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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 1. Introduction 2. History 3. Classification 3. 1. No of rapiers: 3.1.1. Single rapier 3.1.2. Double rapier 3.2. Method of weft insertion: 3.2.1. Loop transfer or Gabler system 3.2.2.Tip transfer or Dewas system 220.127.116.11. Negative rapier exchange system 18.104.22.168. Positive rapier exchange system 3.3. Types of rapier: 3.3.1. Rigid or rod rapier 3.3.2. Flexible Band rapier 3.4. Driving system of rapier insertion mechanism 3.4.1. Rigid Rapier 3.4.2. Flexible Rapier 4. The colour selector 5. Battle for global market supremacy 5.1. Versatility and flexibility 5.2.Performance 5.3Noise reduction 5.4Weft yarn control 5.5 Speed limit 5.6. Productivity 15. 18. 19. 20. 21. 21. 21. 22. 23. 2 1. 2. 3. 3. 3. 4. 6. 6. 6 7. 7. 10. 10. 10. 12. 12.
26. 27. 28.
6. Developments in Rapier Weaving 7. Conclusion 8. References
25. 30. 31.
Insertion of weft by rapier is a mechanically modern and refined version of the primitive method of fabric production in which the weft was secured in a slot of a stick. In the present version the gripper heads are attached to rapiers which are flexible type or rigid rods. The rapiers are made of coated steel or reinforced high performance man made fibres like carbon fibres. The rapier head picks the filling yarn and carries it through the shed after reaching the destination, the rapier head returns empty to pick up the next filling yarn, which complete a cycle. A rapier perform a reciprocating motion. Rapier weaving machines are known for their reliability and performance. since 1972, the rapier weaving machine has evolved into a successful, versatile and flexible weaving machine a wide range of fabrics can be woven on a rapier weaving machine which typically vary from light fabric with 20 gm/m2 to heavy fabrics with around 850 gm/m2.rapier weaving widely used for household textile and industrial fabrics design for universal use, the rapier weaving machine not only can weave the classical wool, cotton, manmade fibres, but also the most technically demanding filament yarn, finest silk and fancy yarns. 
The weaving machine used the principle of loop transfer at center of the shed.mr. Remond Devas introduced a rapier device in which the weft thread was held at its tip by the carrier rapier and similarly transfers to the receiver rapier.  3. Classification: Here we shortly discuss the different types of rapier weaving machine classified according to:  1. Working principle of a rapier weaving machine 2. Driving system of rapier insertion mechanism 4 . In 1939. Johann Gabler can be regarded as the father of modern technology as he built a rapier device on a cotton weaving machine in 1922. History: The first rapier invented in 1870 was a rigid type rapier and it was perfected by Hallensleben in 1899. Type of rapier 4. Number of rapiers 2. Methods of weft insertion 3.Figure 1.
The rapier enters the shed from one side. A single. Therefore. No of rapiers: Rapier weaving machine can be categorized according to number of rapiers: single rapier and double rapiers. Also there is no yarn transfer since there is only one rapier.1. The unwinding speed of weft become twice so chances of weft break and sloughing off is very high. rigid rapier is used in these machines. For these reasons. Weft is inserted either during rapier insertion or withdrawal. 5 . 3. this requires relatively high mass and rigidity of the rapier to ensure straight movement of the rapier head. However.1). Weft Insertion speed become twice it double the production but there is constant rubbing of weft thread at rapier eye during insertion and withdrawal so that this system is not suitable for filament yarn or low strength yarn in weft. since there is no yam transfer from rapier to rapier. The rigid rapier is a metal or composite bar usually with a circular cross section.1. Although in earlier days single rapier system was used. single rapier machines are not popular.3. Double pick insertion technique is used in tape loom and Axminister carpet looms. 1. Single rapier In this type of rapier weaving machine rapier is inserted across whole width of machine and then withdrawn. a single rapier carries the yam in one way only and half of the rapier movement is wasted. This type of mechanism is simple and reliable. they are suitable for filling yarns that are difficult to control. The single rapier's length is equal to the width of the weaving machine. Single rapier can insert one pick or two pick in one picking cycle. picks up the tip of the filling yam on the other side and passes it across the weaving machine while retracting (Figure. presently machine mainly employ double rapier only due to inherent advantage of attaining higher speeds.
Schematic diagram of single rapier There have also been attempt to have single rapier inserting weft in two phases.  6 . The rigid rapier is driven from the center and has rapier head at both end in one cycle rapier inserts one pick alternatively in the right hand and the left hand fabrics. 2. Figure 3 Two Phase Weaving Machine The system is commercially used in the Iwer rapier weaving machine and the Fatex machine.Fig. the picks being inserted and beaten up in opposite phase.
