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STAIN REMOVERS AND DETERGENTS INTRODUCTION:
Once a textile material has been placed into service, it must be maintained at an acceptable level. Serviceability or durability is the most important characteristic of the fabrics used for apparel purposes. During daily use, the fabric has to withstand considerable wear and tear due to washing (laundering), which affects the serviceability. The effect of serviceability could be studied in terms of change in several measurable fabric properties, such as strength, abrasion resistance, etc. 1 TEXTILE SOILING: There are many ways by which textiles become soiled in the home. Some are unavoidable consequences of normal usage. The human body itself is a major source of soiling on textile clothing, towels and other fabrics which come into contact with it. Emulsions of blood, pus, urine, faeces, semen, vaginal secretions and saliva together with dead skin cells and the output of sebaceous glands, contribute proteins, lipids, inorganic electrolytes and simple compounds such as urea to this soiling. Other causes are accidental and arise from contact with foods, drinks, cosmetics, mud and the host of other materials encountered in daily life. Of universal importance as a soil is sebum, a collection of lipids secreted by the sebaceous glands. The detailed composition varies between races and sexes; for an individual it varies with season, diet and state of health. At body temperatures sebum forms a relative, mobile emulsion with water. It flows readily from the skin and hair to the surface of the fabric fibres. Subsequent migration into the fibres, together with ageing, makes it more difficult to remove. At the same time, sebum binds particulate matter such as clays and metal oxides strongly to the fabric. Some soils are commonly present on fabrics as spots or stains- highly concentrated and highly visible. Their origins are diverse, and it is not possible to make any generalizations about these forms of soiling. However, the following diagram illustrates the types of material which give rise to the strong colours of a selection of common stains.
3 Just as with sebum, ageing tends to make stains more difficult to remove. e.g. the polyphenolics which give rise to the colour of many drinks undergo oxidative polymerization reactions which increase the tenacity of the stain and can also darken it. The different soiling and ageing processes lead to 5 distinct categories of textile soiling: - a) simple coatings b) mechanically entrapped particles c) semiliquid coatings d) colloidal deposits and e) molecular adsorption. From a) to e) the categories are progressively more difficult to remove. Furthermore, soil may start life at the level i.e. a simple coating, but through repeated washing will often reach the final levels of colloidal deposits or molecular adsorbates. The objective of laundering is to remove this complex mixture of materials so that the article is fit to be used again. Not only is the appearance and feel of the fabric restored, but washing also plays an important role in personal hygiene by reducing the opportunity of growth of the bacteria and parasitic organisms. 2
stains must either be decolourized or destroyed with the aid of chemically active compounds. such as brushing. is not representative of a typical average soil removed by detergents in laundering. These are treated with chemicals which change the insoluble staining substance into soluble forms which are then removed by the use of a solvent. In the use of bleach. The absorbed stain must first of all be loosened from the material by solvent action and then be taken out of the material by proper treatment. in the strictest sense. blood. such as gum. 4 The substance that causes stains generally falls into one of the following 3 categories: • • • greasy stains non-greasy stains combination stains Stains may be divided into 2 groups: the “build up” and the “absorbed”. The stains in the first group are easier to remove since simple methods are employed. . They are regarded as a form of localized soiling on textile material. Some absorbed stains do not respond to solvent action directly. 3 It is a collective term for the local discolouration of a textile which is usually undesirable. food. etc. The absorbed stain penetrates into the material between the interlacings or the interloopings of the yarns as well as actually “getting into” the yarns of the goods. etc.4 STAINS: WHAT IS A STAIN? Stains are intensively coloured substances that cause noticeable soiling even when present in small amounts on textiles and resist removal by detergents.5 A built up stain is mostly on the surface. scraping. In contrast to such easily removed soil. Stains are caused by chemical bonding between a particular –soil and the fibre which. the coloured substances are converted to colourless compounds and in that way the stains are made invisible.
fish paste. 2) ODOUR: Many substances have characteristic odours. beer. Odour. etc. It is important to know the kind of material that caused the stain and the fibre of which the fabric is made. 1) FEEL: It should be noted whether the stain feels hard or soft. Feel.e.5 Stain removal is easiest immediately after the fabrics have been subjected to staining. It is important to remove the stain without changing the appearance or changing the properties of the fabric. Appearance and Location. Stains are assessed visually according to the following scale: 0 – stain undetectable 1 – very slight staining 2 – slight staining 3 – moderate staining 4 – fairly heavy staining 5 – heavy staining 6 – very heavy staining IDENTIFICATION OF STAINS: Stages involved in the identification of stains may be remembered by using the mnemonic FOCAL i. Perfume. urine. salad dressing. When the origin of a stain is known. Two factors that work against ease of restoring the fabric are the length of time that the stain sets and heat the spot may have experienced.g. These odours may become more . cleaning is simplified. gritty or tacky as this will often give good indication as to the nature of the stain e. hardness may indicate some lacquer or certain glues and tacky or slightly soft stains may be toffee or some sugar stain. Tumble drying should be avoided until the spot is removed. The spot should be cleaned as fast as practical or kept wet with water. it is recommended to test the cleaning procedure on a small area of the garment. Colour.6 Removal of stains requires certain precautions to be observed. sticky or smooth. To accomplish this objective.
it may be shiny or dull.g. small food stains and drink splashes are usually observed on the front of a garment and quite often hair-dye on the back of dress. beer. although a stain should never be steamed before spotting. 4) APPEARANCE: Stains can often be categorized by their appearance. The stain may be in the form of splash marks or a smear. It is relatively easy to establish by looking at a stain whether it has been caused by a liquid. Appearance therefore is an important identification point and must never be overlooked. Many stains exhibit dark perimeters e. whether the staining material has been smeared on or whether it has been applied accidentally. perfume is always found on the bust area or underarms of dresses. .g. 5) LOCATION: The position of stain on garment should always be noted since it may often be a guide to the origin of the stain e.6 evident if stain is steamed. 3) COLOUR: Colour is not as useful as it may seem to be. absorbed or built up. mud and road tar are found on lower hemps and trouser turnips. Many staining material will not always exhibit them because of the colour of the fabric on which they appear.
