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BASIC THERMODYNAMICS
OBJECTIVES
General Objective : To understand the concept of units and dimensions
Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:
state the difference between fundamentals and derived
quantities
describe the physical quantities of thermodynamics
understand the conversion units of thermodynamics
calculate the examples of conversion factors
UNIT 1
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/2
1.0 INTRODUCTION
id you realize that the work of an engineer is limited unless he has a source
of power to drive his machines or tools? However, before such a study can
begin, it is necessary to be sure of the number of definitions and units, which
are essential for a proper understanding of the subject. We are familiar with most of
these items in our everyday lives, but science demands that we have to be exact in
our understanding if real progress is to be made.
When engineering calculations are performed, it is necessary to be concerned with
the units of the physical quantities involved. A unit is any specified amount of a
quantity by comparison with which any other quantity of the same kind is measured.
For example, meters, centimeters and millimeters are all units of length. Seconds,
minutes and hours are alternative time units.
D
10 Kilometer + 5 Feet +
25 Yard + 100 Inches
= ? Meter
Could you give me an
answer?
INPUT
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/3
1.1 Fundamental and Derived Quantities
In the present discussion, we consider the system of units called SI (International
System of Units) and it is a legally accepted system in many countries. SI units will
be used throughout this module.
Length, mass, time, electric current, thermodynamic temperature and luminous
intensity are the six fundamental physical quantities. These six quantities are
absolutely independent of one another. They are also called the „Indefinables‟ of
mechanics. The SI base units are listed in Table 1.11.
Table 1.11 Fundamental units
Quantity Unit Symbol
Mass kilogram kg
Time second s
Length meter m
Thermodynamic temperature degree Kelvin K
Electric current ampere A
Luminous intensity candela cd
All other physical quantities, which can be expressed in terms of one or more of
these, are known as „derived quantities‟. The unit of length, mass, time, electric
current, thermodynamic temperature and luminous intensity are known as
„fundamental units’. Physical quantities like area, volume, density, velocity,
acceleration, force, energy, power, torque etc. are called derived quantities since
they depend on one or more of these fundamental quantities. The units of the derived
quantities are called derived units as shown in Table 1.12.
Table 1.12 Derived units
Quantity Unit Symbol Notes
Area meter square m
2
Volume meter cube m
3
1 m
3
= 1 x 10
3
litre
Velocity meter per second m/s
Acceleration Meter per second
squared
m/s
2
Density kilogram / meter cube kg/m
3
Force Newton N 1 N = 1 kgm/s
2
Pressure Newton/meter square N/m
2
1 N/m
2
= 1 Pascal
1 bar = 10
5
N/m
2
= 10
2
kN/m
2
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/4
1.1.1 Force
Newton‟s second law may be written as force (mass x acceleration), for a
body of a constant mass.
i.e. F = kma (1.1)
(where m is the mass of a body accelerated with an acceleration a, by a force
F, k is constant)
In a coherent system of units such as SI, k = 1, hence:
F = ma (1.2)
The SI unit of force is therefore kgm/s
2
. This composite unit is called the
Newton, N.
i.e. 1 N = 1 kg.m/s
2
1.1.2 Energy
Heat and work are both forms of energy. The work done by a force is the
product of the force and the distance moved in the same direction.
The SI unit of work = force x distance in the Newton meter, Nm.
A general unit for energy is introduced by giving the Newton meter the name
Joule, J.
i.e. 1 Joule = 1 Newton x 1 meter
or 1 J = 1 Nm
A more common unit for energy in SI is the kilo joule (1 kJ = 10
3
J)
1.1.3 Power
The use of an additional name for composite units is extended further by
introducing the Watt, W as the unit of power. Power is the rate of energy
transfer (or work done) by or to a system.
i.e. 1 Watt, W = 1 J/s = 1 N m/s
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/5
1.1.4 Pressure
Pressure is the force exerted by a fluid per unit area. We speak of pressure
only when we deal with gas or liquid. The pressure on a surface due to
forces from another surface or from a fluid is the force acting at 90
o
to the
unit area of the surface.
i.e. pressure = force/ area
P = F/A (1.3)
The unit of pressure, is N/m
2
and this unit is sometimes called the Pascal, Pa.
For most cases occurring in thermodynamics the pressure expressed in Pascal
will be a very small number. This new unit is defined as follows:
1 bar = 10
5
N/m
2
= 10
5
Pa
1.1.5. Density
Density is the mass of a substance per unit volume.
The unit of density is kg/m
3
.
Force, F = ma
Pressure, P = F/A
Work, W = F x L
Density, = m/V
(1.4)
volume
mass
Density
V
m
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/6
Calculate the pressure of gas underneath the piston in equilibrium for a 50 kg
mass that reacts to a piston with a surface area of 100 cm
2
.
A density of = 850 kg/m
3
of oil is filled to a tank. Determine the amount of
mass m in the tank if the volume of the tank is V = 2 m
3
.
Example 1.1
Solution to Example 1.1
2
N/m 05 . 49
0.01
9.81 x 50
area
force
(P) Pressure
Example 1.2
Solution to Example 1.2
We should end up with the unit of kilograms. Putting the given information into
perspective, we have
= 850 kg/m
3
and V = 2 m
3
It is obvious that we can eliminate m
3
and end up with kg by multiplying these
two quantities. Therefore, the formula we are looking for is
V
m
Thus, m = V
= (850 kg/m
3
)(2 m
3
)
= 1700 kg
Force = mass x acceleration
Pressure = force/area
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/7
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT…!
1.1 What is the work done by an expanding gas if the force resisting the motion
of the piston is 700 N and the length of the stroke is 0.5 m ?
1.2 What is the force required to accelerate a mass of 30 kg at a rate of 15 m/s
2
?
1.3 The fuel tank of a large truck measures 1.2m x 0.9m x 0.6m. How many litres
of fuel are contained in the tank when it is full?
1.4 A weather research instrument is suspended below a helium filled balloon
which is a 3.8m diameter sphere. If the specific volume of helium is
5.6m
3
/kg, what is the weight of helium in the balloon? Explain briefly why
the balloon rises in the atmosphere.
Activity 1A
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/8
Feedback to Activity 1A
1.1 Work = Force x Distance
= (700 N)(0.5 m)
= 350 Nm or J
1.2 Force = mass x acceleration
F = ma
= (30 kg)(15 m/s
2
)
= 450 kg.m/s
2
or N
1.3 Volume = 1.2 x 0.9 x 0.6 = 0.648 m
3
Since 1m
3
= 1000 litres
Then, contents of full tank = 0.648 x 1000
= 648 litres
1.4 Radius of volume, r =
2
d
=
2
3 . 3
= 1.9 m
Volume of balloon, V =
3
3
4
r
=
3
) 9 . 1 (
3
4
= 28.73 m
3
Mass of helium in balloon, m =
v
V
= 28.73/5.6
= 5.13 kg
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/9
w = mg
= 5.13 x 9.81
= 50.3 N
Density of helium, =
v
1
=
6 . 5
1
= 0.1786 kg/m
3
The balloon rises in the atmosphere because the density of helium is less than
the density of atmosphere.
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/10
1.2 Unit Conversions
We all know from experience that conversion of units can give terrible
headaches if they are not used carefully in solving a problem. But with some
attention and skill, conversion of units can be used to our advantage.
Measurements that describe physical quantities may be expressed in a variety of
different units. As a result, one often has to convert a quantity from one unit to
another. For example, we would like to convert, say, 49 days into weeks. One
approach is to multiply the value by ratios of the equivalent units. The ratios are
formed such that the old units are cancelled, leaving the new units.
The Dimensional Homogeneity
Despite their causing us errors, units/dimensions can be our friends.
All terms in an equation must be dimensionally homogeneous.
That is, we can‟t add apples to
oranges…
Neither can we add J/mol to J/kg s.
By keeping track of our units/dimensions,
we can automatically do a reality check
on our equations.
But the fun doesn‟t stop there…
A dimensional analysis can help to determine the form of an equation
that we may have forgotten.
The example of unit conversions are:
1 kg = 1000 g
1 m = 100 cm = 1000 mm
1 km = 1000 m = (100 000 cm @ 10
5
cm) = (1 000 000 mm @ 10
6
mm)
1 hour = 60 minutes = 3600 seconds
1 m
3
= 1000 litre, or 1 litre = 1 x 10
3
m
3
1 bar = 1 x 10
5
N/m
2
= 1 x 10
2
kN/m
2
INPUT
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/11
Multiple and submultiple of the basic units are formed by means of prefixes, and the
ones most commonly used are shown in the following table:
Table 1.2 Multiplying factors
Multiplying Factor Prefix Symbol
1 000 000 000 000 10
12
tera T
1 000 000 000 10
9
giga G
1 000 000 10
6
mega M
1 000 10
3
kilo k
100 10
2
hector h
10 10
1
deca da
0.1 10
1
desi d
0.01 10
2
centi c
0.001 10
3
milli m
0.000 001 10
6
micro
0.000 000 001 10
9
nano n
0.000 000 000 001 10
12
pico p
Example 1.3
Convert 1 km/h to m/s.
Solution to Example 1.3
m/s 278 . 0
s 3600
m 1000
s 3600
j 1
x
km 1
m 1000
x
j
km 1
j
km 1
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/12
Example 1.4
Convert 25 g/mm
3
to kg/m
3
.
Solution to Example 1.4
1 kg = 1000 g
1 m = 1000 mm
1 m
3
= 1000 x 1000 x 1000 mm
3
= 10
9
m
3
3 6
3
9
3
3 9
3 3
kg/m 10 x 25
m 1000
kg 1 x 10 x 25
g 1000
kg 1
x
m 1
mm 10
x
mm
g 25
mm
g 25
How could I convert
g/mm
3
to kg/m
3
?
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/13
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT…!
1.5 Convert the following data:
a) 3 N/cm
2
to kN/m
2
b) 15 MN/m
2
to N/m
2
1.6 Convert 15 milligram per litre to kg/m
3
.
I hope you’ve learnt something
from this unit. Let’s move on to
the next topic.
Activity 1B
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/14
Feedback To Activity 1B
1.5 a) 1 kN = 1000 N
1 m
2
= 100 x 100 = 10
4
cm
2
b) 1 MN = 10
6
N/m
2
1.6 1 kg = 1 000 000 mg
1 m
3
= 1000 litre
2
2
4
2
2 4
2 2
kN/m 30
m 1000
kN 10 x 3
N 1000
kN 1
x
m 1
cm 10
x
cm
N 3
cm
N 3
2 6
6
2 2
N/m 10 x 15
MN 1
N 10
x
m
MN 15
m
MN 15
3 3 
3
kg/m 10 x 15
m 1
litre 1000
x
mg 000 000 1
kg 1
x
litre
mg 15
litre
mg 15
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/15
You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this selfassessment section
and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to SelfAssessment on the
next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck.
1. A gas is contained in a vertical frictionless pistoncylinder device. The
piston has a mass of 4 kg and a crosssectional area of 35 cm
2
. A compressed
spring above the piston exerts a force of 60 N onto the piston. If the
atmospheric pressure is 95 kPa, determine the pressure inside the cylinder.
2. A force of 8 N is applied continuously at an angle of 30
o
to a certain mass.
Find the work done when the mass moves through a distance of 6 m.
3. A man weighing 60 kg goes up a staircase of 5 m in height in 20 secs.
Calculate his rate of doing work and power in watts.
4. The density of water at room temperature and atmospheric pressure is
1.0 g/cm
3
. Convert this to kg/m
3
. Find also the specific volume of water.
SELFASSESSMENT
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/16
Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”, check your answers now.
1. 123.4 kPa
2. 41.57 J
3. 147 J, 147 watt.
4. 1000 kg/m
3
; 0.001 m
3
/kg
CONGRATULATIONS!!!!…..
May success be with you
always….
Feedback to SelfAssessment
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/1
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS
OBJECTIVES
General Objective : To understand the basic concept and the First Law of
Thermodynamics
Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:
Define the fundamental concepts of system, boundary,
surrounding, open system and close system
explain the property, state and process of the working fluid
and provide example
state the definitions of the First Law of Thermodynamics
describe the differences between work and heat transfer
define the definitions and show the application of internal
energy
UNIT 2
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/2
2.0 Introduction
Every science has a unique vocabulary associated with it, and thermodynamics is no
exception. Precise definition of the basic concepts forms a sound foundation for the
development of science and prevents possible misunderstandings. In this unit, the
systems that will be used are reviewed, and the basic concepts of thermodynamics
such as system, energy, property, state, process, cycle, pressure and temperature are
explained. Careful study of these concepts is essential for a good understanding of
the topics in the following units.
2.1 Definitions of system, boundary, surrounding, open system and close system
A thermodynamic system, or simply a system, is defined as a quantity of matter or
a region in space chosen for study. The fluid contained by the cylinder head,
cylinder walls and the piston may be said to be the system.
The mass or region outside the system is called the surroundings. The surroundings
may be affected by changes within the system.
The boundary is the surface of separation between the system and its surroundings.
It may be the cylinder and the piston or an imaginary surface drawn as in Fig. 2.11,
so as to enable an analysis of the problem under consideration to be made.
Boundary
Surrounding
System
Figure 2.11 System, surroundings and boundary
INPUT
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/3
A system can either to be close or open, depending on whether a fixed mass or a
fixed volume in space is chosen for study. A close system (also known as a control
mass) consists of a fixed amount of mass, and no mass can cross its boundary. That
is, no mass can enter or leave a close system, as shown in Fig. 2.12. But energy,
in the form of heat or work can cross the boundary, and the volume of a close system
does not have to be fixed.
SURROUNDINGS
BOUNDARY
Fig. 2.12 A closed system with a moving boundary
An open system, or a control volume, as it is often called, is a properly selected
region in space. It usually encloses a device, which involves mass flow such as a
boiler, compressor, turbine or nozzle. Flow through these devices is best studied by
selecting the region within the device as the control volume. Both mass and energy
can cross the boundary of a control volume, as shown in Fig. 2.13.
Q
OUT
W
OUT
Fig 2.13 Open system in boiler
2.2 Property, State and Process
S
I
S
T
E
M
SYSTEM
Fluid Inlet
Fluid Outlet
SYSTEM
SURROUNDINGS
BOUNDARY
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/4
Properties are macroscopic characteristics of a system such as mass,
volume, energy, pressure, and temperature to which numerical values can be
assigned at a given time without knowledge of the history of the system.
Many other properties are considered during the course of our study of
engineering thermodynamics. Thermodynamics also deals with quantities
that are not properties, such as mass flow rates and energy transfers by work
and heat. Properties are considered to be either intensive or extensive.
Intensive properties are those which are independent of the size of the
system such as temperature, pressure and density.
Extensive properties are those whose values depend on the size or extent of
the system. Mass, volume and total energy are some examples of extensive
properties.
The word state refers to the condition of system as described by its
properties. Since there are normally relations among the properties of a
system, the state often can be specified by providing the values of a subset of
the properties.
When there is a change in any of the properties of a system, the state changes
and the system are said to have undergone a process. A process is a
transformation from one state to another. However, if a system exhibits the
same values of its properties at two different times, the state remains the
same at these times. A system is said to be at a steady state if none of its
properties changes with time. A process occurs when a system’s state (as
measured by its properties) changes for any reason. Processes may be
reversible or actual (irreversible). In this context the word ‘reversible’ has a
special meaning. A reversible process is one that is wholly theoretical, but
can be imagined as one which occurs without incurring friction, turbulence,
leakage or anything which causes unrecoverable energy losses. All of the
processes considered below are reversible and the actual processes will be
dealt with later.
Processes may be constrained to occur at constant temperature (isothermal),
constant pressure, constant volume, polytropic and adiabatic (with no heat
transfer to the surroundings).
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/5
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT…!
2.1 Fill in the blanks with suitable names for the close system in the diagram
below.
2.2 Study the statements in the table below and decide if the statements are
TRUE (T) or FALSE (F).
STATEMENT TRUE or FALSE
i. The mass or region inside the system is called
the surroundings.
ii. In a close system, no mass can enter or leave
a system.
iii. Intensive properties are those which are
independent of the size of the system
iv. Mass, volume and total energy are some
examples of intensive properties.
Activity 2A
S
I
S
T
E
M
ii. _________
i. _____________
iii. _____________
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/6
Feedback To Activity 2A
2.1 i. Surroundings
ii. System
iii. Boundary
2.2 i. False
ii. True
iii. True
iv. False
CONGRATULATIONS, IF YOUR ANSWERS ARE CORRECT YOU CAN
PROCEED TO THE NEXT INPUT…..
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/7
2.3 The First Law of Thermodynamics
Figure 2.3 Pictures showing types of energy
The first law of thermodynamics is simply a statement of conservation of
energy principle and it asserts that total energy is a thermodynamic property.
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed; it can only change forms. This
principle is based on experimental observations and is known as the First
Law of Thermodynamics. The First Law of Thermodynamics can therefore be
stated as follows:
When a system undergoes a thermodynamic cycle then the
net heat supplied to the system from its surroundings is
equal to the net work done by the systems on its surroundings.
……The First Law of Thermodynamics
In symbols,
dQ = dW (2.1)
where represents the sum of a complete cycle.
Energy can exist in
many forms such as
thermal, kinetic,
potential, electric,
chemical,…
INPUT
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/8
2.4 Work and Heat Transfer
Work transfer is defined as a product of the force and the distance moved in
the direction of the force. When a boundary of a close system moves in the
direction of the force acting on it, then the system does work on its
surroundings. When the boundary is moved inwards the work is done on the
system by its surroundings. The units of work are, for example, Nm or J. If
work is done on unit mass of a fluid, then the work done per kg of fluid has
the units of Nm/kg or J/kg. Consider the fluid expanding behind the piston
of an engine. The force F (in the absence of friction) will be given by
F = pA (2.2)
where
p is the pressure exerted on the piston and
A is the area of the piston
If dx is the displacement of the piston and p can be assumed constant
over this displacement, then the work done W will be given by,
W = F x dx
= pA x dx
= p x Adx
= p x dV
= p(V
2
– V
1
) (2.3)
where dV = Adx = change in volume.
Figure 2.4 Work transfer
When two systems at different temperatures are in contact with each other,
energy will transfer between them until they reach the same temperature (that
is, when they are in equilibrium with each other). This energy is called heat,
or thermal energy, and the term "heat flow" refers to an energy transfer as a
consequence of a temperature difference.
Heat is a form of energy which crosses the boundary of a system during a
change of state produced by the difference in temperature between the system
F
S
I
S
T
E
M
PRESSURE
dx
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/9
and its surroundings. The unit of heat is taken as the amount of heat energy
equivalent to one joule or Nm. The joule is defined as the work done when
the point of application of a force of one newton is displaced through a
distance of one meter in the direction of the force.
2.5 Sign Convention for Work Transfer
It is convenient to consider a convention of sign in connection with work
transfer and the usual convention adopted is:
if work energy is transferred from the system to the surroundings, it is
donated as positive.
if work energy is transferred from the surroundings to the system, it is
donated as negative.
WORK W
2
+ ve
SYSTEM
SURROUNDINGS
BOUNDARY
Figure 2.5 Sign Convention for work transfer
WORK W
1

ve
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/10
2.6 Sign Convention for Heat Transfer
The sign convention usually adopted for heat energy transfer is such that :
if heat energy flows into the system from the surroundings it is said to
be positive.
if heat energy flows from the system to the surroundings it is said to be
negative. It is incorrect to speak of heat in a system since heat energy
exists only when it flows across the boundary. Once in the system, it is
converted to other types of energy.
Figure 2.6 Sign convention for heat transfer
2.7 Internal Energy
Internal energy is the sum of all the energies a fluid possesses and stores
within itself. The molecules of a fluid may be imagined to be in motion
thereby possessing kinetic energy of translation and rotation as well as the
energy of vibration of the atoms within the molecules. In addition, the fluid
also possesses internal potential energy due to intermolecular forces.
Suppose we have 1 kg of gas in a closed container as shown in Figure 2.7.
For simplicity, we shall assume that the vessel is at rest with respect to the
earth and is located on a base horizon. The gas in the vessel has neither
macro kinetic energy nor potential energy. However, the molecules of the gas
are in motion and possess a molecular or 'internal' kinetic energy. The term is
usually shortened to internal energy. If we are to study thermal effects then
HEAT ENERGY
Q
2
ve
SURROUNDINGS
HEAT
ENERGY
Q
1
+
ve
SYSTEM
BOUNDARY
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/11
we can no longer ignore this form of energy. We shall denote the specific
(per kg) internal energy as u J/kg.
Now suppose that by rotation of an impeller within the vessel, we add work
dW to the closed system and we also introduce an amount of heat dQ. The
gas in the vessel still has zero macro kinetic energy and zero potential
energy. The energy that has been added has simply caused an increase in the
internal energy.
The change in internal energy is determined only by the net energy that has
been transferred across the boundary and is independent of the form of that
energy (work or heat) or the process path of the energy transfer. In molecular
simulations, molecules can of course be seen, so the changes occurring as a
system gains or loses internal energy are apparent in the changes in the
motion of the molecules. It can be observed that the molecules move faster
when the internal energy is increased. Internal energy is, therefore, a
thermodynamic property of state. Equation 2.4 is sometimes known as the
nonflow energy equation and is a statement of the First Law of
Thermodynamics.
or,
Figure 2.7 Added work and heat raise the internal energy of a close system
dQ
dW
12 12 1 2
d  d
W Q U U
W Q dU
(2.4)
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/12
The figure above shows a certain process, which undergoes a complete cycle
of operations. Determine the value of the work output for a complete cycle,
W
out
.
Example 2.1
Solution to Example 2.1
Q = Q
in
+ Q
out
= (10) + (3)
= 7 kJ
W = W
in
+ W
out
= (2) + (W
out
)
Hence Q  W = 0
W = Q
(2) + (W
out
) = 7
W
out
= 9 kJ
Q
in
= +10 kJ W
out
= (+) ?
W
in
= 2 kJ
Q
out
= 3 kJ
SYSTEM
Q
in
is +10 kJ
Q
out
is –3 kJ
W
in
is –2 kJ
W
out
is +ve
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/13
A system is allowed to do work amounting to 500 kNm whilst heat energy
amounting to 800 kJ is transferred into it. Find the change of internal energy
and state whether it is an increase or decrease.
Example 2.2
Solution to Example 2.2
U
2
– U
1
= Q
12
– W
12
now,
W
12
= +500 kNm = 500 kJ
Q
12
= +800 kJ
U
2
– U
1
= 800 – 500
= 300 kJ
Since U
2
U
1
, the internal energy has increased.
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/14
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT…!
2.3 During a complete cycle operation, a system is subjected to the following:
Heat transfer is 800 kJ supplied and 150 kJ rejected.
Work done by the system is 200 kJ.
Calculate the work transferred from the surrounding to the system.
2.4 Each line in Table 2.4 gives information about a process of a closed system.
Every entry has the same energy unit i.e. kJ. Fill in the empty spaces in the
table with the correct answers.
PROCESS Q
12
W
12
(U
2
– U
1
)
a. +50 20 i. ________
b. +100 ii. _______ 30
c. iii. _______ 70 +130
d. 50 +20 iv. _______
2.5 A close system undergoes a process in which there is a heat transfer of 200 kJ from
the system to the surroundings. The work done from the system to the surroundings
is 75 kJ. Calculate the change of internal energy and state whether it is an increase
or decrease.
Activity 2B
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/15
Feedback To Activity 2B
2.3 Q = Q
in
+ Q
out
= (800) + (150) = 650 kJ
W = W
in
+ W
out
= (W
in
) + (200)
Hence Q  W = 0
W = Q
(W
in
) + (200) = 650
W
in
= 450 kJ
2.4 i. 70
ii. 130
iii. 60
iv. 70
2.5 U
2
– U
1
= Q
12
– W
12
now,
Q
12
= 200 kJ
W
12
= 75 kJ
U
2
– U
1
= (200) – (75) = 275 kJ
(Since U
2
 U
1
= ve, the internal energy is decreased)
CONGRATULATIONS, IF YOUR ANSWERS ARE CORRECT THEN YOU
ARE SUCCESSFUL.
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/16
Problem Solving Methodology
There are several correct and effective steps to problem solving. There are many
variations as to what various authors give for their problem solving strategy.
Some of these steps are:
Read the ENTIRE problem carefully and all the way through before starting work on the
problem. Make sure that you understand what is being asked.
List the data based on the figures given in the question. This will include both explicit
and implicit data items. Note that not all of the explicitly given data are always
necessarily involved in the problem solution. Be wary of introducing implicit conditions
that may be unnecessary for the problem solution.
Draw a diagram of the physical situation. The type of drawing will depend upon the
problem.
Determine the physical principles involved in the particular problem. What are the
pertinent equations and how can they be used to determine either the solution or
intermediate results that can be further used to determine the solution. Often one
equation will be insufficient to solve a particular problem.
Simplify the equations as much as possible through algebraic manipulation before
plugging numbers into the equations. The fewer times numbers are entered into
equations, the less likely numerical mistakes will be made.
Check the units on the quantities involved. Make sure that all of the given quantities are
in a consistent set of units.
Insert the given data into the equations and perform the calculations. In doing the
calculations, also manipulate the units. In doing the calculations, follow the rules for
significant figures.
Is the result reasonable and are the final units correct?
GOOD LUCK, TRY YOUR BEST.
!
Tips
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/17
You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this selfassessment
section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to Self
Assessment on the next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your
lecturer. Good luck.
1. A thermodynamic system undergoes a process in which its internal energy decreases
by 300 kJ. If at the same time, 120 kJ of work is done on the system, find the heat
transferred to or from the system.
2. The internal energy of a system increases by 70 kJ when 180 kJ of heat is transferred
to the system. How much work is done by the gas?
3. During a certain process, 1000 kJ of heat is added to the working fluid while 750 kJ
is extracted as work. Determine the change in internal energy and state whether it is
increased of decreased.
4. If the internal energy of a system is increased by 90 kJ while the system does 125 kJ
of work to the surroundings, determine the heat transfer to or from the system.
SELFASSESSMENT
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/18
Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”, check your answers now.
1. Q =  420 kJ
2. W = 110 kJ
3. U
2
– U
1
= 250 kJ (Since U
2
 U
1
= +ve, the internal energy is increased)
4. Q = 215 kJ
CONGRATULATIONS!!!!…..
May success be with you
always….
Feedback to SelfAssessment
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/1
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS
OBJECTIVES
General Objective : To understand the laws of thermodynamics and its constants.
Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:
define the definitions of Boyle’s Law, Charles’ Law and
Universal Gases Law
define and show the application of the specific heat capacity at
constant pressure
define and apply the specific heat capacity at constant volume
UNIT 3
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/2
3.0 Definition Of Perfect Gases
Did you know, one important type of fluid that has many applications in
thermodynamics is the type in which the working temperature of the fluid remains
well above the critical temperature of the fluid? In this case, the fluid cannot be
liquefied by an isothermal compression, i.e. if it is required to condense the fluid,
then cooling of the fluid must first be carried out. In the simple treatment of such
fluids, their behavior is likened to that a perfect gas. Although, strictly speaking, a
perfect gas is an ideal which can never be realized in practice. The behavior of many
‘permanent’ gases, e.g. hydrogen, oxygen, air etc is very similar to the behavior of a
perfect gas to a first approximation.
A perfect gas is a collection of particles that:
are in constant, random motion,
have no intermolecular attractions (which leads to elastic collisions in which
no energy is exchanged or lost),
are considered to be volumeless points.
You are more familiar with the term ‘ideal’ gas. There is actually a distinction
between these two terms but for our purposes, you may consider them
interchangeable. The principle properties used to define the state of a gaseous system
are pressure (P), volume (V) and temperature (T). SI units (Systems International)
for these properties are Pascal (Pa) for pressure, m
3
for volume (although liters and
cm
3
are often substituted), and the absolute scale of temperature or Kelvin (K).
Two of the laws describing the behavior of a perfect gas are Boyle’s Law and
Charles’ Law.
INPUT
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/3
3.1 Boyle’s Law
The Boyle’s Law may be stated as follows:
Provided the temperature T of a perfect gas remains constant, then volume, V of a
given mass of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure P of the gas, i.e. P · 1/V
(as shown in Fig. 3.11), or P x V = constant if temperature remains constant.
Figure 3.11 Graph P · 1/V
If a gas changes from state 1 to state 2 during an isothermal process, then
P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2
= constant (3.1)
If the process is represented on a graph having axes of pressure P and volume V, the
results will be as shown in Fig. 3.12. The curve is known as a rectangular
hyperbola, having the mathematical equation xy = constant.
P
P
1
1
P
2
2
3
P
3
V
1
V
2
V
3
V
Figure 3.12 PV graph for constant temperature
P
1/V
P · 1/V
PV = constant
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/4
A quantity of a certain perfect gas is heated at a constant temperature from an
initial state of 0.22 m
3
and
325 kN/m
2
to a final state of 170 kN/m
2
. Calculate
the final pressure of the gas.
Example 3.1
Solution to Example 3.1
From equation P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2
3.2 Charles’ Law
The Charles’s Law may be stated as follows:
Provided the pressure P of a given mass of gas remains constant, then the volume V
of the gas will be directly proportional to the absolute temperature T of the gas, i.e.
V · T, or V = constant x T. Therefore V/T = constant, for constant pressure P.
If gas changes from state 1 to state 2 during a constant pressure process, then
If the process is represented on a P – V diagram as before, the result will be as shown
in Fig. 3.2.
( )
3
2
2
3
2
1
1 2
m 0.421
kN/m 170
kN/m 325
m 0.22 x =


.

\

= =
P
P
V V
constant
2
2
1
1
= =
T
V
T
V
(3.2)
1 2
P
V
0
V
1
V
2
Figure 3.2 PV graph for constant pressure process
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/5
A quantity of gas at 0.54 m
3
and 345
o
C undergoes a constant pressure process
that causes the volume of the gas to decreases to 0.32 m
3
. Calculate the
temperature of the gas at the end of the process.
Example 3.2
Solution to Example 3.2
From the question
V
1
= 0.54 m
3
T
1
= 345 + 273 K = 618 K
V
2
= 0.32 m
3
3.3 Universal Gases Law
Charles’ Law gives us the change in volume of a gas with temperature when the
pressure remains constant. Boyle’s Law gives us the change in volume of a gas with
pressure if the temperature remains constant.
The relation which gives the volume of a gas when both temperature and the
pressure are changed is stated as equation 3.3 below.
i.e. (3.4)
( )
K 366
m 0.54
m 0.32
K 618
x
3
3
1
2
1 2
2
2
1
1
=


.

\

=
=
=
V
V
T T
T
V
T
V
R
T
PV
= = constant (3.3)
2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V P
T
V P
=
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/6
No gases in practice obey this law rigidly, but many gases tend towards it. An
imaginary ideal that obeys the law is called a perfect gas, and the equation
is called the characteristic equation of state of a perfect gas.
The constant, R, is called the gas constant. The unit of R is Nm/kg K or J/kg K.
Each perfect gas has a different gas constant.
The characteristic equation is usually written
PV = RT (3.5)
or for m kg, occupying V m
3
,
PV = mRT (3.6)
Another form of the characteristic equation can be derived using the kilogrammole
as a unit. The kilogrammole is defined as a quantity of a gas equivalent to m kg of
the gas, where M is the molecular weight of the gas (e.g. since the molecular weight
of oxygen is 32, then 1 kg mole of oxygen is equivalent to 32 kg of oxygen).
From the definition of the kilogrammole, for m kg of a gas we have,
m = nM (3.7)
(where n is the number of moles).
Note: Since the standard of mass is the kg, kilogrammole will be written simply as
mole.
Substituting for m from equation 3.7 in equation 3.6,
PV = nMRT or (3.8)
R
T
PV
=
nT
PV
MR =
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/7
0.046 m
3
of gas are contained in a sealed cylinder at a pressure of 300 kN/m
2
and a temperature of 45
o
C. The gas is compressed until the pressure reaches
1.27 MN/m
2
and the temperature is 83
o
C. If the gas is assumed to be a perfect
gas, determine:
d) the mass of gas (kg)
e) the final volume of gas (m
3
)
Given:
R = 0.29 kJ/kg K
Now Avogadro’s hypothesis states that the volume of 1 mole of any gas is the same
as the volume of 1 mole of any other gas, when the gases are at the same temperature
and pressure. Therefore V/n is the same for all gases at the same value of P and T.
That is the quantity PV/nT is constant for all gases. This constant is called the
universal gas constant, and is given the symbol R
o
.
i.e. (3.9)
or since MR = R
o
then,
R
R
M
o
= (3.10)
Experiment has shown that the volume of 1 mole of any perfect gas at 1 bar and 1
o
C
is approximately 22.71 m
3
. Therefore from equation 3.8
From equation 3.10 the gas constant for any gas can be found when the molecular
weight is known, e.g. for oxygen of molecular weight 32, the gas constant is
K J/kg 8 . 259
32
4 . 8314
= = =
M
R
R
o
Example 3.3
T nR PV
nT
PV
R MR
o o
= = = or
K J/mole 8314.4
273.15 x 1
22.71 x 10 x 1
5
0
= = =
nT
PV
R
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/8
Solution to Example 3.3
From the question
V
1
= 0.046 m
3
P
1
= 300 kN/m
2
T
1
= 45 + 273 K = 318 K
P
2
= 1.27 MN/m
2
= 1.27 x 10
3
kN/m
2
T
2
= 83 + 273 K = 356 K
R = 0.29 kJ/kg K
From equation 3.6
PV = mRT
From equation 3.4, the constant volume process i.e. V
1
= V
2
kg 0.1496
318 x 0.29
0.046 x 300
1
1 1
= = =
RT
V P
m
( ) ( ) K 1346
300
10 x 1.27
318
3
1
2
1 2
2
2
1
1
=


.

\

=


.

