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STAIN REMOVERS AND DETERGENTS INTRODUCTION:
Once a textile material has been placed into service, it must be maintained at an acceptable level. Serviceability or durability is the most important characteristic of the fabrics used for apparel purposes. During daily use, the fabric has to withstand considerable wear and tear due to washing (laundering), which affects the serviceability. The effect of serviceability could be studied in terms of change in several measurable fabric properties, such as strength, abrasion resistance, etc. 1 TEXTILE SOILING: There are many ways by which textiles become soiled in the home. Some are unavoidable consequences of normal usage. The human body itself is a major source of soiling on textile clothing, towels and other fabrics which come into contact with it. Emulsions of blood, pus, urine, faeces, semen, vaginal secretions and saliva together with dead skin cells and the output of sebaceous glands, contribute proteins, lipids, inorganic electrolytes and simple compounds such as urea to this soiling. Other causes are accidental and arise from contact with foods, drinks, cosmetics, mud and the host of other materials encountered in daily life. Of universal importance as a soil is sebum, a collection of lipids secreted by the sebaceous glands. The detailed composition varies between races and sexes; for an individual it varies with season, diet and state of health. At body temperatures sebum forms a relative, mobile emulsion with water. It flows readily from the skin and hair to the surface of the fabric fibres. Subsequent migration into the fibres, together with ageing, makes it more difficult to remove. At the same time, sebum binds particulate matter such as clays and metal oxides strongly to the fabric. Some soils are commonly present on fabrics as spots or stains- highly concentrated and highly visible. Their origins are diverse, and it is not possible to make any generalizations about these forms of soiling. However, the following diagram illustrates the types of material which give rise to the strong colours of a selection of common stains.
3 Just as with sebum, ageing tends to make stains more difficult to remove. e.g. the polyphenolics which give rise to the colour of many drinks undergo oxidative polymerization reactions which increase the tenacity of the stain and can also darken it. The different soiling and ageing processes lead to 5 distinct categories of textile soiling: - a) simple coatings b) mechanically entrapped particles c) semiliquid coatings d) colloidal deposits and e) molecular adsorption. From a) to e) the categories are progressively more difficult to remove. Furthermore, soil may start life at the level i.e. a simple coating, but through repeated washing will often reach the final levels of colloidal deposits or molecular adsorbates. The objective of laundering is to remove this complex mixture of materials so that the article is fit to be used again. Not only is the appearance and feel of the fabric restored, but washing also plays an important role in personal hygiene by reducing the opportunity of growth of the bacteria and parasitic organisms. 2
In the use of bleach. food. The stains in the first group are easier to remove since simple methods are employed. 3 It is a collective term for the local discolouration of a textile which is usually undesirable. In contrast to such easily removed soil.5 A built up stain is mostly on the surface. 4 The substance that causes stains generally falls into one of the following 3 categories: • • • greasy stains non-greasy stains combination stains Stains may be divided into 2 groups: the “build up” and the “absorbed”. . They are regarded as a form of localized soiling on textile material. such as brushing. Some absorbed stains do not respond to solvent action directly. etc. stains must either be decolourized or destroyed with the aid of chemically active compounds. is not representative of a typical average soil removed by detergents in laundering. the coloured substances are converted to colourless compounds and in that way the stains are made invisible. such as gum. Stains are caused by chemical bonding between a particular –soil and the fibre which. etc.4 STAINS: WHAT IS A STAIN? Stains are intensively coloured substances that cause noticeable soiling even when present in small amounts on textiles and resist removal by detergents. in the strictest sense. The absorbed stain must first of all be loosened from the material by solvent action and then be taken out of the material by proper treatment. scraping. These are treated with chemicals which change the insoluble staining substance into soluble forms which are then removed by the use of a solvent. blood. The absorbed stain penetrates into the material between the interlacings or the interloopings of the yarns as well as actually “getting into” the yarns of the goods.
5 Stain removal is easiest immediately after the fabrics have been subjected to staining. urine. it is recommended to test the cleaning procedure on a small area of the garment. Colour. It is important to remove the stain without changing the appearance or changing the properties of the fabric. etc. salad dressing.g. To accomplish this objective. Odour. gritty or tacky as this will often give good indication as to the nature of the stain e. 2) ODOUR: Many substances have characteristic odours. It is important to know the kind of material that caused the stain and the fibre of which the fabric is made. Tumble drying should be avoided until the spot is removed.6 Removal of stains requires certain precautions to be observed. Stains are assessed visually according to the following scale: 0 – stain undetectable 1 – very slight staining 2 – slight staining 3 – moderate staining 4 – fairly heavy staining 5 – heavy staining 6 – very heavy staining IDENTIFICATION OF STAINS: Stages involved in the identification of stains may be remembered by using the mnemonic FOCAL i. Appearance and Location. Two factors that work against ease of restoring the fabric are the length of time that the stain sets and heat the spot may have experienced. sticky or smooth. Perfume. cleaning is simplified. These odours may become more . When the origin of a stain is known. beer. 1) FEEL: It should be noted whether the stain feels hard or soft.e. The spot should be cleaned as fast as practical or kept wet with water. Feel. fish paste. hardness may indicate some lacquer or certain glues and tacky or slightly soft stains may be toffee or some sugar stain.