sodium hypochlorite. amyl acetate. glycerine H2O2. sodium perborate. fatty acid alcohol sulphonates Emulsifiers . perchloroethylene Solvents Petroleum based Petroleum ether.7 CLASSIFICATION OF STAIN REMOVERS: The various agents that remove stains have been grouped under eight different heads: Hydrocarbon Chlorinated hydrocarbon Benzene. olein. sodium bisulphite Coconut oil. Toluene CCl4. turpentine Alcohols/ ethers/ketones Ethyl alcohol. oleic Oils/Fats Fatty acids Anionic acid Soaps. oxalic acid Bleaches Reducing agents Sodium hydrosulphite. kerosene. alkylaryl sulphonates. amyl alcohol. sodium thiosulphate. Oxidizing agents acetone. potassium permanganate. trichloroethylene. solvent naphtha.
tomato. For manual spot cleaning and padding purposes. soda ash. 1 % acetic acid. French chalk. white spirit and chlorinated hydrocarbon such as trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene is preferred for its stability. fatty acid condensates. The cleaning liquid should be thin.1-trichloroethane generally alone but also in combination with detergents. Acids Inorganic curds dilute HCl Ammonium hydroxide. detergent based on fatty alcohol. xylene. non-plugging and having moderate evaporation . lipase liquid ammonia. fatty amine Organic oxides 1 % oxalic acid. detergents and their emulsions are commonly used either alone or in combination for stain removal to suit the mode of operation. fullers earth Solvents. 1. tetrachloroethylene. These are largely used in solvent scouring and spotting them. Spotting guns use toluene. amylase. corn starch. lime. solvents are usually encouraged as aqueous emulsions together with detergents. alkyl phenol condensates. High cost. 30% formic acid. SOLVENTS: These dissolve oil/grease stains and remove them by an action similar to dry cleaning. white vinegar. 1 % Enzyme soap Talcum powder. toxicity and volatility or lower efficiency restrict the use of certain solvents. 10 %.8 Nonionic Teepol. For solvent scouring. sour milk. Alkalies Enzymes Absorbents Protease.1.
REDUCING AND OXIDIZING AGENTS: Reducing stains are useful for treating coloured stains on white goods since the colouring matter. Action of the reducing agent can be much assisted by employing it as a hot solution and sometimes it is useful to assist its action by adding an acid or an alkali. offering the possibility of intensifying the action of washing liquors and to locally remove the stains which are difficult to remove in the presence of water. hence water in oil or oil in water type emulsions are found more effective. Emulsions unless very thin are difficult to use in a gun. Hydrogen peroxide can be applied to all types of fabrics without fear of damage but sodium hypochlorite is liable to damage all fibres if applied for too long or at a high concentration and if not finally thoroughly washed out of the treated stain preferably with water containing a small proportion of a reducing agent to destroy the residual hypochlorite. containing approximately 75% of solvents in an emulsifiable form. The stain removing agents contain an emulsifier dissolved in them and hence become selfemulsifiable. 7 . especially if it be a food dye and often if it is a fruit stain. It is generally advisable to wash the stain immediately afterwards to remove the reducing agent as also the products of reduction otherwise it may oxidize and get fixed as before. can be destroyed by reduction. They are variously described as a brown liquid miscible with water and having powerful solvent action. By oxidation it is possible for dirt dyes and organic staining substances to undergo decomposition to form colourless water soluble products which can be washed out with water preferably containing also soap and ammonia. Action of hypochlorite can be assisted by adding few drops of acetic acid to stain already in contact with hypochlorite. Oxidizing agents are generally used for treating most stains excepting those of metal salts and fats/oils and waxes. EMULSIONS: Water in oil type emulsions are finding an increasing favour for manual spot cleaning while oil in water type is more suitable for padding and scouring.9 properties. Solvents alone have a tendency to form halo. Sodium hypochlorite is good for food stains. Emulsions of solvents with slower drying characteristics can be employed for manual spot cleaning.
ACIDS AND ALKALIES: Acids are used for removal of metallic stains. manual spot cleaning and special scouring. Alkali can assist the removal of fats.10 DETERGENTS: These are used for padding. Non-ionics have more effective action on polyester fabrics and are easily washed off. GENERAL METHOD OF REMOVING STAINS: 5 1) Solvent action 2) Absorbent method . emulsification of fat or wax takes place so that their removal is facilitated but it will generally be found better to remove such stains by organic solvents. They are not harmful to cellulose fibre goods but can weaken protein fibres such as wool especially if used hot and concentrated or allowed to remain in textile materials after the stain removal. Anionics are more effective for cleaning cotton than polyester and blended fabrics. especially if assisted with soap. Carbon spots acquired during the wet processing are difficult to remove from polyester fabrics. Alkalies are useful to assist the action of a detergent such as soap. Removal of fat and wax stains.
