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PHP Tutorial

PHP Tutorial

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Published by: Anup Paliwal on Aug 16, 2011
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Sections

  • What is PHP?
  • What is a PHP File?
  • What is MySQL?
  • PHP + MySQL
  • Why PHP?
  • Where to Start?
  • Download PHP
  • Download MySQL Database
  • Download Apache Server
  • Basic PHP Syntax
  • Comments in PHP
  • Variables in PHP
  • Naming Rules for Variables
  • String Variables in PHP
  • The Concatenation Operator
  • The strlen() function
  • The strpos() function
  • Conditional Statements
  • The if Statement
  • The if...else Statement
  • The PHP Switch Statement
  • What is an Array?
  • Numeric Arrays
  • Associative Arrays
  • Multidimensional Arrays
  • PHP Loops
  • The while Loop
  • The do...while Statement
  • The for Loop
  • The foreach Loop
  • PHP Built-in Functions
  • Create a PHP Function
  • PHP Functions - Adding parameters
  • PHP Functions - Return values
  • PHP Form Handling
  • Form Validation
  • The $_GET Function
  • When to use method="get"?
  • The $_POST Function
  • When to use method="post"?
  • The PHP $_REQUEST Function
  • The PHP Date() Function
  • PHP Date() - Format the Date
  • PHP Date() - Adding a Timestamp
  • PHP include() Function
  • PHP require() Function
  • Opening a File
  • Closing a File
  • Check End-of-file
  • Reading a File Line by Line
  • Reading a File Character by Character
  • Create an Upload-File Form
  • Create The Upload Script
  • Restrictions on Upload
  • Saving the Uploaded File
  • What is a Cookie?
  • How to Create a Cookie?
  • How to Retrieve a Cookie Value?
  • How to Delete a Cookie?
  • What if a Browser Does NOT Support Cookies?
  • PHP Session Variables
  • Starting a PHP Session
  • Storing a Session Variable
  • The PHP mail() Function
  • PHP Mail Form
  • PHP E-mail Injections
  • PHP Stopping E-mail Injections
  • Basic Error Handling: Using the die() function
  • Creating a Custom Error Handler
  • Error Report levels
  • Set Error Handler
  • Trigger an Error
  • Error Logging
  • Send an Error Message by E-Mail
  • What is an Exception
  • Basic Use of Exceptions
  • Example explained:
  • Creating a Custom Exception Class
  • Multiple Exceptions
  • Re-throwing Exceptions
  • Set a Top Level Exception Handler
  • Rules for exceptions
  • What is a PHP Filter?
  • Why use a Filter?
  • Validating and Sanitizing
  • Options and Flags
  • Validate Input
  • Example Explained
  • Sanitize Input
  • Using Filter Callback
  • Database Tables
  • Queries
  • Create a Connection to a MySQL Database
  • Create a Database
  • Create a Table
  • Primary Keys and Auto Increment Fields
  • Insert Data Into a Database Table
  • Select Data From a Database Table
  • Display the Result in an HTML Table
  • The WHERE clause
  • The ORDER BY Keyword
  • Order by Two Columns
  • Update Data In a Database
  • Delete Data In a Database
  • Create an ODBC Connection
  • Connecting to an ODBC
  • Retrieving Records
  • Retrieving Fields from a Record
  • Closing an ODBC Connection
  • An ODBC Example
  • What is XML?
  • What is Expat?
  • Installation
  • An XML File
  • Initializing the XML Parser
  • What is DOM?
  • XML Parsing
  • Load and Output XML
  • Looping through XML
  • What is SimpleXML?
  • Using SimpleXML
  • What is AJAX?
  • AJAX is Based on Internet Standards
  • AJAX PHP Example
  • The PHP File
  • AJAX Database Example
  • Example Explained - The MySQL Database
  • Example Explained - The HTML Page
  • AJAX XML Example
  • AJAX Live Search
  • AJAX RSS Reader
  • AJAX Poll
  • The Text File
  • PHP Array Introduction
  • PHP Array Functions
  • PHP Array Constants
  • PHP Calendar Introduction
  • PHP Calendar Functions
  • PHP Calendar Constants
  • PHP Date / Time Introduction
  • Runtime Configuration
  • PHP Directory Functions
  • PHP Directory Constants
  • PHP Error and Logging Introduction
  • PHP Error and Logging Constants
  • PHP Filesystem Introduction
  • Unix / Windows Compatibility
  • PHP Filesystem Functions
  • PHP Filesystem Constants
  • PHP Filter Introduction
  • PHP Filter Functions
  • PHP Filters
  • PHP FTP Introduction
  • PHP FTP Functions
  • PHP FTP Constants
  • PHP HTTP Introduction
  • PHP HTTP Functions
  • PHP libxml Introduction
  • PHP libxml Functions
  • PHP libxml Constants
  • PHP Mail Introduction
  • Requirements
  • PHP Mail Functions
  • PHP Math Introduction
  • PHP Math Functions
  • PHP Math Constants
  • PHP Miscellaneous Introduction
  • PHP Misc. Constants
  • Resource Types
  • PHP MySQL Functions
  • PHP MySQL Constants
  • PHP SimpleXML Introduction
  • PHP String Introduction
  • PHP String Functions
  • PHP String Constants
  • PHP XML Parser Introduction
  • PHP XML Parser Functions
  • PHP XML Parser Constants
  • PHP Zip File Introduction
  • PHP Zip File Functions
  • PHP Zip File Constants

PHP Introduction

Before you continue you should have a basic understanding of the following:

• •

HTML/XHTML JavaScript

If you want to study these subjects first, find the tutorials on our Home page.

What is PHP?
• • • • • •
PHP stands for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor PHP is a server-side scripting language, like ASP PHP scripts are executed on the server PHP supports many databases (MySQL, Informix, Oracle, Sybase, Solid, PostgreSQL, Generic ODBC, etc.) PHP is an open source software PHP is free to download and use

What is a PHP File?
• • •
PHP files can contain text, HTML tags and scripts PHP files are returned to the browser as plain HTML PHP files have a file extension of ".php", ".php3", or ".phtml"

What is MySQL?
• • • • •
MySQL MySQL MySQL MySQL MySQL is a database server is ideal for both small and large applications supports standard SQL compiles on a number of platforms is free to download and use

PHP + MySQL

PHP combined with MySQL are cross-platform (you can develop in Windows and serve on a Unix platform)

Why PHP?
• • • •
PHP PHP PHP PHP runs on different platforms (Windows, Linux, Unix, etc.) is compatible with almost all servers used today (Apache, IIS, etc.) is FREE to download from the official PHP resource: www.php.net is easy to learn and runs efficiently on the server side

Where to Start?
To get access to a web server with PHP support, you can:

• •

Install Apache (or IIS) on your own server, install PHP, and MySQL Or find a web hosting plan with PHP and MySQL support

PHP Installation
If your server supports PHP you don't need to do anything. Just create some .php files in your web directory, and the server will parse them for you. Because it is free, most web hosts offer PHP support. However, if your server does not support PHP, you must install PHP. Here is a link to a good tutorial from PHP.net on how to install PHP5: http://www.php.net/manual/en/install.php

Download PHP
Download PHP for free here: http://www.php.net/downloads.php

Download MySQL Database
Download MySQL for free here: http://www.mysql.com/downloads/

Download Apache Server
Download Apache for free here: http://httpd.apache.org/download.cgi

PHP Syntax
PHP code is executed on the server, and the plain HTML result is sent to the browser.

Basic PHP Syntax
A PHP scripting block always starts with <?php and ends with ?>. A PHP scripting block can be placed anywhere in the document. On servers with shorthand support enabled you can start a scripting block with <? and end with ?>. For maximum compatibility, we recommend that you use the standard form (<?php) rather than the shorthand form. <?php ?> A PHP file normally contains HTML tags, just like an HTML file, and some PHP scripting code. Below, we have an example of a simple PHP script which sends the text "Hello World" to the browser: <html> <body> <?php echo "Hello World"; ?> </body> </html> Each code line in PHP must end with a semicolon. The semicolon is a separator and is used to distinguish one set of instructions from another. There are two basic statements to output text with PHP: echo and print. In the example above we have used the echo statement to output the text "Hello World". Note: The file must have a .php extension. If the file has a .html extension, the PHP code will not be executed.

All variables in PHP start with a $ sign symbol. and a variable containing a number: <?php $txt="Hello World!". Variables in PHP Variables are used for storing values. <html> <body> <?php //This is a comment /* This is a comment block */ ?> </body> </html> PHP Variables A variable is used to store information. New PHP programmers often forget the $ sign at the beginning of the variable. $x=16.Comments in PHP In PHP. The correct way of declaring a variable in PHP: $var_name = value. ?> PHP is a Loosely Typed Language . we use // to make a single-line comment or /* and */ to make a large comment block. it can be used over and over again in your script. like text strings. In that case it will not work. numbers or arrays. When a variable is declared. Let's try creating a variable containing a string.

A-Z. you have to declare (define) the type and name of the variable before using it. In a strongly typed programming language. a variable does not need to be declared before adding a value to it. you see that you do not have to tell PHP which data type the variable is. it should be separated with an underscore ($my_string). ?> The output of the code above will be: Hello World Now. echo $txt. depending on its value. A string can be used directly in a function or it can be stored in a variable.In PHP. 0-9. or with capitalization ($myString) PHP String Variables A string variable is used to store and manipulate text. Naming Rules for Variables • • • A variable name must start with a letter or an underscore "_" A variable name can only contain alpha-numeric characters and underscores (a-z. and _ ) A variable name should not contain spaces. In PHP. the variable is declared automatically when you use it. After we create a string we can manipulate it. String Variables in PHP String variables are used for values that contain characters. the PHP script assigns the text "Hello World" to a string variable called $txt: <?php $txt="Hello World". lets try to use some different functions and operators to manipulate the string. In this chapter we are going to look at the most common functions and operators used to manipulate strings in PHP. PHP automatically converts the variable to the correct data type. In the example above. If a variable name is more than one word. . Below.

this function will return the position of the first match.) is used to put two string values together. If no match is found. ?> The output of the code above will be: Hello World! What a nice day! If we look at the code above you see that we used the concatenation operator two times.The Concatenation Operator There is only one string operator in PHP. The concatenation operator (. $txt2="What a nice day!". Let's see if we can find the string "world" in our string: <?php . If a match is found. it will return FALSE. The strlen() function The strlen() function is used to return the length of a string. This is because we had to insert a third string (a space character). in a loop. To concatenate two string variables together. ?> The output of the code above will be: 12 The length of a string is often used in loops or other functions. The strpos() function The strpos() function is used to search for character within a string. " " . echo $txt1 .e. to separate the two strings. $txt2. (i. use the concatenation operator: <?php $txt1="Hello World!". Let's find the length of a string: <?php echo strlen("Hello world!"). we would want to stop the loop after the last character in the string). when it is important to know when the string ends.

=y x%=y Is The Same As x=y x=x+y x=x-y x=x*y x=x/y x=x.5 1 2 0 x=6 x=4 ++ -- Increment Decrement Assignment Operators Operator = += -= *= /= . The reason that it is 6 (and not 7). Arithmetic Operators Operator + * / % Description Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Modulus (division remainder) Example x=2 x+2 x=2 5-x x=4 x*5 15/5 5/2 5%2 10%8 10%2 x=5 x++ x=5 x-Result 4 3 20 3 2. is that the first position in the string is 0."world"). ?> The output of the code above will be: 6 The position of the string "world" in our string is position 6.= %= Example x=y x+=y x-=y x*=y x/=y x.y x=x%y .echo strpos("Hello world!". PHP Operators This section lists the different operators used in PHP. and not 1.

. . Conditional Statements Very often when you write code.Comparison Operators Operator == != <> > < >= <= Description is equal to is not equal is not equal is greater than is less than is greater than or equal to is less than or equal to Example 5==8 returns false 5!=8 returns true 5<>8 returns true 5>8 returns false 5<8 returns true 5>=8 returns false 5<=8 returns true Logical Operators Operator && Description And Example x=6 y=3 (x < 10 && y > 1) returns true || Or x=6 y=3 (x==5 || y==5) returns false ! Not x=6 y=3 !(x==y) returns true PHP If.Else Statements Conditional statements are used to perform different actions based on different conditions. you want to perform different actions for different decisions..

The if. In PHP we have the following conditional statements: • • • • if statement ... Syntax if (condition) code to be executed if condition is true.You can use conditional statements in your code to do this..use this statement to select one of many blocks of code to be executed The if Statement Use the if statement to execute some code only if a specified condition is true.else statement .. in this syntax.... The code is executed only if the specified condition is true. The following example will output "Have a nice weekend!" if the current day is Friday: <html> <body> <?php $d=date("D")..else statement .elseif.use this statement to select one of several blocks of code to be executed switch statement . if ($d=="Fri") echo "Have a nice weekend!".else. otherwise it will output "Have a nice day!": ... Example The following example will output "Have a nice weekend!" if the current day is Friday..use this statement to execute some code if a condition is true and another code if the condition is false if.else statement to execute some code if a condition is true and another code if a condition is false.else Statement Use the if... else code to be executed if condition is false.use this statement to execute some code only if a specified condition is true if.. ?> </body> </html> Notice that there is no . Syntax if (condition) code to be executed if condition is true.

and "Have a nice Sunday!" if the current day is Sunday.. Otherwise it will output "Have a nice day!": <html> <body> <?php . } ?> </body> </html> The if... else echo "Have a nice day!".else statement to select one of several blocks of code to be executed.. if ($d=="Fri") { echo "Hello!<br />". Syntax if (condition) code to be executed if condition is true. if ($d=="Fri") echo "Have a nice weekend!"..else Statement Use the if.. elseif (condition) code to be executed if condition is true..elseif. echo "Have a nice weekend!". else code to be executed if condition is false.. the lines should be enclosed within curly braces: <html> <body> <?php $d=date("D")..elseif. echo "See you on Monday!".. ?> </body> </html> If more than one line should be executed if a condition is true/false. Example The following example will output "Have a nice weekend!" if the current day is Friday.<html> <body> <?php $d=date("D").

} This is how it works: First we have a single expression n (most often a variable). The default statement is used if no match is found. break. break. Example <html> <body> <?php switch ($x) { case 1: echo "Number 1". that is evaluated once. break. default: code to be executed if n is different from both label1 and label2. ?> </body> </html> PHP Switch Statement Conditional statements are used to perform different actions based on different conditions. . The PHP Switch Statement Use the switch statement to select one of many blocks of code to be executed. Syntax switch (n) { case label1: code to be executed if n=label1. if ($d=="Fri") echo "Have a nice weekend!". If there is a match.$d=date("D"). Use break to prevent the code from running into the next case automatically. case label2: code to be executed if n=label2. elseif ($d=="Sun") echo "Have a nice Sunday!". else echo "Have a nice day!". the block of code associated with that case is executed. The value of the expression is then compared with the values for each case in the structure.

And you can access the values by referring to the array name. In PHP. $cars2="Volvo". The problem is.An array where each ID key is associated with a value Multidimensional array . for example). Each element in the array has its own index so that it can be easily accessed. An array is a special variable. default: echo "No number between 1 and 3".An array with a numeric index Associative array .An array containing one or more arrays . break. but 300? The best solution here is to use an array! An array can hold all your variable values under a single name. break. what if you want to loop through the cars and find a specific one? And what if you had not 3 cars.case 2: echo "Number 2". $cars3="BMW". What is an Array? A variable is a storage area holding a number or text. case 3: echo "Number 3". there are three kind of arrays: • • • Numeric array . } ?> </body> </html> PHP Arrays An array stores multiple values in one single variable. If you have a list of items (a list of car names. which can store multiple values in one single variable. a variable will hold only one value. However. storing the cars in single variables could look like this: $cars1="Saab".

2. $cars[1]="Volvo". "Joe"=>34). Associative Arrays An associative array. There are two methods to create a numeric array. In the following example the index are automatically assigned (the index starts at 0): $cars=array("Saab". ?> The code above will output: Saab and Volvo are Swedish cars. With associative arrays we can use the values as keys and assign values to them. $cars[2]="BMW"."Volvo". " and " . Example In the following example you access the variable values by referring to the array name and index: <?php $cars[0]="Saab". each ID key is associated with a value. $cars[1]="Volvo". echo $cars[0] . "Quagmire"=>30. $cars[3]="Toyota". a numerical array is not always the best way to do it. When storing data about specific named values. $cars[3]="Toyota".Numeric Arrays A numeric array stores each array element with a numeric index.". In the following example we assign the index manually: $cars[0]="Saab". . 1. $cars[2]="BMW"."Toyota"). " are Swedish cars."BMW". $cars[1] . Example 1 In this example we use an array to assign ages to the different persons: $ages = array("Peter"=>32.

$ages['Joe'] = "34". The array above would look like this if written to the output: Array . "Quagmire"=>array ( "Glenn" ). "Junior" ) ). each element in the main array can also be an array. $ages['Joe'] = "34".Example 2 This example is the same as example 1. The ID keys can be used in a script: <?php $ages['Peter'] = "32". "Loretta". " years old. "Megan" ). "Lois". $ages['Peter'] . And each element in the sub-array can be an array. $ages['Quagmire'] = "30". Example In this example we create a multidimensional array. echo "Peter is " . ?> The code above will output: Peter is 32 years old. Multidimensional Arrays In a multidimensional array. "Brown"=>array ( "Cleveland".". but shows a different way of creating the array: $ages['Peter'] = "32". and so on. with automatically assigned ID keys: $families = array ( "Griffin"=>array ( "Peter". $ages['Quagmire'] = "30".

and then repeats the loop as long as a specified condition is true .( [Griffin] => Array ( [0] => Peter [1] => Lois [2] => Megan ) [Quagmire] => Array ( [0] => Glenn ) [Brown] => Array ( [0] => Cleveland [1] => Loretta [2] => Junior ) ) Example 2 Lets try displaying a single value from the array above: echo "Is " .loops through a block of code while a specified condition is true do. you want the same block of code to run over and over again in a row. " a part of the Griffin family?". or while a specified condition is true. we have the following looping statements: • • while .. PHP Loops Often when you write code.while ..loops through a block of code once. The code above will output: Is Megan a part of the Griffin family? PHP Looping . $families['Griffin'][2] . In PHP. Instead of adding several almost equal lines in a script we can use loops to perform a task like this.While Loops Loops execute a block of code a specified number of times.

and repeat the loop while the condition is true. "<br />". or equal to 5. Syntax do { code to be executed. Syntax while (condition) { code to be executed. } ?> </body> </html> Output: The The The The The number number number number number is is is is is 1 2 3 4 5 The do..while statement will always execute the block of code once.loops through a block of code for each element in an array The while Loop The while loop executes a block of code while a condition is true. while($i<=5) { echo "The number is " .• • for .. } Example The example below defines a loop that starts with i=1. i will increase by 1 each time the loop runs: <html> <body> <?php $i=1. The loop will continue to run as long as i is less than.. . it will then check the condition.while Statement The do. $i .loops through a block of code a specified number of times foreach .. } while (condition). $i++.