3) COLOUR: Colour is not as useful as it may seem to be.g. Many staining material will not always exhibit them because of the colour of the fabric on which they appear. Many stains exhibit dark perimeters e. The stain may be in the form of splash marks or a smear. although a stain should never be steamed before spotting. It is relatively easy to establish by looking at a stain whether it has been caused by a liquid. small food stains and drink splashes are usually observed on the front of a garment and quite often hair-dye on the back of dress. . whether the staining material has been smeared on or whether it has been applied accidentally. beer. it may be shiny or dull. 5) LOCATION: The position of stain on garment should always be noted since it may often be a guide to the origin of the stain e. perfume is always found on the bust area or underarms of dresses. 4) APPEARANCE: Stains can often be categorized by their appearance.g. Appearance therefore is an important identification point and must never be overlooked. mud and road tar are found on lower hemps and trouser turnips.6 evident if stain is steamed. absorbed or built up.
solvent naphtha. sodium thiosulphate. potassium permanganate. alkylaryl sulphonates. sodium perborate. turpentine Alcohols/ ethers/ketones Ethyl alcohol. amyl alcohol. sodium hypochlorite. Oxidizing agents acetone. glycerine H2O2.7 CLASSIFICATION OF STAIN REMOVERS: The various agents that remove stains have been grouped under eight different heads: Hydrocarbon Chlorinated hydrocarbon Benzene. fatty acid alcohol sulphonates Emulsifiers . kerosene. oleic Oils/Fats Fatty acids Anionic acid Soaps. amyl acetate. trichloroethylene. Toluene CCl4. perchloroethylene Solvents Petroleum based Petroleum ether. oxalic acid Bleaches Reducing agents Sodium hydrosulphite. olein. sodium bisulphite Coconut oil.
amylase. sour milk. alkyl phenol condensates. non-plugging and having moderate evaporation . detergents and their emulsions are commonly used either alone or in combination for stain removal to suit the mode of operation.1. 30% formic acid. 1. toxicity and volatility or lower efficiency restrict the use of certain solvents. solvents are usually encouraged as aqueous emulsions together with detergents. white spirit and chlorinated hydrocarbon such as trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene is preferred for its stability. The cleaning liquid should be thin. 1 % Enzyme soap Talcum powder. fullers earth Solvents. lime. lipase liquid ammonia. fatty amine Organic oxides 1 % oxalic acid. For manual spot cleaning and padding purposes. soda ash.8 Nonionic Teepol. SOLVENTS: These dissolve oil/grease stains and remove them by an action similar to dry cleaning. For solvent scouring. corn starch. fatty acid condensates. High cost. Acids Inorganic curds dilute HCl Ammonium hydroxide. 10 %. Spotting guns use toluene. white vinegar. detergent based on fatty alcohol. tetrachloroethylene. xylene. These are largely used in solvent scouring and spotting them. French chalk. Alkalies Enzymes Absorbents Protease. 1 % acetic acid. tomato.1-trichloroethane generally alone but also in combination with detergents.
Emulsions of solvents with slower drying characteristics can be employed for manual spot cleaning. REDUCING AND OXIDIZING AGENTS: Reducing stains are useful for treating coloured stains on white goods since the colouring matter. Action of the reducing agent can be much assisted by employing it as a hot solution and sometimes it is useful to assist its action by adding an acid or an alkali. Emulsions unless very thin are difficult to use in a gun. It is generally advisable to wash the stain immediately afterwards to remove the reducing agent as also the products of reduction otherwise it may oxidize and get fixed as before.9 properties. offering the possibility of intensifying the action of washing liquors and to locally remove the stains which are difficult to remove in the presence of water. Action of hypochlorite can be assisted by adding few drops of acetic acid to stain already in contact with hypochlorite. Hydrogen peroxide can be applied to all types of fabrics without fear of damage but sodium hypochlorite is liable to damage all fibres if applied for too long or at a high concentration and if not finally thoroughly washed out of the treated stain preferably with water containing a small proportion of a reducing agent to destroy the residual hypochlorite. can be destroyed by reduction. containing approximately 75% of solvents in an emulsifiable form. By oxidation it is possible for dirt dyes and organic staining substances to undergo decomposition to form colourless water soluble products which can be washed out with water preferably containing also soap and ammonia. Oxidizing agents are generally used for treating most stains excepting those of metal salts and fats/oils and waxes. Solvents alone have a tendency to form halo. especially if it be a food dye and often if it is a fruit stain. hence water in oil or oil in water type emulsions are found more effective. Sodium hypochlorite is good for food stains. They are variously described as a brown liquid miscible with water and having powerful solvent action. EMULSIONS: Water in oil type emulsions are finding an increasing favour for manual spot cleaning while oil in water type is more suitable for padding and scouring. The stain removing agents contain an emulsifier dissolved in them and hence become selfemulsifiable. 7 .
GENERAL METHOD OF REMOVING STAINS: 5 1) Solvent action 2) Absorbent method . They are not harmful to cellulose fibre goods but can weaken protein fibres such as wool especially if used hot and concentrated or allowed to remain in textile materials after the stain removal. Carbon spots acquired during the wet processing are difficult to remove from polyester fabrics. Alkalies are useful to assist the action of a detergent such as soap. Alkali can assist the removal of fats. manual spot cleaning and special scouring. emulsification of fat or wax takes place so that their removal is facilitated but it will generally be found better to remove such stains by organic solvents. Non-ionics have more effective action on polyester fabrics and are easily washed off. especially if assisted with soap.10 DETERGENTS: These are used for padding. Anionics are more effective for cleaning cotton than polyester and blended fabrics. Removal of fat and wax stains. ACIDS AND ALKALIES: Acids are used for removal of metallic stains.