with a round glass rod. The same area is then dampened by using a cloth pad moistened with the solvent. with a gradual reduction of solvent towards the dry outside edges. the excess liquid in the fabric should be absorbed with a cloth or a sponge. or it may harm the colour or finish of the fabric. Water will dissolve more substances than any chemical. The material is placed on a flat surface with the stained side up. It is better to have a number of short chemical treatments followed by neutralizing and rinsing. A stain which is not removed by solvent action must be treated chemically. ABSORBENT METHOD: . the reason being that the stain should come out of the material from the same side it entered. The stain is then sponged with a cloth wet with the solvent. When the stain is removed. A blotter is used under the stain to pick up the excess of chemical solution. a little at a time. A piece of absorbent cloth or blotter should be placed under the stain. The spot is moistened with water. In the use of a solvent. After a short time the chemical is neutralized by another suitable solution. However. With this type of treatment there is more danger of damage being done to the fibre or the colour. than to have one long exposure of the stain to the action of the chemical.11 3) Detergent action 4) Digestion 5) Lubrication SOLVENT ACTION: Many stains are removed by solvent action. The dampening should be done in such a way that the centre of the stained area contains more solvent. In this way the staining substance is changed to a new one which is removed by solvent action. since it may not have the desired action on the stain. The chemical is carefully applied. The spot should be stroked towards its centre with the solvent-saturated cloth so that the stain does not spread. water cannot always be used. the material is placed on a flat surface with the stained side down. or the coloured staining substance is converted to a colourless compound. This is done so that the material will not show rings around the cleaned spot when it is dry.
In detergency action. non-ionic and CMC DIGESTION: The action of digestion is similar to that occurring in the bodies of animals e. cationic. fuller’s earth.g. In a short time the insoluble food or other stain becomes soluble and can easily be washed with water. Absorbents are not harmful to the fibre or colour. In the removal of stains by this method. 4) The removal of the soil from the fabric by rinsing. The stain must be wet. If dried out. much used today. moist stain. etc. They are. . It is then brushed off. it should be moistened with water. include the following: anionic. some of the digesting agent is sprinkled on the warm. however. insoluble starch is converted to sugar by the action of enzymes. 3) Soap stabilizes the suspension of the soil and prevents the redeposition of the soil in the fabric. can absorb staining material from fabrics. the spot must be neutral. A layer of the absorbent is sprinkled on the stain and worked over until it is saturated. slow in their action and usually must be followed by another treatment to remove the last traces of the stain. Synthetic detergents. The detergent action of a soap solution involves the following: 1) It wets the fabric and loosens the soil 2) Mechanical action or agitation causes the soil to separate from the fabric being treated. a new layer is applied and the procedure repeated.12 Certain solid substances such as chalk. DETERGENT ACTION: This can be accomplished by washing the entire fabric or the garment or by sponging the affected area by soap. In order for the action to take place. warm and moist. The fabric is placed on a flat surface with the stained side up. ring prevention entails a final rinsing with water since soap solution dissolves certain impurities and caries along some other insoluble particles in a colloidal form.
This is done by regular inspection of cloth for assessment of stain and determination of sources. Ring spinning and winding are the major areas of bath staining. Concurrently. Rust stains show a characteristic blood red colour with an acidified potassium sulphocyanide solution and blue with an acidified ferrocyanide solution. Oil on lubricated machine part is not near the passage of the cloth. Under a microscope. IDENTIFICATION OF OIL STAINS: Fresh stains are darker and more pronounced than old ones. a solvent is then used to remove the lubricant. Oil stains from wet processing are few and far between because the wet fabric is not easily stained by oil which is hydrophobic. Most of the oil stains show fluorescence under UV light. Major causes of these oil stains are the systems of lubricating. Rust stains are slowly dissolved by oxalic acid. In a light fabric or light colour. stentering and heat setting machine. The most effective way of tackling oil stain damage is by preventive measures. HCl or ammonium bifluoride solution.13 LUBRICATION: This method is used to remove stains produced by insoluble substances such as lipstick. are reddish brown in colour. But oil/grease is not. Oily spots are scattered all over the cloth and it is difficult and laborious to clean. Improvement can be quick once these systems are studied. cleaning and material handling. They dissolve in solvents like CCl4. carbon. workers have to be trained to work cleanly and develop quality consciousness. with a rough surface and no fluorescence. Oil stains are different from rust stains which show precise outline. modified and standardized. Black carbonaceous spots come off suddenly and stop suddenly leaving no hint of their source. oil stains appear as a brown mask attached to the fibre or yarn surface. which carries the stain along with it. insoluble pigments. the oil stain appears transparent when viewed against light. . etc. A lubricant such as glycerine or colourless grease is first rubbed onto the stain. OIL STAIN DAMAGE IN TEXTILE PROCESSING: Oil stain damage takes place mainly in the loom shed next to weaving. Likely source of such staining are drying.
Also spotting is handy for stains occurring during later stages or for stain removal after processing. Yet another practice is to spot clean the major stains in the major stage leaving the light handling and minor stains for treatment at scouring and bleaching. Stains in grey fabric. 3) MASKING STAINS: Even after stain removal most of the process houses resort to dyeing or printing to mask unyielding stains. Even if a stained fabric is intended for padding or special scouring it is necessary to spot clean the dark and embedded stains. . Care should be taken that the solvent used in the stain remover does not dissolve or corrode the rubber or plastic rollers that may be fitted to the padding machine. Some handling stains are only dirt without any oil/grease and are easily cleaned by normal scouring. Grey pieces are segregated as ‘goods for bleaching and dyeing a light shade’. 2) PADDING AND SCOURING: The advantage of this method is that the entire fabric is given a uniform treatment which will avoid possible patchiness in finished fabrics. It is therefore easier and more desirable to remove stains at a grey stage. More heavily stained pieces are dyed dark shades or blotch printed. In this group are included – padding. special scouring and solvent scouring Masking of the stains by dyeing or printing 1) SPOT CLEANING: This remains the most widely used method. The use of chlorinated or aromatic hydrocarbon solvents is hazardous unless padding is done with closed apparatus equipped with suction and discharge parts in a well ventilated place. gets “set”. making them difficult to remove. Such stains are more laborious to spot clean because they are extensive and have no sharp borders and some may find fewer stains when spot cleaning is done after scouring. still and shiny with sharp edges and dissolve into a black solution on application of a solvent such as kerosene or xylene. It is the only way of removing stains from fabrics sold in the grey stage. undergoing heat-setting or wet chemical processing. The techniques for treating stains can be grouped in 3 different categories: • • • Spot cleaning which involves the localized cleaning of only the stained portion of the fabric Padding or scouring which covers the entire fabric.14 Dark stains are black.
