as a liquid.8 6.33 2.6. are calculated from the equation above.6 132. 2µ p2 ∆l Given the pressure p1 and the gas rate q2 .00 ∆p [atm.(This asymptotic limit is not reached unless the pressure. The following data is given: p1 [mmHg] 861 1276 2280 q2 [cm3 /min] 6. p and the pressure drop across the core. at atmospheric pressure.] Figure 5. at one end of the core sample.2 0.
7. v2 = The horizontal ﬂow equation. (5. . (5. v = q/A and rearranging the above equation somewhat. all together nine measurements. roughness. set a.5. including a turbulent term can be written as. R ∆p . For each set there are three measurements. Recall from above the relation. 5. ρ is the gas density and F is the Fanning friction factor characterising the tube (i. 1. Since p = (p1 + p2 )/2 and ∆p = (p1 − p2 ). taken from the table is plotted and the absolute permeability is found kliquid = 3. The data. Permeability The absolute gas permeability of the core sample is therefore found as the asymptotic value of permeability. etc. = + ∆x µ q k Aµ In an experimental situation one normally do not know the average core rateq.74 Chapter 5. one gets. ∆x k where v is the average or mean ﬂow velocity and β is the turbulent constant .13). special care has to be taken to how data is plotted. ∆p µ = v + β v2 . . (5. when 1/p → 0. (5. Assuming there are three sets of data. In order to use Eq. p0 q = q0 .e. In order to adjust for the occurance of turbulence. ∆p A 1 1 β q.).5. Considering the average gas ﬂow velocity. p Substituting for average gas rate in the horizontal ﬂow equation one gets an equation particularly adapted for experimental application. (5.14).0 mD. is used describing turbulent ﬂow in a circular tube [7].1 Turbulent Gas Flow in a Core Sample When gas permeability in core samples are measured. the horizontal ﬂow equation can be expanded by adding a term particularly describing the turbulent ﬂow situation. as seen in Fig. b and c. one of them has to be kept ﬁxed when producing linear plots.14) is a linear equation where 1/k is the constant term. when p → ∞ or more conveniently. For this purpose the Fanning Eq.13) ρ F ∆x where R is the tube radius.14) ∆xµ p0 q0 k Aµ p Eq. q0 . wetting. Instead the gas rate is measured at the exhaust end. 2 and 3. turbulent ﬂow may be experienced in parts of the pore system. A ∆pp 1 β p0 q0 = + . According to the Fanning equation one may assume that pressure drop across a pore channel is proportional to the square of the average gas velocity in the pore. are both functions of p1 . preferably in the larger pores and pore channels.
8. The three permeability values found form Fig.b.3 q0. p = pm When turbulence is considered. 5.1 q0.c. 5. (5. kb and kc are now plotted.5 Gas Permeability Measurements 75 pa pa pa pb pb pb pc pc pc ∆pa.2 q0.8.2 q0.5.3 ∆pc.14). gas permeability is found using a step like plotting process.3 q0. A ∆ppm ∆xνp0 q0 pmc pmb pma 1/kc 1/kb 1/ka q0 /pm Figure 5.2 q0. Secondly. as shown in the Fig. 5.c.c.1 q0.3 ∆pb. permeabilities are plotted as functions of the inverse average pressure.b.a. k. where data having the same average core pressure are plotted together in the ﬁrst step. a. b and c.2 ∆pc.1 q0.3 q0. . as shown in the Fig.9: Absolute permeability as function of inverse average pressure. ka .a.1 ∆pc.D ka kc kb kL 1/pm Figure 5.a.3 For each data set.1 ∆pa.8: Plotting linear data where the average pressure p = pm is kept constant. from where the absolute (liquid) permeability is found.9.2 ∆pb.1 ∆pb.2 ∆pa.b. a straight line is plotted through the measured data points and the constant 1/k is evaluated. in accordance with the linear Eq.
e.11).15) where the latter statement means that different average core pressures p. i. this condition is broken. since gas permeability is pressure dependent. Extrapolation of this line to inﬁnite mean pressure. in the core. nitrogen. in combination with small (diameter) pore channels.6 Factors Affecting Permeability Values General considerations show that permeability is a characteristic parameter describing ﬂow behaviour in porous media. investigated by Klinkenberg in 1941. (5. qKlinkenberg > qlaminar . At low gas pressure. gases (helium. experiments have shown that the permeability is even more dependent on the overburden pressure than the porosity. used in laboratory tests. These facts should be considered when permeability from laboratory measurements is related to reservoir permeability. that the ﬂuid behaves "classically" with respect to intermolecular interactions in the gas. Permeability measurements are also (sometimes strongly) affected by the ﬂuid. It follows from Eq.e. gives the absolute (liquid) permeability. The use of gases introduce other problems. measurements of gas permeability give erroneously high results. Experiments show that when gas permeability is plotted versus the reciprocal average pressure p. In the case of overburden pressure. that they slip through the pore channels almost without interactions (no friction loss) and hence. The permeability . the gas molecules are closer together and interact more strongly as molecules in a liquid. yield a increased ﬂow velocity or ﬂow rate. due to some interaction between the ﬂuid and the porous medium. Klinkenberg found that the gas permeability of a core sample varied with both the type of gas used in the measurements and the average pressure p. that the rock permeability to gas is not the same as for liquids. it is evident that other characteristics than the porous medium have important inﬂuence on the numeric value of the permeability. as compared to the nonreactive liquid permeability measurements (absolute permeability). such as turbulent ﬂow behaviour. Permeability 5. One of the conditions for the validity of Darcy’s law. provide different values of the rock permeability to gas. k = k(p).7) or (5. 5. increased uncertainty in gas rate measurements and at low pressure. carbondioxide and air) are often used for permeability measurements. Compared to laminar ﬂow.1 The Klinkenberg Effect It has been observed that at low average pressures. To avoid this effect. i. e. gas molecules are often so far apart. k= qo µ po ∆l . At low p. Since the permeability is introduced as a proportional coefﬁcient in Darcy’s law. A p ∆p (5. (5. theKlinkenberg effect. when 1/p → 0. at a constant pressure difference. i. a straight line can be ﬁtted through the data points.g. is the requirement of laminar ﬂow. At higher pressures.76 Chapter 5.6.e. the Klinkenberg dominated ﬂow will yield a higher gas rate than laminar ﬂow.11). as presented in Eqs. This effect is known as the gas slippage effect or as the Klinkenberg effect.
or by using the following correlation’s. 5.6 1. The parameter b depends on the type of gas used and reﬂects.0 950. to some extent.2 Reciprocal Mean Pressure.8 88.10: Klinkenberg permeability determination. the pressure will be much higher and consequently the signiﬁcance of the Klinkenberg effect of no importance.8 0. km = kL 1 + b . using Poiseuille’s law for tube ﬂow. 5. Noncorrected permeability.10).0 2.0 0.and the absolute (liquid) permeability. 1/bar 2. . For such a system.0 In most laboratory measurements of gas permeability.10.5. Corrections to measured gas permeability due to the Klinkenberg effect are normally moderate to small corrections.7 7. In reservoirs. p (5. mD 6. as seen for the table below.0 Gas Permeability.0 100. [mD] 1. properties of the rock (Fig.0 He N2 CO2 Liquid or absolute permeability. it is shown that the permeability can be written. In early core analysis the Klinkenberg permeability was estimated by using a steadystate technique for permeability measurements.0 1000.16) where km and kL are the measured.0 0. respectively. at different mean pressures p.4 1.6 Factors Affecting Permeability Values 77 8. value at 1/p → 0 is comparable to the permeability obtained if the core were saturated with a nonreactive liquid (see Fig. it is safe to neglect the Klinkenberg effect if the gas pressure is higher than 10 bar.0 10. Example: Onset of the Klinkenberg effect The onset of the Klinkenberg effect is considered in a system comprised of a bundle of identical capillary tubes. kL 0.0 Figure 5. [mD] 0.0 4.0 Klinkenberg corrected permeability.
Since the Klinkenberg effect is said to become important when the mean free path of the gas and the size (diameter) of the pore channels are comparable. 4 8 (5.18) 4 8 Using helium gas. .01 to 0. Irrespective of the fact that a bundle of cylindrical tubes is far from being a realistic model of a porous medium. i. Helium has a mean free path. it follows.78 Chapter 5.06 µ m. At higher pressures. π (λHe /2)2 . As an example helium gas might be chosen in the ﬂow experiment. below which the Klinkenberg effect becomes active. (5. lower mean free paths are observed.8 mD. Permeability k= π r2 . λHe = 0. for permeabilities less thankHe = 0. (5. as above.1 µ m. whereas the mean free paths of CO2 and N2 are respectively 0. λ < λHe . the expected mean free paths are shorter and consequently the permeability limits are lower than in theHe case. In an experiment where N2 or CO2 is used. r = λHe /2.e.17). For many gases.17) where r is the individual tube radius. the mean free paths of their molecules at standard conditions (room temperature and atmospheric pressure) are in the range: 0.04 µ m and 0. there is a maximum permeability limit. one can estimate the permeability at which the Klinkenberg effect starts to become a signiﬁcant effect. kHe = . the Klinkenberg effect would be active at standard conditions in a "porous" medium. Substituting the helium mean free path for the diameter of the tube radius in Eq.18 · 10−6 m at atmospheric pressure and temperature of 20o C [59].
q:[bbl/d]. q:[cm3 /s].7 Exercises 1. is given by Poiseuilles equation. 8µ ∆l a) Calculate the porosity of the cylindrical pore model φ .5.0133×106 . 2. . L:[ft] and p:[psi]. r2 ∆p v= . A:[ f t 2 ]. Convert this equation to "Oil Field Units" where. A:[cm2 ]. pe [atm] pw [atm] rw [cm] re [cm] h [cm] Pressure at the outer boundary Pressure in the well Well radius Radius at the outer boundary Reservoir height Use Darcy’s law to derive a general equation for a cylindrical reservoir in the cases of horizontal ﬂow. k:[Darcy]. Find an expression for the average permeability and evaluate the consequences of relative increase/decrease in the pore radius. µ :[cp]. as shown in the ﬁgure below. µ .[cp]. A reservoir has cylindrical geometry where the following parameters are deﬁned.. k:[mD].7 Exercises 79 5. b) Show that the permeability is written as k = φ r2 /8. µ ∆L where. where R r. a) incompressible ﬂuid and b) ideal gas. r R ∆l ∆l 4. is equal to 1. when we have. c) Consider the average permeability of a serial coupling of two tubes with tube radius R and r. Assuming a tube radius equal to r and that the ﬂuid ﬂow velocity through the tubes. 3. Prove that the numeric constant for converting dyn/cm2 to atm. Darcy’s law is given. L:[cm] and p:[atm]. The cylindrical pore model consists of cylindrical tubes stacked on top of each other. q=A k ∆p .
where the following data is given: . Calculate the pressure in the reservoir at a distance 5 ft from the well.pressure ) 7. q k1 k2 k3 h1 h2 h3 q 9. The measurements are done under laboratory conditions. Calculate the well pressure. using N2 . 75 mD. 6. 20 psig. Verify that the two approaches used above give the same answer. k= n ∑ j=1 h j where k j and h j are the permeability and thickness of the layers. BOPD is short for "Barrel of Oil Produced per Day". 175 BOPD. What is the pressure drop from the well to this position. without detecting the Klinkenberg effect. An oil well is producing from a cylindrical reservoir with a drainage area of 20 acres. stacked on top of each other (in parallel).5 in. 13 psia.0 in. in percentage of the total pressure difference in the reservoir? ¯ 8. Show that the average permeability k for n horizontal layers. Calculate the total ﬂow rate in f t 3 /d at the pressure pb for gas ﬂow through parallel layers. (Use the equation for gas rate at the efﬂuent end qo and the equation for the average gas rate q. Permeability 5. 0. respectively.) Length Diameter qb pb 3. n kh ¯ ∑ j=1 j j . qb and pb is the ﬂow rate and back pressure. given the following data: rw k pe = = = 6 in. in two ways. p1 p2 Atm. 1. (NB: p psia = p psig + patm. 5000 psia. Use the laws of Darcy and Poiseuilles to estimate the lowest measurable permeability of a sandstone core sample. 75 cm3 /s. is given by the formula [8] (see Figure below).80 Chapter 5. Linear ﬂow in horizontal layers. 14. pressure µ 55 psig. Calculate the air permeability.65 psia.0185 cP. 10 ft. µ h q = = = 5 cP. for a cylindrical core sample where the following data is given.
50 mD. 330 ft.0 psia.and liquid ﬂow? 13. 6 ft. 100 psig. Linear and horizontal ﬂow through linear beds in series. Gas viscosity µg = 0.0 psia. 200 ft. k j is permeability to the layer with outer radius r j . Show that the average permeability for n radial layers in a cylindrical reservoir is given by the formula [8] (see Figure below). Show that the average permeability of rectangular porous media coupled in series is given by the formula [8] (see Figure below). 5 cp. respectively. 10 cP. Calculate the pressure at the outer boundary pe when the oil rate is 100 bbl/d and the following data is given: rw r1 k3 6 in. ) 10. 150 mD. µo pin pout patm. 200 ft. 100 ft. 200 mD. 20 ft. length k1 k2 k3 400 ft. pin pout pb 15. 4 ft. pw µo h 2000 psia. 100 mD. Calculate the total oil rate bbl/d through all media. k1 k2 50 mD. k n ∑ j=1 L j /k j where L j is the length of the media in the direction of ﬂow. Are the formulas above valid both for gas.65 psia. 400 psig. height k1 k2 k3 50 ft. 14. 2 ft. 12.5. n L ¯ = ∑ j=1 j . n ln(r j /r j−1 )/k j ∑ j=1 where re and rw is the radius to the outer boundary of the reservoir and the well radius. 10 ft. Radial and horizontal ﬂow through cylindrical layers. 50 psig.0185cp. when the following data is given: width L1 L2 L3 100 ft. 500 psig. (Notice: p psia = p psig + patm. 200 mD. q k1 k2 k3 q L1 L2 L3 L 11. 15. ¯ k= ln(re /rw ) . 400 mD. 200 mD. An oil well has a intermediate zone with reduced reservoir permeability k1 . patm.7 Exercises 81 width h1 h2 h3 200 ft. .
0. evenly distributed over the surface. 288 atm. 2272 psi.1 mD. The tube is placed in a vertical position and the water is assumed to ﬂow through the whole core sample. 6.57 · 106 f t 3 /d. The core sample is mounted in a transparent cylindrical tube. Water 100 cm Core sample 82 cm 2 cm q Additional data. 262 atm. 9. 13. Permeability What is the pressure at outside the damaged zone (r1 ) ? 14. as shown in the ﬁgure below.1 D. 7. Calculate the absolute permeability of the sample when the air–water surface uses 400 seconds to move 18 cm. 4710 bbl/d. 14.82 Chapter 5. 1. Absolute permeability of a core sample is being measured by water ﬂooding. and the airwater surface is monitored as function of time. 0. Density of water Water viscosity Gravitational constant Thickness of core sample Answers to questions: 3. 11. 1 D. 1 g/cm3 1 cp 980 cm/s2 2 cm . 5. π /4.
In this chapter. on average. no interfacial tension is observed between gases. is the surface or interfacial tension (or more correctly the surface or interfacial energy). say water and oil is forming an interface. the molecules attached to the oilwater interface do necessarily have less kinetic energy than the bulk molecules. water/rock and. as seen in Fig. The equilibrium bulk phases can be: • Liquidvapor (LV). the deﬁnition is similar but slightly more complex. If two ﬂuids. when giving an overall picture of the interfacial conditions. The molecules on or close to the interface may not move with the same degree of freedom and speed. the interface oil/water. • Liquidsolid (LS). • Solidvapor (SV). it is important to recognise the effect of the surface properties of oil/rock. 6. the interaction between wettability and surface tension is revealed. • Liquidliquid (LL). water.1 Introduction The exploitation of hydrocarbons is a complex process of controlling interactions in systems involving crude oil.2 Surface and Interfacial Tension An interface is known as the boundary region between two adjacent bulk phases.1. This property is very sensitive to chemical changes at the interface. denoted by σ . in combination.) Any surface that is in the state of lateral tension. In such complicated systems. 6. due to the constraint put on them by the interface. leads to the concept ofsurface tension. The surface tension. Some of the most commonly used techniques are reviewed. can be related to the work or energy required to establish the surface area.Chapter 6 Wettability and Capillary Pressure 6. For curved interfaces. several experimental methods have been developed in order to measure this physical property. A central property. Since the total energy of 83 . (Gases are basically miscible and thus. gas and rock formations. Due to the great signiﬁcance of the surface/interfacial tension.
. Note that wettability itself is a microscopic characteristic. Note. the larger is the interfacial tension σ . and thecontact angle.e. σ= ∂G ∂A .. the following expression for surface tension may be written. i.. Since a proportionality exist between surface area and potential energy of the system of molecules and since equilibrium is reached at minimum potential energy (actually minimum Gibbs energy).p. 6.e. This means that energy is required to move a molecule from the interior to the surface of a phase. The stronger the intermolecular attractions in the liquid.1 some typical values for surface . In Table 6. The unit of surface tension is therefore. Wettability and Capillary Pressure the molecules is mainly a function of temperature. the surface area of a system is always minimised. J/m2 or more commonly N/m. a molecule at a surface is in a state of higher potential energy than a bulk molecule. The term wettability can be deﬁned as "the tendency of one ﬂuid to spread or to adhere to a solid surface in the presence of other immiscible ﬂuids" [29].84 Chapter 6. i.e. The evaluation of reservoir wettability can be made through measurements of interfacial tensions. the potential energy of molecules attached to the interface is greater than the potential energy of the bulk molecules. the greater is the work needed to bring bulk molecules to the surface.1: Molecular motion in bulk and close to the oilwater interface. area.ni (6. due to anisotropy and intermolecular interactions. Keeping the temperature. that has to be measured by using microscale laboratory investigation techniques. . T. oil water Figure 6. The surface tension between a pure liquid and its vapour phase is usually in the range of 10 to 80 mN/m. that what is called surface or interface tension is in fact surface or interface energy and quite often it is more advantageous to use the energy perspective than it is to deal with tension and forces. i.. tensions acting at the ﬂuidﬂuid and rockﬂuid interfaces.1) Here G is the Gibbs free energy and A is the surface area. i. to increase the surface area of the system. Generally speaking. pressure and amount of material in the system constant.3 Rock Wettability Laboratory experiments have proved that rock wettability affects oil displacement. the unit of energy pr.e.and interfacial tensions are listed.
The presence of certain authigenic clays. σLV and interfacial tension to water. T. A table of typical ﬂuid pairs of interest in reservoir engineering is shown in the Table 6.9 28. T = 293o K. σLW for some liquids at temperature.0 σLW (mN/m) – 51.e. is here deﬁned as the interfacial tension between a liquid and its vapor. i. particularly chamosite. P Laboratory.5 28. may promote oil wet character.2: Fluid pair wettability under reservoir and laboratory conditions. of the immiscible pair. through the ﬂuid whose wettability is studied or through the ﬂuid which is wetting the solid surface. The qualitative recognition of preferred spread is called a wettability preference. Table 6.1: Surface tension. and the ﬂuid which spreads more is said to be the wetting phase ﬂuid. water.7 52. and on the nature of the pore wall. T. Pure quartz sandstone or calcite surfaces are likely to be wetted preferentially by water. by convention. P θ σ (dynes/cm) 30 48 72 (50) 4 480 30 30 0 0 0 140 The degree of wettability exhibited.7 25. P Reservoir. Contact angles are measured.6. together with contact angles and interfacial tensions [8].0 The angle θ is inﬂuenced by the tendency of one of the ﬂuids. T. T. P Laboratory. particularly the asphaltine content of the oil. The differences in contact angle somehow indicate different wettability preferences which .9 53. P Reservoir. T.3 Rock Wettability 85 Table 6. Note: Surface tension σLV .7 35. T. to spread on the pore wall surface in preference to the other (oil).4 27.8 21. P Laboratory. depends both on the chemical compositions of the ﬂuid pair.0 375. Liquid Water noctane ndodecane nhexadecane dichoromethane benzene mercury σLV (mN/m) 72. System Wetting Nonwetting phase phase Brine Brine Brine Brine Oil Gas Oil Oil Gas Gas Gas Mercury Conditions T = temperature P = pressure Reservoir.2.8 27.9 476.
Wettability and Capillary Pressure can be illustrated by the following rule of thumb presented in Table 6.4 Contact Angle and Interfacial Tension With two immisible ﬂuids (oil and water) present in the reservoir.86 Chapter 6.3: Wettability preference expressed by contact angle.3.2 [19]. Contact angle values 0 – 30 30 – 90 90 90 – 150 150 – 180 Wettability preference Strongly water wet Preferentially water wet Neutral wettability Preferentially oil wet Strongly oil wet o o w s θ=0 w s θ = 90 o w s θ ~ 180 Figure 6. as seen in Fig. 6. The three interfacial tension are not independent parameters. σos . surrounded by oil. . σos .3: Geometry of the water droplet in oil. 6. σws and σwo . and in order to reveal the relationship between them a "gedanken" experiment is carried out on a droplet of water.3 and in Fig. Table 6. there are three interfacial tension parameters to be assessed. 6. placed in a contact with a waterwet reservoir rock. The following deﬁnitions will be used: • surface tension between the oil and solid. placed in a contact with a waterwet reservoir rock.2: Example of wetting preference. r Oil h R θ Water θ Rock Figure 6.
As . 2h2 h2 + r2 = 0. A small deformation of the surface area. 6. which is known as the YoungDupre equation [15]. (6. 6. σws dAs + (−σos dAs ) + σow dAd = 0 Elaborating on Eq.6. σos − σws = σow cos θ . (6. (6. will deform the droplet slightly and force the droplet to expand on the solid surface. the following relationships are valid (see also Fig.4 Contact Angle and Interfacial Tension 87 • surface tension between the water and solid. dVw = which leads to dh = − Using these results.4) . h2 + r2 ⇒ ⇒ dAs = 2π rdr dAw = 2π (rdr + hdh) (6.3) R sin θ = r R cos θ = R − h and (1 − a ﬁnal result is obtained. Ad .2) is rewritten. • area of the reservoir rock occupied by the water droplet. • interfacial tension between the oil and water phases. 2rh dr. Eq. ∂r ∂h σws − σos + σow 1 − and taking into account that (see Fig.2) ∂ Vw ∂ Vw dr + dh = 0.3). expressing the change in energy due to the change in area. • surface area of the water droplet. The deformation is described by the equilibrium equation. 2h2 h2 + r2 ) = cos θ . As = π r 2 Aw = π (r2 + h2 ) Vw = π6h (3r2 + h2 ) Incompressible liquids give.2). σow .3). (6. The water droplet is assumed to be in equilibrium with the surrounding medium. θ . • contact angle at the oilwatersolid interface measured through the water. σws .
e.025 N ⇒ Pc m N = 0.R1 and R2 . pw dV + σow dA = po dV. where Pc is deﬁned as the pressure difference between the non.wetting and the wetting phase. a spherical interface is an odd observation. Taking typical values of a pore radius and an interfacial tension of oil and water. the capillary pressure can be obtained by the following evaluation: r ∼ 1µ m and σow = 0. If the droplet is small. Using an example with an oil drop ﬂoating in water where the density of oil and water are assumed similar.5 Capillary Pressure Capillary pressure may be deﬁned as the pressure difference across a curved interface between two immiscible ﬂuids. A small perturbation. one we successively obtain.4. a curved surface is characterised by two radii of curvature. Normally. Pc = po − pw . the Pc term is positive for unconﬁned immiscible ﬂuid pairs.5.5 bar m2 ·104 6.4: Pressure difference across a curved (spherical) interface. 6. is described by an equation taking into account the energy change due to the volume and the surface change. 2 4π r r Capillary pressure can be of signiﬁcant magnitude. a small reduction of the sphere volume. i. one may assume the interfacial tension to be far more important than the gravitational force acting on the droplet and thus. as seen in Fig 6. Wettability and Capillary Pressure 6. as seen in Fig. since the surface area is minimised. By convention. the droplet takes the form of a perfect sphere. in the latter equation.1 Capillary Pressure Across Curved Surfaces For two immiscible liquids as part of a real physical system.5.88 Chapter 6. ** Pw Po Water Oil Figure 6. Substituting deﬁnition of the capillary pressure pc . since this is the energy needed to form a droplet that can pass through a porous channel . Pc = σow dA dA = σow dV dr dV dr −1 = σow 8π r 2 = σow . The equilibrium condition is ecpressed as the change in potential and surface energy. the capillary pressure is written. .
073 mN/m? The energy in question. With a pressure difference across the interface in the two phases.22J is found. ∆A = N · Ad − A = V 3 Ad − A = V − A. The relationship between the pressure difference ∆p = Pc and the curvature is given by Laplace equation. What is then the energy needed to transform 1 cm3 of pure water to droplets with an average radius of 1 µ m. Vd r where the droplet area and volume are respectively.Vd . Pc = σ 1 1 .5 Capillary Pressure 89 R2 R1 Figure 6.1). is the energy needed to increase the initial water surface A. ∆E p = σair. .5: Curved surface and radii of curvature. Since the increased area ∆A is directly proportional to the increase in potential energy ∆E p . Ad and volume .w ∆A = σair. The area increase is.5) where R1 and R2 are the principal radii of curvature and σ is the interfacial tension. of the initial volume V to N number of droplets with area.w 3 V −A . (6. Example: Surface tension and surface energy The process of displacing water through a porous medium is comparable to the formation of droplets of sizes equal to the capillary pore throats. Across a planar interface/surface R1 = R2 = ∞ and ∆p = 0. For a spherical droplet R1 = R2 = r and ∆p = 2σ /r. 4π r2 and (4/3)π r3 . the interface will show a net curvature with the larger pressure on the concave side. a potential energy equal to about 0. which can be expressed by Eq. + R1 R2 (6. when the surface tension of water to vapor is 0. r If the initial water area is considered to be small (or negligible) to the area of the droplets.6.