3. normally two rapier inserted in shed from opposite sides and the weft is transferred from one to the other when they meet and there after they are withdrawn. Weft supplied from a single package may be inserted as a loop is straightened out during rapier withdrawal from shed or the end of the weft is transferred from one rapier to another rapier.1.2. Double rapier: With double rapier system. 7 .
The weft is unwound from the package at twice the speed of the rapier only across the first half of the weft insertion cycle is a big obstacle in further increase in speed of the weaving machine. Machine operating on Gabler principle-Draper DSL. Gusken etc. 3.Figure 4 shows the major subunits of a typical double flexible rapier machine. in loop transfer system weft thread is not hold firmly by taker rapier but it is slides over the rounded off portion. 8 . Gabler system can be further classified into single sided or double sided insertion.2. with the hairpin shaped loop to form conventional selvedge at the package side. Method of weft insertion: Rapier weaving machine can also be classified according to method • Loop transfer or Gabler system: The weft is laid in two pick weft insertion cycle.
2. the higher is the resistance which the other clamp opposes to the thread slipping off. Figure 5 Rapier Head and transfer of filling thread 3. The adjustment of this force depends in principle on the yarn type and count. the tapered end of the receiving rapier penetrates into the sliding channel of the carrying rapier and. But a more sophisticated weft transfer mechanism is required which increase the rapier head cost. which is pressed by a spring. Speed of machine can be further increased. while the 9 . SMIT. Machine those operating on dewas – Dornier. Novo Pignone. when the rapiers cross each other. Also the clamping of the weft at the beginning of the insertion takes place in this case with a negative system. Gunne. Negative rapier exchange system Here the taking rapier holds the weft tight between a clamp. hooks the weft thread and slips it off from its position under the clamp of the bearing carrier. during the back motion.in Dewas tip transfer system weft is unwound from the supply package at same sped throughout the weft insertion cycle.• Tip transfer or Dewas system.1. that is without units controlling the rapier’s clamp. This causes the clamping of the weft yarn under the clamp of the drawing rapier the more firmly. Somet. Picanol. Sulzer-Ruti etc. and the underlying fixed part. In the middle of the shed. SACM.
two controlled small levers rising from below the shed cross the threads of the lower shed and set in motion the clamps of the rapiers. The sequence is the following: as a result of the pressure of lever 3. 3.clamping of the weft depends on the adjustment of the thread cutting moment by the selvedge shears. During the rapier exchange it is therefore necessary that the displacement of the rapiers take place at very low speed. Negative rapier exchange This type of negative rapier exchange system is used in SACM looms. the clamp of the receiving carrier 5 is opened and can thus get hold of the yarn presented by the carrying rapier. causes the opening of the carrying rapier 6. when the exchange between the rapiers is positively controlled. which is driven by its cam 1. Positive rapier exchange system When the rapiers cross each other in the middle of the shed. The positive system has the advantage of a higher versatility as far as the range of the usable yarn counts is 10 . regulate their movements. this action serves instead to clean the clamp through suction. on the contrary the release of the thread at the opposite by the drawing rapier takes place with a positive system. also the initial taking and the final release of the thread outside the shed take place with positive system. Figure 6. thus overcoming the opposition of the adjustable springs m. controlled by cam 2. In the case of the carrying rapier. which thus releases the weft. The punch 3. Some control cams. At this point the lever 4. through the opening of the clamp produced by a tooth which presses the clamp’s back profile b. Now the rapiers begin their back movement again. releases the clamp of the receiving rapier. which are properly timed.2. which overcomes the force of the closing springs.2. which can thus catch the end of the weft. Of course.
11 . both grippers start to move at the same crank position. so that pick 6 is transferred when both rapiers are on their way back. This type of system is used in Dornier. but on the other hand has lower performance in terms of running speed and has a more complex construction. Figure 8 shows the diagrams of gripper speed.concerned. They meet in the middle of the weaving machine and their movements overlap. Figure7.e. The rapier movements are synchronous. i. Positive rapier exchange Figure 8 shows the diagram of rapier movements..