than to have one long exposure of the stain to the action of the chemical. since it may not have the desired action on the stain. The material is placed on a flat surface with the stained side up. with a round glass rod. A stain which is not removed by solvent action must be treated chemically. A piece of absorbent cloth or blotter should be placed under the stain. The stain is then sponged with a cloth wet with the solvent. However. The chemical is carefully applied. the reason being that the stain should come out of the material from the same side it entered. With this type of treatment there is more danger of damage being done to the fibre or the colour. the material is placed on a flat surface with the stained side down. the excess liquid in the fabric should be absorbed with a cloth or a sponge. When the stain is removed. In this way the staining substance is changed to a new one which is removed by solvent action. It is better to have a number of short chemical treatments followed by neutralizing and rinsing. The dampening should be done in such a way that the centre of the stained area contains more solvent. The same area is then dampened by using a cloth pad moistened with the solvent.11 3) Detergent action 4) Digestion 5) Lubrication SOLVENT ACTION: Many stains are removed by solvent action. The spot should be stroked towards its centre with the solvent-saturated cloth so that the stain does not spread. After a short time the chemical is neutralized by another suitable solution. or the coloured staining substance is converted to a colourless compound. ABSORBENT METHOD: . In the use of a solvent. water cannot always be used. or it may harm the colour or finish of the fabric. Water will dissolve more substances than any chemical. with a gradual reduction of solvent towards the dry outside edges. a little at a time. The spot is moistened with water. This is done so that the material will not show rings around the cleaned spot when it is dry. A blotter is used under the stain to pick up the excess of chemical solution.
. ring prevention entails a final rinsing with water since soap solution dissolves certain impurities and caries along some other insoluble particles in a colloidal form. The stain must be wet. Synthetic detergents. The fabric is placed on a flat surface with the stained side up. cationic. can absorb staining material from fabrics. insoluble starch is converted to sugar by the action of enzymes. warm and moist. 3) Soap stabilizes the suspension of the soil and prevents the redeposition of the soil in the fabric. however. some of the digesting agent is sprinkled on the warm. fuller’s earth. In a short time the insoluble food or other stain becomes soluble and can easily be washed with water.12 Certain solid substances such as chalk. The detergent action of a soap solution involves the following: 1) It wets the fabric and loosens the soil 2) Mechanical action or agitation causes the soil to separate from the fabric being treated.g. It is then brushed off. slow in their action and usually must be followed by another treatment to remove the last traces of the stain. non-ionic and CMC DIGESTION: The action of digestion is similar to that occurring in the bodies of animals e. much used today. Absorbents are not harmful to the fibre or colour. 4) The removal of the soil from the fabric by rinsing. the spot must be neutral. etc. include the following: anionic. A layer of the absorbent is sprinkled on the stain and worked over until it is saturated. If dried out. it should be moistened with water. moist stain. In detergency action. DETERGENT ACTION: This can be accomplished by washing the entire fabric or the garment or by sponging the affected area by soap. a new layer is applied and the procedure repeated. In order for the action to take place. In the removal of stains by this method. They are.
13 LUBRICATION: This method is used to remove stains produced by insoluble substances such as lipstick. Rust stains show a characteristic blood red colour with an acidified potassium sulphocyanide solution and blue with an acidified ferrocyanide solution. Oil stains from wet processing are few and far between because the wet fabric is not easily stained by oil which is hydrophobic. Ring spinning and winding are the major areas of bath staining. This is done by regular inspection of cloth for assessment of stain and determination of sources. But oil/grease is not. Oil stains are different from rust stains which show precise outline. oil stains appear as a brown mask attached to the fibre or yarn surface. which carries the stain along with it. Rust stains are slowly dissolved by oxalic acid. IDENTIFICATION OF OIL STAINS: Fresh stains are darker and more pronounced than old ones. Concurrently. In a light fabric or light colour. OIL STAIN DAMAGE IN TEXTILE PROCESSING: Oil stain damage takes place mainly in the loom shed next to weaving. are reddish brown in colour. carbon. a solvent is then used to remove the lubricant. etc. insoluble pigments. Oil on lubricated machine part is not near the passage of the cloth. Oily spots are scattered all over the cloth and it is difficult and laborious to clean. with a rough surface and no fluorescence. Major causes of these oil stains are the systems of lubricating. Likely source of such staining are drying. The most effective way of tackling oil stain damage is by preventive measures. A lubricant such as glycerine or colourless grease is first rubbed onto the stain. Black carbonaceous spots come off suddenly and stop suddenly leaving no hint of their source. They dissolve in solvents like CCl4. cleaning and material handling. Improvement can be quick once these systems are studied. Most of the oil stains show fluorescence under UV light. Under a microscope. workers have to be trained to work cleanly and develop quality consciousness. . modified and standardized. the oil stain appears transparent when viewed against light. stentering and heat setting machine. HCl or ammonium bifluoride solution.
2) PADDING AND SCOURING: The advantage of this method is that the entire fabric is given a uniform treatment which will avoid possible patchiness in finished fabrics.14 Dark stains are black. Yet another practice is to spot clean the major stains in the major stage leaving the light handling and minor stains for treatment at scouring and bleaching. . In this group are included – padding. making them difficult to remove. undergoing heat-setting or wet chemical processing. It is therefore easier and more desirable to remove stains at a grey stage. Even if a stained fabric is intended for padding or special scouring it is necessary to spot clean the dark and embedded stains. special scouring and solvent scouring Masking of the stains by dyeing or printing 1) SPOT CLEANING: This remains the most widely used method. Stains in grey fabric. Care should be taken that the solvent used in the stain remover does not dissolve or corrode the rubber or plastic rollers that may be fitted to the padding machine. More heavily stained pieces are dyed dark shades or blotch printed. Such stains are more laborious to spot clean because they are extensive and have no sharp borders and some may find fewer stains when spot cleaning is done after scouring. gets “set”. The use of chlorinated or aromatic hydrocarbon solvents is hazardous unless padding is done with closed apparatus equipped with suction and discharge parts in a well ventilated place. 3) MASKING STAINS: Even after stain removal most of the process houses resort to dyeing or printing to mask unyielding stains. Also spotting is handy for stains occurring during later stages or for stain removal after processing. The techniques for treating stains can be grouped in 3 different categories: • • • Spot cleaning which involves the localized cleaning of only the stained portion of the fabric Padding or scouring which covers the entire fabric. still and shiny with sharp edges and dissolve into a black solution on application of a solvent such as kerosene or xylene. Grey pieces are segregated as ‘goods for bleaching and dyeing a light shade’. It is the only way of removing stains from fabrics sold in the grey stage. Some handling stains are only dirt without any oil/grease and are easily cleaned by normal scouring.