.These can be usually removed by first soaking in cold water and then washing in lukewarm soap solutions.15 SOME COMMON STAIN REMOVAL METHODS 8 COTTON: Blood stains: .
Coffee and tea: . Since ammonia is a weak alkali.If the cotton goods are white. boiling water should be poured through it from a height. Stains can be removed as follows: Blood: .H2O2 with ammonia. Paint and varnish: .The stains should be soaked overnight in cold water.soap and water are not advised.16 Chewing gum: .Fruit stains are usually acid in nature and can often be removed by treatment with an alkali. Good solvents are benzene. Coffee and chocolate: . ink eradicator may be used. naphtha. Cocoa stains can usually be removed with cold water.Sunlight may prove effective. Peach stains may require a bleach such as hydrogen peroxide and ammonia. benzene or kerosene will usually remove these stains from cotton. Old stains may require bleaching. Coloured fabrics may be soaked in sour milk or salt and lemon juice. CCl4 and CHCl3.Turpentine. gasoline.Scrape off excess. and then washed with lukewarm water.Most fresh fruit stains can be with boiling water. Follow with a clear water rinse. SILK: A sponging with an up-and-down movement (not in a circle) that follows the warp thread is generally the best cleaner for silks. Fruit: . The fabric should then be washed in soap and water. Rub with ice until remaining gum rolls into a ball. Since H2O2 is mild bleach. Fruit: . Lemon juice and salt is a good bleach if fabric is either white or a fast colour.The stained portion of the cloth should be placed over a bowl. Ink: . milk or alcohol should be applied. such as ammonia and alcohol mixed in equal proportions. Grease:-A solvent must be used for the fat in the grease. .These stains are best treated with boiling soft water poured from a height through the stain. then sponge with dry cleaning fluid. It may then be sponged with a drycleaning fluid. it should not be used on dyed fabrics. Lipstick: . it will not be injurious if the Scorch: . Grass stains: .Rub with a piece of bread.
Candle wax: . not penetrating to the core of the fibre. LINEN: Ink: .Dilute HCl will remove stains of perspiration. Other fresh inks are best washed or soaked in milk. Coffee: . followed with pre-wash. . gasoline usually remove these spots. Ink: . benzene. Washable ink stains can be removed with soap and water if action is prompt. Egg: .Cool water rinse. the cloth may be redyed in a darker colour. If badly burned.Dry cleaning fluids such as naphtha. it may be necessary to dry clean.If the scorch is slight.Aniline inks can be removed with acetic acid because this acid has no detrimental effect on silk. One of the safest ways of removing inks from coloured silks is to soak the fabric overnight in cultured milk. Ink: .Cool water rinse. If a ring results. If stain is old. sponge with soap and lukewarm water. Then iron out remainder between sheets of absorbent paper.17 dye is fast and if the ammonia is not left too long on the fabric without a rinse.Cool water rinse.one part acid to 75 or 100 parts water.Stretch a fabric over a bowl and pour boiling water (carefully) from 1 ft. Grease and dirt: . Scorch: . Perspiration: .Chill with ice and scrape off as much as possible.Cool water rinse. use glycerine. Milk: . Blood: .Hold the spot against a paper towel and spray with water closely from the back. WOOL: Grease: . Fruit juice: . Cosmetics: .Petroleum jelly/cold cream. above.Soak overnight in yoghurt.Sponge lengthwise with warm water and soap.
rinse with club soda.Saturate the stain with a liquid laundry detergent. Massage thoroughly but gently. If the wine has dried. White wine: . Tomato: .Use a liquid laundry detergent containing non-chlorine bleach.Pour salt to absorb the wine.Cool water rinse. Dye stains: . Rinse by hand briefly with warm water. Vinegar: .If the article is wet.Saturate the stain with a liquid laundry detergent containing non-chlorine bleach. above. Plant and protein stains: . air dry and vacuum excess soil off.18 Red wine: .Cool water rinse.Stretch fabric over bowl and pour boiling water from 1 ft. Tea: .Rinse with club soda. PEROXYNITRITE AS A NOVEL STAIN BLEACHING AGENT: 10 . If old stain use glycerine. COTTON/POLYESTER BLEND: 9 Oily stains: . Particulate soils: .