• When the surface tension is positive. as shown in Fig. σ < 0. Wettability and Capillary Pressure . σ > 0.3 Capillary Pressure in a Cylindrical Tube When a nonwetting ﬂuid is displacing a wetting ﬂuid.90 Chapter 6. In these cases no preference with respect to mixing of the two ﬂuids is observed. two immiscible ﬂuids (oil + water) are conﬁned in a cylindrical capillary of radiusrc . (6. as is the case when oil is displacing water in a waterwet porous rock. a curved interface is formed in the capillary tube.2 Interfacial Tension Assuming pairs of immicsible unconﬁned ﬂuids the following phenomena.7. conﬁned molecules. . have a preference for keeping their own company.5. The surface against the second type of molecules is minimised and in the case of small droplets. (However.) • When the surface tension is negative. To reveal the relation between the capillary pressure. molecules of one type will prefer (have afﬁnity for) the company of the second type of molecules. An example of such a process is the hydrophilic ability of pure ethanol to mix with air more or less instantaneously. the interfacial tension and the radius in a cylindrical tube. 6. 6. 6. Using the Eq. liquids are classiﬁed as "truely" miscible. diffusion will lead to mixing of the two ﬂuids.5) for the pressure difference between the two sides of the interface.6 can be observed. • In the cases when σ ≈ 0.6: Formation of interface as function of the sign of the interfacial tension in pairs of immicsible unconﬁned ﬂuids. We may observe a chemical reaction where the ﬁnal state is stable in time. spherical interfaces are formed. as illustrated in Fig. depending on the sign of interfacial tension: σ>0 σ~0 σ<0 Figure 6.5. 6.
In this example. expressing the radius of the interfacial surface R by means of the contact angle θc and the capillary radius rc in the cylindrical tube. Ak Pc = .6) is the capillary pressure in a cylindrical tube of radiusr. Example: Oil . Consider a dynamical situation. po − pw = σow 1 1 . Pc = po − pw = σow 1 1 + R1 R2 = 2σow · cos θc .5 Capillary Pressure 91 θc rc Water θc R Oil Figure 6. cos θc where Eq. (6. as sketch in Fig. When R1 = R2 = R and R= the capillary pressure is written.6) rc .and capillary forces. in the oil.and water zone and partly the capillary pressure drop. The pressure drop along the cylindrical tube is partly the viscous pressure drop ∆po + ∆pw . + R1 R2 where R1 and R2 are main radii of the curvature.6.8 where the oil front has reached a position x in to the cylinder (pore).7: Idealised model of a pore channel ﬁlled with two immiscible ﬂuids forming a curved interface between them. the process by which oil displaces water in a cylindrical tube is considered in analogy with the production of oil from a waterwet reservoir where oil is forced through capillary pores which initially contained water. r q [µo x + µw (L − x)] .water displacement in a capillary tube Displacement processes in porous media are very often a competition between viscous. 6. Pc across the oilwater interface: ∆pV = ∆po + ∆pw = 2σow cos θ . rc (6.
day. The ﬂow rate is q = Av. Nc = vµ . i. a set of "typical values" could be chosen and the average pore velocity is found.3 m/s.e.5 · 10−5 (using the numbers above). ∆pv /Pc ∼ 1.and the capillary force. where A and v is respectively the crosssection area and the pore velocity.k = r2 /8. Wettability and Capillary Pressure ∆po ∆pc ∆pw Oil 0 x Water L Figure 6.92 Chapter 6. The Capillary number for reservoir ﬂow becomes Nc = 1. σ cos θ The Capillary number Nc .5 µ m/s. which is equal to 3. a dimensionless number could be deﬁned. describes the competition between the viscous. µo ≈ µw = 1 mPa · s σow = 50 mN/m Reservoir ﬂow is commonly considered to be of the order of 1 foot pr. capillary forces are totally predominant and that viscous forces play a minor role when microscopic ﬂow pattern is considered. Pc σow cos θ r σow cos θ r In the equation above. In analogy with the deﬁnition of Reynolds number. the relation vµ /(σ · cos θ ) is the only term containing dynamical parameters. it is obvious (even when the appropriate bulk velocity u = v pore /(φ (1 − Sr ) cos2 α ) is taken into account) that under reservoir ﬂow conditions. while the Capillary number at the "breaking point" when the viscous force becomes equally important to the capillary force is 8· 10−3 . in the reservoir. The permeability of the tube is known as. and r is the tube radius. In a situation where the two forces are assumed to be equally important.8: Crosssection view of a cylindrical "pore channel". . ∆pV /Pc = 1 θ = 60o L/r = 5 v pore ≈ 1. This means that the capillary forces alone decide which pore channels are going to be swept and which are not. ∆pV vµo x vµw L − x =4 + . From this comparison . The strength between the two forces is considered by simply comparing their pressure drops.
6. k. Pc = f (φ . the following dependency can be expressed. 6. Sw ) Since some of the parameters are dependent on others.6 Capillary Pressure and Fluid Saturation Results from drainage and imbibiation laboratory experiments have shown that the capillary pressure Pc = po − pw is dependent on the following parameters (see Fig. Laboratory studies have shown that the value of the Capillary number is directly related to the ultimate recovery of oil. σos . where an increase in the Capillary number implies an increase in the oil recovery. σow · cos θc . φ . Sw and Sw Oil σow Oil θc Water σws Waterwet σow σos σos θc Water σws Oilwet Figure 6.8) can be carried out using the following notation for dimensions. being responsible for the numeric variation of the capillary pressure in the experiments.8) A dimensional analysis of Eq. . σws and σow . • rock porosity. The Capillary number is generally varied by increasing the ﬂow rate (pore velocity) and/or lowering the interfacial tension. σws .9): • surface tensions. • rock permeability. (6. θc . So . Relying upon the data obtained. Sw ) (6.7) is written.6.9: Wettability of oilwatersolid system. mentioned above. k. Pc = f (φ . σos . (6. So = 1 − Sw .6 Capillary Pressure and Fluid Saturation 93 The capillary number for ﬁeld waterﬂoods ranges from 10−6 to 10−4 . The task is to deﬁne (if possible) a correlation between capillary pressurePc and the parameters. • ﬂuid saturations. • contact angle measured through the water phase.7) σos − σws = σow · cos θc . θc . . k. the list of independent parameters is shortened and Eq. σow . (6.
This means that dimension of the capillary pressure can be deﬁned through dimensions of those parameters.. Sw ). (6.8). σow · cos θc √ (6. (k/φ ) (6. the number of independent variable parameters is reduced and an almost exact form of the correlation between the capillary pressure Pc . it appears that both dimension parameters k and σow have independent dimensions. a dimensionless parameter F can be composed. 15]. [Pc ] = [k]α · [σow · cos θc ]β . Thus.8) can be rewritten in dimensionless form.8): [Pc ] = M · L−1 · T −2 . The following correlation is widely used for reservoir simulation tasks [13. F= √ Pc · k. i. k It can be shown that parameters φ and Sw and their functions. Eq. Sw ). or using the initial notation. [Sw ] = 1 (6. [φ ] = 1.10) · F1 (φ ) · F2 (Sw ) k Thus by using the dimension analysis (the π theorem) [11].94 Chapter 6. T : −2 = −2β .9) Comparing all the parameters of the righthand side of Eq. Wettability and Capillary Pressure M – mass.11) where J(Sw ) is known as the Jfunction (after Leverett). [σow · cos θc ] = M · T −2 .9). F = F(φ . and T – time.e. which is followed by. (6. M · L−1 · T −2 = L2α · M β · T −2β . ﬂuids and rock parameters is obtained. Pc = σow · cos θc √ · F(φ . [k] = L2 . can only appear in correlations where they form a product. Using notation (6. L – length. M: 1 = β. Pc = Pc = σow · cos θc · J(Sw ). L : −1 = 2α . ⇒ α = −1/2 and β = 1. which gives the following dimensions for all the parameters in Eq. σow · cos θc and by making use of this result. the last relation is written in the form. . (6.
N where N is the total number of pore channels. a ﬁxed contact angle θc . Generally. χ (r) = n(r. Then gradually decreasing the outlet pressure (pressure in the oil phase). as a consequence. i.10. It is quite obvious that the water enters only those capillary channels with capillary pressurePc . the water will invade the pores. Hence. r + dr) . 6. The capillary pressure does also represent the response of interfacial tensions and rock wettability. To reveal the relation between the capillary pressure and the microscopic heterogeneity of the reservoir. at a certain time only those channels will be ﬁlled with water.7 Pore Size Distribution It is obvious that the capillary pressure is strongly affected by the distribution of pore channel sizes. that a certain invariant distributionfunction χ (r) deﬁnes a fraction of pore channels with capillary radii belonging to the interval (r. V = ∑ Vi . the pressure in the oil phase po . where all pore channels have the same type of wettability and. which satisfy the condition. the following example is considered: An idealised model of the porous medium consisting of cylindrical capillaries with different radii ri . Let Vi be the pore volume of a single capillary with radiusri and V be the total pore volume of the porous medium considered. Rock Water Oil Figure 6. i=1 N Now let us consider a process of imbibition for a strongly waterwet rock initially saturated with oil.10: Illustration of imbibition process in an idealised model of porous medium. Assume that at the starting point. . exceeding the difference between the outlet and inlet pressure ∆po (t).6. is high enough to protect the water invading the pore channels. Pc ≥ ∆po (t).. represented by the 1/r relationship.e. It is also assumed. is the capillary pressure characteristic of the reservoir heterogeneity. as shown in Fig. r + dr) as.7 Pore Size Distribution 95 6.
and the capillary pressure Pc . Pc = pHg − pg = 2σ cos θ . and the gas pressure in the core sample pg . ∆po (t) Then the volume of water which has invaded the porous medium can be deﬁned as. First. the relations between the water saturation Sw . Example: Pore size distribution and capillary pressure curve In this example. before it is sealed in a mercury pycnometer. is recorded inside the pycnometer and the injection volume Vi is read as the pore sample is invaded by more and more mercury. This phenomenon is frequently observed in laboratory tests. substituting Eq. where l is the length of a single pore channel. the core sample is properly cleaned. rc ≤ 2σow cos θc . is here the pressure difference between the mercury pressure pHg . r . The experimental data is as follows: pHg VHg p0 V0 p1 V1 p2 V2 p3 V3 ··· ··· pN VN The capillary pressure Pc . by using a mercury injection technique. Since the pore size distribution varies between the different layers in a reservoir. representative pressure measurements pi . Wettability and Capillary Pressure or. dried and placed in vacuum for some time. (6. it will be shown how data from a mercury drainage experiment could be used to produce a capillary pressure curve and how these data could be used further.12) which explicitly indicates that microscopic reservoir heterogeneity strongly affects the capillary pressure.6) into the last inequality. rc Vc = N 0 χ (r)π r2 ldr. rc (6. to deﬁne the pore size distribution for the core sample tested. is Vc = V rc 2 0 χ (r)r dr .96 Chapter 6. A series ofN + 1. ∞ 2 0 χ (r)r dr Sw = Pc = and 2σow · cos θc . Deﬁning the total pore volume as. on core samples taken from different elevations in the same well. it is expected that the capillary pressure curve shape will also vary from layer to layer. ∞ V =N 0 χ (r)π r2 ldr.
1 S2 r2 Pc. The pore size distribution is then rewritten.0 S1 r1 Pc. using the following steps. When Pc (Sg ) is known. ∂r r Substituting this last expression into the pore size distribution. The wetting saturation is therefore written. r (∂ Pc /∂ S) Fig.6. one gets. D(r) = 1 dPc . taken from the above tabulated data. dr (∂ Pc /∂ S) Using the deﬁnition of the capillary pressure Pc = 2σ cos θ /r. 1. one gets. The minus sign "" is added due to convenience.3 ··· ··· ··· 0 rN Pc. Sg = 1 − SHg = VN −Vi . ∂S 1 =− ∂V ∆V ⇒ ∂V = −∆V. D(r) = − 1 1 ∂V ∂ S dPc . For a certain gas saturation Sg . then D(r) can be calculated.11 shows the two curves for the capillary pressure and the pore size distribution. ∂S and by substituting in the pore size distribution equation. 6. ∆V dr where ∆V = VN −V0 and dV = Vi −Vi−1 . respectively. ∆V dr ∂ S ∂ Pc Remembering the deﬁnition of the wetting phase saturation Sg = (VN −V )/(VN −V0 ).N The pore size distribution D(r) is representing the relative increase in pore volume as function of the pore throat radius.7 Pore Size Distribution 97 The gas is the wetting phase since mercury deﬁnitely does not wet any core sample. . the corresponding capillary pressure Pc (Sg ) is calculated. D(r) = − de f 1 dV .2 S3 r3 Pc. gives dPc = ∂ Pc Pc dr = − dr. the following parameters are calculated. VN −V0 Based on the data in the table above. D(r) = − Pc 1 . one may write. Sg r Pc 1 r0 Pc.
entering pore space initially occupied by the wetting ﬂuid.12. For a waterair system.11 the pore size distribution is drawn in accordance with the enumerated list. . The threshold capillary pressure. 6. The pore radius related to this pressure is r = 2σ cos θ /Pc . normally hydrocarbons. 6. Pc Incremental Mercury Injection P d Sw D(r) = rc d Pc Pore radius.98 Chapter 6. In Fig. Pc = gρw h. A pressure differential is required for the nonwetting phase to displace wetting phase and this is equivalent to a minimum threshold capillary pressure and is dependent on pore size. as seen in Fig.8 Saturation Distribution in Reservoirs The equilibrium ﬂuid saturation distribution in a petroleum reservoir. Pc (Sg )) gives the slope deﬁned by ∂ Pc /∂ S. the following relation exist. while an oilwater contact observed in a particular well will depend on the threshold pressure of the rock type present in the vicinity of the well. where a 100% water saturation is found. 6. Sw Figure 6. 3. This is as a result of the nonwetting phase.11: Capillary pressure curve and corresponding pore size distribution [8]. The physical signiﬁcance of threshold pressure in an oil reservoir may be appreciated by the analogy with a capillary rise of water in different vertical glass tubes suspended in an open tray of water. D(r) Capillary Pressure. . Since Pc ∝ 1/r it is observed that entry of the nonwetting phase should be most difﬁcult in the smallest tube (highest threshold pressure). 2. The tangent to the curve Pc (Sg ) through the coordinate (Sg . ⇒ Pc(3) > Pc(2) > Pc(1) where r3 < r2 < r1 . Wettability and Capillary Pressure Pore radius distribution. r Water saturation. found in reservoir is proportional to the height above the free water level (FWL). prior to production is governed by the pore space characteristics. The FWL is a property of the reservoir system. during migration of hydrocarbons from a source rock region into a reservoir trap. normally water.
In a particular rock type. this height is given. . g(ρw − ρo ) In real reservoir systems it is expected that a number of rock type units or layers will be encountered. Using a free water level as the datum plane and deﬁning its position in the reservoir as the place where the oil phase pressure po equals the water phase pressure pw . r) there exist a dependence. po = pFW L − ρo gh pw = pFW L − ρw gh Therefore.8 Saturation Distribution in Reservoirs 99 h3 h2 h1 Figure 6. will depend on both the water saturation and the pore radius (see example: "Equilibrium in a capillary channel"). the pressures are. Pc(FW L) = po − pw = 0.12: Capillary water elevation in cylindrical tubes as function of tube radii. hSw = 2σow cos θc . one obtains. as seen in Fig. the capillary pressure at a depth equivalent toh above the FWL is.6. ht = Pct . Each unit can have its own capillary pressure characteristic and the static saturation distribution in the reservoir will be a superposition of all units. h = h(Sw . At some height h. The relation between height above the free water level and the capillary pressure is derived from consideration of the gravitycapillary pressure force equilibrium. r).13. 6. Pc = po − pw = (pFW L − ρo gh) − (pFW L − ρw gh) = gh(ρw − ρo ) Since Pc = Pc (Sw . rg(ρw − ρo ) Similarly. above FWL. the threshold height ht is equivalent to the height of an observed wateroil contact above FWL. which indicated that saturation at height h.
. caused by oil displacing water in a small fraction of the capillary tube (see close up in Fig. 6. 6. r Oil o ∆h h w Water Figure 6. the relation between elevation of water above FWL in reservoirs is coupled to the pore dimension (pore radius).100 Chapter 6. is given by the difference in surface tension (or surface energy). as shown in Fig. a small part of the tube surface will experience a change in ﬂuid coverage. ∆Es = 2π r(σos − σws )∆h.13: Observed wateroil contacts and their relationship with free water level (FWL) in a layered reservoir with a common aquifer [8]. The change in surface energy. where oil is the nonwetting ﬂuid.14: Perturbation around equilibrium in a waterwet capillary tube. Wettability and Capillary Pressure k1 Well k2 k3 OWC OWC OWC k4 OWC FWL k1 > k 4 > k 3 > k 2 Figure 6. is related to the saturation of water in a reservoir. when oil is replacing water as being the contact ﬂuid. Equilibrium in a vertical water wet capillary tube.14. For a small perturbation ∆h. Example: Equilibrium in a capillary tube In this example.14).
This implies that for any given porous medium and any pairs of ﬂuids.9 Laboratory Measurements of Capillary Pressure 101 The corresponding potential energy change.9 Laboratory Measurements of Capillary Pressure Laboratory measurements of capillary pressure are based on the fact thatPc ∝ σ cos θ /r.6. i. 2 In a oil reservoir where the ﬂuids are well deﬁned . (σ cos θc )1 (σ cos θc )2 Practical use is made of this relationship in conducting laboratory tests with ﬂuids other than reservoir condition ﬂuids. Pc = g(ρw − ρo )h = 2σow cos θ . This dual characteristic of the capillary pressure gives the condition for the coexistence of oil and water in porous rock. and at the same time. (σ cos θc )lab .and water phase at a certain elevation h in the reservoir. ∆Es = ∆E p .and the potential energy changes is expected to be equal. the following relationship is valid. where r characterizes the porous medium with respect to the pore throats and the pore size distribution . the pore radiusr and the height above FWL h are reciprocal variables.water interfacial tension are known parameters. the following relation is given. 6. If small perturbations close to equilibrium are considered. For example. air and brine with a (σ cos θc )lab value of 72 dynes/cm may be used to measure capillary pressure for air. the pressure difference across a curved surface in inside a pore channel of radiusr. The relationship for the reservoir oilbrine pair capillary pressure is obtained using the appropriate value of (σ cos θc )res =26 dynes/cm. Pc1 Pc2 = .res = Pc. where. ∆E p = π r2 ∆h(ρw − ρo )gh. due to change in elevation is written. the capillary pressure has a "dual" characteristic. This means that the saturation of initial water present in the reservoir above a certain height h is localised in those pores having a radii less than r. Pc. r where the capillary pressure is the pressure difference between oil.e. i. where the densities and the oil.Dupre equation. Using the Young.e.brine in the laboratory. . From the above consideration. g σow cos θ = (ρw − ρo )rh. the surface.lab (σ cos θc )res .
Air pressure Capillary contact powder Core plug Neoprene diaphragm Screen Porous plate Figure 6. and measuring the quantity of any produced wetting phase. . Repetition for several successive pressure levels [8]. As a result of an increase in pressure (equivalent to Pc since Pc = pair − pbrine ) the water saturation decreases and its value is established by weighting the core plugs. it has the advantage that high pressures can be attained.oil transition zone.15. in the sense that the sample cannot be used again.15: Gasliquid drainage capillary pressure measurement. can be forced into very small pores. Wettability and Capillary Pressure The migration of hydrocarbons into an initially water ﬁlled reservoir rock and subsequent equilibrium vertical saturation distribution is modelled in the laboratory by a nonwetting phase displacing a wetting phase (drainage capillary pressure test). The airbrine interfacial tension is 0. Portion of liquid in saturated core is displaced at a particular pressure level by either gas or liquid.070 N/m and the brineoil interfacial tension for the reservoir ﬂuids is 0. 6.102 Chapter 6. where mercury.34 bar). The apparatus layout is shown in Fig.022 N/m.25 bar has been measured in a reservoir core sample at residual water saturation. Example: Height of water . Although this test is destructive. Air and brine are frequently used as the pseudo reservoir ﬂuids. Liquid saturation measured after equilibrium saturation has been reached. The height of the wateroil transition zone is the height from FWL and up to the point in the reservoir where connate water saturation is reached. In laboratory tests the ﬁnal irreducible wetting phase saturation value is often beyond the breakdown pressure of the porous plate and is sometimes obtained by centrifuge spinning at a rotational force equivalent to about 150 psi (10. The pore size distribution in a given rock type is usually determined by a mercury injection test. and the displacement is affected by increasing air pressure in a series of discrete steps in water saturated core plugs sitting on a semipermeable porous diaphragm. A laboratory airbrine capillary pressure of 1. the nonwetting phase with respect to air.
hres = 12. In the case of identical wetting preferences for the core sample and the reservoir.5 m. When two or more ﬂuids ﬂow through a porous medium simultaneously. Pc. hres = which gives. g(ρbrine − ρoil ) where Pc. σlab g(ρbrine − ρoil ) 6.res = Pc. the phase pressures pi . Pc. which is usually dominated by the smallest local curvature (radius) of the interface. 103 hres = Pc. as illustrated in Fig. the height of the transition zone is found. An idealised permeable medium is considered by the arrangements of decreasing pore sizes (a single pore bounded by the decreasing sizes sphere assemblage) and initially saturated with a wetting phase (w) into which a nonwetting phase (nw) is alternatively injected and then . .lab σres . ρbrine and ρoil is respectively 1074 kg/m3 and 752 kg/m3 . σlab Combining these two equation.6. generally speaking. The difference between the phase pressures of two coexisting phases is deﬁned as the capillary pressure.10 Drainage and Imbibition Processes. rock water r R oil Figure 6. The capillary pressure is inversely proportional to a generalised interfacial curvature.10 Drainage and Imbibition Processes. one may assume proportionality between capillary pressure and the interfacial tension in the two situations. are not identical.lab σres .16: Local curvature of the interface of two coexisting liquids.res . 6.res is the capillary pressure in the reservoir at this water saturation.16.
At the highest capillary pressure (condition 5). The capillary pressure curve going from the largest nonwetting phase saturation to the largest trapped nonwetting phase saturation is the imbibition curve ( ondition c 6). explains many features of actual capillary pressure curves. Imbibition curves are generally different from drainage curves.exit pressure difference is zero since both pressures are being measured in the same wetting phase. Note. This representation. 1 2 5 Oil 3 Water Capillary pressure 4 Rock 5 6 3 1 6 4 2 Nonwetting phase saturation Figure 6. When the wetting ﬂuid is introduced into the pore from the right. but the difference shrinks at high nonwetting phase saturations where more of the originally disconnected globs . Wettability and Capillary Pressure withdrawn. a higher capillary pressure.17. the nonwetting ﬂuid disconnects leaving a trapped or nonﬂowing glob in the largest pore (condition 2). the pressure difference between the exit and entrance of the assemblage is the capillary pressure at that saturation. Going from condition 2 to condition 3 is a second drainage process. all pores of the subtracted volume contain the non. and a post . Beginning at zero nonwetting saturation. The forcing of a nonwetting phase into a pore (nonwetting saturation increasing) is a drainage process. The capillary pressure curve from condition 1 to condition 2 is an imbibition curve that is different from the drainage curve because it terminates (Pc = 0) at a different saturation. 6. is ﬁrst considered.17: The distribution of a nonwetting phase at various saturations. At the static condition 2. that results in even higher nonwetting saturation. At static conditions. being quite simple. injection up to the saturation shown incondition 1 in Fig.imbibition trapped saturation is maximum.104 Chapter 6. The reverse (wetting saturation increasing) is animbibition process. that the termination of any imbibition curve is at zero capillary pressure. the entrance .wetting phase. We imagine the pores have an exit for the wetting ﬂuid somewhere on the right. and a higher trapped nonwetting phase saturation after imbibition (condition).
6.18. The test is repeated after some time. 105 are connected. 6. such as to preserve the ﬂuid distribution in the reservoir.1 Hysterisis in Contact Angle When oil is moving to cover a rock surface which previously has been wetted by water. θr oil water θa s Figure 6. where the receding angle is smaller than the advancing angle. This effect is called the hysterisis in contact angle and has to do with the inherent memory of a physical system. This phenomenon is called trapping hysteresis or drag hysteresis and is caused by differences in advancing and receding contact angles.10.19. The effect of this dissipation of energy is experienced as a resistance towards ﬂow and is often materialised through "rip off" of small droplets.6. unless a ﬁnite capillary pressure difference is imposed. and residing θr contact angles of an oil drop suspended between two horizontal plates (made of polished rock material. One plate is ﬁxed and the other can move smoothly to either side. The hysterics observed. The oil drop is left to age between the plates for some time. In relation to multiphase ﬂow in porous media. is shown in the Fig. the hysterics has two important effects: • One is to stabilise the capillary surfaces (interfaces) between the ﬂuids in the pore system. when the two angles have stabilised. 6. which relates prehistoric events to present experience. is an expression of the fact that energy is lost in cyclic systems. When the mobile plate is moved.2 Capillary Hysterisis It is seen that capillary pressure depends both on wetting phase saturation and the direction of its variation.10. which then becomes practically immobile. 6. the two contact angles are measured. as shown in Fig.18: Measurement of hysterics in contact angle. . A typical curve of the capillary pressure in case of twophase ﬂow. The hysterisis is detected by measuring the advancing θa . until the two contact angles are equal.10 Drainage and Imbibition Processes. when the interface is advancing through the pore. over the same surface. In practical terms this means that the back and forth movement is energy dependent. typical for nonreversible systems. it has been experimental proven that the contact angle is smaller than in the case when water is replacing oil. • The second effect is related to the dissipation of energy towards the capillary walls. quartz or calcite) submerged in water.