15 SOME COMMON STAIN REMOVAL METHODS 8 COTTON: Blood stains: . .These can be usually removed by first soaking in cold water and then washing in lukewarm soap solutions.
The fabric should then be washed in soap and water. Rub with ice until remaining gum rolls into a ball. Follow with a clear water rinse.The stains should be soaked overnight in cold water. Fruit: . It may then be sponged with a drycleaning fluid. it will not be injurious if the Scorch: .Rub with a piece of bread.These stains are best treated with boiling soft water poured from a height through the stain. Grease:-A solvent must be used for the fat in the grease. Lipstick: . benzene or kerosene will usually remove these stains from cotton. Coffee and chocolate: .Sunlight may prove effective. boiling water should be poured through it from a height. then sponge with dry cleaning fluid.Turpentine.16 Chewing gum: .H2O2 with ammonia. Stains can be removed as follows: Blood: . Fruit: . Lemon juice and salt is a good bleach if fabric is either white or a fast colour. Old stains may require bleaching. gasoline. such as ammonia and alcohol mixed in equal proportions. naphtha. Paint and varnish: . ink eradicator may be used.If the cotton goods are white. Coloured fabrics may be soaked in sour milk or salt and lemon juice. Cocoa stains can usually be removed with cold water. Ink: . Since H2O2 is mild bleach. Coffee and tea: . it should not be used on dyed fabrics.Most fresh fruit stains can be with boiling water. Good solvents are benzene.Fruit stains are usually acid in nature and can often be removed by treatment with an alkali. Grass stains: . and then washed with lukewarm water.soap and water are not advised. Peach stains may require a bleach such as hydrogen peroxide and ammonia. Since ammonia is a weak alkali.The stained portion of the cloth should be placed over a bowl.Scrape off excess. SILK: A sponging with an up-and-down movement (not in a circle) that follows the warp thread is generally the best cleaner for silks. . milk or alcohol should be applied. CCl4 and CHCl3.
Coffee: .Cool water rinse. Ink: .Sponge lengthwise with warm water and soap.Petroleum jelly/cold cream. Perspiration: . above. use glycerine.Dilute HCl will remove stains of perspiration. Blood: . Egg: . WOOL: Grease: . Washable ink stains can be removed with soap and water if action is prompt. Grease and dirt: . sponge with soap and lukewarm water. the cloth may be redyed in a darker colour. . Other fresh inks are best washed or soaked in milk. benzene. If a ring results. Milk: .Aniline inks can be removed with acetic acid because this acid has no detrimental effect on silk.Cool water rinse. gasoline usually remove these spots. If stain is old.Hold the spot against a paper towel and spray with water closely from the back.Cool water rinse. Ink: .If the scorch is slight. Fruit juice: . Cosmetics: . LINEN: Ink: .one part acid to 75 or 100 parts water.Chill with ice and scrape off as much as possible.Stretch a fabric over a bowl and pour boiling water (carefully) from 1 ft.Soak overnight in yoghurt. followed with pre-wash. not penetrating to the core of the fibre. If badly burned.17 dye is fast and if the ammonia is not left too long on the fabric without a rinse.Cool water rinse. it may be necessary to dry clean. Candle wax: . Scorch: . Then iron out remainder between sheets of absorbent paper.Dry cleaning fluids such as naphtha. One of the safest ways of removing inks from coloured silks is to soak the fabric overnight in cultured milk.
above.Cool water rinse. PEROXYNITRITE AS A NOVEL STAIN BLEACHING AGENT: 10 . air dry and vacuum excess soil off.Saturate the stain with a liquid laundry detergent.Stretch fabric over bowl and pour boiling water from 1 ft. Tomato: . If old stain use glycerine. If the wine has dried.Rinse with club soda. COTTON/POLYESTER BLEND: 9 Oily stains: .Pour salt to absorb the wine. rinse with club soda. Particulate soils: . Tea: .Cool water rinse. White wine: . Rinse by hand briefly with warm water.Saturate the stain with a liquid laundry detergent containing non-chlorine bleach. Massage thoroughly but gently.Use a liquid laundry detergent containing non-chlorine bleach. Vinegar: .18 Red wine: .If the article is wet. Dye stains: . Plant and protein stains: .