This rapier required a large floor space.Cutting the pick. 6.3. 10. They must be sufficiently strong and rigid to ensure The manufacturers of rapier machines had to choose whether to use as a support for the rapiers 12 . each one provided at its bottom with a rack gear which meshes with a control toothed wheel. Types of rapier: Rapier machine can be further classified according to type of rapier used. The rods are rigid supports.Releasing the pick. A. The weft is unwound on the R. machine side.end of the rapier motion. have led to the development of a combined Airjet and rapier picking system. the pick length is prepared on the pre measuring drum from where the weft is blown by compressed air into rapier. 8. 1.Figure 8 shows the diagram of rapier movements.seizing the pick. 3. On the other side air is exhausted.presenting the pick. 9. which fact is important especially when delicate yarns are to be processed. 2.maximum speed of the right hand rapier. The ATP-R machine having two hollow rapiers. 7.3.H. as the entire length of rapier has to be withdrawn straight on each side of the loom.Cloth width. figure 9 showing rapier speed • The pneumatic rapier picking system: The technical problem related to the Airjet weaving machine as well as precision necessary in manufacturing sophisticated rapier head. 3. (rigid) rods or (flexible) belts. 5-maximum speed of the left hand rapier. 4. The rods have the advantage that the support and the rapier move along the shed without any contact with the warp.Detailed diagram of pick transfer. Rigid or rod rapier: the rigid rapiers are guided through the shed from outside the working width.pick transfer.1.start of rapier motion. 3.
with the driving toothed wheel. considering also the presence of the containers at both sides of the machine and the stability problems due to increasing working speeds and heights. thus ensuring a stable and exact motion of the rapiers. Somet and SMIT.3. 13 . but are bent at 180° and collected in the room below. The belts. which are equipped in the middle with a series of shaped holes through which they mesh. 3. even if this fact cannot be guaranteed in all circumstances.SAV. so that they do not increase the space requirements of the machine. that they can be inserted into a curved guide during withdrawal. The machines with flexible rapier include Picanol PGW. Flexible Band rapier: In contrast. as they have tendency to buckle during insertion into the shed. the flexible rapiers are such tapes. Some manufacturers mount on the reed bracket small shaped pins which create a slide guide for the belts. Owing to their rigidity. do not protrude to the outside. The belts are flexible supports made of composite material. and SACM. The flexible belt system is the solution preferred by most manufacturers and in particular by all Italian manufacturers. as they are flexible. at any height and speed.2. Their shape has been designed in order to minimize their interference with the warp threads. like a chain. Machine with rigid rapier insertion include Dornier.The flexible rapiers have to be usually guided through the shed by means of guide hooks. Their advantage in respect to the belts is that they ensure the absence of any contact and interference with the warp thread during weft insertion.stability and precision to the rapiers also during their difficult working conditions (alternating motion). this guide prevents any anomalous movement of the belts. they need however more floor space. All double rapier machines accelerate to maximum at about half the travel and then decelerate to zero at the transfer position. notwithstanding the lack of any support and guide unit inside the shed. There are at the moment two trends. According to Ormerod during the first half of its travel the rapier movement is under compression and if the accelerating force exceeds the buckling load.
which oppose an adequate rigidity to the side thrusts and consequently ensure stability and precision in the transport of the rapiers. 3. all kinds of gears are used. outside the shed. causing inconveniences under particular conditions.Also small guide pins of special shape have been adopted. thus avoiding the sliding on the threads of the bottom shed during weft insertion. preventing the presence of belt guides inside the shed and minimizing the abrasion on the warp.4. keep them raised together with the pertaining rapiers. besides guiding the belts. the bending moment originated during the acceleration phase. 14 . the cam motion system is the most used as it is possible to study the cam profile in order to obtain an accelerating movement of the rapiers which permits the most delicate handling of the yarn. these pins. In all these cases the weaver tries to operate at the lowest possible speed rates. Among these gears. This fact is particularly important during the critical moments of the thread clamping at the beginning of the cycle. Moreover the belts are provided in their initial part with a rib which increases their rigidity. during the rapier exchange in the middle of the shed and during the release of the weft at its exit from the shed at the opposite side. In fact they use wider belts. Other manufacturers gave their preference to a different technical solution. Driving system of rapier insertion mechanism: To transform a uniform rotary motion into an alternating motion. Belts and rapiers slide however on the threads of the bottom shed. so that the lateral belt guide opposes.