8. and pH adjustments. Standard fabrics were made of cotton. There were no significant deviations from the target pH values. The resulting wash solutions had a 6 mmole peroxynitrite concentration. by carefully addition of solid NaOH powder. a molecule thought to be of biological significance due to its probable in vivo formation by the diffusion controlled reaction of nitric oxide with super oxide. disodium hydrogen phosphate.5 hrs. and ozone based systems.3 M sodium phosphate solution were brought to pH values of 6. Six stain monitor fabrics were placed into the wash solutions. and the multi-stir bath was used to ensure equal. Decomposed peroxynitrite stock solutions were generated when peroxynitrite stock solutions were allowed to sit for 7 days at room temperature. 9. This brought the pH values to about their target. 200 ml of a 0. Then 40 ml of peroxynitrite stock solution were added to each solution.6.6. respectively.07 M phosphate buffer of pH 7 was used to destroy excess ozone. Phosphate solutions: 6 beakers of a 0. constant temperatures and stirring rates. Briefly. sodium dihydrogen phosphate was used. the fabrics were pre-washed with a detergent powder dosed at 2. All fabrics were stored at 4°C in the dark prior to use. Standard stain bleaching conditions were maintained. resp.5 gpl. 9. Prior to each stain bleaching study. 10. peroxide. In all experiments the water was distilled. 11 and 12.6. Standard conditions were 30 min washes at 25°C. The peroxynitrite concentrations were determined by UV analysis at its λmax of 302 nm. For the first four pH values. The pH values of all wash solutions were constantly monitored during washing. 8.19 Historically. The pH adjusted wash solutions were prepared as follows: Series 1. Peroxynitrite (-OONO). can serve as an efficient stain bleaching reagent on fabrics. Only in the past 2 decades has chlorine slowly being replaced by oxygen. 7.95 and 12. followed by an hour purge with argon. previously adjusted to pH 12 with 1N NaOH. was ozonated in an ice bath at a flow rate of 150 ml/min for 3.6. not even at pH 9 or . were effected with several drops of 1 N NaOH and/or 1 N H2SO4. A 10% KI solution in a 0.1M NaN3 solution. Stains are listed as padded and/or sprayed onto the fabric. when necessary. decomposing to nitrite and nitrate. effective low temperature stain bleaching reagents for fabric washing were based on chlorine. 10. The experiment was carried out as follows: Peroxynitrite was generated by ozonation of sodium azide on a Fischer Ozonizer. and for the last two. until reaching target solution pH values of precisely 7.
is a good one. Additionally. where no buffering capacity exists. the tea antioxidant reacts faster with –OONO than many other antioxidants such ascorbic acid. Tests demonstrate significant bleach benefits under all test conditions and reveals that the fabric damage as reflected by tensile strength loss in the fabric is statistically insignificant.3 M NaHCO3 (pH 8) and NaHCO3/NaOH (pH 9. its reaction with various biomolecules.and two-electron oxidant. - OONO performs very well with hydrophilic. First the stain bleaching effectiveness in 2 wash liquor systems was tested. The corresponding protonated form of –OONO. specifically its cis. Especially in the case of peroxynitrite. 12) was used instead of phosphate. of researches have described some of the most interesting chemical and biological characteristics of peroxynitrite.20 10. except that 0. this pH profile renders –OONO almost ideal for laundry wash applications. The diminished stain bleaching seen in the pH region of 7-8 results probably from the rapid decay of –OONO at lower pH values. The realization that –OONO might serve as a stain bleacher on fabrics derived from 3 specific observations in the literature. Also –OONO is a good oxygen transfer reagent at high pH values. wherever phosphates are used as builders. The –OONO subsequently bleaches the rest of the stain. Not unexpectedly. it also has to be selective in terms of oxidative bleaching of the stains while not damaging the fabric. 10. polyphenolic stains such as fruit. 11. giving an absolute maximum reflectance of nearly 87. which is the inherent value of reflectance of the fabric with all stains bleached. every laundry bleach has to perform in the presence of all detergent formulation components and under various water conditions. The results of the experiment were as follows: In the past decade or so. its role in signal transduction. The next question to answer is the one of stain specificity. peroxynitrous acid (HOONO). wine or tea. a vast no. For tomato stains. Because many commercial laundry detergents are formulated to deliver fabric wash pH values near 10. . Peroxynitrite shows significant stain bleaching performance in a phosphate wash solution at pH 10.and trans-isomerism. the pre-wash alone renders the change. Series 2 carbonate solution: The experiments in carbonate solutions were done in the same way. In a practical situation. its adduct formation with CO2 and its ability to cross membranes. such as its kinetic and physical properties.
low temperature fabric bleach.8% is among the highest of any stain bleaches. Its active oxygen content of 25. and renders it very attractive in terms of formulation space. Sydnonimine SIN-1 is a known peroxynitrite precursor. Thus it can be concluded on the basis of the above experiment that peroxynitrite is a novel. Finally. dye damage studies reveal that peroxynitrite has the same low level of dye damage as peracetic acid. Sydnonimines in general are promising new precursor candidates for stain bleaching from cotton fabrics. effective. with a pretreatment composition that comprises a ligand that forms . Moreover. It is possible to find a suitable peroxynitrite precursor that can be formulated in a detergent product to deliver the required bleach benefit.21 The remaining major question to answer is that of practicality and delivery. before washing. initial experiments with SIN-1 as a peroxynitrite precursor show encouraging stain bleaching results. Method of pre-treating and bleaching stained fabrics 11 A method for bleaching stained fabrics is by pretreating the stained fabric.
Co. One or both of the pretreatment composition and the wash liquor are substantially devoid of peroxygen bleach or a peroxy-based or -generating bleach system. Agents used to remove stains are not very effective and can adversely affect various color fastnesses. Bisnol UP-10. developed and sold by Ipposha Oil Industries. is a stainremoving agent for disperse dyestuffs on urethane for which the main component is a special surfactant of high molecular weight.22 a transition metal complex as bleach catalyst. is used widely in blends with other fibers to produce high-performance materials. The pretreatment provides improved or broader stain profile bleaching. Ltd. the complex catalysing bleaching of stains by atmospheric oxygen. General Characteristics Appearance: Ionicity: pH: Solubility: : : : : Tan liquid Weakly cationic/nonionic Neutral (1% ion-exchange water) Dissolves readily in cold water Effect on water quality BOD5 CODMn : 15ppm : 160ppm . in polyester/urethane blends. Stain-removing agent for the disperse dyeing of urethane Bisnol UP-10 Polyurethane. popular due to its high performance as a stretch back material. The pretreatment composition preferably comprises an iron complex comprising the ligand N.. staining of urethane by disperse dyestuff is very difficult to remove.. However. Due to its excellent affinity for dyestuff and its solubilizing strength. it effectively removes staining by disperse dyestuffs and contributes to the enhancement of various colour fastness properties. N-bis (pyridin-2-yl-methyl)-1.1bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1-aminoethane.