Two ways in which one phase can be substituted by the other in a porous medium are usually considered.19: Typical type of capillary pressure curve for a twophase ﬂow problem: 1 drainage. which is different from the curve 1. Wettability and Capillary Pressure P (Sw ) c 1 Swc 2 0. 2 imbibition and 3 secondary drainage.19. . The presence of two different curves of imbibition and displacement is called capillary hysteresis.0 Sw Figure 6. where the nonwetting phase is displaced by the wetting one.0 3 Snc Pcb 1. If displacement is preceded by imbibition the capillary pressure curve is as the curve 3 in the Fig. 6.106 Chapter 6.19. 6. The ﬁrst is the process of displacement where the wetting phase is displaced by the nonwetting one. The value Pcb is deﬁned as threshold capillary pressure which should be exceeded to provide displacement. and the second is the process of imbibition. The hysteresis effect i demonstrated by the two curves 2 and 3 in Fig. The presence of the negative capillary pressure near the saturation pointSw = Snc was ﬁrst discovered by Welge (1949).
6. The advancing contact angle is 40o and the receding angle is 20o . The radial distance rd . A core sample is placed in a core holder in a centrifuge. Calculate the height of water inside the cylinder when the inner diameter is 0. assume an interfacial tension σo.03mm pr. What is the pressure drop along the cylinder. R1. r 1 1 . a pressure of 25 psig is needed. 6. The interfacial tension between water and oil is 25 mN/m. See the ﬁgure below. r.11 Exercises 107 6. 2 b) Show that 1 2 Pc(r) = ∆ρω 2 (r2 − r2 ) 2 when P2 = P(r2 ). The radial distance to the core sample is given by the two position vectors r1 and r2 . + R1 R2 for a cylindrical tube. assuming the same ﬂow velocity as above. ﬁlled with oil. Show that the general expression for capillary pressure Pc = σ could be written Pc = 2σ cos θ .w = 0.1 m long and has a inner diameter of 0. droplet. given in µ m. The surface tension between water and air is 72 dyn/cm. 2. A horizontal cylinder.11 Exercises 1. when the average ﬂow velocity is found to be 0. r2 − r1 . 3.1 cm. with an average length of 0. P1 = P(r1 ) .01mm/s ? An equal amount of water and oil is pumped through the cylinder and the water and oil is assumed to move through the tube as droplets. Deﬁne the parameters. and the water is assumed to wet the glass 100 %. a) Show that the pressure difference for one phase is given by: 1 2 2 P2 − P1 = ρω 2 (r2 − r1 ). At a rotation frequency ω . A capillary glasscylinder is positioned vertically in a cup of water. 4. Calculate the pressure drop through the tube. The oil has a viscosity similar to water.025 N/m. In analogy with displacement processes in porous media. Find the diameter.2 . is 0. In order to displace water by air form a porous plate. air will displace some of the water in the sample.w is 72 dyn/cm. 1 m Pa · s. when the surface tension σair. The length of the sample is therefore. Calculate the energy needed to transform 1 cm3 of water into droplets with an average radius of 1 µ m. of the largest pore channel disconnecting the porous plate. 5. corresponds to the threshold pressure Pd at that particular rotation frequency. θ and σ .01 mm.
108 Chapter 6.09 g/cm3 8. assuming the length of core sample to be short compared to the radius of rotation.0 Sw 0. r1 = r2 = ∆ρ = Vp = RPM∗ ∆V [cm3 ] RPM ∆V [cm3 ] 415 0.38 cm 1.30 3135 4. saturated with seawater and rotated in air.21 1005 0.10 2200 3.23 cm3 850 0.24 1305 1. c) The water saturation can be written.20 765 0. Sw1 = Sw (r1 ) = d(S¯w Pc1 ) dPc1 when r1 ∼ r2 .15 2655 4. only partly true. The following data is given for a core sample.46 cm 9.50 3920 5.00 1550 2.75 RPM∗ : Rotation pr.) Use the equations above to derive the a formula giving the capillary pressure as function of the water saturation (Pc –curve). when the capillary pressure is given in kPa.10 4850 5. Wettability and Capillary Pressure r2 r1 ω 1. .00 1835 2.72 1110 0. (This is an approximation. Minute and ∆V : produced volume.0 r rd when its known that 1 2 2 Pc1 = Pc(r1 ) = ∆ρω 2 (r2 − r1 ) 2 and when 1 2 2 Pd = ∆ρω 2 (r2 − rd ) 2 It is assumed that Pc2 = Pc (r2 ) = 0.61 915 0.90 4.
5 0.0 1.11 Exercises 109 7.0 0.20 3.01 g/cm3 9. capillary data from two water saturated core samples was obtained by using air as the displacing ﬂuid. to calculate the saturations.0 1.81 g/cm3 ρw = 1. a capillary pressure difference of 5 psi has been measured between water and air in a core sample.12 200 mD core sample Pc [psi] Sw 3.30 5. Sg and Sw at the reservoir level (hight) 120 f t above the oilwater contact (assume Pc = 0 at this level).12 5.2 g/cm3 8.0 0. In a laboratory experiment.0 0. Laboratory σ = 75dyn/cm ∆ρw/air = 1.6 0.18 Calculate the distribution of vertical water saturation in the stratiﬁed reservoir given by the ﬁgure below.0 g/cm3 Reservoir σ = 25 dyn/cm ∆ρo/w = 0. determine Sw as function hight in the reservoir. i. below.90 4. So .60 4. Additional data: .00 1.0 0. Use the air .2 0. 1000 mD core sample Pc [psi] Sw 1.e. when the following information is given (assume capillary pressure at the OWC to be zero).00 3.8 0.5 0. 12 ft 4 ft 6 ft 3 ft 4 ft 5 ft FWL Additional data: Laboratory: Reservoir: σw/air = 50 dyn/cm σo/w = 23 dyn/cm ρo = 0.water capillary pressure curve for laboratory conditions.18 10. Calculate the corresponding height above the OWC in the reservoir from where the core originates.0 0.5 0.13 4.40 2.0 0.6.20 7. The distance between the contacts (OWC and GOC) is 70 f t. In the laboratory.80 1.
5.8 Given that the sample was taken from a point 100 ft above the oilwater contact.1 5. h = 5. 7.41. Answers to questions: 1. h = 3 cm.4 100 5. Sg = 0.2 35.075J.0 29. Find laboratory capillary curve when the interfacial tension to mercury is 370 dyne/cm. Sw = 0. An oil water capillary pressure experiment on a core sample gives the following results: Pc. what is the average water saturation over this interval? (ρw = 64 lbs/ f t 3 and ρo = 45 lbs/ f t 3 ) 11. ∆p = 3. σ cos θ = 25 dyn/cm and a permeability and porosity respectively 100 mD and 18 %. d = 0.2.3 90.8 m. but the permeability and porosity to be respectively 25 mD and 13 %. what is the expected water saturation at that elevation? If the hydrocarbon bearing thickness from the crest (top) of the structure to the oilwater contact in 175 ft.62 .36.o/w [psi] Sw [%] 0 100 4.5 µ m.5 43. Wettability and Capillary Pressure Laboratory: Reservoir: σw/air = 72 dyn/cm σo/g = 50 dyn/cm σw/o = 25 dyn/cm ρo = 53 lb/ f t 3 ρw = 68 lb/ f t 3 ρg = 7 lb/ f t 3 90 80 70 Capillary pressure [psi] 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Water saturation [%] 10.110 Chapter 6. ∆E = 0.4 10. we may construct the capillary curve for a laboratory experiment using mercury as nonwetting phase. 11.2 m bar. Sw = 0. 3. ∆p = 29bar. 4. . So = 0. 9.6 82. If we assume an interfacial tension. in the exercise above.7 32. In the laboratory experiments one assume the lithology to be unchanged.7 15.
rock property. ∑ k je < k. For 100% saturation.Chapter 7 Relative Permeability 7. k je = f (k. ke = k. and reservoir conditions (pressure. ke A p q= . . A pj In a vast number of laboratory experiments it has been observed that a sum of effective permeability’s is less than the total or absolute permeability. .e. the effective permeability is identical to the absolute permeability. In multiphase ﬂow a generalisation of Darcy law has been accepted [12]. i. when that ﬂuid occupies only a fraction of the total pore volume. . S2 . j=1 n Moreover.) j ∈ [1. to the effective permeability of a particular ﬂuid in the system. According to the last equation we can obtain. effective (phase) permeability was noticed to be a function of quite a number of parameters. k je = qj µj x . we can obtain (single phase ﬂow). q j = k je A µj pj .. . S1 . n]. A p Here ke is called effective permeability. .1 Deﬁnitions Relative permeability is a concept used to relate the absolute permeability (100% saturation with a single ﬂuid) of a porous system. µ x and qµ x ke = . absolute permeability. i. T. 111 . . p. x where j denotes a ﬂuid phase j. Sn . and k je is called the effective (phase) permeability.e. . When measuring a ﬂowrate of a ﬂuid versus the pressure difference in a core sample. ﬂuid property. such as: ﬂuid saturation. temperature).
This implicates that it is important to keep deﬁnitions of mobility. Relative Permeability In two phase systems the latter relationship is expressed as functions of a single (by convention.0 kc Swc 0. In the presence of two coexisting phases. If saturation of one of the phases becomes less than some deﬁnite value: Sw < Swc or Sn < Snc . Though there have been attempts to calculate relative permeability on theoretical grounds. 1.curves should be emphasised. by far the most common source of them. It is not.g. interfacial tension) change drastically.1. The relative permeability is a strong function of the saturation of phaseS j . This means that continuity of the phase is broken or disturbed and the phase .1: Typical type of relative permeability characteristics for a twophase ﬂow. has been experimental measurements. However in mathematical modelling of twophase and multiphase ﬂow it is conventional to assume that relative permeabilities are the functions of saturation only. the functionality between kr j and S j is also a function of rock properties (e. Being a rockﬂuid property.0 kw Snc Sw 1. The effective permeability can be decomposed into the absolute permeability and the relative permeability. the typical curves of relative permeability are as shown in Fig. It is important to note that the phase permeability is a tensorial function (as the absolute permeability) and that the relative permeability is not. in general.g. ke j = kr j · k. phase permeability and relative permeability separate and clear. This assumption considerably simpliﬁes the task of laboratory experiments carried out in order to determine relative permeabilities. relative permeability can be affected [40].perm. though when certain properties (e. then the corresponding relative permeability for that phase becomes zero and the phase becomes immobile. where Sw is the wetting phase and Sn is the nonwetting phase. a strong correlation between relative permeability and ﬂuid properties. wetting) saturation.112 Chapter 7.0 Figure 7. pore size distribution) and wettability. as shown below.0 0. 7. Functions k j (S j ) depend both on the structure of the porous medium and on the saturation distribution of the phases. One important feature in the behaviour of the rel.
0 0.and relative permeabilities can be done through measurements of capillary pressure.0 Figure 7. 7. The difference in the ﬂow properties that indicates different wettability preferences can be illustrated by the following rule of thumb [29]: 1 Here w and n denote wetting and nonwetting phase.4 Sw 0.4 0. 7. which shows the evidence of strong correlation between them. Because of certain links between them.8 1.4 0. 1. .7.6 0.8 1.2 (right). temperature. etc.2 (left) and 7.0 Water 0. The values S jc .8 Oil 0. j = w. respectively.). we would expect microheterogeneity and rock wettability to have a certain inﬂuence on relative (phase) permeability.0 0. Let us note that those values depend on thermodynamic condition of the reservoir (reservoir pressure.6 kr 0. number of phases.2 0.6 Sw 0.0 Oil kr 1. where Sw is the wetting phase and Sn is the nonwetting phase (left: a waterwet formation and right: an oilwet formations).2 0.4 0.0 0.2 0.0 0. type of rock.2 Rock Wettability and Relative Permeabilities 113 remains in a passive or loose state.2: Characteristics of typical relative permeability for a twophase ﬂow. Typical wateroil relative permeabilities are presented for strongly waterwet and oilwet formations in Fig.2 0.6 0.8 0.2 Rock Wettability and Relative Permeabilities It should be noted that evaluations of phase. where n1 are deﬁned as residual saturation of the ith phase.0 Water 0. respectively.
7. be smaller than the nonwetting phase endpoint. water. The ratio of wetting to nonwetting endpoints proves to be a good qualitative measure of the wettability of the medium. several pore diameters in length. Trapped wetting phase.3 Drainage/Imbibition Relative Permeability Curves In a gasoil systems.e. the endpoint relative permeability to the wetting phase can be 0.114 Chapter 7. which is always present in the reservoir. Movement of an oil zone into receding depleting gas cap. therefore. of the relative permeabilities is a more appropriate indicator of wettability. For extreme cases of preferential wetting. such as gas drive (gas displacing oil immiscibily) or an imbibition process. . then the trapped wetting phase is to the nonwetting phase. frequently less than 10 percent Less than 50 percent water saturation Generally less than 30 percent Greater than 50 percent and approaching 100 percent Let us note that the endpoint values of the relative permeabilities are usually (if not always) less than 1 and which are measures of wettability. the direction of displacement is particularly important. Relative Permeability Waterwet Connate water saturation Saturation at which oil and water permeabilities are equal (crossover saturation) Relative permeabilities to water at maximum water saturation. The nonwetting phase occurs in isolated globules. on the other hand. such as: 1.05 or less. perhaps because it is less sensitive to the value of the residual saturations (see the rule of thumb. It is therefore argued that experiments in the laboratory can be conducted with or without irreducible water present and that effective permeabilities could be correlated to total liquid saturation (SL ). Thus we would expect the trapped nonwetting phase to be a bigger obstacle to the wetting phase. The relation is based on a deﬁnition of liquid saturation. 2. rather than gas saturation. i. Movement of an aquifer into receding depleting gas cap. The wetting phase endpoint relative permeability will. is considered to stay at irreducible saturation and play no part in the displacement processes. as the process can represent a drainage process. In gasoil systems the third phase. that occupy the center of the pores. above). ﬂoodout Usually greater than 20 to 25 percent PV Greater than 50 percent water saturation Oilwet Generally less than 15 percent PV. Others view the crossover saturation (kr2 = kr1 ). SL = So + Sw = 1 − Sg . occupies the cavities between rock the grains and coats the rock surfaces.
as a condition for gas ﬂow. One of the examples is shown below (after Dombrovsky and Brownell): Nc = k  ∇Φ  σow · cos θc . The capillary number Nc is a dimensionless ratio of viscous forces to local capillary forces. This relationship is called the capillary desaturation curve (CDC).4 Residual Phase Saturations As we know from the previous discussion.7. According to experimental observations there is a strict evidence of a relationship between residual nonwetting or wetting phase saturations and the socalled local capillary number. causing the wetting phase to retreat into the concave contacts between the rock grains and other cavities in the pore body. these curves are plots of percent residual (nonﬂowing) saturation for the nonwetting ( nwr ) or wetting (Swr ) phases S on the y axis versus a capillary number on a logarithmic x axis.0 1. the wetting phase approaches monolayer coverage and a low saturation.0 Figure 7. it is observed that gas does not ﬂow until some critical gas saturation (Sgc ) has been attained. In a system where gas saturation increases from zero.0 0.0 Sgr Sg Sgmax 1.0 Sgc Sg Sgmax 1. At very high pressure differences. This is attributed to the physical process of the gas phase becoming continuous through the system. Typically.3: Gasoil relative permeabilities [8]. 7. The residual nonwetting phase is trapped in the large pores in globules several pore diameters in length. See Fig.4 Residual Phase Saturations 115 1. and can be variously deﬁned.0 kr = k o / k kr = k o / k kro krg krg kro 0. as in a liquid drainage process. In liquid imbibition processes (gas saturation decreasing from a maximum initial value) the gas permeability goes to zero when the residual or trapped gas saturation (Sgr ) is reached.3. the Snwr could be as large as Swr . 7. increasing pressure gradients force the nonwetting phase into the pore channels. Repeated experimental evidence has shown that under most conditions.
The unsteady state or dynamic displacement test is most frequently applied in reservoir analysis of strong wetting preference.5 Laboratory Determination of Relative Permeability Data Laboratory determination of effective permeability is generally conducted as a special core analysis test on representative and carefully preserved core plug samples. Such reservoir condition tests may model displacement under unsteady state. is based on observation of the fractional ﬂow of displacing phase ﬂuid from the outlet end of the core plug and its relationship with saturation. Relative Permeability where Φ is the potential of ﬂow. For reservoirs with more corescale heterogeneity and with mixed wettability. The reduction of interfacial tension at the interface allows the trapped oil to become mobile and be displaced by the water. Unsteady state rel. Different equipment arrangements for those test are shown in Figs. and with homogeneous samples. At each . 7. Bossler and Naumann [38]. test simulate the ﬂooding of a reservoir with an immiscible ﬂuid (gas or water). The steady state process provides simultaneous ﬂow of displacing and displaced ﬂuids through the core sample at a number of equilibrium ratios. The determination of rel. perm. resulting in increased capillary number Nc and reduced residual oil saturation. being either wetting or nonwetting phase.perm. The displacement theory of Buckley and Leverett is combined with that of Weldge in a technique described by Johnson. or steady state conditions. the steady state laboratory test is preferred. Normal range waterfloods Residual nonwetting or wetting saturation.116 Chapter 7. It is important to mention that chemical additives reduce capillary forces at the interface of the oil/water system. and severe errors can occur with heterogeneous samples.6.4: Schematic capillary desaturation curve [40].5 and 7. Flow rates are determined according to the method of Rappoport and Leas in order to minimize the effect of capillary pressure forces in retaining wetting phase ﬂuid at the outlet end face discontinuity. 7. A reservoir condition test is conducted at reservoir pore pressure conditions and reservoir temperatures with real or simulated reservoir ﬂuids. % 30 Wetting phase 20 Nonwetting phase 10 Nonwetting critical Nc 6 Wetting critical Nc 10 5 0107 10 10 4 10 3 10 2 Capillary number Nc Figure 7. The detection of the breakthrough time of the displacing phase at the outlet core face is critical in the representation of relative permeability.
At such a condition the Darcy law equation is applied to each phase to calculate effective permeability at the given steady state saturation.7. ratio from 100% displaced phase to 100% displacing phase an equilibrium condition must be reached at which the inﬂow ratio of ﬂuids equals to the outﬂow ratio. and at which the pressure difference between inlet and outlet is constant.5 Laboratory Determination of Relative Permeability Data 117 Oil colector 3 way valve Sample Brine colector Hg res. curves. Capillary pressure tends to be ignored and a major difﬁculty is the determination of saturation at each stage.50 psig Transducer Chart recorder 3 way valve 300 cc 300 cc Figure 7.5: Unsteady state relative permeability measurement at constant rate (above) and at constant pressure (below). Between ﬁve and ten stages are usually needed to establish rel. .perm. Ruska pump Brine Oil Chart recorder Hg Oil colector Hg Oil Soltrol Hg Soltrol 1000 cc Oil Brine Sample Brine colector 0 .
00 lab Pc [psi] 1.60 0.0cp µw = 1.14 0.40 0.4 18.7 8.0 ∞ ρo = 0.00 krw 1.50 0.9 4.4 3.118 Chapter 7.90 0.5 5. Soc = 0. The following laboratory data is given: Sw 1. 7.05 and the data above to construct a graph showing the water fraction as function of height above the WOC.73 1.09 0.70 0.6: Steady state relative permeability measurement [8].00 0. Oil Pressure transducer Chart recorder Oil res. Relative Permeability Oil Hg Sample Hg res.80 0. fw . What is the water fraction at 15 m above the WOC ? .00 0.30 kro 0.58 0.00 0. = 22dyn/cm σlab = 75dyn/cm µo = 15.29 0.0 3.0cp Use critical oil saturation.00 1.78 0.04 0.85g/cm3 ρw = 1.49 0.6 Exercises 1.23 0.39 0. Constant displacement Ruska pumps Brine Figure 7. can be written: qw 1 fw = = qw + qo 1 + kro µw /krw µo Assume the capillary forces to be negligible and dPo /dr = dPw/dr.00 0.00g/cm3 σres. Use Darcy’s law for radial ﬂow and show that the fractional ﬂow for water.
Additional data is given: Absolute permeability Diameter of core sample Water viscosity 1 atm.1 cp length of core sample Oil viscosity Porosity 9 cm 2. equals 14. qo and qw is the oil.63 4.52 123.6 Exercises 119 2. ∆P is the pressure drop.05 164.30 147.7.86 Vw is the volume of water in the core sample. curves for kro and krw using the data above.65 5.25 91. measuring the relative permeability for a oilwater injection experiment.17 2. Answers to questions: 1.20 Draw the rel.00 Vw [cm3 ] 2.0 cp 0. respectively. determined by weighing. 25% .95 9.2 cm 1. qo [cm3 /time] 90 75 60 45 30 15 0 qw [cm3 /time] 0 5 9 20 34 85 122 ∆P [psi] 49.65 psi 16.93 7.29 109.7 mD 3. The laboratory data below is recorded at stationary conditions.and water rate through the sample.87 3.30 137.perm.
Relative Permeability .120 Chapter 7.
Oil and gas are naturally existing hydrocarbon (HC) mixtures. responsabile for reservoir ﬂuid production. In the case of formation rock and the saturation of ﬂuids contained therein. in order to fully understand and control the production process. their variation with pressure and temperature. quite complex in chemical composition which exist at elevated temperatures and pressures in the reservoir. This information is important in estimating the performance of the ﬂuids in the reservoir. When produced to the surface. i. The ﬂuid remaining in the reservoir at any stage of depletion undergoes physical changes as the pressure is reduced due to removal of quantities of oil. 8. since the reservoir temperature changes slightly or remain constant in most cases.e. gas and formation water is related to volume expansion when the reservoir pressure decreases due to removeal of reservoir ﬂuids. Volumes of reservoir ﬂuid brought to the surface will experience change in both 121 . Compressibility is therefore an important "drive mechanism" in underground petroleum production. some more compressible than others. pore volume and ﬂuid changes due to the pressure decline is the dominating phenomenon.2 Compressibility of Solids.Chapter 8 Compressibility of Reservoir Rock and Fluids 8. gas and initial water from the reservoir. the fractional volume of oil and gas. Nearly all production of oil. The state of equilibrium is deﬁned by these two parameters and consequently also the phase behaviour of the ﬂuid. as physical phenomenon. plays a key role in general underground petroleum production. the temperature and pressure of the mixture are reduced. of signiﬁcant importance where all substances are compressible. Liquids and Gases For a mixture of HC it is quite obvious that pressure and temperature are essential parameters. where the state of the HC mixture at the surface depends upon the composition of the HC ﬂuid found in the reservoir.1 Introduction Compressibility is a universal phenomenon. Compressibility. It is necessary to study the physical properties of these naturally existing HC and in particular.
conditions are composed of a normal stress vector (perpendicular to the plane) and two shear stresses. It is possible to show that there exist one set of ortogonal axis with . 8. τzx . β ≥ 0. Compressibility of Reservoir Rock and Fluids pressure and temperature.2.1) (8.122 Chapter 8. with nine components as shown in Fig. cb . σy and σz and 3 tangential (shear stresses): τxy . cg . • Liquid compressibility (oil or initial water). The general behaviour of materials can be described by the compressibility and expansion terms. it is normal to use an average compressibility factor of the different HC components. 8. c ≥ 0 and β is the isobaric thermal expansion. see Fig. i.2) where c is the isothermal compressibility. co and cw . which means that τxy = τyx and so on. Underground gas and oil reservoirs experience stresses due to the overload of rock material and water and the lateral conﬁnement stresses exerted on the reservoir from the surrounding rock masses. In practice. the stress tensor will be symmetric around the diagonal. cr . ∂p T ∂V . deformation such as volume and shape changes of the rock will be the result.1 Rock Stresses and Compressibility When rocks are subjected to external load or force. parallel to the plane surface. τyz . ∂T p (8. The stresses on any plane surface through a rock sample under in situ. • Gas compressibility.e. 1 V c = − β = 1 V ∂V .1. 8. • Rock bulk compressibility.2. internal stresses are developed and if the stresses are sufﬁciently strong. There are thus only six independent stress components in the stress tensor: 3 normal stresses: σx . it is common practise to distinguish between the following deﬁnitions of compressibility: • Rock matrix compressibility. In relation to reservoir production. σx τxy τxz τyx σy τyz τzx τzy σz Due to the general conditions of equilibrium. the ﬁnal state of oil and gas is characterised by volume changes due to both drop in pressure and in temperature. The stress tensor is often written in matrix form. The general stress condition may be characterised by a stress tensor.
respect to which all shear stresses are zero and the normal stresses have their extreme values.4) where li is the initial length of the rock in the i’th direction. (8. l is the length after deformation. 8. z. the degree of cementation of the rock material.3) 3 The collective action of the principal stresses will cause the rock material to deform. the composition and lithology of the rocks. εi = ∆li li − li = .2 Compressibility of Solids. while the two lateral stresses σx and σy are acting in the horizontal plane.1: Stress conditions of formation rock media. The relative longitudinal deformation is given by theprincipal strain. σz > σx .strain relationship is dependent on several parameters of which the following are the most important. where the major principle stress σz is acting parallel to the force of gravity. the porosity of the rock material and the pressure and temperature in the reservoir.g. The average normal stress is generally deﬁned by. li li (8. (In case of nonzero shear stresses.8. where εV = ∆V /V . σy .) The stress . e. 1 σ = (σx + σy + σz ). a displacement or rotation of the rock may be experienced. the principal normal stresses are orientated as shown in Fig. Liquids and Gases 123 σz z τzx τzx τxy τzy τzy σy τxy y x σx Figure 8.2.. the compressibility of the rock matrix. the type of cementing material.2: Principal stresses on reservoir rock. y. These stresses are called the principal stresses For most reservoirs. The sum of principal strains will give the relative volume change∆ε = (εx + εy + εz ). where i = x. σz σy σx Figure 8. .