$i . The for Loop The for loop is used when you know in advance how many times the script should run. or while a specified condition is true. It will then increment i with 1. "<br />". increment) { code to be executed. } Parameters: • init: Mostly used to set a counter (but can be any code to be executed once at the beginning of the loop) . do { $i++. and write some output. Syntax for (init. and the loop will continue to run as long as i is less than. echo "The number is " .For Loops Loops execute a block of code a specified number of times. ?> </body> </html> Output: The The The The The number number number number number is is is is is 2 3 4 5 6 The for loop and the foreach loop will be explained in the next chapter.Example The example below defines a loop that starts with i=1. } while ($i<=5). or equal to 5: <html> <body> <?php $i=1. PHP Looping . condition. Then the condition is checked.

or have multiple expressions (separated by commas).so on the next loop iteration. the loop ends. or equal to 5. you'll be looking at the next array value. } ?> </body> </html> Output: The The The The The number number number number number is is is is is 1 2 3 4 5 The foreach Loop The foreach loop is used to loop through arrays. If it evaluates to TRUE. Syntax foreach ($array as $value) { code to be executed. "<br />". $i<=5. the value of the current array element is assigned to $value (and the array pointer is moved by one) . The loop will continue to run as long as i is less than. i will increase by 1 each time the loop runs: <html> <body> <?php for ($i=1. increment: Mostly used to increment a counter (but can be any code to be executed at the end of the loop) Note: Each of the parameters above can be empty. If it evaluates to FALSE. Example The following example demonstrates a loop that will print the values of the given array: <html> . $i .• • condition: Evaluated for each loop iteration. $i++) { echo "The number is " . } For every loop iteration. the loop continues. Example The example below defines a loop that starts with i=1.

there are more than 700 built-in functions. } ?> </body> </html> Output: one two three PHP Functions The real power of PHP comes from its functions. You may call a function from anywhere within a page. In PHP. foreach ($x as $value) { echo $value . "<br />". . you can put it into a function."two". A function will be executed by a call to the function."three"). To keep the script from being executed when the page loads. please visit our PHP Reference. PHP Built-in Functions For a complete reference and examples of the built-in functions. PHP Functions In this chapter we will show you how to create your own functions.<body> <?php $x=array("one".

} PHP function guidelines: • • Give the function a name that reflects what the function does The function name can start with a letter or underscore (not a number) Example A simple function that writes my name when it is called: <html> <body> <?php function writeName() { echo "Kai Jim Refsnes". ?> </body> </html> Output: My name is Kai Jim Refsnes PHP Functions . A parameter is just like a variable. Example 1 The following example will write different first names.Create a PHP Function A function will be executed by a call to the function. writeName(). inside the parentheses. but equal last name: <html> . we can add parameters. } echo "My name is ".Adding parameters To add more functionality to a function. Parameters are specified after the function name. Syntax function functionName() { code to be executed.

<body> <?php function writeName($fname) { echo $fname . " Refsnes.<br />"; } echo "My name is "; writeName("Kai Jim"); echo "My sister's name is "; writeName("Hege"); echo "My brother's name is "; writeName("Stale"); ?> </body> </html> Output: My name is Kai Jim Refsnes. My sister's name is Hege Refsnes. My brother's name is Stale Refsnes.

Example 2
The following function has two parameters: <html> <body> <?php function writeName($fname,$punctuation) { echo $fname . " Refsnes" . $punctuation . "<br />"; } echo "My name is "; writeName("Kai Jim","."); echo "My sister's name is "; writeName("Hege","!"); echo "My brother's name is "; writeName("Ståle","?"); ?> </body> </html> Output: My name is Kai Jim Refsnes. My sister's name is Hege Refsnes! My brother's name is Ståle Refsnes?

PHP Functions - Return values
To let a function return a value, use the return statement.

Example
<html> <body> <?php function add($x,$y) { $total=$x+$y; return $total; } echo "1 + 16 = " . add(1,16); ?> </body> </html> Output: 1 + 16 = 17

PHP Forms and User Input
The PHP $_GET and $_POST variables are used to retrieve information from forms, like user input.

PHP Form Handling
The most important thing to notice when dealing with HTML forms and PHP is that any form element in an HTML page will automatically be available to your PHP scripts.

Example
The example below contains an HTML form with two input fields and a submit button: <html> <body> <form action="welcome.php" method="post"> Name: <input type="text" name="fname" /> Age: <input type="text" name="age" /> <input type="submit" /> </form> </body> </html>

When a user fills out the form above and click on the submit button, the form data is sent to a PHP file, called "welcome.php": "welcome.php" looks like this: <html> <body> Welcome <?php echo $_POST["fname"]; ?>!<br /> You are <?php echo $_POST["age"]; ?> years old. </body> </html> Output could be something like this: Welcome John! You are 28 years old. The PHP $_GET and $_POST functions will be explained in the next chapters.

Form Validation
User input should be validated on the browser whenever possible (by client scripts). Browser validation is faster and reduces the server load. You should consider server validation if the user input will be inserted into a database. A good way to validate a form on the server is to post the form to itself, instead of jumping to a different page. The user will then get the error messages on the same page as the form. This makes it easier to discover the error.

PHP $_GET Function
The built-in $_GET function is used to collect values in a form with method="get".

The $_GET Function
The built-in $_GET function is used to collect values from a form sent with method="get". Information sent from a form with the GET method is visible to everyone (it will be displayed in the browser's address bar) and has limits on the amount of information to send.

Example
<form action="welcome.php" method="get">

This can be useful in some cases.php" method="post"> .php" file can now use the $_GET function to collect form data (the names of the form fields will automatically be the keys in the $_GET array): Welcome <?php echo $_GET["fname"].<br /> You are <?php echo $_GET["age"].ini file). ?>. Note: The get method is not suitable for very large variable values. by default (can be changed by setting the post_max_size in the php.w3schools. it is possible to bookmark the page.Name: <input type="text" name="fname" /> Age: <input type="text" name="age" /> <input type="submit" /> </form> When the user clicks the "Submit" button. Example <form action="welcome. there is an 8 Mb max size for the POST method. The $_POST Function The built-in $_POST function is used to collect values from a form sent with method="post". all variable names and values are displayed in the URL.com/welcome. Note: This method should not be used when sending passwords or other sensitive information! However. because the variables are displayed in the URL. ?> years old! When to use method="get"? When using method="get" in HTML forms. Note: However. It should not be used with values exceeding 2000 characters. PHP $_POST Function The built-in $_POST function is used to collect values in a form with method="post". the URL sent to the server could look something like this: http://www.php?fname=Peter&age=37 The "welcome. Information sent from a form with the POST method is invisible to others and has no limits on the amount of information to send.

. Example Welcome <?php echo $_REQUEST["fname"]. and $_COOKIE.com/welcome. ?> years old. ?> years old.Name: <input type="text" name="fname" /> Age: <input type="text" name="age" /> <input type="submit" /> </form> When the user clicks the "Submit" button.w3schools. the URL will look like this: http://www. it is not possible to bookmark the page.php" file can now use the $_POST function to collect form data (the names of the form fields will automatically be the keys in the $_POST array): Welcome <?php echo $_POST["fname"]. $_POST. When to use method="post"? Information sent from a form with the POST method is invisible to others and has no limits on the amount of information to send.php The "welcome. ?>!<br /> You are <?php echo $_REQUEST["age"]. ?>!<br /> You are <?php echo $_POST["age"]. because the variables are not displayed in the URL. However. The PHP $_REQUEST Function The PHP built-in $_REQUEST function contains the contents of both $_GET. The $_REQUEST function can be used to collect form data sent with both the GET and POST methods.

timestamp) Parameter format timestamp Description Required.Format the Date The required format parameter in the date() function specifies how to format the date/time. A timestamp is a sequence of characters. Syntax date(format. denoting the date and/or time at which a certain event occurred. Here are some characters that can be used: . Default is the current date and time PHP Date() . Specifies a timestamp. The PHP Date() Function The PHP date() function formats a timestamp to a more readable date and time. Specifies the format of the timestamp Optional.PHP Advanced PHP Date() Function The PHP date() function is used to format a time and/or date.

date("d")+1.Represents a year (in four digits) A list of all the characters that can be used in the format parameter.is_dst) To go one day in the future we simply add one to the day argument of mktime(): <?php $tomorrow = mktime(0. the current date and time will be used.Adding a Timestamp The optional timestamp parameter in the date() function specifies a timestamp.".month.year. "<br />". Other characters.date("m").second. ".• • • d . $tomorrow). or "-" can also be inserted between the letters to add additional formatting: <?php echo date("Y/m/d") .Represents the day of the month (01 to 31) m .minute. Syntax for mktime() mktime(hour.date("Y/m/d". echo date("Y-m-d") ?> The output of the code above could be something like this: 2009/05/11 2009.d") .date("Y")). like"/".0. echo "Tomorrow is ". ?> The output of the code above could be something like this: Tomorrow is 2009/05/12 PHP Include File Server Side Includes (SSI) .0.m. If you do not specify a timestamp. The Unix timestamp contains the number of seconds between the Unix Epoch (January 1 1970 00:00:00 GMT) and the time specified. echo date("Y. "<br />". The mktime() function returns the Unix timestamp for a date. can be found in our PHP Date reference.Represents a month (01 to 12) Y .05.day.11 2009-05-11 PHP Date() .

?> <h1>Welcome to my home page!</h1> <p>Some text. Example 1 Assume that you have a standard header file. but the script will continue execution require() generates a fatal error.You can insert the content of one PHP file into another PHP file before the server executes it.php">Tutorials</a> href="/references.</p> </body> </html> Example 2 Assume we have a standard menu file. but the script will continue execution.php"). When the header needs to be updated. or when you add a new page to your site.php">Contact Us</a> All pages in the Web site should include this menu file. footers. and the script will stop These two functions are used to create functions. or menu file for all your web pages.php". with the include() or require() function. the include() function generates a warning. Here is how it can be done: <html> <body> . footer. except how they handle errors: • • include() generates a warning. The two functions are identical in every way.php". use the include() function: <html> <body> <?php include("header. If an error occurs. called "menu.php">Examples</a> href="/about.php">Home</a> href="/tutorials. that should be used on all pages: <a <a <a <a <a <a href="/default. To include the header file in a page. PHP include() Function The include() function takes all the content in a specified file and includes it in the current file. headers.php">About Us</a> href="/contact.php">References</a> href="/examples. This means that you can create a standard header. you can simply change the menu file (instead of updating the links on all your web pages). or elements that will be reused on multiple pages. you can only update the include file. Server side includes saves a lot of work. called "header.

php").php">Examples</a> <a href="/about.</p> </body> </html> If you look at the source code of the page above (in a browser).php on line 5 . and the script will stop. If an error occurs.php">Home</a> <a href="/tutorials.php) [function.php">About Us</a> <a href="/contact. Error Example include() Function <html> <body> <?php include("wrongFile.php"). but the script will continue execution.php">References</a> <a href="/examples. echo "Hello World!". ?> </body> </html> Error message: Warning: include(wrongFile.php">Contact Us</a> </div> <h1>Welcome to my home page!</h1> <p>Some text.</p> </body> </html> PHP require() Function The require() function is identical to include().php">Tutorials</a> <a href="/references. except that it handles errors differently.<div class="leftmenu"> <?php include("menu.</h1> <p>Some text. it will look like this: <html> <body> <div class="leftmenu"> <a href="/default. The require() generates a fatal error. the include() function generates a warning. ?> </div> <h1>Welcome to my home page.include]: failed to open stream: No such file or directory in C:\home\website\test.

Error Example require() Function Now.Warning: include() [function. The first parameter of this function contains the name of the file to be opened and the second parameter specifies in which mode the file should be opened: .C:\php5\pear') in C:\home\website\test.php on line 5 Hello World! Notice that the echo statement is executed! This is because a Warning does not stop the script execution.php' for inclusion (include_path='.php").C:\php5\pear') in C:\home\website\test. echo "Hello World!". because the script execution stopped after the fatal error.require]: Failed opening required 'wrongFile.. <html> <body> <?php require("wrongFile.php on line 5 Fatal error: require() [function.php) [function. It is recommended to use the require() function instead of include(). because scripts should not continue after an error..include]: Failed opening 'wrongFile. PHP File Handling Opening a File The fopen() function is used to open files in PHP.require]: failed to open stream: No such file or directory in C:\home\website\test.php on line 5 The echo statement is not executed. ?> </body> </html> Error message: Warning: require(wrongFile.php' (include_path='. let's run the same example with the require() function.

Opens and clears the contents of file."r") or exit("Unable to open file!").txt".txt". or creates a new file if it doesn't exist Read/Write. Starts at the beginning of the file Read/Write. ?> </body> </html> Closing a File The fclose() function is used to close an open file: <?php $file = fopen("test. Creates a new file. Starts at the beginning of the file Write only. Example The following example generates a message if the fopen() function is unable to open the specified file: <html> <body> <?php $file=fopen("welcome. Returns FALSE and an error if file already exists Note: If the fopen() function is unable to open the specified file.<html> <body> <?php $file=fopen("welcome. ."r"). it returns 0 (false). or creates a new file if it doesn't exist Append. Preserves file content by writing to the end of the file Write only.txt". Creates a new file."r"). ?> </body> </html> The file may be opened in one of the following modes: Modes r r+ w w+ a a+ x x+ Description Read only. Opens and writes to the end of the file or creates a new file if it doesn't exist Read/Append. Opens and clears the contents of file. Returns FALSE and an error if file already exists Read/Write.

Example The example below reads a file line by line. Example The example below reads a file character by character. Note: After a call to this function the file pointer moves to the next character.//some code to be executed fclose($file)."r") or exit("Unable to open file!"). Note: You cannot read from files opened in w. } . } fclose($file). until the end of file is reached: <?php $file=fopen("welcome. and x mode! if (feof($file)) echo "End of file". "<br />". until the end of file is reached: <?php $file = fopen("welcome.txt".txt". a. ?> Reading a File Character by Character The fgetc() function is used to read a single character from a file. //Output a line of the file until the end is reached while(!feof($file)) { echo fgets($file). Reading a File Line by Line The fgets() function is used to read a single line from a file. while (!feof($file)) { echo fgetc($file). Note: After a call to this function the file pointer has moved to the next line. The feof() function is useful for looping through data of unknown length. "r") or exit("Unable to open file!"). ?> Check End-of-file The feof() function checks if the "end-of-file" (EOF) has been reached.

php" file contains the code for uploading a file: <?php if ($_FILES["file"]["error"] > 0) { . ?> PHP File Upload With PHP. "multipart/form-data" is used when a form requires binary data. Create The Upload Script The "upload_file. Create an Upload-File Form To allow users to upload files from a form can be very useful. like the contents of a file. there will be a browsebutton next to the input field Note: Allowing users to upload files is a big security risk. when viewed in a browser. For example.php" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data"> <label for="file">Filename:</label> <input type="file" name="file" id="file" /> <br /> <input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit" /> </form> </body> </html> Notice the following about the HTML form above: • • The enctype attribute of the <form> tag specifies which content-type to use when submitting the form. Look at the following HTML form for uploading files: <html> <body> <form action="upload_file. it is possible to upload files to the server. to be uploaded The type="file" attribute of the <input> tag specifies that the input should be processed as a file. Only permit trusted users to perform file uploads.fclose($file).

"Upload: " .the name of the temporary copy of the file stored on the server $_FILES["file"]["error"] . $_FILES["file"]["tmp_name"]. The user may only upload . "Type: " . "<br />". " Kb<br />". $_FILES["file"]["error"] . "size". echo "Size: " . echo "Stored in: " . $_FILES["file"]["error"] . "type". $_FILES["file"]["type"] .echo } else { echo echo echo echo } ?> "Error: " .the name of the uploaded file $_FILES["file"]["type"] . $_FILES["file"]["type"] . } ?> .the size in bytes of the uploaded file $_FILES["file"]["tmp_name"] . "<br />". For security reasons. "<br />". "<br />".the error code resulting from the file upload This is a very simple way of uploading files. "Size: " . you should add restrictions on what the user is allowed to upload. $_FILES["file"]["name"] .jpeg files and the file size must be under 20 kb: <?php if ((($_FILES["file"]["type"] == "image/gif") || ($_FILES["file"]["type"] == "image/jpeg") || ($_FILES["file"]["type"] == "image/pjpeg")) && ($_FILES["file"]["size"] < 20000)) { if ($_FILES["file"]["error"] > 0) { echo "Error: " . } else { echo "Upload: " . } } else { echo "Invalid file". "Stored in: " . The first parameter is the form's input name and the second index can be either "name". echo "Type: " . Like this: • • • • • $_FILES["file"]["name"] . "<br />". "<br />". $_FILES["file"]["tmp_name"]. ($_FILES["file"]["size"] / 1024) . "tmp_name" or "error".the type of the uploaded file $_FILES["file"]["size"] . Restrictions on Upload In this script we add some restrictions to the file upload. ($_FILES["file"]["size"] / 1024) .gif or . $_FILES["file"]["name"] . By using the global PHP $_FILES array you can upload files from a client computer to the remote server. " Kb<br />".

$_FILES["file"]["type"] . it copies the file to the specified folder. for FireFox it must be jpeg. } ?> The script above checks if the file already exists. " Kb<br />". The temporary copied files disappears when the script ends. echo "Temp file: " . " already exists. if (file_exists("upload/" . ($_FILES["file"]["size"] / 1024) . $_FILES["file"]["name"]. $_FILES["file"]["tmp_name"] . To store the uploaded file we need to copy it to a different location: <?php if ((($_FILES["file"]["type"] == "image/gif") || ($_FILES["file"]["type"] == "image/jpeg") || ($_FILES["file"]["type"] == "image/pjpeg")) && ($_FILES["file"]["size"] < 20000)) { if ($_FILES["file"]["error"] > 0) { echo "Return Code: " . Saving the Uploaded File The examples above create a temporary copy of the uploaded files in the PHP temp folder on the server. if it does not. "upload/" . $_FILES["file"]["error"] . } else { move_uploaded_file($_FILES["file"]["tmp_name"]. "<br />". } } } else { echo "Invalid file". $_FILES["file"]["name"])) { echo $_FILES["file"]["name"] . "<br />". . } else { echo "Upload: " . echo "Stored in: " . echo "Type: " .Note: For IE to recognize jpg files the type must be pjpeg. $_FILES["file"]["name"] . ". "<br />". "<br />". "upload/" . echo "Size: " . $_FILES["file"]["name"]).

<?php $expire=time()+60*60*24*30. domain). ?> <html> . value. How to Create a Cookie? The setcookie() function is used to set a cookie. use setrawcookie() instead). you can both create and retrieve cookie values. Each time the same computer requests a page with a browser.. Note: The value of the cookie is automatically URLencoded when sending the cookie.. setcookie("user". $expire). "Alex Porter". Example 2 You can also set the expiration time of the cookie in another way. we will create a cookie named "user" and assign the value "Alex Porter" to it.... and automatically decoded when received (to prevent URLencoding.PHP Cookies A cookie is often used to identify a user. A cookie is a small file that the server embeds on the user's computer. With PHP. it will send the cookie too. In the example above the expiration time is set to a month (60 sec * 60 min * 24 hours * 30 days). Example 1 In the example below. "Alex Porter". expire. path. What is a Cookie? A cookie is often used to identify a user.. It may be easier than using seconds. Syntax setcookie(name. ... time()+3600). We also specify that the cookie should expire after one hour: <?php setcookie("user". Note: The setcookie() function must appear BEFORE the <html> tag. ?> <html> .

How to Retrieve a Cookie Value?
The PHP $_COOKIE variable is used to retrieve a cookie value. In the example below, we retrieve the value of the cookie named "user" and display it on a page: <?php // Print a cookie echo $_COOKIE["user"]; // A way to view all cookies print_r($_COOKIE); ?> In the following example we use the isset() function to find out if a cookie has been set: <html> <body> <?php if (isset($_COOKIE["user"])) echo "Welcome " . $_COOKIE["user"] . "!<br />"; else echo "Welcome guest!<br />"; ?> </body> </html>

How to Delete a Cookie?
When deleting a cookie you should assure that the expiration date is in the past. Delete example: <?php // set the expiration date to one hour ago setcookie("user", "", time()-3600); ?>

What if a Browser Does NOT Support Cookies?
If your application deals with browsers that do not support cookies, you will have to use other methods to pass information from one page to another in your application. One method is to pass the data through forms (forms and user input are described earlier in this tutorial). The form below passes the user input to "welcome.php" when the user clicks on the "Submit" button: <html> <body>

<form action="welcome.php" method="post"> Name: <input type="text" name="name" /> Age: <input type="text" name="age" /> <input type="submit" /> </form> </body> </html> Retrieve the values in the "welcome.php" file like this: <html> <body> Welcome <?php echo $_POST["name"]; ?>.<br /> You are <?php echo $_POST["age"]; ?> years old. </body> </html>

PHP Sessions
A PHP session variable is used to store information about, or change settings for a user session. Session variables hold information about one single user, and are available to all pages in one application.