effectively removes the stains of disperse dyestuff from urethane. effective in both the removal of stains and in the prevention of redeposition.23 n-hexane : 6ppm (as determined for concentration of 1g/L) Properties • Excellent dyestuff affinity and solubilizing strength. an anti-staining agent for urethane with disperse dyes. • Low foaming Method of use While the amount used varies according to the dyestuff and the dyeing method. • Very little staining by the solution during testing for colour fastness to laundering and to dry cleaning.0 g/L.0~2. e. . a general range is 1. • Contributes to the improvement of various colour fastnesses.0g/L of Resistol UD-7. DETERGENTS INTRODUCTION: Washing and cleaning in aqueous wash liquor is a complex process involving the cooperative interaction of numerous physical and chemical influences. Washing can be defined as both the removal of water or aqueous surfactant solution of poorly soluble matter and the dissolution of water-soluble impurities from textile surfaces. to limit staining caused by disperse dyestuffs and to improve colour fastness. to laundering.0~3. • Effectively removes stains when used alone and in acidic conditions. use 1. and to dry cleaning. • Does not negatively affect urethane fibers.g. In dyeing. colour fastness to rubbing with solvent.
builders and additives such as anti-corrosive sodium silicate. Surfactants are thus the key component of any detergent. in which soil is removed from a surface. and secondary stabilization in the wash liquor of dispersed or molecularly dissolved soil. soil. Subsequent processes: After soil has been removed. Following components constitute a partnership in the overall washing process: water. however.The most obvious role of water is to serve as a solvent. 12 Influence of water: . bodily excretions and impurities derived from domestic. 13 They include ingredients like surfactants.e. Types of soil: One way to categorize soil is by their origin i. particles. DETERGENT: The term detergent means cleansing agent. Water is also the transport media for the dispersed and colloidal soil components. textiles. From a detergency standpoint. and redeposition of the removed soil must be prevented. bleachable dyes. . it is more appropriate to regard the principle types of soil as – water soluble material. stabilizers and soil suspending carboxy cellulose. proteins. carbohydrates. etc. it has been necessary to treat separately each of the several phenomena involved and to isolate them from one another. Stabilization is necessary to prevent re-deposition onto the fibres of soil that has already been removed. This property of a wash liquor is known as its soil antiredeposition capability. dust from the atmosphere. Thus to simplify a physicochemical approach of the washing process. both for detergent and for soluble soils within the soil. commercial or industrial activity. Water has a very high surface tension of 72 dynes/cm and wetting can only take place rapidly and effectively if the surface tension is drastically reduced by surfactants to the value of 30 dynes/cm and below. The terms ‘single’ and ‘multiple wash cycles’ are used respectively in conjunction with the 2 phenomena. fats and oils. Washing process begins with wetting and penetration of the soiled laundry by detergent solution. washing equipment and detergent.24 A fundamental distinction exists between the primary step. The soil removal process: Physical removal of soil from a surface occurs as a result of non-specific adsorption of surfactants on the various interfaces present and through specific adsorption of chelating agents on certain polar soil components. it must be stabilized in the wash liquor.
is done by methods ranging from simple mechanical separation or abrasion to removal by solution or selective chemical action.25 DETERGENCY: The cleaning of a solid object i.e. although the transmittance of light by fabric specimens can also be used. The term detergency is limited to systems in which a liquid bath is present and is the main cleaning component of the system. the removal of unwanted foreign matter from its surface. Fabric detergency: Reflectance is the most commonly used measurement for the whiteness of the fabric. . The most commonly used instrument for reflectance measurement is the Gardner colourimeter.
and the like Household horizontal axis washer and dryer for evaluating detergents under use conditions. and also for evaluating fabric softening and antistatic activity Detergency efficiency: Problems of cost reduction. yellowing. soil redeposition. bleach performance.26 Tergotometer and launderometer equipment for evaluating laundry products. dye transfer. hard surface detergency. 14 Hunter D-25 PC-2 Delta colourimeter for quantifying detergency. water resources and effluent treatment and disposal force finishers to study wash processes in depth and to learn . optical brightening.
DETERGENT INGREDIENTS: 12 Detergents for household and institutional use are complex formulations containing upto more than 25 detergents.surfactants. Amphoteric surfactants still lack a significant place in the market. . Cationic surfactants are largely used to fabric softeners. The builder is usually a sodium phosphate of the type Na5P3O10 or Na4P2O7 acting as a sequestering agent.anionic. Anionic surfactants are the most common ingredients designed for laundry. the goods are expected to be uniformly and thoroughly cleaned when sold. Generally. surfactants are watersoluble surface active agents comprised of a hydrophobic portion (usually a long alkyl chain) attached to a hydrophilic or solubility enhancing functional groups. dishwashing and general cleaning. These can be categorized into the following major groups: . Furthermore. In general. depending on what charge is present in the chain-carrying portion of the molecule after dissociation in aqueous solutions. both adsorption and detergency performance increase with increasing chain length. whereas more highly branched surfactants are good wetting agents but have unsatisfactory detergency performance. non-ionic. bleaching agents. Nonionic surfactants such as alcohol ethoxylates have acquired great importance during last decades. auxiliary agents. A surfactant can be grouped in one of the 4 classes. cationic. The builders form chelated complexes with calcium and magnesium ions and react with water forming alkaline solutions. amphoteric. create serious pollution problems in water. Both surfactants and builders of detergents.15 Textile mill operations: Detergency is important in textile finishing because small quantities of foreign matter on the goods can interfere seriously with dyeing and other finishing treatments. Surfactants with little branching in their alkyl chains generally show a good cleaning effect but relatively poor wetting characteristics. Detergency efficiency is a measure of the extent to which chemicals and foreign substances can be removed from the goods in a specific situation. and they are present in all types of detergents.27 as much as possible about performance when buying new machines. Surfactants constitute the most important group of detergent components. builders.
