Border Gateway Protocol (BGP4

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Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
• • • • • • • • Routing/Forwarding basics Building blocks Exercises BGP protocol basics Exercises BGP path attributes Best path computation Exercises

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)...
• • • • • Typical BGP topologies Routing Policy Exercises Redundancy/Load sharing Best current practices

Routing/Forwarding Basics .

1/16 -> R4 20/8 -> R5 30/8 -> R6 ….1.IP route lookup:Longest match routing R3 Packet: Destination IP address: 10.1 All 10/8 except 10.1/16 R1 R2 10/8 -> R3 10. R2’s IP routing table R4 10..1.1/16 .

1.IP route lookup: Longest match routing R3 Packet: Destination IP address: 10..0.1/16 -> R4 20/8 -> R5 ….1.1/16 10.0 is equal to 10.1 & FF.0.0 & FF.1 All 10/8 except 10.1.0.0.1/16 R1 R2 10/8 -> R3 10. R2’s IP routing table R4 10.0 Match! .0.1.0.

1.1 All 10/8 except 10..0.1.IP route lookup: Longest match routing R3 Packet: Destination IP address: 10.1.0 Match as well! .1/16 R1 R2 10/8 -> R3 10.1/16 -> R4 20/8 -> R5 ….0.FF.1.0 is equal to 10.0. R2’s IP routing table R4 10.1.1/16 10.FF.1 & FF.0 & FF.

0.0.1 All 10/8 except 10.1 & FF.0.1/16 -> R4 20/8 -> R5 ….1.0.IP route lookup: Longest match routing R3 Packet: Destination IP address: 10.1/16 R1 R2 10/8 -> R3 10.0.1. R4 10.0.0 R2’s IP routing table .0 & FF.1.0 is equal to Does not match! 20..1.1/16 10.

R2’s IP routing table R4 10.1.1/16 Longest match.1/16 R1 R2 10/8 -> R3 10.IP route lookup: Longest match routing R3 Packet: Destination IP address: 10.1/16 -> R4 20/8 -> R5 …..1 All 10/8 except 10.1. 16 bit netmask .

IP route lookup: Longest match routing .• default is 0. Always the shortest match.0.0/0 • can handle it using the normal longest match algorithm • matches everything.0.

Forwarding • Uses the routing table built by routing protocols • Performs the lookup to find next-hop and outgoing interface • Switches the packet with new encapsulation as per the outgoing interface .

Building Blocks • • • • • • • Autonomous System (AS) Types of Routes IGP/EGP DMZ Policy Egress Ingress .

Autonomous System (AS) AS 100 • • • • Collection of networks with same policy Single routing protocol Usually under single administrative control IGP to provide internal connectivity .

Autonomous System(AS).. • Identified by ‘AS number’ • Public & Private AS numbers • Examples: – Service provider – Multi-homed customers – Anyone needing policy discrimination ..

Routing flow and packet flow egress packet flow announc e accept AS 1 accept announce ingress Routing flow AS2 For networks in AS1 and AS2 to communicate: AS1 must announce routes to AS2 AS2 must accept routes from AS1 AS2 must announce routes to AS1 AS1 must accept routes from AS2 packet flow .

Egress Traffic • Packets exiting the network • Based on – Route availability (what others send you) – Route acceptance (what you accept from others) – Policy and tuning (what you do with routes from others) – Peering and transit agreements .

Ingress Traffic • Packets entering your network • Ingress traffic depends on: – What information you send and to who – Based on your addressing and ASes – Based on others’ policy (what they accept from you and what they do with it) .

Types of Routes • Static Routes – configured manually • Connected Routes – created automatically when an interface is ‘up’ • Interior Routes – Routes within an AS • Exterior Routes – Routes exterior to AS .

What Is an IGP? • • • • Interior Gateway Protocol Within an Autonomous System Carries information about internal prefixes Examples—OSPF. ISIS. EIGRP… .