\

=
=
P
P
T T
T
P
T
P
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/9
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT…!
3.1 Study the statements in the table below. Mark the answers as TRUE or
FALSE.
STATEMENT TRUE or FALSE
i. Charles’ Law gives us the change in volume
of a gas with temperature when the
temperature remains constant.
ii. Boyle’s Law gives us the change in volume of
a gas with pressure if the pressure remains
constant.
iii. The characteristic equation of state of a
perfect gas is .
iv. R
o
is the symbol for universal gas constant.
v. The constant R is called the gas constant.
vi. The unit of R is Nm/kg or J/kg.
3.2 0.04 kg of a certain perfect gas occupies a volume of 0.0072 m
3
at a pressure
6.76 bar and a temperature of 127
o
C. Calculate the molecular weight of the
gas (M). When the gas is allowed to expand until the pressure is 2.12 bar the
final volume is 0.065 m
3
. Calculate the final temperature.
Activity 3A
R
T
PV
=
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/10
Feedback To Activity 3A
3.1 i. False
ii. False
iii. True
iv. True
v. True
vi. False
3.2 From the question,
m = 0.04 kg
V
1
= 0.072 m
3
V
2
= 0.072 m
3
P
1
= 6.76 bar = 6.76 x 10
2
kN/m
2
P
2
= 2.12 bar = 2.12 x 10
2
kN/m
2
T
1
= 127 + 273 K = 400 K
From equation 3.6
P
1
V
1
= mRT
1
Then from equation 3.10
R
R
M
o
=
i.e. Molecular weight = 27
K kJ/kg 3042 . 0
400 x 0.04
0.0072 x 10 x 6.76
2
1
1 1
= = =
mT
V P
R
kg/kmol 27
3042 . 0
3144 . 8
= = =
R
R
M
o
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/11
From equation 3.6
P
2
V
2
= mRT
2
i.e. Final temperature = 1132.5 – 273 = 859.5
o
C.
CONGRATULATIONS, IF YOUR ANSWERS ARE CORRECT YOU CAN
PROCEED TO THE NEXT INPUT…..
K 1132.5
0.3042 x 0.04
0.065 x 10 x 2.12
2
2 2
2
= = =
mR
V P
T
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/12
3.4 Specific Heat Capacity at Constant Volume (C
v
)
The specific heat capacities of any substance is defined as the amount of heat energy
required to raise the unit mass through one degree temperature raise. In
thermodynamics, two specified conditions are used, those of constant volume and
constant pressure. The two specific heat capacities do not have the same value and it
is essential to distinguish them.
If 1 kg of a gas is supplied with an amount of heat energy sufficient to raise the
temperature of the gas by 1 degree whilst the volume of the gas remains constant,
then the amount of heat energy supplied is known as the specific heat capacity at
constant volume, and is denoted by C
v.
The unit of C
v
is J/kg K or kJ/kg K.
For a reversible nonflow process at constant volume, we have
dQ = mC
v
dT (3.11)
For a perfect gas the values of C
v
are constant for any one gas at all pressures and
temperatures. Equations (3.11) can then be expanded as follows :
Heat flow in a constant volume process, Q
12
= mC
v
(T
2
– T
1
) (3.12)
Also, from the nonflow energy equation
Q – W = (U
2
– U
1
)
mc
v
(T
2
– T
1
) – 0 = (U
2
– U
1
)
(U
2
– U
1
) = mC
v
(T
2
– T
1
) (3.13)
i.e. dU = Q
Note:
In a reversible constant volume process, no work energy transfer can take
place since the piston will be unable to move i.e. W = 0.
INPUT
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/13
3.4 kg of gas is heated at a constant volume of 0.92 m
3
and temperature 17
o
C
until the temperature rose to 147
o
C. If the gas is assumed to be a perfect gas,
determine:
a) the heat flow during the process
b) the beginning pressure of gas
c) the final pressure of gas
Given
C
v
= 0.72 kJ/kg K
R = 0.287 kJ/kg K
The reversible constant volume process is shown on a PV diagram in Fig. 3.4.
Figure 3.4 PV diagram for reversible constant volume process
Example 3.4
Solution to Example 3.4
From the question
m = 3.4 kg
V
1
= V
2
= 0.92 m
3
T
1
= 17 + 273 K = 290 K
T
2
= 147 + 273 K = 420 K
C
v
= 0.72 kJ/kg K
R = 0.287 kJ/kg K
P
2
P
1
1
2
P
V
V
1
= V
2
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/14
a) From equation 3.13,
Q
12
= mC
v
(T
2
– T
1
)
= 3.4 x 0.72(420 – 290)
= 318.24 kJ
b) From equation 3.6,
PV = mRT
Hence for state 1,
P
1
V
1
= mRT
1
2
3
1
1
1
kN/m 6 . 307
m 92 . 0
K 290 kJ/kgK x 287 . 0 x kg 4 . 3
= = =
V
mRT
P
c) For state 2,
P
2
V
2
= mRT
2
2
3
2
2
2
kN/m 5 . 445
m 92 . 0
K 0 42 kJ/kgK x 287 . 0 x kg 4 . 3
= = =
V
mRT
P
3.5 Specific Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure (C
p
)
If 1 kg of a gas is supplied with an amount of heat energy sufficient to raise the
temperature of the gas by 1 degree whilst the pressure of the gas remains constant,
then the amount of heat energy supplied is known as the specific heat capacity at
constant pressure, and is denoted by C
p.
The unit of C
p
is J/kg K or kJ/kg K.
For a reversible nonflow process at constant pressure, we have
dQ = mC
p
dT (3.14)
For a perfect gas the values of C
p
are constant for any one gas at all pressures and
temperatures. Equation (3.14) can then be expanded as follows:
Heat flow in a reversible constant pressure process Q = mC
p
(T
2
– T
1
) (3.15)
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/15
3.6 Relationship Between The Specific Heats
Let a perfect gas be heated at constant pressure from T
1
to T
2
. With reference to the
nonflow equation Q = U
2
– U
1
+ W, and the equation for a perfect gas
U
2
– U
1
= mC
v
(T
2
– T
1
), hence,
Q = mC
v
(T
2
– T
1
) + W
In a constant pressure process, the work done by the fluid is given by the pressure
times the change in volume, i.e. W = P(V
2
– V
1
). Then using equation PV = mRT,
we have
W = mR(T
2
– T
1
)
Therefore substituting,
Q = mC
v
(T
2
– T
1
) + mR(T
2
– T
1
) = m(C
v
+ R)(T
2
– T
1
)
But for a constant pressure process from equation 3.15,
Q = mC
p
(T
2
– T
1
)
Hence, by equating the two expressions for the heat flow Q, we have
mC
p
(T
2
– T
1
) = m(C
v
+ R)(T
2
– T
1
)
C
p
= C
v
+ R
Alternatively, it is usually written as
R = C
p
 C
v
3.16
3.7 Specific Heat Ratio (¸)
The ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure to the specific heat at constant
volume is given the symbol ¸ (gamma),
i.e. ¸ =
v
p
C
C
(3.17)
Note that since C
p
 C
v
= R, from equation 3.16, it is clear that C
p
must be greater
than C
v
for any perfect gas. It follows therefore that the ratio C
p
/C
v
= ¸ , is always
greater than unity. In general, ¸ is about 1.4 for diatomic gases such as carbon
monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H
2
), nitrogen (N
2
), and oxygen (O
2
). For monatomic
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/16
gases such as argon (A), and helium (He), ¸ is about 1.6, and for triatomic gases such
as carbon dioxide (CO
2
), and sulphur dioxide (SO
2
), ¸ is about 1.3. For some hydro
carbons the value of ¸ is quite low (e.g. for ethane (C
2
H
6
), ¸ = 1.22, and for iso
butane (C
4
H
10
), ¸ = 1.11.
Some useful relationships between C
p
, C
v
, R, and ¸ can be derived.
From equation 3.17
C
p
 C
v
= R
Dividing through by C
v
v v
p
C
R
C
C
= ÷1
Therefore using equation 3.17, ¸ =
v
p
C
C
, then,
v
C
R
= ÷1 ¸
) 1 ( ÷
=
¸
R
C
v
3.18
Also from equation 3.17, C
p
= ¸C
v
hence substituting in equation 3.18,
C
p
= ¸C
v
=
) 1 ( ÷ ¸
¸R
C
p
=
) 1 ( ÷ ¸
¸R
3.19
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/17
Example 3.5
Solution to Example 3.5
From equation 3.16
R = C
p
 C
v
i.e. R = 0.846 – 0.657 = 0.189 kJ/kg K
or R = 189 Nm/kg K
From equation 3.10
M =
R
R
0
i.e. M = 44
189
8314
=
A certain perfect gas has specific heat as follows
C
p
= 0.846 kJ/kg K and C
v
= 0.657 kJ/kg K
Find the gas constant and the molecular weight of the gas.
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/18
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT…!
3.3 Two kilograms of a gas receive 200 kJ as heat at constant volume process. If
the temperature of the gas increases by 100
o
C, determine the C
v
of the
process.
3.4 A perfect gas is contained in a rigid vessel at 3 bar and 315
o
C. The gas is
then cooled until the pressure falls to 1.5 bar. Calculate the heat rejected per
kg of gas.
Given:
M = 26 kg/kmol and ¸ = 1.26.
3.5 A mass of 0.18 kg gas is at a temperature of 15
o
C and pressure 130 kN/m
2
.
If the gas has a value of C
v
= 720 J/kg K, calculate the:
i. gas constant
ii. molecular weight
iii. specific heat at constant pressure
iv. specific heat ratio
Activity 3B
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/19
Feedback To Activity 3B
3.3 From the question,
m = 2 kg
Q = 200 kJ
(T
2
– T
1
) = 100
o
C = 373 K
Q = mC
v
(T
2
– T
1
)
( )
kJ/kgK 268 . 0
) 373 ( 2
200
1 2
= =
÷
=
T T m
Q
C
v
3.4 From the question,
P
1
= 3 bar
T
1
= 315
o
C = 588 K
P
2
= 1.5 bar
M = 26 kg/kmol
¸ = 1.26
From equation 3.10,
K J/kg 8 . 319
26
8314
= = =
M
R
R
o
From equation 3.18,
K kJ/kg 1.230 K J/kg 1230
1 26 . 1
8 . 319
) 1 (
= =
÷
=
÷
=
¸
R
C
v
During the process, the volume remains constant (i.e. rigid vessel) for the
mass of gas present, and from equation 3.4,
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/20
Therefore since V
1
= V
2
,
K 294
3
5 . 1
x 588
1
2
1 2
= = =
P
P
T T
Then from equation 3.12,
Heat rejected per kg gas, Q = C
v
(T
2
– T
1
)
= 1.230(588 – 294)
= 361.6 kJ/kg
3.5 From the question
m = 0.18 kg
T = 15
o
C = 288 K
V
= 0.17 m
3
C
v
= 720 J/kg K = 0.720 kJ/kg K
i. From equation 3.6,
PV = mRT
kJ/kgK 426 . 0
288 x 18 . 0
17 . 0 x 130
= = =
mT
PV
R
ii. From equation 3.10,
kg/kmol 52 . 19
426 . 0
3144 . 8
= = =
=
R
R
M
M
R
R
o
o
iii. From equation 3.16,
R = C
p
 C
v
C
p
= R + C
v
= 0.426 + 0.720 = 1.146 kJ/kg K
iv. From equation 3.17,
59 . 1
720 . 0
146 . 1
= = =
v
p
C
C
¸
2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V P
T
V P
=
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/21
You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this selfassessment
section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to Self
Assessment on the next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer.
Good luck.
1. 1 m
3
of air at 8 bar and 120
o
C is cooled at constant pressure process until the
temperature drops to 27
o
C.
Given R = 0.287 kJ/kg K and C
p
= 1.005 kJ/kg K, calculate the:
i. mass of air
ii. heat rejected in the process
iii. volume of the air after cooling.
2. A system undergoes a process in which 42 kJ of heat is rejected. If the
pressure is kept constant at 125 kN/m
2
while the volume changes from
0.20 m
3
to 0.006 m
3
, determine the work done and the change in internal
energy.
3. Heat is supplied to a gas in a rigid container.The mass of the container is 1 kg
and the volume of gas is 0.6 m
3
. 100 kJ is added as heat. If gas has
C
v
= 0.7186 kJ/kg K during a process, determine the:
i. change in temperature
ii. change in internal energy
SELFASSESSMENT
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/22
Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”, check your answers now.
1. i. m = 7.093 kg
ii. Q = 663 kJ
iii. V
2
= 0.763 m
3
2. W = 24.25 kJ
(U
2
– U
1
) = 17.75 kJ
3. i. (T
2
– T
1
) = 139.2 K
ii. (U
2
– U
1
) = 100 kJ
CONGRATULATIONS!!!!…..
May success be with you
always….
Feedback To SelfAssessment
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/1
NON  FLOW PROCESS
OBJECTIVES
General Objective : To understand and apply the concept of nonflow process in
thermodynamics
Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:
define and describe the differences between the flow and the
nonflow processes
identify heat and work in reversible process
define and calculate the following nonflow processes :
 constant temperature (Isothermal)
 adiabatic
UNIT 4
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/2
4.0 INTRODUCTION
nce a fluid has entered a system, it may be possible for it to undergo a series
of processes in which the fluid does not flow. An example of this is the
cylinder of an internal combustion engine. In the suction stroke, the working
fluid flows into the cylinder in which it is then temporarily sealed. Whilst the
cylinder is sealed, the fluid is compressed by the piston moving into the cylinder,
after which heat energy is supplied so that the fluid possesses sufficient energy to
force the piston back down the cylinder, causing the engine to do external work. The
exhaust valve is then opened and the fluid is made to flow out of the cylinder into the
surroundings. Processes which are undergone by a system when the working fluid
cannot cross the boundary are called nonflow process. This process occurs during
the compression and the working stroke as mentioned in the above example (refer to
Fig. 4.0).
O
What is a non
flow process?
INPUT
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/3
4.1 Differences Between The Flow and Nonflow processes
4.1.1 Flow Process
In an open system, not only the energy transfers take place across the
boundary, the fluid may also cross the boundary. Any process undergone by
an open system is called a flow process. This process may be subdivided
into an unsteady flow process and steady flow process. The general equation
is shown below,
W
C
v P u gZ Q
C
v P u gZ + + + + = + + + +
2 2
2
2
2 2 2 2
2
1
1 1 1 1
4.1.2 Nonflow process
In a close system, although energy may be transferred across the boundary in
the form of work energy and heat energy, the working fluid itself never
crosses the boundary. Any process undergone by a close system is referred to
as the nonflow process.
If the fluid is undergoing a nonflow process from state (1) to state (2) then
the terms from the general equation for p
1
V
1
and p
2
V
2
(which represent the
amount of work energy required to introduce and expel the fluid from the
system) will be zero, since the fluid is already in the system, and will still be
in the system at the end of the process. For the same reason, the changes in
SUCTION
STROKE
COMPRESSION
STROKE
WORKING
STROKE
EXHAUST
STROKE
Figure 4.0 The cycle of an internal combustion engine
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/4
kinetic and potential energies of the fluid will also be zero. Thus the equation
becomes
U
1
+ Q = U
2
+ W
or, U
2
– U
1
= Q –W (4.1)
In words, this equation states that in a nonflow process, the change in the
internal energy of the fluid is equal to the nett amount of heat energy
supplied to the fluid minus the nett amount of work energy flowing from the
fluid.
This equation is known as the non flow energy equation, and it will now be
shown how this may apply to the various nonflow processes.
4.2 Constant temperature (Isothermal) process (pV = C)
If the change in temperature during a process is very small then that process may be
approximated as an isothermal process. For example, the slow expansion or
compression of fluid in a cylinder, which is perfectly cooled by water may be
analysed, assuming that the temperature remains constant.
Figure 4.2 Constant temperature (Isothermal) process
W
Q
P
v
v
1
v
2
W
1
2
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/5
The general relation properties between the initial and final states of a perfect gas are
applied as follows:
2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V p
T
V p
=
If the temperature remains constant during the process, T
1
= T
2
and the above
relation becomes
2 2 1 1
V p V p =
From the equation we can know that an increase in the volume results in a decrease
in the pressure. In other words, in an isothermal process, the pressure is inversely
proportional to the volume.
Work transfer:
Referring to the process represented on the p – V diagram in Fig.4.2 it is noted that
the volume increases during the process. In other words the fluid is expanding. The
expansion work is given by
í
=
2
1
pdV W
=
í
2
1
dV
V
c
(since pV = C, a constant)
=
í
2
1
V
dV
c
=
í
2
1
1 1
V
dV
V p
=
1
2
1 1
ln
V
V
V p
lume smaller vo
ume larger vol
=
1
2
1
ln
V
V
mRT (since p
1
V
1
= mRT
1
)
=
2
1
1
ln
p
p
mRT (since
2
1
1
2
p
p
V
V
= ) (4.2)
Note that during expansion, the volume increases and the pressure decreases. On the
p – V diagram, the shaded area under the process line represents the amount of work
transfer.
Since this is an expansion process (i.e. increasing volume), the work is done by the
system. In other words the system produces work output and this is shown by the
direction of the arrow representing W.
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/6
Heat transfer:
Energy balance to this case is applied:
U
1
+ Q = U
2
+ W
For a perfect gas
U
1
= mc
v
T
1
and U
2
= mc
v
T
2
As the temperature is constant
U
1
= U
2
Substituting in the energy balance equation,
Q = W (4.3)
Thus, for a perfect gas, all the heat added during a constant temperature process is
converted into work and the internal energy of the system remains constant.
For a constant temperature process
W =
1
2
1
ln
V
V
mRT = Q
or
W =
2
1
1
ln
p
p
mRT = Q
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/7
4.3 Adiabatic process (Q = 0)
If a system is thermally well insulated then there will be negligible heat
transfer into or out of the system. Such a system is thermally isolated and a
process within that system may be idealised as an adiabatic process. For
example, the outer casing of steam engine, steam turbines and gas turbines
are well insulated to minimise heat loss. The fluid expansion process in such
machines may be assumed to be adiabatic.
Figure 4.3 Adiabatic (zero heat transfer) process
For a perfect gas the equation for an adiabatic process is
pV
¸
= C
where ¸ = ratio of specific heat =
v
p
C
C
The above equation is applied to states 1 and 2 as:
¸ ¸
2 2 1 1
V p V p =
¸
=
2
1
1
2
V
V
p
p
(4.4)
W
P
v
v
1
v
2
W
1
2
Thermal insulation
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/8
Also, for a perfect gas, the general property relation between the two states is given
by the equation below
2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V p
T
V p
= (4.5)
By manipulating equations 4.4 and 4.5 the following relationship can be determined:
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
÷
÷
=
=
¸
¸
¸
V
V
p
p
T
T
(4.6)
By examining equations 4.4 and 4.6 the following conclusion for an adiabatic
process on a perfect gas can be drawn:
An increase in volume results in a decrease in pressure.
An increase in volume results in a decrease in temperature.
An increase in pressure results in an increase in temperature.
Work transfer:
Referring to the process represented on the pV diagram (Fig.4.3) it is noted that the
volume increases during the process.
In other words, the fluid expanding and the expansion work is given by the formula:
í
=
2
1
pdV W
=
í
2
1
dV
V
c
¸
(since pV
¸
= C, a constant)
=
í
2
1
¸
V
dV
c
=
1
2 2 1 1
÷
÷
¸
V p V p
[larger pV small pV] (4.7)
Note that after expansion, p
2
is smaller than p
1
. In the p – V diagram, the shaded
area under the process represents the amount of work transfer.
As this is an expansion process (i.e. increase in volume) the work is done by the
system. In other words, the system produces work output and this is shown by the
direction of the arrow representing W (as shown in Fig 4.3).
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/9
Heat transfer:
In an adiabatic process, Q = 0.
Applying an energy balance to this case (Fig.4.3):
U
1
 W = U
2
W = U
1
– U
2
Thus, in an adiabatic expansion the work output is equal to the decrease in internal
energy. In other words, because of the work output the internal energy of the system
decreases by a corresponding amount.
For a perfect gas, U
1
= mc
v
T
1
and U
1
= mc
v
T
1
On substitution
W = mc
v
(T
1
T
2
) [larger T smaller T] (4.8)
We know
c
p
 c
v
= R
or
c
v
=
1 ÷ ¸
R
Substituting in equation 4.8
1
(
) 2 1
÷
÷
=
¸
T T mR
W (4.9)
But, mRT
2
= p
2
V
2
and mRT
1
= p
1
V
1
Then the expression for the expansion becomes
1
2 2 1 1
÷
÷
=
¸
V p V p
W (4.10)
Referring to the process represented on the pV diagram it is noted that during this
process the volume increases and the pressure decreases. For a perfect gas, equation
4.6 tells that a decrease in pressure will result in a temperature drop.
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/10
In an industrial process, 0.4 kg of oxygen is compressed isothermally from
1.01 bar and 22
o
C to 5.5 bar. Determine the work done and the heat transfer
during the process. Assume that oxygen is a perfect gas and take the molecular
weight of oxygen to be M = 32 kg/kmole.
Example 4.1
Solution to Example 4.1
Data: m = 0.4 kg; p
1
= 1.01 bar; t
1
= 22
o
C
p
2
= 5.5 bar; W = ? Q = ?
From the equation
R =
M
R
0
=
32
8314
= 260 J/kgK
= 0.260 kJ/kgK
For an isothermal process
Work input,
W = mRTln
1
2
p
p
=
01 . 1
5 . 5
ln ) 273 22 ( x 260 . 0 x 4 . 0 +
= 52 kJ
In an isothermal process all the work input is rejected as heat.
Therefore, heat rejected, Q = W = 52 kJ
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/11
In a thermally insulated reciprocating air compressor, air at 0.98 bar and 20
o
C
is compressed into one sixth of its original volume. Determine the pressure and
temperature of the air after compression. If the compressor cylinder contains
0.05 kg of air, calculate the required work input. For air, take ¸ = 1.4 and
c
v
= 0.718 kJ/kgK.
Example 4.2
Solution to Example 4.2
Data : p
1
= 0.98 bar; T
1
= 20 + 273 = 293 K
;
6
1
1
2
=
V
V
m = 0.05 kg; W = ?
As the cylinder is well insulated the heat transfer is negligible and the process may
be treated as adiabatic.
Considering air as a perfect gas
From equation 4.4,
¸
=
2
1
1
2
V
V
p
p
p
2
= 0.98 x 6
1.4
= 12 bar
From equation 4.6,
1
2
1
1
2
÷
=
¸
V
V
T
T
T
2
= 293 x 6
0.4
= 600 K
= 327
o
C
Rewriting equation 4.8 for an adiabatic compression process
W = mc
v
(T
2
T
1
) [larger T smaller T]
= 0.05 x 0.718 (600293)
= 11 kJ
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/12
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT…!
4.1 In the cylinder of a large engine, 1.0 kg of carbon dioxide at 527
o
C and
20 bar expands isothermally to a pressure of 1.4 bar. What is the final volume
of the gas?
Take R = 189 Nm/kgK for carbon dioxide.
4.2 1 kg of nitrogen (molecular weight 28) is compressed reversibly and
isothermally from 1.01 bar, 20
o
C to 4.2 bar. Calculate the work done and the
heat flow during the process. Assume nitrogen to be a perfect gas.
4.3 Air at 1.02 bar, 22
o
C, initially occupying a cylinder volume of 0.015 m
3
, is
compressed reversibly and adiabatically by a piston to a pressure of 6.8 bar.
Calculate the final temperature, the final volume, and the work done on the
mass of air in the cylinder.
Activity 4
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/13
Feedback to Activity 4
4.1 Data: m = 1.0 kg; T
1
= 527 + 273 = 800 K
p
1
= 20 bar; p
2
= 1.4 bar; V
2
= ?
Carbon dioxide is a perfect gas and we can apply the following characteristic
gas equation at state 1.
p
1
V
1
= mRT
1
V
1
=
1
1
p
mRT
=
5
10 20
800 189 1
x
x x
= 0.0756 m
3
Applying the general property relation between state 1 and 2
2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V p
T
V p
=
For an isothermal process T
1
= T
2
Hence,
2 2 1 1
V p V p =
V
2
= 0756 . 0 x
4 . 1
20
V
2
= 1.08 m
3
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/14
4.2 Data: m=1kg; M= 28 kg/kmole p
1
= 1.01 bar;
T
1
= 20 + 272 = 293 K; p
2
= 4.2 bar
From equation
R =
M
R
0
=
28
314 . 8
= 0.297 kJ/kgK
The process is shown on a pv diagram below. When a process takes place
from right to left on a pv diagram the work done by the fluid is negative.
That is, work is done on the fluid.
From equation 4.2
W =
2
1
1
ln
p
p
mRT
= 1 x 0.297x293x ln
2 . 4
01 . 1
= 124 kJ/kg
For an isothermal process for a perfect gas,
Q = W = 124 kJ/kg
p
v
4.2
1.01
pV=C
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/15
4.3 Data: p
1
=1.02 bar; T
1
=22 + 273 = 295 K;
v
1
= 0.015 m
3
; p
2
= 6.8 bar
From equation 4.6
¸
¸ 1
1
2
1
2
÷
=
p
p
T
T
T
2
= 295 x
4 . 1 / ) 1 4 . 1 (
02 . 1
8 . 6
÷

.

\

= 507.5 K
(where ¸ for air = 1.4)
i.e. Final temperature = 507.5 – 273 = 234.5
o
C
From equation 4.4
¸
=
2
1
1
2
V
V
p
p
or
¸ / 1
1
2
2
1
=
p
p
v
v
4 . 1 / 1
2
02 . 1
8 . 6 015 . 0

.

\

=
v
i.e. Final volume
v
2
= 0.0038 m
3
For an adiabatic process,
W = u
1
– u
2
and for a perfect gas,
W = c
v
(T
1

T
2
)
= 0.718(295507.5)
=  152.8 kJ/kg
i.e. work input per kg = 152.8 kJ
The mass of air can be found using equation pV = mRT
kg
x
x x
RT
v p
m 018 . 0
195 10 287 . 0
015 . 0 10 02 . 1
3
5
1
1 1
= = =
i.e. Total work done = 0.0181 x 152.8 = 2.76 kJ
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/16
You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this selfassessment section
and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to SelfAssessment on the
next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck.
1. 0.05 m
3
of a perfect gas at 6.3 bar undergoes a reversible isothermal process
to a pressure of 1.05 bar. Calculate the heat flow to or from the gas.
2. Nitrogen (molecular weight 28) expands reversibly in a perfectly thermally
insulated cylinder from 2.5 bar, 200
o
C to a volume of 0.09 m
3
. If the initial
volume occupied was 0.03 m
3
, calculate the work done during the expansion.
Assume nitrogen to be a perfect gas and take c
v
= 0.741 kJ/kg K.
3. A mass of 0.05 kg of air at a temperature of 40
o
C and a pressure of 1 bar is
compressed adiabatically to 5 bar. Determine the following:
a) final temperature
b) final volume
c) work transfer
d) heat transfer
e) change in internal energy
4. A quantity of gas occupies a volume of 0.3 m
3
at a pressure of 100 kN/m
2
and a temperature of 20
o
C. The gas is compressed isothermally to a pressure
of 500 kN/m
2
and then expanded adiabatically to its initial volume.
For this quantity of gas determine the following:
a) the heat received or rejected (state which) during the compression,
b) the change of internal energy during the expansion,
c) the mass of gas.
SELFASSESSMENT
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/17
Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”, check your answers now.
1. 56.4 kJ
2. 9.31 kJ
3. 222.7
o
C, 14230 cm
3
, 6.56 kJ input, 0 kJ, 6.56 kJ increase.
4. – 48.3 kJ (heat rejected), 35.5 kJ, 0.358 kg
Feedback to SelfAssessment
CONGRATULATIONS!!!!
You can now move on to
Unit 5…
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/1
NONFLOW PROCESS
OBJECTIVES
General Objective : To understand and apply the concept of nonflow process in
thermodynamics
Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:
define and calculate the following nonflow processes:
 polytropic
 constant volume
 constant pressure
UNIT 5
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/2
5.0 NONFLOW PROCESS
In a close system, although energy may be transferred across the boundary in the
form of work energy and heat energy, the working fluid itself never crosses the
boundary. Any process undergone by a close system is referred to as nonflow
process.
The equation for nonflow process is given as follows:
U
1
+ Q = U
2
+ W
or, U
2
– U
1
= Q –W
In words, this equation states that in a nonflow process, the change in the internal
energy of the fluid is equal to the nett amount of heat energy supplied to the fluid
minus the nett amount of work energy flowing from the fluid.
This equation is known as the nonflow energy equation, and it will now be
shown how this may apply to the various nonflow processes.
Processes, which are
undergone by a system
when the working fluid
cannot cross the
boundary, are called
nonflow process.
INPUT
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/3
5.1 Polytropic process (pV
n
= C)
This is the most general type of process, in which both heat energy and work
energy cross the boundary of the system. It is represented by an equation in the
form
pV
n
= constant (5.1)
If a compression or expansion is performed slowly, and if the piston cylinder
assembly is cooled perfectly, then the process will be isothermal. In this case the
index n = 1.
If a compression or expansion is performed rapidly, and if the piston cylinder
assembly is perfectly insulated, then the process will be adiabatic. In this case the
index n = ¸.
If a compression or expansion is performed at moderate speed, and if the piston
cylinder assembly is cooled to some degree, then the process is somewhere
between those discussed above. Generally, this is the situation in many
engineering applications. In this case the index n should take some value, which is
between 1 and ¸ depending on the degree of cooling.
Some practical examples include:
compression in a stationary air compressor (n = 1.3)
compression in an air compressor cooled by a fan (n = 1.2)
compression in a water cooled air compressor (n = 1.1)
Figure 5.1 Polytropic process
W
Q
loss
P
v
v
1 v
2
W
1
2
P
1
P
2
pV
n
=C
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/4
Equation 5.1 is applied at states 1 and 2 as:
n n
V p V p
2 2 1 1
=
or
n
V
V
p
p
=
2
1
1
2
(5.2)
Also, for a perfect gas, the general property relation between the two states is
given by
2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V p
T
V p
= (5.3)
By the manipulation of equations 5.2 and 5.3 the following relationship can be
determined:
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
÷
÷
=
=
n
n
n
V
V
p
p
T
T
(5.4)
By examining equations 5.2 and 5.4 the following conclusions for a polytropic
process on a perfect gas can be drawn as:
An increase in volume results in a decrease in pressure.
An increase in volume results in a decrease in temperature.
An increase in pressure results in an increase in temperature.
Work transfer:
Referring to the process represented on the pV diagram (Fig.5.1) it is noted that
the volume increases during the process.
In other words the fluid is expands and the expansion work is given by
í
=
2
1
pdV W
=
í
2
1
dV
V
c
n
(since pV
n
= C, a constant)
=
í
2
1
n
V
dV
c
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/5
=
1
2 2 1 1
÷
÷
n
V p V p
[larger pV small pV] (5.5)
Note that after expansion p
2
is smaller than p
1
. In the p – V diagram, the shaded
area under the process represents the amount of work transfer.
Since this is an expansion process (i.e. increase in volume), the work is done by
the system. In other words, the system produces work output and this is shown by
the direction of the arrow representing W as shown in Fig. 5.1.
Heat transfer:
Energy balance is applied to this case (Fig.5.1) as:
U
1
– Q
loss
 W = U
2
Q
loss
= (U
1
– U
2
) – W
or
W = (U
1
– U
2
)  Q
loss
Thus, in a polytropic expansion the work output is reduced because of the heat
loses.
Referring to the process represented on the p–V diagram (Fig.5.1) it is noted that
during this process the volume increases and the pressure decreases. For a perfect
gas, equation 5.4 tells us that a decrease in pressure will result in a temperature
drop.
For adiabatic process:
W=
1
2 2 1 1
÷
÷
¸
V p V p
For polytropic process:
W=
1
2 2 1 1
÷
÷
n
V p V p
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/6
The combustion gases in a petrol engine cylinder are at 30 bar and 800
o
C
before expansion. The gases expand through a volume ratio (
1
2
V
V
) of (
1
5 . 8
)
and occupy 510 cm
3
after expansion. When the engine is air cooled the
polytropic expansion index n = 1.15. What is the temperature and pressure of
the gas after expansion, and what is the work output?
Example 5.1
Solution to Example 5.1
State 1 State 2
Data: p
1
= 30 bar; T
1
= 800 + 273 = 1073 K; n = 1.15
1
2
V
V
= 8.5; V
2
= 510 cm
3
;
t
2
= ? p
2
= ? W = ?
Considering air as a perfect gas, for the polytropic process, the property relation is
given by equation 5.4 as:
1
2
1
1 2
÷
=
n
V
V
T T
=
1 15 . 1
5 . 8
1
1073
÷
x
= 778.4 K
= 505.4
o
C
P
1
= 30 bar
t
1
= 800
o
C
Q
loss
W
V
2
= 510 cm
3
p
2
= ?
t
2
= ?
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/7
From equation 5.2
n
V
V
p p
=
2
1
1 2
=
15 . 1
5 . 8
1
x 30
= 2.56 bar
Now,
V
2
= 510 cm
3
= 510 x 10
6
m
3
and,
1
2
V
V
= 8.5
Then,
5 . 8
10 510
6
1
÷
=
x
V
= 60 x 10
6
m
3
Work output during polytropic expansion is given by equation 5.5 as:
W =
1
2 2 1 1
÷
÷
n
V p V p
[larger pV small pV]
=
1 15 . 1
) 10 510 ( ) 10 56 . 2 ( ) 10 60 )( 10 30 (
6 5 6 5
÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
x x x x
= 330 J
= 0.33 kJ
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/8
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT…!
5.1 0.112 m
3
of gas has a pressure of 138 kN/m
2
. It is compressed to
690 kN/m
2
according to the law pV
1.4
= C. Determine the new volume of
the gas.
5.2 0.014 m
3
of gas at a pressure of 2070 kN/m
2
expands to a pressure of
207 kN/m
2
according to the law pV
1.35
= C. Determine the work done by
the gas during expansion.
5.3 A cylinder containing 0.07 kg of fluid has a pressure of 1 bar, a volume of
0.06 m
3
and a specific internal energy of 200 kJ/kg. After polytropic
compression, the pressure and volume of the fluid are 9 bar and 0.011 m
3
respectively, and the specific internal energy is 370 kJ/kg.
Determine
a) the amount of work energy required for the compression
b) the quantity and direction of the heat energy that flows during the
compression.
Activity 5A
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/9
Feedback To Activity 5A
5.1 Since the gas is compressed according to the law pV
1.4
= C, then,
4 . 1
2 2
4 . 1
1 1
V p V p =
4 . 1
1
2
2
1
=
V
V
p
p
or
4 . 1 / 1
2
1
1
2


.

\

=
p
p
V
V
from which,
4 . 1 / 1
2
1
1 2


.

\

=
p
p
V V = 4 . 1
2
1
1
p
p
V
= 0.012 x
4 . 1
690
138
= 0.0348 m
3
5.2 The work done during a polytropic expansion is given by the expression:
W =
1
2 2 1 1
÷
÷
n
V p V p
[larger pV small pV]
In this problem V
2
is, as yet, unknown and must therefore be calculated.
Now
n n
V p V p
2 2 1 1
=
n
p
p
V V
/ 1
2
1
1 2


.

\

=
or V
2
= 0.014 x
35 . 1 / 1
207
2070

.

\

V
2
= 0.077 m
3
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/10
Work done =
1 35 . 1
) 077 . 0 10 207 014 . 0 10 2070 (
3 3
÷
÷ x x x x
= 37.3 x 10
3
Nm
= 37.3 x 10
3
J
= 37.3 kJ
5.3 a) For a polytropic process,
n n
V p V p
2 2 1 1
=
In the given case
1 x 0.06
n
= 9 x 0.011
n
9
011 . 0
06 . 0
= 
.

\

n
n = 1.302
W =
1
2 2 1 1
÷
÷
n
V p V p
=
1 302 . 1
) 0111 . 0 10 9 ( ) 06 . 0 10 1 (
5 5
÷
÷ x x x x
= 13.2 kJ
The negative sign indicates that work energy would flow into the
system during the process.
b) The nonflow energy equation gives
Q – W = U
2
– U
1
Q – ( 13.2) = ( 370 x 0.07 ) – ( 200 x 0.07 )
Q =  1.3 kJ
The negative sign indicates that heat energy will flow out of the
fluid during the process.
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/11
5.2 Constant volume process
If the change in volume during a process is very small then that process may be
approximated as a constant volume process. For example, heating or cooling a
fluid in a rigid walled vessel can be analysed by assuming that the volume
remains constant.
a) Heating b) Cooling
Figure 5.2 Constant volume process (V
2
=V
1
)
The general property relation between the initial and final states of a perfect gas is
applied as:
2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V p
T
V p
=
If the volume remain constant during the process, V
2
= V
1
and then the above
relation becomes
2
2
1
1
T
p
T
p
=
or
1
2
1
2
p
p
T
T
= (5.6)
From this equation it can be seen that an increase in pressure results from an
increase in temperature. In other words, in constant volume process, the
temperature is proportional to the pressure.
p
v
2
1
Q
p
v
2
1
Q
INPUT
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/12
Work transfer:
Work transfer (pdV) must be zero because the change in volume, dV, during the
process is zero. However, work in the form of paddlewheel work may be
transferred.
Heat transfer:
Applying the non flow energy equation
Q – W = U
2
– U
1
gives Q – 0 = U
2
– U
1
i.e. Q = U
2
– U
1
(5.7)
This result, which is important and should be remembered, shows that the nett
amount of heat energy supplied to or taken from a fluid during a constant volume
process is equal to the change in the internal energy of the fluid.
5.3 Constant pressure process
If the change in pressure during a process is very small then that process may be
approximated as a constant pressure process. For example, heating or cooling a
liquid at atmospheric pressure may be analysed by assuming that the pressure
remains constant.
Figure 5.3 Constant pressure process
W
Q
P
v
v
1
v
2
W
1 2
v
2
– v
1
p
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/13
Consider the fluid in the piston cylinder as shown in Figure 5.2. If the load on the
piston is kept constant the pressure will also remain constant.
The general property relation between the initial and final states of a perfect gas is
applied as:
2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V p
T
V p
=
If the pressure remain constant during the process, p
2
= p
1
and then the above
relation becomes
2
2
1
1
T
V
T
V
=
or
1
2
1
2
V
V
T
T
= (5.8)
From this equation it can be seen that an increase in volume results from an
increase in temperature. In other words, in constant pressure process, the
temperature is proportional to the volume.
Work transfer:
Referring to the process representation on the pV diagram it is noted that the
volume increases during the process. In other words, the fluid expands. This
expansion work is given by
í
=
2
1
pdV W
í
=
2
1
dV p (since p is constant)
= p (V
2
– V
1
) (larger volume – smaller volume) (5.9)
Note that on a pV diagram, the area under the process line represents the amount
of work transfer. From Figure 5.3
W = area of the shaded rectangle
= height x width
= p (V
2
– V
1
) (larger volume – smaller volume)
This expression is identical to equation 5.9
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/14
Heat transfer:
Applying the non flow energy equation
Q – W = U
2
– U
1
or Q = (U
2
– U
1
) + W (5.10)
Thus part of the heat supplied is converted into work and the remainder is utilized
in increasing the internal energy of the system.
Substituting for W in equation 5.10
Q = (U
2
– U
1
) + p(V
2
– V
1
)
= U
2
– U
1
+ p
2
V
2
– p
1
V
1
(since p
2
= p
1
)
= (U
2
+ p
2
V
2
) – (U
1
+ p
1
V
1
)
Now, we know that h = u + pv or H = U + pV
Hence
Q = H
2
– H
1
(larger H – smaller H) (5.11)
Referring to the process representation on the pv diagram shown in Figure 5.3, it
is noted that heating increases the volume. In other words, the fluid expands. For
a perfect gas, equation 5.8 tells us that an increase in volume will result in
corresponding increase in temperature.
For constant volume process:
W = 0
For constant pressure process:
W = p (V
2
– V
1
)
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/15
The specific internal energy of a fluid is increased from 120 kJ/kg to 180 kJ/kg
during a constant volume process. Determine the amount of heat energy
required to bring about this increase for 2 kg of fluid.
Example 5.2
Solution to Example 5.2
The non flow energy equation is
Q – W = U
2
– U
1
For a constant volume process
W = 0
and the equation becomes
Q = U
2
– U
1
Q = 180 – 120
= 60 kJ/kg
Therefore for 2 kg of fluid
Q = 60 x 2 = 120 kJ
i.e. 120 kJ of heat energy would be required.
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/16
2.25 kg of fluid having a volume of 0.1 m
3
is in a cylinder at a constant
pressure of 7 bar. Heat energy is supplied to the fluid until the volume
becomes 0.2 m
3
. If the initial and final specific enthalpies of the fluid are
210 kJ/kg and 280 kJ/kg respectively, determine
a) the quantity of heat energy supplied to the fluid
b) the change in internal energy of the fluid
Example 5.3
Solution to Example 5.3
Data: p = 7.0 bar; V
1
= 0.1 m
3
; V
2
=
0.2 m
3
a) Heat energy supplied = change in enthalpy of fluid
Q = H
2
– H
1
= m( h
2
 h
1
)
= 2.25( 280 – 210 )
= 157.5 kJ
b) For a constant pressure process
W = P(V
2
– V
1
)
= 7 x 10
5
x ( 0.2 – 0.1)
= 7 x 10
4
J
= 70 kJ
Applying the nonflow energy equation
Q – W = U
2
– U
1
gives
U
2
– U
1
= 157.5 – 70
= 87.5 kJ
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/17
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT…!
5.4 The pressure of the gas inside an aerosol can is 1.2 bar at a temperature of
25
o
C. Will the aerosol explode if it is thrown into a fire and heated to a
temperature of 600
o
C? Assume that the aerosol can is unable to withstand
pressure in excess of 3 bar.
5.5 0.05 kg of air, initially at 130
o
C is heated at a constant pressure of 2 bar
until the volume occupied is 0.0658 m
3
. Calculate the heat supplied and
the work done.
5.6 A spherical research balloon is filled with 420 m
3
of atmospheric air at a
temperature of 10
o
C. If the air inside the balloon is heated to 80
o
C at
constant pressure, what will be the final diameter of the balloon?
Activity 5B
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/18
Feedback To Activity 5B
5.4 Data: p
1
= 1.2 bar; T
1
= 25 + 273 = 298 K
T
2
= 600 + 273 = 873 K; p
2
= ?
We can idealize this process at constant volume heating of a perfect gas.
Applying the general property relation between states 1 and 2
2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V p
T
V p
=
in this case V
2
= V
1
Hence,
2
2
1
1
T
p
T
p
=
or
2
2
1 2
T
T
p p =
= 1.2 x
298
873
= 3.52 bar
Since the aerosol cannot withstand pressures above 3 bar, it will clearly
explode in the fire.
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/19
5.5 Data: m = 0.5 kg; p = 2 bar; V
2
= 0.0658 m
3
;
T
1
= 130 + 273 =403 K
Using the characteristic gas equation at state 2
T
2
=
mR
V p
2 2
=
3
5
10 x 287 . 0 x 05 . 0
0658 . 0 x 10 x 2
= 917 K
For a perfect gas undergoing a constant pressure process, we have
Q = mc
p
(T
2
– T
1
)
i.e. Heat supplied = 0.05 x 1.005(917 – 403)
= 25.83 kJ
W = p (V
2
– V
1
)
From equation pV = RT
Work done = R (T
2
– T
1
)
= 0.287(917 – 403)
i.e. Work done by the mass of gas present = 0.05 x 0.287 x 514
= 7.38 kJ
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/20
5.6 Data: T
1
= 10 + 273 = 283 K; T
2
= 80 + 273 = 353 K
V
1
= 420 m
3
; V
2
= ?
Applying the general property relation between states 1 and 2
2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V p
T
V p
=
Since the air is heated at constant pressure p
1
= p
2
Then,
2
2
1
1
T
V
T
V
=
or V
2
=
1
2
1
T
T
V
= 420 x
283
353
= 523.9 m
3
Since the balloon is a sphere, V
2
=
3
3
4
r t
where r = radius of the balloon
Hence,
523.9 =
3
3
4
r t
Solving gives r = 5 m
Final diameter of balloon, d = 2r = 2 x 5 = 10 m
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/21
You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this selfassessment
section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to Self
Assessment on the next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your
lecturer. Good luck.
1. A receiver vessel in a steam plant contains 20 kg of steam at 60 bar and
500
o
C. When the plant is switched off, the steam in the vessel cools at
constant volume until the pressure is 30 bar. Find the temperature of the
steam after cooling and the heat transfer that has taken place.
2. 0.25 kg of combustion gas in a diesel engine cylinder is at temperature of
727
o
C. The gas expands at constant pressure until its volume is 1.8 times
its original value. For the combustion gas, R = 0.302 kJ/kgK and
c
p
= 1.09 kJ/kgK. Find the following:
a) temperature of the gas after expansion
b) heat transferred
c) work transferred
3. A quantity of gas has an initial pressure and volume of 0.1 MN/m
2
and
0.1 m
3
, respectively. It is compressed to a final pressure of 1.4 MN/m
2
according to the law pV
1.26
= constant. Determine the final volume of the
gas.
4. A mass of 0.05 kg of air at a temperature of 40
o
C and a pressure of 1 bar is
compressed polytropicly following the law pV
1.25
= C. Determine the
following:
a) final temperature
b) final volume
c) work transfer
d) heat transfer
e) change in internal energy
SELFASSESSMENT
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/22
Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”, check your answers now.
1. 233.8
o
C; 14380 kJ rejected
2. 1527
o
C; 218 kJ added; 60.4 kJ output
3. 0.01235 m
3
4. 158.9
o
C; 12390 cm
3
; 6.82 kJ input; 2.56 kJ rejected; 4.26 kJ increase
Feedback to SelfAssessment
CONGRATULATIONS!
!!!…May success be
with you always…
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/1
FLOW PROCESS
OBJECTIVES
General Objective: To understand the concept of flow process and its application in
steady flow energy equation.
Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:
derive the meaning and interpret the steadyflow energy
equation
apply the steadyflow energy equation to :
 boiler
 condenser
UNIT 6
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/2
6.0 STEADY FLOW PROCESSES
In heat engine it is the steady flow processes which are generally of most interest. The
conditions which must be satisfied by all of these processes are :
i. The mass of fluid flowing past any section in the system must be constant with
respect to time.
ii. The properties of the fluid at any particular section in the system must be constant
with respect to time.
iii. All transfer of work energy and heat which takes place must be done at a uniform
rate.
A typical example of a steady flow process is a steam boiler, operating under a constant load
as shown diagrammatically in Fig. 6.0. In order to maintain the water level in the boiler, the
feed pump supplies water at exactly the same rate as that at which steam is drawn off from
the boiler. To maintain the production of steam at this rate at a steady pressure, the furnace
will need to supply heat energy at a steady rate. Under these conditions, the properties of the
working fluid at any section within the system must be constant with respect to time.
Do you know the
conditions for
Steady Flow
Processes ?
INPUT
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/3
Figure 6.0 Steam Boiler
6.1 STEADY FLOW ENERGY EQUATION
This equation is a mathematical statement on the principle of Conservation of
Energy as applied to the flow of a fluid through a thermodynamic system.
The various forms of energy which the fluid can have are as follows:
a) Potential energy
If the fluid is at some height Z above a given datum level, then as a result of
its mass it possesses potential energy with respect to that datum. Thus, for
unit mass of fluid, in the close vicinity of the earth,
Potential energy = g Z
~ 9.81 Z
STEAM
OUT
WATER
LEVEL
BOUNDRY
WATER
IN
FURNACE
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/4
b) Kinetic energy
A fluid in motion possesses kinetic energy. If the fluid flows with velocity C,
then, for unit mass of fluid,
Kinetic energy =
2
2
C
c) Internal energy
All fluids store energy. The store of energy within any fluid can be increased
or decreased as a result of various processes carried out on or by the fluid.
The energy stored within a fluid which results from the internal motion of its
atoms and molecules is called its internal energy and it is usually designated
by the letter U. If the internal energy of the unit mass of fluid is discussed
this is then called the specific internal energy and is designated by u.
d) Flow or displacement energy
In order to enter or leave the system, any entering or leaving volume of fluid
must be displaced with an equal volume ahead of itself. The displacing mass
must do work on the mass being displaced, since the movement of any mass
can only be achieved at the expense of work.
Thus, if the volume of unit mass of liquid (its specific volume) at entry is v
1
and its pressure is P
1
, then in order to enter a system it must displace an equal
specific volume v
1
inside the system. Thus work to the value P
1
v
1
is done on
the specific volume inside the system by the specific volume outside the
system. This work is called flow or displacement work and at entry it is
energy received by the system.
Similarly, at exit, in order to leave, the flow work must be done by the fluid
inside the system on the fluid outside the system. Thus, if the pressure at exit,
is P
2
and the specific volume is v
2
the equation is then,
Flow or displacement work rejected = P
2
v
2
e) Heat received or rejected
During its passage through the system the fluid can have direct reception or
rejection of heat energy through the system boundary. This is designated by
Q. This must be taken in its algebraic sense.
Thus,
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/5
Q is positive when heat is received.
Q is negative when heat is rejected.
Q = 0 if heat is neither received nor rejected.
f) External work done
During its passage through the system the fluid can do external work or have
external work done on it. This is usually designated by W. This also must be
taken in its algebraic sense.
Thus if,
External work is done by the fluid then W is positive.
External work is done on the fluid then W is negative.
If no external work is done on or by the fluid then W = 0.
Figure 6.1 illustrates some thermodynamic system into which is flowing a fluid with
pressure P
1
, specific volume v
1
, specific internal energy u
1
and velocity C
1
. The
entry is at height Z
1
above some datum level. In its passage through the system,
external work W may be done on or by the fluid and also heat energy Q may be
received or rejected by the fluid from or to the surroundings.
The fluid then leaves the system with pressure P
2
, specific volume v
2
, specific
internal energy u
2
and velocity C
2
. The exit is at height Z
2
above some datum level.
Figure 6.1 Thermodynamic system
SYSTEM
(OR CONTROL VOLUME)
ENTRY
EXIT
Z
2
Z
1
W
Q
P
2
v
2
u
2
C
2
P
1
v
1
U
1
C
1
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/6
The application of the principle of energy conservation to the system is,
Total energy entering the system = Total energy leaving the system
or, for unit mass of substance,
W
C
v P u gZ Q
C
v P u gZ + + + + = + + + +
2 2
2
2
2 2 2 2
2
1
1 1 1 1
(6.1)
This is called the steady flow energy equation.
This equation is not applicable to all energy forms. In such cases, the energy forms
concerned are omitted from the energy equation.
In equation 6.1, it was stated that the particular combination of properties of the
form, u + Pv is called specific enthalpy and is designated as h. Thus, the steady flow
energy equation is written as
W
C
h gZ Q
C
h gZ + + + = + + +
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
1
1 1
(6.2)
Steady flow energy equation
Potential energy + Kinetic energy +
Internal energy +Flow or Displacement
energy+ Heat or Work
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/7
6.2 APPLICATION OF STEADY FLOW EQUATION
The steady flow energy equation may be applied to any apparatus through which a
fluid is flowing, provided that the conditions stated previously are applicable. Some
of the most common cases found in engineering practise are dealt with in detail as
below.
6.2.1 Boilers
In a boiler operating under steady conditions, water is pumped into the boiler
along the feed line at the same rate as which steam leaves the boiler along the
steam main, and heat energy is supplied from the furnace at a steady rate.
Figure 6.2.1 Steam Boiler
The steady flow energy equation gives
W
C
h gZ Q
C
h gZ + + + = + + +
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
1
1 1
and with the flow rate, m (kg/s) the equation may be written as
( ) ( )
÷ +


.