The signiﬁcance of Poisson’s ratio. (8. If the transverse strain is deﬁned by ε2 and ε3 . σ 1 = E ε1 .11) In introducing cr . which means equal properties in all directions. ∆V 3σ (1 − 2ν ) = V E (8. it will shorten. E εz = σz − ν (σx + σy ). the strains are reddered to the condition of zero stresses.1) on differential from. ε1 ε1 (8. It is often convenient to write Hooke’s law in changes of stresses. Eqs. . ε1 and the diameter will increase. one assumes that the rock is completely solid with no pores or cracks within it. (8.9). the relative volume change is given.8) (8. where σ1 . (8.7) to (8. V (8.10) and Eq.7) (8. The ratio of transverse strain to the axial strain is expressed by the Poisson ratio ν . (8. ∆σx etc. E εy = σy − ν (σx + σz ).6) where ε1 is the principal strain direction.5) where E is the Young’s modulus of elasticity and the subscript indicate change in stress and strain in the same direction and where the stresses normal to this direction are constant. σ2 and σ3 are the principar stress directions.124 Chapter 8.11) proves that the compressibility and the elasticity are "two sides of the same case". σ1 . Hooke’s law states that there exist a proportionality between stress.10) Relative volume deformation of the rock is also described by the compressibility Eq. σ and strain. coupling axial and transverse strain. Compressibility of Reservoir Rock and Fluids In the following. In that case srain are refered to the initial conditions. (8. ∆V = cr ∆σ . (8. ν= ε2 ε3 = . the rock will be assumed to be isotropic. Using Hooke’s law. For simplicity. This observation is presented in Hooke’s law in three dimensions: E εx = σx − ν (σy + σz ).9) In writing Hooke’s law this way. Within the elastic limit of volume deformation of any rock material. it is also assumed that the stresses are refered to the principal stress directions. indicates that deformation along one principal axis is caused by a combination of all three principal stresses. then the transverse deformation is given. ε . Combining equation Eq. The total deformation due to all three principal stresses acting on the rock material is given by ∆V = (εx + εy + εz )V . If a cylindrical rock sample is subjected to a compressive stress. parallel to its long axis.
12) the important relation between the compressibility and the elastic properties of the rock material is established. one can expect the compressibility to be constant and in accordance to Eq.(8. i.2 Compressibility of Liquids Deformation of liquids can be explained. E where also the elastic constants E and ν . The dimension of compressibility cr is reciprocal pressure. as follows from Eq.(8. cr (σ − σ0 ) V V0 Within the range of elasticity 0 p0 p Figure 8. i. Under the assumption that the deformation of the rock is within the range of the elasticity (see Fig.e.3: Deformation of rock bulk volume under conditions of elastic behaviour (constant compressibility factor).14).12) In Eq. 8.5 · 10−6 bar−1 . Liquids and Gases 125 3(1 − 2ν ) . (8. [cr ] = [σ ]−1 For normal reservoir rock like quarts.14). cr = (8. (8.1) the deformed volumeV is equal to. 8.e. following the same chain of arguments as seen for solid (rock) material.cquarts ∼ 2.15) . refer to the solid rock material. compressibility is constant.13) (8. Vl = Vl0 e−cl (p−p0 ) Vl0 [1 − cl (p − p0 )].(8.14) The approximation is valid when cr ∆σ is small.(8.e.2.1) and in analogy with Eq. dV = −cr d σ . V according to Eq. i.2 Compressibility of Solids. the compressibility is.8. 1.3). V = V0 e−cr (σ −σ0 ) V0 [1 − cr (σ − σ0 )]. Within the elastic limit of the liquid.1) or (8.(8.
16) one obtain.e. dV ∂V ∂V ∂V dp+ dT + dz. V = V (p. p T z = . i. volume which it occupies. 1 ∂V 1 = . z). depending on the composition of oil. Compressibility of Reservoir Rock and Fluids where the last approximation is valid when cl (p − po ) 1. in an attempt to consistently describe the nature of compressibility as a universal characteristic.17) V ∂p p Form this deduction it must be conclude that compressibility of gases is notconstant. T. Black oils may have a compressibility ∼ 25 · 10−5 bar−1 . absolute temperature of gas.(8.(8.126 Chapter 8.16) p: V: T: where n: R: Combining Eqs. pV = znRT.2. (8.3 Compressibility of Gases Experience tells us that gases are very compressible. Differentiation of the volum function. using the deﬁnition in Eq. cg = − Example: Compressibility of real gas The real gas law is. on the other hand. also valid for gases. pV = nRT.6 · 10−5 bar−1 . while light oils can have substantially higher compressibility. Water is not particularly compressible and has a compressibility factorcw ∼ 4. depending on the content of the solution gas. Since compressibility describes the volume deformation. but varies as the reciprocal pressure (under the assumption of constant temperature).1) and (8.1). where z is the deviation factor. ∂p ∂T ∂z V V V = − d p + dT + dz. number of moles of gas equal to its mass divided by its gaseous molecular weight and the gas constant.e. temperature and a nonideal factor. i. may have a varying compressibility factor. expressing the nonideal deviation from perfect gas behaviour. we may assume the volume to be a function of pressure. In the case of a perfect gas. Oil. Various liquids may behave quite differently depending on the composition of that liquid. 8. the mixture of light and heavy HC and the amount of gas contained in the oil. absolute pressure of the gas phase. (8. Gas compressibility can be deﬁned equally to solids and liquids.
Critical pressure and temperature for a mixture of m numbers of HC components are deﬁned. where pseudo reduced pressure and temperature are deﬁned as.e. 8. cg = 1 1 dz − . p z dp The deviaton factor z. respectively. Tpr ). . p pc Tpr = T . is a nontrivial function of pressure and temperature. Liquids and Gases 127 At reservoir condition. i. Z Tpr Tpr 1. i m Tpc = ∑ ni Tci . as seen in Fig.4. − 1 dV 1 1 dz = − . p pc = ∑ ni pci .0 n 1 Tpr 0 ppr Figure 8.8. z = z(p pr . T is constant and consequently. Tpc where p pc and Tpc are pseudo critical pressure and pseudo critical temperature.4: zfactor as a function of pseudo reduced pressure p pr and temperature Tpr . p pr = p . . The zfactor is usually expressed as a function of the socalled pseudo reduced pressure ppr and pseudo reduced temperature Tpr .2 Compressibility of Solids. V dp p z dp Compressibility for real gases in the reservoir is then given by. i m where pci and Tci are critical pressure and temperature of the different HC components and ni is the volume fraction or the mole fraction of each component given by Avogadro’s law.
8. it is ﬁrst of all the volumetric behaviour that is important. α ≤ 1.128 Chapter 8. later the deﬁneition of effective stress has been generalized to.18) σ = σ − α p. often called the Biot constant is a number equal or less than one.5. For porous rocks. This is depicted in Fig. For reservoir engineering. but must be regarded as a close approximation. When a reservoir is produced the reservoir pressure will in most cases be reduced. The total external stress acting on the porous rock is partly counterbalanced by the pore presssure and the forces acting through the rock matrix. where the constant α .5: Stresses working on a porous rock. The overburden load will however remain more or less constant and thus the vertical effective stress will increase. while the pore pressure and the forces acting through the rock matrix are the counteracting pressures [62].3 Deformation of Porous Rock The elastic deformation or compressibility of porous rock is complicated by the fact that it is subjected to an external conﬁning stress σ . (8. acting on the surface of the pore walls. The horizontal stresses may also change with pore pressure and the development of complete stress conditions may be difﬁcult to determine. Experience in rock and soil mechanics has shown that the deformation of porous and premeable materials depend on the effective stress which is the difference between the applied total stress and the pore pressure. It should be noted however that the consept of effective stress does not follow from strictly theoretical considerations. For most reservoir rocks α will become close to one and may be neglected. the stresses in Hooke’s law should be replaced by effective stresses. σ p p σ σ Figure 8. Compressibility of Reservoir Rock and Fluids 8. σ = σ − p. causing compaction of the reservoir rock. The volumetric changes are given by the average applied stress and one will therefore for simplicity in the following assume a hydrostatic applied stress ﬁeld on the porous rock. where the total stress will be the pressure acting on the outer surface. and in addition to an internal pore pressure p. . Effective stress was originally introduced by Terzaghi and is deﬁned as.
22) Since cbσ depends on the elastic moduli of the matrix rock material and the geometry of the pore space.6.19) gives the relative volume change. i.3 Deformation of Porous Rock 129 Variation of the effective stress on the rock due to withdrawal of reservoir ﬂuid (oil. ∂σ Vb ∂ p ∂ Vp 1 ∂ Vp dσ + d p.1 Compressibility Measurements. 8. (8. (8. Eqs. dVb Vb dVp Vp = −cbσ d σ + cbp d p. (8. as seen in Fig. . cbσ = cb . ∂σ Vp ∂ p (8. the rock sample is exposed to an external stress equal to the internal pressure. both the bulk and pore volume will decrease. 8. both the external stress σ and the pore pressure p may provoke changes in the bulk or/and pore volume.21) is written. Vb (8. on the sample is increase while the pore pressure is kept constant d p = 0. then Eqs. (8. on the other hand. cr ).e.20) Using Eq. c p = c p (cb . a set of four compressibilities may be deﬁned and Eq. left.20) is written. i. it must in general be considered to be an independent parameter. characterised as the bulk compressibility. see Fig. while when p increases. Differentiation of Eqs. If. (8. dVb Vb dVp Vp 1 Vb 1 = Vp = (8. (8. dVb = −cbσ d σ . p).8. Generally. such that d σ = d p.21) are all not independent and through elastic theory it is possible to resolve the relation between them. The four compressibilites deﬁned in Eqs.21) gives. If a porous rock sample is brought to the laboratory and the external stress σ . then the bulk and pore volume will increase.3.e.1) the deﬁnition of isothermal compressibility.21) where the "minus" sign demonstrates the fact that when σ increases. 8. (8. Vb = Vb (σ . p).6. The purpose of this process is to express the pore compressibility as function of the compressibilities of bulk volume and rock material. right. = −c pσ d σ + c pp d p. The bulk and pore volume are therefore deﬁned as function of both external stress and pore pressure. as well as deformation in the pore volume Vp . gas or initial water) will cause deformation in the bulk volumeVb . Vp = Vp (σ .19) ∂ Vb 1 ∂ Vb dσ + d p.
i. (8. is only related to the rock matrix material itself. then the effect of the pores with respect to the deformation of the porous rock. −c pσ + c pp = −cr .130 Chapter 8. (8. the following relation between compressibilities are deduced.25) where dV (σ ) is the volume change relative to the external stress and dV (p) is the volume change relative to the pore pressure. (8.23).24) where the minus sign for cr reﬂects the fact that the rock will compress under these conditions. (8. dVp = dVp (σ ) + dVp (p). From Eqs. . Seen from the outside the material would behave as a completly solid rock. When the pore pressure increases/decreases equally to the conﬁning stress. dVb Vb dVp Vp = (−cb + cbp )d σ . −cb + cbp = −cr . is equal to the work given by the volume expansion of the pore volume due to the external stressdVp (σ ) times the change in the pore pressure d p. dVb = dVb (σ ) + dVb (p). 8. = (−c pσ + c pp )d σ . then the bulk and pore volume are deformed accordingly.e.2 Betti’s Reciprocal Theorem of Elasticity.3.6: Stresses working on a porous rock.23) where d σ = d p and where cbσ = cb . the compressibility of the rock sample is equal to the compressibility of the rock material cr . If both the external stress and the pore pressure are changing. Under these condition. Compressibility of Reservoir Rock and Fluids σ dp = 0 σ=p Figure 8. Betti’s theorem states that the hypothetical work given by the volume expansion of the bulk volume due to the pore pressure dVb (p) times the change in the external stress d σ .
Since porosity is deﬁned φ = Vp /Vb .27) where cbp = cb . water and/or gas. are all deﬁned by Eq. A discrete version of this deﬁnition. developed by Geertsma [31].21) in Eq. Vp Vp Vp = cw Sw + co So + cg Sg . (8. gives c= 1 ∆V V ∆p ⇒ ∆V = cV ∆p. the bulk compressibility is given. like in experiments sketched in Fig. cw . Since the pore volume is expanded by the ﬂuid phase volumes: V f = Vw + Vo + Vg . cp = cb − (1 + φ )cr . relates the pore compressibility to the bulk and rock compressibilities which are the parameters normally measured. (8. a change in the pore pressure will cause the ﬂuid volume to change. This formula. (8. (8.31) where S is the ﬂuid phase saturation (Sw + So + Sg = 1).29) (8. φ (8. is the total compressibility of the rock .30) The compressibility of the ﬂuids c f contained in the pore volume is deﬁned by the compressibility of the different phases.26) (8.4 Compressibility for Reservoir Rock Saturated with Fluids Compressibility of homogenous matter like the rock material cr and the contained saturations of ﬂuids. Vg Vw Vo = cw + co + cg . where the pressure drop ∆p is sufﬁciently small.29). cbp = φ c pσ Combining Eqs. This compressibility accounts for the expansion of ﬂuid. given by c p in Eq. one gets. given by the ﬂuid compressibility c f and the reduction of the pore volume when the pore pressure is reduced. 8. 8. (8.4 Compressibility for Reservoir Rock Saturated with Fluids 131 dVb (p) · d σ = dVp (σ ) · d p. (8.24 and Eq.ﬂuid system. (8.26). e.g. Using Eqs.28) where c pp = c p is the pore volume compressibility. .28) on gets.1). (8. ∆V f cf = ∆Vw + ∆Vo + ∆Vg . The minus sign for the ﬁrst term reﬂects that the force and displacement are in opposite directions. The ﬂuid compressibility is written.8. Of interest in relation to the production of oil and gas.6. −Vb cbp d p · d σ = −Vp c pσ d σ · d p. co and cg . oil. (8.
dVp dVb dφ = − . This term. (8.34) where the porosity change d φ is proportional to the change in the effective stress. This change in the effective stress on the rock material will cause the porosity φ = Vp /Vb to change.24) and Eq. cr (8. related to the pore space occupied by the hydrocarbons. cb − (1 + φ )cr = + cw Sw + co So + cg Sg . the conﬁnement stress is constant.e. d φ = −cb (1 − φ ) − cr d(σ − p). It should be noted that in this case.36) where the pressure drop ∆p. An equally important term is the effective compressibility responsible for the expansion of initial water and reduction of the pore volume.32) The effective HC compressibility is a useful term. ∆φ = cr cb (1 − φ ) − 1 ∆p. when pressure is released as a result of HC production. . the equilibrium of stresses in the reservoir is changed. the dependence on the effective stress is an exact theoretical result.29) with Eq. (8. φ Vp Vb (8. cnon−HC = cb − (1 + φ )cr + φ cw Sw . cHC = co So + cg Sg . φ Combining Eqs. due to oil or gas production. a nonHC compressibility is deﬁned. By differentiation the porosity one gets. φ 1 = [cb − (1 + φ )cr + φ (cw Sw + co So + cg Sg )]. φ (8. dφ = (c p d p − c pσ d σ ) − (cbp d p − cb d σ ). d σ = 0 and thus the change in porosity is.33) Substituting Eqs.35) (8. (8.33) and remembering that c pp is the pore compressibility c p and cbσ is the bulk compressibility cb . Compressibility of Reservoir Rock and Fluids ct = cp + c f .21) in Eq. φ Example: Porosity variation in the reservoir When the reservoir pore pressure is reduced. due to ﬂuid production from the reservoir is small enough to keep the material within the elastic limit.132 Chapter 8. (8. Under reservoir conditions. (8.34) gives. (8. i.
(8. i. the terms in the bracket in Eq. i. (σ − p)L = 0. For sandstone reservoirs with a typical porosity larger than 510 %. cb = cr .7: Constant conﬁnement pressure and reduced pore pressure leads to a reduction in the pore volume. which is the case for practically all porous rock materials. i. p1 Vp : φ1 p2 φ2 Figure 8. the ratio cb /cr is often found to be between 4 to 100. when φ → 0. What about the porosity change in rock samples which are brought to the surface for further experimental investigations? This question is quite important since laboratory measurements on core material from wells. . .7). where by cb /cr ≥ 1.e.8. i. the bulk compressibility will be equal to the rock matrix compressibility.35) gives the porosity change relative to the change in the pressure difference (σ − p). (8. the porosity will increase when the rock sample is brought to the surface. φ1 > φ2 . φR < φL . In the laboratory or at normal atmospheric condition. For a porous rock sample.e. (σ − p)R > 0.4 Compressibility for Reservoir Rock Saturated with Fluids 133 In a nonporous rock. the pressure difference is normally such that the conﬁnement pressure is larger than the pore pressure. At initial conditions in the reservoir. the porosity is reduced in the reservoir when the pressure is reduced. Eq. Example: Porosity variation in formation core samples Reservoir porosity is seen to decrease with the pore pressure. is one of the very few direct sources of information available regarding reservoir characteristics. i. under the assumption of constant conﬁnement stress. a porosity deformation is observed. p1 > p2 (Fig. which then deﬁne the lower bound. where the bulk and rock matrix compressibilities are such that (cb (1 − φ ) − cr ) > o.e.e.e. the conﬁnement pressure and the pore pressure will be close to equal. which is an important drive mechanism for undersaturated oil reservoirs. In typical sandstone porous rocks. . 8.36) will always be positive. When the pore pressure is reduced.
6 %. Find the total compressibility and the effective hydrocarbon compressibility when the following ﬂuid and formation compressibility are known.82 4000 0. A gas reservoir has a gas deviation factor (at 150 o F). Bulk compressibility is 3. 0.24 and gas saturation is 0. cg = 1/p psi−1 and cr = cb = 5 ×10−6 psi−1 .134 Chapter 8.00 500 0.00 Plot z versus p and graphically determine the slope at 1000 psia. 2200 psia and 4000 psia. 8. Find the formation porosity when the ﬁeld is abandoned? 3.89 5000 1. and estimated abandonment pressure is 500 psia. connate water saturation is 0. 3. 171. 1. The reservoir pressure is 1923 psi.8×10−6 psi−1 . 224. Compressibility of Reservoir Rock and Fluids pR φR pL φL Figure 8.6 · 10−6 psi−1 . cw = 3 ×10−6 psi−1 . Then. 18. p [psia] z 0 1.31.45 · 10−3 psi−1 . 2.80 3000 0.86 2000 0.14 · 10−3 psi−1 . ﬁnd the gas compressibility at these pressures.4 · 10−6 psi−1 .8: Variation of bulk volume during surfacing of core material. co = 10 ×10−6 psi−1 . Answers to questions: 1.11 · 10−3 psi−1 .5 Exercises 1.92 1000 0. 0. 2. A reservoir with an initial pressure of 6500 psia has an average porosity of 19 %.
1 Introduction Production of oil and gas can be compared to a process where volumes of the reservoir ﬂuids are transformed to the stock tank volumes of oil and gas. Primary reservoir production takes place without any temperature change.1: Volume transformation of oil and gas.1. The reservoir production rates of oil and gas will in the event of continuously decreasing pressure and temperature transform. while the reservoir pressure drops substantially near the well. 9. see Fig. Qgn=∆V /∆t gn Qon=∆Von /∆t Sea Reservoir Qg=∆V /∆t g Qo=∆Vo /∆t Figure 9. where the phase ratio of oil and gas is changed as well as the gasoil ratio and the composition of both phases. During this process both pressure and temperature are signiﬁcantly changed.Chapter 9 Properties of Reservoir Fluids 9. The composition of oil and/or gas will therefore changed slightly during production. In an oil reservoir we may experience the shrinkage of oil due to the solution gas liberation near the well and in a rich gas reservoir we expect condensa135 .
then NC − NR = 1 and NF = 3 − NP. H2 O. 9. number of phases NP .e. T)plot reﬂecting this occurrence (sublimation line. This could be expressed more precisely referring to the Gibbs phase rule. and degrees of freedom NF . When NP = 1 When NP = 2 NF = 2 NF = 1 Both intensive properties can be changed arbitrarily Only one intensive property can be independent – there are three lines on a (p. all depending on temperature and pressure. In this chapter focus is put on some characteristic aspects of hydrocarbon mixtures and the separation of oil and gas as function of pressure and temperature. is shown in Fig.e. For a pure component (like H2 O). NF = NC − NP + 2 − NR. When the reservoir ﬂuid is produced and brought to the surface. melting point line. (For pure water. and NC − NR deﬁnes the number of independent components. number of chemical reactions NR . temperature is also reduced and consequently the composition of oil and gas undergoes signiﬁcant change. The number 2 accounts for the intensive properties p. The coexistence of different phases. 9.) . T . In these processes. i. liquid and vapour. hence we call this state the ﬂuid state. The phase boundary between water and vapour ends in a critical point where the two phases cease to coexist.3 atm.1 oC and the critical pressure is 218. the critical temperature is 374. We will look at how oil and gas behave in the reservoir and their expansion to stock tank condition. The different regions are separated by phase boundaries. Beyond this point. where. For pure components the phase rule says that no more than three phases can form at any temperature and pressure.136 Chapter 9. pressure is further reduced through different stages of separation. i. there is no distinct difference between water and vapour.2. for temperatures T > TC and pressures p > pC . and vapour pressure line) No degrees of freedom – a single triple point in the phase diagram When NP = 3 NF = 0 We know that water may appear in different phases like ice.2 Deﬁnitions The process by which the different hydrocarbon (HC) components form phases through various chemical reactions is governed by a natural (entropy driven) development towards equilibrium or the lowest energy level. Properties of Reservoir Fluids tion of liquid hydrocarbons (oil) when the pressure is reduced. The Gibbs phase rule shows a relationship among the number of componentsNC .
The C7 characteristic is then the average for all components higher then C6 . 9. shown in Fig. + Components C7 are heavy and in most interesting cases of petroleum engineering. say. For pure components of oil. naphthenes (cycloalkanes) and aromatic series and often some nonhydrocarbon impurities.2: PTdiagram for H2 O. 9. When two or more HC components are mixed. Nitrogen Carbon Dioxide Hydrogen Sulphide N2 CO2 H2 S + For mixtures of HC components.3 Representation of hydrocarbons 137 pc Ice 1 atm. C2 and C3 dominate the composition. 9. However.3. and their mixture (50% of C2 H6 and 50% of C7 H16 ) the phase PTdiagram is shown in Fig.3 Representation of hydrocarbons Naturally occurring HC are complex in composition and contain a great many members of parafﬁns (alkanes). For light oils. The PTcharacteristics of the pure components are somewhat similar to theH2 O case. C7 H16 and higher. it is quite common to write C7 . C4 . Some of the components in the parafﬁn series are listed below: Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane CH4 C2 H6 C3 H8 C4 H10 C5 H12 C6 H14 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 Heptane Octane Nonane Decane C7 H16 C8 H18 C9 H20 C10 H22 Some typical nonhydrocarbon impurities are represented by. can not be evaporized. Ethane (C2 H6 ) and Heptane (C7 H16 ). intermediate components like C4 − C5 can be in both gaseous and liquid state depending on prevailing pressure and temperature. the phase boundaries form a closed boundary . typically light components likeC1 .2. mean+ ing all component in the series.9. Water Critical point Vapour 100 °C Tc Figure 9. C5 and C6 are the important components and for heavier oils the presence of various decanes and asfaltenes are quit common. In gases.
Volume is therefore a dependent function of p and T . 9. The equilibrium state is deﬁned as function of p and T and consequently also the volume ratio of oil and gas is PTdependent. a) 100% Ethane p p b) 100% Heptane c) 50% Ethane 50% Heptane p Liquid C Liquid C Gas T Liquid C Liquid + Gas Gas T Gas T Figure 9. For a mixture of hydrocarbons. a PVTdiagram can be drawn. where the two phases of oil and gas coexists.138 Chapter 9. This area is called the twophase region and has a characteristic shape for that particular composition. is seen in the PTdiagram in Fig. Heptane and their mixture. The PVdiagram (upper left) shows how the oil volume is increasing when pressure is .4 (lower right). These relations between pressure. Properties of Reservoir Fluids area in the PTdiagram. as shown in Fig.3: PTdiargam for Ethane.4. volume and temperature are often referred to as PVTrelations. The existence of a super critical ﬂuid region to the right of the critical point where phases can not be distinguished. Liqu id u tc rv e Pressure poi n t cu Bu bb rve p le oi n Vo lu G as l tica Cri int po uid orVap sure s Pre rve Cu me Pressure Liq Dew s Ga re atu per Tem Figure 9. as shown by the law of real gases.4: PVT diagram for a mixed component system. 9.