Another distinction between soap and detergent is that the latter contains a lower percentage or surfactant and higher level of phosphates which help in softening water. .28 Additives may consist of enzymes. DETERGENT COMPOUNDS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS COMPOUNDS Soap and various surfactants Sodium perborate Sodium tri polyphosphate Enzymes Silicones Perfumes FUNCTIONS Remove dirt particles particularly the hydrophobic molecules from fabric Removes stains and dyes from fabrics Softens water Removes biological dirt mainly protein Control foaming Imparts appropriate scent to fabrics SOAP Vs DETERGENTS: A detergent. derived from natural fats or oils. One of the serious disadvantages of these detergents is from the ecological point of view. they are non-biodegradable. which has become indispensable for our lives is anything that cleans. Soaps (using natural fats) contain a sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids. perfumes and bleaching agents. The hydrolytic enzymes used in detergents are by solubilising the biological stains by degrading the large molecules into smaller water soluble compounds which do not adhere to fabric. The active components of detergents are double headed amphiphatic molecules usually consisting of a bulky water-insoluble hydrocarbon chain to which is attached a highly polar group.
This trend has developed because of energy-saving considerations and increased use of colored articles. Over 70% of domestic washing in Europe is carried out at 50°C or lower. LAUNDRY DETERGENT PRODUCTS: Detergents containing peroxygen bleach provide superior cleaning performance. odour removal and overall colour care in washable items and show no negative impacts on the physical properties of fabrics or garments. Activated Activated peroxygen bleach detergents convert the hydrogen peroxide to bleach species that have significantly better cleaning efficacy. Non-activated 16 In a non-activated. particularly in moderate wash conditions. Liquid “bleach alternative” products give “bleach like” performance via higher levels of optical brighteners. every major detergent manufacturer offers “with bleach” detergents. to wash efficiently at lower temperatures. Now. However. Since hydrogen peroxide is most effective for stain removal at temperatures over 70°C. liquid detergents do not actually contain bleach because peroxygen bleach is unstable at the pH of these aqueous based products. Hydrogen peroxide requires wash water temperatures in excess of 60°C to deliver meaningful whitening and stain removal benefits. surfactants and enzymes. Activated peroxygen bleach in detergents also may reduce cross staining in the laundering process by decolorizing dye molecules that bled into the wash solutions.29 LAUNDRY DETERGENTS AND DYE-USE TRENDS Knowing how today’s laundry detergent interacts with dyes is key when producing the next generation of textiles. a bleach . Currently only powder detergents have an actual built-in bleach. “with bleach” detergent the sole bleaching species is hydrogen peroxide liberated from sodium perborate or sodium percarbonate when the powder is added to the wash water.
the effective bleaching species. This reacts with the general hydrogen peroxide to form peracetic acid.30 activator needs to be used alongside the source of hydrogen peroxide.O-C-C8H17 || O ------- C8H17-C-O-OH || O (pernonanonic acid) | C8H17-C-O-O-C-C8H17 || O || O (dinonanoyl peroxide) .CH2 – N The most common activator used in North America is SNOBS17 (sodium nonanoyloxybenzenesulphonate). Na+SO3—C6H4. NaBO3.4H2O COCH3 | | COCH3 ------- H2O2 COCH3 | H2O2 2 CH3-C-O-OH || O (peracetic acid in equilibrium with the anion) | COCH3 N – CH2. The activator most commonly used in Europe is TAED 17 (tetraacetylethylenediamine). a hydrophobic activator that reacts with perhydroxyl ions under alkaline conditions forming a peracid and diacyl peroxide.
31 These species provide significant improvement in hydrophilic and hydrophobic stain removal as well as overall whitening. . Because of its hydrophobic nature. This activated bleach technology also delivers significant consumer advantages in odor removal. SNOBS gives much greater breadth and depth of laundering benefits than does TAED.
Hence. The detergent should not cause skin irritation. bleaching and chelating agents present in the detergents. . b. ROLE OF ENZYMES IN DETERGENTS: 13 According to a recent report. The active ingredient must have a biodegradability of 97%. There are alternatives such as Zeolites. The activity of some enzymes can also be inhibited by oxidizing. Nearly 80% of the skin problems among infants are caused by clothes washed with detergents. an ideal enzyme should possess the following characteristics: a) It must be stable in alkaline conditions (pH > 7). phosphate free detergents are also not ecofriendly. which are essentially minerals or synthetic compounds consisting of alumina silicates tetra hydrate framework. Same detergents even denature the enzymes. An enzyme also has certain properties to be able to act under various washing conditions e. It may contain environment friendly substitute. c. bleaching and chelating agents and perfume. It should not contain any phosphate because sudden increase in phosphate causes eutrophication of water bodies. b) It should have stability over a wide range of temperature. c) It should remain unaffected by oxidizing. because detergent particles destroy the natural thin layer of productive oil on skin. To be environment friendly a detergent must have following important characteristics: a.32 The concept of ECO FRIENDLY DETERGENTS: Due to increasing environmental awareness.g. but should be used in sufficient amount in order to ensure a similar performance as compared to the phosphates. but they can do much harm to the environment. there is an increase in emphasis on the use of eco-friendly detergents and products for various purposes. d. the pH of laundry detergents is generally greater than 7 and temperature needed can be as high as 95°C. d) It should not require metal ion for their own activity.