What Is an EGP? • Exterior Gateway Protocol • Used to convey routing information between ASes • De-coupled from the IGP • Current EGP is BGP4 .

Why Do We Need an EGP? • Scaling to large network – Hierarchy – Limit scope of failure • Define administrative boundary • Policy – Control reachability to prefixes .

Interior vs. Exterior Routing Protocols • Interior – Automatic discovery – Generally trust your IGP routers – Routes go to all IGP routers • Exterior Specifically configured peers Connecting with outside networks Set administrative boundaries .

Hierarchy of Routing Protocols Other ISP’s BGP4 BGP4 / OSPF BGP4 Local NAP FDDI BGP4/Static Customers .

Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) A AS 100 B DMZ Network C AS 101 D E AS 102 • Shared network between ASes .

• Need to allocate address blocks to its customers. • Need to take “growth” into consideration • Upstream link address is allocated by upstream provider .ISP • Need to reserve address space for its network.Addressing .

BGP Basics • • • • • • Terminology Protocol Basics Messages General Operation Peering relationships (EBGP/IBGP) Originating routes .

Terminology • Neighbor – Configured BGP peer • NLRI/Prefix – NLRI .network layer reachability information – Reachability information for a IP address & mask • Router-ID – Highest IP address configured on the router • Route/Path – NLRI advertised by a neighbor .

you don’t need BGP :) AS 102 • Runs over TCP • Path vector protocol • Incremental update .Protocol Basics Peering A C AS 100 B D AS 101 E • Routing protocol used between ASes –if you aren’t connected to multiple ASes.

BGP Basics .. • • • • Each AS originates a set of NLRI NLRI is exchanged between BGP peers Can have multiple paths for a given prefix Picks the best path and installs in the IP forwarding table • Policies applied (through attributes) influences BGP path selection ..

BGP Peers A C AS 100 220.32.8.220.0/24 AS 101 220.220. .220.16.0/24 Note: eBGP Peers normally should be directly connected.0/24 B D BGP speakers are called peers Peers in different AS’s are called External Peers eBGP TCP/IP Peer Connection E AS 102 220.

0/24 B D BGP speakers are called peers Peers in the same AS are called Internal Peers iBGP TCP/IP Peer Connection E AS 102 220.220.220.0/24 Note: iBGP Peers don’t have to be directly connected.16.BGP Peers A C AS 100 220.220.8.0/24 AS 101 220.32. .

BGP Peers A C AS 100 220.32.0/24 AS 101 220.8.0/24 B D BGP Peers exchange Update messages containing Network Layer Reachability Information (NLRI) BGP Update Messages E AS 102 220.220.16.220.0/24 .220.

252 router bgp 100 network 220.1 remote-as 101 interface Serial 0 ip address 222.222.1 B .0/24 .16.0 neighbor 222.220.1 220.0 neighbor 222.2 remote-as 100 • BGP Peering sessions are established using the BGP “neighbor” configuration command – External (eBGP) is configured when AS numbers are different .10.8.16.220.10.255.Configuring BGP Peers AS 100 A .255.2 .10.222.0 mask 255.10.255.255.8.255.0 mask 255.255.220.222.2 255.0/30 220.252 router bgp 101 network 220.222.255.2 eBGP TCP Connection AS 101 C .222.10.1 D interface Serial 0 ip address 222.255.0/24 .220.1 255.2 222.

252 router bgp 101 network 220.0 mask 255.0 neighbor 220.255.16.255.2 220.0 mask 255.220.1 A .10.220.255.220.16.222.255.220.16.2 remote-as 101 • BGP Peering sessions are established using the BGP “neighbor” configuration command – External (eBGP) is configured when AS numbers are different – Internal (iBGP) is configured when AS numbers are same .16.8.Configuring BGP Peers AS 100 222.255.252 router bgp 101 network 220.16.0/24 B .0 neighbor 220.255.16.1 D interface Serial 1 ip address 220.1 remote-as 101 interface Serial 1 ip address 222.2 255.0/30 AS 101 iBGP TCP Connection .16.220.255.2 220.255.220.220.220.1 C .1 255.2 .0/24 .