It is important to notice that the shape of an envelope ACPCTB depends on the composition of HC mixture. represented by the twophase region. A reservoir with initial conditions as indicated by position 1 in Fig. 9. see Fig. from1 to 2. [Vm ] = m3 /kgmole or cm3 /gmole (ft3 /lbmole).5: Pressurespeciﬁc volume diagram for mixed component system.5. we observe a monotonously volume increase or swelling of the oil phase down to a certain pressure level. The PTdiagram for a more complex mixtures is presented in Fig. is to present the intensive property of speciﬁc . with the following deﬁnitions: CP: Cricondenbar – a pressure point. T1 T2 T3 T4 Liquid Liquid Pressure Critical point Gas T4 T3 T2 T1 Gas Twophase region Specific volume Temperature Figure 9. in Fig. The twophase region is left when the pressure starts to decrease again and further volume increase is due to gas expansion only. i.or molar volume. When this reservoir is produced at constant temperature. where the heavier components are condensed. only gas is produced. i. however. Continued volume increase means gradually increased gasoil ratio at constant pressure. 9.e. 9. then oil will gradually drop out of the gas both in the reservoir and on the way to location x. C: Critical Point – a pressure and temperature point. At this pressure the volume continues to increase by separation into coexisting oil . at which two phases become identical.and gas phases. i. Molar volume is equal to volume occupied by one mole of a substance. Another way of representing the PVT discontinuity. The composition of the gas will have changed. . All the quality lines merge at this point.6. CT: Cricondentherm – a temperature point. Speciﬁc volume is volume occupied by a unit of mass of a substance. above which a liquid can not be vaporised. For temperatures higher than T3 . 9.9. lines which deﬁnes the fractional oilgas ratio. For lower temperatures. a phase transformation will pass through a twophase region conﬁned by a bubble point locus and a dew point locus where the oil and gas are in equilibrium.e. on the other hand.5. above which a gas can not be condensed. [Vs ] = m3 /kg (ft3 /lb). there is no phase change when pressure is decreased.e.3 Representation of hydrocarbons 139 decreasing. If.6 is what we would call a gas reservoir. the production follows the dotted line from 1 to x. no phase boundary is crossed. For a given temperature.
see Figs. 9.6. condensation of gas in the reservoir starts as soon as the twophase region is entered. Then the overall compositions Ci can be expressed through the phase compositions Ci j . At this time. 1 CP p Liquid C 3 4 CT A 80% 60% 40% 20% x 5 B Gas T 2 Figure 9. When the pressure continues to decrease. 9. such that an oil reservoir would have a different shaped twophase region than seen in Fig.6: PT. Natural hydrocarbons are complex mixtures of different components and are usually represented by pseudocomponents (normally 2 or 3). Properties of Reservoir Fluids A reservoir located at point 3 in Fig. should be called a gas condensate reservoir. no change in the composition will occur. the twophase region is characterising the reservoir ﬂuid. In order to predict phase behaviour for such compositions ternary diagrams are often used. As we have mentioned before.diagram for a complex HC mixture. Having said this. from 1 to 5.7 and 9. When this reservoir is produced at constant temperature. at point 4. 2.6. Let us assume that the overall composition is represented by point M. 9. solution gas will slowly build up to a continuous phase and ﬂow towards the well with a considerably higher mobility than the oil itself. 9. 3 .1 Ternary diagrams Binary diagrams are often used for representing an overall behaviour of hydrocarbons and for detailed analysis of phase behaviour when the number of components or groups of pure components. When this reservoir is produced at constant temperature. do not exceed three . we can imagine that an oil reservoir is located somewhere in the upper left corner in Fig. vaporisation of residual oil can happen and the gas composition may become richer until the dew point line is crossed.8.3. no gas will exist in the reservoir until the bubbel point line is crossed. Ci = Ci1 S1 +Ci2 S2 . One of the advantages of ternary diagrams is that they enable us to represent both the phase compositions and the overall composition of mixture.6.140 Chapter 9. and the dew point line is approached. 9. Form that point onwards. i = 1.
It means that the compositions of the three phases are given by the apexes of the 3 phase triangle (invariant points). There is no degrees of freedom in the three phase region. we can obtain the following expression for the relative amounts of phases Si j in the overall composition. the system has only one degree of freedom. where (p and T are expected to be known). All sides of this triangle are surrounded by 2. C1 1phase region Plait point Tie line f c . The lever rule enables us to calculate the relative amounts of these phases.invariant point 2phase region a b e C3 d C2 3phase region Figure 9. .or volume fraction). S1 = Ci −Ci2 . Fig.8: Threephase ternary diagram.9. This means that if one of the parameters is speciﬁed all the other can be easily evaluated. 9. Ci1 −Ci2 S2 = Ci −Ci1 .3 Representation of hydrocarbons 141 C1 1phase region Plait point Tie line C3 Binodal curve 2phase region C2 Figure 9.8 shows the case when the composition has a 3phase region which is indicated by the embedded smaller triangle.7: Twophase ternary diagram. Ci2 −Ci1 which is called "the lever rule". Moving inside the triangle we can only change the fraction of phases and not the overall composition.phase regions. Note that the fraction of each component is 1 at their apex and 0 at the opposite edge. It follows from the Gibbs phase rule that in case of 3 (pseudo) components and 2 phases. Using the fact that S1 + S2 = 1. Any total composition M within this triangle gives three phases with the same overall composition. Any unit can be used (mole. weight.
The maximum liquid saturation deposited in the reservoir is when the pressure is between points 4 and 5 in the twophase region. which is usually the case for surfactant+oil+brine systems. However. the injection is terminated and the remaining dry gas produced. Let us imagine initial pressure and temperature at point 3 in Fig. the molecular weight of the HC remaining in the reservoir increases and is left behind in the reservoir as retrograde condensate while the light components are mobile and will be produce. 9. 9. this does not occur because once the pressure falls below point 4 the overall composition and hence. During isothermal depletion liquid will start to condense in the reservoir when the pressure has fallen below the dew point at 4. i. the reservoir temperature is always larger than the critical temperature of the same gas. that the phase envelope moves to the left and upwards. Sometimes it is economically advantageous to produce a gas condensate ﬁeld by the process of gas recycling.9 and separating the liquid condensate from the dry gas at the surface and reinjecting the latter into the reservoir in such a way that the dry gas displaces the wet gas towards the producing wells.4 Natural gas and gas condensate ﬁelds In a dry gas ﬁeld. where the retrograde liquid condensate is not recovered and. e+ f In Figs. the position of the point being dependent on surface separation. this represents a loss of a valuable part of the hydrocarbon mixture. in practical ﬁeld developments this is not easily accomplished. The process of condensation is called retrograde liquid condensation. The objective of the gas recycling process is to keep reservoir conditions above/or to the right from the dew point curve. Tr > TCT . a+b S2 = c . 9. Continued pressure depletion below the point of maximum condensation would lead to revaporisation of the liquid condensate. The condensation is generally rather small and frequently below the critical saturation which must be exceeded before the liquid becomes mobile. However.142 Chapter 9. thus inhibiting revaporisation. as seen in Fig. the following initial condition is important. than the dew point line will never be crossed and only dry gas will exist in the reservoir at any pressure.6. Starting at point 3 in Fig.e. When producing the gas to the surface. since the heavier components tend to condense ﬁrst. 9. 9.9.7 and 9. however. c+d S3 = e . 9. If initial conditions in the reservoir coincide with point 1 in Fig. both p and T will decrease and the ﬁnal state will be at some point x within the twophase envelope. The composite phase envelope for the reservoir ﬂuids tends to move downwards and to the right.8 both triangles have a common baseline. Properties of Reservoir Fluids S1 = a . The reservoir pressure is kept almost at the initial level but the composition of the reservoir gas is gradually changed in such a way. After breakthrough of the dry gas occurs.6 and gas recovery is performed in such a way that the pressure will decline from1 to 2. .
10: Development of the oil ﬁeld.9.10. Reducing the pressure isothermally will eventually bring the oil to the bubble point B.9: Development of the gas ﬁeld by the gas recycling process. Further reduction in pressure will lead to solution gas production and the presence of two phases in the reservoir. namely liquid oil containing dissolved gas. 9.5 Oil ﬁelds Since the oil contains more of the heavier HC components.5 Oil ﬁelds 143 3 p Initial composition Intermediate composition Final composition T Figure 9. a phase diagram for oil will be more elongated in horizontal direction. • liquid oil. If initial conditions in the reservoir coincide with pointA in Fig. originally dissolved in the oil.10. there will be only one phase present. . containing an amount of dissolved gas which commensurate with the pressure and • liberated gas. Unfavourable conditions of production p A B X Initial composition Intermediate composition Final composition T Figure 9. 9. 9. as compared with gas ﬁelds and as shown in Fig.
9. 9. Bg .12. The relative content of heavier components in oil will increase. It is therefore preferable to maintain oil production close to. that the liquid phase is ﬁnally becoming less and less mobile.6 Relation between reservoir and surface volumes The amount of oil and gas produced form the reservoir. Vogn Sm3 Rs = . Properties of Reservoir Fluids Keeping production at point X below the bubble point. 9.144 Chapter 9. Reservoir gas p A Reservoir fluid Reservoir oil Initial reservoir conditions T Figure 9. The phase diagram for an oil reservoir with a gas cap must necessarily have a phase envelope which is characterised by both the gas and oil contained in the reservoir. gas injection or other enhanced oil recovery methods. Volumes deﬁned at reservoir conditions (or at the surface) are transformed to surface volumes (or reservoir volumes) by use of volume factors. which is the number of standard cubic meters (feet) of gas which will dissolve in one stock tank cubic meter (barrel) of oil when both are measured at surface conditions. as shown in Fig.11: Phase diagram for the oil reservoir with a gas cap. The deﬁnition of these factors are [21]: Rs : The solution gasoil ratio. Rs and R.10. Bo . will ﬂow with a much greater velocity than the oil towards the well. Von Sm3 . and the shape of the phase diagram will change towards more and more unfavourable conditions for oil production. The composition will change to such an extent. measured in standard volume quantities (at normal pressure and temperature) are converted to reservoir volumes by the use of volume factors. the overall reservoir HC composition will change due to the fact that the gas. The twophase area of the reservoir ﬂuid is overlapping the appropriate oil and gas reservoir.11. 9. The volume factors are deﬁned by laboratory experiments performed on samples taken from the reservoir oil or gas. or above the bubble point by using water ﬂooding. in Fig. being more mobile. These factors are deﬁned in accordance to Fig.
1) (9. Vg Rm3 Bg = . Vggn Sm3 R: The gasoil ratio (GOR). Bo = Vo Von Rm3 .12: Stock tank production through expansion of reservoir oil and gas from an oil reservoir.9.12: Vgn = RVon Vg = Bg (R − Rs)Von Vo +Vg = [Bo + (R − Rs)Bg ]Von (9.2) (9.T Surface: pn . simply using Fig. Bo : The oil formation volume factor is deﬁned as the volume of oil in cubic meters (or barrels) occupied in the reservoir at the prevailing p and T divided by the volume of oil in stock tank cubic meter (barrel). R= Vgn Von Sm3 .6 Relation between reservoir and surface volumes 145 Reservoir: p. Sm3 Bg : The gas formation volume factor is deﬁned as the volume of gas in cubic meters (or barrels) in the reservoir divided by the volume of the same gas at standard cubic meter (foot). Sm3 The following useful relationships between the volume factors can be deduced.3) . Tn Vg Vp Vo Vggn Vgn Vogn Von Von Figure 9. is the volume of gas in standard cubic meters (feet) produced divided by volume of stock tank cubic meter (barrel) of oil at surface conditions. 9.
the volume of gas will expand as the reciprocal pressure. Finally all gas will evaporate and the oil is said to be dead and Bo ≈ 1.146 Chapter 9. This process continues until standard condition is reached. gas in equilibrium with oil can only exist up to its bubble point pressure.e. For pressure higher than pb .e. For pressures lower than the bubble point pressure. This increase in Bo is directly linked to the oil compressibility. Bo Rs pb p R pb p Bg pb p pb p Figure 9. A unit sample of oil at different pressures (p > pb ) will therefore contain the same amount of gas and oil at standard condition. then volume is increased. 9. when pressure is released. For pressure lower then the bubble point. i.4) The volume factors Bo . Rs . The oil volume factor Bo is seen to increase linearly when pressure is decreasing towards the bubble point pressure pb . The solution gasoil ratio Rs is constant for pressures higher than the bubble point pressure. as seen from Fig. For decreasing pressure lower than the bubble point pressure.13: Dependency of PVT volum parameters on pressure. solution gas is gradually leaving the oil phase which leads to a shrinking volume of oil. we will ﬁnd a decreasing amount of gas in the reservoir oil sample because some gas has already evaporated and been produced as gas. i.13. . all free gas will be dissolve in the oil. since no gas is produced in the reservoir.13. from right to left in Fig. In order to explain the characteristic behaviour of the different volume factors it is natural to follow a decreasing pressure development. Bg and R are all pressure dependent functions. 9. In the case of the volum factor for gas. Properties of Reservoir Fluids Vg = Bg (1 − Rs )Vgn R (9.
is given as a function of decreasing reservoir pressure. more gas than oil is produced than initially. Von Qon where Qon = Qo /Bo and where Qo is the oil rate in the reservoir. the process of solution gas vaporisation will take place. When the pressure is above the bubble point pressure. Qg kg µo = . The minimum gasoil ratio is reached as the gas saturation becomes continuous and starts to ﬂow. since gas liberated in the reservoir is more mobile and therefore is produced faster than the oil it originally evaporated from. .(9. where Qi are the reservoir ﬂow rates.and oil rate.6 Relation between reservoir and surface volumes 147 The gasoil ratio R. Bg Qo For reservoir ﬂow.1 and 9. we may safely neglect all capillary effects. Using the GOR. we assume Darcy’s law to be valid. with a reservoir pressure lower than bubble point pressure. With reference to Figs. and the two relations giving the gas. we may express the GOR in terms of reservoir parameters. both for oil. When pressure is further decreased. µi dr i = o. For reservoir ﬂow in the vicinity of the well. where Qg is the gas rate in the reservoir. we may write the following expression for the GOR factor. Qo µg ko Substituting this ratio in the GOR equation. Qi = ki d pi A . Example: Importance of the GOR The GOR is an important parameter.13. The presence of discontinuous gas will block some of the path ways for the oil and consequently oil with less gas are being produced. Shortly after the reservoir pressure has dropped below the bubble point pressure.e. deﬁned above. Qgn = RQon. shown in Fig. no change is observed in the gasoil ratio at surface condition. but also because it carries important information about the mobility ratio of gas and oil in the reservoir. 9. Using the relations Eqs. R= Vgn Qgn = . and the reservoir gasoil ﬂow ratio is written.12 we may deﬁne the gasoil ratio for a saturated oil reservoir. i. 9. not only because it gives the gasoil ratio as function of pressure and time.e.and gas ﬂow. For a short while. g. ﬁrst near the wellbore.1) . Qon = Qg /[Bg (R − Rs)].(9.4) we ﬁnd. i. the gas is not mobile due to gas saturation below critical gas saturation.9. R= Qg Bo + Rs .
Bg and Rs are known from laboratory measurements.and ﬂash expansion.148 Chapter 9.5) gives a idealized approximation of reservoir dependence and should therefore be interpretated with care. where the volume factors Bo . Bg Rs Reservoir bulk volume. shown in Fig. OIIP = GIIP/Rs . and i = o. µg ko Bg (9.5) where the mobility of oil.14. Solution gasoil ratio. The reserves coming from a gas reservoir is deﬁned. Formation factor. g. For a general reservoir we may deﬁne the following parameters. Porosity. Rs and Bg .(9. Gas reserves: Oil reserves: GIIP = HCPV /Bg . 9. The hydrocarbon pore volume.and gas is deﬁned. is important in deﬁning the reserves in an oil reservoir.and gas reservoirs.7 Determination of the basic PVT parameters Conventional analysis of basic PVT parameters follow well established procedures by which the different volume factors are measured: • Flash expansion of the ﬂuid sample is used to determine the bubble point pressure pb . HCPV = VR · φ . illustrates the difference between ﬂash and differential expansion of the ﬂuid sample. The process differential .and oil mobility in the reservoir and the observed gasoil ration. λi = ki /µi . • Flash expansion of ﬂuid samples through various separator combinations is used to enable the modiﬁcation of laboratory derived PVT data to match ﬁeld separator conditions.(9. Properties of Reservoir Fluids R= kg µo Bo + Rs .5) gives the relation between gas . Eq. • Differential expansion of the ﬂuid sample is used to determine the basic parametersBo . Oil reserves: Gas reserves: OIIP = HCPV /Bo . Example: Initial reservoir ﬂuids The deﬁnition of initial in place volumes are somewhat different for oil. The GOR as presented in Eq. GIIP = OIIP · Rs . VR φ Bo . . 9.
. Note that the ﬂash expansion experiment does not change the overall hydrocarbon composition in the cell while in the differential liberation experiment. Therefore. where multistage separation at the surface is commonly used because differential liberation will normally yield a larger ﬁnal volume of equilibrium oil than the corresponding ﬂash expansion. Reservoir production is most likely reproduced by a nonisothermal differential expansion.9. depletion gas is liberated physically and removed from the cell.14: Flash and differential expansion of ﬂuid samples. at each stage. there is a continous compositional change in the PVTcell. Consequently ﬂash expansion leaves smaller oil volumes then differential expansion.7 Determination of the basic PVT parameters 149 pi > pb pb p < pb pb pb new Oil Oil Gas Oil Oil Gas Oil Oil Hg 1 p 2 3 p 1 2 3 Flash expansion 1 2 3 Differential expansion 1 2 Initial composition Final composition 3 T T Figure 9. The remaining hydrocarbones are becoming progressively richer in heavier components and the average molecular weight is increasing.
150 Chapter 9.60C) is 5. Bo and Rs at 172 bar and 138 bar and Bg and z at 138 bar.2 and – for a natural gas API gravity of 70. 4. and 15. The following data are obtained in a PVT analysis at 900C. 1. The pressure is increased isothermally until two phases appear.275 litres. and residual liquid volume is found to be 295 cm3 and the liberated gas volume is 21 litres. Estimate the following PVT parameters.1 Gas speciﬁc gravity. The pressure is reduced to normal condition. expanded to 138 bar and the free gas is removed at constant pressure and then measured by further expansion to standard condition. 2.0025 RB/SCF Solution gasoil ratio. Pressure [bar] Celle (system) volume [cm3 ] 276 404 207 408 172 410 138 430 103 450 a) Estimate the bubble point pressure.18 RB/STB Gas formation volume factor. The contained liquid volume is 388 cm3 and the measured gas volume (at 1 atm. Calculate the gasoil capillary pressure for the following reservoir: Gas saturation [%] 75 50 25 0 Additional data: Oil API gravity. Properties of Reservoir Fluids 9. 480 SCF/STB Elevation [ft] 5420 5424 5426 5428 . What are the weight functions of the liquid and the vapour phase? 3. Bo factor at 207 bar. The system is recompressed. 0. A gas consists of 50% – 50% mixture by weight of two hydrocarbons. when water density is 1000 kg/m3 at standard condition (1 atm. The liquid phase consists of 40% by weight of the more volatile component and the vapour phase 65% by weight of this component. and 200C).7. 45.65 Oil formation volume factor. as above.8 Exercises 1. liquid compressibility at 207 bar. – for a crude oil API gravity of 57. b) c) d) e) co . Calculate the density expressed in SIunits. 0.
89.315 Rm3 /Sm3 .07 Sm3 /Sm3 .0079 Rm3 /Sm3 .887 4. e) 0. 749. 71.383 Rm3 /Sm3 .9. ρo = 735. . 0. 2. 699. 3.5 kg/m3 .8 kg/m3 . 2/3. d)1. ρg = 55.3898 Rm3 /Sm3 .5 kg/Rm3 .7 kg/Rm3 .2 Sm3 /Sm3 . a) 172 bar. b) 14. c) 1.8 Exercises 151 Answers to questions: 1.1 · 10−5 bar−1 . 1.
Properties of Reservoir Fluids .152 Chapter 9.
Part II Reservoir Parameter Estimation Methods 153 .
.
we may write the mass conservation law in terms of volume conservation.1) is often referred to as the golden principle. Mi = ∆M + M.Chapter 10 Material Balance Equation 10.e. Being simple in principle. methods based on the material balance equation are commonly used in the following cases: • Extrapolation of production curves for oil.1) . p= 1 Vi pdV. ρ ∼ constant. with limited reference to local information. Vi where Vi is the initial hydrocarbone volume. 155 (10. Even though material balance techniques use crude approximations of the reservoir. i. Eq. the hydrocarbon pore volume (HCPV). In this chapter we will develop the Material Balance Equation for a general oil and gas reservoir and illustrate the use of the equation by various examples. • Identiﬁcation of the drive mechanism. where Expansion = Production. their application and use have proven to be of great importance in various situations. If we assume the ﬂuid density in the reservoir to be constant during the depletion process. The pressure in this tank is deﬁned by the volumetric average pressure.(10. Vi −V = ∆V when pi → p. i. In material balance calculations we implicitly consider the reservoir as being a tank of constant volume. water and gas (production decline curve analysis). • History matching.e.1 Introduction The basic principle behind the Material Balance Equation is very fundamental: The mass of hydrocarbons (HC) initially in place is equal to sum of the mass produced and the mass still remaining in the reservoir.
The material balance equation given by Eq. i.2) is illustrated in Fig. Bgi = Vi = Vn p zT · n zT p and i .1. where the purpose is to visualise the transformation of gas volume under reservoir condition to surface conditions.(10. 10.1: Volume transformation using volume formation factors. At a reservoir pressure p. [Sm3 ]. [Sm3 /Rm3 ]. in standard units. The production of gas at surface conditions is G p .2) (GGp)Bg GGp Gp Figure 10.2).(10.2) that. [Sm3 /Rm3 ] and Bg : gas formation volume factor at current reservoir pressure. the volume occupied by the gas in the reservoir. the volume of gas left in the reservoir is G − G p . G: resources of gas initially in place. p G Bgi pn G [Sm ] 3 (10. It follows from Eq. Bgi Gp = 1− . G p : cumulative volume of gas produced. [Sm3 ].3) Using the equation of state for a real gas pV = znRT .e Eq.156 Chapter 10.1) is slightly redeﬁned where the volumeof gas in the reservoir initially in place is obviously equal to the volumeof gas in the reservoir at a given pressure p. Bg G (10. Material Balance Equation 10. G · Bgi = (G − G p )Bg . The HCPV is constant in absence of water inﬂux. is equal to (G − G p )Bgp .(10. The relation presented in Eq. and assuming isothermal conditions of production one can obtain the relations.2 Dry gas expansion Let us consider a dry gas reservoir where the production is modelled using material balance calculations. Bgi : initial gas formation volume factor. When a surface volume of G p has been produced. where the following deﬁnitions are used.(10.
p where the indices i and p refer to the initial and current pressures respectively . there may exist a gas cap above the oil zone. the intersection point with the xaxis gives us an estimate for initial gas in place. m: Ratio between the resources of gas in the gas cap and resources of oil in the oil zone measured at reservoir conditions.3 A general oil reservoir 157 Bg = Vp = Vn p zT · n zT p . cumulative gas production. 10.3 A general oil reservoir In a general oil reservoir.(10. hydrocarbons will be represented as oil and/or gas. When the data follows a linear trend. Two important characteristics are displayed by plotting the data as shown in the ﬁgure. (p) z i G 0 Gp Figure 10. as shown in Fig. . p/z vs. N: Resources of oil (initial oil in place) in Sm3 .(10. reservoir temperature and initial pressure. this serves as a proof for the assumption of no or negligible water inﬂux during gas production and that the main driving force behind the production is gas expansion. G (10.10. 10.4). when a straight line is ﬁtted through the data.4) Using Eq. G.3. Dependent on the composition of the ﬂuid. 10. The gas in the gas cap is in equilibrium with the oil in the oil zone and the volume part of the reservoir occupied by gas relative to oil is constant.2: Gas reservoir exhibiting a straight line trend in p/z vs. cumulative gas production exhibits a straight line trend. as schematically indicated in Fig.2. Eq.3) can now be written. allowing us to estimate the resources of gas. The following nomenclature is used in the derivation of the material balance equation: HCPV : Part of pore volume occupied by hydrocarbons. Secondly. p z = p z 1− i Gp .
volume .C. B. Production from the oil reservoir (with a gas cap. Material Balance Equation Initial reservoir conditions Current reservoir conditions Gas cap 3 mNBoi (Rm ) Gas cap B Oil zone NBoi (Rm ) 3 C Oil zone A A. A2: Expansion of originally dissolved gas.1 A1: Expansion of oil The oil (liquid phase) expansion at reservoir condition can be deﬁned as. . Reservoir expansion is equal to production. hence: ∆Vprod = A1 + A2 + B + C.A.3. see Fig.B and as expansion of initial water present plus reduction of pore volume due to expansion of reservoir formation matrix and possible reduction of bulk volume. 10. In dealing with the development of the material balance equation. expansion of the gas cap. mNBoi: Resources of gas (initial gas in place) in Rm3 .3: Oil reservoir with a gas cap: Illustration of material balance. Note that we are here considering underground withdrawal of hydrocarbon ﬂuids. 10. ∆Vo is the volume oil produced at reservoir pressure p. N p : Volume of oil produced in Sm3 . C: Reduction in HCPV due to expansion of connate water and reduction of pore volume. 10. B: Expansion of gas cap gas. A1: Expansion of oil.produced volumes Figure 10. it is therefore convenient to break up the expansion term into its components. volume .4. C .158 Chapter 10. measured in Rm3 . see Fig. volume . Here Vo (pi ) is the oil volume at initial conditions and Vo (p) is the volume of the oil initial in place at pressure p. Vo (p) −Vo (pi ) = ∆Vo (p).3) is explained as expansion of the oil zone.