They are susceptible to attack from bleaches. egg and human sweat. These organic stains have a tendency to adhere strongly to the textile fibres. Proteases. These stains may be of inorganic and organic substances clinging with varying adherence to the fabric. we have been still using the age old harsh chemical methods. hydrolyse proteins and break them into soluble polypeptides or free amino acids. They leave no harmful residues. however. nor do they have any negative impact on the sewage treatment processes. Through advances in biotechnology and the application of genetic engineering it is now possible to have need specific enzymes by means of fermentation technology in large scale. thus are safe for aquatic life. Scientists have overcome this by taking the advantage of the advanced technique of protein engineering and have introduced Everlase. Especially use of enzymes in laundry soaps will be a definitive move towards ecological considerations for textile effluents. The foundation for using proteases in laundry detergents was laid by Otto Rohn way back in 1913. Household laundry soil consists of mainly lipids and carbohydrates which dissolve readily in alkaline pH . while Savinase is effective for low temperature washes. Apart from this main environmental benefit they are also used in order to be able to save energy by offering a lower wash temperature. This is bleach stable. Alkalase and Savinase are the popular ones. Alkalase is effective under medium temperature wash. Similarly heat stable protease called Esperase retains its wash effect at both high alkalinity and high temperature. The role of a detergent in laundering is to facilitate the removal of the stain and soil from fabric. However these proteases have their limitations. Detergent from proteases are alkaline and are effective in neutral and mildly alkaline conditions (pH 7-10).33 ECO-FRIENDLY LAUNDRY DETERGENTS: 18 Although enzymes have been used for various purposes in textile processing in the western countries for more than 100 years. The actual laundering process involves suspension and emulsification of the dirt particles. The inefficiency of non enzymatic detergents in removing proteins can result in permanent stains due to oxidation and denaturing caused by bleaching and drying. These proteases were found to have excellent cleansing action for protein stain removal caused by grass. blood.
Enzymes used as spot removal agents have been a household remedation for stubborn turmeric curry stains by lemon juice is an e. and are low activity on crystalline cellulose which makes the intact fibre. even cellulases. perborates and chelating agents and possess excellent shelf life. It performs selective hydrolysis on the outer layers of cotton fibres and requires lower dose. Liquid enzyme detergents having powerful enzymatic action are important as they work on the stain at pre-treatment stage. Removal of oily and fatty stains has always been troublesome. whose role is to break up and emulsify the dirt particles. Some of these lipases are stable towards bleaching agents. Additional advantages with cellulases are that they impart color freshness to frequently washed cotton fabrics along with softening effect. Carenzyme has a high activity on amorphous cellulose. Cutinases having high lipase activity with a pH range of 6-11 are ideal for detergent use. Cellulases are used for color brightening. has been the first industrial enzyme developed for tough stains on collar and cuffs. The trend to use lower washing temperature has made removal of greases still difficult. They posses high efficiency with little specificity and work at pH 9-11 at elevated temperatures. of this type. which is the major constituent of the microfibrils. especially from fabrics made of blend of cotton and polyester. Some of the commercial cellulases are Carenzyme and Celluzyme. Lipase removes oily and fatty stains such as that of butter. they pose no health risk to employees in enzyme production or detergent manufacturing plants or to the consumers. They are stable even in the presence of surfactants.34 medium. This is the reason for effective color brightening effect by Carenzyme without significantly damaging the fabric. Carenzyme is a mono component enzyme. launched recently. which is multi component enzyme. fats and lipstick. Encapsulated or liquid enzymes can be handled conveniently and safely and if handled properly. The liquid enzyme detergent possesses no dust problem as it can disperse and mix more readily than the powder formulations.4% of .g. Not only are proteases important. It removes microfibrils protruding from the fibre and is more effective than Celluzyme. Lipolase. These stains are removed by the surfactants. amylases and lipases are reported to be very effective in cleansing action. The amount of the enzyme required is only 0. The recombinant DNA technology has produces several suitable lipases for detergent formulations. Certain laundry enzymes having the following properties ideally fit into the detergent grade. Among the common ones.
The fabric sample treated with hard water containing detergent did not show any change in shade. then concentrated by thin layer evaporation. After the fermentation the culture is purified by centrifugation or filtration. Thus it is high time we switch over to enzyme detergents as they offer several benefits: Enzymes are biodegradable. the fabric was washed with hot and cold water. The fabric sample was then washed with hot cold hard water.35 the total detergent formulation. For incorporating proteases into detergents there are several methods available such as prilling. Above investigations indicate that the faded look of the garment is due to optical brightener present in the detergent. After ½ hr. Amylases are used to remove stains caused by starchy food. The treated fabric showed shade variation. Effect of detergent free from optical brightener: The original fabric sample used for making the garments was soaked in hard water (200 ppm) containing detergent (free from optical brightener) for about ½ hr. thus it is economically viable. glycol or other poly functional alcoholic compounds as liquid detergents. granulation and mixed granulation.19 CONCLUSIONS . save energy by washing at cold temperatures and show well proven performances. The enzyme concentrate are then stabilized by lowering the water content by adding glycerol. extrusion. Effect of detergent containing optical brightener: The original fabric sample used for the garments was also soaked in a solution of detergent containing optical brightener.
availability of raw materials.36 Stain removal and detergency although thousand’s of years old. energy considerations and environmental factors. fibres and textile chemicals active in adapting their products to the prevailing market conditions. The need to respond to the rapidly changing market requires a thorough understanding of the detersive process as well as meaningful detergency test methods. Changes in economic climate and consumer needs have kept the producers of detergents. is still a developing field. The detersive process and detergent composition have changed from time-to-time in response to economic conditions. the increasing market share of synthetic fibres. although the improvement of stain removal efficiency had not been as uninterrupted development. Substantial progress has been made over the years. REFERENCES . Much progress has been made in recent decades in elucidating detergency mechanisms by improved experimental techniques and new analytical techniques.
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