Configuring BGP Peers AS 100 A B iBGP TCP/IP Peer Connection C • Each iBGP speaker must peer with every other iBGP speaker in the AS .

7.7.2 A B 215.10.1 AS 100 215.Configuring BGP Peers 215.10.7.10.3 iBGP TCP/IP Peer Connection C • Loopback interface are normally used as peer connection end-points .

255.3 iBGP TCP/IP interface loopback 0 ip address 215.10.1.7.10.1 255.2 neighbor 215.220.7.2 neighbor 215.0 neighbor 215.3 C remote-as 100 update-source loopback0 remote-as 100 update-source loopback0 .10.255.7.10.Configuring BGP Peers 215.10.255 Peer Connection router bgp 100 network 220.7.10.3 neighbor 215.7.10.2 A B 215.7.10.1 AS 100 215.7.7.

7.3 neighbor 215.10.10.255.255 router bgp 100 network 220.255.7.220.10.7.7.3 C remote-as 100 update-source loopback0 remote-as 100 update-source loopback0 .10.3 iBGP TCP/IP Peer Connection interface loopback 0 ip address 215.Configuring BGP Peers 215.7.5.10.10.1 neighbor 215.1 neighbor 215.7.0 neighbor 215.7.2 255.1 AS 100 215.10.10.2 A B 215.7.

1.10.220.3 iBGP TCP/IP Peer Connection interface loopback 0 ip address 215.0 neighbor 215.7.1 AS 100 215.2 A B 215.10.1 neighbor 215.10.255.7.255 router bgp 100 network 220.7.7.255.3 255.10.7.Configuring BGP Peers 215.7.7.1 neighbor 215.10.7.2 neighbor 215.10.10.2 C remote-as 100 update-source loopback0 remote-as 100 update-source loopback0 .10.

BGP Updates — NLRI • Network Layer Reachability Information • Used to advertise feasible routes • Composed of: – Network Prefix – Mask Length .

BGP Updates — Attributes • Used to convey information associated with NLRI – – – – – – – AS path Next hop Local preference Multi-Exit Discriminator (MED) Community Origin Aggregator .

0/16 Path 300 200 100 300 200 300 400 AS 500 .AS-Path Attribute • Sequence of ASes a route has traversed • Loop detection • Apply policy AS 300 AS 200 170.0.0.0/16 300 200 100 170.10.10.10.10.0/16 AS 100 180.10.0.0.0/16 Network 180.10.0/16 300 200 AS 400 150.0/16 150.0/16 170.0.10.10.0.0/16 Network Path 180.0.0.

1.1 D E .2 192 .0/16 .0.10.0.0/16 B .20.0/16 192.10.Next Hop Attribute AS 200 150.1 Path 100 .0/ 30 192.10.0/30 140.2 Network Next-Hop 160.0/16 • Next hop to reach a network • Usually a local network is the next hop in eBGP session BGP Update Messages .10.2 AS 300 C .0.20 .10.0.1 A AS 100 160.2.

0.0/30 140.0/16 .1 to reach a network 160.10.0.0.10.10.0/ 30 192.2 .1.2 Network Next-Hop hop150.0/16 192.1 Path 200 200 100 • Next Hop updated between eBGP Peers BGP Update Messages .20 .2 AS 300 C .0.10.0.1.0/16 192.0/16 B .10.1 A • Next • Usually a local network is the next hop in eBGP session AS 100 160.1 D E .10.Next Hop Attribute AS 200 150.0/16 192 .10.10.1.