PHP Session Variables
When you are working with an application, you open it, do some changes and then you close it. This is much like a Session. The computer knows who you are. It knows when you start the application and when you end. But on the internet there is one problem: the web server does not know who you are and what you do because the HTTP address doesn't maintain state. A PHP session solves this problem by allowing you to store user information on the server for later use (i.e. username, shopping items, etc). However, session information is temporary and will be deleted after the user has left the website. If you need a permanent storage you may want to store the data in a database. Sessions work by creating a unique id (UID) for each visitor and store variables based on this UID. The UID is either stored in a cookie or is propagated in the URL.

Starting a PHP Session
Before you can store user information in your PHP session, you must first start up the session. Note: The session_start() function must appear BEFORE the <html> tag:

<?php session_start(); ?> <html> <body> </body> </html> The code above will register the user's session with the server, allow you to start saving user information, and assign a UID for that user's session.

Storing a Session Variable
The correct way to store and retrieve session variables is to use the PHP $_SESSION variable: <?php session_start(); // store session data $_SESSION['views']=1; ?> <html> <body> <?php //retrieve session data echo "Pageviews=". $_SESSION['views']; ?> </body> </html> Output: Pageviews=1 In the example below, we create a simple page-views counter. The isset() function checks if the "views" variable has already been set. If "views" has been set, we can increment our counter. If "views" doesn't exist, we create a "views" variable, and set it to 1: <?php session_start(); if(isset($_SESSION['views'])) $_SESSION['views']=$_SESSION['views']+1; else $_SESSION['views']=1; echo "Views=". $_SESSION['views']; ?>

Destroying a Session

PHP Sending E-mails PHP allows you to send e-mails directly from a script. Each line should be separated with a LF (\n). The unset() function is used to free the specified session variable: <?php unset($_SESSION['views']). you can use the unset() or the session_destroy() function.message. PHP requires an installed and working email system. Read more in our PHP Mail reference.If you wish to delete some session data. The program to be used is defined by the configuration settings in the php. The PHP mail() Function The PHP mail() function is used to send emails from inside a script.ini file. Specifies the subject of the email. Specifies an additional parameter to the sendmail program Note: For the mail functions to be available. Syntax mail(to. and Bcc. The additional headers should be separated with a CRLF (\r\n) Optional.headers. Lines should not exceed 70 characters Optional. ?> Note: session_destroy() will reset your session and you will lose all your stored session data.subject. PHP Simple E-Mail . Cc. Defines the message to be sent. Specifies additional headers. ?> You can also completely destroy the session by calling the session_destroy() function: <?php session_destroy(). like From. Specifies the receiver / receivers of the email Required. Note: This parameter cannot contain any newline characters Required.parameters) Parameter to subject message headers parameters Description Required.

} else //if "email" is not filled out. $message = "Hello! This is a simple email message. $from. you can create a feedback-form on your website. $subject = $_REQUEST['subject'] .". } ?> </body> </html> This is how the example above works: • • First. $headers).com".". output the HTML form . send email { //send email $email = $_REQUEST['email'] .$headers). $message. echo "Mail Sent.com". echo "Thank you for using our mail form". $email). $headers = "From:" . mail($to.com". mail("someone@example.$message. $subject. In the example below we first declare the variables ($to. $subject = "Test mail". display the form { echo "<form method='post' action='mailform. $from. $message = $_REQUEST['message'] . $from = "someonelse@example. The example below sends a text message to a specified e-mail address: <html> <body> <?php if (isset($_REQUEST['email'])) //if "email" is filled out.$subject.The simplest way to send an email with PHP is to send a text email. "$subject". ?> PHP Mail Form With PHP. check if the email input field is filled out If it is not set (like when the page is first visited). $message. "From:" .php'> Email: <input name='email' type='text' /><br /> Subject: <input name='subject' type='text' /><br /> Message:<br /> <textarea name='message' rows='15' cols='40'> </textarea><br /> <input type='submit' /> </form>". then we use the variables in the mail() function to send an e-mail: <?php $to = "someone@example.

display the form { echo "<form method='post' action='mailform. PHP Secure E-mails There is a weakness in the PHP e-mail script in the previous chapter. echo "Thank you for using our mail form". $message = $_REQUEST['message'] . and sends the email Note: This is the simplest way to send e-mail. mail("someone@example. but it is not secure.• • If it is set (after the form is filled out). look at the PHP code from the previous chapter: <html> <body> <?php if (isset($_REQUEST['email'])) //if "email" is filled out. In the next chapter of this tutorial you can read more about vulnerabilities in e-mail scripts.php'> Email: <input name='email' type='text' /><br /> Subject: <input name='subject' type='text' /><br /> Message:<br /> <textarea name='message' rows='15' cols='40'> </textarea><br /> <input type='submit' /> </form>". $subject = $_REQUEST['subject'] . the page reloads. PHP E-mail Injections First. sees that the email input is set. send the email from the form When submit is pressed after the form is filled out. $message. "Subject: $subject". and how to validate user input to make it more secure. send email { //send email $email = $_REQUEST['email'] . . } ?> </body> </html> The problem with the code above is that unauthorized users can insert data into the mail headers via the input form. "From: $email" ).com". } else //if "email" is not filled out.

and To: field.person5@example.com %0ABcc:person3@example. } else { return FALSE. $message = $_REQUEST['message'] .person3@example.com The mail() function puts the text above into the mail headers as usual. proceed //check if the email address is invalid $mailcheck = spamcheck($_REQUEST['email']). } else {//send email $email = $_REQUEST['email'] . $message. FILTER_SANITIZE_EMAIL). but now we have added an input validator that checks the email field in the form: <html> <body> <?php function spamcheck($field) { //filter_var() sanitizes the e-mail //address using FILTER_SANITIZE_EMAIL $field=filter_var($field. } } if (isset($_REQUEST['email'])) {//if "email" is filled out. "Subject: $subject". mail("someone@example. "From: $email" ). FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL)) { return TRUE.com.com". anotherperson4@example. and now the header has an extra Cc:. if ($mailcheck==FALSE) { echo "Invalid input". $subject = $_REQUEST['subject'] . The code below is the same as in the previous chapter. When the user clicks the submit button. echo "Thank you for using our mail form".What happens if the user adds the following text to the email input field in the form? someone@example.com %0ABTo:person6@example. //filter_var() validates the e-mail //address using FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL if(filter_var($field.com%0ACc:person2@example.com. .com. the e-mail will be sent to all of the addresses above! PHP Stopping E-mail Injections The best way to stop e-mail injections is to validate the input. Bcc:.

This tutorial contains some of the most common error checking methods in PHP. error handling is an important part.php'> Email: <input name='email' type='text' /><br /> Subject: <input name='subject' type='text' /><br /> Message:<br /> <textarea name='message' rows='15' cols='40'> </textarea><br /> <input type='submit' /> </form>". We will show different error handling methods: • • • Simple "die()" statements Custom errors and error triggers Error reporting Basic Error Handling: Using the die() function The first example shows a simple script that opens a text file: . line number and a message describing the error is sent to the browser. If your code lacks error checking code. your program may look very unprofessional and you may be open to security risks. An error message with filename. display the form echo "<form method='post' action='mailform. PHP Error Handling When creating scripts and web applications.} } else {//if "email" is not filled out. } ?> </body> </html> In the code above we use PHP filters to validate input: • • The FILTER_SANITIZE_EMAIL filter removes all illegal e-mail characters from a string The FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL filter validates value as an e-mail address PHP Error Handling The default error handling in PHP is very simple.

This function must be able to handle a minimum of two parameters (error level and error message) but can accept up to five parameters (optionally: file. We simply create a special function that can be called when an error occurs in PHP. Let's take a look at alternative PHP functions for handling errors. simply stopping the script is not always the right way to go. line-number. } else { $file=fopen("welcome. However. ?> If the file does not exist you might get an error like this: Warning: fopen(welcome. } ?> Now if the file does not exist you get an error like this: File not found The code above is more efficient than the earlier code.error_line. and the error context): Syntax error_function(error_level.txt". Specifies the error report level for the user-defined error. because it uses a simple error handling mechanism to stop the script after the error.error_message.php on line 2 To avoid that the user gets an error message like the one above. Creating a Custom Error Handler Creating a custom error handler is quite simple.error_context) Parameter error_level error_message error_file Description Required.txt")) { die("File not found"). we test if the file exist before we try to access it: <?php if(!file_exists("welcome. error_file. Specifies the error message for the user-defined error Optional."r"). Specifies the filename in which the error occurred .fopen]: failed to open stream: No such file or directory in C:\webfolder\test."r").<?php $file=fopen("welcome.txt) [function. See table below for possible error report levels Required. Must be a value number.txt".

die(). When it is triggered. Execution of the script is not halted Run-time notices. This is like an E_NOTICE set by the programmer using the PHP function trigger_error() Catchable fatal error. We are going to make the function above the default error handler for the duration of the script. it gets the error level and an error message. Specifies an array containing every variable. Now that we have created an error handling function we need to decide when it should be triggered. It then outputs the error level and message and terminates the script. and their values. This is like an E_ERROR set by the programmer using the PHP function trigger_error() Non-fatal user-generated warning. This is like an E_WARNING set by the programmer using the PHP function trigger_error() User-generated notice. in use when the error occurred Error Report levels These error report levels are the different types of error the user-defined error handler can be used for: Value Constant 2 8 E_WARNING E_NOTICE Description Non-fatal run-time errors. } The code above is a simple error handling function. This is like an E_ERROR but can be caught by a user defined handle (see also set_error_handler()) All errors and warnings. Specifies the line number in which the error occurred Optional. but could also happen when running a script normally Fatal user-generated error. $errstr) { echo "<b>Error:</b> [$errno] $errstr<br />". Set Error Handler The default error handler for PHP is the built in error handler. except level E_STRICT (E_STRICT will be part of E_ALL as of PHP 6. The script found something that might be an error.error_line error_context Optional.0) 256 512 E_USER_ERROR E_USER_WARNING 1024 E_USER_NOTICE 4096 E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR 8191 E_ALL Now lets create a function to handle errors: function customError($errno. . echo "Ending Script".

the set_error_handler() only needed one parameter. in this example we are going to use our custom error handler for all errors: set_error_handler("customError").It is possible to change the error handler to apply for only some errors. ?> The output of the code above should be something like this: Error: [8] Undefined variable: test Trigger an Error In a script where users can input data it is useful to trigger errors when an illegal input occurs. } ?> The output of the code above should be something like this: Notice: Value must be 1 or below in C:\webfolder\test. this is done by the trigger_error() function. $errstr) { echo "<b>Error:</b> [$errno] $errstr". } //set error handler set_error_handler("customError"). a second parameter could be added to specify an error level. if ($test>1) { trigger_error("Value must be 1 or below").php on line 6 . Example In this example an error occurs if the "test" variable is bigger than "1": <?php $test=2. However. Since we want our custom function to handle all errors. In PHP. Example Testing the error handler by trying to output variable that does not exist: <?php //error handler function function customError($errno. //trigger error echo($test). that way the script can handle different errors in different ways.

} ?> The output of the code above should be something like this: Error: [512] Value must be 1 or below Ending Script Now that we have learned to create our own errors and how to trigger them. die(). but could also happen when running a script normally Example In this example an E_USER_WARNING occurs if the "test" variable is bigger than "1". $errstr) { echo "<b>Error:</b> [$errno] $errstr<br />". . If an E_USER_WARNING occurs we will use our custom error handler and end the script: <?php //error handler function function customError($errno. The script found something that might be an error. By using the error_log() function you can send error logs to a specified file or a remote destination.Non-fatal user-generated run-time warning.E_USER_WARNING). } //set error handler set_error_handler("customError". and by adding a second parameter. Execution of the script is halted E_USER_WARNING . Possible error types: • • • E_USER_ERROR . if ($test>1) { trigger_error("Value must be 1 or below".Default. Execution of the script is not halted E_USER_NOTICE . you can specify what error level is triggered. echo "Ending Script". Error Logging By default. Errors that can not be recovered from.Fatal user-generated run-time error. depending on how the error_log configuration is set in the php.E_USER_WARNING).ini file.An error can be triggered anywhere you wish in a script. //trigger error $test=2. lets take a look at error logging. User-generated run-time notice. PHP sends an error log to the servers logging system or a file.

} //set error handler set_error_handler("customError". $errstr) { echo "<b>Error:</b> [$errno] $errstr<br />". } ?> The output of the code above should be something like this: Error: [512] Value must be 1 or below Webmaster has been notified And the mail received from the code above looks like this: Error: [512] Value must be 1 or below This should not be used with all errors. PHP Exception Handling Exceptions are used to change the normal flow of a script if a specified error occurs What is an Exception With PHP 5 came a new object oriented way of dealing with errors. if ($test>1) { trigger_error("Value must be 1 or below". if a specific error occurs: <?php //error handler function function customError($errno. error_log("Error: [$errno] $errstr".com"). This condition is called an exception. . Send an Error Message by E-Mail In the example below we will send an e-mail with an error message and end the script.Sending errors messages to yourself by e-mail can be a good way of getting notified of specific errors.E_USER_WARNING).com".E_USER_WARNING).1. //trigger error $test=2. Exception handling is used to change the normal flow of the code execution if a specified error (exceptional) condition occurs. echo "Webmaster has been notified". Regular errors should be logged on the server using the default PHP logging system."From: webmaster@example. "someone@example.

Lets try to throw an exception without catching it: <?php //create function with an exception function checkNum($number) { if($number>1) { throw new Exception("Value must be 1 or below"). a fatal error will be issued with an "Uncaught Exception" message. If an exception is not caught. the code following it will not be executed.php(12): checkNum(28) #1 {main} thrown in C:\webfolder\test.php:6 Stack trace: #0 C:\webfolder\test. and PHP will try to find the matching "catch" block. terminate the script execution or continue the script from a different location in the code We will show different error handling methods: • • • • • Basic use of Exceptions Creating a custom exception handler Multiple exceptions Re-throwing an exception Setting a top level exception handler Note: Exceptions should only be used with error conditions.This is what normally happens when an exception is triggered: • • • The current code state is saved The code execution will switch to a predefined (custom) exception handler function Depending on the situation. throw and catch . and should not be used to jump to another place in the code at a specified point.php on line 6 Try. } //trigger exception checkNum(2). ?> The code above will get an error like this: Fatal error: Uncaught exception 'Exception' with message 'Value must be 1 or below' in C:\webfolder\test. the handler may then resume the execution from the saved code state. Basic Use of Exceptions When an exception is thrown. } return true.

It checks if a number is greater than 1. the code will continue as normal. //If the exception is thrown. However if the exception triggers. 2.$e->getMessage().A function using an exception should be in a "try" block.To avoid the error from the example above.A "catch" block retrieves an exception and creates an object containing the exception information Lets try to trigger an exception with valid code: <?php //create function with an exception function checkNum($number) { if($number>1) { throw new Exception("Value must be 1 or below"). we need to create the proper code to handle an exception. Each "throw" must have at least one "catch" Catch . If the exception does not trigger. an exception is thrown The checkNum() function is called in a "try" block The exception within the checkNum() function is thrown The "catch" block retrives the exception and creates an object ($e) containing the exception information . } //trigger exception in a "try" block try { checkNum(2). 3. } return true. 3. } //catch exception catch(Exception $e) { echo 'Message: ' . 4. Proper exception code should include: 1. The checkNum() function is created. the number is 1 or below'. } ?> The code above will get an error like this: Message: Value must be 1 or below Example explained: The code above throws an exception and catches it: 1. an exception is "thrown" Throw . Try . this text will not be shown echo 'If you see this.This is how you trigger an exception. 2. If it is.

try { //check if if(filter_var($email. Lets create an exception class: <?php class customException extends Exception { public function errorMessage() { //error message $errorMsg = 'Error on line '.. } } $email = "someone@example.$this->getLine().'</b> is not a valid E-Mail address'. The class must be an extension of the exception class.5.com". Example explained: . and it inherits the properties and methods from the old class. FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL) === FALSE) { //throw exception if email is not valid throw new customException($email). Creating a Custom Exception Class Creating a custom exception handler is quite simple. We simply create a special class with functions that can be called when an exception occurs in PHP. one way to get around the "every throw must have a catch" rule is to set a top level exception handler to handle errors that slip through. } ?> The new class is a copy of the old exception class with an addition of the errorMessage() function. Since it is a copy of the old class. The custom exception class inherits the properties from PHP's exception class and you can add custom functions to it. } } catch (customException $e) { //display custom message echo $e->errorMessage(). return $errorMsg. The error message from the exception is echoed by calling $e->getMessage() from the exception object However.. we can use the exception class methods like getLine() and getFile() and getMessage().$this->getMessage().': <b>'.' in '.$this->getFile() .

or nest multiple exceptions. } catch(Exception $e) { echo $e->getMessage(). 5. try { //check if if(filter_var($email.The code above throws an exception and catches it with a custom exception class: 1. This function returns an error message if an email address is invalid The $email variable is set to a string that is not a valid e-mail address The "try" block is executed and an exception is thrown since the e-mail address is invalid The "catch" block catches the exception and displays the error message Multiple Exceptions It is possible for a script to use multiple exceptions to check for multiple conditions.else blocks. 2. 3. FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL) === FALSE) { //throw exception if email is not valid throw new customException($email). 4. } .. This way it inherits all methods and properties from the old exception class The errorMessage() function is created.' in '. } //check for "example" in mail address if(strpos($email. The customException() class is created as an extension of the old exception class. "example") !== FALSE) { throw new Exception("$email is an example e-mail").'</b> is not a valid E-Mail address'.com".$this->getLine(). It is possible to use several if. } } catch (customException $e) { echo $e->errorMessage(). These exceptions can use different exception classes and return different error messages: <?php class customException extends Exception { public function errorMessage() { //error message $errorMsg = 'Error on line '. } } $email = "someone@example.$this->getFile() .$this->getMessage(). a switch.': <b>'. return $errorMsg.