9. constant temperatures and stirring rates. 9. and for the last two.6.6. Then 40 ml of peroxynitrite stock solution were added to each solution. 8. 10.6. Standard conditions were 30 min washes at 25°C. and ozone based systems. by carefully addition of solid NaOH powder.07 M phosphate buffer of pH 7 was used to destroy excess ozone. when necessary. Only in the past 2 decades has chlorine slowly being replaced by oxygen. Stains are listed as padded and/or sprayed onto the fabric. Six stain monitor fabrics were placed into the wash solutions. This brought the pH values to about their target. decomposing to nitrite and nitrate.95 and 12.1M NaN3 solution. previously adjusted to pH 12 with 1N NaOH. a molecule thought to be of biological significance due to its probable in vivo formation by the diffusion controlled reaction of nitric oxide with super oxide. effective low temperature stain bleaching reagents for fabric washing were based on chlorine. The experiment was carried out as follows: Peroxynitrite was generated by ozonation of sodium azide on a Fischer Ozonizer. All fabrics were stored at 4°C in the dark prior to use. were effected with several drops of 1 N NaOH and/or 1 N H2SO4. until reaching target solution pH values of precisely 7. peroxide. resp. 7. can serve as an efficient stain bleaching reagent on fabrics. Standard stain bleaching conditions were maintained.6. Standard fabrics were made of cotton. was ozonated in an ice bath at a flow rate of 150 ml/min for 3. Decomposed peroxynitrite stock solutions were generated when peroxynitrite stock solutions were allowed to sit for 7 days at room temperature. not even at pH 9 or . The pH values of all wash solutions were constantly monitored during washing. the fabrics were pre-washed with a detergent powder dosed at 2. Prior to each stain bleaching study. The pH adjusted wash solutions were prepared as follows: Series 1. 10. The resulting wash solutions had a 6 mmole peroxynitrite concentration. 200 ml of a 0.5 gpl. and the multi-stir bath was used to ensure equal.5 hrs. and pH adjustments.3 M sodium phosphate solution were brought to pH values of 6. For the first four pH values. The peroxynitrite concentrations were determined by UV analysis at its λmax of 302 nm. respectively.19 Historically. Briefly. Phosphate solutions: 6 beakers of a 0. followed by an hour purge with argon. There were no significant deviations from the target pH values. 11 and 12. 8. Peroxynitrite (-OONO). disodium hydrogen phosphate. In all experiments the water was distilled. A 10% KI solution in a 0. sodium dihydrogen phosphate was used.
every laundry bleach has to perform in the presence of all detergent formulation components and under various water conditions. is a good one. The corresponding protonated form of –OONO. it also has to be selective in terms of oxidative bleaching of the stains while not damaging the fabric. The results of the experiment were as follows: In the past decade or so. For tomato stains. polyphenolic stains such as fruit. wine or tea. 10. wherever phosphates are used as builders.and trans-isomerism. the tea antioxidant reacts faster with –OONO than many other antioxidants such ascorbic acid. - OONO performs very well with hydrophilic. Especially in the case of peroxynitrite. Not unexpectedly. Tests demonstrate significant bleach benefits under all test conditions and reveals that the fabric damage as reflected by tensile strength loss in the fabric is statistically insignificant.and two-electron oxidant. peroxynitrous acid (HOONO). specifically its cis. its reaction with various biomolecules. First the stain bleaching effectiveness in 2 wash liquor systems was tested. The next question to answer is the one of stain specificity. The –OONO subsequently bleaches the rest of the stain. 12) was used instead of phosphate. the pre-wash alone renders the change. In a practical situation. such as its kinetic and physical properties. a vast no. this pH profile renders –OONO almost ideal for laundry wash applications. Because many commercial laundry detergents are formulated to deliver fabric wash pH values near 10. which is the inherent value of reflectance of the fabric with all stains bleached. Series 2 carbonate solution: The experiments in carbonate solutions were done in the same way. 11. its adduct formation with CO2 and its ability to cross membranes. where no buffering capacity exists. its role in signal transduction. except that 0.20 10.3 M NaHCO3 (pH 8) and NaHCO3/NaOH (pH 9. Peroxynitrite shows significant stain bleaching performance in a phosphate wash solution at pH 10. Also –OONO is a good oxygen transfer reagent at high pH values. The diminished stain bleaching seen in the pH region of 7-8 results probably from the rapid decay of –OONO at lower pH values. Additionally. The realization that –OONO might serve as a stain bleacher on fabrics derived from 3 specific observations in the literature. giving an absolute maximum reflectance of nearly 87. . of researches have described some of the most interesting chemical and biological characteristics of peroxynitrite.
It is possible to find a suitable peroxynitrite precursor that can be formulated in a detergent product to deliver the required bleach benefit. Thus it can be concluded on the basis of the above experiment that peroxynitrite is a novel. effective. initial experiments with SIN-1 as a peroxynitrite precursor show encouraging stain bleaching results. with a pretreatment composition that comprises a ligand that forms . Sydnonimines in general are promising new precursor candidates for stain bleaching from cotton fabrics. Sydnonimine SIN-1 is a known peroxynitrite precursor. low temperature fabric bleach.21 The remaining major question to answer is that of practicality and delivery. before washing.8% is among the highest of any stain bleaches. and renders it very attractive in terms of formulation space. Method of pre-treating and bleaching stained fabrics 11 A method for bleaching stained fabrics is by pretreating the stained fabric. dye damage studies reveal that peroxynitrite has the same low level of dye damage as peracetic acid. Moreover. Its active oxygen content of 25. Finally.
. Co. in polyester/urethane blends. staining of urethane by disperse dyestuff is very difficult to remove. Stain-removing agent for the disperse dyeing of urethane Bisnol UP-10 Polyurethane. developed and sold by Ipposha Oil Industries. N-bis (pyridin-2-yl-methyl)-1. Agents used to remove stains are not very effective and can adversely affect various color fastnesses. Ltd.22 a transition metal complex as bleach catalyst.1bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1-aminoethane. the complex catalysing bleaching of stains by atmospheric oxygen. is used widely in blends with other fibers to produce high-performance materials. However.. it effectively removes staining by disperse dyestuffs and contributes to the enhancement of various colour fastness properties. One or both of the pretreatment composition and the wash liquor are substantially devoid of peroxygen bleach or a peroxy-based or -generating bleach system. The pretreatment composition preferably comprises an iron complex comprising the ligand N. Bisnol UP-10. Due to its excellent affinity for dyestuff and its solubilizing strength. The pretreatment provides improved or broader stain profile bleaching. is a stainremoving agent for disperse dyestuffs on urethane for which the main component is a special surfactant of high molecular weight. General Characteristics Appearance: Ionicity: pH: Solubility: : : : : Tan liquid Weakly cationic/nonionic Neutral (1% ion-exchange water) Dissolves readily in cold water Effect on water quality BOD5 CODMn : 15ppm : 160ppm . popular due to its high performance as a stretch back material.