1.1.10.0/ 30 192.2 AS 100 160.0/16 .1.10.0/16 BGP Update Messages 192 .0.1 Network Next-Hop 150.0.0/16 between iBGP peers 192.1 • Next hop not changed 160.0.0/16 192.10.1 Path 200 200 100 A .0.2 .20 .1 D E .0/30 140.Next Hop Attribute AS 200 150.10.0/16 B .10.10.2 AS 300 C .10.0.10.

Next Hop Attribute (more) • • • • IGP should carry route to next hops Recursive route look-up Unlinks BGP from actual physical topology Allows IGP to make intelligent forwarding decision .

BGP Updates — Withdrawn Routes • Used to “withdraw” network reachability • Each Withdrawn Route is composed of: – Network Prefix – Mask Length .

10.10.10.25.10.0/16 192.168.BGP Updates — Withdrawn Routes AS 123 .0/24 .0/24 Network Next-Hop Path 150.25.25.0/24 x Connectivity lost 192.192.1 192.0.2 321 200 192.192.168.2 321 .0/24 192.2 AS 321 BGP Update Message Withdraw Routes 192.192.168.

0/24 Route Table BGP ‘network’ commands are normally used to populate the BGP RIB with routes from the Route Table .0/24 153.0.10.BGP Routing Information Base BGP RIB Network *>i160.10.255.0 255.2.0/24 *>i160.0/24 160.0/16 192.2 Path i i router bgp 100 network 160.1.10.10.2.1.1.3.0/24 Next-Hop 192.3.22.20.0.0.2.1.10.0 no auto-summary D D D R S 10.0/24 160.2 192.1.20.

20.20.2.BGP Routing Information Base BGP RIB Network *> 160.0.0 192.0/24 160.3.22.0.0/24 160.10.3.2 Path i i i i router bgp 100 network 160.0.20.1.10.2 192.1.255.10.0 aggregate-address 160.10.0 255.0.0.255.10.0/24 153.0/24 Route Table BGP ‘aggregate-address’ commands may be used to install summary routes in the BGP RIB .1.0.0 255.10.2.0.10.1.2.0/24 Next-Hop 0.2 192.0.2.0/24 s> 160.0 summary-only no auto-summary D D D R S 10.0/16 * i s> 160.0/16 192.1.

1.10.10.BGP Routing Information Base BGP RIB Network *> 160.0.1.0 192.1.2.0.10.1.255 route-map foo permit 10 match ip address 1 Route Table BGP ‘redistribute’ commands can also be used to populate the BGP RIB with routes from the Route Table .0/16 192.0.22.10.1.20.3.2 192.10.0/24 160.2.0.0/24 Next-Hop 0.20.2.0 0.0 redistribute static route-map foo no auto-summary D D D R S 10.2 192.1.0/24 *> 192.255.20.2 192.2 Path i i i i ? router bgp 100 network 160.0.2.0/24 access-list 1 permit 192.0 255.3.1.0/16 * i s> 160.255.0/24 s> 160.0/24 153.0/24 160.0.0.2.0.10.1.20.

20.0/16 192.21.2.20.20.2 192.2 192.1 Path 100 • BGP “in” process • receives path information from peers • results of BGP path selection placed in the BGP table • “best path” flagged (denoted by “>”) .0/16 Next-Hop 192.20.2.0/24 *> 173.0.1.10.0.2.2.BGP Routing Information Base IN Process BGP RIB Network *>i160.3.21.1 Path i i 100 OUT Process Update Update Network Next-Hop 173.0/24 *>i160.10.

2.2 192.0/16 Next-Hop 192.2.3.2 192.2 192.20.10.2 Path 200 200 200 100 • BGP “out” process • builds update using info from RIB • may modify update based on config • Sends update to peers Next-Hop changed .0.0/24 173.20.1 192.1 Path i i 100 OUT Process Update Update Network 160.21.0/16 Next-Hop 192.2 192.BGP Routing Information Base IN Process BGP RIB Network *>i160.1.0/24 160.10.2.0/24 * > 173.1.10.2.2.0.3.20.21.20.2.2.20.10.20.20.0/24 *>i160.