Two of the pulleys are integral part of the outer rapier.3. the rapier stroke is longer and longer driving arm cannot be accommodated. The tape passes over 4 guide roller /pulleys and is attached to a fixed point on the loom frame. Compound rapiers work on the principle of telescopic expansion. When the outer body attracts the inner rapier reverses direction and gets into the outer rapier. This is a telescopic arrangement using eccentrics. Linkages arranged vertically use 6 bars to give a straight line motion to the rapiers. Figure 12 shows another system for rigid rapier which economizes space. The inner body is fastened to a tape at its outer end. The outer body of the rapier is driven by the eccentric using connecting and driving linkages. towards the center of the loom causes the tape to also move in the same direction by sliding on the rollers. Linkages are simple and economical but lack in providing dwell or precise movement to the rapier. The fulcrum is at the lower end and the rapier head is at the upper end. The cams based on the design.4. The compound telescopic rapier enables to save space. can give the desired movement but are expensive and have the problem of wear at the cam follower surface. Driving arm is driven by the eccentric through a connecting link at the center.1. This is done when a single rigid rapier drive is required. The fulcrum at the lower end is not fixed but it is mounted on a pivot arm to convert the curvilinear movement at the upper end in to a straight line motion. Driving mechanism for rigid rapiers: The to and fro motion of rapier is obtained by using either linkage or by cams. Linkage systems are also heavy and give wear at the fulcrum. 15 . Figure(11) shows a simple driving arrangement of eccentric drive using linkages. to the left. This enables the inner rapier to eject out of the outer rapier.
The main gear is driven by the main shaft of the loom. Infact the rapier can enter the shed early remain in the shed later than in the shuttleloom due to their small dimensions. Rapier need to pause at the middle of the shed to shed to successfully transfer the weft and must not be outside the selvedge for a long time. This arm is attached to the driving gear which moves around the main gear through a carrier gear. This system makes the drive simple. This is opposite to what is required.Figure 12 Telescopic Rapier Drive Figure 13 shows rapier drive using cycloidal gears the rapier is connected directly to the cycloidal gear driving arm. Linkage give close to SHM motion which is unsuitable for rapier drive: maximum velocity is restricted and dwell at the center is nil and maximum at the ends. 16 .
Flexible Rapier Drive: Figure 15 and 16 shows the drive for flexible rapier the flexible rapier having a driving band which passes through guides during its journey. a grooved cam reciprocates the lower end of fulcrummed quadrant arm.4. Its upper end is a wheel sector 17 . The reciprocating movement to the rapier is given by a crank arrangement in which eccentric is driven from the main shaft. Figure 14 Rigid Rapier Drives from a Cam 3. Rapier can enter later in open shed. The time rapier movement can be controlled so maximum rapier velocity can be kept low. this ensure positive and controlled movement to the rapier. Figure 15 (a) shows another method drive to the sprocket. Figure shows the arrangement. A sprocket wheel drives the band by interaction of its teeth with the holes in the band.Figure 13 cycloidal gears Figure 14 shows the rapier drive using cam. The reciprocating movement of the sprocket is transmitted to the rapier band. The movement of rapier from the cam and follower using the linkage is identical to figure 11.2.
which lever is linked to the connecting rod 4. The flexible rapier belt. 18 . moves on a straight level and transforms the alternating rotary motion into a straight rotary motion.which reciprocates a pinion and thus the sprocket mounted on the same shaft. This last transmits the swinging motion to the block 5. a swinging movement to a lever with adjustable arm (not visible in the figure). Of course a similar gear carries out the control of the other rapier. through a roller cam follower 3. Figure 15 (a) Rapier drive from sprockets A manufacturer uses in his machines the following disc cam system with complementary cam profile the rotating shaft 1 carries fixed a couple of disk cams with complementary profile 2 (the other couple of cams serves to move the reed) which transmits. which is driven by this wheel. Another arrangement is shown in figure an eccentric reciprocates a vertical rack and through a pinion drives a gear on the rapier driving drum. which by a system of side gears and planet wheels converts the movement into the alternating rotary movement of a crown wheel with pinion 7 and of the toothed wheel 8. The whole of the drum is moved. mounted eccentrically on shaft 6.