colour fastness to rubbing with solvent. effectively removes the stains of disperse dyestuff from urethane. and to dry cleaning. • Low foaming Method of use While the amount used varies according to the dyestuff and the dyeing method. Washing can be defined as both the removal of water or aqueous surfactant solution of poorly soluble matter and the dissolution of water-soluble impurities from textile surfaces. • Effectively removes stains when used alone and in acidic conditions. • Contributes to the improvement of various colour fastnesses. a general range is 1. to limit staining caused by disperse dyestuffs and to improve colour fastness.0 g/L. .0~3. use 1.g.23 n-hexane : 6ppm (as determined for concentration of 1g/L) Properties • Excellent dyestuff affinity and solubilizing strength. In dyeing.0~2. an anti-staining agent for urethane with disperse dyes. DETERGENTS INTRODUCTION: Washing and cleaning in aqueous wash liquor is a complex process involving the cooperative interaction of numerous physical and chemical influences. • Very little staining by the solution during testing for colour fastness to laundering and to dry cleaning. • Does not negatively affect urethane fibers. e. to laundering. effective in both the removal of stains and in the prevention of redeposition.0g/L of Resistol UD-7.
commercial or industrial activity. soil. Following components constitute a partnership in the overall washing process: water. washing equipment and detergent. Water is also the transport media for the dispersed and colloidal soil components. Stabilization is necessary to prevent re-deposition onto the fibres of soil that has already been removed. DETERGENT: The term detergent means cleansing agent. builders and additives such as anti-corrosive sodium silicate. Subsequent processes: After soil has been removed.e. both for detergent and for soluble soils within the soil. stabilizers and soil suspending carboxy cellulose. Thus to simplify a physicochemical approach of the washing process. Water has a very high surface tension of 72 dynes/cm and wetting can only take place rapidly and effectively if the surface tension is drastically reduced by surfactants to the value of 30 dynes/cm and below. The soil removal process: Physical removal of soil from a surface occurs as a result of non-specific adsorption of surfactants on the various interfaces present and through specific adsorption of chelating agents on certain polar soil components. and redeposition of the removed soil must be prevented. Types of soil: One way to categorize soil is by their origin i. bodily excretions and impurities derived from domestic. From a detergency standpoint. textiles. bleachable dyes. fats and oils. particles. This property of a wash liquor is known as its soil antiredeposition capability. proteins. in which soil is removed from a surface.The most obvious role of water is to serve as a solvent. Washing process begins with wetting and penetration of the soiled laundry by detergent solution. it must be stabilized in the wash liquor. 12 Influence of water: . 13 They include ingredients like surfactants.24 A fundamental distinction exists between the primary step. . carbohydrates. dust from the atmosphere. it has been necessary to treat separately each of the several phenomena involved and to isolate them from one another. Surfactants are thus the key component of any detergent. etc. however. The terms ‘single’ and ‘multiple wash cycles’ are used respectively in conjunction with the 2 phenomena. it is more appropriate to regard the principle types of soil as – water soluble material. and secondary stabilization in the wash liquor of dispersed or molecularly dissolved soil.
25 DETERGENCY: The cleaning of a solid object i. the removal of unwanted foreign matter from its surface. although the transmittance of light by fabric specimens can also be used.e. is done by methods ranging from simple mechanical separation or abrasion to removal by solution or selective chemical action. The most commonly used instrument for reflectance measurement is the Gardner colourimeter. Fabric detergency: Reflectance is the most commonly used measurement for the whiteness of the fabric. The term detergency is limited to systems in which a liquid bath is present and is the main cleaning component of the system. .
soil redeposition. 14 Hunter D-25 PC-2 Delta colourimeter for quantifying detergency. water resources and effluent treatment and disposal force finishers to study wash processes in depth and to learn . and also for evaluating fabric softening and antistatic activity Detergency efficiency: Problems of cost reduction. dye transfer. hard surface detergency.26 Tergotometer and launderometer equipment for evaluating laundry products. and the like Household horizontal axis washer and dryer for evaluating detergents under use conditions. bleach performance. yellowing. optical brightening.
builders. Nonionic surfactants such as alcohol ethoxylates have acquired great importance during last decades. The builder is usually a sodium phosphate of the type Na5P3O10 or Na4P2O7 acting as a sequestering agent. Furthermore.anionic. A surfactant can be grouped in one of the 4 classes. Both surfactants and builders of detergents. dishwashing and general cleaning. Amphoteric surfactants still lack a significant place in the market. bleaching agents. DETERGENT INGREDIENTS: 12 Detergents for household and institutional use are complex formulations containing upto more than 25 detergents. Surfactants with little branching in their alkyl chains generally show a good cleaning effect but relatively poor wetting characteristics. In general. Surfactants constitute the most important group of detergent components. the goods are expected to be uniformly and thoroughly cleaned when sold. These can be categorized into the following major groups: . auxiliary agents. Generally. whereas more highly branched surfactants are good wetting agents but have unsatisfactory detergency performance. and they are present in all types of detergents.27 as much as possible about performance when buying new machines. non-ionic. depending on what charge is present in the chain-carrying portion of the molecule after dissociation in aqueous solutions. Detergency efficiency is a measure of the extent to which chemicals and foreign substances can be removed from the goods in a specific situation.15 Textile mill operations: Detergency is important in textile finishing because small quantities of foreign matter on the goods can interfere seriously with dyeing and other finishing treatments. both adsorption and detergency performance increase with increasing chain length. create serious pollution problems in water. . Cationic surfactants are largely used to fabric softeners. surfactants are watersoluble surface active agents comprised of a hydrophobic portion (usually a long alkyl chain) attached to a hydrophilic or solubility enhancing functional groups. Anionic surfactants are the most common ingredients designed for laundry. cationic. The builders form chelated complexes with calcium and magnesium ions and react with water forming alkaline solutions.surfactants. amphoteric.