2).5) where ∆Vo is measured in Rm3 . where Sw is the average water saturation andVp the pore volume.2 A2: Expansion of originally dissolved gas At initial conditions oil and gas in the gas cap are in mutual equilibrium .3. Oil expansion is written. we have to multiply the surface volume by the volume factor for gas at reservoir pressure. N is the initial oil in place [Sm3 ] and is deﬁned. 10. the gas volume liberated during the pressure drop. Therefore. .3 B: Expansion of gas cap gas The expansion of gas cap gas follows the same principle as observed for the expansion/production of dry gas given by Eq. frompi to p. (10. N = Vp (1 − Sw )/Boi .6) 10. The amount of gas still dissolved in the oil at current reservoir pressure and temperature isNRs . also in surface volumes. The total amount of solution gas in the oil is NRsi. Reducing the pressure below the bubble point pressure. NRsi − NRs = N(Rsi − Rs ). measured at reservoir condition. The total volume of the gas cap as part of the oil volume in the reservoir. ∆Vo = N · Bo − N · Boi = N(Bo − Boi). measured in surface volumes.(10. i. Bg . GBgi = (G − G p )Bg . but since we want to express all expanded volumes at reservoir condition.e.3 A general oil reservoir 159 pi p ∆Vo Vo Figure 10. The gas production at current reservoir pressure is then.10. GBgi = mNBoi.3.4: Expansion of oil at reservoir pressure. This gas volume is measured at surface condition. pb will cause the liberation of solution gas. is. ∆Vog = N(Rsi − Rs)Bg . (10.
Bgi The expansion of the gas cap (in reservoir volumes) is therefore written. ∆VHCPV = VHCPV cw Sw + c p ∆p. ∆VHCPV = (1 + m)NBoi cw Sw + c p ∆p. Expansion of connate water and reduction of pore volume are controlled by the compressibility of water and pore volumes. ∆VHCPV = ∆Vw + ∆Vp .e. ∆VHCPV = cwVw ∆p + c pVp ∆p. ∆Vgg = mNBoi Bg −1 . ∆Vw and ∆Vp are the volume changes due to expansion of connate water and that due to reduction in pore volume. From previous considerations.7) 10. i. The HCPV compressibility as the compressibility for connate water and formation matrix are deﬁned in accordance with the general law of thermal compressibility. c p = (cb − (1 + φ )cr )/φ and VHCPV = Vo +Vg = NBoi + mNBoi = (1 + m)NBoi. where the absolute volume change in the HC pore space due to expansion of connate water and reduction of pore volume is. Material Balance Equation G p Bg = mNBoi (Bg − Bgi ).8) .160 Chapter 10.4 C: Reduction in HCPV due to expansion of connate water and reduction of pore volume Reduction in HCPV due to expansion of connate water and reduction of pore volume is in practice equal to the increased production by the same volume. cw and c p . respectively. 1 − Sw (10. The volume expansion due to initial water and reduction in the pore volume.3. Bgi (10. we found that: Vw = SwVp and Vp = VHCPV /(1 − Sw ) and we get. c= 1 ∆V V ∆p ⇒ ∆V = cV ∆p. gives the expansion of the HCPV or volume C. we get. Using the deﬁnition of compressibility. 1 − Sw where the pore volume compressibility is.
10. Rs and Bg are functions of pressure. i.10) accounts for water inﬂux into the reservoir and production of water. ∆Vprod = N p [Bo + (R − Rs)Bg ].9) we can write the material balance equation for a general oil reservoir. Bgi 1 − Sw N p [Bo + (R − Rs)Bg ] = NBoi (10. G p = (R − Rs)N p .10) (We −Wp )Bw on the righthand side of Eq. Eqs.4 The material balance equation 161 10.N p Bo + G p Bg . • Eq.5 Linearized material balance equation The linearized material balance equation is particular interesting in connection with reservoir parameter estimation.e. where R is the gasoil ratio (GOR) and Rs is the solution gasoil ratio. Results published in 196364 by Havlena and Odeh opened a wide range . The equation gives a static representation of the reservoir and does not include any terms describing the energy loss in the reservoir due to ﬂuid ﬂow behaviour.4 The material balance equation Combining Eqs. It is important to notice under which circumstances the material balance equation is developed. (10. in the way it was derived.4). In order to compare the two types of volumes. The expansion volumes. we have to transform the production volumes to reservoir volumes. it is implicit in all the other terms of Eq.5 Production terms The production of oil and gas at surface conditions is. • Although the pressure only appears explicitly in the water and pore volume compressibility terms.5) to (10. The water inﬂux is also pressure dependent. A1. B and C. A2.10) is evaluated. 10.9) 10. Using the relation between gas and oil produced at standard condition. by comparing the current volumes at pressure p to the original volumes at pi . We can now write the overall production term as.3.(10. The following features of the MBE should be noted: • MBE generally exhibits a lack of time dependence although the water inﬂux has a time dependence.10) since the PVT parameters Bo . (Bo − Boi ) + (Rsi − Rs )Bg + Boi Bg cwSw + c p m( − 1) + (1 + m)( )∆p + (We −Wp )Bw .(10. respectively. N p + G p . Note that the material balance equation is not evaluated in a stepwise or differential fashion.1) to (9.(9.(10.(10. are measured at reservoir conditions.
All produced gas comes from the oil.e. Production is driven by expansion of undersaturated oil. 2.11) is especially important for revealing the drive mechanism of the reservoir and for estimation of initial oil and gas. Material Balance Equation of applications of the MBE to reservoir engineering [33.6 Dissolved gas expansion drive Fluid samples taken from an oil reservoir. N p Bo = NBoi Bo − Boi cw Sw + c p + ∆p . is described by the law of compressibility. i. water and formation. The linear form of equation (10. important deductions are made: 1.162 Chapter 10. 10. where the following deﬁnitions are used: The underground withdrawal: F = N p [Bo + (R − Rs)Bg ] +Wp Bw Expansion of oil and its originally dissolved gas: Eo = (Bo − Boi) + (Rsi − Rs )Bg Expansion of the gas cap gas: Eg = Boi Bg −1 Bgi (10. With these restrictions in mind. indicate a reservoir pressure larger than the bubble point pressure.11) Expansion of the connate water and reduction of pore volume: Ec = (1 + m) cw Sw + c p Boi ∆p 1 − Sw Eq.(10. From this information alone. for increasing pressures higher than the bubble point pressure.10) is. Boi 1 − Sw We have seen earlier that the slow decline of the volume factorBo . . p > pb . a simpliﬁed material balance equation is written. No gas cap can exist. 34]. as undersaturated oil. The reservoir ﬂuid exists in only one phase. Production of oil is controlled by compressibility of oil. 4. 5. F = N(Eo + mEg + Ec ) +We Bw .e. i. 3. Rsi = Rs = R.
we may write the equation above. Oil compressibility is therefore written. ∆p given by. ct = co So + cw Sw + c p . Vo ∆p where we may use the deﬁnitions.6 Dissolved gas expansion drive 163 co = 1 ∆Vo . 10. 9.13) and by introducing the reservoir pore volume using the expression. in accordance with Fig.5: Reservoir parameter estimation for dissolved gas expansion data. 1 − Sw (10. N p · Bo = N · Boi ct ∆p. Vo = Von Boi and ∆Vo = Von (Bo − Boi). Np = Vp ct ∆p.12) and the simpliﬁed material balance equation above is therefore. we may ﬁnd a simple relation between produced oil. co = 1 Von (Bo − Boi) Bo − Boi 1 = . Fig. used to determineVp and ct . N p and observed pressure drop.12. ∆p = pi − p. Note the notation: N = Von . N p Bo = NBoi co So + cw Sw + c p ∆p . Von Boi ∆p Boi ∆p (10.5 shows a linear representation of the data.Vp So = N · Boi . .10. Bo The linear relationship between oil production N p and pressure drop ∆p can be used to estimate unknown reservoir parameters such as pore volume Vp or total compressibility ct . Np ∆p Figure 10. 1 − Sw By introducing a total compressibility.
we will ﬁnd that A C in all practical cases.(10. gas is produced in the reservoir and the expansion of this gas will become increasingly important for the process of oil production. we ﬁnd the total compressibility. N p [Bo + (R − Rs)Bg ] = N (Bo − Boi) + (Rsi − Rs )Bg + cw Sw + c p ∆p .(10.13) we may write. Material Balance Equation cw = 3 · 10−6 psi−1 c p = 8. For reservoir pressures p < pb . 1 − Sw When we consider the signiﬁcance of the different expansion factors. ct = Bob − Boi (1 − Sw ) + cw Sw + c p . Boi ∆p Inserting for the numbers from the table above. the reservoir pressure will ﬁnally decrease below bubble point pressure.6 · 10−6 psi−1 Sw = 0.5%.10) can now be expressed as. Using Eq. and the relative production becomes. = N Bob 1 − Sw where ct = co So + cw Sw + c p . Np N = 0. 10. After some time with continuous production.01516. we may neglect the compressibility term and write the simpliﬁed material balance equation as. Consequently. we may assume the gas expansion to be gradually more important than the expansion due to compressibility of initial water and the formation. What is the oil recovery at this time when the following parameters are given? From Eq. . When this happens. .24 · 10−6 psi−1 . ct = 18.2 pi = 4000 psi pb = 3330 psi Boi = 1. The material balance equation Eq.12) we have the total compressibility.14) The use of this approximate equation is justiﬁed through a comparison of the different volumes A and C in Fig. N p [Bo + (R − Rs)Bg ] ≈ N[(Bo − Boi ) + (Rsi − Rs )Bg ]. (10.2417 RB/STB Bob = 1.3. 3330psi which gives an oil recovery at the bubble point pressure equal to 1.(10.2511 RB/STB Example: Oil recovery factor at bubble point pressure An undersaturated oil reservoir has been produced down to its bubble point pressure. Np Boi ct ∆p .164 Chapter 10.
14). is most probably lost. N p (Bo − Boi) + (Rsi − Rs )Bg . Eq. If the gas is produced ﬁrst. R + 200. We may therefore use the approximation Eq. information about the GOR is necessary. As learned from the example above.00339 RB/SCF Bo (900psi) = 1. indicating a gas compressibility of cg 300 · 10−6 psi−1 . Np N = 900psi 344.15) In order to numerically deﬁne the oil recovery. On the other hand it is quite obvious that oil recovery is maximised when R is kept as small as possible.7 (10. From this simple consideration we may assume all compressibility terms in the material balance equation. namely that: All production should come from the oil zone. From the example above we may state an improtant production strategy for oil reservoirs. The wells should therefore be drilled and . if possible be produced after the oil is produced. 10.7 Gas cap expansion drive 165 Rsi (4000psi) = 510 SCF/STB Rs (900psi) = 122 SCF/STB Bg (900psi) = 0. to be negligible compared to the solution gas compressibility.(10. Using the numbers from the tables above. but the oil will also be smeared out due to the withdrawal of the gas zone. we can now calculate the oil recovery down to a pressure p = 900psi. due to capillary effects. This is about 15 times larger than the total compressibility at pressures above the bubble point pressure.where the volume factors are given: The solution gas produced in the reservoir will change the compressibility in the reservoir drastically.10). Since the gas is considered as the driving force in the reservoir production. we will not only loose some of the driving force. This oil. i.7 Gas cap expansion drive The presence of a gas cap at initial conditions indicates a saturated oil in equilibrium with the gas. we ﬁnd the oil recovery equal to. it should. = N Bo + (R − Rs)Bg where R is the gasoil ratio (GOR).e.0940 RB/STB Example: Oil recovery below the bubble point pressure Using the same example as above. production of gas should be minimised since gas acts as the driving force behind oil production.4 . . gas should remain in the reservoir if oil production is to be optimized. The formula for gas compressibility can be given by cg = 1/V (∆V /∆p).10.(10.
The assumption of negligible water inﬂux is rather plausible for reservoirs with a gas cap since the expansion of initial water and formation matrix is small compared to the expansion of gas cap gas. Bgi where we assume no water production or water inﬂux. Bg Eg = Boi ( − 1). we can safely neglect all terms in the material balance equation. If we could assume no water inﬂux during oil production. Further information is also acquired with respect to the different volume factors Bo . From the ﬁgure we ﬁnd the initial oil volume .6 which shows a linearization ﬁt taking into account all data points. In the case of gas cap expansion drive we therefore get the somewhat simpliﬁed material balance equation.10).(10.16) are deﬁned as below. unless the aquifer size is large compared to the oil reservoir. Example: Linearization of material balance equation The pressure decline in a saturated oil reservoir with a gas cap is driven by expansion of liberated solution gas Eo . and the size of the gas cap mN. like produced oil volume at surface condition N p . i.166 Chapter 10.e. F = N p [Bo + (R − Rs)Bg ]. Boi Bgi where the linearized material balance equation is. keeping as much gas in the reservoir as possible. Bg and Rs . For an oil reservoir with a gas cap. Eg F = N + mN .(10. as presented in Eq. When a gas cap is discovered in connection with an oil reservoir. The linearized terms used in Eq.(10. in addition to the gasoil ratio R. the linearized material balance equation could then be written. and gas cap expansion Eg . N p [Bo + (R − Rs)Bg ] = (Bo − Boi ) + (Rsi − Rs )Bg Bg NBoi + m( − 1) + (We −Wp )Bw . Eq. Eo = (Bo − Boi ) + (Rsi − Rs )Bg . F = N(Eo + mEg ) +We Bw . we have the following data. The data in the table above is plotted in Fig. where mN is the slope and N is the constant term (N is the intersection point with the yaxis). 10. Material Balance Equation completed with the purposed of optimising oil production. containing expansion of connate water or formation matrix. We = 0.16) Eo Eo which clearly indicates the advantage with linearization.16). In order to estimate initial oil in place N. we need to know the production data. (10.
93 F/E o 450 [STB] 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Measurements Linear fit E g/E o Figure 10.54. Generally we may expect the inﬂux of water to be both time and pressure dependent and we write. indicating a fractional gas cap size of m = 0.6 340.99 3. i.8 Water inﬂux Water inﬂux is more the rule.29 4.5 · 106 STB and the slope or gas cap size mN = 58.7 Eg /Eo 4.8 371.7 340.e. where f is some function which will depend on the reservoir and the extent and volume of the aquifer itself.5 355. than the exception for normal oil and gas production.8 Water inﬂux 167 p [psia] 3150 3000 2850 2700 2550 2400 F/Eo · 106 [ST B] 398. to be N = 109. We = f (p.7 · 106 STB.6: Extrapolation of lineraized gas cap expansion data. .10.axis (F/Eo ) is given in 106 ST B. Note that the units on the y. .25 3.94 4. 10.8 368.51 4. we expect some inﬂux of water to be present in all situations where reservoir production takes place over some period of time.t).
Key data for a typical oil reservoir is.7. where the periphery pressure (pressure near the boundary) in the aquifer zone is equal tope . N p = 10000 STB Bo = 1.2002 RB/STB Bg = 0. Material Balance Equation This picture could be clariﬁed by considering a reservoir model. Example: Pressure maintenance through water injection In an attempt to maintain the reservoir pressure we may inject water into the reservoir.7: Water inﬂux from external aquifer. The constant C is adjusted in such a way as to secure the match between the model and the real data. The cumulative water inﬂux can be found by integrating over the time this process takes place. qw = C(pe − p). i i In the equation above we move from a continuous case to a discrete case by summing over all pressure drops ∆p for all time periods ∆t.00107 RB/SCF R = 3000 SCF/STB Rs = 401 SCF/STB . The use of this equation is important when real data is supposed to be ﬁtted in accordance with a material balance model.168 Chapter 10. t We = 0 qw dt ∑ qi ∆ti = C ∑ ∆pi∆ti. N p [Bo + (R − Rs)Bg ] = Wp Bw . p qw qw qw re pe qw qw Figure 10. 10. Injection water rate will be proportional to the oil production rate and the following simpliﬁed material balance equation is applied. This ﬂow will obey Darcy’s law. The pressure difference induced. where C is a constant depending on the various reservoir parameters. will then cause water to ﬂow into the reservoir volume. as shown in Fig.
we can conclude from the data above that the relation between produced oil and injected water has to be.10. . . measured in [STB].0N p . Wp = 4.8 Water inﬂux 169 If pressure is maintained.
00339 0. a) Calculate the initial oil in place and the size of the gas cap when the following PVTand production data is given.0583 Rs 510 510 510 450 401 352 304 257 214 167 122 78 35 Bg – – 0.9 Exercises 1. when the pressure decreases from pi = 4000 psia to the bubble point. .2417 1.01066 a) Find the recovery N p /N. What is the injection water rate necessary to maintain the production at p=2700 psia ? Use Bw = 1.00137 0.1822 1. The following PVTdata is used in material balance calculations. when R = 1000 SCF/STB ? c) The oil rate is 10000 STB/d at pressure p = 2700 psia and the gasoil ratio is R = 3000SCF /ST B.1633 1.0940 1.2511 1. from pi = 4000 psia to p = 600 psia.6 · 10−6 psi−1 and connate water saturation is Swc = 0. 2.1115 1.00087 0. N p [Bt + Bg (R − Rsi)] −Wi Bw . c p = 8.2222 1. cw = 3. Material Balance Equation 10. For an oil reservoir with gas cap. p [psia] 4000 3500 3330 3000 2700 2400 2100 1800 1500 1200 900 600 300 Bo 1.00161 0. p = pb .00196 0. The material balance equation with no water production is.00107 0. Compressibility is given.2022 1.170 Chapter 10. What is the gas saturation at 600psia. The boiling point pressure is 1850 psia.00249 0. the water injection rate is not known.0763 1.0 RB/ST B. (Bt − Boi) + (Bg − Bgi )mBoi /Bgi N= where Bt = Bo + (Rsi − Rs )Bg and Wi is the water volume injected given in STB.0940 1. b) Calculate the recovery N p /N for declining pressure.00096 0.2480 1.00119 0.00519 0.1450 1.0 · 10−6 psi−1 .2.
p [psia] 3330 3150 3000 2850 2700 Np [106 STB] – 1.00087 0.437 0.2511 1. [Volume of a right circular cone is π r2 h/3].10.3049 3.5 · 108 1350 2.00190 1.333 0.9 · 108 1800 3.2222 1. porosity is 0.300 0.2122 1.12 · 108 Water saturation is 0.00124 1.2022 Rs [SCF/STB] 510 477 450 425 401 Bg [RB/SCF] 0.3090 5.001162 RB/SCF Rs = 500 SCF/STB 4.3014 – – – 1600 621 1. Estimate the initial oil volume in the reservoir.24. Deﬁne an expression giving the gasoil ratio.594 · 108 1300 535 1.9 Exercises 171 p [psia] Rs [SCF/STB] Bo [RB/STB] Bg [RB/SCF] Bt [RB/STB] ρo [psi/ft] N p [STB] R [SCF/STB] Wi [STB] 1850 690 1.947 2.00096 0.594 0.00107 a) First.8 cp µg =0. b) Estimate oil production at p = 2700 psia.17 and the water volume factor is approximately 1.258 0.928 – R [SCF/STB] – 1050 1060 1160 – Bo [RB/STB] 1.363 0. Calculate the height of the cone when the pressure at the bottom level of the oil zone (cone) is 1919 psia ( –the wateroil contact).00150 1. ko Bg µg A relation kg /ko exists experimentaly and the gas saturation dependency has been established: . assume there is no gas cap present and the production mechanism is dissolved gas drive. GOR [SCF/STB] in a reservoir with supercritical gas saturation. Find the GOR using the following data. 3. R = Rs + kg Bo µo .614 · 108 1000 494 1.018 cp ko =1000 mD kg =96 mD Bo =1.363 RB/STB Bg =0.00101 0. calculated from the material balance equation and secondly calculated from the GOR– equation (as done in Exercise 1).1 · 108 1100 1.363 0. The data in the table below is taken form an oil reservoir.00250 1.3132 5.2353 1. b) Geological information indicates that the reservoir could be approximated to a right circular cone.0 RB/STB.748 0. µo =0.024 1.00092 0. by a method of comparing R.
in view of this new information. 0. 0.22 · 109 STB.49.172 Chapter 10. 4. where Swc =0.0 cp and µg =0.43. Calculate the initial oil volume. b) 738 ft.30. a) 2. a) 122. µo =1. 3.8 · 106 STB. b) 46%.6 · 106 STB . a) 1. Answer to questions: 1.52%.1 cp. c) Data from an other well indicates the existence of a small gas cap. c) 39830 STB/d 2. b) by iteration c) 108.54. 5505 SCF/STB.5 · Sg − 2. Material Balance Equation log(kg /ko ) = 34.
Interpretation of these data leads to individual "models" (what the geophysicist. The well test data is therefore a key element in the reservoir model construction.1 Introduction In order to optimise a development strategy for an oil or gas ﬁeld. Measurement Geophysics Electric Log Well Test PVT.Chapter 11 Well Test Analysis 11. well tests. Such a model is constructed using geological. cuttings.) and from interpreted data (surface seismic. While seismic data and well logs provide a static description of the reservoir. formation ﬂuid samples.). PVT analysis.1. the petrophysicist and well analyst think the reservoir looks like). geophysical and well data. etc. well logs. The necessary parameters are obtained from direct measurements (cores. see Fig. etc.11. we have to consider a reservoir model capable of realistically predicting the dynamic behaviour of the ﬁeld in terms of production rate and ﬂuid recovery. only well testing data provide information on dynamic reservoir response. A brief understanding of the fundamental aspects of well testing is necessary in order to incorporate dynamic well test data into the reservoir model and it is the function of the reservoir engineer to incorporate these 173 . Core Interpretation Geophysical Model Log Model Reservoir Engineering Well Test Model Reservoir Model Figure 11.1: Stages of reservoir modelling.
During this time. as the ﬂuid moves it will. • horizontal radial ﬂow paths (no cross ﬂow) and • constant ﬂow rate. From this time and onwards. Production from a conﬁned reservoir (closed volume) where the interference from the boundary dominates pressure decline. create a pressure imbalance and this will induce neighbouring ﬂuid to move towards the well.absolute permeability. is affected by the interference from other wells or by boundary effects such as those that occur when the pressure disturbance reaches the edge of a reservoir. However. as presented in Table 11. pressure measurements are dominated by wellbore storage effects. • test production with relative small pressure gradients. the ﬂuid near the well expands and moves towards the area of lower pressure.viscosity and . 3.174 Chapter 11. 2. The tail portion of the well test data for the test of sufﬁcient duration.e. characterised by: • isotropic and homogenous reservoir volume. In this chapter we will develop simple models that can explain the measured well test data.1. 11. This process continues until the drop in pressure. each describing characteristic well and reservoir pressure response proﬁle: 1. Then. is dissipated throughout the reservoir. Wellbore storage period. explaining reservoir behaviour on basis of the well test data. The models give a rather simpliﬁed and idealistic view of the reservoir. the average pressure in the reservoir will decrease in a way similar to emptying a conﬁned volume. c∇p · ∇p is small (compressibility times pressure gradient squared) .1 Systems of Uunits Used in Well Test Analysis The following systems of units are traditionally used in well test analysis: SIUnits and Field Units. Semi logarithmic period. The wellbore pressure data is subdivided into three different production periods. Semi steady state period. In the initial phase of well tests. . as the production of the reservoir ﬂuid starts. Well Test Analysis individual models into a cohesive reservoir model [50]. some important information can be extracted from the models.reservoir height (reservoir thickness). i. Some conversion factors mostly used in well test analysis are listed below: . Even though these items place tight restrictions on the reservoir itself. This movement will be retarded by friction against the pore walls and the ﬂuid’s own inertia and viscosity. • constant porosity.1. . created by the startup of production. in turn. ﬂuid contained in the wellbore and its direct connected volumes are produced. like a tank of gas. Production from an inﬁnite acting reservoir where no boundary effects are observed. Production from the wellbore and nearby cavities.