\
 ÷
+ ÷ = ÷
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
gZ gZ
C C
h h m W Q (6.3)
STEAM
OUT
BOUNDRY
WATER
IN
FURNACE
SYSTEM
Q
1
1
2
2
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/8
In applying this equation to the boiler, the following points should be noted :
i. Q is the amount of heat energy passing into the fluid per second
ii. W is zero since a boiler has no moving parts capable of affecting a
work transfer
iii. The kinetic energy is small as compared to the other terms and may
usually be neglected
iv. The potential energy is generally small enough to be neglected.
v. m (kg/s) is the rate of the flow of fluid.
Hence the equation is reduced to
( )
1 2
h h m Q ÷ = (6.4)
FOR BOILER UNDER A STEADY
CONDITION,
WORK = 0
KINETIC ENERGY = NEGLECTED
POTENTIAL ENERGY = NEGLECTED
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/9
6.2.2 Condensers
In principle, a condenser is a boiler reverse. In a boiler, heat energy is
supplied to convert the liquid into vapour whereas in a condenser heat energy
is removed in order to condense the vapour into a liquid. If the condenser is
in a steady state then the amount of liquid, usually called condensate, leaving
the condenser must be equal to the amount of vapour entering the condenser.
Figure 6.2.2 Condenser
The steady flow energy equation gives
( ) ( )
÷ +


.

\
 ÷
+ ÷ = ÷
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
gZ gZ
C C
h h m W Q
Points to note,
i. Q is the amount of heat energy per second transferred from the
system
ii. W is zero in the boiler
iii. The kinetic energy term may be neglected as in the boiler
iv. The potential energy is generally small enough to be neglected
v. m is the rate of the flow of fluid.
Thus the equation is reduced to
( )
1 2
h h m Q ÷ = (6.5)
VAPOUR
CONDENSATE
BOUNDARY
WATER
IN
WATER
OUT
SYSTEM
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/10
A boiler operates at a constant pressure of 15 bar, and evaporates fluid at the
rate of 1000 kg/h. At entry to the boiler, the fluid has an enthalpy of 165 kJ/kg
and on leaving the boiler the enthalpy of the fluid is 2200 kJ/kg. Determine
the heat energy supplied to the boiler.
Example 6.1
Solution to Example 6.1
The steady flow energy equation gives
( ) ( )
÷ +


.

\
 ÷
+ ÷ = ÷
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
gZ gZ
C C
h h m W Q
Q = heat energy per hour entering system
W = work energy per hour leaving system = 0
m = fluid flow rate = 1000 kg/h
h
2
= 2200 kJ/kg
h
1
= 165 kJ/kg
C
1
& C
2
= neglected
Z
1
& Z
2
= neglected
Thus, the steady flow energy equation becomes
( )
kg
kJ
h
kg
h
kJ
Q 165 2200 1000 ÷ =
h
kJ
x Q
6
10 035 . 2 =
BOUNDARY
WATER
IN
SYSTEM
Q
1
1
STEAM OUT
2
2
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/11
If 65 % of the heat energy supplied to the boiler in example 6.1 is used in
evaporating the fluid, determine the rate of fuel consumption required to
maintain this rate of evaporation, if 1 kg of fuel produces 32000 kJ of heat
energy.
Example 6.2
Solution to Example 6.2
Heat energy from fuel required per hour =
65 . 0
10 035 . 2
6
x
= 3.13 x 10
6
kJ/h
Heat energy obtained from the fuel = 32 000 kJ/kg
Fuel required =
kJ
kg
x
h
kJ
32000
10 13 . 3
6
x
= 97.8 kg/h
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/12
Fluid enters a condenser at the rate of 35 kg/min with a specific enthalpy of
2200 kJ/kg, and leaves with a specific enthalpy of 255 kJ/kg. Determine the
rate of heat energy loss from the system.
Example 6.3
Solution to Example 6.2
The steady flow energy equation gives
( ) ( )
÷ +


.

\
 ÷
+ ÷ = ÷
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
gZ gZ
C C
h h m W Q
For a condenser, W = 0, and the term representing the change in kinetic and potential
energy may be neglected. Therefore the equation is reduced to
( )
1 2
h h m Q ÷ =
From the above equation
kg
kJ kg
Q ) 2200 255 (
min
35 ÷ =
=  68 000 kJ/min
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/13
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT…!
6.1 In an air conditioning system, air is cooled by passing it over a chilled water
coil condenser. Water enters the coil with an enthalpy of 42 kJ/kg and leaves
the coil with an enthalpy of 80 kJ/kg. The water flow rate is 200 kg/h. Find
the rate of heat absorption by the water in kilowatts.
6.2 In a steady flow system, a substance flows at the rate of 4 kg/s. It enters at a
pressure of 620 kN/m
2
, a velocity of 300 m/s, internal energy 2100 kJ/kg and
specific volume 0.37 m
3
/kg. It leaves the system at a pressure of 130 kN/m
2
,
a velocity of 150 m/s, internal energy 1500 kJ/kg and specific volume
1.2 m
3
/kg. During its passage through the system the substance has a loss by
heat transfer of 30 kJ/kg to the surroundings. Determine the power of the
system in kilowatts, stating whether it is from or to the system. Neglect any
change in potential energy.
Activity 6
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/14
Feedback to Activity 6
6.1 Data: m = 200 kg/h = kg/s 056 . 0
3600
200
=
h
1
= 42 kJ/kg; h
2
= 80 kJ/kg
Q = ?
The diameter of the water tube in a cooler is normally constant. Therefore,
there is no change in water velocity and kinetic energy. In general the change
in potential energy is also negligible.
The equation of steady flow is therefore reduced to
( )
1 2
h h m Q ÷ =
= 0.056(80 – 42)
= 2.13 kJ/s or kW
The rate of heat absorption by the water is 2.13 kW
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/15
6.2 By neglecting the change in potential energy, for a unit mass of
substance, the steady flow energy equation becomes:
W
C
v P u Q
C
v P u + + + = + + +
2 2
2
2
2 2 2
2
1
1 1 1
(1)
Q is written negative since 30 kJ/kg are lost to the surroundings.
From equation (1)
Specific W = Q
C C
v P v P u u ÷
÷
+ ÷ + ÷ )
2
( ) ( ) (
2
2
2
1
2 2 1 1 1 1
Working in kilojoules (kJ)
Specific W = (21001500)+(620x0.37130x1.2)+(
3
2 2
10 2
150 300
x
÷
)30
= 676.75 kJ/kg.
The substance flows at the rate of 4 kg/s
Output (since W is positive) = 676.75 x 4
= 2707 kJ/s or kW
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/16
You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this selfassessment section
and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to SelfAssessment on the
next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck.
1. A boiler uses coal at the rate of 3000 kg/h in producing steam with a specific
enthalpy of 2700 kJ/kg from feed water with a specific enthalpy of 280 kJ/kg.
The combustion of 1 kg of coal produces 28000 kJ, of which 80% is useful in
producing steam. Calculate the rate at which steam is produced.
2. Fluid with specific enthalpy of 2280 kJ/kg enters a condenser at the rate of
4500 kg/h, and leaves with a specific enthalpy of 163 kJ/kg. If the enthalpy
of the cooling water circulating through the condenser tubes increases at the
rate of 148 000 kJ/min, determine the rate at which heat energy flows from
the condenser to the atmosphere.
SELFASSESSMENT
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/17
Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”, check your answers now.
1. 27800 kg/h
2. 646000 kJ/h
Feedback to SelfAssessment
CONGRATULATIONS!!!!…..
May success be with you
always….
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/1
FLOW PROCESS
OBJECTIVES
General Objective: To understand the application of steady flow energy equation.
Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:
apply the steadyflow energy equation to :
 turbine
 nozzle
 throttle
 pump
UNIT 7
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/2
7.0 APPLICATION OF STEADY FLOW EQUATION
The steady flow energy equation may be applied to any apparatus through which a
fluid is flowing, provided the conditions stated in Unit 6 are applicable. Some of the
most common cases found in engineering practise will now be dealt with in detail.
Do you know the
application of steady
flow equation for
turbine?
INPUT
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/3
7.0.1 Turbine
A turbine is a device which uses a pressure drop to produce work energy
which is used to drive an external load.
Figure 7.0.1 Turbine
The steady flow energy equation gives
( ) ( )
÷ +


.

\
 ÷
+ ÷ = ÷
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
gZ gZ
C C
h h m W Q
Points to note :
i. The average velocity of flow of fluid through a turbine is normally
high, and the fluid passes quickly through the turbine. It may be
assumed that, because of this, heat energy does not have time to flow
into or out of the fluid during its passage through the turbine, and
hence Q = 0 .
ii. Although velocities are high the difference between them is not large,
and the term representing the change in kinetic energy may be
neglected.
iii. Potential energy is generally small enough to be neglected.
iv. W is the amount of external work energy produced per second.
Q
W
FLUID OUT
FLUID IN
SYSTEM
1
2
BOUNDARY
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/4
The steady flow energy equation becomes
 ( )
1 2
h h m W ÷ =
or ( )
2 1
h h m W ÷ = (7.1)
7.0.2 Nozzle
A nozzle utilises a pressure drop to produce an increase in the kinetic energy
of the fluid.
Figure 7.0.2 Nozzle
The steady flow energy equation gives
( ) ( )
÷ +


.

\
 ÷
+ ÷ = ÷
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
gZ gZ
C C
h h m W Q
Points to note :
i. The average velocity of flow through a nozzle is high, hence the fluid
spends only a short time in the nozzle. For this reason, it may be
assumed that there is insufficient time for heat energy to flow into or
out of the fluid during its passage through the nozzle, i.e. Q = 0.
ii. Since a nozzle has no moving parts, no work energy will be
transferred to or from the fluid as it passes through the nozzle,
i.e. W = 0.
SYSTEM
BOUNDARY
FLUID
OUT
FLUID
IN
1
1
2
2
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/5
iii. Potential energy is generally small enough to be neglected.
Hence the equation becomes
( )


.

\
 ÷
+ ÷ =
2
0
2
1
2
2
1 2
C C
h h m
Often C
1
is negligible compared with C
2
. In this case the equation becomes
( )


.

\

+ ÷ =
2
0
2
2
1 2
C
h h m
or ( )
2 1
2
2
2
h h
C
÷ =
or ( )
2 1 2
2 h h C ÷ = (7.2)
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/6
A fluid flows through a turbine at the rate of 45 kg/min. Across the turbine the
specific enthalpy drop of the fluid is 580 kJ/kg and the turbine loss 2100 kJ/min
in the form of heat energy. Determine the power produced by the turbine,
assuming that changes in kinetic and potential energy may be neglected.
Example 7.1
Solution to Example 7.1
The steady flow energy equation gives
( ) ( )
÷ +


.

\
 ÷
+ ÷ = ÷
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
gZ gZ
C C
h h m W Q
Q = heat energy flow into system = 2100 kJ/min
W = work energy flow from system kJ/min
m = fluid flow rate = 45 kg/min
h
2
 h
1
= 580 kJ/kg
C
1
& C
2
= neglected
Z
1
& Z
2
= neglected
Therefore the steady flow energy equation becomes
2100 kJ/min – W = 45 kg/min (580 kJ/kg)
W = (26100 – 2100) kJ/min
= 24000 kJ/min
= 400 kJ/s
= 400 kW
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/7
Fluid with a specific enthalpy of 2800 kJ/kg enters a horizontal nozzle with
negligible velocity at the rate of 14 kg/s. At the outlet from the nozzle the
specific enthalpy and specific volume of the fluid are 2250 kJ/kg and
1.25 m
3
/kg respectively. Assuming an adiabatic flow, determine the required
outlet area of the nozzle.
Example 7.2
Solution to Example 7.2
The steady flow energy equation gives
( ) ( )
÷ +


.

\
 ÷
+ ÷ = ÷
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
gZ gZ
C C
h h m W Q
When applied to the nozzle, this becomes
( )


.

\
 ÷
+ ÷ =
2
0
2
1
2
2
1 2
C C
h h m
Since the inlet C
1
is negligible, this may be written as
( )
2 1
2
2
2 h h C ÷ =
= √ [2(2800 – 22500]
= 1050 m/s
Applying the equation of continuity at outlet gives
2
2 2
v
C A
m =
14 kg/s =
/kg m 25 . 1
m/s 1050 x
3
2
A
A
2
= 0.01668 m
2
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/8
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT…!
7.1 Steam enters a turbine with a velocity of 16 m/s and specific enthalpy
2990 kJ/kg. The steam leaves the turbine with a velocity of 37 m/s and
specific enthalpy 2530 kJ/kg. The heat lost to the surroundings as the steam
passes through the turbine is 25 kJ/kg. The steam flow rate is 324000 kg/h.
Determine the work output from the turbine in kilowatts.
7.2 In a turbo jet engine the momentum of the gases leaving the nozzle produces
the propulsive force. The enthalpy and velocity of the gases at the nozzle
entrance are 1200 kJ/kg and 200 m/s respectively. The enthalpy of the gas at
exit is 900 kJ/kg. If the heat loss from the nozzle is negligible, determine the
velocity of the gas jet at exit from the nozzle.
Activity 7A
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/9
Feedback to Activity 7A
7.1 Neglecting the changes in potential energy, the steady flow energy equation
is
( )


.

\
 ÷
+ ÷ = ÷
2
2
1
2
2
1 2
C C
h h W Q
Q is negative since heat is lost from the steam to the surroundings
specific W = ( )


.

\
 ÷
+ ÷
2
2
2
2
1
2 1
C C
h h  Q
= (29992530) + 25
10 2
) 37 16 (
3
2 2
÷
÷
x
= 434.443 kJ/kg
The steam flow rate = 324000/3600 = 90 kg/s
W = 434.443 x 90
= 39099.97 kJ/s or kW
~ 39100 kW
~ 39.1 MW
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/10
7.2 The steady energy flow equation for nozzle gives
( )


.

\
 ÷
+ ÷ =
2
0
2
1
2
2
1 2
C C
h h m
On simplification,
( )
2
1 2 1 2
2 C h h C + ÷ =
= \2(1200x 10
3
 900x
10
3
) + 200
2
= 800 m/s
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/11
7.0.3 THROTTLE
A throttling process is one in which the fluid is made to flow through a restriction ,
e.g. a partially opened valve or orifice, causing a considerable drop in the pressure
of the fluid.
Figure 7.0.3 Throttling process
The steady flow energy equation gives
( ) ( )
÷ +


.

\
 ÷
+ ÷ = ÷
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
gZ gZ
C C
h h m W Q
Points to note:
i. Since throttling takes place over a very small distance, the available area
through which heat energy can flow is very small, and it is normally
assumed that no energy is lost by heat transfer, i.e. Q = 0.
ii. Since there are no moving parts, no energy can be transferred in the form of
work energy, i.e. W = 0.
iii. The difference between C
1
and C
2
will not be great and consequently the
term representing the change in kinetic energy is normally neglected.
iv. The potential energy is generally small enough to be neglected.
INPUT
1
2
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/12
The steady flow energy equation becomes
0 = m (h
2
 h
1
)
or h
2 =
h
1
(7.3)
i.e. during a throttling process the enthalpy remains constant.
7.0.4 Pump
The action of a pump is the reverse of that of a turbine, i.e. it uses external
work energy to produce a pressure rise. In applying the steady flow energy
equation to a pump, exactly the same arguments are used as for turbine and
the equation becomes
 ( )
1 2
h h m W ÷ = (7.4)
Since h
2
> h
1
, W will be found to be negative.
Figure 7.0.4 Pump
Q
W
SYSTEM
1
2
BOUNDARY
OUTLET
INLET
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/13
7.1 Equation of Continuity
This is an equation which is often used in conjunction with the steady flow
energy equation. It is based on the fact that if a system is in a steady state,
then the mass of fluid passing any section during a specified time must be
constant. Consider a mass of m kg/s flowing through a system in which all
conditions are steady as illustrated in Fig.7.5.
Figure 7.1 Mass flowing through a system
Let A
1
and A
2
represent the flow areas
in m
2
at the inlet and outlet
respectively.
Let v
1
and v
2
represent the specific volumes in m
3
/kg at the inlet and outlet
respectively.
Let C
1
and
C
2
represent the velocities in m/s, at the inlet and outlet
respectively.
Then mass flowing per sec = volume flowing per sec m
3
/s
volume per kg m
3
/kg
=
s
kg
v
C A
1
1 1
at inlet
=
s
kg
v
C A
2
2 2
at outlet
i.e.
1
1 1
v
C A
m = =
2
2 2
v
C A
(7.5)
1
1
2
2
C
1
C
2
AREA A
2
AREA A
1
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/14
Example 7.3
Solution to Example 7.3
For a throttling process, the steady flow energy equation becomes
0 = m (h
2
 h
1
)
or h
2 =
h
1
But h
2
= u
2
+ P
2
v
2
and h
1
= u
1
+ P
1
v
1
Therefore the change in specific internal energy
= u
2
– u
1
= ( h
2
 P
2
v
2
)  ( h
1
– P
1
v
1
)
= ( h
2
 h
1
) – ( P
2
v
2
 P
1
v
1
)
= 0 – ( 1 x 1.8 – 10 x 0.3 ) bar m
3
/kg
= 120 x 10 Nm/kg
= 120 kJ/kg
Example 7.4
Solution to Example 7.4
The flow rate of fluid = 45 kg/min
= 0.75 kg/s
The steady flow energy is
( ) ( )
÷ +


.

\
 ÷
+ ÷ = ÷
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
gZ gZ
C C
h h m W Q
A fluid flowing along a pipeline undergoes a throttling process from 10 bar to 1
bar in passing through a partially open valve. Before throttling, the specific
volume of the fluid is 0.3 m
3
/kg and after throttling is 1.8 m
3
/kg. Determine the
change in specific internal energy during the throttling process.
A pump delivers fluid at the rate of 45 kg/min. At the inlet to the pump the
specific enthalpy of the fluid is 46 kJ/kg, and at the outlet from the pump the
specific enthalpy of the fluid is 175 kJ/kg. If 105 kJ/min of heat energy are lost to
the surroundings by the pump, determine the power required to drive the pump if
the efficiency of the drive is 85 %.
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/15
Q =  105 kJ/min =  1.75 kJ/s
W = work energy flow (kJ/s)
h
1
= 46 kJ/kg
h
2
= 1.27 kJ/kg
m = 0.75 kg/s
The kinetic and potential energy may be neglected
Substituting the data above with the steady flow energy equation gives
 1.75 – W = 0.75 (175 – 46)
W = 1.75 – (0.75 x 129)
=  98.5 kJ/s
=  98.5 kW
(N.B. The negative sign indicates work energy required by the pump)
Since the efficiency of the drive is 85 %
Power required by the compressor = 98.5 x
85
100
= 114.8 kW
Turbine
( )
2 1
h h m W ÷ =
&
Pump
 ( )
1 2
h h m W ÷ =
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/16
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT…!
7.3 A rotary air pump is required to deliver 900 kg of air per hour. The enthalpy
at the inlet and exit of the pump are 300 kJ/kg and 500 kJ/kg respectively.
The air velocity at the entrance and exit are 10 m/s and 15 m/s respectively.
The rate of heat loss from the pump is 2500 W. Determine the power
required to drive the pump.
7.4 In activity 7A, for question No. 7.2, if the diameter of the nozzle at exit is
500 mm, find the mass flow rate of gas. The gas density at the nozzle inlet
and exit are 0.81 kg/m
3
and 0.39 kg/m
3
respectively. Also determine the
diameter of the nozzle at the inlet.
Activity 7B
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/17
Feedback to Activity 7B
7.3 Data :
3600
900
= m = 0.25 kg/s
h
1
= 300 kJ/kg
h
2
= 500 kJ/kg
C
1
= 10 m/s
C
2
= 15 m/s
Q = 2500 W = 2.5 kW
W = ?
The steady flow energy equation gives
( ) ( )
÷ +


.

\
 ÷
+ ÷ = ÷
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
gZ gZ
C C
h h m W Q
Neglecting the change in Potential energy since it is negligible
( )
+


.