16 Driving system by double conjugated cams Another system used is the system named ″Propeller″. which is composed of a crank gear combined with a screw/nut screw system which has variable pitch and is designed in such a way as to minimize the accelerations and the vibrations of the rapiers and consequently to reduce the stress on the weft yarn.Fig. 19 .
moves a swinging toothed segment 5. 20 . move a lever 3 with two rollers. This lever has also the function of a crank with adjustable eccentricity and. This driving system permits to select an optimum diagram of movements to deliver the yarn by positively controlled rapiers. which in its turn works on pinion 6.Fig 17.18). through a bar 4. coupled with the belt driving disk. fixed on the driving shaft 2. two complementary disks drive the flexible rapier belts (fig. Two complementary disks in spherical shape 1. Propeller In the model with positively controlled clamps proposed by another manufacturer.
has an oblique spherical cap 2. The same shaft 4 carries also a toothed segment 5. as it is forced to move on a straight level. which has following operating principle (fig. which meshes with a sprocket 6 and transforms the swinging movement into an alternating rotary motion of the toothed wheel 7 mounted on same axis. converts this movement into an alternating straight motion. which is mounted on the toothed wheel. The flexible rapier belt. 21 . positively controlled clamps Finally. another Italian manufacturer uses for the drive of the flexible rapier belts an original system with 3 concurrent axis. which has a uniform rotating motion.Fig 18. 19): the main shaft 1. which generates a swinging movement in a fork 3 and consequently on shaft 4 on which it is mounted.
the number of colours. Driving system with 3 concurrent axis Early rapier entry (60-80) and the late exit (260-300) from the shed is desirable to give sufficient time for rapier to enable lower speed of travel. The possibility of inserting up to 12 different weft colours in the same pattern involves that rapier weaving machines are very versatile. in such a case slay needs a higher dwell at back center to achieve the objective of lower rapier speed. 8 and 12 colours. This makes them particularly suitable for instance for the tie fabric sector.Fig 19. this will required more power to drive the sley. High mass rapier driving system make it convenient to mount the mechanism on the loom frame. it is not necessary to equip immediately all of them with selectors enabling the insertion of the maximum number of weft colours. as they perfectly follow the creativity of the designers. when a new group of machines has to be mounted. The latest selectors are today available in 3 versions: for 4. by simply changing a single 22 . This is practicable if the rapier drive and assembly is mounted on the sley. have the task of presenting each time the selected weft colour. The colour selector: The colour selector is formed by bolts. whenever necessary. which eyes are crossed by the weft yarns. which are pushed by proper bolt pushing rods. These bolts. 4. There are selectors which are built with modular structure in order to increase. In fact in case of need every machine can be adapted to the number of weft colours required.
used for all those applications which require rapid and precise positioning.module. Most selectors are based on a new technique of stepping motors (the stepping motors are characterized by the fact that they carry out. 23 . called step). a precise angular rotation. are very efficient and compact and permit very gradual step increases. thus enabling to perfect the weaving sequences. at each control. so that they form an assembly easily adjustable and quickly movable when changing fabric style. These motors. The selectors have rather compact dimensions.
Colour selector with 12 bolts 24 .Fig.
25 . but increasingly less so today . 5. Increased labour cost without any corresponding increase in productivity is resulting in reduced profit to mill owners. glass fire. on the one hand. with good quality. metal wire. considerations of low price and low weaving costs. worsted. maximum automation and high productivity. rapier. jute. Versatility and flexibility Versatility and flexibility is not exactly the same thing but another characteristics the should go side by side versatility we means the possibility to weave a many types of yarns and fabric s as possible but flexibility. and on the other key aspects of extended service/operation life span.1. high flexibility. So today. The positioning of the different technologies according to the main purchasing criteria which one were perceived to be mutually opposing. Waterjet and the newly developed Multished. with maximum possible level of performance. but its five weft insertion system –projectile. mono and multifilament etc. woolen. we are in need of weaving machines which are weaving from the lightest to the heaviest of fabrics and diversified products using materials like spun. Airjet. with ease of change from one style to another style.today each weaving technology capitalizes on its own strengths according to the respective sales arguments.5. Battle for global market supremacy: Shuttle less weaving machine has been around for less than a half –centaury.
3Noise reduction: Their present weaving speed of about 600-700 strokes/min is the result of the use of a state-of-the-art construction technique. 5. characterized by the use of gear sets without plays and by minimum vibrations of the reed. Alternatively passive measures are to be taken.Simple and at the same time to allow the change over from one yarn or style to another with the lowest possible downtime.Performance: The rapier weaving machines are the most flexible machines on the market.2. The modern rapier-weaving machine is built around two side frames in cast iron that are connected by sturdy cross-members. 5. Their application range covers a wide variety of fabric styles. the versatility of rapier weaving machine has opened up the possibility to handle all types of yarn within the same fabric so today we can see virtually any thing can being woven. they have the disadvantage of applying instantaneous energy to the weft yarn to start its inserting motion without controlling its subsequent motion. by covering the mechanical units with adequately treated casings. slay and the heald frames. air jet and projectile looms are characterized by their high productivity. beside the normal yarn. However. today and more so tomorrow. Noise is therefore generated by any kind of vibrating element. The tremendous facilities of fabric design and the range of style in these looms make them most suitable for fancy fabrics and furnishing. Noise is the physical effect of a mechanical vibration diffusing pressure waves in a fluid (air). which causes its 26 .4Weft yarn control: At present. which high industrial speed with a permanent and long-term stability At the same time it will be necessary to minimize the effects of sound waves reflection by developing a suitable design for the machine. Water jet. The robust frame and the perfect balancing of the mechanical parts eliminate all vibration. these three types of looms have served as a part of major weaving equipment. the winning textile industry will be the one that able to give good service and the service her start from the quick reaction to customer needs. they have reached level of weaving productivity inconceivable just a few years ago. 5. Furthermore. They cop with fine spectrum of product styles. We can locate the cause of the vibrations in the alternating motions which take place in a rapier loom.