derived from natural fats or oils. DETERGENT COMPOUNDS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS COMPOUNDS Soap and various surfactants Sodium perborate Sodium tri polyphosphate Enzymes Silicones Perfumes FUNCTIONS Remove dirt particles particularly the hydrophobic molecules from fabric Removes stains and dyes from fabrics Softens water Removes biological dirt mainly protein Control foaming Imparts appropriate scent to fabrics SOAP Vs DETERGENTS: A detergent. which has become indispensable for our lives is anything that cleans. perfumes and bleaching agents. . One of the serious disadvantages of these detergents is from the ecological point of view. Soaps (using natural fats) contain a sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids.28 Additives may consist of enzymes. Another distinction between soap and detergent is that the latter contains a lower percentage or surfactant and higher level of phosphates which help in softening water. they are non-biodegradable. The active components of detergents are double headed amphiphatic molecules usually consisting of a bulky water-insoluble hydrocarbon chain to which is attached a highly polar group. The hydrolytic enzymes used in detergents are by solubilising the biological stains by degrading the large molecules into smaller water soluble compounds which do not adhere to fabric.
Non-activated 16 In a non-activated.29 LAUNDRY DETERGENTS AND DYE-USE TRENDS Knowing how today’s laundry detergent interacts with dyes is key when producing the next generation of textiles. to wash efficiently at lower temperatures. liquid detergents do not actually contain bleach because peroxygen bleach is unstable at the pH of these aqueous based products. particularly in moderate wash conditions. every major detergent manufacturer offers “with bleach” detergents. Now. This trend has developed because of energy-saving considerations and increased use of colored articles. Currently only powder detergents have an actual built-in bleach. Hydrogen peroxide requires wash water temperatures in excess of 60°C to deliver meaningful whitening and stain removal benefits. Activated peroxygen bleach in detergents also may reduce cross staining in the laundering process by decolorizing dye molecules that bled into the wash solutions. surfactants and enzymes. Liquid “bleach alternative” products give “bleach like” performance via higher levels of optical brighteners. odour removal and overall colour care in washable items and show no negative impacts on the physical properties of fabrics or garments. “with bleach” detergent the sole bleaching species is hydrogen peroxide liberated from sodium perborate or sodium percarbonate when the powder is added to the wash water. However. Over 70% of domestic washing in Europe is carried out at 50°C or lower. LAUNDRY DETERGENT PRODUCTS: Detergents containing peroxygen bleach provide superior cleaning performance. Since hydrogen peroxide is most effective for stain removal at temperatures over 70°C. Activated Activated peroxygen bleach detergents convert the hydrogen peroxide to bleach species that have significantly better cleaning efficacy. a bleach .
a hydrophobic activator that reacts with perhydroxyl ions under alkaline conditions forming a peracid and diacyl peroxide. Na+SO3—C6H4. This reacts with the general hydrogen peroxide to form peracetic acid. The activator most commonly used in Europe is TAED 17 (tetraacetylethylenediamine). the effective bleaching species.4H2O COCH3 | | COCH3 ------- H2O2 COCH3 | H2O2 2 CH3-C-O-OH || O (peracetic acid in equilibrium with the anion) | COCH3 N – CH2.O-C-C8H17 || O ------- C8H17-C-O-OH || O (pernonanonic acid) | C8H17-C-O-O-C-C8H17 || O || O (dinonanoyl peroxide) . NaBO3.CH2 – N The most common activator used in North America is SNOBS17 (sodium nonanoyloxybenzenesulphonate).30 activator needs to be used alongside the source of hydrogen peroxide.
.31 These species provide significant improvement in hydrophilic and hydrophobic stain removal as well as overall whitening. This activated bleach technology also delivers significant consumer advantages in odor removal. Because of its hydrophobic nature. SNOBS gives much greater breadth and depth of laundering benefits than does TAED.
There are alternatives such as Zeolites. To be environment friendly a detergent must have following important characteristics: a. d. b) It should have stability over a wide range of temperature. an ideal enzyme should possess the following characteristics: a) It must be stable in alkaline conditions (pH > 7). Hence. the pH of laundry detergents is generally greater than 7 and temperature needed can be as high as 95°C.32 The concept of ECO FRIENDLY DETERGENTS: Due to increasing environmental awareness. c. Nearly 80% of the skin problems among infants are caused by clothes washed with detergents. The detergent should not cause skin irritation. d) It should not require metal ion for their own activity. ROLE OF ENZYMES IN DETERGENTS: 13 According to a recent report. It may contain environment friendly substitute. b. bleaching and chelating agents present in the detergents. Same detergents even denature the enzymes. bleaching and chelating agents and perfume. c) It should remain unaffected by oxidizing. phosphate free detergents are also not ecofriendly. which are essentially minerals or synthetic compounds consisting of alumina silicates tetra hydrate framework. It should not contain any phosphate because sudden increase in phosphate causes eutrophication of water bodies. An enzyme also has certain properties to be able to act under various washing conditions e. The active ingredient must have a biodegradability of 97%. The activity of some enzymes can also be inhibited by oxidizing. but they can do much harm to the environment. but should be used in sufficient amount in order to ensure a similar performance as compared to the phosphates.g. there is an increase in emphasis on the use of eco-friendly detergents and products for various purposes. . because detergent particles destroy the natural thin layer of productive oil on skin.