1 Path i i 100 D D D R S B 10.0.0/24 160.10.2 192.3.2.10.0/24 *> 173.0/24 *>i160.2.10.1.0.0/16 192.0/16 • Best paths installed in routing table if: • prefix and prefix length are unique • lowest “protocol distance” Route Table .0/24 160.10.20.20.20.21.2.1.1.BGP Routing Information Base BGP RIB Network *>i160.3.1.2 192.21.2.0/24 153.1.22.0/16 Next-Hop 192.0/24 173.0.

The ‘Bible’ & other resources • Route-views.net • Internet Routing Architectures – Bassam Halabi – pg. 168 BGP Decision Process Summary .oregon-ix.

Types of BGP Messages • OPEN – To negotiate and establish peering • UPDATE – To exchange routing information • KEEPALIVE – To maintain peering session • NOTIFICATION – To report errors (results in session reset) .

Internal BGP Peering (IBGP) AS 100 A B D E • BGP peer within the same AS • Not required to be directly connected • Maintain full IBGP mesh or use Route Reflection .

External BGP Peering (EBGP) A AS 100 B C AS 101 • Between BGP speakers in different AS • Directly connected or peering address is reachable .

0.An Example… A AS200 F B C 35.0.0/8 AS3561 AS21 D AS101 E AS675 Learns about 35.0.0.0/8 from F & D .

Basic BGP commands Configuration commands router bgp <AS-number> neighbor <ip address> remote-as <as-number> Show commands show ip bgp summary show ip bgp neighbors .

• Using network command or redistribution network <ipaddress> redistribute <protocol name> • Requires the route to be present in the routing table ...Originating routes.

0 ip route 198.10.0 mask 255.0 255.0 serial 0 matching route must exist in the routing table before network is announced! • Origin: IGP Originating routes/Inserting prefixes into BGP .0.254.4.255.255.• • • • network command network 198.10.254.

Update message • Withdrawn routes • Path Attributes • Advertised routes .

Stable IBGP peering • Unlinks IBGP peering from physical topology.x.x.x. • Carry loopback address in IGP router ospf <ID> passive-interface loopback0 • Unlink peering from physical topology router bgp <AS1> neighbor <x.x.x> update-source loopback0 .x> remote-as <AS1> neighbor <x.

BGP4 continued. ...

Length & Value (TLV) Transitive/Non-Transitive attributes Some are mandatory Used in path selection To apply policy for steering traffic .BGP Path Attributes: Why ? • • • • • Encoded as Type.

..BGP Path Attributes. ... • • • • • • • Origin AS-path Next-hop Multi-Exit Discriminator (MED) Local preference BGP Community Others.

it discards the update .AS-PATH • Updated by the sending router with its AS number • Contains the list of AS numbers the update traverses. if it finds its AS number. • Used to detect routing loops – Each time the router receives an update.

10.0.0/16 180.0.0.0/16 dropped AS 500 180.10.10.AS-Path AS 200 170.0.10.0/16 170.10.0/16 150.0.10.0/16 • Sequence of ASes a route has traversed AS 300 • Loop detection AS 400 150.0/16 AS 100 180.0.0/16 300 200 100 300 200 300 400 .10.0.

0/16 A B AS 300 150.10.0/16 150.10.1 AS 100 160.0.1.1.10.Next-Hop 150.0.0/16 • Next hop router to reach a network • Advertising router/Third party in EBGP • Unmodified in IBGP 0799_04F7_c2 Cisco Systems Confidential 20 .10.0/16 150.1.0.10.10.1 160.1.10.10.1 150.0.2 AS 200 150.

1.1.0/24 AS 201 • More efficient.1.3 A B 192.1.1.1.1.68.1.0/24 150.Third Party Next Hop AS 200 192.3 150. but bad idea! .68.1 peering 150.2 C 150.1.1.