\
 ÷
+ ÷ = ÷
2
2
1
2
2
1 2
C C
h h m W Q
W = 0.25 [( 500 300) + (
3
2 2
10 2
10 15
x
÷
)] + 2.5
W = 52.5 kW
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/18
7.4 Data : A
2
= t
4
5 . 0
2
= 0.196 m
2
p
1
= 0.81 kg/m
3
p
2
= 0.39 kg/m
3
m = ?
d = ?
Mass flow rate at exit,
m = A
2
C
2
p
2
= 61.2 kg/s
From the mass balance,
Mass entering the nozzle = mass leaving the nozzle = m
m = A
1
C
1
p
1
= A
2
C
2
p
2
On substitution
A
1
x 200 x 0.81 = 61.2
On simplification
A
1
= 0.378 m
2
or
d
1
= 0.694 m
= 694 mm
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/19
You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this selfassessment section
and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to SelfAssessment on the
next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck.
1 Steam flows through a turbine stage at the rate of 4500 kJ/h. The steam
velocities at inlet and outlet are 15 m/s and 180 m/s respectively. The rate of
heat energy flow from the turbine casing to the surroundings is 23 kJ/kg of
steam flowing. If the specific enthalpy of the steam decreases by 420 kJ/kg in
passing through the turbine stage, calculate the power developed.
2 A rotary pump draws 600 kg/hour of atmospheric air and delivers it at a
higher pressure. The specific enthalpy of air at the pump inlet is 300 kJ/kg
and that at the exit is 509 kJ/kg. The heat lost from the pump casing is
5000 W. Neglecting the changes in kinetic and potential energy, determine
the power required to drive the pump.
3 A nozzle is supplied with steam having a specific enthalpy of 2780 kJ/kg at
the rate of 9.1 kg/min. At outlet from the nozzle the velocity of the steam is
1070 m/s. Assuming that the inlet velocity of the steam is negligible and that
the process is adiabatic, determine:
a) the specific enthalpy of the steam at the nozzle exit
b) the outlet area required if the final specific volume of the steam is
18.75 m
3
/kg.
4 Fluid at 10.35 bar having a specific volume of 0.18 m
3
/kg is throttled to a
pressure of 1 bar. If the specific volume of the fluid after throttling is
0.107 m
3
/kg, calculate the change in specific internal energy during the
process.
SELFASSESSMENT
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/20
Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”, check your answers now.
1. 476 kW
2. 353 kW
3. 2208 kJ/kg; 2660 mm
2
4. 175.7 kJ/kg
Feedback to SelfAssessment
CONGRATULATIONS!!!!…..
You can continue with the
next unit…
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/1
PROPERTIES OF STEAM
OBJECTIVES
General Objective : To define the properties of wet steam, dry saturated steam and
superheated steam using information from the steam tables.
Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:
define the word phase and distinguish the solid, liquid and
steam phases
understand and use the fact that the vaporization process is
carried out at constant pressure
define and explain the following terms: saturation
temperature, saturated liquid, wet steam, saturated steam, dry
saturated steam, , dryness fraction and superheated steam
determine the properties of steam using the Pv diagram
understand and use the nomenclature as in the Steam Tables
apply single and double interpolation using the steam tables
locate the correct steam tables for interpolation, including
interpolation between saturation tables and superheated tables
where necessary
UNIT 8
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/2
8.0 Introduction
In thermodynamic systems, the working fluid can be in the liquid, steam or gaseous
phase. In this unit, the properties of liquid and steam are investigated in some details
as the state of a system can be described in terms of its properties. A substance that
has a fixed composition throughout is called a pure substance. Pure chemicals
(H
2
O, N
2
, O
2
, Ar, Ne, Xe) are always pure substances. We all know from experience
that substances exist in different phases. A phase of substance can be defined as that
part of a pure substance that consists of a single, homogenous aggregate of matter.
The three common phases for H
2
O that are usually used are solid, liquid and steam.
When studying phases or phase changes in thermodynamics, one does not need to be
concerned with the molecular structure and behavior of the different phases.
However, it is very helpful to have some understanding of the molecular phenomena
involved in each phase.
Molecular bonds are strongest in solids and weakest in steams. One reason is that
molecules in solids are closely packed together, whereas in steams they are separated
by great distances.
INPUT
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/3
The three phases of pure substances are: 
Solid Phase
In the solid phase, the molecules are;
(a) closely bound, therefore relatively dense; and
(b) arranged in a rigid threedimensional pattern so that they do not easily
deform. An example of a pure solid state is ice.
Liquid Phase
In the liquid phase, the molecules are;
(a) closely bound, therefore also relatively dense and unable to expand to fill a
space; but
(b) they are no longer rigidly structured so much so that they are free to move
within a fixed volume. An example is a pure liquid state.
Steam Phase
In the steam phase, the molecules;
(a) virtually do not attract each other. The distance between the molecules are
not as close as those in the solid and liquid phases;
(b) are not arranged in a fixed pattern. There is neither a fixed volume nor a
fixed shape for steam.
The three phases described above are illustrated in Fig. 8.0 below. The following are
discovered:
(a) the positions of the molecules are relatively fixed in a solid phase;
(b) chunks of molecules float about each other in the liquid phase; and
(c) the molecules move about at random in the steam phase.
Source: Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3
rd
Ed by Cengel and Boles
Figure 8.0 The arrangement of atoms in different phases
(a) (b) (c)
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/4
8.1 PhaseChange Process
The distinction between steam and liquid is usually made (in an elementary manner)
by stating that both will take up the shape of their containers. However liquid will
present a free surface if it does not completely fill its container. Steam on the other
hand will always fill its container.
With these information, let us consider the following system:
A container is filled with water, and a moveable, frictionless piston is placed on the
container at State 1, as shown in Fig. 8.1. As heat is added to the system, the
temperature of the system will increase. Note that the pressure on the system is
being kept constant by the weight of the piston. The continued addition of heat will
cause the temperature of the system to increase until the pressure of the steam
generated exactly balances the pressure of the atmosphere plus the pressure due to
the weight of the piston.
Figure 8.1 Heating water and steam at constant pressure
At this point, the steam and liquid are said to be saturated. As more heat is added,
the liquid that was at saturation will start to vaporize until State 2. The twophase
mixture of steam and liquid at State 2 has only one degree of freedom, and as long as
liquid is present, vaporization will continue at constant temperature. As long as
liquid is present, the mixture is said to be wet steam, and both the liquid and steam
are saturated. After all the liquid is vaporized, only steam is present at State 3, and
the further addition of heat will cause the temperature of steam to increase at
W
W
W
W
Liquid
Steam
Superheated
Steam
STATE 1 STATE 2 STATE 3 STATE 4
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/5
constant system pressure. This state is called the superheated state, and the steam is
said to be superheated steam as shown in State 4.
8.2 Saturated and Superheated Steam
While tables provide a convenient way of presenting precise numerical presentations
of data, figures provide us with a clearer understanding of trends and patterns.
Consider the following diagram in which the specific volume of H
2
O is presented as
a function of temperature and pressure
1
:
Figure 8.21 Tv diagram for the heating process of water at constant pressure
Imagine that we are to run an experiment. In this experiment, we start with a mass
of water at 1 atm pressure and room temperature. At this temperature and pressure
we may measure the specific volume (1/p = 1/1000 kg/m
3
). We plot this state at
point 1 on the diagram.
If we proceed to heat the water, the temperature will rise. In addition, water expands
slightly as it is heated which makes the specific volume increase slightly. We may
plot the locus of such points along the line from State 1 to State 2. We speak of
liquid in one of these conditions as being compressed or subcooled liquid.
1
Figures from Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3
rd
Ed by Cengel and Boles
20
100
300
1
2
3
4
T,
o
C
v, m
3
/kg
Compressed
liquid
Saturated
mixture
Superheated
steam
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/6
State 2 is selected to correspond to the boiling point (100
o
C). We speak of State 2
as being the saturated liquid state, which means that all of the water is in still liquid
form, but ready to boil. As we continue to heat past the boiling point 2, a
fundamental change occurs in the process. The temperature of the water no longer
continues to rise. Instead, as we continue to add energy, liquid progressively
changes to steam phase at a constant temperature but with an increasing specific
volume. In this part of the process, we speak of the water as being a saturated
mixture (liquid + steam). This is also known as the quality region.
At State 3, all liquid will have been vaporised. This is the saturated steam state.
As we continue to heat the steam beyond State 3, the temperature of the steam again
rises as we add energy. States to the right of State 3 are said to be superheated
steam.
Summary of nomenclature:
Compressed or subcooled liquid (Between States 1 & 2)
A liquid state in which the fluid remains entirely within the liquid state,
and below the saturation state.
Saturated liquid (State 2)
All fluid is in the liquid state. However, even the slightest addition of
energy would result in the formation of some vapour.
Saturated LiquidSteam or Wet Steam Region (Between States 2 & 3)
Liquid and steam exist together in a mixture.
Saturated steam (State 3)
All fluid is in the steam state, but even the slightest loss of energy from the
system would result in the formation of some liquid.
Superheated steam (The right of State 3)
All fluid is in the steam state and above the saturation state. The
superheated steam temperature is greater than the saturation temperature
corresponding to the pressure.
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/7
The same experiment can be conducted at several different pressures. We see that as
pressure increases, the temperature at which boiling occurs also increases.
2
Figure 8.22 Tv diagram of constant pressure phase change processes
of a pure substance at various pressures for water.
It can be seen that as pressure increases, the specific volume increase in the liquid to
steam transition will decrease.
At a pressure of 221.2 bar, the specific volume change which is associated to a phase
increase will disappear. Both liquid and steam will have the same specific volume,
0.00317 m
3
/kg. This occurs at a temperature of 374.15
o
C. This state represents an
important transition in fluids and is termed the critical point.
2
Figures from Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3
rd
Ed by Cengel and Boles
P = 1.01325 bar
P = 5 bar
P = 10 bar
P = 80 bar
P = 150 bar
P = 221.2 bar
Critical point
374.15
T,
o
C
v, m
3
/kg
Saturated
liquid
Saturated
steam
0.00317
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/8
If we connect the locus of points corresponding to the saturation condition, we will
obtain a diagram which allows easy identification of the distinct regions
3
:
Figure 8.23 Tv diagram of a pure substance
The general shape of the Pv diagram of a pure substance is very much like the Tv
diagram, but the T = constant lines on this diagram have a downward trend, as shown
in Fig. 8.24.
Figure 8.24 Pv diagram of a pure substance
3
Figures from Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3
rd
Ed by Cengel and Boles
P
v
Critical
point
Saturated liquid line
Dry saturated steam line
T
2
= const.
T
1
= const.
COMPRESS
LIQUID
REGION
WET STEAM
REGION
SUPERHEATED
STEAM
REGION
T
2
> T
1
T
v
Critical
point
Saturated liquid line
Dry saturated steam line
P
2
= const.
P
1
= const.
COMPRESS
LIQUID
REGION
WET STEAM
REGION
SUPERHEATED
STEAM
REGION
P
2
> P
1
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/9
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT…!
8.1 Each line in the table below gives information about phases of pure substances. Fill
in the phase column in the table with the correct answer.
Statement Phase
The molecules are closely bound, they are also relatively
dense and unable to expand to fill a space. However they are
no longer rigidly structured so that they are free to move
within a fixed volume.
i._____________
The molecules are closely bound, they are relatively dense
and arranged in a rigid threedimensional patterns so that they
do not easily deform.
ii.____________
The molecules virtually do not attract each other. The
distance between the molecules are not as close as those in the
solid and liquid phases. They are not arranged in a fixed
pattern. There is neither a fixed volume nor a fixed shape for
steam.
iii.____________
8.2 Write the suitable names of the phases for the H
2
O in the Pv diagram below.
Activity 8A
P
v
( vi )
( ii )
( iv )
T
2
= const.
T
1
= const.
( i )
( iii)
( v )
T
2
> T
1
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/10
Feedback To Activity 8A
8.1 i) Liquid Phase
ii) Solid Phase
iii) Steam Phase
8.2 i) Compress liquid region
ii) Saturated liquid line
iii) Wet steam region
iv) Dry saturated steam line
v) Superheated steam region
vi) Critical point
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/11
8.3 Properties of a Wet Mixture
Between the saturated liquid and the saturated steam, there exist a mixture of steam
plus liquid (wet steam region). To denote the state of a liquidsteam mixture, it is
necessary to introduce a term describing the relative quantities of liquid and steam in
the mixture. This is called the dryness fraction (symbol x). Thus, in 1 kg of wet
mixture, there must be x kg of saturated steam plus (1 – x) kg of saturated liquid.
Figure 8.31 Liquidsteam mixture
The dryness fraction is defined as follows;
where m
total
= m
liquid
+ m
steam
(8.1)
(1  x ) kg of liquid
x kg of steam
total mass = 1 kg
mass total
steam saturated dry of mass
fraction dryness =
total
steam
m
m
x =
INPUT
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/12
8.3.1 Specific volume
For a wet steam, the total volume of the mixture is given by the volume of
liquid present plus the volume of dry steam present.
Therefore, the specific volume is given by,
Now for 1 kg of wet steam, there are (1 – x) kg of liquid and x kg of dry
steam, where x is the dryness fraction as defined earlier. Hence,
v = v
f
(1 – x) + v
g
x
The volume of the liquid is usually negligibly small as compared to the
volume of dry saturated steam. Hence, for most practical problems,
v = xv
g
(8.2)
Where,
v
f
= specific volume of saturated liquid (m
3
/kg)
v
g
= specific volume of saturated steam (m
3
/kg)
x = dryness fraction
Figure 8.32 Pv diagram showing the location point of the dryness
fraction
At point A, x = 0
At point B, x = 1
Between point A and B, 0 < x < 1.0
Note that for a saturated liquid, x = 0;
and that for dry saturated steam, x = 1.
Sat. liquid
Sat. steam
Sat. liquid
P
v
t
s
A B
x = 0.2 x = 0.8
v
f
v
g
Sat. steam
steam wet of mass total
steam dry of volume liquid a of volume +
= v
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/13
8.3.2 Specific enthalpy
In the analysis of certain types of processes, particularly in power generation
and refrigeration, we frequently encounter the combination of properties
U + PV. For the sake of simplicity and convenience, this combination is
defined as a new property, enthalpy, and given the symbol H.
H = U + PV (kJ)
or, per unit mass
h = u + Pv (kJ/kg) (8.3)
The enthalpy of wet steam is given by the sum of the enthalpy of the liquid
plus the enthalpy of the dry steam,
i.e. h = h
f
(1 – x) + xh
g
h = h
f
+ x(h
g –
h
f
)
h = h
f
+ xh
fg
(8.4)
Where,
h
f
= specific enthalpy of saturated liquid (kJ/kg)
h
g
= specific enthalpy of saturated steam (kJ/kg)
h
fg
= difference between h
g
and h
f
(that is, h
fg
= h
g
 h
f
)
8.3.3 Specific Internal Energy
Similarly, the specific internal energy of a wet steam is given by the internal
energy of the liquid plus the internal energy of the dry steam,
i.e. u = u
f
(1 – x) + xu
g
u = u
f
+ x(u
g –
u
f
) (8.5)
Where,
u
f
= specific enthalpy of saturated liquid (kJ/kg)
u
g
= specific enthalpy of saturated steam (kJ/kg)
u
g
–
u
f
= difference between u
g
and u
f
Equation 8.5 can be expressed in a form similar to equation 8.4. However,
equation 8.5 is more convenient since u
g
and
u
f
are tabulated. The difference
is that, u
fg
is not tabulated.
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/14
8.3.4 Specific Entropy
A person looking at the steam tables carefully will notice two new properties
i.e. enthalpy h and entropy s. Entropy is a property associated with the
Second Law of Thermodynamics, and actually, we will properly define it in
Unit 9 . However, it is appropriate to introduce entropy at this point.
The entropy of wet steam is given by the sum of the entropy of the liquid
plus the entropy of the dry steam,
i.e. s = s
f
(1 – x) + xs
g
s = s
f
+ x(s
g –
s
f
)
s = s
f
+ xs
fg
(8.4)
Where,
s
f
= specific enthalpy of saturated liquid (kJ/kg K)
s
g
= specific enthalpy of saturated steam (kJ/kg K)
s
fg
= difference between s
g
and s
f
(that is, s
fg
= s
g
 s
f
)
REMEMBER!
These equations are used very often and
are, therefore, important to remember!
v = xv
g
h = h
f
+ xh
fg
u = u
f
+ x(u
g –
u
f
)
s = s
f
+ xs
fg
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/15
8.4 The Use of Steam Tables
The steam tables are available for a wide variety of substances which normally exist
in the vapour phase (e.g. steam, ammonia, freon, etc.). The steam tables which will
be used in this unit are those arranged by Mayhew and Rogers, which are suitable for
student use. The steam tables of Mayhew and Rogers are mainly concerned with
steam, but some properties of ammonia and freon12 are also given.
Below is a list of the properties normally tabulated, with the symbols used being
those recommended by British Standard Specifications.
Table 8.4 The property of steam tables
Symbols Units Description
p bar Absolute pressure of the fluid
t
s
o
C Saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure p bar
v
f
m
3
/kg Specific volume of saturated liquid
v
g
m
3
/kg Specific volume of saturated steam
u
f
kJ/kg Specific internal energy of saturated liquid
u
g
kJ/kg Specific internal energy of saturated steam
h
f
kJ/kg Specific enthalpy of saturated liquid
h
g
kJ/kg Specific enthalpy of saturated steam
h
fg
kJ/kg Change of specific enthalpy during evaporation
s
f
kJ/kg K Specific entropy of saturated liquid
s
g
kJ/kg K Specific entropy of saturated steam
s
fg
kJ/kg K Change of specific entropy during evaporation
These steam tables are divided into two types:
Type 1: Saturated Water and Steam (Page 2 to 5 of steam tables)
Type 2: Superheated Steam (Page 6 to 8 of steam tables)
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/16
Complete the following table for Saturated Water and Steam:
t P
s
v
g
h
f
h
fg
h
g
s
f
s
fg
s
g
o
C bar m
3
/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg K
0.01 206.1
0.02337 8.666
100 1.01325
8.4.1 Saturated Water and Steam Tables
The table of the saturation condition is divided into two parts.
Part 1
Part 1 refers to the values of temperature from 0.01
o
C to 100
o
C, followed by
values that are suitable for the temperatures stated in the table. Table 8.4.11
is an example showing an extract from the temperature of 10
o
C.
Table 8.4.11 Saturated water and steam at a temperature of 10
o
C
t p
s
v
g
h
f
h
fg
h
g
s
f
s
fg
s
g
0
C bar m
3
/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg K
10 0.01227 106.4
42.0 2477.2 2519.2
0.151 8.749 8.900
Example 8.1
Solution to Example 8.1
From page 2 of the steam tables, we can directly read:
t P
s
v
g
h
f
h
fg
h
g
s
f
s
fg
s
g
o
C bar m
3
/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg K
1 0.006566 192.6 4.2 2498.3 2502.5 0.015 9.113 9.128
20 0.02337 57.84 83.9 2453.7 2537.6 0.296 8.370 8.666
100 1.01325 1.673 419.1 2256.7 2675.8 1.307 6.048 7.355
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/17
Complete the missing properties in the following table for Saturated Water
and Steam:
p t
s
v
g
u
f
u
g
h
f
h
fg
h
g
s
f
s
fg
s
g
bar
o
C m
3
/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg K
0.045 31.0 2558
10 0.1944
311.0 5.615
p t
s
v
g
u
f
u
g
h
f
h
fg
h
g
s
f
s
fg
s
g
bar
o
C m
3
/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg K
0.045 31.0 31.14 130 2418 130 2428 2558 0.451 7.980 8.431
10 179.9 0.1944 762 2584 763 2015 2778 2.138 4.448 6.586
100 311.0 0.01802 1393 2545 1408 1317 2725 3.360 2.255 5.615
Part 2
Part 2 (Page 3 to 5 of steam tables) is values of pressure from 0.006112 bar to
221.2 bar followed by values that are suitable for the pressures stated in the
table. Table 8.4.12 is an example showing an extract from the pressure of
1.0 bar.
Table 8.4.12 Saturated water and steam at a pressure of 1.0 bar
p t
s
v
g
u
f
u
g
h
f
h
fg
h
g
s
f
s
fg
s
g
bar
o
C m
3
/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg K
1.0 99.6 1.694 417 2506 417 2258 2675 1.303 6.056 7.359
Note the following subscripts:
f = property of the saturated liquid
g = property of the saturated steam
fg = change of the properties during evaporations
Example 8.2
Solution to Example 8.2
From page 3 to page 5 of the steam tables, we can directly read:
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/18
For a steam at 20 bar with a dryness fraction of 0.9, calculate the
a) specific volume
b) specific enthalpy
c) specific internal energy
Example 8.3
Solution to Example 8.3
An extract from the steam tables
p t
s
v
g
u
f
u
g
h
f
h
fg
h
g
s
f
s
fg
s
g
20 212.4 0.09957 907 2600 909 1890 2799 2.447 3.893 6.340
a) Specific volume (v),
v = xv
g
= 0.9(0.09957)
= 0.0896 m
3
/kg
b) Specific enthalpy (h),
h = h
f
+ xh
fg
= 909 + 0.9(1890)
= 2610 kJ/kg
c) Specific internal energy (u),
u = u
f
+ x( u
g
u
f
)
= 907 + 0.9(2600  907)
= 2430.7 kJ/kg
P
bar
v m
3
/kg
t
s
= 212.4
o
C
v
u
h
s
v
g
u
g
h
g
s
g
x = 0.9
20
u
f
h
f
s
f
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/19
Find the dryness fraction, specific volume and specific enthalpy of
steam at 8 bar and specific internal energy 2450 kJ/kg.
Example 8.4
Solution to Example 8.4
An extract from the steam tables,
p t
s
v
g
u
f
u
g
h
f
h
fg
h
g
s
f
s
fg
s
g
8 170.4 0.2403 720 2577 721 2048 2769 2.046 4.617 6.663
At 8 bar, u
g
= 2577 kJ/kg, since the actual specific internal energy is given as
2450 kJ/kg, the steam must be in the wet steam state ( u < u
g
).
From equation 8.5,
u = u
f
+ x(u
g
u
f
)
2450 = 720 + x(2577  720)
x = 0.932
From equation 8.2,
v = xv
g
= 0.932 (0.2403)
= 0.2240 m
3
/kg
From equation 8.4,
h = h
f
+ xh
fg
= 721 + 0.932 (2048)
= 2629.7 kJ/kg
P
bar
v m
3
/kg
t
s
= 170.4
o
C
v v
g
x = 0.932
8
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/20
8.3 The internal energy of wet steam is 2000 kJ/kg. If the pressure is 42 bar, what is the
value of dryness fraction?
8.4 Determine the specific volume, specific enthalpy and specific internal energy of wet
steam at 32 bar if the dryness fraction is 0.92.
8.5 Find the dryness fraction, specific volume and specific internal energy of steam at
105 bar and specific enthalpy 2100 kJ/kg.
Activity 8B
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/21
Feedback To Activity 8B
8.3 Dryness fraction (x),
u = u
f
+ x(u
g
u
f
)
2000 = 1097 + x(2601  1097)
x = 0.6
8.4 Specific volume (v),
v = xv
g
= 0.92(0.06246)
= 0.05746 m
3
/kg
Specific enthalpy (h),
h = h
f
+ xh
fg
= 1025 + 0.92(1778)
= 2661 kJ/kg
Specific internal energy (u),
u = u
f
+ x( u
g
u
f
)
= 1021 + 0.92(2603  1021)
= 2476 kJ/kg
8.5 Dryness fraction (x),
h = h
f
+ x h
fg
2100 = 1429 + x(1286)
x = 0.52
Specific volume (v),
v = xv
g
= 0.52(0.01696)
= 0.00882 m
3
/kg
Specific internal energy (u),
u = u
f
+ x( u
g
u
f
)
= 1414 + 0.52(2537 – 1414)
= 1998 kJ/kg
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/22
8.4.2 Superheated Steam Tables
The second part of the table is the superheated steam tables. The values of
the specific properties of a superheated steam are normally listed in separate
tables for the selected values of pressure and temperature.
A steam is called superheated when its temperature is greater than the
saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure. When the pressure and
temperature are given for the superheated steam then the state is defined and
all the other properties can be found. For example, steam at 10 bar and 200
o
C is superheated since the saturation temperature at 10 bar is 179.9
o
C. The
steam at this state has a degree of superheat of 200
o
C – 179.9
o
C = 20.1
o
C.
The equation of degree of superheat is:
Degree of superheat = t
superheat
– t
saturation
(8.5)
The tables of properties of superheated steam range in pressure from
0.006112 bar to the critical pressure of 221.2 bar. At each pressure, there is a
range of temperature up to high degrees of superheat, and the values of
specific volume, internal energy, enthalpy and entropy are tabulated.
For the pressure above 70 bar, the specific internal energy is not tabulated.
The specific internal energy is calculated using the equation:
u = h – pv (8.6)
For reference, the saturation temperature is inserted in brackets under each
pressure in the superheat tables and values of v
g
, u
g
, h
g
and
s
g
are also given.
A specimen row of values is shown in Table 8.5.2. For example, from the
superheated table at 10 bar and 200
o
C, the specific volume is 0.2061 m
3
/kg
and the specific enthalpy is 2829 kJ/kg.
INPUT
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/23
Complete the missing properties in the following table for Superheated
Steam:
p
(t
s
)
t 300 350 400 450
40
(250.3)
v
g
0.0498 v 0.0800
u
g
2602 u 2921
h
g
2801 h 3094
s
g
6.070 s 6.364
Table 8.4.2 Superheated steam at a pressure of 10 bar
p
(t
s
)
t 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600
10
(179.9)
v
g
0.1944 v 0.2061 0.2328 0.2580 0.2825 0.3065 0.3303 0.3540 0.4010
u
g
2584 u 2623 2711 2794 2875 2957 3040 3124 3297
h
g
2778 h 2829 2944 3052 3158 3264 3370 3478 3698
s
g
6.586 s 6.695 6.926 7.124 7.301 7.464 7.617 7.761 8.028
Example 8.5
Solution to Example 8.5
From page 7 of the steam tables, we can directly read
p
(t
s
)
t 300 350 400 450
40
(250.3)
v
g
0.0498 v 0.0588 0.0664 0.0733 0.0800
u
g
2602 u 2728 2828 2921 3010
h
g
2801 h 2963 3094 3214 3330
s
g
6.070 s 6.364 6.584 6.769 6.935
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/24
Steam at 100 bar has a specific volume of 0.02812 m
3
/kg. Find the
temperature, degree of superheat, specific enthalpy and specific
internal energy.
Example 8.6
Solution to Example 8.6
First, it is necessary to decide whether the steam is wet, dry saturated or
superheated.
At 100 bar, v
g
= 0.01802 m
3
/kg. This is less than the actual specific volume
of 0.02812 m
3
/kg. Hence, the steam is superheated. The state of the steam is
at point A in the diagram below.
An extract from the superheated table,
p
(t
s
)
t 425
100
(311.0)
v
g
0.01802 v x 10
2
2.812
h
g
2725
h 3172
s
g
5.615
s 6.321
From the superheated table at 100 bar, the specific volume is 0.02812 m
3
/kg
at a temperature of 425
o
C. Hence, this is the isothermal line, which passes
through point A as shown in the Pv diagram above.
P
bar
v m
3
/kg
t
s
=
311.0
o
C
100
425
o
C
vg= 0.01802
v = 0.02812
A
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/25
Degree of superheat = 425
o
C – 311
o
C
= 114
o
C
So, at 100 bar and 425
o
C, we have
v = 2.812 x 10
2
m
3
/kg
h = 3172 kJ/kg
From equation 8.6,
u = h – Pv
= 3172 kJ/kg – (100 x 10
2
kN/m
2
)(2.812 x 10
2
m
3
/kg)
= 2890.8 kJ/kg
Note that equation 8.6 must be used to find the specific internal energy for
pressure above 70 bar as the specific internal energy is not tabulated.
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/26
8.6 Steam at 120 bar is at 500
o
C. Find the degree of superheat, specific volume,
specific enthalpy and specific internal energy.
8.7 Steam at 160 bar has a specific enthalpy of 3139 kJ/kg. Find the temperature, degree
of superheat, specific enthalpy and specific internal energy.
Activity 8C
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/27
Feedback to Activity 8C
8.6 From the superheated table at 120 bar, the saturation temperature is 324.6
o
C.
Therefore, the steam is superheated.
Degree of superheat = 500
o
C – 324.6
o
C
= 175.4
o
C
So, at 120 bar and 500
o
C, we have
v = 2.677 x 10
2
m
3
/kg
h = 3348 kJ/kg
From equation 8.6,
u = h – Pv
= 3348 kJ/kg – (120 x 10
2
kN/m
2
)(2.677 x 10
2
m
3
/kg)
= 3026.76 kJ/kg
8.7 At 160 bar, h
g
= 2582 kJ/kg. This is less than the actual specific enthalpy of
3139 kJ/kg. Hence, the steam is superheated.
From the superheated table at 160 bar, the specific enthalpy of 3139 kJ/kg is located
at a temperature of 450
o
C.
The degree of superheat = 450
o
C – 347.3
o
C
= 102.7
o
C
At 160 bar and 450
o
C, we have v = 1.702 x 10
2
m
3
/kg
From equation 8.6,
u = h – Pv
= 3139 kJ/kg – (160 x 10
2
kN/m
2
)(1.702 x 10
2
m
3
/kg)
= 2866.68 kJ/kg
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/28
8.5 Interpolation
The first interpolation problem that an engineer usually meets is that of “reading
between the lines” of a published table, like the Steam Tables. For properties which
are not tabulated exactly in the tables, it is necessary to interpolate between the
values tabulated as shown in Fig. 8.51 below. In this process it is customary to use a
straight line that passes through two adjacent table points, denoted by o and . If we
use the straight line then it is called “interpolation”.
Figure 8.51 Interpolation
The values in the tables are given in regular increments of temperature and pressure.
Often we wish to know the value of thermodynamic properties at intermediate
values. It is common to use linear interpolation as shown in Fig. 8.52.
From Fig. 8.5.2, the value of x
can be determined by:
( )( )
( )
1
1 2
1 2 1
1 2
1 2
1
1
x
y y
x x y y
x
y y
x x
y y
x x
+
÷
÷ ÷
=
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
INPUT
f(x)
x
o 
Interpolation
y
x
y
2
y
y
1
x
1
x
x
2
(x
2
, y
2
)
(x , y)
(x
1
, y
1
)
Figure 8.52 Linear interpolation
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/29
Determine the saturation temperature at 77 bar.
There are two methods of interpolation:
i. single interpolation
ii. double interpolation
8.5.1 Single interpolation
Single interpolation is used to find the values in the table when one of the
values is not tabulated. For example, to find the saturation temperature,
specific volume, internal energy and enthalpy of dry saturated steam at 77
bar, it is necessary to interpolate between the values given in the table.
Example 8.6
Solution to Example 8.6
The values of saturation temperature at a pressure of 77 bars are not tabulated
in the Steam Tables. So, we need to interpolate between the two nearest
values that are tabulated in the Steam Tables.
75 80
5 . 290 295
75 77
5 . 290
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
s
t
5
5 . 290 295
2
5 . 290 ÷
=
÷
s
t
( )
5 . 290
5
5 . 4 2
+ =
s
t
t
s
= 292.3
o
C
P
t
s
80
77
75
290.5
t
s 295
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/30
Determine the specific enthalpy of dry saturated steam at 103 bar.
Determine the specific volume of steam at 8 bar and 220
o
C.
Example 8.7
Solution to Example 8.7
h
g
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
2725
103 100
2715 2725
105 100
( )
h
g
=
÷
+
3 10
5
2725
2719 =
g
h kJ/kg
Example 8.8
Solution to Example 8.8
From the Steam Tables at 8 bar, the saturated temperature (t
s
) is 170.4
o
C.
The steam is at superheated condition as the temperature of the steam is
220
o
C > t
s
.
An extract from the Steam Tables,
p / (bar)
(t
s
/
o
C)
t 200 220 250
(
o
C)
8
(170.4)
v 0.2610 v 0.2933
v ÷
÷
=
÷
÷
02610
220 200
02933 02610
250 200
. . .
v = 027392 . m
3
/kg
P
h
g
105
103
100
2725
h
g 2715
P
v
250
220
200
0.2610
v
0.2933
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/31
Determine the specific enthalpy of superheated steam at 25 bar and
320
o
C.
8.5.2 Double Interpolation
In some cases a double interpolation is necessary, and it’s usually used in the
Superheated Steam Table. Double interpolation must be used when two of
the properties (eg. temperature and pressure) are not tabulated in the Steam
Tables. For example, to find the enthalpy of superheated steam at 25 bar and
320
o
C, an interpolation between 20 bar and 30 bar is necessary (as shown in
example 8.9). An interpolation between 300
o
C and 350
o
C is also necessary.
Example 8.8
Solution to Example 8.8
An extract from the Superheated Steam Tables:
t(
o
C)
p(bar)
300 320 350
20 3025 h
1
3138
25 h
30 2995 h
2
3117
Firstly, find the specific enthalpy (h
1
) at 20 bar and 320
o
C;
At 20 bar,
300 350
3025 3138
300 320
3025
1
÷
÷
=
÷
÷ h
2 . 3070
1
= h kJ/kg
T
h
350
320
300
3025
h
1 3138
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/32
0.9 m
3
of dry saturated steam at 225 kN/m
2
is contained in a rigid
cylinder. If it is cooled at constant volume process until the pressure
drops to180 kN/m
2
, determine the following:
a) mass of steam in the cylinder
b) dryness fraction at the final state
Sketch the process in the form of a Pv diagram.
Secondly, find the specific enthalpy (h
2
) at 30 bar and 320
o
C;
At 30 bar,
300 350
2995 3117
300 320
2995
2
÷
÷
=
÷
÷ h
8 . 3043
2
= h kJ/kg
Now interpolate between h
1
at 20 bar, 320
o
C, and h
2
at 30 bar, 320
o
C in order
to find h at 25 bar and 320
o
C.
At 320
o
C,
20 30 20 25
1 2 1
÷
÷
=
÷
÷ h h h h
h ÷
÷
=
÷
÷
30702
25 20
30438 30702
30 20
. . .
h = 3057 kJ/kg.
Example 8.9
T
h
350
320
300
2995
h
2 3117
P
h
30
25
20
h
1
h
h
2
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/33
Solution to Example 8.9
Data: V
1
= 0.9 m
3
, P
1
= 225 kN/m
2
= 2.25 bar,
P
2
= 180 kN/m
2
= 1.80 bar
a) Firstly, find the specific volume of dry saturated steam at 2.25 bar.
Note that the pressure 2.25 bar is not tabulated in the steam tables and
it is necessary to use the interpolation method.
From the Steam Tables,
v
g
at 2.2 bar = 0.8100 m
3
/kg
v
g
at 2.3 bar = 0.7770 m
3
/kg
v
g1
at 2.25 bar,
20 . 2 30 . 2
8100 . 0 7770 . 0
20 . 2 25 . 2
8100 . 0
1
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
g
v
v
g1
= 0.7935 m
3
/kg
Mass of steam in cylinder,
1
1
g
v
V
m = (m
3
x kg/m
3
)
=
09
07935
.
.
= 1.134 kg
b) At constant volume process,
Initial specific volume = final specific volume
v
1
= v
2
x
1
v
g1
at 2.25 bar = x
2
v
g2
at 1.8 bar
1(0.7935) = x
2
(0.9774)
9774 . 0
) 7935 . 0 ( 1
2
= x
= 0.81
P
bar
1.80
2.25
v m
3
/kg
1
2
0.7935 0.9774
v
1
= v
2
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/34
8.8 Determine the specific enthalpy of steam at 15 bar and 275
o
C.
8.9 Determine the degree of superheat and entropy of steam at 10 bar and 380
o
C.
8.10 A superheated steam at 12.5 MN/m
2
is at 650
o
C. Determine its specific volume.
8.11 A superheated steam at 24 bar and 500
o
C expands at constant volume until the
pressure becomes 6 bar and the dryness fraction is 0.9. Calculate the changes in the
internal energy of steam. Sketch the process in the form of a Pv diagram.
Activity 8D
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/35
Feedback to Activity 8D
8.8
250 300
2925 3039
250 275
2925
÷
÷
=
÷
÷ h
2982 = h kJ/kg
8.9 Degree of superheat = 380
o
C – 179.9
o
C
= 200.1
o
C
350 400
301 . 7 464 . 7
350 380
301 . 7
÷
÷
=
÷
÷ s
3988 . 7 = s kJ/kg K
8.10 An extract from the superheated steam table:
t(
o
C)
p(bar)
600 650 700
120 3.159 x 10
2
v
1
3.605 x 10
2
125 v
130 2.901 x 10
2
v
2
3.318 x 10
2
T
h
300
275
250
2925
h
3039
T
s
400
380
350
7.301
s
7.464
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/36
Firstly, find the specific volume (v
1
) at 120 bar and 650
o
C;
At 120 bar,
600 700
10 x 9 15 . 3 10 x 605 . 3
600 650
10 x 9 15 . 3
2 2 2
1
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
v
2
1
10 x 3.382
÷
= v m
3
/kg
Secondly, find the specific volume (v
2
) at 130 bar and 650
o
C;
At 130 bar,
600 700
10 x 901 . 2 10 x .318 3
600 650
10 x 901 . 2
2 2 2
2
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
v
v
2
= 3.1095 x 10
2
m
3
/kg
Now interpolate between v
1
at 120 bar, 650
o
C, and v
2
at 130 bar, 650
o
C in
order to find v at 125 bar and 650
o
C.
At 650
o
C,
120 130 120 125
1 2 1
÷
÷
=
÷
÷ v v v v
120 130
10 x 382 . 3 10 x .1095 3
120 125
10 x 382 . 3
2 2 2
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
v
v = 3.246 x 10
2
m
3
/kg
T
v
700
650
600
3.159 x 10
2
v
1
3.605 x 10
2
T
v
700
650
600
2.901 x 10
2
v
2
3.318 x 10
2
P
v
130
125
120
v
v
2 v
1
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/37
8.11 Data: P
1
= 24 bar
T
1
= 500
o
C
P
2
= 6 bar
x
2
= 0.9
Firstly, find the initial internal energy at 24 bar, 500
o
C. Note that the
pressure 24 bar is not tabulated in the Superheated Steam Tables and it is
necessary to use the interpolation method to find the changes in the internal
energy of steam.
At 500
o
C,
20 30
3116 3108
20 24
3116
1
÷
÷
=
÷
÷ u
8 . 3112
1
= u kJ/kg
Secondly, find the final internal energy at 6 bar where x = 0.9,
u
2
= u
f2
+ x
2
( u
g2
u
f2
)
= 669 + 0.9(2568  669)
= 2378.1 kJ/kg
The changes in the internal energy of steam is,
(u
2
– u
1
) = 2378.1 – 3112.8
=  734.7 kJ/kg
P
u
30
24
20
3116
u
1 3108
P
bar
6
24
v m
3
/kg
1
2
221.8
o
C
v
1
= v
2
500
o
C
158.8
o
C
500
o
C
221.8
o
C
158.8
o
C
v
1
= v
2
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/38
You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this selfassessment
section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to Self
Assessment on the next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your
lecturer. Good luck.
1. With reference to the Steam Tables,
i. determine the specific volume, specific enthalpy and specific internal
energy of wet steam at 15 bar with a dryness fraction of 0.9.
ii. determine the degree of superheat, specific volume and specific
internal energy of steam at 80 bar and enthalpy 2990 kJ/kg.
iii. complete the missing properties and a phase description in the
following table for water;
P
bar
t
o
C
x v
m
3
/kg
u
kJ/kg
h
kJ/kg
s
kJ/kg K
Phase
description
2.0 120.2 6.4
12.0 1 2784
175 354.6 0.9
200 425
2. With reference to the Steam Tables,
i. find the dryness fraction and specific entropy of steam at 2.9 bar and
specific enthalpy 2020 kJ/kg.
ii. determine the degree of superheat and internal energy of superheated
steam at 33 bar and 313
o
C.
iii. determine the enthalpy change for a process involving a dry saturated
steam at 3.0 MN/m
2
which is superheated to 600
o
C and carried out at
constant pressure.
SELFASSESSMENT
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/39
Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”, check your answers now.
1. i. v = 0.11853 m
3
/kg
h = 2600 kJ/kg
u = 2419.8 kJ/kg
ii. degree of superheat = 55
o
C
v = 2.994 x 10
2
m
3
/kg
u = 2750.48 kJ/kg
iii.
P
bar
t
o
C
x v
m
3
/kg
u
kJ/kg
h
kJ/kg
s
kJ/kg K
Phase
description
2.0 120.2 0.87 0.7705 2267 2421 6.4 Wet steam
12.0 188 1 0.1632 2588 2784 6.523 Dry sat.
steam
175 354.6 0.9 0.007146 2319.8 2448.1 5.0135 Wet steam
200 425  0.001147
2725.6 2955 5.753 Superheated
steam
2. i. x = 0.68
s = 5.2939 kJ/kg K
ii. Degree of superheat = 73.85
o
C
u = 2769 kJ/kg
iii. h
2
– h
1
= 879 kJ/kg
Feedback to SelfAssessment
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/1
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
OBJECTIVES
General Objective : To define and explain the Second Law of Thermodynamics and
perform calculations involving the expansion and compression of
steam and gases.
Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:
state the definition of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
explain the Second Law of Thermodynamics
estimate the efficiency of heat engine
explain entropy and entropy change
sketch processes on a temperatureentropy diagram
understand that Q = h
2
– h
1
and apply the formula in
calculations
calculate the change of entropy, work and heat transfer of
steam in reversible processes at:
i. constant pressure process
ii. constant volume process
iii. constant temperature (or isothermal) process
iv. adiabatic (or isentropic) process
v. polytropic process
UNIT 9
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/2
9.0 Introduction to The Second Law of Thermodynamics
According to the First Law of Thermodynamics as stated in Unit 2, when a system
undergoes a complete cycle, then the net heat supplied is equal to the net work done.
E dQ = E dW
This is based on the conservation of energy principle, which follows from the
observation on natural events.
The Second Law of Thermodynamics, which is also a natural law, indicates that;
In symbols,
Q
1
– Q
2
= W (9.1)
To enable the second law to be considered more fully, the heat engine must be
discussed.
Although the net heat supplied in a cycle is equal to the net work done, the
gross heat supplied must be greater than the work done; some heat must
always be rejected by the system.
…The Second Law of Thermodynamics
INPUT
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/3
9.1 The heat engine and heat pump
We know from experience that work can be converted to heat directly and
completely, but converting heat to work requires the use of some special devices.
These devices are called heat engines.
A heat engine is a system operating in a complete cycle and developing net work
from a supply of heat. The second law implies that a source of heat supply (or hot
reservoir) and a sink (or cold reservoir) for the rejection of heat are both necessary,
since some heat must always be rejected by the system.
Heat engines differ considerably from one another, but all can be characterised by
the following:
They receive heat from a hightemperature source (for example solar energy, oil
furnace, nuclear reactor, steam boiler, etc.)
They convert part of this heat to work (usually in the form of a rotating shaft, for
example gas turbine, steam turbine, etc.)
They reject the remaining waste heat to a lowtemperature sink (for example the
atmosphere, rivers, condenser, etc.)
They operate on a cycle.
A diagrammatic representation of a heat engine is shown in Fig. 9.11.
Hightemperature
HOT RESERVOIR
Lowtemperature
COLD RESERVOIR
HEAT
ENGINE
Q
1
Q
2
WORK OUTPUT
W = Q
1
 Q
2
Note:
Q
1
= The heat supplied from the
source.
W = The net work done.
Q
2
= The heat rejected.
Figure 9.11 Part of the heat received by the heat engine is converted to work,
while the rest is rejected to cold reservoir.
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/4
Heat engines and other cyclic devices usually involve a fluid that moves to and fro
from which heat is transferred while undergoing a cycle. This fluid is called the
working fluid.
The workproducing device that best fits into the definition of a heat engine are:
The steam power plant
The close cycle gas turbine
By the first law, in a complete cycle,
Net heat supplied = Net work done
Referring to Fig. 9.11, from equation E dQ = E dW, we have,
Q
1
– Q
2
= W
By the second law, the gross heat supplied must be greater than the net work done,
i.e. Q
1
> W
The thermal efficiency of a heat engine is defined as the ratio of the net work done in
the cycle to the gross heat supplied in the cycle. It is usually expressed as a
percentage.
Referring to Fig. 9.11,
Thermal efficiency, n =
W
Q
1
(9.2)
Substituting equation 9.1,
n
( )
=
÷ Q Q
Q
1 2
1
n = ÷

\

.
 1
2
1
Q
Q
(9.3)
It can be seen that the second law implies that the thermal efficiency of a heat engine
must always be less than 100% (Q
1
> W ).
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/5
Heat is transferred to a heat engine from a furnace at a rate of 80 MW. If the
rate of waste heat rejection to a nearby river is 45 MW, determine the net work
done and the thermal efficiency for this heat engine.
Example 9.1
Solution to Example 9.1
A schematic of the heat engine is given in the diagram above. The furnace serves as
the hightemperature reservoir for this heat engine and the river as the low
temperature reservoir.
Assumption: Heat lost through the pipes and other components are negligible.
Analysis: The given quantities can be expressed in rate form as;
Q
1
= 80 MW
Q
2
= 45 MW
From equation 9.1, the net work done for this heat engine is;
W = Q
1
– Q
2
= (80 – 45) MW
= 35 MW
Then from equation 9.2, the thermal efficiency is easily determined to be
n 43.75%) (or 0.4375
MW 80
MW 35
1
= = =
Q
W
That is, the heat engine converts 43.75 percent of the heat it receives to work.
FURNACE
RIVER
HEAT
ENGINE
Q
1
= 80 MW
Q
2
= 45 MW
W = ?
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/6
The first and second laws apply equally well to cycles working in the reverse
direction to those of heat engine. In general, heat only flows from a high
temperature source to a lowtemperature sink. However, a reversed heat engine can
be utilized to pump the heat from a lowtemperature region to a hightemperature
region. The reversed heat engine is called heat pump.
In the case of a reversed cycle, the net work done on the system is equal to the net
heat rejected by the system. Such cycles occur in heat pumps and refrigerators. The
equivalent diagram of the heat pump (or refrigerator) is shown in Fig. 9.12.
In the heat pump (or refrigerator) cycle, an amount of heat, Q
2
, is supplied from the
cold reservoir, and an amount of heat, Q
1
, is rejected to the hot reservoir.
Q
1
= W + Q
2
(9.4)
In the second law, we can say that work input is essential for heat to be transferred
from the cold to the hot reservoir,
i.e. W > 0
The first law sets no limit on the percentage of heat supplied, which can be
converted into work. Nor does it indicate whether the energy conversion process is
physically possible or impossible. We shall see, though, that a limit is imposed by
the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and that the possibility or otherwise of a
process can be determined through a property of the working fluid called entropy.
Hightemperature
HOT RESERVOIR
Lowtemperature
COLD RESERVOIR
HEAT
PUMP
Q
1
Q
2
WORK INPUT
W
Q
1
= W + Q
2
Figure 9.12 Reverse heat engine
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/7
9.2 Entropy
The first law applied to a heat engine or energy conversion process is merely an
energy balance. However, the first law does not indicate the possibility or
impossibility of the process, and we know from our everyday experience that some
energy conversions are never observed. In Unit 2, internal energy which is an
important property, arised as a result of the First Law of Thermodynamics. Another
important property, entropy, follows from the second law.
Considering 1 kg of fluid, the units of entropy are given by kJ/kg divided by K. The
the unit of specific entropy, s, is kJ/kg K. The symbol S will be used for the entropy
of mass, m, of a fluid,
i.e. S = ms kJ/K
The change of entropy is more important than its absolute value, and the zero of
entropy can be chosen quite arbitrarily. For example, in the Steam Tables the
specific entropy at saturated liquid is put equal to zero at 0.01
o
C; in tables of
refrigerants the specific entropy at saturated liquid is put equal to zero at – 40
o
C.
For all working substances, the change of entropy is given by
ds
dQ
T
= (9.5)
Rewriting equation 9.5 we have
dQ = T ds
or for any reversible process
í
=
2
1
ds T Q (9.6)
The equation 9.7 below is analogous to equation 9.6 for any reversible process
í
=
2
1
dv P W (9.7)
Thus, as there is a diagram on areas that represent work done in a reversible process,
there is also a diagram on areas that represent heat flow in a reversible process.
These diagrams are the Pv and the Ts diagrams respectively, as shown in
Figs. 9.21 and 9.22.
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/8
For a reversible process from point 1 to point 2:
in Fig. 9.21, the shaded area
í
2
1
dv P , represents work done; and
in Fig. 9.2.2, the shaded area
í
2
1
ds T , represents heat flow.
Therefore, one great use of property entropy is that it enables a diagram to be drawn
showing the area that represents heat flow in a reversible process. In the next input,
the Ts diagram will be considered for a steam.
1
2
P
v
dv
P
1
2
T
s
ds
T
Figure 9.2.1 Work done
Figure 9.2.2 Heat flow
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/9
9.3 The Ts diagram for a steam
As mentioned earlier, the zero specific entropy is taken as 0.01
o
C for steam and
– 40
o
C for refrigerants only. The Ts diagram for steam is considered here. The
diagram for a refrigerant is exactly similar to the Ts diagram for steam. However,
the zero specific entropy is different.
The Ts diagram for steam in Fig. 9.31, shows:
Three lines of constant pressure P
1
, P
2
and P
3
( i.e. ABCD, EFGH and JKLM).
The pressure lines in the liquid region are practically coincident with the
saturated liquid line (i.e. AB, EF and JK), and the difference is usually neglected.
The pressure remains constant with temperature when the latent heat is added,
hence the pressure lines are horizontal in the wet region (i.e. portions BC, FG
and KL).
The pressure lines curve upwards in the superheat region (i.e. portions CD, GH
and LM). Thus the temperature rises as heating continues at constant pressure.
Two constant volume lines (v
1
and v
2
shown as chaindotted) are also drawn in
Fig. 9.31. The lines of constant volume are concaved down in the wet region
and slope up more steeply than pressure lines in the superheat region.
P
3
> P
2
> P
1
T
s
P
3
P
2
P
1
v
1
v
2
A
B
C
D
E
F G
H
J
K L
M
273 K
v
1
> v
2
Figure 9.31 Temperatureentropy diagram for liquid
and steam
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/10
In steam tables, the specific entropy of the saturated liquid and the dry saturated
steam are represented by s
f
and s
g
respectively. The difference, s
g
 s
f
= s
fg
is also
tabulated. The specific entropy of wet steam is given by the specific entropy of
water in the mixture plus the specific entropy of the dry steam in the mixture.
For wet steam with dryness fraction, x, we have
s = s
f
(1 – x) + xs
g
or s = s
f
+ x(s
g –
s
f
)
i.e. s = s
f
+ xs
fg
(9.8)
Then the dryness fraction is given by
It can be seen from equation 9.9 that the dryness fraction is proportional to the
distance of the state point from the liquid line on a Ts diagram. For example, for
state 1 on Fig. 9.32, the dryness fraction,
The area under the line FG on Fig. 9.32 represents the latent heat h
fg
. The area under
line F1 is given by x
1
h
fg
.
In unit 8, the enthalpy of wet steam was shown to be given by equation 8.4,
h= h
f
+ xh
fg
fg
f
s
s s
x
÷
=
(9.9)
1
1
1
1
FG distance
F1 distance
fg
f
s
s s
x
÷
= =
T
(K)
s kJ/kg K
s
1
s
g
s
1
= s
f1
+ x
1
s
fg1
F
s
f
G 1
P
1
P
1
Figure 9.32 Temperatureentropy chart for steam
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/11
9.4 To show that Q = h
2
– h
1
The Ts diagram will enable equation Q = h
2
– h
1
to be expressed graphically, while
areas on the diagram represent heat flow. Assuming that the pressure line in the
liquid region coincides with the saturated liquid line, then the enthalpy can be
represented on the diagram.
Figure 9.4 Ts diagram showing Q = h
2
– h
1
Referring to Fig. 9.4:
When water at any pressure P, at 0.01
o
C, is heated at constant pressure, it
follows the line AB approximately; the point B is at the saturation temperature T
at which the water boils at the pressure P. At constant pressure from A to B
Q = h
B
 h
A
= h
B
(since h
A
at 0.01
o
C is approximately zero)
Therefore, we have
area ABFOA = h
B
= h
f
at pressure P
At point B, if heating continues, water will change gradually into steam until
point C and the steam becomes dry saturated. Thus we have
area BCHFB = latent heat
= h
fg
at pressure P
= h
C
 h
B
At point C, the enthalpy is given by
h
C
= area ABFOA + area BCHFB
= h
g
at pressure P
A
B
E C
D
P
T
(K)
0 F G H
J
s kJ/kg K
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/12
For wet steam at point E,
h
E
= h
B
+ x
E
h
fg
i.e h
E
= area ABEGOA
When dry saturated steam is further heated, it becomes superheated. The heat
added from C to D at constant pressure P, is given by
Q = h
D
– h
C
= area CDJHC
Then the enthalpy at D is
h
D
= h
C
+ area CDJHC
= area ABCDJOA
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/13
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT
9.1 Study the statements in table below and decide if the statements are
TRUE (T) or FALSE (F).
STATEMENTS TRUE or FALSE
i. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is
represented by the equation Q
1
– Q
2
= W.
ii. The heat engine receives heat from a high
temperature source.
iii. The heat engine convert part of the heat to
internal energy.
iv. The workproducing device of a heat engine
are the steam power plant and a close cycle
gas turbine.
v. A reversed heat engine is called a heat pump.
vi. The work producing device for a heat pump is
the refrigerator.
vii. In heat engines, the net work done must be
greater than the gross heat supplied,
i.e W > Q
1
.
9.2 The work done by heat engine is 20 kW. If the rate of heat that enters into
the hot reservoir is 3000 kJ/min, determine the thermal efficiency and the rate
of heat rejection to the cold reservoir.
Activity 9A
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/14
Feedback To Activity 9A
9.1 i. True
ii. True
iii. False
iv. True
v. True
vi. True
vii. False
9.2 The given quantities can be expressed as;
W = 20 kW
Q
1
= 3000 kJ/min = 50 kJ/s or kW
From equation 9.2
n =
W
Q
1
i.e. Thermal efficiency of heat engine is 40 %.
From equation 9.1
W = Q
1
– Q
2
Q
2
= Q
1
– W = 50 – 20 = 30 kW
i.e. The rate of heat rejection to the cold reservoir is 30 kW.
CONGRATULATIONS, IF YOUR ANSWERS ARE CORRECT YOU CAN
PROCEED TO THE NEXT INPUT…
% 40 % 100 x
50
20
= =
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/15
9.5 Reversible processes on the Ts diagram for steam
In the following sections of this unit, five reversible processes on the Ts diagram for
steam are analysed in detail. These processes include the:
i. constant pressure process
ii. constant volume process
iii. constant temperature (or isothermal) process
iv. adiabatic (or isentropic) process
v. polytropic process
9.5.1 Constant pressure process
The constant pressure process is a good approximation to many of the
common physical processes which we are familiar with. The combustion of
fuel in a boiler, the flow of fluids, the flow of air in ducts and other processes
can be used to illustrate constant pressure.
For example, Fig. 9.5.1 shows a reversible constant pressure process from a
wet steam into the superheat region. It can be seen that, when the boundary
of the system is inflexible, the pressure rises when heat is supplied. For a
constant pressure process, the boundary must move against an external
resistance as heat is supplied.
INPUT
T
s
1
2
s
1
s
2
Q
P
1
= P
2
Figure 9.5.1 Constant pressure process
T
1
T
2
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/16
4 kg of steam at 7 bar and entropy 6.5 kJ/kg K, is heated reversibly at
constant pressure until the temperature is 250
o
C. Calculate the heat
supplied and show on a Ts diagram the area which represents the heat
flow.
During the constant pressure process, since P is constant,
( )
1 2
2
1
v v P dv P W ÷ = =
í
(9.10)
(Note that this equation was derived and used in Unit 5)
From the nonflow energy equation,
Q = (u
2
– u
1
) + W
Hence for a reversible constant pressure process
Q = (u
2
– u
1
) + P(v
2
– v
1
) = (u
2
+ Pv
2
) –( u
1
+ Pv
1
)
Now from equation h = u + Pv,
Q = h
2
 h
1
kJ/kg (9.11)
or for mass, m (kg), of a fluid,
Q = m(h
2
 h
1
)
Q = H
2
 H
1
kJ (9.12)
Example 9.2
Solution to Example 9.2
The given quantities can be expressed as;
m = 4 kg
P
2
= P
1
= 7 bar
s
1
= 6.5 kJ/kg K
T
2
= 250
o
C
At state 1
At 7 bar, s
g1
= 6.709 kJ/kg K, the steam is wet, since the actual entropy, s
1
, is
less than s
g1
(i.e. s
1
< s
g1
).
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/17
From equation 9.9
Then from equation 8.4
h
1
= h
f1
+ x
1
h
fg1
= 697 + 0.956(2067)
= 2673 kJ/kg
At state 2
The steam is at 250
o
C at 7 bar, and therefore superheated. From the
superheated tables,
h
2
= 2955 kJ/kg
At constant pressure, from equation 9.11
Q = h
2
 h
1
= 2955  2673
= 282 kJ/kg
Hence for 4 kg of steam,
Q = 4 kg x 282 kJ/kg
= 1128 kJ
i.e. For 4 kg of steam, the heat supplied is 1128 kJ.
The Ts diagram of the process is given below. The shaded area represents
the heat flow.
956 . 0
717 . 4
992 . 1 5 . 6
1
1
1
1
=
÷
=
÷
=
fg
f
s
s s
x
s (kJ/kg K)
T
(K)
1
2
s
1
6.709
s
2
Q
P
1
= P
2
= 7 bar
T
2
= 250
o
C
= 523 K
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/18
9.5.2 Constant volume process
In a constant volume process, the working substance is contained in a rigid
vessel (or closed tank) from which heat is either added or removed. In this
process, the boundaries of the system are immovable and no work can be
done on or by the system. It will be assumed that ‘constant volume’ implies
zero work unless stated otherwise.
From the nonflow energy equation,
Q = (u
2
– u
1
) + W
Since no work is done, we therefore have
Q = u
2
– u
1
kJ/kg (9.13)
or for mass, m (kg), of the working substance
Q = m(u
2
– u
1
)
Q = (U
2
– U
1
) kJ (9.14)
Note that, all the heat supplied in a constant volume process goes to
increasing the internal energy.
In Fig. 9.5.2, the indicated path is one in which heat is being added in a
constant volume process.
Figure 9.5.2 Constant volume process
T
s
1
2
s
1
s
2
Q
P
1
P
2
T
2
T
1
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/19
A wet steam at 10 bar is heated reversibly at constant volume to a pressure
of 20 bar and 250
o
C. Calculate the heat supply (in kJ/kg) and show the
process on a Ts diagram, indicating the area that represents the heat flow.
Example 9.3
Solution to Example 9.3
At state 2
Steam at 20 bar and 250
o
C is superheated. From the superheated steam
tables, we have
specific volume, v
2
= 0.1115 m
3
/kg
specific internal energy, u
2
= 2681 kJ/kg
At state 1
At 10 bar, we have
v
1
= v
2
= 0.1115m
3
/kg
v
g1
= 0.1944
Steam at state 1 is wet as v
1
< v
g1
, and the dryness fraction is given by
equation 8.2,
v
1
= x
1
v
g1
x
v
v
1
1
01115
01944
0574 = = =
g1
.
.
.
From equation 8.5,
u
1
= u
f1
+ x
1
(u
g1
– u
f1
)
= 762 + 0.574 (2584  762)
= 1807.8 kJ/kg
At constant volume from equation 9.13,
Q = u
2
– u
1
= 2681 – 1807.8
= 873.2 kJ/kg
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/20
The Ts diagram showing of constant volume process is given below. The
shaded area represents the heat flow.
T
s
1
2
s
1 s
2
Q
P
1
= 10 bar
P
2
= 20 bar
250
o
C
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/21
9.5.3 Constant temperature (or isothermal) process
A process that takes place at constant temperature is called an isothermal
process. For example, at the exhaust of a steam turbine, the steam is usually
wet. This steam is subsequently condensed in a unit appropriately known as
a condenser. As the steam is initially wet, this process is carried out
essentially at constant temperature (isothermally).
In an isothermal expansion, heat must be added continuously in order to keep
the temperature at the initial value. Similarly in an isothermal compression,
heat must be removed from the fluid continuously during the process.
A reversible isothermal process will appear as a straight line on a Ts
diagram, and the area under the line must represent the heat flow during the
process. Figure 9.2.3 shows a reversible isothermal expansion of wet steam
into the superheat region.
The shaded area represents the heat supplied during the process.
Q = T(s
2
 s
1
) … T in Kelvin (or K) (9.15)
Note that the absolute temperature must be used. The temperature tabulated in the
steam tables is t
o
C, and care must be taken to convert this into T Kelvin.
From the nonflow energy equation, work can be expressed by
W = Q  (u
2
– u
1
) (9.16)
Figure 9.5.3 Isothermal process
Q
T
s
1 2
s
1
s
2
P
1
P
2
T
1
= T
2
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/22
Steam at 80 bar and enthalpy 2650 kJ/kg expands isothermally and
reversibly to a pressure of 10 bar. Calculate the entropy change, heat
supplied and the work done per kg steam during the process. Show the
process on a Ts diagram, indicating the area that represents the heat flow.
Example 9.4
Solution to Example 9.4
The given quantities can be expressed as;
P
1
= 80 bar
h
1
= 2650 kJ/kg
P
2
= 10 bar
At state 1
At 80 bar, h
1
= 2650 kJ/kg, the steam is wet, since the given enthalpy, h
1
, is
less than h
g
(i.e. 2758 kJ/kg). From the steam tables, the saturated
temperature of wet steam is 295
o
C.
From equation 8.4
h
1
= h
f1
+ x
1
h
fg1
2650 = 1317 + x
1
(1441)
x
1
= 0.925
From equation 9.8
s
1
= s
f1
+ x
1
s
fg1
= 3.207 + 0.925(2.537)
= 5.554 kJ/kg K
From equation 8.5
u
1
= u
f1
+ x
1
( u
g1
 u
f1
)
= 1306 + 0.925(2570  1306)
= 2475.2 kJ/kg
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/23
At state 2
At 10 bar and 295
o
C the steam is superheated, hence interpolating
s
2
6926
295 250
7124 6926
300 250
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
. . .
s
2
= 7.1042 kJ/kg K
u
2
2711
295 250
2794 2711
300 250
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
u
2
= 2785.7 kJ/kg
Change of entropy,
(s
2
– s
1
) = 7.1042  5.554 kJ/kg K
= 1.5502 kJ/kg K
Then from equation 9.15 we have,
Heat supplied = shaded area
Q = T(s
2
 s
1
)
= 568(1.5502)
= 880.5 kJ/kg
(where T = 295 + 273 = 568 K)
From equation 9.16,
W = Q  (u
2
– u
1
)
= 880.5  (2785.7  2475.2)
= 570 kJ/kg
T
s
300
295
250
6.926
s
2 7.124
T
u
300
295
250
2711
u
2 2794
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/24
The Ts diagram of the isothermal process is given below. The shaded area
represents the heat flow.
Q
T
(K)
s (kJ/kg K)
1 2
s
1 s
2
P
1
= 80 bar
P
2
= 10 bar
T
1
= T
2
295
O
C
@ 568 K
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/25
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT
INPUT…!
9.3 A rigid cylinder (constant volume) contains steam at 90 bar and 400
o
C. The
cylinder is cooled until the pressure is 50 bar. Calculate the amount of heat
rejected per kg of steam. Sketch the process on a Ts diagram indicating the
area, which represents the heat flow.
9.4 Steam at 8 bar, entropy 6.211 kJ/kg K is heated reversibly at constant
pressure until the temperature is 350
o
C. Calculate the heat supplied, and
show on a Ts diagram the area which represents the heat flow.
9.5 Dry saturated steam at 100 bar expands isothermally and reversibly to a
pressure of 10 bar. Calculate the heat supplied and the work done per kg of
steam during the process. Show the process on a Ts diagram.
Activity 9B
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/26
Feedback To Activity 9B
9.3 The given quantities can be expressed as;
P
1
= 90 bar
T
1
= 400
o
C
P
2
= 50 bar
At state 1
Steam at 90 bar and 400
o
C is superheated, and the specific volume from the Steam
Tables is,
v
1
= 0.02991 m
3
/kg.
For superheated steam above 70 bar, the internal energy is not tabulated in the
superheated steam tables and it is found from equation 8.6 that,
u
1
= h
1
– p
1
v
1
= 3118 – (90 x 10
2
x 2.991 x 10
2
)
= 2848.8 kJ/kg
At state 2
At P
2
= 50 bar and v
2
= 0.02991 m
3
/kg, the steam is wet, and the dryness fraction is
given by equation 8.2 as:
v
2
= x
2
v
g2
From equation 8.5
u
2
= u
f2
+ x
2
(u
g2
 u
f2
)
= 1149 + 0.758(2597 – 1149)
= 2246.6 kJ/kg
758 . 0
03944 . 0
02991 . 0
2
2
2
= = =
g
v
v
x
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/27
At constant volume from equation 9.13
Q = u
2
– u
1
= 2246.6  2848.8
=  602.2 kJ/kg
i.e. The amount of heat rejected per kg of steam is 602.2 kJ/kg.
9.4 The given quantities can be expressed as;
P
1
= P
2
= 8 bar
s
1
= 6.211 kJ/kg K
T
2
= 350
o
C
At state 1
At 8 bar, s
g1
= 6.663 kJ/kg K, the steam is wet, since the actual entropy, s
1
, is less
than s
g1
(i.e. s
1
< s
g1
).
From equation 9.9
Then from equation 8.4
h
1
= h
f1
+ x
1
h
fg1
= 721 + 0.9(2048)
= 2564.2 kJ/kg
T
s
2
1
s
2
s
1
Q
P
2
= 50 bar
P
1
= 90 bar
400
o
C
9 . 0
617 . 4
046 . 2 211 . 6
1
1
1
1
=
÷
=
÷
=
fg
f
s
s s
x
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/28
At state 2
The steam is at 350
o
C at 8 bar, and therefore superheated. From the superheated
tables,
h
2
= 3162 kJ/kg
At constant pressure, from equation 9.11
Q = h
2
 h
1
= 3162  2564.2
= 597.8 kJ/kg
i.e. The heat supplied is 597.8 kJ/kg
The Ts diagram of the process is given below. The shaded area represents the heat
flow.
s (kJ/kg K)
T
(K)
1
2
s
1
6.211
s
2
Q
P
1
= P
2
= 8 bar
T
2
= 350
o
C = 523 K
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/29
9.5 From the Steam Tables at 100 bar, steam is dry saturated,
s
1
= s
g1
= 5.615 kJ/kg K and t
1
= 311
o
C
At 10 bar and 311
o
C the steam is superheated, hence interpolating
300 350
124 . 7 301 . 7
3000 311
124 . 7
2
÷
÷
=
÷
÷ s
s
2
= 7.163 kJ/kg K
Then we have,
Heat supplied = shaded area
i.e. Q = T(s
2
– s
1
)
= 584 (7.163 – 5.615)
= 584 x 1.548
= 904 kJ/kg
(where T = 311 + 273 = 584 K)
T
s
350
311
300
7.124
s
2 7.301
Q
T
(K)
s (kJ/kg K)
1 2
s
1 s
2
P
1
= 100 bar
P
2
= 10 bar
T
1
= T
2
(311 + 273) =584 K
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/30
To find the work done it is necessary to apply the equation,
W = Q  (u
2
– u
1
)
From the Steam Tables, at 100 bar, steam is dry saturated
u
1
= u
g
= 2545 kJ/kg
At 10 bar and 311
o
C, interpolating becomes
300 350
2794 2875
300 311
2794
2
÷
÷
=
÷
÷ u
u
2
= 2811.8 kJ/kg
Then,
W = Q  (u
2
– u
1
)
= 904 – (2811.8 – 2545)
= 637.2 kJ/kg
i.e. Work done by the steam = 637.2 kJ/kg
CONGRATULATIONS, IF YOUR ANSWERS ARE CORRECT YOU CAN
PROCEED TO THE NEXT INPUT…
T
u
350
311
300
2794
u
2 2875
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/31
9.5.4 Reversible adiabatic (or isentropic) process
For a reversible adiabatic process, the entropy remains constant, and hence
the process is called an isentropic process. During this process, no heat is
transferred to or from the fluid and this process will always appear as a
vertical line on a Ts diagram.
For an isentropic process,
s
1
= s
2
From the nonflow equation,
Q  W = (u
2
– u
1
)
and for an isentropic process
Q = 0
Therefore, we have
W = u
1
u
2
kJ/kg (9.17)
In an isentropic process, all the work done to the fluid can be found in
equation 9.17 by evaluating u
1
and u
2
from the Steam Tables.
An isentropic process for superheated steam expanding into the wet region is
shown in Fig. 9.5.4.
INPUT
T
s
1
2
s
1
= s
2
P
1
P
2
Figure 9.5.4 Adiabatic (or isentropic) process
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/32
Steam at 30 bar, 250
o
C expands isentropically in a cylinder behind a piston
to a pressure 10 bar. Calculate the work done per kg of steam during the
process. Show the process on a Ts diagram.
Example 9.5
Solution to Example 9.5
At state 1
From the superheat tables, at 30 bar, 250
o
C, we have
s
1
= 6.289 kJ/kg K
u
1
= 2646 kJ/kg
At state 2
For an isentropic process s
1
= s
2
, therefore we have
s
1
= s
2
= 6.289 kJ/kg K
At 10 bar and s
2
= 6.289 kJ/kg K, the steam is wet, since s
2
is less than s
g2
(i.e. s
g2
= 6.586 kJ/kg K).
Then from equation 9.9
From equation 8.5
u
2
= u
f2
+ x
2
(u
g2
– u
f2
)
= 762 + 0.933 (2584  762)
= 2461.9 kJ/kg
For an adiabatic process, from equation 9.17
W = u
1
u
2
= 2646  2461.9
= 184.1 kJ/kg
i.e. Work done by the steam is 184.1 kJ/kg.
933 . 0
448 . 4
138 . 2 289 . 6
2
2
2
2
=
÷
=
÷
=
fg
f
s
s s
x
T
s
1
2
s
1
= s
2
P
1
= 30 bar
P
2
= 10 bar
250
o
C
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/33
9.5.5 Polytropic process
It is found that many processes in practice follows the reversible law in the
form pv
n
= constant, where n is constant. Both steam and perfect gases obey
this type of law closely in many processes. Such processes are internally
reversible.
For a polytropic process, the equations below are considered
Work done, W
p v p v
n
=
÷
÷
1 1 2 2
1
(9.18)
Heat transfer, Q = (u
2
 u
1
) + W (9.19)
Equation 9.18 is true for any working substance undergoing a reversible
polytropic process. It follows also that for any polytropic process, we can
write
p
1
v
1
n
= p
2
v
2
n
= C
p
p
v
v
n
1
2
2
1
=