6.com". } } catch(Exception $e) . } } $email = "someone@example. you may wish to handle it differently than the standard way.?> Example explained: The code above tests two conditions and throws an exception if any of the conditions are not met: 1. A script should hide system errors from users. 4. 5. the exception would be handled there Re-throwing Exceptions Sometimes. This way it inherits all methods and properties from the old exception class The errorMessage() function is created.'. only the base exception catch. but contains the string "example" The "try" block is executed and an exception is not thrown on the first condition The second condition triggers an exception since the e-mail contains the string "example" The "catch" block catches the exception and displays the correct error message If there was no customException catch. System errors may be important for the coder. "example") !== FALSE) { //throw exception if email is not valid throw new Exception($email). To make things easier for the user you can re-throw the exception with a user friendly message: <?php class customException extends Exception { public function errorMessage() { //error message $errorMsg = $this->getMessage().' is not a valid E-Mail address. It is possible to throw an exception a second time within a "catch" block. This function returns an error message if an email address is invalid The $email variable is set to a string that is a valid e-mail address. The customException() class is created as an extension of the old exception class. try { try { //check for "example" in mail address if(strpos($email. when an exception is thrown. 3. but is of no interest to the user. return $errorMsg. 2.

the exception is re-thrown: 1. throw new Exception('Uncaught Exception occurred'). 5. Instead. Set a Top Level Exception Handler The set_exception_handler() function sets a user-defined function to handle all uncaught exceptions. 6. } } catch (customException $e) { //display custom message echo $e->errorMessage(). 7. The customException() class is created as an extension of the old exception class. } set_exception_handler('myException'). <?php function myException($exception) { echo "<b>Exception:</b> " . 2. This function returns an error message if an email address is invalid The $email variable is set to a string that is a valid e-mail address. This way it inherits all methods and properties from the old exception class The errorMessage() function is created. . the top level exception handler triggered. it will search for a catch block on "higher levels". $exception->getMessage(). 4. 3. } ?> Example explained: The code above tests if the email-address contains the string "example" in it. This function should be used to catch uncaught exceptions.{ //re-throw exception throw new customException($email). ?> The output of the code above should be something like this: Exception: Uncaught Exception occurred In the code above there was no "catch" block. if it does. but contains the string "example" The "try" block contains another "try" block to make it possible to re-throw the exception The exception is triggered since the e-mail contains the string "example" The "catch" block catches the exception and re-throws a "customException" The "customException" is caught and displays an error message If the exception is not caught in its current "try" block.

validate and filter user input or custom data is an important part of any web application. The PHP filter extension is designed to make data filtering easier and quicker. To test. What is a PHP Filter? A PHP filter is used to validate and filter data coming from insecure sources. you have to catch it.Rules for exceptions • • • • Code may be surrounded in a try block. What is external data? • • • • • Input data from a form Cookies Web services data Server variables Database query results Functions and Filters . Usually this comes from a user or another application (like a web service). like user input. PHP Filter PHP filters are used to validate and filter data coming from insecure sources. Why use a Filter? Almost all web applications depend on external input. By using filters you can be sure your application gets the correct input type. to help catch potential exceptions Each try block or "throw" must have at least one corresponding catch block Multiple catch blocks can be used to catch different classes of exceptions Exceptions can be thrown (or re-thrown) in a catch block within a try block A simple rule: If you throw something. You should always filter all external data! Input filtering is one of the most important application security issues.

. visit our PHP Filter Reference. For a complete list of functions and filters.To filter a variable. Validating and Sanitizing There are two kinds of filters: Validating filters: • • • Are used to validate user input Strict format rules (like URL or E-Mail validating) Returns the expected type on success or FALSE on failure Sanitizing filters: • • • Are used to allow or disallow specified characters in a string No data format rules Always return the string Options and Flags Options and flags are used to add additional filtering options to the specified filters. if(!filter_var($int. the output will be: "Integer is not valid".Filter several variables with the same or different filters filter_input . the output of the code above will be: "Integer is valid". we validate an integer using the filter_var() function: <?php $int = 123. } ?> The code above uses the "FILTER_VALIDATE_INT" filter to filter the variable. FILTER_VALIDATE_INT)) { echo("Integer is not valid").Get one input variable and filter it filter_input_array . If we try with a variable that is not an integer (like "123abc").Filters a single variable with a specified filter filter_var_array() . use one of the following filter functions: • • • • filter_var() .Get several input variables and filter them with the same or different filters In the example below. Since the integer is valid. } else { echo("Integer is valid").

Then we filter the input data using the filter_input() function. if(!filter_var($var. } else { echo("Integer is valid"). FILTER_VALIDATE_INT. visit our PHP Filter Reference. In the example below. $int_options = array( "options"=>array ( "min_range"=>0. "email".Different filters have different options and flags. Check each filter to see what options and flags are available. "email")) { echo("Input type does not exist"). "max_range"=>256 ) ). and the output of the code above will be: "Integer is not valid". the input variable "email" is sent to the PHP page: <?php if(!filter_has_var(INPUT_GET. options must be put in an associative array with the name "options". } ?> Like the code above. we validate an integer using the filter_var() and the "min_range" and "max_range" options: <?php $var=300. If a flag is used it does not need to be in an array. In the example below. For a complete list of functions and filters. } else { if (!filter_input(INPUT_GET. FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL)) { . The first thing we need to do is to confirm that the input data we are looking for exists. Validate Input Let's try validating input from a form. Since the integer is "300" it is not in the specified range. $int_options)) { echo("Integer is not valid").

"url")) { echo("Input type does not exist").com/ Filter Multiple Inputs . First we confirm that the input data we are looking for exists. 2. } else { $url = filter_input(INPUT_POST. 2. Check if the "url" input of the "POST" type exists If the input variable exists. In the example below. the $url variable after the sanitizing will look like this: http://www. Check if an "email" input variable of the "GET" type exist If the input variable exists. "url". sanitize (take away invalid characters) and store it in the $url variable If the input variable is a string like this "http://www. } else { echo "E-Mail is valid".echo "E-Mail is not valid".W3ååSchøøools.com/". } ?> Example Explained The example above has an input (url) sent to it using the "POST" method: 1. the input variable "url" is sent to the PHP page: <?php if(!filter_has_var(INPUT_POST.W3Schools. Then we sanitize the input data using the filter_input() function. FILTER_SANITIZE_URL). check if it is a valid e-mail address Sanitize Input Let's try cleaning up an URL sent from a form. } } ?> Example Explained The example above has an input (email) sent to it using the "GET" method: 1.

In this example we use the filter_input_array() function to filter three GET variables. To avoid calling the filter_var or filter_input functions over and over.<br />"). "age" => array ( "filter"=>FILTER_VALIDATE_INT. Set an array containing the name of input variables and the filters used on the specified input variables Call the filter_input_array() function with the GET input variables and the array we just set Check the "age" and "email" variables in the $result variable for invalid inputs. age and email) sent to it using the "GET" method: 1. The received GET variables is a name. $filters). that input variable will be FALSE after the filter_input_array() function) The second parameter of the filter_input_array() function can be an array or a single filter ID.<br />"). we can use the filter_var_array or the filter_input_array functions. ). "email"=> FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL. 3.A form almost always consist of more than one input field. "options"=>array ( "min_range"=>1. } ?> Example Explained The example above has three inputs (name. } else { echo("User input is valid"). } elseif(!$result["email"]) { echo("E-Mail is not valid. if (!$result["age"]) { echo("Age must be a number between 1 and 120. an age and an e-mail address: <?php $filters = array ( "name" => array ( "filter"=>FILTER_SANITIZE_STRING ). . 2. "max_range"=>120 ) ). $result = filter_input_array(INPUT_GET. (If any of the input variables are invalid.

FILTER_CALLBACK. Create a function to replace "_" to whitespaces Call the filter_var() function with the FILTER_CALLBACK filter and an array containing our function . " ". In an associative array with the name "options" In the example below. we have full control of the data filtering. You can create your own user defined function or use an existing PHP function The function you wish to use to filter is specified the same way as an option is specified. $string). ?> The result from the code above should look like this: Peter is a great guy! Example Explained The example above converts all "_" to whitespaces: 1. flags and options Using Filter Callback It is possible to call a user defined function and use it as a filter using the FILTER_CALLBACK filter. array("options"=>"convertSpace")). This way. } $string = "Peter_is_a_great_guy!".If the parameter is a single filter ID all values in the input array are filtered by the specified filter. If the parameter is an array it must follow these rules: • • Must be an associative array containing an input variable as an array key (like the "age" input variable) The array value must be a filter ID or an array specifying the filter. we use a user created function to convert all "_" to whitespaces: <?php function convertSpace($string) { return str_replace("_". echo filter_var($string. 2.

. A table is a collection of related data entries and it consists of columns and rows. The data in MySQL is stored in database objects called tables. What is MySQL? MySQL is a database.PHP Database PHP MySQL Introduction MySQL is the most popular open-source database system.

and will return a recordset like this: LastName Hansen Svendson Pettersen Download MySQL Database If you don't have a PHP server with a MySQL Database. "Products".g. "Customers" or "Orders"). and City). we can query a database for specific information and have a recordset returned. With MySQL. A company may have a database with the following tables: "Employees". FirstName. Database Tables A database most often contains one or more tables. you can download MySQL for free here: http://www. Queries A query is a question or a request. Below is an example of a table called "Persons": LastName Hansen Svendson Pettersen FirstName Ola Tove Kari Address Timoteivn 10 Borgvn 23 Storgt 20 City Sandnes Sandnes Stavanger The table above contains three records (one for each person) and four columns (LastName. "Customers" and "Orders". Address. Look at the following query: SELECT LastName FROM Persons The query above selects all the data in the "LastName" column from the "Persons" table.com/downloads/index.mysql. Tables contain records (rows) with data. Each table is identified by a name (e.Databases are useful when storing information categorically.html Facts About MySQL Database .

this is done with the mysql_connect() function. Create a Connection to a MySQL Database Before you can access data in a database.username."peter". The truth is that MySQL is the de-facto standard database for web sites that support huge volumes of both data and end users (like Friendster. } // some code ?> Closing a Connection . In PHP. Specifies the server to connect to. Specifies the password to log in with. but the ones listed above are the most important. Default value is "localhost:3306" Optional. Yahoo. Default value is the name of the user that owns the server process Optional. Parameter servername username password Description Optional."abc123"). if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . Specifies the username to log in with. Example In the following example we store the connection in a variable ($con) for later use in the script. mysql_error()). Syntax mysql_connect(servername. PHP MySQL Connect to a Database The free MySQL database is very often used with PHP. Google). Perhaps it is because of this reputation that many people believe that MySQL can only handle small to medium-sized systems.password).One great thing about MySQL is that it can be scaled down to support embedded database applications. Default is "" Note: There are more available parameters. Visit our full PHP MySQL Reference for more details. you must create a connection to the database. The "die" part will be executed if the connection fails: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost".

mysql_error()). if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . mysql_error()). Create a Database The CREATE DATABASE statement is used to create a database in MySQL. Example The following example creates a database called "my_db": <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". } // some code mysql_close($con)."peter". . use the mysql_close() function: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost".The connection will be closed automatically when the script ends. if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . This function is used to send a query or command to a MySQL connection. Syntax CREATE DATABASE database_name To learn more about SQL."peter". please visit our SQL tutorial."abc123")."abc123"). To get PHP to execute the statement above we must use the mysql_query() function. To close the connection before. ?> PHP MySQL Create Database and Tables A database holds one or multiple tables.

Syntax CREATE TABLE table_name ( column_name1 data_type. please visit our SQL tutorial. column_name3 data_type. . } // Create table . mysql_error()). ) To learn more about SQL. with three columns.$con)) { echo "Database created"."peter". column_name2 data_type. } mysql_close($con). } else { echo "Error creating database: " . } else { echo "Error creating database: " . if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' .. "LastName" and "Age": <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". mysql_error(). } // Create database if (mysql_query("CREATE DATABASE my_db".$con)) { echo "Database created". mysql_error(). The column names will be "FirstName".} if (mysql_query("CREATE DATABASE my_db"... ?> Create a Table The CREATE TABLE statement is used to create a table in MySQL."abc123"). Example The following example creates a table named "Persons". We must add the CREATE TABLE statement to the mysql_query() function to execute the command.

mysql_select_db("my_db". The data type specifies what type of data the column can hold.$con). The primary key field is often an ID number. e. Primary Keys and Auto Increment Fields Each table should have a primary key field. mysql_close($con). Age int )". A primary key is used to uniquely identify the rows in a table. go to our complete Data Types reference. and is often used with the AUTO_INCREMENT setting. Age int )". // Execute query mysql_query($sql. LastName varchar(15). PHP MySQL Insert Into . To ensure that the primary key field cannot be null. $con). The database is selected with the mysql_select_db() function. Note: When you create a database field of type varchar. Each primary key value must be unique within the table. varchar(15). ?> Important: A database must be selected before a table can be created. AUTO_INCREMENT automatically increases the value of the field by 1 each time a new record is added. For a complete reference of all the data types available in MySQL. PRIMARY KEY(personID). we must add the NOT NULL setting to the field. Furthermore. mysql_query($sql. the primary key field cannot be null because the database engine requires a value to locate the record.$con). you must specify the maximum length of the field. Example $sql = "CREATE TABLE Persons ( personID int NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT. The following example sets the personID field as the primary key field. LastName varchar(15). FirstName varchar(15).g. $sql = "CREATE TABLE Persons ( FirstName varchar(15).

'35')"). ?> Insert Data From a Form Into a Database . please visit our SQL tutorial..) To learn more about SQL.. if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . value3..) The second form specifies both the column names and the values to be inserted: INSERT INTO table_name (column1.) VALUES (value1. "Firstname". '33')"). column2. value2. with three columns. The first form doesn't specify the column names where the data will be inserted. } mysql_select_db("my_db"."abc123"). Age) VALUES ('Peter'.. We will use the same table in this example.The INSERT INTO statement is used to insert new records in a table. "Lastname" and "Age". Example In the previous chapter we created a table named "Persons". LastName. $con). mysql_query("INSERT INTO Persons (FirstName. 'Quagmire'. To get PHP to execute the statements above we must use the mysql_query() function. value3. Insert Data Into a Database Table The INSERT INTO statement is used to add new records to a database table. mysql_error()). Age) VALUES ('Glenn'.. mysql_close($con). LastName."peter". column3.. Syntax It is possible to write the INSERT INTO statement in two forms. This function is used to send a query or command to a MySQL connection. only their values: INSERT INTO table_name VALUES (value1.. value2. The following example adds two new records to the "Persons" table: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost".. 'Griffin'.. mysql_query("INSERT INTO Persons (FirstName.

Now we will create an HTML form that can be used to add new records to the "Persons" table. $sql="INSERT INTO Persons (FirstName. mysql_error()). The "insert.'$_POST[age]')". if (!mysql_query($sql. Here is the HTML form: <html> <body> <form action="insert.$con)) { die('Error: ' . LastName."abc123"). } echo "1 record added". and retrieves the values from the form with the PHP $_POST variables. and a new record will be added to the "Persons" table. the form data is sent to "insert. mysql_error()). the mysql_query() function executes the INSERT INTO statement.'$_POST[lastname]'."peter". mysql_close($con) ?> PHP MySQL Select .php" file connects to a database. Then.php". } mysql_select_db("my_db". if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . Here is the "insert.php" method="post"> Firstname: <input type="text" name="firstname" /> Lastname: <input type="text" name="lastname" /> Age: <input type="text" name="age" /> <input type="submit" /> </form> </body> </html> When a user clicks the submit button in the HTML form in the example above. Age) VALUES ('$_POST[firstname]'.php" page: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". $con).

"abc123"). we use the mysql_fetch_array() function to return the first row from the recordset as an array. please visit our SQL tutorial. Example The following example selects all the data stored in the "Persons" table (The * character selects all the data in the table): <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". we use the PHP $row variable ($row['FirstName'] and $row['LastName']). while($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) { echo $row['FirstName'] . Select Data From a Database Table The SELECT statement is used to select data from a database.The SELECT statement is used to select data from a database. To print the value of each row. echo "<br />". $con). The output of the code above will be: Peter Griffin Glenn Quagmire . mysql_error()). ?> The example above stores the data returned by the mysql_query() function in the $result variable. To get PHP to execute the statement above we must use the mysql_query() function. } mysql_select_db("my_db". Syntax SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name To learn more about SQL. if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' ."peter". This function is used to send a query or command to a MySQL connection. $row['LastName']. $result = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM Persons"). } mysql_close($con). Each call to mysql_fetch_array() returns the next row in the recordset. The while loop loops through all the records in the recordset. " " . Next.

if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . echo "<table border='1'> <tr> <th>Firstname</th> <th>Lastname</th> </tr>". echo "</tr>"."peter". $con). "</td>"."abc123"). "</td>". mysql_error()). $row['FirstName'] . echo "<td>" . echo "<td>" . but will display the data in an HTML table: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". } mysql_select_db("my_db". $row['LastName'] . mysql_close($con). .Display the Result in an HTML Table The following example selects the same data as the example above. ?> The output of the code above will be: Firstname Lastname Glenn Peter Quagmire Griffin PHP MySQL The Where Clause The WHERE clause is used to filter records. while($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) { echo "<tr>". } echo "</table>". The WHERE clause The WHERE clause is used to extract only those records that fulfill a specified criterion. $result = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM Persons").

Syntax SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE column_name operator value To learn more about SQL. If you want to sort the records in a descending order. $row['LastName']."peter". The ORDER BY Keyword The ORDER BY keyword is used to sort the data in a recordset. $con). Example The following example selects all rows from the "Persons" table where "FirstName='Peter': <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost"."abc123"). This function is used to send a query or command to a MySQL connection. mysql_error()). echo "<br />". " " . . } mysql_select_db("my_db". To get PHP to execute the statement above we must use the mysql_query() function. if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . please visit our SQL tutorial. you can use the DESC keyword. } ?> The output of the code above will be: Peter Griffin PHP MySQL Order By Keyword The ORDER BY keyword is used to sort the data in a recordset. The ORDER BY keyword sort the records in ascending order by default. while($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) { echo $row['FirstName'] . $result = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM Persons WHERE FirstName='Peter'").

$result = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM Persons ORDER BY age"). $con). and sorts the result by the "Age" column: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost".Syntax SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name ORDER BY column_name(s) ASC|DESC To learn more about SQL. } mysql_select_db("my_db". } mysql_close($con). When ordering by more than one column. $row['Age']. while($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) { echo $row['FirstName']. if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . Example The following example selects all the data stored in the "Persons" table. the second column is only used if the values in the first column are equal: SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name ORDER BY column1. echo " " . echo " " . $row['LastName']. mysql_error()). please visit our SQL tutorial."abc123"). ?> The output of the code above will be: Glenn Quagmire 33 Peter Griffin 35 Order by Two Columns It is also possible to order by more than one column."peter". echo "<br />". column2 .

Here is how it looks: FirstName Peter Glenn LastName Griffin Quagmire Age 35 33 The following example updates some data in the "Persons" table: <?php . please visit our SQL tutorial... Example Earlier in the tutorial we created a table named "Persons". Syntax UPDATE table_name SET column1=value. Update Data In a Database The UPDATE statement is used to update existing records in a table. all records will be updated! To learn more about SQL. The WHERE clause specifies which record or records that should be updated. column2=value2. To get PHP to execute the statement above we must use the mysql_query() function.PHP MySQL Update The UPDATE statement is used to modify data in a table. WHERE some_column=some_value Note: Notice the WHERE clause in the UPDATE syntax. This function is used to send a query or command to a MySQL connection.. If you omit the WHERE clause.

mysql_error()). the "Persons" table will look like this: FirstName Peter Glenn LastName Griffin Quagmire Age 36 33 PHP MySQL Delete The DELETE statement is used to delete records in a table. This function is used to send a query or command to a MySQL connection."peter". all records will be deleted! To learn more about SQL. Example Look at the following "Persons" table: . mysql_query("UPDATE Persons SET Age = '36' WHERE FirstName = 'Peter' AND LastName = 'Griffin'"). } mysql_select_db("my_db".$con = mysql_connect("localhost". $con). mysql_close($con). If you omit the WHERE clause."abc123"). The WHERE clause specifies which record or records that should be deleted. ?> After the update. Delete Data In a Database The DELETE FROM statement is used to delete records from a database table. please visit our SQL tutorial. Syntax DELETE FROM table_name WHERE some_column = some_value Note: Notice the WHERE clause in the DELETE syntax. if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . To get PHP to execute the statement above we must use the mysql_query() function.

if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . Click Finish. Give the database a Data Source Name (DSN). 2. mysql_query("DELETE FROM Persons WHERE LastName='Griffin'"). Select the Microsoft Access Driver. ?> After the deletion. } mysql_select_db("my_db"."peter". 6. Click OK. Double-click on the Data Sources (ODBC) icon inside. 3. Click on Add in the System DSN tab. on any computer in your network.FirstName Peter Glenn LastName Griffin Quagmire Age 35 33 The following example deletes all the records in the "Persons" table where LastName='Griffin': <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". mysql_close($con). Here is how to create an ODBC connection to a MS Access Database: 1. an MS Access database). Open the Administrative Tools icon in your Control Panel. .g. 5. Create an ODBC Connection With an ODBC connection. the table will look like this: FirstName Glenn LastName Quagmire Age 33 PHP Database ODBC ODBC is an Application Programming Interface (API) that allows you to connect to a data source (e. as long as an ODBC connection is available. mysql_error()). you can connect to any database."abc123"). 4. $con). Choose the System DSN tab. 8. click Select to locate the database. In the next screen. 7.

the instructions above will work. Connecting to an ODBC The odbc_connect() function is used to connect to an ODBC data source. or ask your web host to to set up a DSN for you to use. If you are running Internet Information Server (IIS) on your own computer. odbc_close($conn). The code line below returns the value of a field called "CompanyName": $compname=odbc_result($rs. $rs=odbc_exec($conn.1).''."CompanyName"). The function takes four parameters: the data source name. . It then creates an SQL and executes it: $conn=odbc_connect('northwind'. otherwise false. and an optional cursor type. This function returns true if it is able to return rows. $sql="SELECT * FROM customers". you have to have physical access to that server.Note that this configuration has to be done on the computer where your web site is located. Closing an ODBC Connection The odbc_close() function is used to close an ODBC connection.$sql).''). This function takes two parameters: the ODBC result identifier and a field number or name. with no username and no password. password. The code line below returns the value of the first field from the record: $compname=odbc_result($rs. The function takes two parameters: the ODBC result identifier and an optional row number: odbc_fetch_row($rs) Retrieving Fields from a Record The odbc_result() function is used to read fields from a record. but if your web site is located on a remote server. The odbc_exec() function is used to execute an SQL statement. username. Retrieving Records The odbc_fetch_row() function is used to return records from the result-set. Example The following example creates a connection to a DSN called northwind.

and then display the data in an HTML table.$sql)."CompanyName"). then a result-set. echo "<th>Contactname</th></tr>". echo "<td>$conname</td></tr>".An ODBC Example The following example shows how to first create a database connection. while (odbc_fetch_row($rs)) { $compname=odbc_result($rs. $rs=odbc_exec($conn. } odbc_close($conn).''. if (!$rs) {exit("Error in SQL"). ?> </body> </html> . echo "<tr><td>$compname</td>".'').} $sql="SELECT * FROM customers"."ContactName"). echo "<th>Companyname</th>". $conname=odbc_result($rs. if (!$conn) {exit("Connection Failed: " .} echo "<table><tr>". $conn). echo "</table>". <html> <body> <?php $conn=odbc_connect('northwind'.