Next Hop.. • • • • IGP should carry route to next hops Recursive route look-up Unlinks BGP from actual physical topology Allows IGP to make intelligent forwarding decision ..

mandatory for IBGP • Default value is 100 on Ciscos • Local to an AS • Used to prefer one exit over another • Path with highest local preference wins .Local Preference • Not for EBGP.

0.0/16 > 160.10.Local Preference AS 100 160.10.0.0/16 500 800 B AS 400 C .10.0.0/16 AS 200 D 500 800 AS 300 E A 160.

Multi-Exit Discriminator • Non-transitive • Represented as a numeric value (0-0xffffffff) • Used to convey the relative preference of entry points • Comparable if paths are from the same AS • Path with lower MED wins • IGP metric can be conveyed as MED .

0/24 1000 A B 192.1.1.Multi-Exit Discriminator (MED) AS 200 C 192.68.68.1.0/24 2000 preferred 192.68.0/24 AS 201 .

0.Generated using “network” statement • ex: network 35.0.Origin • Conveys the origin of the prefix • Three values: – IGP .Redistribute IGP • ex: redistribute ospf • IGP < EGP < INCOMPLETE .0 – EGP .Redistributed from EGP – Incomplete .

Non-mandatory Represented as a numeric value (0-0xffffffff) Used to group destinations Each destination could be member of multiple communities • Flexibility to scope a set of prefixes within or across AS for applying policy .Communities • • • • Transitive.

.Community. Service Provider AS 200 C D Community 201:110 201:120 Local Preference 110 120 Community:201:110 Community:201:120 A B 192.68..0/24 Customer AS 201 .1.

Synchronization 1880 A C OSPF 35/8 209 D 690 • C not running BGP (non-pervasive BGP) B • A won’t advertise 35/8 to D until the IGP is in sync • Turn synchronization off! – Run pervasive BGP router bgp 1880 no sync .

BGP Route Selection (bestpath) Only one path as the bestpath ! • Route has to be synchronized Prefix in forwarding table • Next-hop has to be accessible Next-hop in forwarding table • Largest weight Local to the router • Largest local preference Spread within AS • Locally sourced Via redistribute or network statement .

. closer exit from as AS • Lowest router-id • Lowest IP address of neighbor ..BGP Route Selection . • Shortest AS-path length number of ASes in the AS-path attribute • Lowest origin IGP < EGP < INCOMPLETE • Lowest MED between paths from same AS • External over internal closest exit from a router • Closest next-hop Lower IGP metric.

AS 100 AS 200 D AS 300 Increase AS path attribute length by at least 1 A B AS 400 AS 400’s Policy to reach AS100 AS 200 preferred path AS 300 backup .BGP Route Selection...

Stub AS • Typically no need for BGP • Point default towards the ISP • ISP advertises the stub network to Internet • Policy confined within ISP policy .

Stub AS B A AS 101 Provider Customer AS 100 .

Multi-homed AS • Only border routers speak BGP • IBGP only between border routers • Exterior routes must be redistributed in a controlled fashion into IGP or use defaults .

Multi-homed AS AS 100 provider AS 300 A B C D provider AS 200 customer .

Service Provider Network
• IBGP used to carry exterior routes • IGP keeps track of topology • Full IBGP mesh is required

Common Service Provider Network
AS 100
A B C H

AS 200

AS 300
D

provider
E

F

G

AS 400

Routing Policy
• Why?
– To steer traffic through preferred paths – Inbound/Outbound prefix filtering – To enforce Customer-ISP agreements

• How ?
– AS based route filtering - filter list – Prefix based route filtering - distribute list – BGP attribute modification - route maps

33 distribute-list 1 in neighbor 171.33 remote-as 33 neighbor 171.0 … more access-lists as prefixes are added .0 access-list 1 permit any access-list 2 permit 20. router bgp 100 neighbor 171.69.0.233..69..233.33 distribute-list 2 out .0.0.233.0.Distribute list .using IP access lists access-list 1 deny 10.69.