\

.
 ;
v
v
p
p
n
2
1
1
2
1
=

\

.

T
T
p
p
n
n
2
1
2
1
1
=

\

.

÷
;
T
T
v
v
n
2
1
1
2
1
=

\

.

÷
A polytropic process for wet steam expanding from a high pressure to a low
pressure is shown in Fig. 9.5.5. To find the change of entropy in a polytropic
process for a steam when the end states have been fixed using p
1
v
1
n
= p
2
v
2
n
,
the entropy values at the end states can be read straight from the tables.
Figure 9.5.5 Polytropic process
T
s
1
2
s
2
P
1
P
2
s
1
Q
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/34
In a steam engine, the steam at the beginning of the expansion process is at
10 bar and dryness fraction 0.9. The expansion follows the law
pv
1.1
= constant, down to a pressure of 0.4 bar. Calculate the change of
entropy and work done per kg of steam during the process. Show the
process on a Ts diagram.
Example 9.6
Solution to Example 9.6
At 10 bar, from equation 9.8
s
1
= s
f1
+ x
1
s
fg1
= 2.138 + 0.9 (4.448)
= 6.1412 kJ/kg K
At 10 bar, v
g1
= 0.1944 m
3
/kg, then from equation 8.2
v
1
= x
1
(v
g1
)
= 0.9 (0.1944)
= 0.175 m
3
/kg
Then from equation
1 . 1
1
2
1
1
2


.

\

=
p
p
v
v
, we have
/kg m 3.265
4 . 0
10
175 . 0
3
1 . 1
1
1 . 1
1
2
1
1 2
=

.

\

=


.

\

=
p
p
v v
At 0.4 bar, and v
2
= 3.265 m
3
/kg, the steam is wet, since v
g2
= 3.992 m
3
/kg .
From equation 8.2
v
2
= x
2
( v
g2
)
x
v
v
g
2
2
2
3265
3992
082 = = =
.
.
.
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/35
Then from equation 9.8
s
2
= s
f2
+ x
2
s
fg2
= 1.026 + 0.82 (6.643)
= 6.4733 kJ/kg K
Change of entropy,
(s
2
– s
1
) = 6.4733  6.1442
= 0.3321 kJ/kg K
i.e. Increase in entropy, (s
2
– s
1
) is 0.3321 kJ/kg K.
Hence work done by the steam, from equation 9.18
W
p v p v
n
=
÷
÷
1 1 2 2
1
1 . 0
6 . 130 175
1 1.1
3.265) x 10 x (0.4 0.175) x x10 (10
2 2
÷
=
÷
÷
=
= 444 kJ/kg
i.e. Work done by the steam is 444 kJ/kg.
T
s
1
2
s
2
P
1
= 10 bar
P
2
= 0.4 bar
s
1
pv
1.1
= C
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/36
9.6 In a steam engine, steam at 110 bar, 400
o
C expands isentropically in a
cylinder behind a piston until the pressure is 3 bar. If the work output during
the expansion process is 165.5 kJ/kg, determine the final temperature of the
steam. Show the process on a Ts diagram.
9.7 In the cylinder of a steam engine, wet steam expands from 8 bar, dryness
fraction 0.87 to 0.5 bar according to a law pv
1.02
= C. Determine the per kg
of steam for the following:
i. change of entropy
ii. work done
iii. heat flow to or from the cylinder walls
Show the process on a Ts diagram.
Activity 9C
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/37
Feedback To Activity 9C
9.6 The given quantities can be expressed as;
P
1
= 110 bar
t
1
= 400
o
C
P
2
= 3 bar
W = 165.5 kJ/kg
Steam at 110 bar and 400
o
C is at superheated region. The property tables for this
condition do not list down the specific internal energy (u) and therefore it must be
calculated from
u
1
= h
1
– p
1
v
1
From the Superheated Steam Tables, at 110 bar and 400
o
C
h
1
= 3075 kJ/kg
v
1
= 2.350 x 10
2
m
3
/kg
Hence, u
1
= 3075 – (110 x 10
2
 2.350 x 10
2
)
= 2816.5 kJ/kg
For an adiabatic process, from equation 9.17
W = u
1
 u
2
u
2
= u
1
 W
= 2816.5 – 165.5
= 2651 kJ/kg
From the property tables for steam, u
g
at 3 bar is 2544 kJ/kg and hence the steam at
state 2 must still be at superheat region.
From the property tables for superheated steam, u
2
= 2651 kJ/kg when the
temperature is 200
o
C.
Hence, t
2
= 200
o
C
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/38
T
s
1
2
s
1
= s
2
P
1
= 110 bar
P
2
= 3 bar
400
o
C
t
2
= 200
o
C
Note : In this activity, although there is no heat
transfer in an adiabatic process, the pressure,
volume and temperature of the working fluid are
changed. The work transfer during an adiabatic
process is equal to the change in the internal energy
of the fluid.
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/39
9.7 At 8 bar, we have
s
1
= s
f1
+ x
1
s
fg1
= 2.046 + 0.87 (4.617)
= 6.063 kJ/kg K
u
1
= u
f1
+ x
1
(u
g1
– u
f1
)
= 720 + 0.87 (2577 720)
= 2335.6 kJ/kg
At 8 bar, v
g1
= 0.2403 m
3
/kg, then from equation 8.2
v
1
= x
1
(v
g1
)
= 0.87 (0.2403)
= 0.2091 m
3
/kg
Then from equation
02 . 1
1
2
1
1
2


.

\

=
p
p
v
v
, we have
/kg m 3.169
5 . 0
8
2091 . 0
3
02 . 1
1
02 . 1
1
2
1
1 2
=

.

\

=


.

\

=
p
p
v v
At 0.4 bar, and v
2
= 3.169 m
3
/kg, the steam is wet, since v
g2
= 3.239 m
3
/kg .
From equation 8.2
v
2
= x
2
( v
g2
)
978 . 0
239 . 3
169 . 3
2
2
2
= = =
g
v
v
x
Then at 0.5 bar, we have
s
2
= s
f2
+ x
2
s
fg2
= 1.091 + 0.978 (6.502)
= 7.4499 kJ/kg K
u
2
= u
f2
+ x
2
(u
g2
– u
f2
)
= 340 + 0.978 (2483 340)
= 2435.9 kJ/kg
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/40
i. Change of entropy,
(s
2
– s
1
) = 7.4499  6.063
= 1.3869 kJ/kg K
i.e. Increase in entropy, (s
2
– s
1
) is 1.3869 kJ/kg K.
ii. Work done by the steam,
W
p v p v
n
=
÷
÷
1 1 2 2
1
02 . 0
45 . 158 28 . 167
1 1.02
3.169) x 10 x (0.5 0.2091) x x10 (8
2 2
÷
=
÷
÷
=
= 441.5 kJ/kg
i.e. Work done by the steam is 441.5 kJ/kg.
iii. Heat flow,
Q = (u
2
– u
1
) + W
= (2435.9 – 2335.6) + (441.5)
= 541.8 kJ/kg
i.e. Heat flow from the cylinder walls is 541.8 kJ/kg.
T
s
1
2
s
2
P
1
= 8 bar
P
2
= 0.5 bar
s
1
pv
1.02
= C
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/41
You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this selfassessment
section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to Self
Assessment on the next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer.
Good luck.
1. Heat is transferred to a heat engine from a hot reservoir at a rate of 120 MW.
If the net work done is 45 MW, determine the rate of waste heat rejection to a
cold reservoir and the thermal efficiency of this heat engine.
2. Steam at 7 bar, entropy 6.5 kJ/kg K is heated reversibly at constant pressure
until the temperature is 250
o
C. Calculate the heat supplied per kg of steam
and show on a Ts diagram the area, which represents the heat flow.
3. Steam at 70 bar, 300
o
C expands isentropically in a cylinder behind a piston
to a pressure 20 bar. During the process, determine the:
i. dryness fraction at final state
ii. initial and final specific internal energy
iii. work done per kg of steam
Show the process on a Ts diagram.
4. 0.05 kg of steam at 10 bar with dryness fraction 0.84 is heated reversibly in a
rigid vessel until the pressure is 20 bar. Calculate the:
i. change of entropy and
ii. heat supplied
Show the area, which represents the heat supplied on a Ts diagram.
5. Steam at 20 bar, 250
O
C undergoes a reversible isothermal process to a
pressure of 30 bar. Calculate the heat flow per kg of steam and state whether
it is supplied or rejected. Sketch the process on a Ts diagram.
6. A steam engine which receives steam at 4 bar and dryness fraction 0.8 is
expanded according to the law pv
1.05
= constant to a condenser pressure of 1
bar. Calculate the change of entropy per kg of steam during the expansion.
Sketch the process on a Ts diagram.
SELFASSESSMENT
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/42
7. Steam at 30 bar, 300
o
C expands isothermally and reversibly to a pressure of
0.75 bar. The steam is then compressed according to the law pv
1.05
= constant,
until the pressure is 10 bar. Calculate per kg of steam the:
i. total change of entropy
ii. net heat flow
iii. net work done
Sketch the processes on a Ts diagram.
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/43
Have you tried the questions? If “YES”, check your answers now.
1. Q
2
= 75 MW
n = 37.5 %
2. Q = 274 kJ/kg
3. i. x
2
= 0.896
ii. u
1
= 2634 kJ/kg and u
2
= 2423.9 kJ/kg
iii. W = 210.1 kJ/kg
4. i. 0.704 kJ/kg K
ii. 36.85 kJ
5. Q = 135 kJ/kg
6. (s
2
– s
1
) = 0.381 kJ/kg K
7. ∑ ∆s = (s
2
– s
1
) + (s
3
– s
2
)
= (1.808) + (0.938)
= 0.87 kJ/kg K
∑ Q = Q
12
+ Q
23
= (1035.98) + (573.15)
= 462.83 kJ/kg
∑ W = W
12
+ W
23
= (975.98) + (692.5)
= 283.48 kJ/kg
Feedback to SelfAssessment
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/1
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
OBJECTIVES
General Objective : To define and explain the Second Law of Thermodynamics and
perform calculations involving the expansion and compression of
perfect gases.
Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:
sketch the processes on a temperatureentropy diagram
calculate the change of entropy, work and heat transfer of
perfect gases in reversible processes at:
i. constant pressure process
ii. constant volume process
iii. constant temperature (or isothermal) process
iv. adiabatic (or isentropic) process
v. polytropic process
UNIT 10
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/2
10.0 The PV and Ts diagram for a perfect gas
Property diagrams serve as great visual aids in the thermodynamic analysis of
processes. We have used PV and Ts diagrams extensively in the previous unit
showing steam as a working fluid. In the second law analysis, it is very helpful to
plot the processes on diagrams which coordinate the entropy. The two diagrams
commonly used in the second law analysis are the pressurevolume and temperature
entropy.
Fig. 10.01 shows a series of constant temperature lines on a PV diagram. The
constant temperature lines, T
3
> T
2
> T
1
are shown.
Figure 10.01 The constant temperature lines on a PV diagram for a perfect gas
Since entropy is a property of a system, it may be used as a coordinate, with
temperature as the other ordinate, in order to represent various cycles graphically. It
is useful to plot lines of constant pressure and constant volume on a Ts diagram for
a perfect gas. Since changes of entropy are of more direct application than the
absolute value, the zero of entropy can be chosen at any arbitrary reference
temperature and pressure.
INPUT
T
3
> T
2
> T
1
P
V
T
1
T
2
T
3
Constant temperature lines
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/3
Fig. 10.02 shows a series of constant pressure lines on a Ts diagram and Fig.10.03
shows a series of constant volume lines on a Ts diagram. It can be seen that the
lines of constant pressure slope more steeply than the lines of constant volume.
Note:
Fig. 10.02, shows the constant pressure lines, P
3
> P
2
> P
1
;
Fig. 10.03, shows the constant volume lines, v
1
> v
2
> v
3
.
As pressure rises, temperature also rises but volume decreases; conversely as the
pressure and temperature fall, the volume increases.
T
s
P
1
P
2
P
3
Figure 10.02
Constant pressure lines on a Ts diagram
T
s
v
2
v
1
v
3
Figure 10.03
Constant volume lines on a Ts diagram
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/4
10.1 Reversible processes on the Ts diagram for a perfect gas
The various reversible processes dealt with in Units 4 and 5 will now be considered
in relation to the Ts diagram. In the following sections of this unit, five reversible
processes on the Ts diagram for perfect gases are analysed in detail. These
processes include the:
i. constant pressure process,
ii. constant volume process,
iii. constant temperature (or isothermal) process,
iv. adiabatic (or isentropic) process, and
v. polytropic process.
10.1.1 Reversible constant pressure process
It can be seen from Fig. 10.1.1 that in a constant pressure process, the
boundary must move against an external resistance as heat is supplied; for
instance a fluid in a cylinder behind a piston can be made to undergo a
constant pressure process.
During the reversible constant pressure process for a perfect gas, we have
The work done as
W = P(V
2
– V
1
) kJ (10.1)
or, since PV = mRT , we have
W = mR(T
2
 T
1
) kJ (10.2)
The heat flow is,
Q = mC
p
(T
2
– T
1
) kJ (10.3)
The change of entropy is, then
S
2
– S
1
= mC
p
ln
T
T
2
1

\

.
 kJ/K (10.4)
T
s
P
1
= P
2
v
2
v
1
1
2
s
1
s
2
Q
Figure 10.1.1 Constant pressure process on a Ts diagram
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/5
Nitrogen (molecular weight 28) expands reversibly in a cylinder behind a
piston at a constant pressure of 1.05 bar. The temperature is initially at
27
o
C. It then rises to 500
o
C; the initial volume is 0.04 m
3
. Assuming
nitrogen to be a perfect gas and take C
p
= 1.045 kJ/kg K, calculate the:
g) mass of nitrogen
h) work done by nitrogen
i) heat flow to or from the cylinder walls during the expansion
j) change of entropy
Sketch the process on a Ts diagram and shade the area which represents
the heat flow.
or, per kg of gas we have,
s
2
– s
1
= C
p
ln
T
T
2
1

\

.
 kJ/kg K (10.5)
Example 10.1
Solution to Example 10.1
The given quantities can be expressed as;
T
1
= 27 + 273 K = 300 K
P
1
= P
2
= 1.05 bar (constant pressure process)
V
1
= 0.04 m
3
T
2
= 500 + 273 = 773 K
M = 28 kg/kmol
C
p
= 1.045 kJ/kg.K
a) From equation 3.10, we have
kg 0.0471
300 x 0.297
0.04 x 10 x 1.05
have we , = since Then
K kJ/kg 0.297
28
3144 . 8
2
1
1 1
= = =
= = =
RT
V P
m
mRT PV
M
R
R
o
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/6
b) the work done by nitrogen can be calculated by two methods. Hence,
we have
Method I:
From equation 10.2, work done
W = mR(T
2
 T
1
)
= 0.0471 x 0.297 (773  300)
= 6.617 kJ
Method II:
For a perfect gas at constant pressure,
2
2
1
1
T
V
T
V
=
kJ 6.615
0.04)  (0.103 10 x 1.05
) (
done work 10.1, equation From
m 0.103
300
773
0.04
2
1 2
3
1
2
1 2
=
=
÷ =
=

.

\

=


.

\

=
V V P W
T
T
V V
c) From equation 10.3, heat flow
Q = mC
p
(T
2
 T
1
)
= 0.0471 x 1.045 (773  300)
= 23.28 kJ
d) From equation 10.4, change of entropy
s
2
 s
1
= mC
p
ln
T
T
2
1

\

.

=

\

.

=
0.0471 x 1.045 ln
773
300
kJ / K 0 0466 .
The Ts diagram below shows the constant pressure process. The shaded
area represents the heat flow.
T
s
P
1
= P
2
= 1.05 bar
v
2
= 0.103 m
3
v
1
= 0.04 m
3
1
2
s
1
s
2
Q
T
1
= 300 K
T
2
= 773 K
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/7
10.1.2 Reversible constant volume process
In a constant volume process, the working substance is contained in a rigid
vessel (or closed tank) from which heat is either added or removed. It can be
seen from Fig. 10.1.2 that in a constant volume process, the boundaries of the
system are immovable and no work can be done on or by the system. It will
be assumed that ‘constant volume’ implies zero work unless stated otherwise.
During the reversible constant volume process for a perfect gas, we have
The work done, W = 0 since V
2
= V
1
.
The heat flow
Q = mC
v
(T
2
– T
1
) kJ (10.6)
The change of entropy is therefore
S
2
– S
1
= mC
v
ln
T
T
2
1

\

.
 kJ/K (10.7)
or, per kg of gas we have,
s
2
– s
1
= C
v
ln
T
T
2
1

\

.
 kJ/ kg K (10.8)
T
s
v
1
= v
2
P
1
1
2
s
1
s
2
Q
P
2
Figure 10.1.2 Constant volume process on a Ts diagram
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/8
Air at 15
o
C and 1.05 bar occupies a volume of 0.02 m
3
. The air is heated at
constant volume until the pressure is at 4.2 bar, and then it is cooled at
constant pressure back to the original temperature. Assuming air to be a
perfect gas, calculate the:
a) mass of air
b) net heat flow
c) net entropy change
Sketch the processes on a Ts diagram.
Given:
R = 0.287 kJ/kg K, C
v
= 0.718 kJ/kg K and C
p
= 1.005 kJ/kg K.
Example 10.2
Solution to Example 10.2
The given quantities can be expressed as;
T
1
= 15 + 273 K = 288 K
P
1
= 1.05 bar
Process 1  2 (constant volume process): V
1
= V
2
= 0.02 m
3
Process 2  3 (constant pressure process)
: P
2
= P
3
= 1.05 bar
T
3
= T
1
= 288 K
a) From equation 3.6, for a perfect gas,
kg 0.0254
288 x 0.287
0.02 x 10 x 1.05
2
1
1 1
= = =
RT
V P
m
b) For a perfect gas at constant volume,
2
2
1
1
T
P
T
P
= , hence
K 1152
05 . 1
2 . 4
288
1
2
1 2
= 
.

\

=


.

\

=
P
P
T T
From equation 10.6, at constant volume
Q
12
= mC
v
(T
2
– T
1
) = 0.0254 x 0.718 (1152 – 288) = 15.75 kJ
From equation 10.3, at constant pressure
Q
23
= mC
p
(T
3
– T
2
) = 0.0254 x 1.005 (288 – 1152) = 22.05 kJ
Net heat flow = Q
12
+ Q
23
= (15.75) + ( 22.05) = 6.3 kJ
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/9
c) From equation 10.7, at constant volume
S
2
– S
1
= mC
v
ln
T
T
2
1

\

.

From equation 10.4, at constant pressure
S
3
– S
2
= mC
p


.

\

2
3
ln
T
T
Net entropy change, (S
3
– S
1
) = (S
2
– S
1
) + (S
3
– S
2
)
= (0.0253) + (0.0354)
=  0.0101 kJ/K
i.e. decrease in entropy of air is 0.0101 kJ/K.
Note that since entropy is a property, the decrease of entropy in example
10.2, given by (S
3
– S
1
) = (S
2
– S
1
) + (S
3
– S
2
), is independent of the
processes undergone between states 1 and 3. The change (S
3
S
1
) can also
be found by imagining a reversible isothermal process taking place between
1 and 3. The isothermal process on the Ts diagram will be considered in
the next input.
kJ/K 0253 . 0
288
1152
ln 0.718 x 0.0254
=

.

\

=
kJ/K 0354 . 0
1152
288
ln 1.005 x 0.0254
÷ =

.

\

=
T
s
P
2
= P
3
= 4.2 bar
v
1
= v
2
= 0.02 m
3
v
3
3
2
s
3
s
2
T
1
= T
3
= 288 K
T
2
= 1152 K
1
P
1
= 1.05 bar
s
1
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/10
10.1.3 Reversible constant temperature (or isothermal) process
A reversible isothermal process for a perfect gas is shown on a Ts diagram
in Fig. 10.1.3. The shaded area represents the heat supplied during the
process,
i.e. Q = T(s
2
 s
1
) (10.9)
For a perfect gas undergoing an isothermal process, it is possible to evaluate
the entropy changes, i.e. (s
2
– s
1
). From the nonflow equation, for a
reversible process, we have
dQ = du + P dv
Also for a perfect gas from Joule’s Law, du = C
v
dT,
dQ = C
v
dT + P dv
For an isothermal process, dT = 0, hence
dQ = P dv
Then, since Pv = RT, we have
v
v
RT Q
d
d =
T
s
P
2
v
2 v
1
1
2
s
1
s
2
Q
Figure 10.1.3 Constant temperature (or isothermal) process on a Ts diagram
P
1
T
1
= T
2
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/11
Now from equation 9.5
í í í
= = = ÷
2
1
2
1
d d d
2
1
1 2
v
v
v
v
v
v
R
Tv
v RT
T
Q
s s
i.e.


.

\

=


.

\

= ÷
2
1
1
2
1 2
ln ln
p
p
R
v
v
R s s kJ/kg K (10.10)
or, for mass, m (kg), of a gas
S
2
– S
1
= m(s
2
– s
1
)
i.e.


.

\

=


.

\

= ÷
2
1
1
2
1 2
ln ln
p
p
mR
v
v
mR S S kJ/K (10.11)
Therefore, the heat supplied is given by,
( )


.

\

=


.

\

= ÷ =
2
1
1
2
1 2
ln ln
p
p
RT
v
v
RT s s T Q
or, for mass, m (kg), of a gas
( )


.

\

=


.

\

= ÷ =
2
1
1
2
1 2
ln ln
p
p
mRT
v
v
mRT S S T Q
In an isothermal process,
(U
2
– U
1
) = mCv (T
2
 T
1
)
= 0 ( i.e since T
1
= T
2
)
From equation Q  W = (U
2
– U
1
),
W = Q (10.12)
0
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/12
0.85 m
3
of carbon dioxide (molecular weight 44) contained in a cylinder
behind a piston is initially at 1.05 bar and 17
o
C. The gas is compressed
isothermally and reversibly until the pressure is at 4.8 bar. Assuming
carbon dioxide to act as a perfect gas, calculate the:
c) mass of carbon dioxide
d) change of entropy
e) heat flow
f) work done
Sketch the process on a PV and Ts diagram and shade the area which
represents the heat flow.
Example 10.3
Solution to Example 10.3
The given quantities can be expressed as;
V
1
= 0.85 m
3
M = 44 kg/kmol
P
1
= 1.05 bar
Isothermal process: T
1
= T
2
= 17 + 273 K = 290 K
P
2
= 4.8 bar
a) From equation 3.10, we have
kJ/kgK 189 . 0
44
3144 . 8
= = =
M
R
R
o
Then, since PV = mRT, we have
kg 1.628
290 x 0.189
0.85 x 10 x 1.05
2
= = =
RT
PV
m
b) From equation 10.11, for m kg,
kJ/K 0.4676
8 . 4
05 . 1
ln 0.189 x 1.628 ln
2
1
1 2
÷ = 
.

\

=


.

\

= ÷
p
p
mR S S
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/13
c) Heat rejected = shaded area on Ts diagram
= T (S
2
– S
1
)
= 290 K(0.4676 kJ/K)
= 135.6 kJ (ve sign shows heat rejected from the system to
the surroundings)
d) For an isothermal process for a perfect gas, from equation 10.12
W = Q
= 135.6 kJ (ve sign shows work is transferred into the system)
T
s
P
1
= 1.05 bar
2
1
s
2
s
1
Q
P
2
= 4.8 bar
T
1
= T
2
= 290 K
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/14
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT…!
10.1 0.1 m
3
of air at 1 bar and temperature 15
o
C is heated reversibly at constant
pressure to a temperature of 1100
o
C and volume 0.48 m
3
. During the process,
calculate the:
a) mass of air
b) change of entropy
c) heat supplied
d) work done
Show the process on a Ts diagram, indicating the area that represents the
heat flow.
Given, R = 0.287 kJ/kg K and C
p
= 1.005 kJ/kg K.
10.2 0.05 kg of nitrogen (M = 28) contained in a cylinder behind a piston is
initially at 3.8 bar and 140
o
C. The gas expands isothermally and reversibly
to a pressure of 1.01 bar. Assuming nitrogen to act as a perfect gas,
determine the:
a) change of entropy
b) heat flow
c) work done
Show the process on a Ts diagram, indicating the area which represents the
heat flow.
Activity 10A
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/15
Feedback To Activity 10A
10.1 The given quantities can be expressed as;
P
1
= P
2
= 1 bar (constant pressure process)
T
1
= 15 + 273 K = 288 K
V
1
= 0.1 m
3
T
2
= (1100 + 273) = 1373K
V
2
= 0.48 m
3
R = 0.287 kJ/kg.K
C
p
= 1.005 kJ/kg.K
a) From equation PV =mRT, we have
kg 0.121
288 x 0.287
0.1 x 10 x 1
2
1
1 1
= = =
RT
V P
m
b) From equation 10.4, change of entropy
s
2
 s
1
= mC
p
ln
T
T
2
1

\

.

kJ/K 1899 . 0
288
1373
ln 1.005 x 0.121
=

.

\

=
c) From equation 10.3, heat flow
Q = mC
p
(T
2
 T
1
)
= 0.121 x 1.005 (1373  288)
= 131.9 kJ
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/16
d) The work done by air can be calculated by using two methods which
give the same results.
Method I:
From equation 10.2, the work done
W = mR(T
2
 T
1
)
= 0.121 x 0.287 (1373  288)
= 38 kJ
Method II:
kJ 8 3
0.1)  (0.48 10 1.x
) (
done work the 10.1, equation From
2
1 2
=
=
÷ = V V P W
The Ts diagram below shows the constant pressure process. The shaded
area represents the heat flow.
T
s
P
1
= P
2
= 1bar
v
2
= 0.48 m
3
v
1
= 0.1 m
3
1
2
s
1
s
2
Q
T
1
= 288 K
T
2
= 1373 K
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/17
10.2 The given quantities can be expressed as;
m = 0.05 kg
M = 28 kg/kmol
P
1
= 3.8 bar
Isothermal process: T
1
= T
2
= (140 + 273 K) = 413 K
P
2
= 1.01 bar
a) From equation 3.10, we have
kJ/kgK 297 . 0
28
3144 . 8
= = =
M
R
R
o
From equation 10.11, for m kg of gas,
kJ/K 01968 . 0
01 . 1
8 . 3
ln 0.297 x 05 . 0
ln
2
1
1 2
=

.

\

=


.

\

= ÷
p
p
mR S S
b) Heat flow = shaded area on Ts diagram
= T (S
2
– S
1
)
= 413 (0.01968)
= 8.1278 kJ
c) For an isothermal process for a perfect gas, from equation 10.12
W = Q
= 8.1278 kJ
T
s
P
1
= 3.8 bar
1
2
s
1
s
2
Q
P
2
= 1.01 bar
T
1
= T
2
= 413 K
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/18
10.1.4 Reversible adiabatic (or isentropic) process
In the special case of a reversible process where no heat energy is transferred
to or from the gas, the process will be a reversible adiabatic process. These
special processes are also called isentropic process. During a reversible
isentropic process, the entropy remains constant and the process will always
appear as a vertical line on a Ts diagram.
For a perfect gas, an isentropic process on a Ts diagram is shown in Fig.
10.1.4. In Unit 4 it was shown that for a reversible adiabatic process for a
perfect gas, the process follows the law pv
¸
= constant.
Since a reversible adiabatic process occurs at constant entropy, and is known
as an isentropic process, the index ¸ is known as the isentropic index of the
gas.
INPUT
T
s
P
2
v
2
v
1
1
2
s
1
= s
2
Figure 10.1.4 Reversible adiabatic (or isentropic) process on a Ts diagram
P
1
T
1
T
2
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/19
For an isentropic process,
Change of entropy, s
2
 s
1
= 0
Heat flow, Q = 0
From the nonflow equation,
dQ  dW = dU
dW = dU
= mC
v
dT
= mC
v
(T
2
 T
1
)
W = mC
v
(T
1
T
2
) (10.13)
or, since
1 ÷
=
¸
R
C
v
, we have
1
) (
2 1
÷
÷
=
¸
T T mR
W (10.14)
or, since PV = mRT, we also have
1
2 2 1 1
÷
÷
=
¸
V P V P
W (10.15)
Note that the equations 10.13, 10.14 and 10.15 can be used to find the work
done depending on the properties of gases given. Each equation used gives
the same result for a work done.
Similarly, equation 10.16 can also be used to determine the temperature,
pressure and volume of the perfect gases.
T
T
P
P
V
V
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
=

\

.
 =

\

.