Look at the following XML fraction: . it calls a function to handle it The Expat parser is an event-based parser. not their structure.g. no tags are predefined. An XML file describes the structure of the data. Event-based parsers focus on the content of the XML documents. You must define your own tags.create and manipulate .PHP XML PHP XML Expat Parser The built-in Expat parser makes it possible to process XML documents in PHP. please visit our XML tutorial. When a specific event occurs. e. event-based parsers can access data faster than tree-based parsers.an XML document. It analyzes the whole document. If you want to learn more about XML. In XML. There are two basic types of XML parsers: • • Tree-based parser: This parser transforms an XML document into a tree structure. Because of this. you will need an XML parser. and provides access to the tree elements. What is Expat? To read and update . the Document Object Model (DOM) Event-based parser: Views an XML document as a series of events. What is XML? XML is used to describe data and to focus on what data is.

$element_attrs) { switch($element_name) . Installation The XML Expat parser functions are part of the PHP core. Expat is fast and small. //Function to use at the start of an element function start($parser. this makes no difference when using the Expat parser. However. An XML File The XML file below will be used in our example: <?xml version="1. Example <?php //Initialize the XML parser $parser=xml_parser_create(). Note: XML documents must be well-formed or Expat will generate an error. and a perfect match for PHP web applications.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> <note> <to>Tove</to> <from>Jani</from> <heading>Reminder</heading> <body>Don't forget me this weekend!</body> </note> Initializing the XML Parser We want to initialize the XML parser in PHP. define some handlers for different XML events.$element_name. and then parse the XML file. However. As an event-based. value: Jani Close element: from The XML example above contains well-formed XML. the example is not valid XML. non-validating XML parser. Expat is a non-validating parser. There is no installation needed to use these functions.<from>Jani</from> An event-based parser reports the XML above as a series of three events: • • • Start element: from Start CDATA section. and ignores any DTDs. because there is no Document Type Definition (DTD) associated with it.

break.$data.xml"."stop"). break. case "FROM": echo "From: "."start"."char"). break.Note -To: Tove From: Jani Heading: Reminder .4096)) { xml_parse($parser.feof($fp)) or die (sprintf("XML Error: %s at line %d". ?> The output of the code above will be: -.Note --<br />". case "TO": echo "To: ". xml_error_string(xml_get_error_code($parser)). xml_get_current_line_number($parser))). } //Free the XML parser xml_parser_free($parser). } //Specify element handler xml_set_element_handler($parser. //Open XML file $fp=fopen("test. break. case "BODY": echo "Message: ".$data) { echo $data. } //Function to use when finding character data function char($parser.$element_name) { echo "<br />". case "HEADING": echo "Heading: "."r"). //Read data while ($data=fread($fp. } } //Function to use at the end of an element function stop($parser.{ case "NOTE": echo "-. //Specify data handler xml_set_character_data_handler($parser.

Message: Don't forget me this weekend! How it works: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Initialize the XML parser with the xml_parser_create() function Create functions to use with the different event handlers Add the xml_set_element_handler() function to specify which function will be executed when the parser encounters the opening and closing tags Add the xml_set_character_data_handler() function to specify which function will execute when the parser encounters character data Parse the file "test.xml" with the xml_parse() function In case of an error, add xml_error_string() function to convert an XML error to a textual description Call the xml_parser_free() function to release the memory allocated with the xml_parser_create() function

PHP XML DOM
The built-in DOM parser makes it possible to process XML documents in PHP.

What is DOM?
The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents, and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core, XML, and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): * Core DOM - defines a standard set of objects for any structured document * XML DOM - defines a standard set of objects for XML documents * HTML DOM - defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents If you want to learn more about the XML DOM, please visit our XML DOM tutorial.

XML Parsing
To read and update - create and manipulate - an XML document, you will need an XML parser. There are two basic types of XML parsers:

• •

Tree-based parser: This parser transforms an XML document into a tree structure. It analyzes the whole document, and provides access to the tree elements Event-based parser: Views an XML document as a series of events. When a specific event occurs, it calls a function to handle it

The DOM parser is an tree-based parser. Look at the following XML document fraction:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> <from>Jani</from> The XML DOM sees the XML above as a tree structure:

• • •

Level 1: XML Document Level 2: Root element: <from> Level 3: Text element: "Jani"

Installation
The DOM XML parser functions are part of the PHP core. There is no installation needed to use these functions.

An XML File
The XML file below will be used in our example: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> <note> <to>Tove</to> <from>Jani</from> <heading>Reminder</heading> <body>Don't forget me this weekend!</body> </note>

Load and Output XML
We want to initialize the XML parser, load the xml, and output it:

Example
<?php $xmlDoc = new DOMDocument(); $xmlDoc->load("note.xml"); print $xmlDoc->saveXML(); ?> The output of the code above will be: Tove Jani Reminder Don't forget me this weekend! If you select "View source" in the browser window, you will see the following HTML: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> <note> <to>Tove</to> <from>Jani</from> <heading>Reminder</heading> <body>Don't forget me this weekend!</body>

</note> The example above creates a DOMDocument-Object and loads the XML from "note.xml" into it. Then the saveXML() function puts the internal XML document into a string, so we can output it.

Looping through XML
We want to initialize the XML parser, load the XML, and loop through all elements of the <note> element:

Example
<?php $xmlDoc = new DOMDocument(); $xmlDoc->load("note.xml"); $x = $xmlDoc->documentElement; foreach ($x->childNodes AS $item) { print $item->nodeName . " = " . $item->nodeValue . "<br />"; } ?> The output of the code above will be: #text = to = Tove #text = from = Jani #text = heading = Reminder #text = body = Don't forget me this weekend! #text = In the example above you see that there are empty text nodes between each element. When XML generates, it often contains white-spaces between the nodes. The XML DOM parser treats these as ordinary elements, and if you are not aware of them, they sometimes cause problems.

Installation As of PHP 5. There is no installation needed to use these functions. SimpleXML converts the XML document into an object. Using SimpleXML Below is an XML file: <?xml version="1.0.PHP SimpleXML SimpleXML handles the most common XML tasks and leaves the rest for other extensions. SimpleXML just takes a few lines of code to read text data from an element. when dealing with advanced XML. you are better off using the Expat parser or the XML DOM. Compared to DOM or the Expat parser. What is SimpleXML? SimpleXML is new in PHP 5. the SimpleXML functions are part of the PHP core. like this: • • • Elements .0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> <note> <to>Tove</to> <from>Jani</from> <heading>Reminder</heading> <body>Don't forget me this weekend!</body> </note> We want to output the element names and data from the XML file above. . like namespaces.Text data from elements are converted to strings.Are accessed using associative arrays. they will be arranged in the order they are found SimpleXML is fast and easy to use when performing basic tasks like: • • • Reading XML files Extracting data from XML strings Editing text nodes or attributes However.Are converted to single attributes of the SimpleXMLElement object. If an element has more than one text node. When there's more than one element on one level. It is an easy way of getting an element's attributes and text. if you know the XML document's layout. where an index corresponds to the attribute name Element Data . they're placed inside an array Attributes .

foreach($xml->children() as $child) { echo $child->getName() . using the children() function Output the element name and data for each child node Example <?php $xml = simplexml_load_file("test.xml"). 4.Here's what to do: 1. echo $xml->getName() . ": " . "<br />". $child . "<br />". 3. Load the XML file Get the name of the first element Create a loop that will trigger on each child node. } ?> The output of the code above will be: note to: Tove from: Jani heading: Reminder body: Don't forget me this weekend! PHP and AJAX . 2.

Examples of applications using AJAX: Google Maps. This means that it is possible to update parts of a web page. What is AJAX? AJAX = Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. How AJAX Works . and Facebook tabs. Youtube.AJAX Introduction AJAX is about updating parts of a web page. Classic web pages. AJAX allows web pages to be updated asynchronously by exchanging small amounts of data with the server behind the scenes. Gmail. AJAX is a technique for creating fast and dynamic web pages. (which do not use AJAX) must reload the entire page if the content should change. without reloading the whole page. without reloading the whole page.

and uses a combination of: • • • • XMLHttpRequest object (to exchange data asynchronously with a server) JavaScript/DOM (to display/interact with the information) CSS (to style the data) XML (often used as the format for transferring data) AJAX applications are browser.The HTML Page . AJAX PHP Example The following example will demonstrate how a web page can communicate with a web server while a user type characters in an input field: Example Start typing a name in the input field below: þÿ First name: Suggestions: Example Explained .AJAX is Based on Internet Standards AJAX is based on internet standards.AJAX and PHP AJAX is used to create more interactive applications.and platform-independent! PHP .

If the input field is not empty.onreadystatechange=function() { if (xmlhttp. } } xmlhttp.XMLHttpRequest) {// code for IE7+.readyState==4 && xmlhttp. IE5 xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.innerHTML=xmlhttp. return. xmlhttp. the showHint() function executes the following: • • • • Create an XMLHttpRequest object Create the function to be executed when the server response is ready Send the request off to a file on the server Notice that a parameter (q) is added to the URL (with the content of the input field) .true).getElementById("txtHint"). the function "showHint()" is executed.When a user types a character in the input field above.innerHTML="". } xmlhttp.responseText.php?q="+str. Firefox.length==0). The function is triggered by the "onkeyup" event: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function showHint(str) { if (str. } </script> </head <body> <p><b>Start typing a name in the input field below:</b></p> <form> First name: <input type="text" onkeyup="showHint(this.length==0) { document."gethint. } else {// code for IE6.value)" size="20" /> </form> <p>Suggestions: <span id="txtHint"></span></p> </body> </html> Source code explanation: If the input field is empty (str. } if (window.XMLHTTP"). Chrome. Opera.status==200) { document.getElementById("txtHint"). the function clears the content of the txtHint placeholder and exits the function.open("GET". Safari xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest().send().

$a[]="Vicky". $a[]="Sunniva". $a[]="Diana". $a[]="Wenche". $a[]="Kitty". $a[]="Violet". $a[]="Cinderella". $i++) { if (strtolower($q)==strtolower(substr($a[$i]. $a[]="Amanda". $a[]="Hege". $a[]="Petunia". } else { . The source code in "gethint. $a[]="Eve". $a[]="Eva". for($i=0. $a[]="Doris". //get the q parameter from URL $q=$_GET["q"]. $a[]="Ellen". $a[]="Brittany".php" checks an array of names. $a[]="Cindy".php". and returns the corresponding name(s) to the browser: <?php // Fill up array with names $a[]="Anna". //lookup all hints from array if length of q>0 if (strlen($q) > 0) { $hint="". $a[]="Gunda". $a[]="Unni".0. $a[]="Inga". $i<count($a). $a[]="Tove". $a[]="Fiona". $a[]="Elizabeth". $a[]="Nina". $a[]="Linda". $a[]="Evita".The PHP File The page on the server called by the JavaScript above is a PHP file called "gethint. $a[]="Liza". $a[]="Ophelia". $a[]="Raquel". $a[]="Johanna".strlen($q)))) { if ($hint=="") { $hint=$a[$i].

The MySQL Database The database table we use in the example above looks like this: id FirstName LastName Age Hometown Job . 3. the following happens: 1. } } } // Set output to "no suggestion" if no hint were found // or to the correct values if ($hint == "") { $response="no suggestion"...$a[$i]. set the response string to "no suggestion" If one or more matching names were found.$hint=$hint.AJAX and MySQL AJAX can be used for interactive communication with a database. ?> Explanation: If there is any text sent from the JavaScript (strlen($q) > 0). AJAX Database Example The following example will demonstrate how a web page can fetch information from a database with AJAX: Example þÿ Person info will be listed here. 4. ". } else { $response=$hint. } //output the response echo $response. Example Explained . 2." . set the response string to all these names The response is sent to the "txtHint" placeholder } PHP . Find a name matching the characters sent from the JavaScript If no match were found.

getElementById("txtHint"). Chrome.The HTML Page When a user selects a user in the dropdown list above. xmlhttp. } xmlhttp.</b></div> </body> </html> . } </script> </head> <body> <form> <select name="users" onchange="showUser(this.readyState==4 && xmlhttp.true). } else {// code for IE6.value)"> <option value="">Select a person:</option> <option value="1">Peter Griffin</option> <option value="2">Lois Griffin</option> <option value="3">Glenn Quagmire</option> <option value="4">Joseph Swanson</option> </select> </form> <br /> <div id="txtHint"><b>Person info will be listed here. } if (window.innerHTML="".send()."getuser.1 2 3 4 Peter Lois Joseph Glenn Griffin Griffin Swanson Quagmire 41 40 39 41 Quahog Newport Quahog Quahog Brewery Piano Teacher Police Officer Pilot Example Explained .innerHTML=xmlhttp.responseText. IE5 xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP"). } } xmlhttp.status==200) { document. Safari xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest().open("GET".XMLHttpRequest) {// code for IE7+. a function called "showUser()" is executed. The function is triggered by the "onchange" event: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function showUser(str) { if (str=="") { document.getElementById("txtHint").php?q="+str. Opera.onreadystatechange=function() { if (xmlhttp. return. Firefox.

?> .The showUser() function does the following: • • • • • Check if a person is selected Create an XMLHttpRequest object Create the function to be executed when the server response is ready Send the request off to a file on the server Notice that a parameter (q) is added to the URL (with the content of the dropdown list) The PHP File The page on the server called by the JavaScript above is a PHP file called "getuser. $row['FirstName'] . } echo "</table>". $result = mysql_query($sql). $sql="SELECT * FROM user WHERE id = '". $row['Hometown'] . echo "<table border='1'> <tr> <th>Firstname</th> <th>Lastname</th> <th>Age</th> <th>Hometown</th> <th>Job</th> </tr>".php" runs a query against a MySQL database. echo "<td>" . "</td>". 'abc123'). echo "<td>" . "</td>". if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . and returns the result in an HTML table: <?php $q=$_GET["q"]. "</td>".php". $con). echo "<td>" . } mysql_select_db("ajax_demo". echo "</tr>". $con = mysql_connect('localhost'. echo "<td>" .$q. 'peter'. $row['LastName'] . echo "<td>" . "</td>". $row['Job'] ."'". The source code in "getuser. "</td>". mysql_error()). $row['Age'] . mysql_close($con). while($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) { echo "<tr>".

the following happens: 1. 2. 3.Explanation: When the query is sent from the JavaScript to the PHP file.. a function called "showCD()" is executed. filled with data.The HTML Page When a user selects a CD in the dropdown list above. PHP opens a connection to a MySQL server The correct person is found An HTML table is created. and sent back to the "txtHint" placeholder PHP Example .AJAX and XML AJAX can be used for interactive communication with an XML file.. AJAX XML Example The following example will demonstrate how a web page can fetch information from an XML file with AJAX: Example þÿ CD info will be listed here. Example Explained . The function is triggered by the "onchange" event: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function showCD(str) { if (str=="") .

getElementById("txtHint"). IE5 xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.. Chrome.responseText.open("GET". } </script> </head> <body> <form> Select a CD: <select name="cds" onchange="showCD(this.true). xmlhttp.status==200) { document. Firefox."getcd. } xmlhttp. The PHP script loads an XML document.innerHTML="". Opera. "cd_catalog. } } xmlhttp. Safari xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest().onreadystatechange=function() { if (xmlhttp.innerHTML=xmlhttp. } if (window.XMLHTTP"). } else {// code for IE6.php"..xml".php?q="+str.readyState==4 && xmlhttp. runs a query against the XML file.XMLHttpRequest) {// code for IE7+. and returns the result as HTML: .send().value)"> <option value="">Select a CD:</option> <option value="Bob Dylan">Bob Dylan</option> <option value="Bonnie Tyler">Bonnie Tyler</option> <option value="Dolly Parton">Dolly Parton</option> </select> </form> <div id="txtHint"><b>CD info will be listed here.getElementById("txtHint").{ document.</b></div> </body> </html> The showCD() function does the following: • • • • • Check if a CD is selected Create an XMLHttpRequest object Create the function to be executed when the server response is ready Send the request off to a file on the server Notice that a parameter (q) is added to the URL (with the content of the dropdown list) The PHP File The page on the server called by the JavaScript above is a PHP file called "getcd. return.

$xmlDoc = new DOMDocument(). } } ?> When the CD query is sent from the JavaScript to the PHP page. } } } $cd=($y->childNodes). ":</b> ").xml").$i++) { //Process only element nodes if ($cd->item($i)->nodeType==1) { echo("<b>" .$i<$cd->length. for ($i=0. 3. $x=$xmlDoc->getElementsByTagName('ARTIST'). echo("<br />"). where you get search results while you type. $i++) { //Process only element nodes if ($x->item($i)->nodeType==1) { if ($x->item($i)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue == $q) { $y=($x->item($i)->parentNode). $cd->item($i)->nodeName . Live search has many benefits compared to traditional searching: . PHP creates an XML DOM object Find all <artist> elements that matches the name sent from the JavaScript Output the album information (send to the "txtHint" placeholder) PHP Example . 2. the following happens: 1. for ($i=0. $i<=$x->length-1.AJAX Live Search AJAX can be used to create more user-friendly and interactive searches.<?php $q=$_GET["q"]. AJAX Live Search The following example will demonstrate a live search. echo($cd->item($i)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue). $xmlDoc->load("cd_catalog.

the function "showResult()" is executed.The HTML Page When a user types a character in the input field above. Example Explained .status==200) { document.onreadystatechange=function() { if (xmlhttp.XMLHttpRequest) {// code for IE7+. } } xmlhttp. } else {// code for IE6. } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="text" size="30" onkeyup="showResult(this. The function is triggered by the "onkeyup" event: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function showResult(str) { if (str. Chrome. document. only eight results are available.true). IE5 xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. To make this example small and simple. } if (window.send().value)" /> <div id="livesearch"></div> </form> .xml). Opera.getElementById("livesearch"). document.innerHTML=xmlhttp.responseText.innerHTML="".style. Safari xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest().length==0) { document. return.open("GET". xmlhttp.border="0px".border="1px solid #A5ACB2".getElementById("livesearch").• • • Results are shown as you type Results narrow as you continue typing If results become too narrow.readyState==4 && xmlhttp.style. Firefox.getElementById("livesearch"). } xmlhttp."livesearch.php?q="+str. remove characters to see a broader result Search for a W3Schools page in the input field below: þÿ The results in the example above are found in an XML file (links.getElementById("livesearch").XMLHTTP").