Most of the developments are in the area of attaining better fabric quality. the rapier loom is inferior in productivity. Rapier weaving machine will continue to increase their weft insertion rate and flexibility. As a remedy for this problem. gentle treatment to warp and weft and reduced breakages. 5. which is designed to apply a brake to the weft yarn at the end of its insertion. In contrast to the looms involving such problems as mentioned above. As is generally known. an attachment for the looms was developed. such an attachment and other similar weft yarn insertion controlling technology alone have been found to be insufficient for solving the above problem completely. looseness and breakage. but is friendly to weft yarn. Especially. 1988 Insertion rate 1000 mtr/min Width: 280 cm Mechanical yarn brake Energy consumption: medium Yarn waste on both side Stand alone weaving machine 2005 Insertion rate 1500 mtr/min Width: 400 cm Electromagnetic system Energy consumption: low No Yarn waste at all Totally modular 27 . it finds wide application in weaving of delicate fabric. allowing it to become stable in its behavior. composite fiber fabric and other high value added fabric that are subject to deterioration in their quality when subjected to even a slightly excessive tension. these machines continue to enhance the speed limit and are not far behind Airjet machines.5Speed limit: Many times in the past it was argued that Rapier systems have attained maximum speed limit. a rapier loom is the only one currently available designed to hold weft yarn with a rapier head connected to link and cam mechanisms for direct control of its motion throughout its insertion process. Compared to the above-mentioned looms. stretch fabric.acceleration to become excessively large both at the start and end of its insertion. However. Another interesting trend is in the type of selvedge formation and waste reduction. and discontinuous. Weft waste has been reduced to zero in Rapier machines. however. Therefore. because it sometimes results in weaving defects such as weft streaks. this loom has now held an important position in the weaving industry as a highly versatile loom. This creates a problem of the weft yarn's excessive tension and unstable behavior.
5.Productivity The production rates of the various types of looms are presented for comparison in Table Loom Type Projectile Sulzer Ruti P7100 P7200 STB Russia Rigid Rapier SACM Dornier GUNNE Flexible Rapier Somet Vamatex Sulzer Ruti Nuovo Pignone Water Jet Metor SPA Nisson Tsudakoma Air Jet Sulzer Ruti Picanol Omni Picanol Delta Toyoda Tsudakoma Lakshmi Ruti Dornier Linear Multiphase Elitex Drum type Multiphase Sulzer M8300 190 170 3230 2430 6088(Plain) 4118(Twill) About 190 1100-1600 2000-3000 up to 300 190-380 190 150-330 150-340 190 430 750 800 1100 850 1000 500 600 1600 1800 2000 2000 2200 1200 2520 230 150-210 150-210 1000 1000 1000 1600 2000 2000 165-410 160-380 110-280 220-420 550 510 325 440 1300 1300 1200 1000 150 150-400 230 550 460 330 1100 1000 1200 190-540 190-540 180-330 320 430 300 1100-1200 1500 750 Available width in Speed in cm rpm Weft insertion Rate(picks per minute) 28 .6.