÷
÷
¸
¸
¸
(10.16)
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/20
In an air turbine unit, the air expands adiabatically and reversibly from 10
bar, 450
o
C and 1 m
3
to a pressure of 2 bar. Air is assumed to act as a
perfect gas. Given that C
v
= 0.718 kJ/kg K, R = 0.287 kJ/kg K and ¸ = 1.4,
calculate the:
a) mass of air
b) final temperature
c) work energy transferred
Sketch the process on a Ts diagram.
Example 10.4
Solution to Example 10.4
The given quantities can be expressed as;
P
1
= 10 bar
V
1
= 1 m
3
T
1
= (450 + 273) = 723K
P
2
= 2 bar
C
v
= 0.718 kJ/kg K
R = 0.287 kJ/kg K
¸ = 1.4
Isentropic process, s
2
= s
1
a) From equation PV = mRT, for a perfect gas
kg 82 . 4
723 x 0.287
1 x 10 x 10
2
1
1 1
= = =
RT
V P
m
b) The final temperature can be found using equation 10.16
K 5 . 456
10
2
x 723
x
4 . 1
1 4 . 1
1
1
2
1 2
=

.

\

=


.

\

=
÷
÷
¸
¸
P
P
T T
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/21
c) The work energy transferred can be found using equation 10.13
W = mC
v
(T
1
T
2
)
= 4.82 x 0.718 (723 – 456.5)
= 922 kJ
Similarly, the equation 10.14 gives us the same result for the value of
work energy transferred as shown below,
1
) (
2 1
÷
÷
=
¸
T T mR
W
kJ 922
1 4 . 1
) 5 . 456 723 ( 287 . 0 x 82 . 4
=
÷
÷
=
T
s
P
2
= 2 bar
v
2
v
1
= 1 m
3
1
2
s
1
= s
2
P
1
= 10 bar
T
1
= 723 K
T
2
= 456.5 K
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/22
10.1.5 Reversible polytropic process
For a perfect gas, a polytropic process on a Ts diagram is shown in Fig.
10.1.5. In Unit 5 it was shown that for a reversible polytropic process for a
perfect gas, the process follows the law pv
n
= constant.
For a reversible polytropic process,
Work done by a perfect gas is,
1
2 2 1 1
÷
÷
=
n
V P V P
W (10.17)
or, since PV = mRT, we have
( )
W
mR T T
n
=
÷
÷
1 2
1
(10.18)
Change of internal energy is,
U
2
U
1
= mC
v
(T
2
T
1
) (10.19)
The heat flow is,
Q = W + U
2
U
1
(10.20)
T
s
P
2
v
2
v
1
1
2
s
1
Figure 10.1.5 Reversible polytropic process on a Ts diagram
P
1
T
1
T
2
A B
s
2
s
A
s
B
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/23
It was shown in Unit 5 that the polytropic process is a general case for perfect
gases. To find the entropy change for a perfect gas in the general case,
consider the nonflow energy equation for a reversible process as,
dQ = dU + P dv
Also for unit mass of a perfect gas from Joule’s Law dU = C
v
dT , and from
equation Pv = RT ,
v
v RT
T C Q
v
d
d d + =
Then from equation 9.5,
v
v R
T
T C
T
Q
s
v
d d d
d + = =
Hence, between any two states 1 and 2,


.

\

+


.

\

= + = ÷
í í
1
2
1
2
1 2
ln ln
d d 2
1
2
1
v
v
R
T
T
C
v
v
R
T
T
C s s
v
v
v
T
T
v
(10.21)
This can be illustrated on a Ts diagram as shown in Fig. 10.1.5. Since in the
process in Fig. 10.1.5, T
2
< T
1
, then it is more convenient to write the
equation as


.

\

÷


.

\

= ÷
2
1
1
2
1 2
ln ln
T
T
C
v
v
R s s
v
(10.22)
There are two ways to find the change of entropy (s
2
– s
1
). They are:
a) According to volume
It can be seen that in calculating the entropy change in a polytropic
process from state 1 to state 2 we have in effect replaced the process
by two simpler processes; i.e. from 1 to A and then from A to 2. It is
clear from Fig. 10.1.5 that
s
2
 s
1
= (s
A
 s
1
)  (s
A
 s
2
)
The first part of the expression for s
2
s
1
in equation 10.22 is the
change of entropy in an isothermal process from v
1
to v
2
.
From equation 10.10
(s
A
 s
1
)=

\

.
 R
v
v
ln
2
1
(see Fig. 10.1.5)
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/24
In addition, the second part of the expression for s
2
s
1
in equation
10.22 is the change of entropy in a constant volume process from T
1
to T
2
,
i.e. referring to Fig. 10.1.5,
(s
A
 s
2
) =

\

.
 C
T
T
v
ln
1
2
s
2
 s
1
=

\

.
 ÷

\

.
 R
v
v
C
T
T
v
ln ln
2
1
1
2
kJ/kg K (10.23)
or, for mass m, kg of gas we have
S
2
 S
1


.

\

÷


.

\

=
2
1
1
2
ln ln
T
T
mC
v
v
mR
v
kJ/K (10.24)
b) According to pressure
According to pressure, it can be seen that in calculating the entropy
change in a polytropic process from state 1 to state 2 we have in
effect replaced the process by two simpler processes; i.e. from 1 to B
and then from B to 2 as in Fig. 10.1.5. Hence, we have
s
2
 s
1
= (s
B
 s
1
)  (s
B
 s
2
)
At constant temperature (i.e. T
1
) between P
1
and P
2
, using equation
10.10,
(s
B
 s
1
) =

\

.
 R
p
p
ln
1
2
and at constant pressure (i.e. P
2
) between T
1
and T
2
we have
(s
B
 s
2
) =

\

.
 C
T
T
p
ln
1
2
Hence,
s
2
 s
1
=

\

.
 ÷

\

.
 R
p
p
C
T
T
p
ln ln
1
2
1
2
kJ/kg K (10.25)
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/25
or, for mass m, kg of gas we have
S
2
 S
1


.

\

÷


.

\

=
2
1
2
1
ln ln
T
T
mC
p
p
mR
p
kJ/K (10.26)
Similarly, the equation 10.27 can also be used to determine the
temperature, pressure and volume of the perfect gases in polytropic
process.
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
÷
÷


.

\

=


.

\

=
n
n
n
V
V
P
P
T
T
(10.27)
Note that, there are obviously a large number of possible equations for the
change of entropy in a polytropic process, and it is stressed that no attempt
should be made to memorize all such expressions. Each problem can be
dealt with by sketching the Ts diagram and replacing the process by two
other simpler reversible processes, as in Fig. 10.1.5.
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/26
0.03 kg of oxygen (M = 32) expands from 5 bar, 300
o
C to the pressure of 2
bar. The index of expansion is 1.12. Oxygen is assumed to act as a perfect
gas. Given that C
v
= 0.649 kJ/kg K, calculate the:
a) change of entropy
b) work energy transferred
Sketch the process on a Ts diagram.
Example 10.5
Solution to Example 10.5
The given quantities can be expressed as;
m = 0.03 kg
M = 32 kg/kmol
P
1
= 5 bar
T
1
= (300 + 273) = 573K
P
2
= 2 bar
C
v
= 0.649 kJ/kg K = 649 J/kg K
PV
1.12
= C
a) From equation 3.10, we have
K J/kg 260
32
8314
= = =
M
R
R
o
Then from equation R = C
p
 C
v
, we have
C
p
= R + C
v
= 260 + 649
= 909 J/kg K
From equation 10.27, we have
T
T
p
p
n
n
2
1
2
1
1
=

\

.

÷
T T
P
P
n
n
2 1
2
1
1
112 1
112
573
2
5
519 4 =

\

.
 =

\

.
 =
÷
÷ .
.
. K
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/27
From equation 10.26, the change of entropy (S
2
 S
1
) is,
S
2
 S
1
= (S
B
 S
1
)  (S
B
 S
2
)
J/K 4.47
) 68 . 2 ( ) 15 . 7 (
519.4
573
ln x 909 x 0.03
2
5
ln x 260 x 0.03
ln ln
2
1
2
1
=
÷ =

.

\

÷ 
.

\

=


.

\

÷


.

\

=
T
T
mC
p
p
mR
p
b) From equation 10.18, we have
( )
W
mR T T
n
=
÷
÷
1 2
1
J 3 . 417
1
519.5) (573 260 x 0.03
=
÷
÷
=
n
T
s
P
2
= 2 bar
1
2
s
1
P
1
= 5 bar
T
1
= 573 K
T
2
= 519.4 K
B
s
2
s
B
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/28
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU PROCEED TO THE SELF
ASSESSMENT…!
10.3 0.225 kg of air at 8.3 bar and 538
o
C expands adiabatically and reversibly to a
temperature of 149
o
C. Determine the
a) final pressure
b) final volume
c) work energy transferred during the process
Show the process on a Ts diagram.
For air, take C
p
= 1.005 kJ/kg K and R = 0.287 kJ/kg K.
10.4 1 kg of air at 1.01 bar and 27
o
C, is compressed according to the law
PV
1.3
= constant, until the pressure is 5 bar. Given that C
p
= 1.005 kJ/kg K
and R = 0.287 kJ/kg K, calculate the final temperature and change of entropy
and then sketch the process on a Ts diagram.
Activity 10B
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/29
Feedback To Activity 10B
10.3 The given quantities can be expressed as;
m = 0.225 kg
P
1
= 8.3 bar
T
1
= 538 + 273 K = 811 K
T
2
= 149 + 273 K = 422 K
C
p
= 1.005 kJ/kg K
R = 0.287 kJ/kg K
Adiabatic / isentropic process : s
2
= s
1
a) From equation 3.16, we have
C
v
= C
p
– R = 1.005 – 0.287 = 0.718 kJ/kg K
Then, from equation 3.17, we have
4 . 1
718 . 0
005 . 1
= = =
v
p
C
C
¸
For a reversible adiabatic process for a perfect gas, PV
¸
= constant.
From equation 10.16
bar 0.844
811
422
) 3 . 8 (
1 4 . 1
4 . 1
2
1
1
2
1
2
=

.

\

=


.

\

=
÷
÷
P
T
T
P
P
¸
¸
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/30
b) From the characteristic gas equation PV = mRT, hence, we have at
state 2
3
2
2
2
2
m 0.323
10 x 0.844
422 x 0.287 x 0.225
= = =
P
mRT
V
c) The work energy transferred can be found from equation 10.13
W = mC
v
(T
1
T
2
)
= 0.225 x 0.718 (811 – 422)
= 62.8 kJ
Similarly, the equation 10.14 gives us the same result for the value of
work energy transferred as shown below,
1
) (
2 1
÷
÷
=
¸
T T mR
W
kJ 8 . 62
1 4 . 1
) 422 811 ( 287 . 0 x .225 0
=
÷
÷
=
10.4 The given quantities can be expressed as;
T
s
P
2
= 0.844 bar
v
2
v
1
1
2
s
1
= s
2
P
1
= 8.3 bar
T
1
= 811 K
T
2
= 422 K
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/31
m = 1 kg
P
1
= 1.01 bar
T
1
= (27 + 273) = 300 K
P
2
= 5 bar
C
p
= 1.005 kJ/kg K
R = 0.287 kJ/kg K
PV
1.3
= C
From the quantities given, we can temporarily sketch the process as shown in
the diagram below.
From equation 10.27, we have
T
T
p
p
n
n
2
1
2
1
1
=

\

.

÷
K 434
01 . 1
5
) 300 (
3 . 1
1 3 . 1
1
1
2
1 2
=

.

\

=


.

\

=
÷
÷
n
n
P
P
T T
From equation 10.25, the change of entropy (S
1
– S
2
) is,
T
s
P
2
= 5 bar
2
1
s
2
P
1
= 1.01 bar
T
1
= 300 K
T
2
= ?
B
s
1
s
B
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/32
S
1
– S
2
= (S
B
– S
2
)  (S
B
– S
1
)
kJ/K 088 . 0 
) 459 . 0 ( ) 371 . 0 (
1.01
5
ln x 0.287 x 0 . 1
300
434
ln x 1.005 x 0 . 1
ln ln
1
2
1
2
=
÷ =

.

\

÷ 
.

\

=


.

\

÷


.