• RE is a pattern to match against an input string • Used to match against AS-path attribute • ex: ^3561.*100.*1$ • Flexible enough to generate complex filter list rules Filter list rules Regular Expressions .

233.69.using as-path access list ip as-path access-list 1 permit 3561 ip as-path access-list 2 deny 35 ip as-path access-list 2 permit .33 remote-as 33 neighbor 171.69.233.Filter list .33 filter-list 1 in neighbor 171.* router bgp 100 neighbor 171.33 filter-list 2 out .233.69.

2 remote-as 100 neighbor 2.Route Maps router bgp 300 neighbor 2.2.0.2 route-map SETCOMMUNITY out ! route-map SETCOMMUNITY permit 10 match ip address 1 match community 1 set community 300:100 ! access-list 1 permit 35.2.0.0 ip community-list 1 permit 100:200 .2.2.

Route-map match & set clauses Match • AS-path Clauses • Community • IP address Set Clauses • • • • • • • AS-path prepend Community Local-Preference MED Origin Weight Others.. ..

Route-map Configuration Example neighbor <y.y.y> route-map AS200_IN in ! route-map AS200_IN permit 10 match community 1 set local-preference 200 ! ip community-list 1 permit 100:200 ISP2 C21 H ethH C22 H eth H ISP3 Inbound route-map to set community neighbor <x.y.x> route-map AS100_IN in ! route-map AS100_IN permit 10 set community 100:200 C31 H eth H C32 H eth H .x.x.

Load Sharing & Redundancy using BGP .

1 Loopback 0 10.255 <DMZ-link1.200.2 update-source loopback0 neighbor 10.255.200.0.1 255.200.255.200.2 remote-as 200 neighbor 10.2 255.0.single path Router A: interface loopback 0 ip address 20.200.2 AS200 .0.255.Load-sharing . link2> A AS100 Loopback 0 20.0.2 ebgp-multi-hop 2 ! ip route 10.0.0.255.200.255 ! router bgp 100 neighbor 10.200.0.

200.1 remote-as 200 neighbor 10.300.1 remote-as 200 maximum-paths 2 A 100 200 Note:A still only advertises one “best” path to ibgp peers .Multiple paths from the same AS Router A: router bgp 100 neighbor 10.Load Sharing .0.0.

customer + default routes from all .Multi-homing • Reliable connection to Internet • 3 common cases of multi-homing: .Redundancy .full routes from all .default from all providers .

example: AS-path prepend .Default from all providers • Low memory/CPU solution • Provider sends BGP default – provider is selected based on IGP metric • Inbound traffic decided by providers’ policy – Can influence using outbound policy.

Default from all providers Provider AS 200 D E Provider AS 300 A AS 400 C B .

Customer + default from all providers • Medium memory and CPU solution • Granular routing for customer routes and default for the rest • Inbound traffic decided by providers’ policy – Can influence using outbound policy .

0/16 Provider AS 200 D E Provider AS 300 C chooses shortest AS path A AS 400 C B .Customer routes from all providers Customer AS 100 160.10.0.

Full routes from all providers • More memory/CPU • Full granular routing • Usually transit ASes take full routes • Usually pervasive BGP .

Full routes from all providers AS 100 AS 500 AS 200 D E AS 300 C chooses shortest AS path A AS 400 C B .

not your client’s routes • IGP must converge quickly • IGP should carry netmask information OSPF. IS-IS. EIGRP .Best Practices IGP in Backbone • IGP connects your backbone together.

. Connecting to a customer • Static routes – You control directly – No route flaps • Shared routing protocol or leaking – You must filter your customers info – Route flaps • BGP for multi-homed customers .Best Practices..

Connecting to other ISPs • • • • Use BGP4 Advertise only what you serve Take back as little as you can Take the shortest exit .Best Practices...

Best Practices... The Internet Exchange • Long distance connectivity is expensive • Connect to several providers at a single point .

Q&A .

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