$z=$x->item($i)->getElementsByTagName('url'). for($i=0. //lookup all links from the xml file if length of q>0 if (strlen($q)>0) { $hint="".php" searches an XML file for titles matching the search string and returns the result: <?php $xmlDoc=new DOMDocument(). If the input field is not empty. $xmlDoc->load("links.length==0). } else . if ($y->item(0)->nodeType==1) { //find a link matching the search text if (stristr($y->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue. $y->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue . The source code in "livesearch. $i++) { $y=$x->item($i)->getElementsByTagName('title'). $x=$xmlDoc->getElementsByTagName('link'). $z->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue . the function clears the content of the livesearch placeholder and exits the function. //get the q parameter from URL $q=$_GET["q"]. the showResult() function executes the following: • • • • Create an XMLHttpRequest object Create the function to be executed when the server response is ready Send the request off to a file on the server Notice that a parameter (q) is added to the URL (with the content of the input field) The PHP File The page on the server called by the JavaScript above is a PHP file called "livesearch.php".xml").</body> </html> Source code explanation: If the input field is empty (str. $i<($x->length). "' target='_blank'>" . "</a>".$q)) { if ($hint=="") { $hint="<a href='" .

If more than one match is found. where the RSS-feed is loaded into a webpage without reloading: þÿ RSS-feed will be listed here. } } } } } // Set output to "no suggestion" if no hint were found // or to the correct values if ($hint=="") { $response="no suggestion". $y->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue . } else { $response=$hint. the $response variable is set to "no suggestion" PHP Example ... "<br /><a href='" . "</a>". AJAX RSS Reader The following example will demonstrate an RSS reader.AJAX RSS Reader An RSS Reader is used to read RSS Feeds. ?> If there is any text sent from the JavaScript (strlen($q) > 0).{ $hint=$hint .The HTML Page . Example Explained . all matches are added to the variable If no matches are found. "' target='_blank'>" . $z->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue . the following happens: • • • • Load an XML file into a new XML DOM object Loop through all <title> elements to find matches from the text sent from the JavaScript Sets the correct url and title in the "$response" variable. } //output the response echo $response.

return. Opera.getElementById("rssOutput"). IE5 xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHttpRequest) {// code for IE7+.true). Safari xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest()..responseText."getrss.innerHTML="". } else {// code for IE6. } } xmlhttp. } </script> </head> <body> <form> <select onchange="showRSS(this. a function called "showResult()" is executed.</div> </body> </html> The showResult() function does the following: • • • • • Check if an RSS-feed is selected Create an XMLHttpRequest object Create the function to be executed when the server response is ready Send the request off to a file on the server Notice that a parameter (q) is added to the URL (with the content of the dropdown list) .getElementById("rssOutput"). Firefox..send().readyState==4 && xmlhttp.onreadystatechange=function() { if (xmlhttp. } if (window.value)"> <option value="">Select an RSS-feed:</option> <option value="Google">Google News</option> <option value="MSNBC">MSNBC News</option> </select> </form> <br /> <div id="rssOutput">RSS-feed will be listed here.innerHTML=xmlhttp.php?q="+str.XMLHTTP").length==0) { document. xmlhttp. The function is triggered by the "onchange" event: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function showRSS(str) { if (str. } xmlhttp.When a user selects an RSS-feed in the dropdown list above.status==200) { document. Chrome.open("GET".

com/news?ned=us&topic=h&output=rss"). $channel_desc = $channel->getElementsByTagName('description') ->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue. "</p>"). $xmlDoc->load($xml).msn. } ?> When an RSS-feed is sent from the JavaScript. for ($i=0. echo ($item_desc . "</a>"). echo($channel_desc . "'>" . //get and output "<item>" elements $x=$xmlDoc->getElementsByTagName('item'). echo ("<p><a href='" . } elseif($q=="MSNBC") { $xml=("http://rss. echo("<br />").The PHP File The page on the server called by the JavaScript above is a PHP file called "getrss.php": <?php //get the q parameter from URL $q=$_GET["q"]. $i++) { $item_title=$x->item($i)->getElementsByTagName('title') ->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue. "</a>").com/id/3032091/device/rss/rss. $channel_link .google. $channel_title = $channel->getElementsByTagName('title') ->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue. $item_link=$x->item($i)->getElementsByTagName('link') ->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue.msnbc. //find out which feed was selected if($q=="Google") { $xml=("http://news. "'>" . //output elements from "<channel>" echo("<p><a href='" . $item_link . $i<=2. $item_title . //get elements from "<channel>" $channel=$xmlDoc->getElementsByTagName('channel')->item(0). $channel_link = $channel->getElementsByTagName('link') ->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue. "</p>").xml"). $channel_title . } $xmlDoc = new DOMDocument(). the following happens: • Check which feed was selected . $item_desc=$x->item($i)->getElementsByTagName('description') ->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue. echo ("<br />").

true).XMLHttpRequest) {// code for IE7+. . Opera.• • • • Create a new XML DOM object Load the RSS document in the xml variable Extract and output elements from the channel element Extract and output elements from the item element PHP Example .XMLHTTP"). Do you like PHP and AJAX so far? Yes: No: Example Explained .open("GET".php?vote="+int. } xmlhttp. xmlhttp. a function called "getVote()" is executed. } else {// code for IE6.readyState==4 && xmlhttp. The function is triggered by the "onclick" event: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function getVote(int) { if (window. Chrome.responseText. Firefox.innerHTML=xmlhttp.AJAX Poll AJAX Poll The following example will demonstrate a poll where the result is shown without reloading. IE5 xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. } } xmlhttp.status==200) { document.onreadystatechange=function() { if (xmlhttp.The HTML Page When a user choose an option above.getElementById("poll")."poll_vote.send(). Safari xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest().

//put content in array $array = explode("||".txt". } //insert votes to txt file $insertvote = $yes. $content[0]). //get content of textfile $filename = "poll_result.php": <?php $vote = $_REQUEST['vote']. if ($vote == 0) { $yes = $yes + 1."||". . $yes = $array[0].$no."w"). $fp = fopen($filename. fputs($fp. $content = file($filename). $no = $array[1].value)" /> <br />No: <input type="radio" name="vote" value="1" onclick="getVote(this.} </script> </head> <body> <div id="poll"> <h3>Do you like PHP and AJAX so far?</h3> <form> Yes: <input type="radio" name="vote" value="0" onclick="getVote(this.$insertvote). } if ($vote == 1) { $no = $no + 1.value)" /> </form> </div> </body> </html> The getVote() function does the following: • • • • Create an XMLHttpRequest object Create the function to be executed when the server response is ready Send the request off to a file on the server Notice that a parameter (vote) is added to the URL (with the value of the yes or no option) The PHP File The page on the server called by the JavaScript above is a PHP file called "poll_vote.

?>% </td> </tr> <tr> <td>No:</td> <td> <img src="poll. ?> <h2>Result:</h2> <table> <tr> <td>Yes:</td> <td> <img src="poll.2)).gif" width='<?php echo(100*round($yes/($no+$yes).2)).txt" file Output a graphical representation of the poll result The Text File The text file (poll_result. 3. ?>% </td> </tr> </table> The value is sent from the JavaScript. just the web server (PHP). Note: Remember to allow your web server to edit the text file. ?>' height='20'> <?php echo(100*round($yes/($no+$yes).2)).fclose($fp).txt) is where we store the data from the poll. . Do NOT give everyone access. It is stored like this: 0||0 The first number represents the "Yes" votes. 4. ?>' height='20'> <?php echo(100*round($no/($no+$yes). Get the content of the "poll_result.gif" width='<?php echo(100*round($no/($no+$yes).txt" file Put the content of the file in variables and add one to the selected variable Write the result to the "poll_result. 2. the second number represents the "No" votes. and the following happens: 1.2)).

and returns the differences Compares array keys and values. There are also specific functions for populating arrays from database queries. and returns the differences PHP 3 4 5 4 4 4 5 Returns an array with all keys in lowercase or uppercase 4 . Function array() array_change_key_case() array_chunk() array_combine() array_count_values() array_diff() array_diff_assoc() array_diff_key() Description Creates an array Splits an array into chunks of arrays Creates an array by using one array for keys and another for its values Returns an array with the number of occurrences for each value Compares array values. PHP supports both simple and multi-dimensional arrays.PHP Reference PHP Array Introduction The array functions allow you to manipulate arrays. and returns the differences Compares array keys. Installation The array functions are part of the PHP core. PHP Array Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. There is no installation needed to use these functions.

with an additional user-made function check. to an array Deletes the last element of an array Calculates the product of the values in an array Inserts one or more elements to the end of an array Returns one or more random keys from an array Returns an array as a string. with an additional user-made function check. and returns an array 5 5 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 Filters elements of an array using a user-made function 4 Searches an array for a given value and returns the key 4 . and compares array values in a user-made function. with an additional user-made function check. and returns the matches Compares array keys. with a specified value. with an additional user-made function check. and returns the matches Compares array keys and values. and returns the differences Fills an array with values Exchanges all keys with their associated values in an array Compares array values. and returns the matches Checks if the specified key exists in the array Returns all the keys of an array Sends each value of an array to a user-made function. and returns the value of the removed element Returns selected parts of an array Removes and replaces specified elements of an array Returns the sum of the values in an array Compares array values in a user-made function and returns an array Compares array keys.array_diff_uassoc() array_diff_ukey() array_fill() array_filter() array_flip() array_intersect() array_intersect_assoc() array_intersect_key() array_intersect_uassoc() array_intersect_ukey() array_key_exists() array_keys() array_map() array_merge() array_merge_recursive() array_multisort() array_pad() array_pop() array_product() array_push() array_rand() array_reduce() array_reverse() array_search() array_shift() array_slice() array_splice() array_sum() array_udiff() array_udiff_assoc() array_udiff_uassoc() Compares array keys and values. which returns new values Merges one or more arrays into one array Merges one or more arrays into one array Sorts multiple or multi-dimensional arrays Inserts a specified number of items. and returns an array Compares array keys and array values in user-made functions. and returns the matches Compares array keys. and returns the matches Compares array keys and values. and returns the differences Compares array keys. using a user-defined function Returns an array in the reverse order Removes the first element from an array.

and returns an array Removes duplicate values from an array Returns all the values of an array Applies a user function to every member of an array Applies a user function recursively to every member of an array Sorts an array in reverse order and maintain index association Sorts an array and maintain index association Create array containing variables and their values Counts elements in an array. or properties in an object Returns the current element in an array Returns the current key and value pair from an array Sets the internal pointer of an array to its last element 5 5 5 4 4 3 5 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array 4 Imports variables into the current symbol table from an 3 array Checks if a specified value exists in an array Fetches a key from an array Sorts an array by key in reverse order Sorts an array by key Assigns variables as if they were an array Sorts an array using a case insensitive "natural order" algorithm Sorts an array using a "natural order" algorithm Advance the internal array pointer of an array Alias of current() Rewinds the internal array pointer Creates an array containing a range of elements Sets the internal pointer of an array to its first element Sorts an array in reverse order Shuffles an array Alias of count() Sorts an array 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Sorts an array with a user-defined function and maintain 3 index association Sorts an array by keys using a user-defined function Sorts an array by values using a user-defined function 3 3 .array_uintersect() array_uintersect_assoc() array_uintersect_uassoc() array_unique() array_unshift() array_values() array_walk() array_walk_recursive() arsort() asort() compact() count() current() each() end() extract() in_array() key() krsort() ksort() list() natcasesort() natsort() next() pos() prev() range() reset() rsort() shuffle() sizeof() sort() uasort() uksort() usort() Compares array values in a user-made function and returns an array Compares array keys. and compares array values in a user-made function. and returns an array Compares array keys and array values in user-made functions.

4713 B. Note that the Julian day count is not the same as the Julian calendar! Note: To convert between calendar formats. Constant CASE_LOWER CASE_UPPER SORT_ASC SORT_DESC SORT_REGULAR SORT_NUMERIC SORT_STRING SORT_LOCALE_STRING COUNT_NORMAL COUNT_RECURSIVE EXTR_OVERWRITE EXTR_SKIP EXTR_PREFIX_SAME EXTR_PREFIX_ALL EXTR_PREFIX_INVALID EXTR_PREFIX_IF_EXISTS EXTR_IF_EXISTS EXTR_REFS Description Used with array_change_key_case() to convert array keys to lower case Used with array_change_key_case() to convert array keys to upper case Used with array_multisort() to sort in ascending order Used with array_multisort() to sort in descending order Used to compare items normally Used to compare items numerically Used to compare items as strings Used to compare items as strings. Installation .PHP Array Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant. you must first convert to Julian day count.C.). based on the current 4 locale PHP PHP Calendar Functions PHP Calendar Introduction The calendar functions are useful when working with different calendar formats. then to the calendar format. The standard it is based on is the Julian day count (Julian day count is a count of days starting from January 1.

Function cal_days_in_month() cal_from_jd() cal_info() cal_to_jd() easter_date() easter_days() FrenchToJD() GregorianToJD() JDDayOfWeek() JDMonthName() JDToFrench() JDToGregorian() jdtojewish() JDToJulian() jdtounix() JewishToJD() JulianToJD() unixtojd() Description Returns the number of days in a month for a specified year and calendar Converts a Julian day count into a date of a specified calendar Returns information about a given calendar Converts a date to Julian day count Returns the Unix timestamp for midnight on Easter of a specified year PHP 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the number of days after March 21. PHP Calendar Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. you will have to compile PHP with --enable-calendar to get the calendar functions to work. Constant CAL_GREGORIAN CAL_JULIAN CAL_JEWISH CAL_FRENCH Description Gregorian calendar Julian calendar Jewish calendar French Republican calendar PHP 3 3 3 3 . on which Easter 3 falls for a specified year Converts a French Republican date to a Julian day count Converts a Gregorian date to a Julian day count Returns the day of a week Returns a month name Converts a Julian day count to a French Republican date Converts a Julian day count to a Gregorian date Converts a Julian day count to a Jewish date Converts a Julian day count to a Julian date Converts a Julian day count to a Unix timestamp Converts a Jewish date to a Julian day count Converts a Julian date to a Julian day count Converts a Unix timestamp to a Julian day count 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 PHP Calendar Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant. if you are running the Linux version of PHP. However. the calendar functions will work automatically.The windows version of PHP has built-in support for the calendar extension. So.

This option is used by date_sunrise() and date_sunset() Specifies the default longitude PHP_INI_ALL (available since PHP 5).2333" .7667" Description Changeable Specifies the default latitude (available PHP_INI_ALL since PHP 5). Note: These functions depend on the locale settings of the server! Installation The date/time functions are part of the PHP core. There is no installation needed to use these functions. Runtime Configuration The behavior of the date/time functions is affected by settings in php.CAL_NUM_CALS CAL_DOW_DAYNO CAL_DOW_SHORT CAL_DOW_LONG CAL_MONTH_GREGORIAN_SHORT CAL_MONTH_GREGORIAN_LONG CAL_MONTH_JULIAN_SHORT CAL_MONTH_JULIAN_LONG CAL_MONTH_JEWISH CAL_MONTH_FRENCH CAL_EASTER_DEFAULT CAL_EASTER_ROMAN CAL_EASTER_ALWAYS_GREGORIAN CAL_EASTER_ALWAYS_JULIAN CAL_JEWISH_ADD_ALAFIM_GERESH CAL_JEWISH_ADD_ALAFIM CAL_JEWISH_ADD_GERESHAYIM 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 PHP Date / Time Functions PHP Date / Time Introduction The date/time functions allow you to extract and format the date and time on the server. Date/Time configuration options: Name date.ini.default_longitude "35. This option is date.default_latitude Default "31.

83" date. This option is used by date_sunrise() and date_sunset() Specifies the default sunset zenith PHP_INI_ALL (available since PHP 5). Function checkdate() date_default_timezone_get() date_default_timezone_set() date_sunrise() date_sunset() date() getdate() gettimeofday() gmdate() gmmktime() gmstrftime() idate() localtime() microtime() mktime() strftime() strptime() strtotime() time() Description Validates a Gregorian date Returns the default time zone Sets the default time zone Returns the time of sunset for a given day / location Formats a local time/date Returns an array that contains date and time information for a Unix timestamp Returns an array that contains current time information Formats a GMT/UTC date/time Returns the Unix timestamp for a GMT date Formats a GMT/UTC time/date according to locale settings Formats a local time/date as integer Returns an array that contains the time components of a Unix timestamp Returns the microseconds for the current time Returns the Unix timestamp for a date Parses a time/date generated with strftime() Parses an English textual date or time into a Unix timestamp Returns the current time as a Unix timestamp PHP 3 5 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 4 3 3 5 3 3 Returns the time of sunrise for a given day / location 5 Formats a local time/date according to locale settings 3 PHP Date / Time Constants .83" Specifies the default sunrise zenith PHP_INI_ALL (available since PHP 5).1) PHP_INI_ALL date. This option is used by date_sunrise() and date_sunset() Specifies the default timezone (available since PHP 5.sunrise_zenith "90.timezone "" PHP Date / Time Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function.sunset_zenith "90.used by date_sunrise() and date_sunset() date.

Constant DATE_ATOM DATE_COOKIE DATE_ISO8601 DATE_RFC822 DATE_RFC850 DATE_RFC1036 DATE_RFC1123 DATE_RFC2822 DATE_RSS DATE_W3C Description Atom (example: 2005-08-15T16:13:03+0000) HTTP Cookies (example: Sun. 14 Aug 2005 16:13:03 UTC) ISO-8601 (example: 2005-08-14T16:13:03+0000) RFC 822 (example: Sun.PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant. 14-Aug-05 16:13:03 UTC) RFC 1123 (example: Sun. 14 Aug 2005 16:13:03 +0000) RSS (Sun. 14 Aug 2005 16:13:03 UTC) RFC 850 (example: Sunday. 14 Aug 2005 16:13:03 UTC) World Wide Web Consortium (example: 2005-0814T16:13:03+0000) PHP PHP Directory Functions PHP Directory Introduction . 14-Aug-05 16:13:03 UTC) RFC 1036 (example: Sunday. 14 Aug 2005 16:13:03 UTC) RFC 2822 (Sun.

The logging functions allow users to log applications and send log messages to email. The error functions allow users to define error handling rules. Constant DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR PATH_SEPARATOR Description PHP 3 4 PHP Error and Logging Functions PHP Error and Logging Introduction The error and logging functions allows error handling and logging. PHP Directory Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. There is no installation needed to use these functions. and modify the way the errors can be logged. Function chdir() chroot() dir() closedir() getcwd() opendir() readdir() rewinddir() scandir() Description Changes the current directory Changes the root directory of the current process Opens a directory handle and returns an object Closes a directory handle Returns the current directory Opens a directory handle Returns an entry from a directory handle Resets a directory handle Lists files and directories inside a specified path PHP 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 5 PHP Directory Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant.The directory functions allow you to retrieve information about directories and their contents. system logs or other machines. Installation The directory functions are part of the PHP core. Installation .