\

=
p
p
mR
T
T
mC
p
From the calculation, we have S
1
– S
2
=  0.088 kJ/K. This means that S
2
is
greater than S
1
and the process should appear as in the Ts diagram below.
CONGRATULATIONS, IF YOUR ANSWERS ARE CORRECT YOU CAN
PROCEED TO THE SELFASSESSMENT….
T
s
P
2
= 5 bar
2
1
s
2
P
1
= 1.01 bar
T
1
= 300 K
T
2
= 434 K
B
s
1
s
B
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/33
You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this selfassessment
section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to Self
Assessment on the next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer.
Good luck.
1. A quantity of air at 2 bar, 25
o
C and 0.1 m
3
undergoes a reversible constant
pressure process until the temperature and volume increase to 2155
o
C and
0.8 m
3
. If C
p
= 1.005 kJ/kg K and R = 0.287 kJ/kg K, determine the:
i. mass of air
ii. change of entropy
iii. heat flow
iv. work done
Sketch the process on a Ts diagram and shade the area which represents the
heat flow.
2. A rigid cylinder containing 0.006 m
3
of nitrogen (M = 28) at 1.04 bar and
15
o
C is heated reversibly until the temperature is 90
o
C. Calculate the:
i. change of entropy
ii. heat supplied
Sketch the process on a Ts diagram. For nitrogen, take ¸ = 1.4 and assume it
as a perfect gas.
3. 0.03 kg of nitrogen (M = 28) contained in a cylinder behind a piston is
initially at 1.05 bar and 15
o
C. The gas expands isothermally and reversibly
to a pressure of 4.2 bar. Assuming nitrogen to act as a perfect gas, determine
the:
i. change of entropy
ii. heat flow
iii. work done
Show the process on a Ts diagram, indicating the area which represents the
heat flow.
SELFASSESSMENT
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/34
4. 0.05 kg of air at 30 bar and 300
o
C is allowed to expand reversibly in a
cylinder behind a piston in such a way that the temperature remains constant
to a pressure of 0.75 bar. Based on the law pv
1.05
= constant, the air is then
compressed until the pressure is 10 bar. Assuming air to be a perfect gas,
determine the:
i. net entropy change
ii. net heat flow
iii. net work energy transfer
Sketch the processes on a Ts diagram, indicating the area, which represents
the heat flow.
5. a) 0.5 kg of air is compressed in a pistoncylinder device from 100
kN/m
2
and 17
o
C to 800 kN/m
2
in a reversible, isentropic process.
Assuming air to be a perfect gas, determine the final temperature and
the work energy transfer during the process.
Given: R = 0.287 kJ/kg K and ¸ = 1.4.
b) 1 kg of air at 30
o
C is heated at a constant volume process. If the heat
supplied during a process is 250 kJ, calculate the final temperature
and the change of entropy. Assume air to be a perfect gas and take
C
v
= 0.718 kJ/kg K.
6. 0.05 m
3
of oxygen (M = 32) at 8 bar and 400
o
C expands according to the law
pv
1.2
= constant, until the pressure is 3 bar. Assuming oxygen to act as a
perfect gas, determine the:
i. mass of oxygen
ii. final temperature
iii. change of entropy
iv. work done
Show the process on a Ts diagram, indicating the area which represents the
heat flow.
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/35
Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”, check your answers now.
1. i. m = 0.2338 kg
ii. S
2
– S
1
= 0.4929 kJ/K
iii. Q = 500.48 kJ
iv. W = 140 kJ
2. i. S
2
– S
1
= 0.00125 kJ/K
ii. Q = 0.407 kJ
3. i. S
2
– S
1
= 0.0152 kJ/K
ii. Q =  4.3776 kJ
iii. W =  4.3776 kJ
4. i. E AS = (S
2
– S
1
) + (S
3
– S
2
)
= 0.0529 + 0.0434
= 0.0963 kJ/K
ii. E Q = Q
12
+ Q
23
= (30.31) + (18.89)
= 11.42 kJ
iii. E W = W
12
+ W
23
= (30.32) + (21.59)
= 8.73 kJ
5. a) T
2
= 525.3 K, W =  84.4 kJ
b) T
2
= 651 K, (S
2
– S
1
) = 0.5491 kJ/K
6. i. m = 0.23 kg
ii. T
2
= 571.5 K
iii. S
2
– S
1
= 0.0245 kJ/K
iv. W = 30.35 kJ
Feedback to SelfAssessment
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/1
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE
OBJECTIVES
General Objective : To understand and apply the concept of steam power cycle in
thermodynamics
Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:
define, derive, calculate and differentiate the following heat
engine cycle:
Carnot cycle
Rankine cycle
UNIT 11
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/2
11.0 INTRODUCTION
team is the most common working fluid used in heat engine cycles because
of its many desirable characteristic, such as low cost, availability, and high
enthalpy of vaporization. Other working fluids used include sodium, potassium, and
mercury for hightemperature applications and some organic fluids such as benzene
and the freons for lowtemperature applications. The majority of this chapter is
devoted to the discussion of steam power plants, which produce most of the electric
power in the world today.
Steam power plants are commonly referred to as coal plants, nuclear plants or
natural gas plants, depending on the type of fuel used to supply heat to the steam. But
the steam goes through the same basic cycle in all of them. Therefore, all can be
analysed in the same manner.
In this chapter it can be shown that there is an ideal theoretical cycle which is the
most efficient conceivable; this cycle is called the Carnot cycle. The highest thermal
efficiency possible for a heat engine in practice is only about half that of the ideal
theoretical Carnot cycle, between the same temperature limits. This is due to the
irreversibilities in the actual cycle, and to the deviations from the ideal cycle, which
are made for various practical reasons. The choice of a power plant in practice is a
compromise between thermal efficiency and various factors such as the size of the
What is the most
common working
fluid used in heat
engine cycle?
INPUT
S
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/3
plant for a given power requirement, mechanical complexity, operating cost and
capital cost.
Fig 11.0 Model of a steam plant
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/4
11.1 The Carnot cycle
From the Second Law of Thermodynamics it can be derived that no heat engine can
be more efficient than a reversible heat engine working between the same temperature
limits. Carnot, a French engineer, has shown in a paper written in 1824
1
that the most
efficient possible cycle is one in which all the heat supplied is supplied at one fixed
temperature, and all the heat rejected is rejected at a lower fixed temperature. The
cycle therefore consists of two isothermal processes joined by two adiabatic
processes. Since all processes are reversible, then the adiabatic processes in the cycle
are also isentropic. The cycle is most conveniently represented on a Ts diagram as
shown in Fig. 11.1.
Fig 11.1 The Carnot cycle
1
This paper, called „Reflection on the Motive Power of Heat‟ was written by Carnot before the enunciation of
the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. It is a remarkable piece of original thinking, and it laid the
foundations for the work of Kelvin, Clausius and others on the second law and its corollaries.
T
s
1
2 3
4
T
1
T
2
A
B
Boiler
Turbine
Condenser
Compressor
W
12
Q
23
W
34
Q
41
1
2 3
4
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/5
A brief summary of the essential features is as follows:
4 to 1: The heat energy is supplied to the boiler resulting in evaporation of the
water, therefore the temperature remains constant.
1 to 2: Isentropic expansion takes place in the turbine or engine.
2 to 3: In the condenser, condensation takes place, therefore the temperature
remains constant.
3 to 4: Isentropic compression of the wet steam in a compressor returns the
steam to its initial state.
The plant required and the numbers referring to the state points for the Carnot cycle is
shown in Fig. 11.1. The steam at the inlet to the turbine is dry saturated. The steam
flows round the cycle and each process may be analysed using the steady flow energy
equation where changes in kinetic energy and potential energy may be neglected.
i.e. h
1
+ Q = h
2
+ W
In this statement of the equation the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the initial and final
state points of the process; each process in the cycle can be considered in turn as
follows:
Boiler:
h
4
+ Q
41
= h
1
+ W
41
Therefore, since W = 0,
Q
451
= h
1
– h
4
(11.1)
Turbine:
The expansion is adiabatic (i.e. Q = 0), and isentropic (i.e. s
1
= s
2
), and h
2
can
be calculated using this latter fact. Then
h
1
+ Q
12
= h
2
+ W
12
W
12
= ( h
1
– h
2
) (11.2)
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/6
Condenser:
h
2
+ Q
23
= h
3
+ W
23
Therefore, since W = 0
Q
23
= h
3
– h
2
i.e. Q
23
=  ( h
2
– h
3
)
Heat rejected in condenser = h
2
– h
3
(11.3)
Compressor:
H
3
+ Q
34
= h
4
+ W
34
The compression is isentropic ( i.e. s
3
= s
4
), and adiabatic ( i.e. Q = 0 ).
W
34
= ( h
3
– h
4
) = ( h
4
– h
3
)
i.e. Work input to pump = ( h
4
– h
3
) (11.4)
11.1.1 Thermal efficiency of Carnot cycle
The thermal efficiency of a heat engine, defined in chapter 9, was shown to be given
by the equation,
1
2
1
Q
Q
In the Carnot cycle, with reference to Fig. 11.1, it can be seen that the heat supplied is
given by the area 41BA4,
i.e. Q
1
= area 41BA4 = T
1
(s
B
 s
A
)
Similarly the heat rejected, Q
2
, is given by the area 23AB2,
i.e. Q
2
= area 23AB2 = T(s
B
– s
A
)
Hence we have
Thermal efficiency of Carnot cycle,
) (
) (
1
1
2
A B
A B
carnot
s s T
s s T
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/7
i.e.
1
2
1
T
T
carnot
(11.5)
or
boiler in the supplied Heat
output Net work
carnot
i.e.
4 1
3 4 2 1
) ( ) (
h h
h h h h
Carnot
(11.6)
11.1.2 The work ratio for Carnot cycle
The ratio of the net work output to the gross work output of the system is called the
work ratio. The Carnot cycle, despite its high thermal efficiency, has a low work
ratio.
Work ratio
work gross
net work
(11.7)
i.e. Work ratio =
) (
) ( ) (
2 1
3 4 2 1
h h
h h h h
(11.8)
The work output of the Carnot cycle also can be found very simply from the Ts
diagram. From the first law,
W Q
therefore, the work output of the cycle is given by
W = Q
1
– Q
2
Hence for the Carnot cycle, referring to Fig. 11.1,
W
carnot
= area 12341 = (T
1
 T
2
)(s
B
– s
a
) (11.9)
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/8
This cycle is never used in practice owing to:
1. The difficulty in stopping the condensation at 3, so that subsequent
compression would bring the state point to 4.
2. A very large compressor would be required.
3. Compression of wet steam in a rotary compressor is difficult as the water
tends to separate out.
4. Friction associated with the expansion and compression processes would
cause the net work done to be very small as compared to the work done in the
turbine itself.
The Carnot cycle is modified to overcome the above difficulties and this modified
cycle, known as the Rankine cycle, is widely used in practice.
Thermal efficiency of Carnot cycle,
) (
) (
1
1
2
A B
A B
carnot
s s T
s s T
1
2
1
T
T
carnot
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/9
What is the highest possible theoretical efficiency of a Carnot cycle with a hot
reservoir of steam at 200
o
C when the cooling water available from condenser
is at 10
o
C?
A steam power plant operates between a boiler pressure of 42 bar and a
condenser pressure of 0.035 bar. Calculate for these limits the cycle efficiency
and the work ratio for a Carnot cycle using wet steam.
Example 11.1
Solution to Example 11.1
From equation 11.5,
1
2
1
T
T
carnot
=
273 200
273 10
1
=
473
283
1
i.e. Highest possible efficiency = 1 – 0.598
= 0.402 or 40.2 %
Example 11.2
Solution to Example 11.2
A Carnot cycle is shown in the figure given in the next page.
T
1
saturation temperature at 42 bar
= 253.2 + 273 = 526.2 K
T
2
saturation temperature at 0.035 bar
= 26.7 + 273 = 299.7 K
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/10
Then from equation 11.5
1
2 1
T
T T
carnot
=
2 . 526
7 . 299 2 . 526
= 0.432 or 43.2 %
Also,
Heat supplied = h
1
h
4
= h
fg
at 42 bar = 1698 kJ/kg
Then,
432 . 0
Q
W
carnot
W = 0.432 x 1698
i.e. W = 734 kJ/kg
To find the gross work of the expansion process it is necessary to calculate h
2
, using
the fact that s
1
= s
2.
From the Steam Tables,
h
1
= 2800 kJ/kg and s
1
= s
2
= 6.049 kJ/kg K
From the equation
s
2
= 6.049 = s
f2
+ x
2
s
fg2
= 0.391 + x
2
8.13
x
2
= 696 . 0
13 . 8
391 . 0 049 . 6
T
s
1
2
3
4
526.2
299.7
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/11
Then,
h
2
= h
f2
+ x
2
h
fg2
= 112 + 0.696 x 2438
= 1808 kJ/kg
Hence, from equation 11.2,
W
12
= (h
1
– h
2
)
= (2800 – 1808)
= 992 kJ/kg
Therefore, using equation 11.7,
Work ratio
work gross
net work
=
992
734
= 0.739
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/12
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT…!
11.1 Describe the suitable components of a simple close cycle steam plant as
illustrated in the figure below.
11.2 A steam power plant operates between a boiler pressure of 40 bar and a
condenser pressure of 0.045 bar. Calculate for these limits the cycle efficiency
and the work ratio for a Carnot cycle using wet steam.
Activity 11A
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
W
12
Q
23
W
34
Q
41
1
2 3
4
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/13
Feedback To Activity 11A
11.1 The components of a simple close cycle steam plant as illustrated in the figure
are:
a) The boiler, where water is converted into steam at a constant pressure
and temperature by the heat energy is received from the combustion of
the fuel.
b) The engine or turbine, in which the steam expands to a low pressure
causing work energy to be available.
c) The condenser, in which heat energy flows from the low pressure
steam into the condenser cooling water, resulting in the steam being
condensed.
d) The feed pump or the compressor, which returns the water into the
boiler.
11.2 A Carnot cycle is shown in the figure below.
T
1
saturation temperature at 40 bar
= 250.3 + 273 = 523.3 K
T
2
saturation temperature at 0.045 bar
= 31.0 + 273 = 304.0 K
T
s
1
2
3
4
523.3
304.0
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/14
Then from equation 11.5
1
2 1
T
T T
carnot
=
3 . 523
304 3 . 523
= 0.419 or 41.9 %
Also,
Heat supplied = h
1
h
4
= h
fg
at 42 bar = 1714 kJ/kg
Then,
419 . 0
Q
W
carnot
W = 0.419 x 1714
i.e. W = 718.2 kJ/kg
To find the gross work of the expansion process it is necessary to calculate h
2
, using
the fact that s
1
= s
2.
From the tables,
h
1
= 2801 kJ/kg and s
1
= s
2
= 6.070 kJ/kg K
From the equation
s
2
= 6.070 = s
f2
+ x
2
s
fg2
= 0.451 + x
2
7.98
x
2
= 704 . 0
98 . 7
451 . 0 070 . 6
Then,
h
2
= h
f2
+ x
2
h
fg2
= 130 + 0.704 x 2428
= 1839.3 kJ/kg
Hence, from equation 11.2,
W
12
= (h
1
– h
2
)
= (2801 – 1839.3)
= 961.7 kJ/kg
Therefore, using equation 11.7,
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/15
Work ratio
work gross
net work
=
7 . 961
2 . 718
= 0.747
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/16
11.2 Rankine Cycle
Many of the impracticalities associated with the Carnot cycle can be eliminated by
condensing it completely in the condenser, as shown schematically on a Ts diagram
in Fig. 11.3. The cycle that results is the Rankine cycle, is the ideal cycle for vapour
power plants. The ideal Rankine cycle does not involve any internal irreversibility
and consists of the following processes:
4,5 to 1: Constant pressure heat addition in a boiler
1 to 2: Isentropic expansion taking place in the turbine or engine
2 to 3: Constant pressure heat rejection in the condenser
3 to 4: Isentropic compression of water in the feed pump
From a comparison made between Fig. 11.1 and Fig. 11.2, the similarities between
the Carnot and the Rankine cycles can be clearly seen. In the Rankine cycle, the
exhaust steam is completely condensed into water in the condenser. It actually
follows the isentropic expansion in the turbine. This water is then pumped into the
boiler by a boiler feed pump. After the feed pump, since the water is not at the
INPUT
In the Rankine cycle, the exhaust
steam is completely condensed into
water in the condenser.
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/17
saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure, some of the heat energy
supplied in the boiler is taken up by the water as sensible heat before evaporation can
begin. This results in the boiler process being no longer completely isothermal; the
process is, therefore, irreversible, causing the Rankine cycle to be an irreversible
cycle and to have a lower efficiency than the Carnot cycle.
Fig 11.2 The Rankine cycle
Boiler
Turbine
Condenser
Pump W
12
Q
23
W
34
1
2 3
4
5
Q
451
T
s
1
2
3
4
T
1
T
2
A
B
5
p
1
p
2
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/18
The plant required and the numbers referring to the state points for the Rankine cycle
is shown in Fig. 11.2. The steam at the inlet to the turbine may be wet, dry saturated,
or superheated, but only the dry saturated condition is shown in Fig. 11.2. The steam
flows round the cycle and each process may be analysed using the steady flow energy
equation where changes in kinetic energy and potential energy may be neglected.
i.e. h
1
+ Q = h
2
+ W
In this statement of the equation the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the initial and final
state points of the process; each process in the cycle can be considered in turn as
follows:
Boiler:
h
4
+ Q
451
= h
1
+ W
Therefore, since W = 0,
Q
451
= h
1
– h
4
(11.10)
Turbine:
The expansion is adiabatic (i.e. Q = 0), and isentropic (i.e. s
1
= s
2
), and h
2
can
be calculated using this latter fact. Then
h
1
+ Q
12
= h
2
+ W
12
W
12
= ( h
1
– h
2
) (11.11)
Condenser:
h
2
+ Q
23
= h
3
+ W
23
Therefore, since W = 0
Q
23
= h
3
– h
2
i.e. Q
23
=  ( h
2
– h
3
)
Heat rejected in condenser = h
2
– h
3
(11.12)
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/19
Pump:
h
3
+ Q
34
= h
4
+ W
34
The compression is isentropic ( i.e. s
3
= s
4
), and adiabatic ( i.e. Q = 0 ).
W
34
= ( h
3
– h
4
) = ( h
4
– h
3
)
i.e. Work input to pump = ( h
4
– h
3
) (11.13)
This is the feed pump term, and as the quantity is small as compared to the
turbine work, W
12
. The feed pump is usually neglected, especially when the
boiler pressures are low.
The net work done in the cycle, W = W
12
+ W
34
i.e. W = ( h
1
– h
2
) – ( h
4
– h
3
) (11.14)
Or, if the feed pump work is neglected,
W = ( h
1
– h
2
) (11.15)
11.2.1 Thermal efficiency of Rankine cycle
Rankine efficiency,
boiler in the supplied Heat
output Net work
R
(11.16)
i.e.
4 1
3 4 2 1
) ( ) (
h h
h h h h
R
or
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
3 4 3 1
3 4 2 1
h h h h
h h h h
R
(11.17)
If the feed pump term, (h
4
– h
3
) is neglected, equation (11.17) becomes
) (
) (
3 1
2 1
h h
h h
R
(11.18)
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/20
When the feed pump term is included, it is necessary to evaluate the quantity, W
34
.
From equation (11.13)
Pump work = W
34
=
f
(p
4
– p
3
) (11.19)
11.2.2 The work ratio for Rankine cycle
It has been stated that the efficiency of the Carnot cycle is the maximum possible, but
that the cycle has a low work ratio. Both efficiency and work ratio are criteria of
performance. The work ratio is defined by
Work ratio
work gross
net work
i.e. Work ratio =
) (
) ( ) (
2 1
3 4 2 1
h h
h h h h
or Work ratio =
) (
) ( v ) (
2 1
3 4 f 2 1
h h
p p h h
(11.20)
11.3 Specific steam consumption
Another criterion of performance in steam plant is the specific steam consumption. It
relates the power output to the steam flow necessary to produce steam. The steam
flow indicates the size of plant with its component part, and the specific steam
consumption is a means whereby the relative sizes of different plants can be
compared.
The specific steam consumption is the steam flow in kg/h required to develop 1
kW,
i.e. W x (specific steam consumption, s.s.c.) = 1 x 3600 kJ/h
(where W is in kJ/kg),
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/21
A steam power plant operates between a boiler pressure of 42 bar and a
condenser pressure of 0.035 bar. Calculate for these limits the cycle efficiency,
the work ratio, and the specific steam consumption for a Rankine cycle with
dry saturated steam at entry to the turbine.
i.e. s.s.c. = kg/kwh
3600
W
or. s.s.c. = kg/kwh
) ( ) (
3600
3 4 2 1
h h h h
(11.21)
Example 11.3
Solution to Example 11.3
The Rankine cycle is shown in the figure below.
As in example 11.2
h
1
= 2800 kJ/kg and h
2
= 1808 kJ/kg
Also, h
3
= h
f
at 0.035 bar = 112 kJ/kg
Using equation 11.18, with v = v
f
at 0.035 bar
T
s
1
2
3
4
526.2
299.7
A
B
5
42bar
0.035 bar
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/22
Pump work = W
34
=
f
(p
4
– p
3
)
= 0.001 x ( 42 – 0.035) x 10
2
= 4.2 kJ/kg
Using equation 11.11
W
12
= h
1
– h
2
= 2800 – 1808 = 992 kJ/kg
Then using equation 11.17
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
3 4 3 1
3 4 2 1
h h h h
h h h h
R
=
) 2 . 4 ( ) 112 2800 (
) 2 . 4 ( ) 992 (
= 0.368 or 36.8 %
Using equation 11.7
Work ratio
work gross
net work
=
992
4.2  992
= 0.996
Using equation 11.21
s.s.c. =
) ( ) (
3600
3 4 2 1
h h h h
=
) 2 . 4 ( ) 992 (
3600
= 3.64 kg/kW h
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/23
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT…!
11.3 Based on the diagram below, describe the fourstage processes that represent a
steam plant operating on an ideal Rankine cycle.
11.4 A steam power plant operates between a boiler pressure of 40 bar and a
condenser pressure of 0.045 bar. Calculate for these limits the cycle
efficiency, the work ratio, and the specific steam consumption for a Rankine
cycle with dry saturated steam at entry to the turbine.
Activity 11B
Boiler
Turbine
Condenser
Pump W
12
Q
23
W
34
1
2 3
4
5
Q
451
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/24
Feedback To Activity 11B
11.3 The ideal Rankine cycle does not involve any internal irreversibility and
consists of the following fourstage processes:
Stage 1.
4 to 1: Constant pressure heat addition in a boiler.
Stage 2.
1 to 2: Isentropic expansion that takes place in the turbine or engine.
Stage 3.
2 to 3: Constant pressure heat rejection in the condenser.
Stage 4
3 to 4: Isentropic compression of water in the feed pump
11.4 The Rankine cycle is shown in the figure below.
As in activity 11.2
h
1
= 2801 kJ/kg and h
2
= 1839.3 kJ/kg
T
s
1
2
3
4
523.3
3040.
A
B
5
40bar
0.045 bar
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/25
Also, h
3
= h
f
at 0.045 bar = 130 kJ/kg
Using equation 11.18, with v = v
f
at 0.045 bar
Pump work = W
34
=
f
(p
4
– p
3
)
= 0.001 x ( 40 – 0.045) x 10
2
= 4.0 kJ/kg
Using equation 11.11
W
12
= h
1
– h
2
= 2801 – 1839.3 = 961.7 kJ/kg
Then using equation 11.17
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
3 4 3 1
3 4 2 1
h h h h
h h h h
R
=
) 0 . 4 ( ) 130 2801 (
) 0 . 4 ( ) 7 . 961 (
= 0.359 or 35.9 %
Using equation 11.7
Work ratio
work gross
net work
=
961.7
4.0  961.7
= 0.996
Using equation 11.21
s.s.c. =
) ( ) (
3600
3 4 2 1
h h h h
=
) 0 . 4 ( ) 7 . 961 (
3600
= 3.76 kg/kW h
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/26
You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this selfassessment section
and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to SelfAssessment on the
next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck.
1. Explain why the Rankine cycle and not the Carnot cycle is taken as the ideal
cycle for steam plant. Sketch the Ts diagram for these cycles when using
steam as the working fluid.
2. What is the highest thermal efficiency possible for a Carnot cycle operating
between 210
o
C and 15
o
C.
3. A steam power plant operates between a boiler pressure of 30 bar and a
condenser pressure of 0.04 bar. Calculate for these limits the cycle efficiency,
the work ratio and the specific steam consumption for a Carnot cycle using
wet steam.
4. A steam power plant operates between a boiler pressure of 30 bar and a
condenser pressure of 0.04 bar. Calculate for these limits the cycle efficiency,
the work ratio, and the specific steam consumption for a Rankine cycle with
dry saturated steam at entry to the turbine.
5. In a steam power plant, dry saturated steam enters the turbine at 47 bar and is
expanded isentropically to the condenser pressure of 0.13 bar. Determine the
Rankine cycle efficiency when
a) the feed pump work is neglected
b) the feed pump work is taken into account
SELFASSESSMENT
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/27
Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”, check your answers now.
1. Carnot cycle is never used in practice owing to:
1. The difficulty in stopping the condensation at 3, so that subsequent
compression would bring the state point to 4.
2. A very large compressor would be required.
3. Compression of wet steam in a rotary compressor is difficult as the water
tends to separate out.
4. Friction associated with the expansion and compression processes would
cause the net work done to be very small as compared to the work done in the
turbine itself.
The Carnot cycle is modified to overcome the above difficulties and this modified
cycle, known as the Rankine cycle, is widely used in practice.
Feedback to SelfAssessment
T
s
1
2
3
4
T
1
T
2
T
s
1
2
3
4
T
1
T
2
A
B
5
p
1
p
2
Carnot cycle Rankine cycle
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/28
2. 40.37 %
3. 40.4 %, 0.771, 4.97 kg/kW h
4. 34.6 %, 0.997, 3.88 kg/kW h
5. 33.67 %, 33.55 %
CONGRATULATIONS!
!!!…May success be
with you always…
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS
J2006/1/2
INPUT
1.0
INTRODUCTION
10 Kilometer + 5 Feet + 25 Yard + 100 Inches = ? Meter Could you give me an answer?
D
id you realize that the work of an engineer is limited unless he has a source of power to drive his machines or tools? However, before such a study can begin, it is necessary to be sure of the number of definitions and units, which are essential for a proper understanding of the subject. We are familiar with most of these items in our everyday lives, but science demands that we have to be exact in our understanding if real progress is to be made. When engineering calculations are performed, it is necessary to be concerned with the units of the physical quantities involved. A unit is any specified amount of a quantity by comparison with which any other quantity of the same kind is measured. For example, meters, centimeters and millimeters are all units of length. Seconds, minutes and hours are alternative time units.
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS
J2006/1/3
1.1
Fundamental and Derived Quantities In the present discussion, we consider the system of units called SI (International System of Units) and it is a legally accepted system in many countries. SI units will be used throughout this module. Length, mass, time, electric current, thermodynamic temperature and luminous intensity are the six fundamental physical quantities. These six quantities are absolutely independent of one another. They are also called the „Indefinables‟ of mechanics. The SI base units are listed in Table 1.11. Table 1.11 Fundamental units Quantity Mass Time Length Thermodynamic temperature Electric current Luminous intensity Unit kilogram second meter degree Kelvin ampere candela Symbol kg s m K A cd
All other physical quantities, which can be expressed in terms of one or more of these, are known as „derived quantities‟. The unit of length, mass, time, electric current, thermodynamic temperature and luminous intensity are known as „fundamental units’. Physical quantities like area, volume, density, velocity, acceleration, force, energy, power, torque etc. are called derived quantities since they depend on one or more of these fundamental quantities. The units of the derived quantities are called derived units as shown in Table 1.12. Table 1.12 Derived units Quantity Area Volume Velocity Acceleration Density Force Pressure Unit meter square meter cube meter per second Meter per second squared kilogram / meter cube Newton Newton/meter square Symbol m2 m3 m/s m/s2 kg/m3 N N/m2 1 N = 1 kgm/s2 1 N/m2 = 1 Pascal 1 bar = 105 N/m2 = 102 kN/m2 Notes 1 m3 = 1 x 103 litre
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS
J2006/1/4
1.1.1
Force Newton‟s second law may be written as force (mass x acceleration), for a body of a constant mass. i.e. F = kma (1.1)
(where m is the mass of a body accelerated with an acceleration a, by a force F, k is constant) In a coherent system of units such as SI, k = 1, hence: F = ma
2
(1.2)
The SI unit of force is therefore kgm/s . This composite unit is called the Newton, N. i.e. 1.1.2 Energy Heat and work are both forms of energy. The work done by a force is the product of the force and the distance moved in the same direction. The SI unit of work = force x distance in the Newton meter, Nm. A general unit for energy is introduced by giving the Newton meter the name Joule, J. i.e. or 1 Joule = 1 Newton x 1 meter 1 J = 1 Nm 1 N = 1 kg.m/s2
A more common unit for energy in SI is the kilo joule (1 kJ = 103 J) 1.1.3 Power The use of an additional name for composite units is extended further by introducing the Watt, W as the unit of power. Power is the rate of energy transfer (or work done) by or to a system. i.e. 1 Watt, W = 1 J/s = 1 N m/s
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS
J2006/1/5
1.1.4
Pressure Pressure is the force exerted by a fluid per unit area. We speak of pressure only when we deal with gas or liquid. The pressure on a surface due to forces from another surface or from a fluid is the force acting at 90 o to the unit area of the surface. i.e. pressure = force/ area P = F/A
(1.3)
The unit of pressure, is N/m2 and this unit is sometimes called the Pascal, Pa. For most cases occurring in thermodynamics the pressure expressed in Pascal will be a very small number. This new unit is defined as follows: 1 bar = 105 N/m2 = 105 Pa
1.1.5. Density Density is the mass of a substance per unit volume. mass Density volume
m V
(1.4)
The unit of density is kg/m3 .
Force, F = ma Pressure, P = F/A Work, W = F x L Density, = m/V
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/6 Example 1.1 Calculate the pressure of gas underneath the piston in equilibrium for a 50 kg mass that reacts to a piston with a surface area of 100 cm2. Determine the amount of mass m in the tank if the volume of the tank is V = 2 m3. Putting the given information into perspective.05 N/m 2 Force = mass x acceleration Pressure = force/area Example 1. we have = 850 kg/m3 and V = 2 m3 It is obvious that we can eliminate m3 and end up with kg by multiplying these two quantities.2 A density of = 850 kg/m3 of oil is filled to a tank. Solution to Example 1.1 Pressure (P) force area 50 x 9. the formula we are looking for is m V Thus. m = V = (850 kg/m3)(2 m3) = 1700 kg . Solution to Example 1. Therefore.01 49.81 0.2 We should end up with the unit of kilograms.
9m x 0.6m3/kg.4 .BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/7 Activity 1A TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 1.3 1.1 What is the work done by an expanding gas if the force resisting the motion of the piston is 700 N and the length of the stroke is 0. what is the weight of helium in the balloon? Explain briefly why the balloon rises in the atmosphere.8m diameter sphere.5 m ? What is the force required to accelerate a mass of 30 kg at a rate of 15 m/s2 ? The fuel tank of a large truck measures 1.2m x 0. How many litres of fuel are contained in the tank when it is full? A weather research instrument is suspended below a helium filled balloon which is a 3.2 1.6m. If the specific volume of helium is 5. 1.
9) 3 3 = 28.1 Work = Force x Distance = (700 N)(0.5 m) = 350 Nm or J Force = mass x acceleration F = ma = (30 kg)(15 m/s2) = 450 kg.m/s2 or N Volume = 1.9 x 0.648 m3 Since 1m3 = 1000 litres Then.13 kg .3 = = 1.73 m3 Radius of volume.2 1.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/8 Feedback to Activity 1A 1.648 x 1000 = 648 litres 1.6 = 5.3 1. m = V v = 28. r = Mass of helium in balloon.4 d 2 3 . contents of full tank = 0. V = r 3 3 4 = (1.73/5.6 = 0.9 m 2 4 Volume of balloon.2 x 0.
= 1 v 1 = 5 .1786 kg/m3 The balloon rises in the atmosphere because the density of helium is less than the density of atmosphere.3 N Density of helium.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/9 w = mg = 5. .6 = 0.81 = 50.13 x 9.
we can‟t add apples to oranges… Neither can we add J/mol to J/kg s. But the fun doesn‟t stop there… A dimensional analysis can help to determine the form of an equation that we may have forgotten. we can automatically do a reality check on our equations. leaving the new units. All terms in an equation must be dimensionally homogeneous. one often has to convert a quantity from one unit to another. By keeping track of our units/dimensions. The Dimensional Homogeneity Despite their causing us errors. As a result. conversion of units can be used to our advantage.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/10 INPUT 1. 49 days into weeks. That is.2 Unit Conversions We all know from experience that conversion of units can give terrible headaches if they are not used carefully in solving a problem. The ratios are formed such that the old units are cancelled. The example of unit conversions are: 1 kg = 1000 g 1 m = 100 cm = 1000 mm 1 km = 1000 m = (100 000 cm @ 105 cm) = (1 000 000 mm @ 106 mm) 1 hour = 60 minutes = 3600 seconds 1 m3 = 1000 litre. For example. One approach is to multiply the value by ratios of the equivalent units. we would like to convert. But with some attention and skill. units/dimensions can be our friends. say. or 1 litre = 1 x 103 m3 1 bar = 1 x 105 N/m2 = 1 x 102 kN/m2 . Measurements that describe physical quantities may be expressed in a variety of different units.
000 000 001 0.01 0. and the ones most commonly used are shown in the following table: Table 1. Solution to Example 1.000 001 0.3 Convert 1 km/h to m/s.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/11 Multiple and submultiple of the basic units are formed by means of prefixes.000 000 000 001 1012 109 106 103 102 101 101 102 103 106 109 1012 Prefix tera giga mega kilo hector deca desi centi milli micro nano pico Symbol T G M k h da d c m n p Example 1.3 1 km 1 km 1000 m 1j x x j j 1 km 3600 s 1000 m 3600 s 0.001 0.1 0.278 m/s .2 Multiplying factors Multiplying Factor 1 000 000 000 000 1 000 000 000 1 000 000 1 000 100 10 0.
4 Convert 25 g/mm3 to kg/m3.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/12 Example 1.4 1 kg = 1000 g 1 m = 1000 mm 1 m3 = 1000 x 1000 x 1000 mm3 = 109 m3 25 g 25 g 10 9 mm 3 1 kg x x 3 3 3 1000 g mm mm 1m 25 x 10 9 x 1 kg 1000 m 3 25 x 10 6 kg/m 3 How could I convert g/mm3 to kg/m3? . Solution to Example 1.
1. Let’s move on to the next topic.5 Convert the following data: a) 3 N/cm2 to kN/m2 b) 15 MN/m2 to N/m2 Convert 15 milligram per litre to kg/m3.6 I hope you’ve learnt something from this unit.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/13 Activity 1B TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 1. .
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/14 Feedback To Activity 1B 1.5 a) 1 kN = 1000 N 1 m2 = 100 x 100 = 104 cm2 3N 3 N 10 4 cm 2 1 kN x x 2 2 2 1000 N cm cm 1m 3 x 10 4 kN 1000 m 2 30 kN/m 2 b) 1 MN = 106 N/m2 15 M N 15 M N 10 6 N x 1MN m2 m2 15 x 10 6 N/m 2 1.6 1 kg = 1 000 000 mg 1 m3 = 1000 litre 15 mg 15 mg 1 kg 1000 litre x x litre litre 1 000 000 mg 1 m3 15 x 10 3 kg/m 3 .
determine the pressure inside the cylinder. 3. Find also the specific volume of water. A compressed spring above the piston exerts a force of 60 N onto the piston. 1. Find the work done when the mass moves through a distance of 6 m. If you face any problem. discuss it with your lecturer. A force of 8 N is applied continuously at an angle of 30 o to a certain mass.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/15 SELFASSESSMENT You are approaching success. If the atmospheric pressure is 95 kPa.0 g/cm3. The piston has a mass of 4 kg and a crosssectional area of 35 cm2. The density of water at room temperature and atmospheric pressure is 1. 4. Calculate his rate of doing work and power in watts. 2. Good luck. A gas is contained in a vertical frictionless pistoncylinder device. A man weighing 60 kg goes up a staircase of 5 m in height in 20 secs. Try all the questions in this selfassessment section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to SelfAssessment on the next page. Convert this to kg/m3. .
May success be with you always…. 4.4 kPa 41. check your answers now.57 J 147 J.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/16 Feedback to SelfAssessment Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”.. 1000 kg/m3 . . 1. 0. 123. 2.001 m3/kg CONGRATULATIONS!!!!…. 3. 147 watt.
surrounding. open system and close system explain the property. state and process of the working fluid and provide example state the definitions of the First Law of Thermodynamics describe the differences between work and heat transfer define the definitions and show the application of internal energy . boundary.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/1 UNIT 2 BASIC THERMODYNAMICS OBJECTIVES General Objective : To understand the basic concept and the First Law of Thermodynamics Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to: Define the fundamental concepts of system.
boundary. energy. The mass or region outside the system is called the surroundings. cylinder walls and the piston may be said to be the system. 2.0 Introduction Every science has a unique vocabulary associated with it. property. open system and close system A thermodynamic system. or simply a system. cycle. surrounding. pressure and temperature are explained. The surroundings may be affected by changes within the system. and thermodynamics is no exception. process. so as to enable an analysis of the problem under consideration to be made. Precise definition of the basic concepts forms a sound foundation for the development of science and prevents possible misunderstandings. and the basic concepts of thermodynamics such as system. The fluid contained by the cylinder head. Careful study of these concepts is essential for a good understanding of the topics in the following units. Boundary Surrounding System Figure 2.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/2 INPUT 2. state. In this unit. 2.11 System. the systems that will be used are reviewed. It may be the cylinder and the piston or an imaginary surface drawn as in Fig.11. is defined as a quantity of matter or a region in space chosen for study. The boundary is the surface of separation between the system and its surroundings. surroundings and boundary .1 Definitions of system.
2. no mass can enter or leave a close system. compressor. which involves mass flow such as a boiler. as shown in Fig. Flow through these devices is best studied by selecting the region within the device as the control volume.12 A closed system with a moving boundary An open system. as it is often called. A close system (also known as a control mass) consists of a fixed amount of mass.2 Property. is a properly selected region in space.13 Open system in boiler 2. Both mass and energy can cross the boundary of a control volume. State and Process . as shown in Fig.13. and no mass can cross its boundary. depending on whether a fixed mass or a fixed volume in space is chosen for study. and the volume of a close system does not have to be fixed. turbine or nozzle. It usually encloses a device.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/3 A system can either to be close or open. But energy. SURROUNDINGS SYSTEM I S T E M S BOUNDARY Fig. 2. in the form of heat or work can cross the boundary. 2. That is.12. or a control volume. Fluid Inlet SURROUNDINGS QOUT SYSTEM WOUT BOUNDARY Fluid Outlet Fig 2.
Intensive properties are those which are independent of the size of the system such as temperature. the state remains the same at these times. the state changes and the system are said to have undergone a process. Processes may be constrained to occur at constant temperature (isothermal). constant pressure. such as mass flow rates and energy transfers by work and heat. Since there are normally relations among the properties of a system. energy. volume. Properties are considered to be either intensive or extensive. Thermodynamics also deals with quantities that are not properties.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/4 Properties are macroscopic characteristics of a system such as mass. polytropic and adiabatic (with no heat transfer to the surroundings). . A process is a transformation from one state to another. and temperature to which numerical values can be assigned at a given time without knowledge of the history of the system. volume and total energy are some examples of extensive properties. A system is said to be at a steady state if none of its properties changes with time. However. In this context the word ‘reversible’ has a special meaning. turbulence. Many other properties are considered during the course of our study of engineering thermodynamics. the state often can be specified by providing the values of a subset of the properties. The word state refers to the condition of system as described by its properties. pressure. if a system exhibits the same values of its properties at two different times. but can be imagined as one which occurs without incurring friction. constant volume. All of the processes considered below are reversible and the actual processes will be dealt with later. pressure and density. leakage or anything which causes unrecoverable energy losses. Extensive properties are those whose values depend on the size or extent of the system. A reversible process is one that is wholly theoretical. When there is a change in any of the properties of a system. Mass. A process occurs when a system’s state (as measured by its properties) changes for any reason. Processes may be reversible or actual (irreversible).
TRUE or FALSE .2 Study the statements in the table below and decide if the statements are TRUE (T) or FALSE (F). In a close system. _________ I S T E M S iii. STATEMENT i. The mass or region inside the system is called the surroundings. _____________ 2. iv.1 Fill in the blanks with suitable names for the close system in the diagram below. Intensive properties are those which are independent of the size of the system Mass. iii. no mass can enter or leave a system. i. ii. _____________ ii.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/5 Activity 2A TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 2. volume and total energy are some examples of intensive properties.
Surroundings System Boundary 2. False True True False CONGRATULATIONS. iii. ii. iv.. iii. .2 i. IF YOUR ANSWERS ARE CORRECT YOU CAN PROCEED TO THE NEXT INPUT….1 i. ii.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/6 Feedback To Activity 2A 2.
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. (2. chemical. potential. ……The First Law of Thermodynamics In symbols.… Figure 2. kinetic. dQ = dW where represents the sum of a complete cycle.3 The First Law of Thermodynamics Energy can exist in many forms such as thermal. it can only change forms. The First Law of Thermodynamics can therefore be stated as follows: When a system undergoes a thermodynamic cycle then the net heat supplied to the system from its surroundings is equal to the net work done by the systems on its surroundings. electric. This principle is based on experimental observations and is known as the First Law of Thermodynamics.1) .BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/7 INPUT 2.3 Pictures showing types of energy The first law of thermodynamics is simply a statement of conservation of energy principle and it asserts that total energy is a thermodynamic property.
If work is done on unit mass of a fluid. When the boundary is moved inwards the work is done on the system by its surroundings. and the term "heat flow" refers to an energy transfer as a consequence of a temperature difference.4 Work transfer When two systems at different temperatures are in contact with each other. When a boundary of a close system moves in the direction of the force acting on it. This energy is called heat. for example. energy will transfer between them until they reach the same temperature (that is. W = F x dx = pA x dx = p x Adx = p x dV = p(V2 – V1) (2. then the work done per kg of fluid has the units of Nm/kg or J/kg.4 Work and Heat Transfer Work transfer is defined as a product of the force and the distance moved in the direction of the force.2) where p is the pressure exerted on the piston and A is the area of the piston If dx is the displacement of the piston and p can be assumed constant over this displacement. Nm or J. S I S T E M PRESSURE F dx Figure 2. or thermal energy. The units of work are. Consider the fluid expanding behind the piston of an engine. then the system does work on its surroundings.3) where dV = Adx = change in volume. Heat is a form of energy which crosses the boundary of a system during a change of state produced by the difference in temperature between the system . then the work done W will be given by. when they are in equilibrium with each other). The force F (in the absence of friction) will be given by F = pA (2.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/8 2.
SURROUNDINGS BOUNDARY SYSTEM WORK W1 . The joule is defined as the work done when the point of application of a force of one newton is displaced through a distance of one meter in the direction of the force.5 Sign Convention for Work Transfer It is convenient to consider a convention of sign in connection with work transfer and the usual convention adopted is: if work energy is transferred from the system to the surroundings. it is donated as positive.ve WORK W2 + ve Figure 2.5 Sign Convention for work transfer . it is donated as negative. if work energy is transferred from the surroundings to the system. The unit of heat is taken as the amount of heat energy equivalent to one joule or Nm. 2.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/9 and its surroundings.
If we are to study thermal effects then .6 Sign convention for heat transfer 2. For simplicity. Suppose we have 1 kg of gas in a closed container as shown in Figure 2. Once in the system. it is converted to other types of energy.7. It is incorrect to speak of heat in a system since heat energy exists only when it flows across the boundary. we shall assume that the vessel is at rest with respect to the earth and is located on a base horizon. In addition. The term is usually shortened to internal energy. The gas in the vessel has neither macro kinetic energy nor potential energy. The molecules of a fluid may be imagined to be in motion thereby possessing kinetic energy of translation and rotation as well as the energy of vibration of the atoms within the molecules.6 Sign Convention for Heat Transfer The sign convention usually adopted for heat energy transfer is such that : if heat energy flows into the system from the surroundings it is said to be positive.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/10 2.7 Internal Energy Internal energy is the sum of all the energies a fluid possesses and stores within itself. the fluid also possesses internal potential energy due to intermolecular forces. the molecules of the gas are in motion and possess a molecular or 'internal' kinetic energy. However. SURROUNDINGS HEAT ENERGY Q1 + ve SYSTEM HEAT ENERGY Q2 ve BOUNDARY Figure 2. if heat energy flows from the system to the surroundings it is said to be negative.
Equation 2.7 Added work and heat raise the internal energy of a close system .dW U 2 U 1 Q12 W12 (2. We shall denote the specific (per kg) internal energy as u J/kg. we add work dW to the closed system and we also introduce an amount of heat dQ. so the changes occurring as a system gains or loses internal energy are apparent in the changes in the motion of the molecules. The gas in the vessel still has zero macro kinetic energy and zero potential energy. It can be observed that the molecules move faster when the internal energy is increased. Now suppose that by rotation of an impeller within the vessel. The energy that has been added has simply caused an increase in the internal energy. dU dQ . a thermodynamic property of state. The change in internal energy is determined only by the net energy that has been transferred across the boundary and is independent of the form of that energy (work or heat) or the process path of the energy transfer. therefore. molecules can of course be seen.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/11 we can no longer ignore this form of energy. Internal energy is. In molecular simulations.4 is sometimes known as the nonflow energy equation and is a statement of the First Law of Thermodynamics. or.4) dW dQ Figure 2.
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/12 Example 2.W = 0 W = Q (2) + (Wout) = 7 Wout = 9 kJ Qin is +10 kJ Qout is –3 kJ Win is –2 kJ Wout is +ve . Determine the value of the work output for a complete cycle.1 Q = Qin + Qout = (10) + (3) = 7 kJ W = Win + Wout = (2) + (Wout) Hence Q .1 Qin = +10 kJ Wout = (+) ? SYSTEM Qout = 3 kJ Win= 2 kJ The figure above shows a certain process. Solution to Example 2. Wout. which undergoes a complete cycle of operations.
2 U2 – U1 = Q12 – W12 now. . Find the change of internal energy and state whether it is an increase or decrease.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/13 Example 2. W12 = +500 kNm = 500 kJ Q12 = +800 kJ U2 – U1 = 800 – 500 = 300 kJ Since U2 U1.2 A system is allowed to do work amounting to 500 kNm whilst heat energy amounting to 800 kJ is transferred into it. the internal energy has increased. Solution to Example 2.
Calculate the change of internal energy and state whether it is an increase or decrease. 2. Calculate the work transferred from the surrounding to the system.4 PROCESS a. _______ 70 +20 (U2 – U1) i. a system is subjected to the following: Heat transfer is 800 kJ supplied and 150 kJ rejected. Fill in the empty spaces in the table with the correct answers. c. ________ 30 +130 iv. . Each line in Table 2. The work done from the system to the surroundings is 75 kJ.4 gives information about a process of a closed system. Every entry has the same energy unit i.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/14 Activity 2B TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 2.5 Q12 +50 +100 iii. b. 2.3 During a complete cycle operation. _______ 50 W12 20 ii.e. Work done by the system is 200 kJ. _______ A close system undergoes a process in which there is a heat transfer of 200 kJ from the system to the surroundings. kJ. d.
Q12 = 200 kJ W12 = 75 kJ U2 – U1 = (200) – (75) = 275 kJ (Since U2 .BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/15 Feedback To Activity 2B 2.4 i. iii. ii.3 Q = Qin + Qout = (800) + (150) = 650 kJ W = Win + Wout = (Win) + (200) Hence Q .U1 = ve.5 U2 – U1 = Q12 – W12 now. IF YOUR ANSWERS ARE CORRECT THEN YOU ARE SUCCESSFUL. 70 130 60 70 2. the internal energy is decreased) CONGRATULATIONS. .W = 0 W = Q (Win) + (200) = 650 Win = 450 kJ 2. iv.
Be wary of introducing implicit conditions that may be unnecessary for the problem solution. Note that not all of the explicitly given data are always necessarily involved in the problem solution. TRY YOUR BEST. Make sure that all of the given quantities are in a consistent set of units. Draw a diagram of the physical situation. The fewer times numbers are entered into equations. In doing the calculations. Make sure that you understand what is being asked. Simplify the equations as much as possible through algebraic manipulation before plugging numbers into the equations. also manipulate the units. Is the result reasonable and are the final units correct? GOOD LUCK.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/16 ! Tips Problem Solving Methodology There are several correct and effective steps to problem solving. Insert the given data into the equations and perform the calculations. Some of these steps are: Read the ENTIRE problem carefully and all the way through before starting work on the problem. . Check the units on the quantities involved. List the data based on the figures given in the question. Often one equation will be insufficient to solve a particular problem. This will include both explicit and implicit data items. Determine the physical principles involved in the particular problem. There are many variations as to what various authors give for their problem solving strategy. In doing the calculations. The type of drawing will depend upon the problem. the less likely numerical mistakes will be made. follow the rules for significant figures. What are the pertinent equations and how can they be used to determine either the solution or intermediate results that can be further used to determine the solution.
Good luck. How much work is done by the gas? 3. If the internal energy of a system is increased by 90 kJ while the system does 125 kJ of work to the surroundings. find the heat transferred to or from the system. 120 kJ of work is done on the system. The internal energy of a system increases by 70 kJ when 180 kJ of heat is transferred to the system. 4. If you face any problem. If at the same time. 1. During a certain process. 2.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/17 SELFASSESSMENT You are approaching success. discuss it with your lecturer. Determine the change in internal energy and state whether it is increased of decreased. . determine the heat transfer to or from the system. Try all the questions in this selfassessment section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to SelfAssessment on the next page. A thermodynamic system undergoes a process in which its internal energy decreases by 300 kJ. 1000 kJ of heat is added to the working fluid while 750 kJ is extracted as work.
May success be with you always….U1 = +ve.. 4. . 3. 1. check your answers now. the internal energy is increased) Q = 215 kJ CONGRATULATIONS!!!!…. 2.420 kJ W = 110 kJ U2 – U1 = 250 kJ (Since U2 . Q = .BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/18 Feedback to SelfAssessment Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”.
Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to: define the definitions of Boyle’s Law.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/1 UNIT 3 BASIC THERMODYNAMICS OBJECTIVES General Objective : To understand the laws of thermodynamics and its constants. Charles’ Law and Universal Gases Law define and show the application of the specific heat capacity at constant pressure define and apply the specific heat capacity at constant volume .
a perfect gas is an ideal which can never be realized in practice. have no intermolecular attractions (which leads to elastic collisions in which no energy is exchanged or lost). strictly speaking. oxygen. There is actually a distinction between these two terms but for our purposes. The principle properties used to define the state of a gaseous system are pressure (P). one important type of fluid that has many applications in thermodynamics is the type in which the working temperature of the fluid remains well above the critical temperature of the fluid? In this case. . air etc is very similar to the behavior of a perfect gas to a first approximation. m3 for volume (although liters and cm3 are often substituted). random motion. volume (V) and temperature (T).BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/2 INPUT 3. and the absolute scale of temperature or Kelvin (K). The behavior of many ‘permanent’ gases. if it is required to condense the fluid. A perfect gas is a collection of particles that: are in constant. the fluid cannot be liquefied by an isothermal compression.0 Definition Of Perfect Gases Did you know. are considered to be volumeless points. e. then cooling of the fluid must first be carried out. i.g. Although.e. hydrogen. their behavior is likened to that a perfect gas. You are more familiar with the term ‘ideal’ gas. you may consider them interchangeable. Two of the laws describing the behavior of a perfect gas are Boyle’s Law and Charles’ Law. SI units (Systems International) for these properties are Pascal (Pa) for pressure. In the simple treatment of such fluids.
3. P P 1/V 1/V Figure 3. or P x V = constant if temperature remains constant. having the mathematical equation xy = constant. i.11 Graph P 1/V If a gas changes from state 1 to state 2 during an isothermal process. then P1 V1 = P2 V2 = constant (3. P P1 P2 P3 1 PV = constant 2 3 V1 V2 V3 V Figure 3. the results will be as shown in Fig.1) If the process is represented on a graph having axes of pressure P and volume V.1 Boyle’s Law The Boyle’s Law may be stated as follows: Provided the temperature T of a perfect gas remains constant. P 1/V (as shown in Fig.12 PV graph for constant temperature .12. V of a given mass of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure P of the gas.e. The curve is known as a rectangular hyperbola.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/3 3. 3.11). then volume.
then the volume V of the gas will be directly proportional to the absolute temperature T of the gas.22 m3 and 325 kN/m2 to a final state of 170 kN/m2. Therefore V/T = constant.2 Charles’ Law The Charles’s Law may be stated as follows: Provided the pressure P of a given mass of gas remains constant.22 m 3 P2 325 kN/m 0. V T. Solution to Example 3.2. for constant pressure P. If gas changes from state 1 to state 2 during a constant pressure process.2 PV graph for constant pressure process .e.1 From equation P1V1 = P2V2 V2 V1 x P1 0. 3. P 1 2 0 V1 V2 V Figure 3.1 A quantity of a certain perfect gas is heated at a constant temperature from an initial state of 0. the result will be as shown in Fig. i.2) If the process is represented on a P – V diagram as before.421 m 3 170 kN/m 2 2 3. Calculate the final pressure of the gas.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/4 Example 3. then V1 V2 constant T1 T2 (3. or V = constant x T.
3) (3.3 below.54 m3 and 345 oC undergoes a constant pressure process that causes the volume of the gas to decreases to 0. Solution to Example 3. The relation which gives the volume of a gas when both temperature and the pressure are changed is stated as equation 3.4) .2 From the question V1 = 0. P1V1 P2V2 T1 T2 (3. PV constant R T i.32 m3 V1 V2 T1 T2 T2 T1 x V2 V1 0. Calculate the temperature of the gas at the end of the process.54 m3 T1 = 345 + 273 K = 618 K V2 = 0.2 A quantity of gas at 0.3 Universal Gases Law Charles’ Law gives us the change in volume of a gas with temperature when the pressure remains constant.e. Boyle’s Law gives us the change in volume of a gas with pressure if the temperature remains constant.32 m 3 618 K 0.54 m 3 366 K 3.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/5 Example 3.32 m3.