2*2 Weaving of filament. wool and even fine cotton Sulzer up to 8 colours Nuovo Pignone Water Jet Metor SPA Nisson Tsudakoma Air Jet up to 8 colours Single colour Weft mix.2*2 Weft mix.Arrival on the market of Airjet weaving machine disturbed the rapier technology but today many industries are diversifying their product even more and high speed being achieved by today’s rapier machine give rise in certain areas. simple print base fabrics and denims as efficiently as light to heavy weight industrial fabrics up to 8 colours Spun & filament dress material up to 8 colours Furnishing fabrics Yarn to be woven. 5.Variety of Fabrics Woven on Specific Looms Loom Type Projectile Sulzer Ruti P7100 P7200 STB Russia Rigid Rapier SACM Dornier GUNNE Flexible Rapier Somet Vamatex Weft selection Field of application 4 colours 4 colours 4 colours Sheeting dress material filament weaving up to 4 colours up to 16 colours up to 6 colours Yarn dyed fancy fabric manufactured such as Suiting. Fancy yarns. dress materials 29 . coarse twists. elastic yarns. shirting smaller batch production fabrics with us many as 8 weft colours but also furnishing fabrics.7. Lurex. silk.1*1.twisted & texturised filament sarees.1*1.
fewer oil seals and no timing belts i. They are not far off from Airjet in production (Speed) rate (up to 1500mpm or 600 to 800 rpm) without scarifying their special status of flexibility.quality fabrics from spun yarns such as cotton-wool. These machines provide the feature such as: .The possibility of weaving more difficult products in terms of yarn employed and also in combinations. Today the market particularly demands wide variety as much as possible at the lowest possible cost. silk.1. Style changes can be executed ‘Exceptionally rapidly’. this yielded fewer moving parts.e. They have been making inroads to heavy fabrics (900 gsm) and also shedding off the known drawback of higher weft waste.Application potential in all weaving sectors 6.spun & filament fabric corduroy 6 colours 2 colours 6 colours 6 colours 2 colours Rapier weaving today exists in diversified forms.Special Developments: The design improvement in Rapier gripper permits handling wide range of yarns without any need for changes. there are fewer elements to 30 . It offers a choice of various reed widths. 6. flexibility and low energy consumption to a combination of high technology and economic design. selvedges and filling insertion colours.Sulzer Ruti Picanol Omni Picanol Delta Toyoda Tsudakoma Lakshmi Ruti up to 3 colours Light gauge & sheeting. shedding motions. camel hair. Rapier weaving machine produces top. fewer gears. Having independent motor drives. Today’s rapier weaving machine has become fast and exceptionally flexible. The machine owes its speed. Developments in Rapier Weaving: The Rapier machines are emerging as weaving machines of the future. synthetic fibres and fancy yarns. . During the last two decades the developments in rapier weaving have been carried out in a rapid continuous way.
As a result of which the filling tip is stretched correctly. electronically via the keyboard of microprocessor. Adjustments are done by means of machine keyboard and display.Sumo Motor Saving on energy consumption of more than 10% in comparison with conventional clutch and brake configuration.influence fabric quality. • Features: Lower peak tension in filling yarn. and fabric construction.PFL (Programmable Filling Lamellae): It controls the filling brake ensures a current yarn tensions at any time during insertion cycle. Inserted pick can be stretched more easily. The machine can always work at optimum weaving speed in function of quality of the yarn. The PFL can be installed for each channel between the pre-winder and entry of fixed main nozzle. the number of frames. 6. The settings can be adopted for each filling yarn. less need for resetting and reduce maintenance. and breakage. Reduced tendency of filling to bounce back. which are prone to wear. which significantly reduces the down times for repairing filling and warp breakages. The PFL thus significantly reduces the peak tension of the pick at the end of the insertion and decrease the tendency of pick to bounce back in the shed.3. This reduces the setting time to zero. Machine speed setting is done accurately and completely. It has been designed to slow down the filling at the end of insertion. • Benefits: - 31 . Automatic pick finding becomes faster. Speed setting is easy to copy to other machine either with electronic set card or with production computer with bi-directional communication.2. There are no toothed belts. 6.
the warp stop motion the harness and the reed. 6. The key to the operation is the split frame design. Weaker filling yarn can be used. several extra modules and warpy modules transporter are also required. Correct setting of filling waste length and consequently less waste.QSC (Quick Style Change): With quick style change just one person can carry out a style change in less than 30min. the back rest and the supports. with the warp beam. before the style change. Higher productivity of machine and staff. QSC not only reduce labour requirement but also result in efficient planning of warp and style changes.Additionally this unique system makes it possible to carry out all article related settings on the warp side outside the weaving shed. Better fabric quality. Table-Average Loom Stoppage Time (in minutes) Stop factor Waiting time Loom unloading Loom loading Reed.4.hardness locking New style setting Loom restart Interference loss Total With QSC system 5 10 8 6 15 5 4 74 Without QSC system 5 40 40 25 60 15 25 12 203 Trolley waiting time 10 32 . Fewer machine stops. Fewer filling breaks. • Features: Reduce machine down time. This is achieved by swapping the whole back part of split frame.