) ∆p = qB t.3048 m 0. ∆p. First.11. The deﬁnition of the wellbore ﬂuid compressibility is c f = ∆Vw /(Vw ∆p) and the well ﬂowrate is qB = ∆Vw /∆t. A real well. where the wellbore storage.895 kPa 11.987·10−3 µ m2 1 mPa·s 6. deﬁned by the ﬂuid compressibility. measured in reservoir volume pr.1: System of units used in well test analysis Parameter Nomenclature SIunits Field units Flow rate Volume factor Thickness Permeability Viscosity Pressure Radial distance Compressibility Time q B h k µ p r c t Sm3 /d Rm3 /Sm3 m µ m2 mPa·s kPa m (kPa)−1 hrs STB/d RB/STB ft mD cp psia ft psi−1 hrs 1 STB/d 1 ft 1 mD 1 cp 1 psi = = = = = 0. Example: Wellbore storage effect A well has a certain volume capacity for ﬂuids.159 Sm3 /d 0. with an average well radius of rw = 0. This production is characterised by the expansion of oil and gas in the well. . the ﬂuids contained in the wellbore itself and its continuous cavities will be produced. where the pressure drop in the well is.2 Wellbore Storage Period Let us consider the initiation of well production at a constant rate at timet0 = 0. accessible to ﬂuids close to 17 m3 . (B is the wellbore ﬂuid volume factor. The compressibility is often redeﬁned.1) where ∆p = pi − pw (t) is the difference between initial and wellbore pressure.1m. cws = c f Vw is used to characterise particular wells. at a well depth of H = 2000m has a volume Vw . c f and the well storage volume.2 Wellbore Storage Period 175 Table 11. c f Vw (11. Vw . standard volume.
i. pi − pw = qB t. but also as here. This straight line behaviour seen in Fig. for estimation of the wellbore storage constant cws : qB cws = .2: Logarithmic analysis of the pressure drawdown data at early times of well testing. has a slope equal to unity. This effect must be incorporated into the interpretation model of the pressure test data. day [Sm3 /d] and time in hours [hr]. Well Test Analysis log( pi . .e. When the well is opened (shutin) to ﬂow. (11.2. log(pi − pw (t)) = log(t) + log qB 24cws .3. there is a delay in a ﬂowrate response at the sandface (bottom of the well). exhibits the linear relation between time and pressure drop. as seen in Fig. where the well itself contains a certain volume of compressible ﬂuid. the well pressure is then given by. hrs Figure 11. . 24cws and the logarithmic pressure difference can be given by. The technique of using loglog plots is commonly used in well test analysis for model recognition. 11.176 Chapter 11. in a logarithmic scale. 11. where pw is the wellbore pressure. it is opened at the surface.2) 24(pi − pw (1hr)) with pw (1 hr) picked from the unit slope line.pwf ) Slope = 1 10 3 10 2 10 1 10 0 t. The latter equation. Due to the wellbore storage. in the wellbore storage period If well production is measured in standard cubic meter pr.
3) . k ∂ (φ ρ ) ∇ · ρ ∇p = . 11.3 Semi Logarithmic Period 177 q Surface flow rate q Surface flow rate Sandface flow rate ∆t ∆t t tp Sandface flow rate ∆t t Figure 11. The production proﬁle in this period is characterised by a semi logarithmic pressure dependence. 11.1 Diffusivity Equation Transport of oil in porous media is generally described by the law of continuity and Darcy’s law.3. φ is porosity. dt k v = − ∇p. we may deﬁne the ﬂow of oil in the xdirection by the equations. We shall develop a theory for ﬂuid ﬂow in a cylindrical and somewhat idealistic reservoir (see introductory remarks). as shown in Fig. Using an independent coordinate system.3: The wellbore storage effect on ﬂowrate during the drawdown (left) and build.3 Semi Logarithmic Period In this section we will focus our attention on what happens in the reservoir when the ﬂuid is drawn towards the well due to the pressure drop in the wellbore. If we consider a volume element. we may write the same equations as. µ dx where ρ is density. ∂t k dp = − . k is permeability and vx is ﬂow velocity in xdirection. µ is viscosity. d(ρ vx ) dx vx = − ∂ (φ ρ ) .11. hence the title of this section. µ ∂t (11.4.up tests (right). ∇ · (ρ v) = − ∂ (φ ρ ) . µ Substituting these two equations gives us.11.
η ∂t (11. Further simpliﬁcation of Eq. r ∂r ∂r ∂z η ∂t With no crossﬂow in the reservoir. as mentioned above. we can write the Diffusitivity equation (independent of coordinate systems).cl and cm . while the boundary condition is deduced from Darcy’s law. i. ∇2 p = 1 ∂ ∂p ∂2 1 ∂p r + 2= . Initial conditions are described by the pressure startup conditions in the reservoir. In case of a constant ﬂow rate the following Initialand Boundary condition are deﬁned.3. In accordance with an idealistic view of the reservoir.5) (11. where c is the total compressibility.178 Chapter 11. the linearized diffusitivity equation is written. With this last simpliﬁcation in mind. cl = 1 ∂ρ 1 ∂φ and cm = . 1 ∂p .e.(11.4) where η = k/(φ cµ ) and c = cl + cm . From these relations we can deﬁne the liquid compressibility as well as the matrix compressibility as. η ∂t The diffusitivity equation in cylindrical coordinates gives.(11. ρ ∂p φ ∂p Eq.2 Solution of the Diffusitivity Equation The solution of the diffusivity equation can be simpliﬁed by using the linear source approximation implicating a zero wellbore radius. while oil density and reservoir porosity may vary with pressure. Well Test Analysis px vx px+∆x vx+∆x x x+∆x x Figure 11.4: Flow of oil in the xdirection through a volume element. we will consider both permeability and viscosity to be constant. η ∂t (11.6) (11.4) rests on the assumption that cl ∇p∇p ∇2 p.7) 11. ρ = ρ (p) and φ = φ (p). which is the case in almost all real cases. and we write. 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r = 1 ∂p . . cl ∇p∇p + ∇2 p = 1 ∂p .3) is further developed using the newly deﬁned compressibilities.
0) = pi . r2 y= .(11. Linesource solution: limr→∞ r ∂ p ∂r qBµ . 4t which gives the following partial derivatives: ∂ r = (r/2y)∂ y and ∂ t = −(t/y)∂ y.t) = qBµ r2 −Ei − 4π hk 4η t . When the Boltzmann transformation is applied to Eq.8). ∂y ∂y η ∂y We may solve Eq. pi − p(r. ∂ ∂p y ∂p y = .3 Semi Logarithmic Period 179 Initial condition: i) ii) Boundary condition: r∂p ∂r r=rw p(r.10) where η = k/(φ µ c). . s ξ ξ The general solution of the linear diffusitivity equation.(11. Eq. y (11.7). 2π hk qBµ = . K3 = (qBµ )/(4π hk). (11.e.8) ∂p 2 = K3 e−r /(4η t) .8).2.(11. ∀t. limr→∞ = pi .9) 4π hk r2 /(4η t) s The integral in Eq.7). e−s qBµ ∞ ds. the variable of time is made implicit and the diffusivity equation is reduced to only one variable. i. −∞ s ∞ e−s ds. (11.(11.9) is known as the Exponential integral and is originally deﬁned as. Second integration of Eq. ∀r. Values of the function −Ei(−ξ ) is tabulated in Table 11.(11. can then be presented as.(11. ∀t. gives the following expression.t) = Ei(ξ ) ≡ −Ei(−ξ ) = es ds. by direct integration and we get. using the boundary condition for the linesource solution.7) we may use the well known Boltzmann transformation. pi − p(r.11. > 0 2π hk = In solving the linear diffusitivity Eq. ∀t > 0. ∂y where K3 is a constant that could be deﬁned.
60 0.0489 0.180 Chapter 11.06 0.(11.0139 0. Attempting to obtain a linear type of the diffusivity equation for a highly compressible gas ﬂow. Using the equation of state for a real gas.22 0.1000 0.0011 0.50 0. is valid for both liquid and gas ﬂow.00 4.11) where pb is an arbitrary (datum) pressure.01 ≤ ξ ≤ 10. some modiﬁcations are necessary in order to use the diffusivity equation.3738 0.00 2.00 10.03 0.6813 2.3 Gas Reservoir The general form of the basic (material balance) equation.14 0.0130 0.02 0.18 0.0269 1.9573 0. replaced the dependent variable p by the real gas pseudo pressure m(p) in the following manner.4679 2.09 0.07 0.3098 1.0001 0. like gases.3. It follows from Eq.8229 ξ 0.70 0. (11.3547 2. p m(p) = 2 pb p d p.3403 0.00 [−Ei(−ξ )] 0.80 [−Ei(−ξ )] 0. In the case of more compressible ﬂuids.0249 0.7) where the term p is replaced by a pseudo pressure function m(p).45 0.50 2. time in gas well testing should have identical trends as pressure vs.0000 11.5034 0.(11.50 3.35 0.5241 1.2227 1.7942 0.9591 2.1454 1.12) that the behaviour of m(p) vs. ρ= Mp .3106 ξ 0.9057 ξ 0.4544 0.24 0.6595 1.04 0. µz (11.(11.30 [−Ei(−ξ )] 1. .08 0.00 5.26 0.20 0.6253 0. This fact is commonly used in a gas well test analysis.5598 0.9187 1.01 0. given by Eq.12) which is precisely the same as Eq.1508 2.4092 1.40 0.4115 0.2602 0. Ramey and Crawford (1966).65 0.16 0.2: Table of the function Ei(ξ ) for 0. r ∂r ∂r η ∂t (11.55 0.90 1.2194 0. AlHussainy.2953 2.7024 0.05 0. ξ 0.10 [−Ei(−ξ )] 4.0379 3.28 0.00 7. Well Test Analysis Table 11.00 1.0038 0.12 0.11) they derived a simpliﬁed linear equation for a real gas ﬂow: 1 ∂ ∂ m(p) 1 ∂ m(p) (r )= . time in oil well testing. zRT and a pseudo pressure function m(p) from Eq.75 0.7).0762 1.
10). rw kt tD = . The interesting question now is related to the validity of the approximation: −Ei(−ξ ) ≈ − ln ξ − γ . 1 1 1 1 pwD (tD ) = − Ei − ≈− (11. ln 2 4tD 2 4tD .5 Wellbore Pressure for Semi Logarithmic Data The wellbore pressure (rD = 1) is given by.3. qBµ Depending on the units preferred.3. −Ei(−ξ ) = ∞ e−s ξ s ds ≈ (− ln ξ − γ ) + ξ − ξ2 ξ3 + −···. 1 r2 pD (rD . 2 φ µ crw 2π hk pD = [pi − p(r. we get. the above normalisation can be written.t)].3 Semi Logarithmic Period 181 11. 1 −1 pwD (tD ) = − Ei . as presented in Eq. (11. 2 rw φ µ crw 141.or ﬁeld units.11.0036kt . standard. related to the presentation of semi logarithmic data. 2 · 2! 3 · 3! where γ 0.e. i.units: rD = Field units: rD = π hk r 0.000264kt .5772157 is Euler’s constant.842qBµ π hk r 0.t)]. 2 4tD From mathematical tables we have the following approximation. 2 rw φ µ crw 1.t)].14) +γ . tD = and pD = [pi − p(r.2qBµ Using dimensionless variables for the solution of the linear diffusivity equation.tD ) = − Ei − D 2 4tD . SI.4 The Solution of the Diffusitivity Equation in Dimensionless Form In connection with model recognition and practical application of the well test data it is quite often advantageous to plot the measured data in such a way as to initially compare it with a standard and well known function. such as.13) where the factor 1/2 in front of the exponential function is of purely historical reasons. It is therefore convenient to introduce dimensionless variables. r rD = . tD = and pD = [pi − p(r.(11. 11.
80907 . ln 2 2π hk 2 φ µ crw Rewriting this equation using log term instead of ln and standard units. Well Test Analysis We may write the dimensionless wellbore pressure as. 2 rD (11. (11. 1 tD ln 2 + 0.80907). In cases where the pressure drop observed in one well is induced by an other well a certain lateral distance apart from the observation well. k = 100 mD c = 5 ·10−6 psi−1 φ = 25 % rw = 1 ft µ = 1. we can consider the constraint on time (in hours). we have to consider the restriction imposed above very carefully. tD ≥ 25. Generally we may therefore use the following approximation. is not more than 0. pwD (rD .14).25 %. 1 pwD (tD ) ≈ − (ln 1 − ln 4 − lntD + γ ). lntD + 0.(11. 2 1 ≈ (lntD + 0.80907 .14). we may write. We therefore conclude that the error done in applying the approximation in Eq. 2 where the next term in the series expansion of Eq. 1 pwD (tD ) = (lntD + 0.(11. Eq. is insigniﬁcant for all practical purposes.16) Example: Semi logarithmic analysis of pressure drawdown data The wellbore pressure is given by the approximation (in dimensionless form). In order to illustrate the implication of the restrictiontD ≥ 25.tD ) = 2 with the restriction of tD /rD ≥ 25. is 1/(4tD ).14) is valid. is thought to be insignificant. .182 Chapter 11.0 cP Using the deﬁnition of the dimensionless time in ﬁeld units from above.e. In order to check the accuracy of this approximation we may look at the relative importance of the next term not included in the approximation Eq. Error = 1/(4tD ) . pi − pw (t) = qBµ 1 kt + 0. for a "typical" oil reservoir with the following parameters (in ﬁeld units).3 seconds.80907 (11. i. we ﬁnd that the real time that passes before the approximation. then we would expect the Error always to be less then 0.14). or 4.(11.80907) 2 Using the deﬁnition of dimensionless variables. given above.15) If we assume the dimensionless time.0012 hrs. In these cases the approximation may usually not hold.
The straight line through the semi logarithmic data points in Figure 11.0923 . we may use one of the two equations above in order to extract vital information about the reservoir. In the ﬁgure. . pi − pw (t) = 2. 2 φ µ crw 162. This line is compared with the model above. p. k could be estimated when information about reservoir height. hk The reservoir permeability.units). where m is the slope of the straight line.11. and from this comparison we get the following equality (using SI .2275 . 2 φ µ crw When the well test data is presented in a semi logarithmic plot as shown in Figure 11.5: Pressure drawdown data. is deﬁned by the equation.1208 qBµ . These data does not comply with the straight line and should therefore be disregarded when the semi logarithmic data is matched. .5.6qBµ hk logt + log k − 3. oil viscosity. some early data originates from the wellbore storage period and some late data originates from the period when boundary effects starts to mask the pressure data.3 Semi Logarithmic Period 183 pi − pw (t) = and in ﬁeld units. m = 2. oil volume factor and oil rate are known.5. p(t) ∼ −m logt.1208qBµ hk logt + log k − 2. kPa Wellbore storage effect Slope m Outer boundary effect 10 3 10 2 10 1 10 0 10 1 10 2 t. hrs Figure 11.
This period is called the semi steady state period and a steadily decreasing reservoir pressure is observed (decreased average pressure in a conﬁned reservoir volume). prudent interpretation of steady state data is highly recommendable. In Figure 11. r ∂p 1 = K1 r2 + K2 . At this limit. 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r = K1 . Integration of the time independent diffusivity equation gives. ∂ p(r)/∂ t = constant. and as such. the reservoir pressure is steadily decreasing while the pressure proﬁle is conserved. i. faults or sands thinning out. It should be emphasised that this is an idealised model of how we think the reservoir responds to boundaries effects. such as lateral extension.6: Steady state pressure proﬁles. several pressure proﬁles are plotted. a constant K1 balances the diffusitivity equation. ∂r 2 (11. i. .6. re Since the pressure proﬁle is assumed to be constant. The boundary conditions in the semi steady state are partly deﬁned as for the case of the logarithmic period. the pressure proﬁle in the reservoir is maintained unchanged. there comes a period of production where the inﬂuence from neighbouring wells or reservoir boundaries. Simultaneously. but in addition we have assumed that the pressure proﬁle does not signiﬁcantly vary after the reservoir boundary limit is reached. in the reservoir. p pe rw Figure 11.e.4 Semi Steady State Period After a period of reservoir production from an inﬁnite reservoir.184 Chapter 11. we expect the diffusitivity equation to be time independent. the drawdown pressure proﬁle is assumed to be constant.e. Well Test Analysis 11.17) where K2 is also a constant. At constant well production. are going to play an increasingly important role.
Instead a slight modiﬁed version given by Eq. p = p(rw ) + qBµ re 3 ln − . the reservoir shape is seldom cylindrical and more so.11. (11.(11. re rw /re → 0. In real cases. The average pressure is a weighted function of the pressure in the whole reservoir and could be deﬁned as. Substituting for p given by Eq.(11. we ﬁnd the average reservoir pressure.6206 (Dietz.19) gives the average pressure in a cylindrical reservoir with an outer radius equal to re and where the well is located in the centre. p= re rw pdV re rw dV . 2π hk Boundary condition at inﬁnite reservoir radius: r ∂p ∂r = 0. The average pressure for a general reservoir is then written.(11.20) where γ is Euler’s constant.(11. i. p(r) = p(rw ) + qBµ 1 r2 r ln − 2 2π hk rw 2 re . however.19) directly.18) and integrating. we (3/2−γ ) = 31. where A is the top area of the reservoir and CA is a parameter characterising the shape and relative position of the well. with a centred well location.4 Semi Steady State Period 185 Boundary condition in the well: r ∂p ∂r = r=rw qBµ .e. r=re Using the boundary conditions to deﬁne the constantsK1 and K2 .18) rw and so where re is the radial distance to the boundary of the conﬁned reservoir. A = π (re − rw ). p = p(rw ) + qBµ 2π hk 1 4A ln γ 2 2 e CA rw . and integrating Eq. (11. 2π hk rw 4 (11. In these real cases we may not use Eq. i. the well position is most frequently off centred. ﬁnd the shapefactor CA 4π e .19) Eq.1 Average Reservoir Pressure The average reservoir pressure is not an observable quantity.(11.17) from the well (r = rw ).20) is used. 11. 2 2 In the case of a cylindrical reservoir.e.4. gives.1965).
7. pe − pw = pe − ps + ps − pw = qBµ k rs re .21) where the last term is called the mechanical skin factor S. pwf ps pe rw rs re Figure 11. 2π ks h rw qBµ re pe − ps ≈ ln . 2π kh rw (11.22) (11. Consequently. and within the rest of the reservoir (rs < r < re ) is k.4. 2π kh rs ps − pw ≈ Note the approximation made due to the fact that re rw and re rs . as shown in Fig. S=( Hence. ks rw qBµ re (ln + S). as stated for formation beds in series. Well Test Analysis 11. For the steady state inﬂow we can write the following equations for a cylindrical reservoir with a centred well.186 Chapter 11. some of the drilling ﬂuid penetrates the formation and particles suspended in the mud can partially penetrate the pore spaces.23) . 11.2 Well Skin Factor When a well is drilled it is always necessary to have a positive differential pressure acting from the wellbore to the formation to prevent inﬂow of the reservoir ﬂuids (blowout). The total pressure drop from the wellbore through the reservoir is given by. qBµ rs ln .7: Skin effect caused by formation damage. ln + ( − 1) ln 2π kh rw ks rw (11. Assuming modiﬁcation of the permeability in the damaged zone (rw < r < rs ) is ks . and creating a socalleddamaged zone next to the wellbore. reducing permeability. pe − pw = k rs − 1) ln .
the skin may be associated with a characteristic pressure drop ∆pskin caused by the reduction in permeability in the skin zone. which can be rewritten as.(11.(11.26) have introduced the skin S as an extra term in the equation. ∆pskin = • Skin factor is positive. dt cV where qB is the oil ﬂow in the reservoir and V = φ Ah is the reservoir pore volume. .23).11. an increased pressure drop towards the well is observed.e. following the same deﬁnitions as for the case of semi steady state.19) which describes the semi steady state analysis. we pi − p(t) = get. pi − p(rw ) = qBµ 2π hk qB 1 4A +S + t ln γ 2 2 e CA rw cV (11. At constant reservoir ﬂow rate. due to drilling or well treatments. S > 0 when ks < k and • Skin factor is negative. qB t. S < 0 when ks > k.4 Semi Steady State Period 187 where the skin is a number characterising the cylindrical volume next to the wellbore. φ Acµ (11. with the exception of the dimensionless timetDA .4. Dimensionless variables are introduced.(11. qBµ S. (11. accounting for a partly damaged zone around the well.24) 2π kh From this equation it is evident that when the skin S is positive.27) In tDA dimensionless time is referenced to the reservoir drainage areaA. has a permeability higher than expected. (11.25) cV Combining Eq. pi to the average pressure p and we get the following simple relation between reservoir pressure and time.c. Production is maintained through volume expansion where the combined compressibility of oil and reservoir rock . If the permeability in the skin zone is reduced. we may integrate from initial pressure. which is deﬁned. As seen from Eq. on the other hand. is the important parameter. The total compressibility of oil and reservoir rock is deﬁned by. while when S is negative the pressure drop is less than expected.26) Note that we in Eq. tDA = kt . If the well. Skin is associated with the condition of reservoir permeability in the closed volume next to the well. with Eq. 11.3 Wellbore Pressure at Semi Steady State The reservoir pressure development in a closed reservoir could be compared to the production from a pressurised closed tank of oil. i. dp qB =− . then the well will experience an increased pressure drop in this region while the skin is positive. then the skin is negative.25).(11. c = −dV /(V d p).
well test data. originating from the different periods are not easily distinguishable and quite a lot of effort is spent identifying which data belongs to which period of production. pD = (pi − p(r.842qBµ we get the three wellbore pressure equations in dimensionless form. wD 2 2 e CA rw 1 4A ln 2 γ tDA + 2S .26) can be rewritten using dimensionless variables and we get.2qBµ r 0. Well storage period: pW S = wD Semi logarithmic period: pSL = wD Semi steady state period: 1 4A pSS = 2π tDA + ln γ +S .000264kt hk .5 Wellbore Pressure Solutions To this time we have developed the pressure function for the three periods of reservoir production.t). In reality. rw φ Acµ 141. ln 2 2π hk 2 φ µ crw qB t.t)).units: rD = Field units: rD = r 0. Summing up what we already know. 1 4A pwD = 2π tDA + ln γ +S .(11. pD = (pi − p(r. 2 rw e A cst tDA . tDA = .188 Chapter 11. the semi logarithmic period and the semi steady state period. as if they were independent sequences reservoir production.80907 + 2S .28) 11. tDA = . Well storage period: pi − pw = Semi logarithmic period: pi − pw = Semi steady state period: pi − pw = qBµ 2π hk 1 2π k 4A t + ln γ +S . referring to the wellbore storage period. we may write the following three pressure equations. Well Test Analysis Hence. cD 2π hφ c . Eq. SI. 2 2 e CA rw (11. cws Using the following set of dimensionless variables. where cD = .0036kt hk . 2 φ Acµ 2 e CA rw qBµ 1 kt + 0. rw φ Acµ 1.
to facilitate quantitative data analysis. pwD SS pwD SL pwD semi semi logaritmic state steady state tDA Figure 11. In a linearlinear plot as shown in Fig.11. The purpose of plotting data is partly to be able to identify the different production periods.tDA = 1/(4π ).8: Transition between semi logarithmic period and semi steady state period.5.8. 11.10 where we have plotted the semi logarithmic data as shown in Fig. This analysis is mainly performed by plotting the interesting data linearly. . i. we can identify the semi logarithmic data. but equally important. we may deﬁne the transient time when one period is followed by the other. as seen in the Fig. This technique is shown in Fig.2 Recognition of Semi Logarithmic Data Appropriate plotting of the well test data is an important tool in the process of differentiating the different reservoir production periods. which can be transferred to real time by using the deﬁnition of dimenisonless time. dtDA Carrying out the derivation we ﬁnd the transition time. such identiﬁcation could be rather difﬁcult to perform and therefore of less practical importance. 11. For real data.11. we can get important reservoir information. The semi logarithmic data is plotted as a straight line and from the slope of this line.e. Since the wellbore pressure development in the two periods are principally different.9.9.1 Transition Time Between Semi Logarithmic Period and Semi Steady State Period The difﬁculties in recognising the semi logarithmic data is primarily related to identiﬁcation of the time when the wellbore pressure.5 Wellbore Pressure Solutions 189 11. such that wD wD d(pSS (tDA ) − pSL (tDA )) wD wD = 0. changes from being semi logarithmic to being semi steady state dominated. 11. in a linearlog plot. data plotted as a straight line. following a non linear time development.5. 11. by the minimum pressure difference min{pSS − pSL }.
a) with data: φ = 0.01D 2.6 Exercises 1. tDA pwD WS pwD SL pwD SS pwD 1/4π log(tDA) Figure 11. 11.7 cp c = 10 · 10−5 atm−1 h = 2400cm r = 10cm t = 1s k = 0.05 D q = 10000cm3 /s . a) with data: φ = 0. Find the exponential intergrals and pressure drops for the following cases.12 µ = 0.3 cp t = 10 s c = 15 · 10−5 atm−1 k = 0.1 D b) with data: φ . Claculate the dimensionless time tD for the following cases.9: Linearlinear plot of well test data.10: Linearlog plot of well test data.190 Chapter 11. µ and c as above and r = 10 cm t = 1000s k = 0.15 r = 10cm µ = 0. Well Test Analysis pwD WS pwD SL pwD SS pwD 1/4π Figure 11..