Value Constant 1 2 4 8 E_ERROR E_WARNING E_PARSE E_NOTICE Description Fatal run-time errors. but could also happen when running a script normally Fatal errors at PHP startup. This is like an E_ERROR 4 generated by the Zend Scripting Engine Non-fatal compile-time errors. This is like an E_WARNING generated by the Zend Scripting Engine 4 . Function debug_backtrace() debug_print_backtrace() error_get_last() error_log() error_reporting() restore_error_handler() restore_exception_handler() set_error_handler() set_exception_handler() trigger_error() user_error() Description Generates a backtrace Prints a backtrace Gets the last error occurred PHP 4 5 5 Sends an error to the server error-log. Errors that cannot be recovered from. This is like an E_ERROR in the PHP core Non-fatal errors at PHP startup. There is no installation needed to use these functions.The error and logging functions are part of the PHP core. Execution of the script is halted Non-fatal run-time errors. PHP Error and Logging Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. The script found something that might be an error. to a file or to 4 a remote destination Specifies which errors are reported Restores the previous error handler Restores the previous exception handler Sets a user-defined function to handle errors Sets a user-defined function to handle exceptions Creates a user-defined error message Alias of trigger_error() 4 4 5 4 5 4 4 PHP Error and Logging Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant. Parse errors should only be generated by the parser Run-time notices. Execution of the script is not halted Compile-time parse errors. This is like an E_WARNING in the PHP core 4 4 PHP 16 32 64 128 E_CORE_ERROR E_CORE_WARNING E_COMPILE_ERROR E_COMPILE_WARNING Fatal compile-time errors.

This is like an E_ERROR but 5 can be caught by a user defined handle (see also set_error_handler()) All errors and warnings. There is no installation needed to use these functions. except of level E_STRICT 5 6143 E_ALL PHP Filesystem Functions PHP Filesystem Introduction The filesystem functions allow you to access and manipulate the filesystem. This is like an E_NOTICE set by the programmer using the PHP function trigger_error() Run-time notices. Installation The filesystem functions are part of the PHP core. PHP suggest changes to your code to help interoperability and compatibility of the code 4 1024 E_USER_NOTICE 2048 E_STRICT 5 4096 E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR Catchable fatal error. . This is like an 4 E_WARNING set by the programmer using the PHP function trigger_error() User-generated notice.256 E_USER_ERROR Fatal user-generated error. This is like an E_ERROR set by the programmer using the PHP function trigger_error() 4 512 E_USER_WARNING Non-fatal user-generated warning.

Filesystem configuration options: Name allow_url_fopen user_agent default_socket_timeout Default "1" NULL "60" Description Changeable Allows fopen()-type functions to work PHP_INI_SYSTEM with URLs (available since PHP 4. MS-Dos or Mac line-ending characters (available since PHP 4.3) Defines the anonymous FTP passwordPHP_INI_ALL (your email address) When set to "1".3) PHP_INI_ALL Sets the default timeout. PHP_INI_ALL for socket based streams (available since PHP 4.4) Defines the user agent for PHP to send (available since PHP 4.0.ini. the forward slash (/) is used as directory separator. PHP Filesystem Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. on Windows platforms.3) from "" auto_detect_line_endings "0" Unix / Windows Compatibility When specifying a path on Unix platforms.Runtime Configuration The behavior of the filesystem functions is affected by settings in php. in seconds. Function basename() chgrp() chmod() chown() clearstatcache() copy() delete() dirname() disk_free_space() disk_total_space() diskfreespace() fclose() Description Returns the filename component of a path Changes the file group Changes the file mode Changes the file owner Clears the file status cache Copies a file See unlink() or unset() Returns the directory name component of a path Returns the free space of a directory Returns the total size of a directory Alias of disk_free_space() Closes an open file 3 4 4 3 3 PHP 3 3 3 3 3 3 . However. both forward slash (/) and backslash (\) can be used. PHP will examine PHP_INI_ALL the data read by fgets() and file() to see if it is using Unix.

and writes the result to the output buffer Formats a line as CSV and writes it to an open file Alias of fwrite() Reads from an open file Seeks in an open file Returns information about an open file Returns the current position in an open file Truncates an open file to a specified length Writes to an open file Returns an array of filenames / directories matching a specified pattern Checks whether a file is a directory Checks whether a file is executable Checks whether a file is a regular file Checks whether a file is a link Checks whether a file is readable 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 5 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 Parses input from an open file according to a specified format 4 .feof() fflush() fgetc() fgetcsv() fgets() fgetss() file() file_exists() file_get_contents() file_put_contents fileatime() filectime() filegroup() fileinode() filemtime() fileowner() fileperms() filesize() filetype() flock() fnmatch() fopen() fpassthru() fputcsv() fputs() fread() fscanf() fseek() fstat() ftell() ftruncate() fwrite() glob() is_dir() is_executable() is_file() is_link() is_readable() Tests for end-of-file on an open file Flushes buffered output to an open file Returns a character from an open file Parses a line from an open file. until EOF. checking for CSV fields Returns a line from an open file Returns a line. with HTML and PHP tags removed. from an open file Reads a file into an array Checks whether or not a file or directory exists Reads a file into a string Writes a string to a file Returns the last access time of a file Returns the last change time of a file Returns the group ID of a file Returns the inode number of a file Returns the last modification time of a file Returns the user ID (owner) of a file Returns the permissions of a file Returns the file size Returns the file type Locks or releases a file Matches a filename or string against a specified pattern Opens a file or URL Reads from an open file.

Constant GLOB_BRACE GLOB_ONLYDIR GLOB_MARK GLOB_NOSORT GLOB_NOCHECK GLOB_NOESCAPE PATHINFO_DIRNAME PATHINFO_BASENAME Description PHP .is_uploaded_file() is_writable() is_writeable() link() linkinfo() lstat() mkdir() move_uploaded_file() parse_ini_file() pathinfo() pclose() popen() readfile() readlink() realpath() rename() rewind() rmdir() set_file_buffer() stat() symlink() tempnam() tmpfile() touch() umask() unlink() Checks whether a file was uploaded via HTTP POST Checks whether a file is writeable Alias of is_writable() Creates a hard link Returns information about a hard link Returns information about a file or symbolic link Creates a directory Moves an uploaded file to a new location Parses a configuration file Returns information about a file path Closes a pipe opened by popen() Opens a pipe Reads a file and writes it to the output buffer Returns the target of a symbolic link Returns the absolute pathname Renames a file or directory Rewinds a file pointer Removes an empty directory Sets the buffer size of an open file Returns information about a file Creates a symbolic link Creates a unique temporary file Creates a unique temporary file Sets access and modification time of a file Changes file permissions for files Deletes a file 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 PHP Filesystem Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant.

PATHINFO_EXTENSION FILE_USE_INCLUDE_PATH FILE_APPEND FILE_IGNORE_NEW_LINES FILE_SKIP_EMPTY_LINES PHP Filter Functions PHP Filter Introduction This PHP filters is used to validate and filter data coming from insecure sources. Installation The filter functions are part of the PHP core. like user input. Function Description PHP . There is no installation needed to use these functions. PHP Filter Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function.

except digits and +Remove all characters. "off". optionally strip or encode special characters HTML-escape '"<>& and characters with ASCII value less than 32 Remove all characters. FALSE for "0". and "".filter_has_var() filter_id() filter_input() filter_input_array() filter_list() filter_var_array() filter_var() Checks if a variable of a specified input type exist Returns the ID number of a specified filter Get input from outside the script and filter it Get multiple inputs from outside the script and filters them Returns an array of all supported filters Get multiple variables and filter them Get a variable and filter it 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 PHP Filters ID Name FILTER_CALLBACK FILTER_SANITIZE_STRING FILTER_SANITIZE_STRIPPED FILTER_SANITIZE_ENCODED FILTER_SANITIZE_SPECIAL_CHARS FILTER_SANITIZE_EMAIL FILTER_SANITIZE_URL FILTER_SANITIZE_NUMBER_INT FILTER_SANITIZE_NUMBER_FLOAT FILTER_SANITIZE_MAGIC_QUOTES FILTER_UNSAFE_RAW FILTER_VALIDATE_INT FILTER_VALIDATE_BOOLEAN Description Call a user-defined function to filter data Strip tags.[] Remove all characters. optionally only IPv4 or IPv6 or not from private or reserved ranges FILTER_VALIDATE_FLOAT FILTER_VALIDATE_REGEXP FILTER_VALIDATE_URL FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL FILTER_VALIDATE_IP . "false". optionally strip or encode special characters Alias of "string" filter URL-encode string.eE Apply addslashes() Do nothing.. except letters. "no"./?:@&= Remove all characters. NULL otherwise Validate value as float Validate value against regexp. "on" and "yes". digits and $-_. optionally with required components Validate value as e-mail Validate value as IP address. a Perlcompatible regular expression Validate value as URL.and optionally . except digits. +. optionally from the specified range Return TRUE for "1".{}|\\^~[]`<>#%".+!*'(). "true". digits and !#$%&'*+-/=?^_`{|}~@. except letters. optionally strip or encode special characters Validate value as integer.

as well as upload. PHP FTP Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. delete. The FTP functions are used to open. Installation The windows version of PHP has built-in support for the FTP extension. Function ftp_alloc() ftp_cdup() ftp_chdir() ftp_chmod() ftp_close() ftp_connect() ftp_delete() ftp_exec() ftp_fget() ftp_fput() ftp_get_option() ftp_get() ftp_login() Description Allocates space for a file to be uploaded to the FTP server PHP 5 Changes the current directory to the parent directory on the 3 FTP server Changes the current directory on the FTP server Sets permissions on a file via FTP Closes an FTP connection Opens an FTP connection Deletes a file on the FTP server Executes a program/command on the FTP server 3 5 4 3 3 4 Downloads a file from the FTP server and saves it to an open 3 file Uploads from an open file and saves it to a file on the FTP server Returns runtime behaviors of the FTP connection Downloads a file from the FTP server Logs on to an FTP connection 3 4 3 3 . The FTP functions became available with PHP 3. These functions are meant for detailed access to an FTP server. download. Not all of the FTP functions will work with every server or return the same results. rename. the FTP functions will work automatically. and get information on files from file servers. login and close connections. you will have to compile PHP with --enable-ftp (PHP 4+) or --with-ftp (PHP 3) to get the FTP functions to work. So. If you only wish to read from or write to a file on an FTP server. However. consider using the ftp:// wrapper with the Filesystem functions. if you are running the Linux version of PHP.PHP FTP Functions PHP FTP Introduction The FTP functions give client access to file servers through the File Transfer Protocol (FTP).

ftp_mdtm() ftp_mkdir() ftp_nb_continue() ftp_nb_fget() ftp_nb_fput() ftp_nb_get() ftp_nb_put() ftp_nlist() ftp_pasv() ftp_put() ftp_pwd() ftp_quit() ftp_raw() ftp_rawlist() ftp_rename() ftp_rmdir() ftp_set_option() ftp_site() ftp_size() ftp_ssl_connect() ftp_systype() Returns the last modified time of a specified file Creates a new directory on the FTP server Continues retrieving/sending a file (non-blocking) 3 3 4 Downloads a file from the FTP server and saves it to an open 4 file (non-blocking) Uploads from an open file and saves it to a file on the FTP server (non-blocking) Downloads a file from the FTP server (non-blocking) Uploads a file to the FTP server (non-blocking) Lists the files in a specified directory on the FTP server Turns passive mode on or off Uploads a file to the FTP server Returns the current directory name Alias of ftp_close() Sends a raw command to the FTP server Returns a detailed list of files in the specified directory Renames a file or directory on the FTP server Removes a directory on the FTP server Sets runtime options for the FTP connection Sends a SITE command to the server Returns the size of the specified file Opens a secure SSL-FTP connection Returns the system type identifier of the FTP server 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 5 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 PHP FTP Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant. Constant FTP_ASCII FTP_TEXT FTP_BINARY FTP_IMAGE FTP_TIMEOUT_SEC FTP_AUTOSEEK FTP_AUTORESUME FTP_FAILED FTP_FINISHED FTP_MOREDATA Description PHP 3 3 3 3 3 4 Determine resume position and start position for get and put 4 requests automatically Asynchronous transfer has failed Asynchronous transfer has finished Asynchronous transfer is still active 4 4 4 .

PHP HTTP Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. Installation The directory functions are part of the PHP core. before any other output has been sent. Function header() headers_list() headers_sent() setcookie() setrawcookie() Description Sends a raw HTTP header to a client Returns a list of response headers sent (or ready to send) Checks if / where the HTTP headers have been sent Sends an HTTP cookie to a client Sends an HTTP cookie without URL encoding the PHP 3 5 3 3 5 .PHP HTTP Functions PHP HTTP Introduction The HTTP functions let you manipulate information sent to the browser by the Web server. There is no installation needed to use these functions.

XSLT and DOM functions. Installation These functions require the libxml package.org PHP libxml Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. Function libxml_clear_errors() libxml_get_errors() libxml_get_last_error() libxml_set_streams_context() libxml_use_internal_errors() Description Clear libxml error buffer Retrieve array of errors Retrieve last error from libxml PHP 5 5 5 Set the streams context for the next libxml document 5 load or write Disable libxml errors and allow user to fetch error information as needed 5 . Download at xmlsoft.cookie value PHP libxml Functions PHP libxml Introduction The libxml functions and constants are used together with SimpleXML.

g.6. only 5 available in the DOMDocument->save() and DOMDocument->saveXML() functions Substitute entities Do not show error reports Stop network access while loading documents Do not show warning reports Drop the XML declaration when saving a document Remove excess namespace declarations Use XInclude substitution Get recoverable errors Get fatal errors Get no errors Get simple warnings Get libxml version (e. Requirements For the mail functions to be available. 2.6.PHP libxml Constants Function LIBXML_COMPACT LIBXML_DTDATTR LIBXML_DTDLOAD LIBXML_DTDVALID LIBXML_NOBLANKS LIBXML_NOCDATA LIBXML_NOEMPTYTAG Description Set small nodes allocation optimization. <br/> to <br></br>).ini file. This may improve the application performance Set default DTD attributes Load external subset Validate with the DTD Remove blank nodes Set CDATA as text nodes PHP 5 5 5 5 5 5 Change empty tags (e.g.g.17) 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 LIBXML_NOENT LIBXML_NOERROR LIBXML_NONET LIBXML_NOWARNING LIBXML_NOXMLDECL LIBXML_NSCLEAN LIBXML_XINCLUDE LIBXML_ERR_ERROR LIBXML_ERR_FATAL LIBXML_ERR_NONE LIBXML_ERR_WARNING LIBXML_VERSION LIBXML_DOTTED_VERSION PHP Mail Functions PHP Mail Introduction The mail() function allows you to send emails directly from a script. 20605 or 20617) Get dotted libxml version (e. The program to be used is defined by the configuration settings in the php. Installation . PHP requires an installed and working email system.5 or 2.

Installation The math functions are part of the PHP core. .3 Windows only: Specifies the "from" address to be used in email sent from PHP PHP_INI_ALL sendmail_path NULL Unix systems only: Specifies where the PHP_INI_SYSTEM sendmail program can be found (usually /usr/sbin/sendmail or /usr/lib/sendmail) PHP Mail Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. Mail configuration options: Name SMTP smtp_port sendmail_from Default "localhost" "25" NULL Description Windows only: The DNS name or IP address of the SMTP server Changeable PHP_INI_ALL Windows only: The SMTP port number. Runtime Configuration The behavior of the mail functions is affected by settings in the php. There is no installation needed to use these functions. There is no installation needed to use these functions. PHP_INI_ALL Available since PHP 4.The mail functions are part of the PHP core.ini file. Function ezmlm_hash() mail() Description Calculates the hash value needed by the EZMLM mailing list system Allows you to send emails directly from a script PHP 3 3 PHP Math Functions PHP Math Introduction The math functions can handle values within the range of integer and float types.

Function abs() acos() acosh() asin() asinh() atan() atan2() atanh() base_convert() bindec() ceil() cos() cosh() decbin() dechex() decoct() deg2rad() exp() expm1() floor() fmod() getrandmax() hexdec() hypot() is_finite() is_infinite() is_nan() lcg_value() log() log10() log1p() Description Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number Returns the arctangent of a number as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians PHP 3 3 4 3 4 3 Returns the angle theta of an (x.1 Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the remainder (modulo) of the division of the arguments Returns the maximum random number that can be returned 3 by a call to the rand() function Converts a hexadecimal number to a decimal number Returns true if a value is a finite number Returns true if a value is an infinite number Returns true if a value is not a number Returns a pseudo random number in the range of (0.1) Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number Returns log(1+number) 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 Returns the length of the hypotenuse of a right-angle triangle 4 .y) point as a numeric value 3 between -PI and PI radians Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number Converts a number from one base to another Converts a binary number to a decimal number Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number Converts a decimal number to a binary number Converts a decimal number to a hexadecimal number Converts a decimal number to an octal number Converts a degree to a radian number Returns the value of E x x 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 4 Returns the value of E .PHP Math Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function.

1. 2.318) Returns 2/PI (approx.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx. 0.434) Returns PI (approx. 0.636) Returns the square root of PI (approx. 0. 0. 1.772) Returns 2/square root of PI (approx.144) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.718) Returns Euler's constant (approx.max() min() mt_getrandmax() mt_rand() mt_srand() octdec() pi() pow() rad2deg() rand() round() sin() sinh() sqrt() srand() tan() tanh() Returns the number with the highest value of two specified numbers Returns the number with the lowest value of two specified numbers Returns the largest possible value that can be returned by mt_rand() Returns a random integer using Mersenne Twister algorithm Seeds the Mersenne Twister random number generator Converts an octal number to a decimal number Returns the value of PI Returns the value of x to the power of y Converts a radian number to a degree Returns a random integer Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Seeds the random number generator Returns the tangent of an angle Returns the hyperbolic tangent of an angle 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 PHP Math Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant. Constant M_E M_EULER M_LNPI M_LN2 M_LN10 M_LOG2E M_LOG10E M_PI M_PI_2 M_PI_4 M_1_PI M_2_PI M_SQRTPI M_2_SQRTPI M_SQRT1_2 Description Returns e (approx. 2. 3.707) PHP 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 .785) Returns 1/PI (approx. 1. 0.128) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx.577) Returns the natural logarithm of PI (approx. 0.14159) Returns PI/2 (approx. 1.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.570) Returns PI/4 (approx. 1. 0.

M_SQRT2 M_SQRT3 Returns the square root of 2 (approx. There is no installation needed to use these functions.414) Returns the square root of 3 (approx. parenthesis and semicolon) Color for background Default color for PHP syntax Color for HTML code Name and location of browsercapabilities file (e. functions were only placed here because none of the other categories seemed to fit. Installation The misc functions are part of the PHP core. 1. Functions PHP Miscellaneous Introduction The misc.html browscap "#FFFFFF" "#0000BB" "#000000" NULL PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_SYSTEM PHP Misc.0. Function connection_aborted() connection_status() connection_timeout() Description Checks whether the client has disconnected Returns the current connection status Deprecated in PHP 4.ini file. Misc.g. 1.keyword "#007700" highlight. configuration options: Name Default Description FALSE indicates that scripts will be terminated as soon as they try to output something after a client has aborted their connection Color for highlighting a string in PHP syntax Color for highlighting PHP comments Color for syntax highlighting PHP keywords (e.732) 4 4 PHP Misc.5 PHP 3 3 3 . Runtime Configuration The behavior of the misc functions is affected by settings in the php. browscap.g. Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function.ini) Changeable PHP_INI_ALL ignore_user_abort "0" highlight.bg highlight.string "#DD0000" PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_ALL highlight.comment "#FF8000" highlight.default highlight.