The actual laundering process involves suspension and emulsification of the dirt particles. These organic stains have a tendency to adhere strongly to the textile fibres. Alkalase is effective under medium temperature wash. hydrolyse proteins and break them into soluble polypeptides or free amino acids. The role of a detergent in laundering is to facilitate the removal of the stain and soil from fabric. Through advances in biotechnology and the application of genetic engineering it is now possible to have need specific enzymes by means of fermentation technology in large scale. egg and human sweat. Alkalase and Savinase are the popular ones. Proteases. They leave no harmful residues. This is bleach stable. These stains may be of inorganic and organic substances clinging with varying adherence to the fabric. Detergent from proteases are alkaline and are effective in neutral and mildly alkaline conditions (pH 7-10). while Savinase is effective for low temperature washes. Household laundry soil consists of mainly lipids and carbohydrates which dissolve readily in alkaline pH . Scientists have overcome this by taking the advantage of the advanced technique of protein engineering and have introduced Everlase. we have been still using the age old harsh chemical methods. The foundation for using proteases in laundry detergents was laid by Otto Rohn way back in 1913. thus are safe for aquatic life. They are susceptible to attack from bleaches. Similarly heat stable protease called Esperase retains its wash effect at both high alkalinity and high temperature. however. However these proteases have their limitations. Especially use of enzymes in laundry soaps will be a definitive move towards ecological considerations for textile effluents. Apart from this main environmental benefit they are also used in order to be able to save energy by offering a lower wash temperature.33 ECO-FRIENDLY LAUNDRY DETERGENTS: 18 Although enzymes have been used for various purposes in textile processing in the western countries for more than 100 years. These proteases were found to have excellent cleansing action for protein stain removal caused by grass. nor do they have any negative impact on the sewage treatment processes. blood. The inefficiency of non enzymatic detergents in removing proteins can result in permanent stains due to oxidation and denaturing caused by bleaching and drying.
Lipolase. This is the reason for effective color brightening effect by Carenzyme without significantly damaging the fabric. Cutinases having high lipase activity with a pH range of 6-11 are ideal for detergent use. The amount of the enzyme required is only 0. perborates and chelating agents and possess excellent shelf life. Carenzyme has a high activity on amorphous cellulose. Enzymes used as spot removal agents have been a household remedation for stubborn turmeric curry stains by lemon juice is an e. Removal of oily and fatty stains has always been troublesome. It removes microfibrils protruding from the fibre and is more effective than Celluzyme. The liquid enzyme detergent possesses no dust problem as it can disperse and mix more readily than the powder formulations.34 medium. The recombinant DNA technology has produces several suitable lipases for detergent formulations. Liquid enzyme detergents having powerful enzymatic action are important as they work on the stain at pre-treatment stage. which is multi component enzyme. Some of these lipases are stable towards bleaching agents. which is the major constituent of the microfibrils. Certain laundry enzymes having the following properties ideally fit into the detergent grade. Not only are proteases important. Encapsulated or liquid enzymes can be handled conveniently and safely and if handled properly. Some of the commercial cellulases are Carenzyme and Celluzyme. It performs selective hydrolysis on the outer layers of cotton fibres and requires lower dose. Additional advantages with cellulases are that they impart color freshness to frequently washed cotton fabrics along with softening effect. They are stable even in the presence of surfactants.g. amylases and lipases are reported to be very effective in cleansing action. launched recently. even cellulases. fats and lipstick. of this type. whose role is to break up and emulsify the dirt particles. Among the common ones.4% of . These stains are removed by the surfactants. They posses high efficiency with little specificity and work at pH 9-11 at elevated temperatures. Lipase removes oily and fatty stains such as that of butter. especially from fabrics made of blend of cotton and polyester. Carenzyme is a mono component enzyme. and are low activity on crystalline cellulose which makes the intact fibre. The trend to use lower washing temperature has made removal of greases still difficult. Cellulases are used for color brightening. has been the first industrial enzyme developed for tough stains on collar and cuffs. they pose no health risk to employees in enzyme production or detergent manufacturing plants or to the consumers.
The fabric sample was then washed with hot cold hard water. save energy by washing at cold temperatures and show well proven performances. After ½ hr. Above investigations indicate that the faded look of the garment is due to optical brightener present in the detergent. The fabric sample treated with hard water containing detergent did not show any change in shade. The enzyme concentrate are then stabilized by lowering the water content by adding glycerol. extrusion. Amylases are used to remove stains caused by starchy food. the fabric was washed with hot and cold water. For incorporating proteases into detergents there are several methods available such as prilling. then concentrated by thin layer evaporation. thus it is economically viable.35 the total detergent formulation. glycol or other poly functional alcoholic compounds as liquid detergents. Effect of detergent containing optical brightener: The original fabric sample used for the garments was also soaked in a solution of detergent containing optical brightener.19 CONCLUSIONS . After the fermentation the culture is purified by centrifugation or filtration. Thus it is high time we switch over to enzyme detergents as they offer several benefits: Enzymes are biodegradable. Effect of detergent free from optical brightener: The original fabric sample used for making the garments was soaked in hard water (200 ppm) containing detergent (free from optical brightener) for about ½ hr. The treated fabric showed shade variation. granulation and mixed granulation.
Much progress has been made in recent decades in elucidating detergency mechanisms by improved experimental techniques and new analytical techniques. REFERENCES . fibres and textile chemicals active in adapting their products to the prevailing market conditions. although the improvement of stain removal efficiency had not been as uninterrupted development. is still a developing field.36 Stain removal and detergency although thousand’s of years old. energy considerations and environmental factors. the increasing market share of synthetic fibres. The detersive process and detergent composition have changed from time-to-time in response to economic conditions. Substantial progress has been made over the years. The need to respond to the rapidly changing market requires a thorough understanding of the detersive process as well as meaningful detergency test methods. availability of raw materials. Changes in economic climate and consumer needs have kept the producers of detergents.
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