Well W2 is located 2000 f t north of W1 and W3 is 1900 f t west of W1. i=1 ∑ dxi 3 d ρ dp dxi = φ µ dρ .80 Sw = 0. A pressure drop of 4439 psi is observed in well W1 after 1600 hours of production at a constant ﬂow rate of 190 STB/D from well W2 and after 1550 hours of production of 80 STB/D from W3.) Show that: d2 p φ µ c d p ∑ 2 = k dt .5 ft φ = 0. (Assume the liquid compressibility to be small and constant for the pressures in mind.11. . Estimate the average reservoir porosity between the wells.3 µ = 3. k dt and the expression for the compressibility at constant temperature. ρ dp to derive the diffusivity equation for one phase liquid ﬂow. W2 and W3) where W1 is an observation well. µ . after the shutin. a well with a ﬂow rate of 400 STB/D is shutin.5 mD µo = 1.5772. For a reservoir at initial pressure with 3 wells (W1. The reservoir is characterised by the following parameters: k= 50 mD h= 30 ft rw = 0. c and h as above and r = 30000cm t = 24h 3.6 Exercises 191 b) with data: φ .0 ·10−6 psi−1 Bo = 1. i=1 dxi 3 5.0 cp c= 10 ·10−6 psi−1 Bo = 1. at constant ﬂow rate.0 ·10−6 psi−1 cw = 3. c= 1 dρ . the following data is given: Pi = 4483 psia ko = 7.0 ·10−6 psi−1 Use the total compressibility ct = So co + Sw cw + c f in the calculations. b) What is the pressure drawdown in the well after 3 hours of production? c) For how long must the well produce.15 cp c f = 4.20 rw = 0. will the approximation Ei(−x) = − ln(xeγ ) be valid ? (Eulers constant γ =0. Use the diffusivity equation.276 ft h=30 ft co = 8. In a reservoir at initial pressure.25 RB/STB a) At what time. until a pressure drop of 1 psi is observed in a neighbouring well 2000 f t away? 4.15 RB/STB So = 0.
3.192 Chapter 11. 2. a) 4. Well Test Analysis Answers to questions: 1.62. 5. a) 15. b) 14815. c) 227 hr.175 .4 s.3 bar. 0.895. b) 51. b) 0. a) 1481.
ﬂuid segregation and gas liberation. 12.upper right): Production of constant ﬂow rate well is shutin. A drawdown test simply involves ﬂow rate measurements and pressure decline in a ﬂowing well. Such ﬂow rates do not reﬂect the true downhole conditions as they are considerably affected by wellbore storage.1.1. each lasting until the ﬂowing pressure stabilises. the well is shutin and the increase or buildup in 193 . 12. Drawdown and buildup tests are the two most common types of well tests and the selection of which one to use depends on the practical ﬁeld requirements. and then opened and produced at a steady rate while the pressure decrease within the well bore is monitored. 12. • Falloff test (Fig. as in drawdown testing. the well is ﬁrst shutin until wellbore pressures stabilise. • Pressure buildup test (Fig. This poses a problem as well testing theory requires downhole ﬂow rates. The development of well testing has accelerated from rudimentary productivity tests into a powerful technique which is strengthening the understanding of complex reservoir characteristics.Chapter 12 Methods of Well Testing 12.1. • Pressure drawdown test (Fig.1. This is followed by a shutin period.1 Pressure Tests Well testing has become a widely used tool for reservoir characterisation and parameter identiﬁcation. • Multiple rate (Fig. In a conventional drawdown test. Unfortunately. ﬂow rates are still measured at the surface in most well tests. which again lasts until the pressure stabilises. causing pressure falloff. 12.lower left): Injecting at constant rate and injection well shutin. causing pressure buildup. Analysis of pressure trends enables us to evaluate several important reservoir parameters and to appraise the drainage zone. Instead of measuring pressures in a ﬂowing well. Pressure tests are classiﬁed in accordance with their operation.lower right): Well tested at different ﬂow rates. Buildup tests are basically the opposite of drawdown tests.upper left): The well is opened to ﬂow at a constant rate causing pressure drawdown.
a DrillStem Test (DST) is performed by carrying out a series of buildup and drawdown tests in relatively quick succession. For example. even though it has been realised that this discarded early time data contains a considerable amount of information.2 Pressure Drawdown Test Drawdown test analysis are done by direct application of the wellbore pressure solutions.194 Chapter 12. it is not so easy to carry out a "pure" drawdown or buildup test as the production schedule prior to the test. presented in the previous chapter. 12. incorporates all the pressure transient effects caused by every previous stepchange in production rate. Methods of Well Testing q q 0 t 0 t p p 0 q t 0 q t 0 t 0 t p p 0 t 0 t Figure 12. Therefore pressure readings taken from the beginning of the test has to be ignored and all analysis is done on the later part of the pressure response. while it relies on additional reservoir information as well as complex interpretation of pressure data using analysis based on theoretical models. . However. multiple rate tests are not as simple as it might appear. Nevertheless. is usually complex. pressure is monitored. buildup tests are still affected by wellbore storage effects during the initial stages or "early time"part of the test. In practice. The observed pressure buildup/drawdown response.1: Methods of well testing. as with drawdown tests. within a given time.
will show the radial ﬂow solution as a straight line. hrs Figure 12. Sometimes more than one "apparent" straight line appears and analysis ﬁnds it difﬁcult to decide which one to use.151 (12.2. 12. The slope and intercept of the portion of the curve forming a straight line is used for permeability and skin factor calculations. 2 kh φ µ crw 1. kPa Wellbore storage effect Slope m Outer boundary effect 10 3 10 2 10 1 10 0 10 1 10 2 t.12. Well tests have therefore to be made long enough to overcome both effects and to produce a straight line in a semi logaritmic plot. 12.2: Semilogarithmic plot of pressure drawdown test data. see Fig. This fact provides us with an easy and seemingly precise graphical procedure for interpretation of the pressure data.2. distorted by wellbore storage and skin effects as indicated in Fig. But even this approach presents drawbacks.1208 qBµ S k − 2.0923 + (logt + log ).1) Fieldunits: pw = pi − 162. 12. The latter portion of the pressure transient is affected by the interference from other wells or by boundary effects such as those that occur when the pressure response reaches the edge of the reservoir.6 qBµ S k − 3.2.2) p.2275 + (logt + log ). log(t)). . An alternative straight line could be the signature of a fault located near the well. The early portion of the data is unfortunately.1 Pressure Drawdown Test Under Semi Logarithmic Conditions From the previous chapter in section "Wellbore pressure solutions". we may formulate the semi logarithmic pressure solutions in SIunits and Fieldunits as: SIunits: pw = pi − 2. 2 kh φ µ crw 1.151 (12.2 Pressure Drawdown Test 195 A plot of pressure versus the log of time (p.
k.2.1) or (12. Sometimes such disturbances overlap with other kinds of "early time" effects like large scale reservoir inhomogeneity. 12.2 we recognise the semi logarithmic data. see Fig. (12.3) . as the data points being plotted on a straight line. log(t1 ) − log(t2 ) we may use Eqs. Semi steady state tests are therefore normally not preferred when typical reservoir parameters like permeability.151 pi − pw (1hr) k + 3. the pressure curve deviates downwards from the straight line behaviour. If we deﬁne the slope as a positive number. where m is the slope of the straight line.) SIunits: S = 1. k= [µ m mh 2. neighbouring sealing faults or other pressure disturbing zones.196 Chapter 12. Methods of Well Testing In Fig. Under semi steady state test conditions we are investigating a sealedoff reservoir. At these late times in the development of the well test procedure we may likely observe complicated pressure data which is masked by several effects.2275 . + ln γ 2 φ cµ A 2 e CA rw (12. productivity and skin are estimated.2).151 Fieldunits: S = 1.1) or (12.0923 .2. These effects can completely mask the allimportant pressure response such that proper pressure analysis becomes impossible. − log 2 m φ µ crw 12. The semi steady state equation is written. (Note that pw (1hr) in the equations below. m= (pi − pw (t1 )) − (pi − pw (t2 )) > 0. to deﬁne the reservoir permeability.6qB µ [mD]. pw (t) = pi − qBµ 2π kh 2π kt 1 4A +S . where the well is producing from its own drained area. k = 162. − log 2 m φ µ crw pi − pw (1hr) k + 2. SIunits: Fieldunits: 2 ].2) and the skin is directly calculated.1208qB µ mh The skin factor S is conventionally identiﬁed from the same plot. (12. 12. is a data point on the straight line which needs not necessarily correspond to an observed pressure. The linear pressure at time t = 1 hr is used in Eqs. The analysis of semi steady state data is more rigorous than might possible be interpreted by the wellbore pressure equation. The known mvalue yields a permeability value.2 Pressure Drawdown Test Under Semi Steady State Conditions When the pressure transient is affected by the interference from boundary effects or other wells.
as indicated in Fig.12. as shown in Fig. 12. in principle. since pressure is decreasing with time. since the inﬂuence from dynamical effects near the well is of lesser importance. γ r2 e w 1. the "Wellbore pressure solutions" may not be used directly. The inﬂuence by the negative rate −q is to increase the wellbore pressure. Eq. p0 = pi − 162. when the well is closed.3 Pressure BuildUp Test In analysing drawdown data.3: Semi steady state analysis of pressure drawdown data. using the "Wellbore pressure solutions" (drawdown pressure analysis). For times greater than t. If a well is shutin at a certain time t.e. the buildup pressure data is considered to be more reliable than the pressure drawdown data. Normally.5. As a theoretical assumption we may consider the wellbore rate to be both positive. in the ﬁgure. the bottomhole pressure drawdown is.6qBµ kh log S 4A − logCA + . −q. Semi steady state data is plotted as a straight line in a lineline plot. At timet when the well is shutin. we could directly apply the "Wellbore pressure solutions" from the previous chapter. can be described by a superposition technique. i. we will observe a combined pressure development caused . In Field Units. the noﬂow conditions. +q and negative.3) can rewritten. as seen in Fig.4.151 (12.4. The technique of superposition is depicted in Fig. 12. similar too the process of pressure buildup. (12.4) pwf . the wellbore pressure is inﬂuenced by the continuos production at positive rate +q causing the pressure to decrease. In the case of pressure buildup. The asymptotic pressure value p0 = pw (t = 0). 12. the same equations can be applied since the process.3. (+q) + (−q) = 0. hrs Figure 12. Consequently. enables us to deﬁne the Dietz shape factor CA . psi po 0 t. 12. the noﬂow condition can be described by adding the pressure solutions for the positive ﬂow rate and the pressure solution for the negative ﬂow rate. 12. The noﬂow condition is obtained when the positive and negative well rate are summed. Fortunately. at constant wellbore rate.3 Pressure BuildUp Test 197 where the pressure is a linear function of time.
198
Chapter 12. Methods of Well Testing
q +q
q=0
0
t
∆t
time
q
Figure 12.4: Pressure buildup test. Representation of a nonﬂowing well performance by a superposition technique.
by a decreasing pressure due to the positive well rate (−q) and a increasing pressure due to the negative well rate (−q).
pi
pw(∆t)
A B" ∆t B ∆t A"
pw(t+∆t)
0
t 0
t+∆t ∆t
t ∆t
Figure 12.5: Pressure formation by superposition in buildup tests. Using wellbore pressure, we deﬁne, pw (∆t): pw (t + ∆t): pi − pw (∆t): Pressure in the well after shutin. Pressure in the well given by continuos production at positive well rate. Pressure in the well given by startup of continuos production at negative well rate (increasing pressure contribution).
12.4 Pressure Test Analysis
199
The superposition principle gives, pw (∆t) = pw (t + ∆t) + pi − pw (∆t), where pw on the left side of the equallity is the well shutin pressure, while pw on the right side is the well ﬂow pressure. Using dimensionless pressures, the well shutin pressure is given, pi − pw (∆t) = qBµ [pwD (tD + ∆tD ) − pwD (∆tD )]. 2π hk
If skin is included and the wellbore pressure at shutin is pw (∆tD = 0) = pws , we have pi − pws = qBµ [pwD (tD ) + S]. 2π hk
From the above equations, we may derive the following expressions for the wellbore pressure. qBµ [pwD (tD + ∆tD ) − pwD (∆tD )], 2π hk qBµ pw (∆t) = pws + [pwD (tD ) − pwD (tD + ∆tD ) + pwD (∆tD ) + S], 2π hk qBµ pw (∆t) = p − [pwD (tD + ∆tD ) − pwD (∆tD ) − 2π tDA ]. 2π hk
pw (∆t) = pi −
(12.5) (12.6) (12.7)
Pressure buildup data is analysed using the three equations above, where Eq. (12.6) is applied to estimate the reservoir permeability and skin, while Eq. (12.7) is used to determine the average pressure p. Eq. (12.7) is derived on the basis of average pressure development, where pi − p = qB k qBµ t. t= 2π tDA , tDA = ct V 2π hk φ Acµ
It is important to notice that the dimensionless pressures pD in Eqs. (12.5) to (12.7) could represent the equations describing both semi logarithmic period as well as semi steady state period, i.e. depending on the analysis to be performed, we may chose which set of equations we think will ﬁt the data best.
12.4 Pressure Test Analysis
Based on Eqs. (12.5) to (12.7), we may perform different analysis, where certain assumptions are made about the nature of pressure test data. In the following, two examples are give on how pressure buildup data might be analysed.
12.4.1 Miller  Dyes  Hutchinson (MDH) Analysis
In this analysis [43] we will assume that the semi logarithmic period is long enough to recognise a straight line behaviour in a semi logarithmic plot, i.e. we need to be able to differentiate between the three different periods, described in the previous chapter.
200
Chapter 12. Methods of Well Testing
pi
p(t+∆t)~ p(t) t t+∆t
Figure 12.6: Pressure approximation in MDHanalysis. Shortly after the well is shutin, at time t, we start to monitor the wellbore pressure pw (∆t). For some period of time we may assume t ∆t and during this period the dimensional pressure approximation pwD (tD + ∆tD ) pwD (tD ) is valid, as depicted in Fig. 12.6. Combining Eq. (12.6) and the above assumption, gives the wellbore pressure qBµ (12.8) [pwD (∆tD ) + S]. 2π hk If the pressure development is assumed to have reached the semi logarithmic state, after shutin of the well, we may write: pwD (∆t) = pSL (∆tD ), with reference to the deﬁnitions of wD semi logarithmic solutions in the previous chapter. Using the deﬁnitions of dimensionless time and pressure for semi logarithmic data, we get the following pressure expression, pw (∆t) = pws + pw (∆t) = pws + m log ∆t + log k S − 2.0923 + , 2 φ µ crw 1.151
where m is the slope of the linearized semi logarithmic data (see Fig. 12.7) and the number 2.0923 is a conversion factor to SIunits. SIunits or Field units depends on preference and the following deﬁnitions. SIunits: m= Field units: m =
2.1208qB µ hk 162.6qB µ hk
and −2.0923 and −3.2275
From Eq. (12.8), we ﬁnd the skin factor by direct substitution, see also Fig. 12.7, S = 1.151 pw (∆t = 1hr) − pws k + 2.0923 . − log 2 m φ µ crw
The average reservoir pressure p, could be evaluated on the basis of Eq. (12.7), using the same approximation as above, namely; pwD (tD + ∆tD ) pwD (tD ). pw (∆t) = p − m [pwD (tD ) − pwD (∆tD ) − 2π tDA ]. 1.151
12.4 Pressure Test Analysis
201
pw
p
pw (∆t=1hr)
∆t =
φµcA 0.0036 k CA
0.1
1
10
100
∆t
Figure 12.7: MDH analysis of semi logarithmic pressure data. We shall now assume that the reservoir had reached its semi steady state period before or shortly after the well was shutin. The interpretation of the different dimensionless pressures are accordingly, pwD (tD ) = pSS (tD ) wD and pwD (∆tD ) = pSL (∆tD ), wD
and the wellbore pressure is the written, pw (∆t) = p − m [pSS (tD ) − pSL (∆tD ) − 2π tDA ], wD 1.151 wD m 1 1 4∆tD 4A = p− − ln γ − 2π tDA , 2π tDA + ln γ 2 1.151 2 e CA rw 2 e m 1 A = p− . ln 2 1.151 2 CA rw ∆tD
Using SIunits we get, pw (∆t) = p −
φ µ cA m 1 ln . 1.151 2 0.0036kCA ∆t
If the reservoir has reached its semi steady state period before (or shortly after) the well was shutin, the average reservoir pressure p is found by following the semi logarithmic line to the time ∆t = φ µ cA/(0.0036kCA ), as shown in Fig. 12.7, where the average pressure is, p = pw ∆t =
φ µ cA 0.0036kCA
.
12.4.2 Matthews  Brons  Hazebroek (MBH) Analysis (Horner plot)
Following the same approach as in the above section, we have assumed the pressure difference pwD (tD + ∆tD ) − pwD (tD ) to be small but ﬁnite, i.e.,
Methods of Well Testing 1 t + ∆t ln .151 2 t (12. which points out that the time of shutin tD .151 pw (∆t = 1hr) − pws k + 2. may come earlier and further up on the pressure decline curve.11).analysis [36].0923 .9. while for dimension less pressures pwD (tD + ∆tD ) ≥ pwD (tD ).8 we have pw (t) ≥ pw (t + ∆t). compared to MDH .8: Wellbore pressure difference at the shutin time.9) and the wellbore pressure solution Eq.0923 + + log∆t + log .0923 + + logt + log .11) 2 t + ∆t φ µ crw 1. we get pw (∆t) = pws + m 1 t + ∆t − ln + pwD (∆tD ) + S .202 Chapter 12. 1. 12. since pwD ∝ (pi − pw ).e. 2 t φ µ crw 1. The slope of the linear data is m and hence k or kh are found by substitution. Combining the approximation given by Eq.9) 2 t In practical terms.. S = 1. . The pressure difference is depicted in Fig.10) where pwD (∆tD ) = pSL (∆tD ). pwD (tD + ∆tD ) − pwD (tD ) = pi p(t) p(t+∆t) t t+∆t Figure 12.analysis. as indicated by Eq. this means that the well could be closed somewhat earlier in the MBH . (12.analysis. is considered to be in the semi logarithmic period. 12. (12. In Fig. in MBH . (12. The skin is calculated at the time ∆t = 1.151 ∆t S k = pws + m log − 2. t + ∆t S k − 2. i. where t + 1 t is assumed. 12.6). wD Using SIunits this gives. (12.151 pw (∆t) = pws + m − log Permeability and skin are estimated by plotting the buildup pressures pw (∆t) against the time function ∆t/(t + ∆t) on a semi logarithmic plot.8. − log 2 m φ µ crw The pressure pw (∆t = 1) is read directly from the plot. as shown in Fig. (12.
(12. (12.9) may be applied in a similar way as done above. ln − ln γ + 2π tDA + ln γ 2 1.12) pw (∆t) = p − If we then assume that the well is in its semi steady state at the time of shutin.9) at the time.12). = 2t t + ∆t CA rw D CAtDA If we now assume that the well is in its semi logarithmic state at the time of shutin.9: Horner plot.151 m = p− 1. we then get by substitution into Eq. wD .e.7). (12. 2 1 + pwD (tD ) − (lntD + 0. we get m 1.80907) − 2π tDA .9) in Eq. (12.13) is a well deﬁned time (time of shutin).e.80907) − 2π tDA . 12. pwD (tD ) = pSL (tD ). 1 + pwD (tD ) − (ln ∆tD + 0. ∆t 1 A = . i. i. The pressure approximation Eq. the we get wD pw (∆t) = p − m 1 1 t + ∆t 1 4tD 4A − 2π tDA .151 m = p− 1.4 Pressure Test Analysis 203 pw p pi pw (∆t=1) 1 ∆t = t+∆t CA tDA 10 4 10 3 10 2 10 1 1 ∆t t+∆t Figure 12. 2 + pwD (tD ) − pSL (tD ) − 2π tDA .13) 2 ∆t CA rw tD Since tD in Eq.151 2 ∆t 2 e 2 e CA rw t + ∆t A 1 = p − m log . for deﬁning the average reservoir pressure p. Substituting Eq. we may estimate the average reservoir pressure as the pressure on the straight line (see Fig. pwD (tD ) = pSS (tD ). Wellbore pressure data plotted for MBH analysis. (12. (12.12.151 m = p− 1.151 1 t + ∆t ln 2 t 1 t + ∆t ln 2 t 1 t + ∆t ln 2 ∆t 1 t + ∆t ln 2 ∆t + −pwD (∆tD ) − 2π tDA . wD (12.
204
Chapter 12. Methods of Well Testing
pw (∆t) = p
m 1 t + ∆t ln − 2π tDA 1.151 2 ∆t
At the time ∆t/(t + ∆t) = 1, we get ∆t =1 t + ∆t m [2π tDA ], 1.151 kt qBµ = p , 2π 2π hk φ Acµ qBt = p+ , where V = φ Ah Vc
pw
= p+
(12.14)
Under semi steady state conditions we have seen that, pi − p = and consequently we may write, pw ∆t = 1 = p + (pi − p) = pi . t + ∆t qBt , Vc
The initial reservoir pressure is deﬁned in Fig. 12.9 on the straight line at time∆t/(t +∆t) = 1.
12.5 Exercises
205
12.5 Exercises
1. A well is tested by exploiting it at a constant rate of 1500 STB/d for a period of 100 hours. It is suspected, from seismic and geological evidence, that the well is draining an isolated reservoir block which has approximately a 2:1 rectangular geometrical shape and the extended drawdown test is intended to conﬁrm this. The reservoir data and the ﬂowing bottom hole pressures recorded during the test are detailed below. h = 20 f t rw = 0.33 f t φ = 0.18 Time (hours) 0 1 2 3 4 5 pw (psi) 3500 (pi ) 2917 2900 2888 2879 2869 c = 15 · 10−6 psi−1 µo = 1 cp Bo = 1.20 RB/ST B Time (hours) 7.5 10 15 20 30 40 pw (psi) 2848 2830 2794 2762 2703 2650 Time (hours) 50 60 70 80 90 100 pw (psi) 2597 2545 2495 2443 2392 2341
a) Calculate the effective permeability and skin factor of the well. b) Make an estimate of the area being drained by the well and the Dietz shape factor. (after L.P.Dake) 2. A discovery well is produced for a period of approximately 100 hours proir to closure for an initial pressure buildup survey. The production data and estimated reservoir and ﬂuid properties are listed below. q = 123ST B/d N p = 500ST B h = 20 f t rw = 0.3 f t A = 300 acers Time (hours) 0.0 0.5 0.66 1.0 pw (psi) 4506 4675 4705 4733
φ = 0.2 µ = 1 cp Boi = 1.22 RB/ST B c = 20 · 10−6 psi−1 (co So + cw Sw + c f )
Time (hours) 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
pw (psi) 4750 4757 4761 4763
Time (hours) 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0
pw (psi) 4766 4770 4773 4775
a) What is the initial reservoir pressure? b) If the well is completed across the entire formation thickness, calculated the effective permeability.
206
Chapter 12. Methods of Well Testing
c) Calculate the value of the mechanical skin factor. d) What is the additional pressure drop in the wellbore due to the skin? e) If it is initially assumed that the well is draining from the centre of a circle, is it valid to equate pi to the asymptotic value log(t + ∆t)/(∆t) = 0? (after L.P.Dake) 3. A reservoir has 3 wells; W1, W2 and W3. Well W1 has been producing at a constant ﬂow rate of 120 STB/D for 70 hours and is then converted to an observation well. Well W2, located 2500 f t straight north of well W1, is producing at a ﬂow rate of 190 STB/D. Well W3, located 1900 f t west of W1, is producing at a rate of 80 STB/D. At the time when well W1 was shutdown, well W2 had produced for 100 hours and well W3 for 50 hours. Pressure data from well W1 is given in the table: ∆t [hours] Pws [psia] ∆t Pws 0 4213 200 4473 5 4380 250 4474 10 4413 300 4478 20 4433 400 4480 30 4443 500 4470 40 4450 800 4461 50 4455 1200 4448 100 4466 1500 4439 150 4472 – –
Additional reservoir data:
µo = 0.8 cp So = 0.80 h = 30 ft
Bo = 1.15 RB/STB Sw = 0.20 rw = 0.276 ft
c f = 4.0 ·10−6 psi−1 co = 8.0 ·10−6 psi−1 cw = 3.0 ·10−6 psi−1
Assume that the pressure development in well W1 can be expressed by the formula below: Pws = Pi − 162.6 where Q1 µ B t1 + ∆t log kh ∆t − 70.6 Q3 Q1 µ B Q2 Ei(x1 ) + Ei(x2 ) kh Q1 Q1
2 2 φ µ ct d13 φ µ ct d12 x2 = 0.00105kt2 0.00105kt3 and where d12 and d13 is the distance between W1 and W2 and W1 and W3, respectively. t1 is the time of production for well W1.
x1 =
a) Calculate the average reservoir compressibility ct . b) Estimate the initial pressure Pi, assuming the interference between well W2 and W3 is negligible for early pressure data. c) Calculate the average reservoir oil permeability ,ko . d) Calculate the mechanical skin, S. e) Use the pressure observation form ∆t = 1500 hours to ﬁnd the average reservoir porosity between the wells.
12.5 Exercises
207
4. An oil well has been producing 1484 STB at a ﬂow rate of 124 STB/D, when it was shut down. The pressure buildup data is given in the table below: ∆t [hours] Pws [psia] ∆t Pws Additional reservoir data: 4 2857 28 3308 8 3027 32 3315 12 3144 36 3323 16 3252 40 3331 20 3283 44 3338 24 3298 48 3342
µ = 3.2 cp h = 8.4 ft φ = 0.02
Bo = 1.21 RB/STB ct = 12 ·10−6 psia−1
a) Find the reservoir pressure at the outer boundary, Pe . b) Calculate the average reservoir oil permeability, ko . Answers to questions: 1. a) 240 mD, b) 4.5, 2. a) 4800 psi, b) 50 mD, c) 6.0, d) 128 psi, 3. a) 11· 10−6 psi−1 , b) 4485 psi, c) 7.6 mD, d) 3.5, e) 0.135, 4. a) 3475 psi, b)58 mD.
Methods of Well Testing .208 Chapter 12.
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