the selvedge system automatically comes to original position.ELSY (False Selvedge Device): The unique ELSY full leno false selvedge motion is electronically driven by individual stepper motor. When machine starts. The modules of quickstep are interchangeable. Warp changes can be replaced by style changes.Quick Step Filling Presenter: The filling can be presented at low tension. The course of filling yarn is low and remains constant.6. enabling the load on the tying and drawing-in equipment to be balanced instead of having two bottlenecks. Interference losses due to simultaneous stops are practically non-existent. 6. • Advantages: It is monitored by weaving machine microprocessor so timing for presenting for filling yarn is perfectly synchronized with machine speed and weave pattern. The filling presenter also provides ideal position for re threading. 6.5. Each consists of electronically controlled stepper motor with presenter needle and the system handles upto 8 colours. They are mounted in front of harness so all harness remain available for fabric pattern. which avoids unnecessary filling breakages. This only Rapier machine that allows selvedge crossing to be programmed on microprocessor independently of shed crossing even while machine is in operation. The quick step-filling presenter operates with independent modules. The easiest position of rethreading can be set by a simple push button. 33 . So result of resetting can be checked immediately. Fewer personal required for warp and article changes in weave room. The weaver can enter colour pattern through microprocessor keyboard or at jacquard control unit.
FDEI (Filling Detection At The End Of Insertion): When weaving ‘lively’ yarns. for this Piezo-Electric filling detector is used. The transfer position of filling yarn in center of fabric is always correct even after changing the cloth for new style.6. By ETU make it possible to weave fabric having various pick densities.7.PSO (Pre winder Switch Off): PSO is the system by which the machine does not stop immediately after a bobbin breakage. Consequently the waiting period for intervation of weaver reduced to zero. The system detects short picks.Electronic Take-Up and Let-Off Motion: It plays important role. Warp beam driven by electric let off motion through separate drive wheel that stays on loom. Required pick density can be programmed on microprocessor keyboard.8. No pick wheel required. rebounding fillings and prevent faults in fabric at right end. ensures trouble free operation of let-off system and improve fabric quality. until the weaver is available to repair breakage. In this way a two speed slow motion become a standard luxury to the weaver. The electronic link between let-off and take-up is an additional tool to manage the fabric marks.9. This is outstanding since automatic pick finder is not driven by separate motor but monitored by hydraulic system. Conclusion: 34 . are used FDEI system. but continues to weave. The weaver is informed by flashing orange light that the machine carries PSO action. 6. weaver can decide himself when breakage must be repaired. The accuracy of settings make it easy to adjust pick density of fabric with optimum fabric weight and minimum yarn consumptions. It checks the presence of filling at the end of insertion. 6. the machine stops and only the harness are moved automatically to free the broken pick for removal of weaver. At filling breaks.
Some advances in rapier weaving machine is required to produce good quality fabric and because of its flexibility and having positive control through out the weft insertion technical textile product can also be produced with small modification. we are in need of weaving machines which are weaving from the lightest to the heaviest of fabrics and diversified products using materials like spun. rapier machine cannot be compared with these because of low production rate. woolen. metal wire.In present scenario where textile industry going for higher production weaving machine like Airjet or multiphase machine. rapier is the best suitable and provide weft colour selection up to 16 without any difficulty of weft count and order of selection. so today. 35 . jute. higher maintenance cost and higher power consumption but as flexibility in weaving for different material is required. with good quality. In jacquard weaving or for furnishing fabric where no of weft is required for pattern. mono and multifilament etc. worsted. glass fibre.
S.it (Vamatex and Somet) 10.be 12.Reference: 1. www. www. Weaving into the next millennium by Joe Gherji and R. 1998 2. Modern Preparation and Weaving Machinery. www. 5.). Ajgaonkar. 1999.promatech. Sriramulu. Gherji Textil Organization Zurich (CH. Weaving Shuttleless Looms.jimtrade. ITS Textile Leader1999. Weft insertion in rapier weaving machines by R. The new generation of carpet weaving machine – by Stefaan Demey. 6. NCUTE Pilot Programme. Sep -16 7.com 36 .com 9. Hand book of weaving –Dr Sabit Adanur 3. Oct. By Talukdar.sultex.com 11.lindauerdornier. Ormerod 4.A. Issue -4. www.-7-9.picanol.Gosai. 8. Mechanism and Management. Weaving Machines.R. Bachkniwala. www.The International Exhibition of Textile Machinery. News From ITMA 2007.
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