0. Constant CONNECTION_ABORTED CONNECTION_NORMAL CONNECTION_TIMEOUT __COMPILER_HALT_OFFSET_ _ 5 Description PHP . Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant.constant() define() defined() die() eval() exit() get_browser() highlight_file() highlight_string() ignore_user_abort() pack() php_check_syntax() php_strip_whitespace() show_source() sleep() time_nanosleep() time_sleep_until() uniqid() unpack() usleep() Returns the value of a constant Defines a constant Checks whether a constant exists Prints a message and exits the current script Evaluates a string as PHP code Prints a message and exits the current script Returns the capabilities of the user's browser Outputs a file with the PHP syntax highlighted Outputs a string with the PHP syntax highlighted Packs data into a binary string Deprecated in PHP 5.5 Returns the source code of a file with PHP comments and whitespace removed Alias of highlight_file() Delays code execution for a number of seconds Delays code execution for a number of seconds and nanoseconds Delays code execution until a specified time Generates a unique ID Unpacks data from a binary string Delays code execution for a number of microseconds 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 5 5 4 3 5 5 3 3 3 Sets whether a remote client can abort the running of a script3 PHP Misc.

this is because php_mysql. A file named libmysql. If you would like to install both the mysql extension and the mysqli extension you should use the same client library to avoid any conflicts.dll or libmysql. Installation on Windows Systems PHP 5+: MySQL is not enabled by default. To enable any PHP extension. Use the --with-mysql=DIR configure option to include MySQL support and download headers and libraries from www.1. MySQL configuration options: .dll must be enabled inside of php. the PHP extension_dir setting (in the php.ini file) should be set to the directory where the PHP extensions are located./php_mysql.. Note: For full functionality of MySQL versions greater than 4. An example extension_dir value is c:\php\ext.dll'". use --with-mysql=DIR (the optional DIR points to the MySQL directory).ini.ini file.PHP MySQL Functions PHP MySQL Introduction The MySQL functions allows you to access MySQL database servers. Also. For compiling. use the MySQLi extension instead.dll is included in the Windows PHP distribution.com.mysql. you must compile PHP with MySQL support. Note: If you get the following error when starting the web server: "Unable to load dynamic library '. Installation For the MySQL functions to be available. Installation on Linux Systems PHP 5+: MySQL and the MySQL library is not enabled by default. and in order for PHP to talk to MySQL this file needs to be available to the Windows systems PATH. Runtime Configuration The behavior of the MySQL functions is affected by settings in the php. PHP needs access to the MySQL client library.dll cannot be found by the system. so the php_mysql.

When set to "1". The first one is the link_identifier for a database connection.1 The default server host to use (doesn't apply in SQL safe mode) PHP_INI_ALL mysql. the second is a resource which holds the result of a query. Changes the user of the current MySQL connection Returns the name of the character set for the current connection Closes a non-persistent MySQL connection Opens a non-persistent MySQL connection Deprecated. Available since PHP 4. Note: Most MySQL functions accept link_identifier as the last optional parameter. the last opened connection is used.default_socket mysql.max_links "-1" "-1" The maximum number of connections PHP_INI_SYSTEM per process (persistent connections included) Trace mode.allow_persistent "1" mysql.0. Function mysql_affected_rows() mysql_change_user() mysql_client_encoding() mysql_close() mysql_connect() mysql_create_db() mysql_data_seek() Description Returns the number of affected rows in the previous MySQL operation Deprecated. PHP MySQL Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. warnings and SQL-errors will be displayed.connect_timeout "60" Resource Types There are two resource types used in the MySQL extension.default_user NULL NULL NULL NULL PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_ALL The default user name to use (doesn't PHP_INI_ALL apply in SQL safe mode) The default password to use (doesn't PHP_INI_ALL apply in SQL safe mode) Connection timeout in seconds PHP_INI_ALL mysql. Creates a new MySQL database. Use mysql_query() instead Moves the record pointer PHP 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 .default_password NULL mysql. Available since PHP 4. If it is not provided.default_port mysql.max_persistent mysql.3 The default TCP port number to use The default socket name to use.Name Default Description Whether or not to allow persistent connections The maximum number of persistent connections per process Changeable PHP_INI_SYSTEM PHP_INI_SYSTEM mysql.default_host mysql.trace_mode "0" mysql.

Lists tables in a MySQL database.mysql_db_name() mysql_db_query() mysql_drop_db() mysql_errno() mysql_error() mysql_escape_string() mysql_fetch_array() mysql_fetch_assoc() mysql_fetch_field() mysql_fetch_lengths() mysql_fetch_object() mysql_fetch_row() mysql_field_flags() mysql_field_len() mysql_field_name() mysql_field_seek() mysql_field_table() mysql_field_type() mysql_free_result() mysql_get_client_info() mysql_get_host_info() mysql_get_proto_info() mysql_get_server_info() mysql_info() mysql_insert_id() mysql_list_dbs() mysql_list_fields() mysql_list_processes() mysql_list_tables() mysql_num_fields() mysql_num_rows() mysql_pconnect() mysql_ping() mysql_query() Returns a database name from a call to mysql_list_dbs() 3 Deprecated. Lists MySQL table fields. Use mysql_select_db() and mysql_query() instead Deprecated. Use mysql_real_escape_string() instead Returns a row from a recordset as an associative array and/or a numeric array Returns a row from a recordset as an associative array Returns column info from a recordset as an object Returns the length of the contents of each field in a result row Returns a row from a recordset as an object Returns a row from a recordset as a numeric array Returns the flags associated with a field in a recordset Returns the maximum length of a field in a recordset Returns the name of a field in a recordset Moves the result pointer to a specified field Returns the name of the table the specified field is in Returns the type of a field in a recordset Free result memory Returns MySQL client info Returns MySQL host info Returns MySQL protocol info Returns MySQL server info Returns information about the last query Returns the AUTO_INCREMENT ID generated from the previous INSERT operation Lists available databases on a MySQL server 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 Returns the error description of the last MySQL operation3 Deprecated. Use mysql_query() instead Returns the error number of the last MySQL operation Deprecated. Sends a MySQL query. Use mysql_query() instead Returns the number of fields in a recordset Returns the number of rows in a recordset Opens a persistent MySQL connection Pings a server connection or reconnects if there is no connection Executes a query on a MySQL database 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 . Deletes a MySQL database. Escapes a string for use in a mysql_query. Use mysql_query() 3 instead Lists MySQL processes Deprecated.

3 it has been possible to specify additional flags for the mysql_connect() and mysql_pconnect() functions: PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant.3 Allow interactive timeout seconds of inactivity 4. Constant MYSQL_CLIENT_COMPRESS MYSQL_CLIENT_IGNORE_SPACE MYSQL_CLIENT_INTERACTIVE MYSQL_CLIENT_SSL Description Use compression protocol Allow space after function names PHP 4. with normal property selectors and array iterators.3 4+ of the MySQL client library) The mysql_fetch_array() function uses a constant for the different types of result arrays. Use mysql_query() instead Returns the current thread ID 4 3 3 4 3 4 Executes a query on a MySQL database (without fetching 4 / buffering the result) PHP MySQL Constants Since PHP 4.3 before closing the connection Use SSL encryption (only available with version 4. This object can be processed. . Returns the table name of field. Some of these functions requires the newest PHP build. like any other object.3 4.mysql_real_escape_string() mysql_result() mysql_select_db() mysql_stat() mysql_tablename() mysql_thread_id() mysql_unbuffered_query() Escapes a string for use in SQL statements Returns the value of a field in a recordset Sets the active MySQL database Returns the current system status of the MySQL server Deprecated. The following constants are defined: Constant MYSQL_ASSOC MYSQL_BOTH MYSQL_NUM Description Columns are returned into the array with the fieldname as the array index Columns are returned into the array having both a numerical index and the fieldname as the array index Columns are returned into the array having a numerical index (index starts at 0) PHP PHP SimpleXML Functions PHP SimpleXML Introduction The SimpleXML functions lets you convert XML to an object.

Function __construct() addAttribute() addChild() asXML() attributes() children() getDocNamespaces() getName() getNamespace() registerXPathNamespace() simplexml_import_dom() simplexml_load_file() simplexml_load_string() xpath() Description Creates a new SimpleXMLElement object Adds an attribute to the SimpleXML element Adds a child element the SimpleXML element Gets an XML string from a SimpleXML element Gets a SimpleXML element's attributes Gets the children of a specified node Gets the namespaces of an XML document Gets the name of a SimpleXML element Gets the namespaces from XML data Creates a namespace context for the next XPath query Gets a SimpleXMLElement object from a DOM node Gets a SimpleXMLElement object from an XML string Runs an XPath query on XML data PHP 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Gets a SimpleXMLElement object from an XML document 5 PHP String Functions . PHP SimpleXML Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function.Installation The SimpleXML functions are part of the PHP core. There is no installation needed to use these functions.

Function addcslashes() addslashes() bin2hex() chop() chr() chunk_split() convert_cyr_string() convert_uudecode() convert_uuencode() count_chars() crc32() crypt() echo() explode() fprintf() get_html_translation_table() hebrev() hebrevc() html_entity_decode() htmlentities() htmlspecialchars_decode() htmlspecialchars() Description Returns a string with backslashes in front of the specified characters Returns a string with backslashes in front of predefined characters PHP 4 3 Converts a string of ASCII characters to hexadecimal 3 values Alias of rtrim() Returns a character from a specified ASCII value Splits a string into a series of smaller parts Converts a string from one Cyrillic character-set to another Decodes a uuencoded string Encodes a string using the uuencode algorithm Returns how many times an ASCII character occurs within a string and returns the information Calculates a 32-bit CRC for a string One-way string encryption (hashing) Outputs strings Breaks a string into an array Returns the translation table used by htmlspecialchars() and htmlentities() Converts Hebrew text to visual text Converts Hebrew text to visual text and new lines (\n) into <br /> Converts HTML entities to characters Converts characters to HTML entities 3 3 3 3 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 Writes a formatted string to a specified output stream 5 Converts some predefined HTML entities to characters 5 Converts some predefined characters to HTML entities 3 . PHP String Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. Installation The string functions are part of the PHP core. There is no installation needed to use these functions.PHP String Introduction The string functions allow you to manipulate strings.

implode() join() levenshtein() localeconv() ltrim() md5() md5_file() metaphone() money_format() nl_langinfo() nl2br() number_format() ord() parse_str() print() printf() quoted_printable_decode() quotemeta() rtrim() setlocale() sha1() sha1_file() similar_text() soundex() sprintf() sscanf() str_ireplace() str_pad() str_repeat() str_replace() str_rot13() str_shuffle() str_split() str_word_count() strcasecmp() strchr() strcmp() Returns a string from the elements of an array Alias of implode() Returns locale numeric and monetary formatting information Strips whitespace from the left side of a string Calculates the MD5 hash of a string Calculates the MD5 hash of a file Calculates the metaphone key of a string Returns a string formatted as a currency string Returns specific local information 3 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 Returns the Levenshtein distance between two strings 3 Inserts HTML line breaks in front of each newline in a 3 string Formats a number with grouped thousands Returns the ASCII value of the first character of a string Parses a query string into variables Outputs a string Outputs a formatted string Decodes a quoted-printable string Quotes meta characters Strips whitespace from the right side of a string Sets locale information Calculates the SHA-1 hash of a string Calculates the SHA-1 hash of a file Calculates the similarity between two strings Calculates the soundex key of a string Writes a formatted string to a variable Parses input from a string according to a format Replaces some characters in a string (caseinsensitive) Pads a string to a new length Repeats a string a specified number of times Performs the ROT13 encoding on a string Randomly shuffles all characters in a string Splits a string into an array Count the number of words in a string Compares two strings (case-insensitive) Finds the first occurrence of a string inside another string (alias of strstr()) Compares two strings (case-sensitive) 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 3 3 3 Replaces some characters in a string (case-sensitive) 3 .

strcoll() strcspn() Locale based string comparison Returns the number of characters found in a string before any part of some specified characters are found Strips HTML and PHP tags from a string Unquotes a string quoted with addcslashes() Unquotes a string quoted with addslashes() 4 3 strip_tags() stripcslashes() stripslashes() stripos() stristr() strlen() strnatcasecmp() strnatcmp() strncasecmp() strncmp() strpbrk() strpos() strrchr() strrev() strripos() strrpos() strspn() strstr() strtok() strtolower() strtoupper() strtr() substr() substr_compare() substr_count() substr_replace() trim() 3 4 3 Returns the position of the first occurrence of a string 5 inside another string (case-insensitive) Finds the first occurrence of a string inside another string (case-insensitive) Returns the length of a string Compares two strings using a "natural order" algorithm (case-insensitive) Compares two strings using a "natural order" algorithm (case-sensitive) String comparison of the first n characters (caseinsensitive) String comparison of the first n characters (casesensitive) Searches a string for any of a set of characters 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 Returns the position of the first occurrence of a string 3 inside another string (case-sensitive) Finds the last occurrence of a string inside another string Reverses a string Finds the position of the last occurrence of a string inside another string (case-insensitive) Finds the position of the last occurrence of a string inside another string (case-sensitive) 3 3 5 3 Returns the number of characters found in a string 3 that contains only characters from a specified charlist Finds the first occurrence of a string inside another string (case-sensitive) Splits a string into smaller strings Converts a string to lowercase letters Converts a string to uppercase letters Translates certain characters in a string Returns a part of a string Compares two strings from a specified start position (binary safe and optionally case-sensitive) Counts the number of times a substring occurs in a string Replaces a part of a string with another string Strips whitespace from both sides of a string 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 4 4 3 .

the length is 2 Set to 1 if the standard DES-based encryption with a 2 character salt is supported. 0 otherwise Set to 1 if the Blowfish encryption with a 16 character salt starting with $2$ or $2a$ is supported. 0 otherwise Set to 1 if the extended DES-based encryption with a 9 character salt is supported. 0 otherwise Set to 1 if the MD5 encryption with a 12 character salt starting with $1$ is supported. 0 otherwise0 PHP CRYPT_STD_DES CRYPT_EXT_DES CRYPT_MD5 CRYPT_BLOWFISH HTML_SPECIALCHARS HTML_ENTITIES ENT_COMPAT ENT_QUOTES ENT_NOQUOTES CHAR_MAX LC_CTYPE LC_NUMERIC LC_TIME LC_COLLATE LC_MONETARY LC_ALL LC_MESSAGES STR_PAD_LEFT STR_PAD_RIGHT STR_PAD_BOTH . Constant CRYPT_SALT_LENGTH Description Contains the length of the default encryption method for the system.ucfirst() ucwords() vfprintf() vprintf() vsprintf() wordwrap() Converts the first character of a string to uppercase Converts the first character of each word in a string to uppercase Outputs a formatted string Writes a formatted string to a variable Wraps a string to a given number of characters 3 3 Writes a formatted string to a specified output stream 5 4 4 4 PHP String Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant. For standard DES encryption.

When an event occurs. This extension uses the Expat XML parser. There is no installation needed to use these functions. However. but not validate. and ignores any DTDs linked to a document. non validating parser. Installation The XML functions are part of the PHP core. XML is a data format for standardized structured document exchange. XML documents. Function utf8_decode() utf8_encode() xml_error_string() xml_get_current_byte_index() xml_get_current_column_number() xml_get_current_line_number() Description PHP Decodes an UTF-8 string to ISO-8859-1 3 Encodes an ISO-8859-1 string to UTF-8 3 Gets an error string from the XML parser Gets the current byte index from the XML parser Gets the current column number from the XML parser Gets the current line number from the XML parser 3 3 3 3 .PHP XML Parser Functions PHP XML Parser Introduction The XML functions lets you parse. The XML parser functions lets you create XML parsers and define handlers for XML events. More information on XML can be found in our XML Tutorial. it views an XML document as a series of events. Expat is a non-validating parser. if the document is not well formed it will end with an error message. Because it is an event-based. Expat is fast and well suited for web applications. Expat is an event-based parser. PHP XML Parser Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. it calls a specified function to handle it.

xml_get_error_code() xml_parse() xml_parse_into_struct() xml_parser_create_ns() xml_parser_create() xml_parser_free() xml_parser_get_option() xml_parser_set_option() xml_set_character_data_handler() xml_set_default_handler() xml_set_element_handler() xml_set_end_namespace_decl_handler() xml_set_external_entity_ref_handler() xml_set_notation_decl_handler() xml_set_object() xml_set_processing_instruction_handler() xml_set_start_namespace_decl_handler() xml_set_unparsed_entity_decl_handler() Gets an error code from the XML parser 3 Parses an XML document Parse XML data into an array Create an XML parser with namespace support Create an XML parser Free an XML parser Get options from an XML parser Set options in an XML parser Set default handler function Set handler function for start and end element of elements Set handler function for the end of namespace declarations Set handler function for external entities Set handler function for notation declarations Use XML Parser within an object Set handler function for processing instruction Set handler function for the start of namespace declarations 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 4 Set handler function for character data 3 Set handler function for unparsed entity 3 declarations PHP XML Parser Constants Constant XML_ERROR_NONE (integer) XML_ERROR_NO_MEMORY (integer) XML_ERROR_SYNTAX (integer) XML_ERROR_NO_ELEMENTS (integer) XML_ERROR_INVALID_TOKEN (integer) XML_ERROR_UNCLOSED_TOKEN (integer) XML_ERROR_PARTIAL_CHAR (integer) XML_ERROR_TAG_MISMATCH (integer) XML_ERROR_DUPLICATE_ATTRIBUTE (integer) XML_ERROR_JUNK_AFTER_DOC_ELEMENT (integer) XML_ERROR_PARAM_ENTITY_REF (integer) XML_ERROR_UNDEFINED_ENTITY (integer) XML_ERROR_RECURSIVE_ENTITY_REF (integer) .

Installation For the Zip file functions to work on your server.XML_ERROR_ASYNC_ENTITY (integer) XML_ERROR_BAD_CHAR_REF (integer) XML_ERROR_BINARY_ENTITY_REF (integer) XML_ERROR_ATTRIBUTE_EXTERNAL_ENTITY_REF (integer) XML_ERROR_MISPLACED_XML_PI (integer) XML_ERROR_UNKNOWN_ENCODING (integer) XML_ERROR_INCORRECT_ENCODING (integer) XML_ERROR_UNCLOSED_CDATA_SECTION (integer) XML_ERROR_EXTERNAL_ENTITY_HANDLING (integer) XML_OPTION_CASE_FOLDING (integer) XML_OPTION_TARGET_ENCODING (integer) XML_OPTION_SKIP_TAGSTART (integer) XML_OPTION_SKIP_WHITE (integer) PHP Zip File Functions PHP Zip File Introduction The Zip files functions allows you to read ZIP files. these libraries must be installed: • • The ZZIPlib library by Guido Draheim: Download the ZZIPlib library The Zip PELC extension: Download the Zip PELC extension Installation on Linux Systems .

Installation on Windows Systems PHP 5+: Zip functions is not enabled by default. An example extension_dir value is c:\php\ext. To enable any PHP extension. php_zip.ini. Use the --with-zip=DIR configure option to include Zip support. so the php_zip. the PHP extension_dir setting (in the php. Function zip_close() zip_entry_close() zip_entry_compressedsize() zip_entry_compressionmethod() zip_entry_filesize() zip_entry_name() zip_entry_open() zip_entry_read() zip_open() zip_read() Description Closes a ZIP file Closes an entry in the ZIP file PHP 4 4 Returns the compressed size of an entry in the ZIP 4 file Returns the compression method of an entry in the 4 ZIP file Returns the actual file size of an entry in the ZIP file 4 Returns the name of an entry in the ZIP file Opens an entry in the ZIP file for reading Reads from an open entry in the ZIP file Opens a ZIP file Reads the next entry in a ZIP file 4 4 4 4 4 PHP Zip File Constants NONE .PHP 5+: Zip functions and the Zip library is not enabled by default and must be downloaded from the links above.ini file) should be set to the directory where the PHP extensions are located.dll must be enabled inside of php. PHP Zip File Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function.dll and the ZZIPlib library must be downloaded from the link above.

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