7 in equation 3. PV = nMRT or MR PV nT (3.6) Another form of the characteristic equation can be derived using the kilogrammole as a unit.6.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/6 No gases in practice obey this law rigidly. m = nM (3. is called the gas constant.5) (3.8) . An PV imaginary ideal that obeys the law is called a perfect gas. since the molecular weight of oxygen is 32. From the definition of the kilogrammole.g. PV = mRT (3. and the equation R T is called the characteristic equation of state of a perfect gas. but many gases tend towards it. The kilogrammole is defined as a quantity of a gas equivalent to m kg of the gas. where M is the molecular weight of the gas (e. The unit of R is Nm/kg K or J/kg K. Each perfect gas has a different gas constant. occupying V m3. Substituting for m from equation 3. for m kg of a gas we have. The constant. R. The characteristic equation is usually written PV = RT or for m kg. Note: Since the standard of mass is the kg.7) (where n is the number of moles). then 1 kg mole of oxygen is equivalent to 32 kg of oxygen). kilogrammole will be written simply as mole.
determine: d) e) the mass of gas (kg) the final volume of gas (m3) Given: R = 0.71 m3. The gas is compressed until the pressure reaches 1. If the gas is assumed to be a perfect gas.8 J/kg K M 32 Example 3.29 kJ/kg K . MR Ro PV or PV nRoT nT (3. i. when the gases are at the same temperature and pressure. for oxygen of molecular weight 32. R R o M (3.71 8314. That is the quantity PV/nT is constant for all gases. Therefore V/n is the same for all gases at the same value of P and T.10 the gas constant for any gas can be found when the molecular weight is known.9) or since MR = Ro then. and is given the symbol Ro. This constant is called the universal gas constant. e. Therefore from equation 3.e.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/7 Now Avogadro’s hypothesis states that the volume of 1 mole of any gas is the same as the volume of 1 mole of any other gas.3 0.27 MN/m2 and the temperature is 83oC.4 259.g.046 m3 of gas are contained in a sealed cylinder at a pressure of 300 kN/m2 and a temperature of 45 oC.15 From equation 3. the gas constant is R Ro 8314.4 J/mole K nT 1 x 273.8 R0 PV 1 x 10 5 x 22.10) Experiment has shown that the volume of 1 mole of any perfect gas at 1 bar and 1 oC is approximately 22.
3 From the question V1 = 0.27 x 10 3 318 300 1346 K .046 m3 P1 = 300 kN/m2 T1 = 45 + 273 K = 318 K P2 = 1.046 0. the constant volume process i.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/8 Solution to Example 3.27 x 103 kN/m2 T2 = 83 + 273 K = 356 K R = 0.29 kJ/kg K From equation 3.1496 kg RT1 0.4.29 x 318 From equation 3.27 MN/m2 = 1.6 PV = mRT m P1V1 300 x 0. V1 = V2 P1 P2 T1 T2 P T2 T1 2 P 1 1.e.
The unit of R is Nm/kg or J/kg.76 bar and a temperature of 127 oC.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/9 Activity 3A TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 3. Calculate the molecular weight of the gas (M). TRUE or FALSE ii.04 kg of a certain perfect gas occupies a volume of 0.0072 m3 at a pressure 6. iii.12 bar the final volume is 0. Charles’ Law gives us the change in volume of a gas with temperature when the temperature remains constant. iv. vi. 3.1 Study the statements in the table below.2 0. v. . Calculate the final temperature.065 m3. STATEMENT i. Boyle’s Law gives us the change in volume of a gas with pressure if the pressure remains constant. Mark the answers as TRUE or FALSE. T Ro is the symbol for universal gas constant. The constant R is called the gas constant. When the gas is allowed to expand until the pressure is 2. The characteristic equation of state of a perfect gas is PV R .
m = 0.76 x 10 2 x 0. iii.3042 i. False False True True True False 3.e.3042 kJ/kg K mT1 0. iv.12 x 102 kN/m2 R P1V1 6.0072 0.76 x 102 kN/m2 T1 = 127 + 273 K = 400 K From equation 3.04 x 400 Then from equation 3.1 i. v. ii.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/10 Feedback To Activity 3A 3. Molecular weight = 27 .10 R R o M M Ro 8.3144 27 kg/kmol R 0.12 bar = 2.6 P1V1 = mRT1 V2 = 0.072 m3 P2 = 2.072 m3 P1 = 6. vi.76 bar = 6.2 From the question.04 kg V1 = 0.
6 P2V2 = mRT2 T2 i.12 x 10 2 x 0. .BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/11 From equation 3. P2V2 2.065 1132.5 – 273 = 859.5 oC.04 x 0.3042 Final temperature = 1132.5 K mR 0.. CONGRATULATIONS. IF YOUR ANSWERS ARE CORRECT YOU CAN PROCEED TO THE NEXT INPUT….e.
12) (3. If 1 kg of a gas is supplied with an amount of heat energy sufficient to raise the temperature of the gas by 1 degree whilst the volume of the gas remains constant.4 Specific Heat Capacity at Constant Volume (Cv) The specific heat capacities of any substance is defined as the amount of heat energy required to raise the unit mass through one degree temperature raise.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/12 INPUT 3. from the nonflow energy equation Q – W = (U2 – U1) mcv(T2 – T1) – 0 = (U2 – U1) (U2 – U1) = mCv(T2 – T1) i. then the amount of heat energy supplied is known as the specific heat capacity at constant volume.11) For a perfect gas the values of Cv are constant for any one gas at all pressures and temperatures.e. The two specific heat capacities do not have the same value and it is essential to distinguish them. two specified conditions are used. In thermodynamics. Note: In a reversible constant volume process. no work energy transfer can take place since the piston will be unable to move i. those of constant volume and constant pressure. Equations (3. we have dQ = mCvdT (3. Q12 = mCv(T2 – T1) Also.e. The unit of Cv is J/kg K or kJ/kg K.11) can then be expanded as follows : Heat flow in a constant volume process. and is denoted by Cv.13) . W = 0. dU = Q (3. For a reversible nonflow process at constant volume.
72 kJ/kg K R = 0.287 kJ/kg K .4 From the question m = 3.4.72 kJ/kg K R = 0. determine: a) b) c) the heat flow during the process the beginning pressure of gas the final pressure of gas Given Cv = 0. If the gas is assumed to be a perfect gas. 3.4 PV diagram for reversible constant volume process Example 3.4 3.287 kJ/kg K Solution to Example 3.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/13 The reversible constant volume process is shown on a PV diagram in Fig.92 m3 and temperature 17 oC until the temperature rose to 147 oC.4 kg V1 = V2 = 0. P P2 2 P1 1 V1 = V2 V Figure 3.4 kg of gas is heated at a constant volume of 0.92 m3 T1 = 17 + 273 K = 290 K T2 = 147 + 273 K = 420 K Cv = 0.
4 x 0. Equation (3. P1V1 = mRT1 mRT1 3. then the amount of heat energy supplied is known as the specific heat capacity at constant pressure.14) can then be expanded as follows: Heat flow in a reversible constant pressure process Q = mCp(T2 – T1) (3.5 Specific Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure (Cp) If 1 kg of a gas is supplied with an amount of heat energy sufficient to raise the temperature of the gas by 1 degree whilst the pressure of the gas remains constant. The unit of Cp is J/kg K or kJ/kg K.6 kN/m 2 3 V1 0.92 m b) c) For state 2. P2V2 = mRT2 mRT2 3.5 kN/m 2 3 V2 0.15) .92 m 3.24 kJ From equation 3.6.287 kJ/kgK x 420 K P2 445.13. PV = mRT Hence for state 1.72(420 – 290) = 318.287 kJ/kgK x 290 K P1 307. and is denoted by Cp. Q12 = mCv(T2 – T1) = 3. we have dQ = mCpdT (3. For a reversible nonflow process at constant pressure.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/14 a) From equation 3.4 kg x 0.14) For a perfect gas the values of Cp are constant for any one gas at all pressures and temperatures.4 kg x 0.
it is usually written as R = Cp .6 Relationship Between The Specific Heats Let a perfect gas be heated at constant pressure from T1 to T2. For monatomic . and oxygen (O2). from equation 3. we have W = mR(T2 – T1) Therefore substituting.e.Cv 3. W = P(V2 – V1). Cp Cv (3. hydrogen (H2). the work done by the fluid is given by the pressure times the change in volume. hence.e.17) Note that since Cp . is about 1. Q = mCv(T2 – T1) + W In a constant pressure process. by equating the two expressions for the heat flow Q.16 3. = i.16.4 for diatomic gases such as carbon monoxide (CO).15. Then using equation PV = mRT.Cv= R. we have mCp(T2 – T1) = m(Cv + R)(T2 – T1) Cp = Cv + R Alternatively. nitrogen (N2). is always greater than unity. it is clear that Cp must be greater than Cv for any perfect gas. and the equation for a perfect gas U2 – U1 = mCv(T2 – T1). Q = mCv(T2 – T1) + mR(T2 – T1) = m(Cv + R)(T2 – T1) But for a constant pressure process from equation 3. Q = mCp(T2 – T1) Hence.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/15 3. In general. It follows therefore that the ratio Cp/Cv = .7 Specific Heat Ratio () The ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure to the specific heat at constant volume is given the symbol (gamma). With reference to the nonflow equation Q = U2 – U1 + W. i.
R.11.17 Cp . and can be derived. = 1. and sulphur dioxide (SO2). From equation 3.18 Also from equation 3. is about 1.6. Cv .22.17. For some hydrocarbons the value of is quite low (e. Cp = Cv = Cp = R ( 1) 3. Some useful relationships between Cp . Cp = Cv hence substituting in equation 3. and for triatomic gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2).g.18. is about 1. and for isobutane (C4H10). for ethane (C2H6).Cv= R Dividing through by Cv Cp R 1 Cv Cv Therefore using equation 3.17. 1 R Cv Cv R ( 1) 3. = 1. then.3.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/16 gases such as argon (A).19 R ( 1) . = Cp Cv . and helium (He).
657 kJ/kg K Find the gas constant and the molecular weight of the gas.e.e.189 kJ/kg K R = 189 Nm/kg K From equation 3. Solution to Example 3.Cv i.10 M= R0 R 8314 44 189 i.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/17 Example 3.16 R = C p .846 kJ/kg K and Cv = 0.846 – 0. M= . or R = 0.5 A certain perfect gas has specific heat as follows Cp = 0.5 From equation 3.657 = 0.
iii. determine the Cv of the process. A mass of 0. If the gas has a value of Cv = 720 J/kg K.3 Two kilograms of a gas receive 200 kJ as heat at constant volume process.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/18 Activity 3B TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 3. A perfect gas is contained in a rigid vessel at 3 bar and 315 oC. Calculate the heat rejected per kg of gas. calculate the: i. gas constant molecular weight specific heat at constant pressure specific heat ratio 3.5 bar.26. If the temperature of the gas increases by 100 oC. ii. iv. Given: M = 26 kg/kmol and = 1.4 3.18 kg gas is at a temperature of 15 oC and pressure 130 kN/m2.5 . The gas is then cooled until the pressure falls to 1.
18. the volume remains constant (i. R 8314 R o 319. m = 2 kg Q = 200 kJ (T2 – T1) = 100 oC = 373 K Q = mCv(T2 – T1) Q 200 Cv 0.4.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/19 Feedback To Activity 3B 3.4 From the question.230 kJ/kg K ( 1) 1.5 bar M = 26 kg/kmol = 1. P1 = 3 bar T1 = 315 oC = 588 K P2 = 1.3 From the question.26 From equation 3.268 kJ/kgK mT2 T1 2(373) 3.8 J/kg K M 26 From equation 3.26 1 During the process.10. and from equation 3. .8 Cv 1230 J/kg K 1. R 319. rigid vessel) for the mass of gas present.e.
Cv Cp = R + Cv = 0.59 Cv 0.6 kJ/kg 3.6.426 From equation 3. P 1. R = Cp . iii.3144 M o 19. Q = Cv(T2 – T1) = 1.146 kJ/kg K From equation 3.720 = 1.17 R 0. .5 From the question m = 0.720 kJ/kg K i. From equation 3.10. R R o M R 8.12.16.18 x 288 From equation 3. C p 1.146 1.426 kJ/kgK mT 0. Heat rejected per kg gas.720 ii.230(588 – 294) = 361.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/20 P1V1 P2V2 T1 T2 Therefore since V1 = V2.17.17 m3 Cv = 720 J/kg K = 0.426 + 0. PV = mRT PV 130 x 0.52 kg/kmol R 0.5 T2 T1 2 588 x 294 K P1 3 Then from equation 3. iv.18 kg T = 15 oC = 288 K V = 0.
6 m3. Given R = 0. 1 m3 of air at 8 bar and 120 oC is cooled at constant pressure process until the temperature drops to 27 oC. calculate the: i. If gas has Cv = 0. If you face any problem.287 kJ/kg K and Cp = 1. 100 kJ is added as heat.20 m3 to 0. determine the: i. ii. Good luck. Try all the questions in this selfassessment section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to SelfAssessment on the next page. 2. ii.006 m3. . A system undergoes a process in which 42 kJ of heat is rejected. determine the work done and the change in internal energy. discuss it with your lecturer.The mass of the container is 1 kg and the volume of gas is 0. mass of air heat rejected in the process volume of the air after cooling. change in temperature change in internal energy 3. iii. Heat is supplied to a gas in a rigid container.005 kJ/kg K. 1.7186 kJ/kg K during a process.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/21 SELFASSESSMENT You are approaching success. If the pressure is kept constant at 125 kN/m2 while the volume changes from 0.
check your answers now. (T2 – T1) = 139. m = 7. i.093 kg Q = 663 kJ V2 = 0.25 kJ (U2 – U1) = 17. iii. CONGRATULATIONS!!!!…. W = 24. .75 kJ i. ii. 1.BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/22 Feedback To SelfAssessment Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”. ii.763 m3 2.2 K (U2 – U1) = 100 kJ 3. May success be with you always…..
FLOW PROCESS OBJECTIVES General Objective : To understand and apply the concept of nonflow process in thermodynamics Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to: define and describe the differences between the flow and the nonflow processes identify heat and work in reversible process define and calculate the following nonflow processes : constant temperature (Isothermal) adiabatic .NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/1 UNIT 4 NON .
the working fluid flows into the cylinder in which it is then temporarily sealed. it may be possible for it to undergo a series of processes in which the fluid does not flow. 4.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/2 INPUT 4. An example of this is the cylinder of an internal combustion engine. causing the engine to do external work.0 INTRODUCTION What is a non flow process? O nce a fluid has entered a system. The exhaust valve is then opened and the fluid is made to flow out of the cylinder into the surroundings. after which heat energy is supplied so that the fluid possesses sufficient energy to force the piston back down the cylinder. the fluid is compressed by the piston moving into the cylinder. Processes which are undergone by a system when the working fluid cannot cross the boundary are called nonflow process. This process occurs during the compression and the working stroke as mentioned in the above example (refer to Fig. In the suction stroke. Whilst the cylinder is sealed. .0).
the changes in . not only the energy transfers take place across the boundary.1 Flow Process In an open system. For the same reason.0 The cycle of an internal combustion engine 4. since the fluid is already in the system. gZ1 u1 P1v1 C12 C2 Q gZ 2 u 2 P2 v2 2 W 2 2 4. If the fluid is undergoing a nonflow process from state (1) to state (2) then the terms from the general equation for p1V1 and p2V2 (which represent the amount of work energy required to introduce and expel the fluid from the system) will be zero. The general equation is shown below. This process may be subdivided into an unsteady flow process and steady flow process. although energy may be transferred across the boundary in the form of work energy and heat energy.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/3 SUCTION STROKE COMPRESSION STROKE WORKING STROKE EXHAUST STROKE Figure 4. Any process undergone by an open system is called a flow process. and will still be in the system at the end of the process.2 Nonflow process In a close system.1 Differences Between The Flow and Nonflow processes 4. Any process undergone by a close system is referred to as the nonflow process. the working fluid itself never crosses the boundary.1.1. the fluid may also cross the boundary.
2 Constant temperature (Isothermal) process (pV = C) If the change in temperature during a process is very small then that process may be approximated as an isothermal process. This equation is known as the non flow energy equation. which is perfectly cooled by water may be analysed. assuming that the temperature remains constant. and it will now be shown how this may apply to the various nonflow processes. Thus the equation becomes U1 + Q = U2 + W or. the slow expansion or compression of fluid in a cylinder. the change in the internal energy of the fluid is equal to the nett amount of heat energy supplied to the fluid minus the nett amount of work energy flowing from the fluid.2 Constant temperature (Isothermal) process . this equation states that in a nonflow process.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/4 kinetic and potential energies of the fluid will also be zero. 4.1) In words. For example. U2 – U1 = Q –W (4. P W 1 2 W v Q v1 v2 Figure 4.
Work transfer: Referring to the process represented on the p – V diagram in Fig. the volume increases and the pressure decreases. In other words the system produces work output and this is shown by the direction of the arrow representing W. increasing volume).NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/5 The general relation properties between the initial and final states of a perfect gas are applied as follows: p1V1 p 2V2 T1 T2 If the temperature remains constant during the process. In other words. T1 = T2 and the above relation becomes p1V1 p2V2 From the equation we can know that an increase in the volume results in a decrease in the pressure. On the p – V diagram.2) Note that during expansion. .2 it is noted that the volume increases during the process. the pressure is inversely proportional to the volume.4. The expansion work is given by W pdV = 2 c dV V 1 2 1 2 (since pV = C.e. a constant) = c 1 dV V 2 dV V 1 V = p1V1 ln 2 V1 = p1V1 larger vol ume smaller vo lume V2 V1 p = mRT1 ln 1 p2 = mRT1 ln (since p1V1 = mRT1) (since V2 p 1) V1 p2 (4. the work is done by the system. the shaded area under the process line represents the amount of work transfer. in an isothermal process. In other words the fluid is expanding. Since this is an expansion process (i.
for a perfect gas. Q=W (4. For a constant temperature process V W = mRT1 ln 2 = Q V1 or p W = mRT1 ln 1 = Q p2 .3) Thus. all the heat added during a constant temperature process is converted into work and the internal energy of the system remains constant.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/6 Heat transfer: Energy balance to this case is applied: U1 + Q = U2 + W For a perfect gas U1 = mcvT1 and U2 = mcvT2 As the temperature is constant U1 = U2 Substituting in the energy balance equation.
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/7 4.3 Adiabatic process (Q = 0) If a system is thermally well insulated then there will be negligible heat transfer into or out of the system.3 Adiabatic (zero heat transfer) process For a perfect gas the equation for an adiabatic process is pV = C where = ratio of specific heat = Cp Cv The above equation is applied to states 1 and 2 as: p1V1 p2V2 p 2 V1 p1 V2 (4. Such a system is thermally isolated and a process within that system may be idealised as an adiabatic process. the outer casing of steam engine. The fluid expansion process in such machines may be assumed to be adiabatic. For example. P W 1 2 W v v1 Thermal insulation v2 Figure 4.4) . steam turbines and gas turbines are well insulated to minimise heat loss.
As this is an expansion process (i.4 and 4. In other words.3) it is noted that the volume increases during the process. In other words. .3).6 the following conclusion for an adiabatic process on a perfect gas can be drawn: An increase in volume results in a decrease in pressure. Work transfer: Referring to the process represented on the pV diagram (Fig.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/8 Also. the system produces work output and this is shown by the direction of the arrow representing W (as shown in Fig 4. In the p – V diagram.5 the following relationship can be determined: T2 p 2 T1 p1 1 V 1 V2 1 (4. the shaded area under the process represents the amount of work transfer.4. the general property relation between the two states is given by the equation below p1V1 p 2V2 T1 T2 (4.5) By manipulating equations 4. the fluid expanding and the expansion work is given by the formula: W pdV = 2 c dV V 1 2 1 2 (since pV = C.6) By examining equations 4. a constant) dV 1 V p V p 2V2 = 1 1 1 = c [larger pV. An increase in volume results in a decrease in temperature.small pV] (4.e. increase in volume) the work is done by the system. p2 is smaller than p1.7) Note that after expansion. An increase in pressure results in an increase in temperature. for a perfect gas.4 and 4.
9) But. Applying an energy balance to this case (Fig.6 tells that a decrease in pressure will result in a temperature drop. Q = 0. U1 = mcvT1 and U1 = mcvT1 On substitution W = mcv(T1T2) [larger T.cv = R or R cv = 1 Substituting in equation 4. equation 4.4. For a perfect gas. mRT2 = p2V2 and mRT1 = p1V1 Then the expression for the expansion becomes W p1V1 p 2V2 1 (4.W = U2 W = U1 – U2 Thus. because of the work output the internal energy of the system decreases by a corresponding amount. In other words. For a perfect gas. in an adiabatic expansion the work output is equal to the decrease in internal energy.smaller T] We know cp.8 (4.3): U1 .10) Referring to the process represented on the pV diagram it is noted that during this process the volume increases and the pressure decreases. .NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/9 Heat transfer: In an adiabatic process.8) W mR(T1 T2) 1 (4.
t1= 22oC W=? Q=? From the equation R R= 0 M 8314 = 32 = 260 J/kgK = 0.260 kJ/kgK For an isothermal process Work input. p W = mRTln 2 p1 = 0.5 bar. Therefore.4 kg. Solution to Example 4.1 In an industrial process.4 x 0. Assume that oxygen is a perfect gas and take the molecular weight of oxygen to be M = 32 kg/kmole.1 Data: m = 0. Q = W = 52 kJ 5.5 bar.5 1. p2 = 5.01 bar.01 bar and 22o C to 5. heat rejected. Determine the work done and the heat transfer during the process. p1= 1.01 .4 kg of oxygen is compressed isothermally from 1.260 x (22 273) ln = 52 kJ In an isothermal process all the work input is rejected as heat. 0.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/10 Example 4.
4. Rewriting equation 4.05 kg of air.05 kg. For air.2 Data : p1 = 0. Considering air as a perfect gas From equation 4. Determine the pressure and temperature of the air after compression. If the compressor cylinder contains 0.05 x 0.2 In a thermally insulated reciprocating air compressor. calculate the required work input. p 2 V1 p1 V2 p2 = 0. air at 0.8 for an adiabatic compression process W = mcv(T2T1) [larger T. T1= 20 + 273 = 293 K V2 1 m = 0. W = ? .718 kJ/kgK.6. Solution to Example 4. V1 6 As the cylinder is well insulated the heat transfer is negligible and the process may be treated as adiabatic.718 (600293) = 11 kJ .4 = 12 bar T2 V 1 T1 V2 T2 = 293 x 60.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/11 Example 4.4 = 600 K = 327oC 1 From equation 4.4 and cv = 0.98 bar. take = 1.98 x 61.smaller T] = 0.98 bar and 20oC is compressed into one sixth of its original volume.
8 bar. is compressed reversibly and adiabatically by a piston to a pressure of 6. 20oC to 4.2 4. 1. Calculate the final temperature.02 bar. the final volume.0 kg of carbon dioxide at 527o C and 20 bar expands isothermally to a pressure of 1.2 bar. initially occupying a cylinder volume of 0.1 In the cylinder of a large engine.4 bar. 1 kg of nitrogen (molecular weight 28) is compressed reversibly and isothermally from 1. Assume nitrogen to be a perfect gas. 22oC. .3 Air at 1.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/12 Activity 4 TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 4. 4. and the work done on the mass of air in the cylinder.01 bar. Calculate the work done and the heat flow during the process. What is the final volume of the gas? Take R = 189 Nm/kgK for carbon dioxide.015 m3.
0756 1.0756 m3 = Applying the general property relation between state 1 and 2 p1V1 p 2V2 T1 T2 For an isothermal process T1 = T2 Hence. p1V1 = mRT1 mRT1 V1 = p1 1x189 x800 20 x10 5 = 0.0 kg.4 bar.08 m3 .4 V2 = 1.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/13 Feedback to Activity 4 4. p1V1 p2V2 20 V2 = x 0. T1= 527 + 273 = 800 K p2= 1. p1 = 20 bar.1 Data: m = 1. V2 = ? Carbon dioxide is a perfect gas and we can apply the following characteristic gas equation at state 1.
2 Data: m=1kg. From equation R R= 0 M 8.297x293x ln = 124 kJ/kg For an isothermal process for a perfect gas. Q = W = 124 kJ/kg .2 pV=C 1. p2 = 4.01 4.01 v From equation 4.297 kJ/kgK p1 = 1. work is done on the fluid.2 W = mRT1 ln p1 p2 1. p 4.2 bar The process is shown on a pv diagram below.01 bar. M= 28 kg/kmole T1 = 20 + 272 = 293 K. When a process takes place from right to left on a pv diagram the work done by the fluid is negative.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/14 4.2 = 1 x 0. That is.314 = 28 = 0.
4 p 2 V1 p1 V2 or v1 p 2 v 2 p1 1 / 1. Final volume v2 = 0.5 – 273 = 234.4 1) / 1.T2) = 0.152. T1=22 + 273 = 295 K.015 0.e.0038 m3 For an adiabatic process.8 bar From equation 4.02 bar.02 x10 5 x0.02 = 507.02 i. work input per kg = 152.e.8 = 2.4) i.015 6.018kg RT1 0.0181 x 152.5 K (where for air = 1. Final temperature = 507.4 1/ 0.e.8 kJ The mass of air can be found using equation pV = mRT m p1v1 1.5) = .8 kJ/kg i.e.287 x10 3195 i.8 v2 1.3 Data: p1=1. p2= 6. Total work done = 0.5oC From equation 4.718(295507.76 kJ . W = cv(T1. W = u1 – u2 and for a perfect gas.6 T2 p 2 T1 p1 1 6.8 T2 = 295 x 1.015 m3.4 (1. v1= 0.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/4/15 4.
NONFLOW PROCESS
J2006/4/16
SELFASSESSMENT
You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this selfassessment section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to SelfAssessment on the next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck. 1. 0.05 m3 of a perfect gas at 6.3 bar undergoes a reversible isothermal process to a pressure of 1.05 bar. Calculate the heat flow to or from the gas. Nitrogen (molecular weight 28) expands reversibly in a perfectly thermally insulated cylinder from 2.5 bar, 200oC to a volume of 0.09 m3. If the initial volume occupied was 0.03 m3, calculate the work done during the expansion. Assume nitrogen to be a perfect gas and take cv = 0.741 kJ/kg K. A mass of 0.05 kg of air at a temperature of 40oC and a pressure of 1 bar is compressed adiabatically to 5 bar. Determine the following: a) final temperature b) final volume c) work transfer d) heat transfer e) change in internal energy A quantity of gas occupies a volume of 0.3 m3 at a pressure of 100 kN/m2 and a temperature of 20oC. The gas is compressed isothermally to a pressure of 500 kN/m2 and then expanded adiabatically to its initial volume. For this quantity of gas determine the following: a) the heat received or rejected (state which) during the compression, b) the change of internal energy during the expansion, c) the mass of gas.
2.
3.
4.
NONFLOW PROCESS
J2006/4/17
Feedback to SelfAssessment
Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”, check your answers now. 1. 2. 3. 4. 56.4 kJ 9.31 kJ 222.7oC, 14230 cm3, 6.56 kJ input, 0 kJ, 6.56 kJ increase. – 48.3 kJ (heat rejected), 35.5 kJ, 0.358 kg
CONGRATULATIONS!!!! You can now move on to Unit 5…
NONFLOW PROCESS
J2006/5/1
UNIT 5
NONFLOW PROCESS
OBJECTIVES
General Objective
: To understand and apply the concept of nonflow process in thermodynamics
Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:
define and calculate the following nonflow processes: polytropic constant volume constant pressure
NONFLOW PROCESS
J2006/5/2
INPUT
5.0
NONFLOW PROCESS
Processes, which are undergone by a system when the working fluid cannot cross the boundary, are called nonflow process.
In a close system, although energy may be transferred across the boundary in the form of work energy and heat energy, the working fluid itself never crosses the boundary. Any process undergone by a close system is referred to as nonflow process. The equation for nonflow process is given as follows: U1 + Q = U2 + W or, U2 – U1 = Q –W
In words, this equation states that in a nonflow process, the change in the internal energy of the fluid is equal to the nett amount of heat energy supplied to the fluid minus the nett amount of work energy flowing from the fluid. This equation is known as the nonflow energy equation, and it will now be shown how this may apply to the various nonflow processes.
NONFLOW PROCESS
J2006/5/3
5.1
Polytropic process (pVn = C) This is the most general type of process, in which both heat energy and work energy cross the boundary of the system. It is represented by an equation in the form pVn = constant (5.1)
If a compression or expansion is performed slowly, and if the piston cylinder assembly is cooled perfectly, then the process will be isothermal. In this case the index n = 1. If a compression or expansion is performed rapidly, and if the piston cylinder assembly is perfectly insulated, then the process will be adiabatic. In this case the index n = . If a compression or expansion is performed at moderate speed, and if the piston cylinder assembly is cooled to some degree, then the process is somewhere between those discussed above. Generally, this is the situation in many engineering applications. In this case the index n should take some value, which is between 1 and depending on the degree of cooling. Some practical examples include: compression in a stationary air compressor compression in an air compressor cooled by a fan compression in a water cooled air compressor P P1
(n = 1.3) (n = 1.2) (n = 1.1)
W
1
pVn=C
P2 W v1 Qloss Figure 5.1 Polytropic process
2
v2
v
3) By the manipulation of equations 5.4 the following conclusions for a polytropic process on a perfect gas can be drawn as: An increase in volume results in a decrease in pressure.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/4 Equation 5.2 and 5. In other words the fluid is expands and the expansion work is given by W pdV = 2 c dV n 1V dV n 1 V 2 1 2 (since pVn = C.1 is applied at states 1 and 2 as: p1V1n p2V2n or p 2 V1 p1 V2 n (5.5. Work transfer: Referring to the process represented on the pV diagram (Fig. An increase in volume results in a decrease in temperature. An increase in pressure results in an increase in temperature. a constant) = c .2) Also.4) By examining equations 5. the general property relation between the two states is given by p1V1 p 2V2 T1 T2 (5.3 the following relationship can be determined: T2 p 2 T1 p1 n 1 n V 1 V2 n 1 (5.2 and 5.1) it is noted that the volume increases during the process. for a perfect gas.
in a polytropic expansion the work output is reduced because of the heat loses.W = U2 Qloss = (U1 – U2) – W or W = (U1 – U2) .5) Note that after expansion p2 is smaller than p1. the system produces work output and this is shown by the direction of the arrow representing W as shown in Fig.5.1. increase in volume). For a perfect gas. Heat transfer: Energy balance is applied to this case (Fig. For adiabatic process: p V p 2V2 W= 1 1 1 For polytropic process: p V p 2V2 W= 1 1 n 1 .e. Referring to the process represented on the p–V diagram (Fig.1) as: U1 – Qloss . the shaded area under the process represents the amount of work transfer.Qloss Thus. In other words. Since this is an expansion process (i. In the p – V diagram.1) it is noted that during this process the volume increases and the pressure decreases. equation 5.small pV] (5.5. 5.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/5 = p1V1 p 2V2 n 1 [larger pV. the work is done by the system.4 tells us that a decrease in pressure will result in a temperature drop.
4 as: V T2 T1 1 V2 n 1 1 = 1073x 8.4oC 1.151 .5. p2 = ? W=? n = 1.5 before expansion.1 P1= 30 bar t1 = 800oC Qloss W V2 = 510 cm3 p2 = ? t2 = ? State 1 Data: p1 = 30 bar.1 The combustion gases in a petrol engine cylinder are at 30 bar and 800oC V 8 .15 V2 = 8. The gases expand through a volume ratio ( 2 ) of ( ) 1 V1 and occupy 510 cm3 after expansion.15. V1 t2 = ? Considering air as a perfect gas. the property relation is given by equation 5. State 2 T1 = 800 + 273 = 1073 K. V2 = 510 cm3. When the engine is air cooled the polytropic expansion index n = 1. for the polytropic process.4 K = 505.5 = 778. What is the temperature and pressure of the gas after expansion.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/6 Example 5. and what is the work output? Solution to Example 5.
1.56 bar Now. V1 510 x10 6 8. V2 = 8.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/7 From equation 5.5 V1 Then.5 as: W = p1V1 p 2V2 [larger pV.5 = 2.small pV] n 1 (30 x10 5 )(60 x10 6 ) (2.5 = 60 x 106 m3 Work output during polytropic expansion is given by equation 5.56 x10 5 ) (510 x10 6 ) = 1.33 kJ .15 V2 = 510 cm3 = 510 x 106 m3 and.2 V p 2 p1 1 V2 n 1 = 30 x 8.15 1 = 330 J = 0.
07 kg of fluid has a pressure of 1 bar.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/8 Activity 5A TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 5. Determine a) the amount of work energy required for the compression b) the quantity and direction of the heat energy that flows during the compression.014 m3 of gas at a pressure of 2070 kN/m2 expands to a pressure of 207 kN/m2 according to the law pV1. and the specific internal energy is 370 kJ/kg. After polytropic compression. 0. Determine the new volume of the gas. It is compressed to 690 kN/m2 according to the law pV1. Determine the work done by the gas during expansion.1 0.011 m3 respectively. A cylinder containing 0.06 m3 and a specific internal energy of 200 kJ/kg.35 = C.4 = C. the pressure and volume of the fluid are 9 bar and 0.112 m3 of gas has a pressure of 138 kN/m2. 5.3 .2 5. a volume of 0.
2 The work done during a polytropic expansion is given by the expression: W = p1V1 p 2V2 n 1 [larger pV.small pV] In this problem V2 is.1 Since the gas is compressed according to the law pV1.077 m3 1 / 1.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/9 Feedback To Activity 5A 5.4 p V or 2 1 V1 p 2 1 / 1.4 138 690 = 0. p V2 V1 1 p 2 1 / 1.0348 m3 5. unknown and must therefore be calculated. p1V11.4 from which.012 x 1 .4 p1 p2 = 0.4 = C.4 = V1 1. Now p1V1n p2V2n p V2 V1 1 p 2 1/ n or 2070 V2 = 0. as yet. then.35 .4 p1 V2 p 2 V1 1.014 x 207 V2 = 0.4 p2V21.
2 kJ The negative sign indicates that work energy would flow into the system during the process.3 kJ 5.014 207 x10 3 x0.3 x 103 Nm = 37.302 1 = 13.302 n W = p1V1 p 2V2 n 1 (1x10 5 x0. .077) Work done = 1.0111) = 1. b) The nonflow energy equation gives Q – W = U2 – U1 Q – (.011 n = 1.06) (9 x10 5 x0.07 ) Q = .011n 0.13.06 9 0.35 1 = 37.2) = ( 370 x 0. p1V1n p2V2n In the given case 1 x 0.3 x 103 J = 37.3 kJ The negative sign indicates that heat energy will flow out of the fluid during the process.07 ) – ( 200 x 0.06n = 9 x 0.3 a) For a polytropic process.1.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/10 (2070 x10 3 x0.
2 Constant volume process If the change in volume during a process is very small then that process may be approximated as a constant volume process. For example.6) T1 p1 From this equation it can be seen that an increase in pressure results from an increase in temperature. . In other words. heating or cooling a fluid in a rigid walled vessel can be analysed by assuming that the volume remains constant.2 Constant volume process (V2=V1) The general property relation between the initial and final states of a perfect gas is applied as: p1V1 p 2V2 T1 T2 If the volume remain constant during the process. Q p 2 1 p 1 2 Q a) Heating v b) Cooling v Figure 5. V2 = V1 and then the above relation becomes p1 p 2 T1 T2 or T2 p 2 (5.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/11 INPUT 5. the temperature is proportional to the pressure. in constant volume process.
e.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/12 Work transfer: Work transfer (pdV) must be zero because the change in volume.3 Constant pressure process . which is important and should be remembered. 5. shows that the nett amount of heat energy supplied to or taken from a fluid during a constant volume process is equal to the change in the internal energy of the fluid. heating or cooling a liquid at atmospheric pressure may be analysed by assuming that the pressure remains constant.3 Constant pressure process If the change in pressure during a process is very small then that process may be approximated as a constant pressure process. For example. during the process is zero. dV. work in the form of paddlewheel work may be transferred.7) This result. Heat transfer: Applying the non flow energy equation Q – W = U2 – U1 gives Q – 0 = U2 – U1 i. Q = U2 – U1 (5. However. P W 1 p 2 W v2 – v1 v2 v Q v1 Figure 5.
This expansion work is given by W pdV 1 2 p dV 1 2 (since p is constant) (larger volume – smaller volume) (5.8) T1 V1 From this equation it can be seen that an increase in volume results from an increase in temperature. the fluid expands. the area under the process line represents the amount of work transfer.9 . From Figure 5. p2 = p1 and then the above relation becomes V1 V2 T1 T2 or T2 V2 (5.2. in constant pressure process.3 W = area of the shaded rectangle = height x width = p (V2 – V1) (larger volume – smaller volume) This expression is identical to equation 5. Work transfer: Referring to the process representation on the pV diagram it is noted that the volume increases during the process. The general property relation between the initial and final states of a perfect gas is applied as: p1V1 p 2V2 T1 T2 If the pressure remain constant during the process. If the load on the piston is kept constant the pressure will also remain constant.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/13 Consider the fluid in the piston cylinder as shown in Figure 5. In other words.9) = p (V2 – V1) Note that on a pV diagram. In other words. the temperature is proportional to the volume.
NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/14 Heat transfer: Applying the non flow energy equation Q – W = U2 – U1 or Q = (U2 – U1) + W (5.10 Q = (U2 – U1) + p(V2 – V1) = U2 – U1 + p2 V2 – p1 V1 = (U2 + p2 V2) – (U1 + p1 V1) (since p2 = p1 ) Now. the fluid expands. For constant volume process: W=0 For constant pressure process: W = p (V2 – V1) . equation 5.3.11) Referring to the process representation on the pv diagram shown in Figure 5.10) Thus part of the heat supplied is converted into work and the remainder is utilized in increasing the internal energy of the system. we know that h = u + pv or H = U + pV Hence Q = H2 – H1 (larger H – smaller H) (5. For a perfect gas.8 tells us that an increase in volume will result in corresponding increase in temperature. Substituting for W in equation 5. In other words. it is noted that heating increases the volume.
e.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/15 Example 5.2 The specific internal energy of a fluid is increased from 120 kJ/kg to 180 kJ/kg during a constant volume process. Determine the amount of heat energy required to bring about this increase for 2 kg of fluid. Solution to Example 5. 120 kJ of heat energy would be required. .2 The non flow energy equation is Q – W = U2 – U1 For a constant volume process W=0 and the equation becomes Q = U2 – U1 Q = 180 – 120 = 60 kJ/kg Therefore for 2 kg of fluid Q = 60 x 2 = 120 kJ i.
1) = 7 x 104 J = 70 kJ Applying the nonflow energy equation Q – W = U2 – U1 gives U2 – U1 = 157. If the initial and final specific enthalpies of the fluid are 210 kJ/kg and 280 kJ/kg respectively.5 kJ For a constant pressure process W = P(V2 – V1) = 7 x 105 x ( 0. Heat energy is supplied to the fluid until the volume becomes 0.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/16 Example 5. V1 = 0.2 m3.0 bar.3 Data: p = 7.2 – 0.25( 280 – 210 ) = 157.25 kg of fluid having a volume of 0.5 kJ b) .1 m3 . V2 = 0.3 2. determine a) the quantity of heat energy supplied to the fluid b) the change in internal energy of the fluid Solution to Example 5.1 m3 is in a cylinder at a constant pressure of 7 bar.2 m3 a) Heat energy supplied = change in enthalpy of fluid Q = H2 – H1 = m( h2 .h1 ) = 2.5 – 70 = 87.
6 . Will the aerosol explode if it is thrown into a fire and heated to a temperature of 600o C? Assume that the aerosol can is unable to withstand pressure in excess of 3 bar.4 The pressure of the gas inside an aerosol can is 1. what will be the final diameter of the balloon? 5.05 kg of air.2 bar at a temperature of 25o C. Calculate the heat supplied and the work done. A spherical research balloon is filled with 420 m3 of atmospheric air at a temperature of 10o C.5 5. If the air inside the balloon is heated to 80oC at constant pressure. 0.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/17 Activity 5B TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 5.0658 m3. initially at 130o C is heated at a constant pressure of 2 bar until the volume occupied is 0.
it will clearly explode in the fire.2 x 298 = 3. T2 = 600 + 273 = 873 K. T1= 25 + 273 = 298 K p2 = ? We can idealize this process at constant volume heating of a perfect gas.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/18 Feedback To Activity 5B 5. 1 2 T1 T2 T p 2 p1 2 or T2 873 = 1.2 bar. .52 bar Since the aerosol cannot withstand pressures above 3 bar.4 Data: p1 = 1. Applying the general property relation between states 1 and 2 p1V1 p 2V2 T1 T2 in this case V2 = V1 p p Hence.
we have Q = mcp(T2 – T1) i.83 kJ W = p (V2 – V1) From equation pV = RT Work done = R (T2 – T1) = 0.0658 m3.0658 = 0. T1 = 130 + 273 =403 K V2 = 0.05 x 0.e.38 kJ i.5 Data: m = 0.5 kg.e.287 x 10 3 = 917 K For a perfect gas undergoing a constant pressure process.05 x 0.287 x 514 = 7.005(917 – 403) = 25.05 x 1. . Heat supplied = 0.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/19 5.287(917 – 403) Work done by the mass of gas present = 0. Using the characteristic gas equation at state 2 T2 = p 2V2 mR 2 x 10 5 x 0. p = 2 bar.
6 Data: T1 = 10 + 273 = 283 K. V1 = 420 m3. T2 = 80 + 273 = 353 K V2 = ? Applying the general property relation between states 1 and 2 p1V1 p 2V2 T1 T2 Since the air is heated at constant pressure p1 = p2 Then. d = 2r = 2 x 5 = 10 m .9 m3 = 420 x Since the balloon is a sphere.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/20 5. 4 3 r 3 4 523. V2 = where r = radius of the balloon Hence.9 = r 3 3 Solving gives r=5m Final diameter of balloon. or V1 V2 T1 T2 T V2 = V1 2 T1 353 283 = 523.
. For the combustion gas. respectively. the steam in the vessel cools at constant volume until the pressure is 30 bar. The gas expands at constant pressure until its volume is 1.26 = constant. R = 0.302 kJ/kgK and cp = 1. Find the temperature of the steam after cooling and the heat transfer that has taken place. It is compressed to a final pressure of 1. 2.1 m3.09 kJ/kgK.25 = C.25 kg of combustion gas in a diesel engine cylinder is at temperature of 727oC. A mass of 0. Determine the following: a) final temperature b) final volume c) work transfer d) heat transfer e) change in internal energy 3. Try all the questions in this selfassessment section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to SelfAssessment on the next page. Find the following: a) temperature of the gas after expansion b) heat transferred c) work transferred A quantity of gas has an initial pressure and volume of 0. A receiver vessel in a steam plant contains 20 kg of steam at 60 bar and 500oC. 4. When the plant is switched off.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/21 SELFASSESSMENT You are approaching success.05 kg of air at a temperature of 40oC and a pressure of 1 bar is compressed polytropicly following the law pV1. 1.4 MN/m2 according to the law pV1.1 MN/m2 and 0. Good luck. Determine the final volume of the gas. discuss it with your lecturer.8 times its original value. 0. If you face any problem.
14380 kJ rejected 1527oC. 233.26 kJ increase CONGRATULATIONS! !!!…May success be with you always… .4 kJ output 0. 2.8oC.NONFLOW PROCESS J2006/5/22 Feedback to SelfAssessment Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”. 1. 2.9oC. 218 kJ added.01235 m3 158. 4. 4. 6. 60. 3. 12390 cm3. check your answers now.82 kJ input.56 kJ rejected.
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/1 UNIT 6 FLOW PROCESS OBJECTIVES General Objective: To understand the concept of flow process and its application in steady flow energy equation. Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to: derive the meaning and interpret the steadyflow energy equation apply the steadyflow energy equation to : boiler condenser .
0 STEADY FLOW PROCESSES Do you know the conditions for Steady Flow Processes ? In heat engine it is the steady flow processes which are generally of most interest. iii. the properties of the working fluid at any section within the system must be constant with respect to time. . operating under a constant load as shown diagrammatically in Fig. A typical example of a steady flow process is a steam boiler. All transfer of work energy and heat which takes place must be done at a uniform rate. Under these conditions. In order to maintain the water level in the boiler.FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/2 INPUT 6. The conditions which must be satisfied by all of these processes are : i.0. the feed pump supplies water at exactly the same rate as that at which steam is drawn off from the boiler. 6. the furnace will need to supply heat energy at a steady rate. The mass of fluid flowing past any section in the system must be constant with respect to time. To maintain the production of steam at this rate at a steady pressure. The properties of the fluid at any particular section in the system must be constant with respect to time. ii.
Thus.FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/3 STEAM OUT WATER LEVEL BOUNDRY WATER IN FURNACE Figure 6. then as a result of its mass it possesses potential energy with respect to that datum. in the close vicinity of the earth. The various forms of energy which the fluid can have are as follows: a) Potential energy If the fluid is at some height Z above a given datum level. for unit mass of fluid.1 STEADY FLOW ENERGY EQUATION This equation is a mathematical statement on the principle of Conservation of Energy as applied to the flow of a fluid through a thermodynamic system. Potential energy = g Z 9.81 Z .0 Steam Boiler 6.
Thus. at exit. the flow work must be done by the fluid inside the system on the fluid outside the system. if the volume of unit mass of liquid (its specific volume) at entry is v1 and its pressure is P1.FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/4 b) Kinetic energy A fluid in motion possesses kinetic energy. Kinetic energy = c) C2 2 Internal energy All fluids store energy. since the movement of any mass can only be achieved at the expense of work. Thus work to the value P1v1 is done on the specific volume inside the system by the specific volume outside the system. Flow or displacement energy In order to enter or leave the system. This is designated by Q. Flow or displacement work rejected = P2v2 d) e) Heat received or rejected During its passage through the system the fluid can have direct reception or rejection of heat energy through the system boundary. This work is called flow or displacement work and at entry it is energy received by the system. for unit mass of fluid. The energy stored within a fluid which results from the internal motion of its atoms and molecules is called its internal energy and it is usually designated by the letter U. then in order to enter a system it must displace an equal specific volume v1 inside the system. . in order to leave. Thus. If the internal energy of the unit mass of fluid is discussed this is then called the specific internal energy and is designated by u. If the fluid flows with velocity C. is P2 and the specific volume is v2 the equation is then. Thus. Similarly. then. The displacing mass must do work on the mass being displaced. if the pressure at exit. This must be taken in its algebraic sense. any entering or leaving volume of fluid must be displaced with an equal volume ahead of itself. The store of energy within any fluid can be increased or decreased as a result of various processes carried out on or by the fluid.
Thus if. Figure 6. In its passage through the system. Q = 0 if heat is neither received nor rejected. external work W may be done on or by the fluid and also heat energy Q may be received or rejected by the fluid from or to the surroundings. External work is done on the fluid then W is negative. f) External work done During its passage through the system the fluid can do external work or have external work done on it. The entry is at height Z1 above some datum level. specific volume v1.FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/5 Q is positive when heat is received. specific internal energy u2 and velocity C2. The exit is at height Z2 above some datum level. P 1 v1 U1C1 W ENTRY SYSTEM (OR CONTROL VOLUME) Z1 P 2 v2 u2 C2 EXIT Q Z2 Figure 6. If no external work is done on or by the fluid then W = 0. Q is negative when heat is rejected. This is usually designated by W.1 Thermodynamic system . The fluid then leaves the system with pressure P2. This also must be taken in its algebraic sense.1 illustrates some thermodynamic system into which is flowing a fluid with pressure P1. specific internal energy u1 and velocity C1. External work is done by the fluid then W is positive. specific volume v2.
for unit mass of substance. the steady flow energy equation is written as gZ1 h1 C12 C2 Q gZ 2 h2 2 W 2 2 (6. Total energy entering the system = Total energy leaving the system or. In such cases. it was stated that the particular combination of properties of the form. In equation 6. u + Pv is called specific enthalpy and is designated as h. the energy forms concerned are omitted from the energy equation.1) This equation is not applicable to all energy forms.1. C12 C2 Q gZ 2 u 2 P2 v2 2 W 2 2 This is called the steady flow energy equation.FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/6 The application of the principle of energy conservation to the system is. Thus. gZ1 u1 P1v1 (6.2) Steady flow energy equation Potential energy + Kinetic energy + Internal energy +Flow or Displacement energy+ Heat or Work .
6.2. m (kg/s) the equation may be written as gZ1 h1 C 2 C12 gZ 2 gZ1 Q W m h2 h1 2 2 (6. 2 2 STEAM OUT WATER IN 1 1 SYSTEM BOUNDRY Q FURNACE Figure 6.FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/7 6.1 Steam Boiler The steady flow energy equation gives C12 C2 Q gZ 2 h2 2 W 2 2 and with the flow rate. Some of the most common cases found in engineering practise are dealt with in detail as below. and heat energy is supplied from the furnace at a steady rate.2. provided that the conditions stated previously are applicable.1 Boilers In a boiler operating under steady conditions. water is pumped into the boiler along the feed line at the same rate as which steam leaves the boiler along the steam main.3) .2 APPLICATION OF STEADY FLOW EQUATION The steady flow energy equation may be applied to any apparatus through which a fluid is flowing.
The kinetic energy is small as compared to the other terms and may usually be neglected iv. Hence the equation is reduced to Q mh2 h1 (6. v. m (kg/s) is the rate of the flow of fluid.FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/8 In applying this equation to the boiler. WORK = 0 KINETIC ENERGY = NEGLECTED POTENTIAL ENERGY = NEGLECTED . W is zero since a boiler has no moving parts capable of affecting a work transfer iii.4) FOR BOILER UNDER A STEADY CONDITION. Q is the amount of heat energy passing into the fluid per second ii. The potential energy is generally small enough to be neglected. the following points should be noted : i.
The potential energy is generally small enough to be neglected v. leaving the condenser must be equal to the amount of vapour entering the condenser. heat energy is supplied to convert the liquid into vapour whereas in a condenser heat energy is removed in order to condense the vapour into a liquid. i. a condenser is a boiler reverse. In a boiler. W is zero in the boiler iii. usually called condensate.2 Condensers In principle.2.FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/9 6. VAPOUR WATER OUT SYSTEM BOUNDARY CONDENSATE WATER IN Figure 6. Thus the equation is reduced to Q mh2 h1 (6. If the condenser is in a steady state then the amount of liquid.2 Condenser The steady flow energy equation gives C 2 C12 gZ 2 gZ1 Q W m h2 h1 2 2 Points to note. m is the rate of the flow of fluid.2. The kinetic energy term may be neglected as in the boiler iv.5) . Q is the amount of heat energy per second transferred from the system ii.
the fluid has an enthalpy of 165 kJ/kg and on leaving the boiler the enthalpy of the fluid is 2200 kJ/kg. At entry to the boiler. Determine the heat energy supplied to the boiler.1 A boiler operates at a constant pressure of 15 bar.FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/10 Example 6. Solution to Example 6.1 2 STEAM OUT 2 SYSTEM 1 WATER IN 1 Q BOUNDARY The steady flow energy equation gives 2 C 2 C12 gZ 2 gZ1 Q W m h2 h1 2 Q = heat energy per hour entering system W = work energy per hour leaving system = 0 m = fluid flow rate = 1000 kg/h h2 = 2200 kJ/kg h1 = 165 kJ/kg C1& C2 = neglected Z1& Z2 = neglected Thus.035 x10 6 kJ h . the steady flow energy equation becomes Q kJ kg kJ 1000 2200 165 h h kg Q 2. and evaporates fluid at the rate of 1000 kg/h.
13x10 6 kJ kg x 32000 h kJ = 97. if 1 kg of fuel produces 32000 kJ of heat energy.2 If 65 % of the heat energy supplied to the boiler in example 6.13 x 106 kJ/h Heat energy obtained from the fuel = 32 000 kJ/kg Fuel required = 3. Solution to Example 6.035 x10 6 0.2 Heat energy from fuel required per hour = 2.FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/11 Example 6.8 kg/h . determine the rate of fuel consumption required to maintain this rate of evaporation.65 = 3.1 is used in evaporating the fluid.
3 Fluid enters a condenser at the rate of 35 kg/min with a specific enthalpy of 2200 kJ/kg. Therefore the equation is reduced to Q mh2 h1 From the above equation Q 35 kg kJ (255 2200) min kg = .2 The steady flow energy equation gives C 2 C12 gZ 2 gZ1 Q W m h2 h1 2 2 For a condenser.FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/12 Example 6. W = 0. and leaves with a specific enthalpy of 255 kJ/kg.68 000 kJ/min . Determine the rate of heat energy loss from the system. and the term representing the change in kinetic and potential energy may be neglected. Solution to Example 6.
2 . It enters at a pressure of 620 kN/m2.FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/13 Activity 6 TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 6.1 In an air conditioning system. air is cooled by passing it over a chilled water coil condenser. internal energy 2100 kJ/kg and specific volume 0.37 m3/kg. a velocity of 150 m/s. Find the rate of heat absorption by the water in kilowatts. a substance flows at the rate of 4 kg/s. Determine the power of the system in kilowatts. stating whether it is from or to the system. 6. Neglect any change in potential energy. internal energy 1500 kJ/kg and specific volume 1. a velocity of 300 m/s.2 m3/kg. In a steady flow system. Water enters the coil with an enthalpy of 42 kJ/kg and leaves the coil with an enthalpy of 80 kJ/kg. It leaves the system at a pressure of 130 kN/m2. During its passage through the system the substance has a loss by heat transfer of 30 kJ/kg to the surroundings. The water flow rate is 200 kg/h.
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/14 Feedback to Activity 6 6. In general the change in potential energy is also negligible.1 Data: m = 200 kg/h = 200 0. h2 = 80 kJ/kg Q =? The diameter of the water tube in a cooler is normally constant.056(80 – 42) = 2.056 kg/s 3600 h1 = 42 kJ/kg. Therefore.13 kW . there is no change in water velocity and kinetic energy. The equation of steady flow is therefore reduced to Q mh2 h1 = 0.13 kJ/s or kW The rate of heat absorption by the water is 2.
The substance flows at the rate of 4 kg/s Output (since W is positive) = 676. for a unit mass of substance.75 x 4 = 2707 kJ/s or kW 300 2 150 2 )30 2 x10 3 .FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/15 6.2)+( = 676. the steady flow energy equation becomes: 2 C12 C2 (1) u1 P1v1 Q u 2 P2 v2 W 2 2 Q is written negative since 30 kJ/kg are lost to the surroundings.2 By neglecting the change in potential energy. From equation (1) Specific W = (u1 u1 ) ( P1v1 P2 v2 ) ( Working in kilojoules (kJ) 2 C12 C 2 )Q 2 Specific W = (21001500)+(620x0.37130x1.75 kJ/kg.
1. If you face any problem. The combustion of 1 kg of coal produces 28000 kJ. Fluid with specific enthalpy of 2280 kJ/kg enters a condenser at the rate of 4500 kg/h. Good luck.FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/16 SELFASSESSMENT You are approaching success. determine the rate at which heat energy flows from the condenser to the atmosphere. Try all the questions in this selfassessment section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to SelfAssessment on the next page. of which 80% is useful in producing steam. discuss it with your lecturer. A boiler uses coal at the rate of 3000 kg/h in producing steam with a specific enthalpy of 2700 kJ/kg from feed water with a specific enthalpy of 280 kJ/kg. . Calculate the rate at which steam is produced. and leaves with a specific enthalpy of 163 kJ/kg. If the enthalpy of the cooling water circulating through the condenser tubes increases at the rate of 148 000 kJ/min. 2.
2. May success be with you always….FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/17 Feedback to SelfAssessment Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”. check your answers now. 1.. . 27800 kg/h 646000 kJ/h CONGRATULATIONS!!!!….
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/1 UNIT 7 FLOW PROCESS OBJECTIVES General Objective: To understand the application of steady flow energy equation. Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to: apply the steadyflow energy equation to : turbine nozzle throttle pump .
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/2 INPUT 7. .0 APPLICATION OF STEADY FLOW EQUATION Do you know the application of steady flow equation for turbine? The steady flow energy equation may be applied to any apparatus through which a fluid is flowing. Some of the most common cases found in engineering practise will now be dealt with in detail. provided the conditions stated in Unit 6 are applicable.
FLUID IN 1 Q SYSTEM W BOUNDARY 2 FLUID OUT Figure 7.0.FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/3 7. heat energy does not have time to flow into or out of the fluid during its passage through the turbine. It may be assumed that.0. . because of this. and the term representing the change in kinetic energy may be neglected. and the fluid passes quickly through the turbine. ii.1 Turbine A turbine is a device which uses a pressure drop to produce work energy which is used to drive an external load. iv. W is the amount of external work energy produced per second. Although velocities are high the difference between them is not large. and hence Q = 0 . iii. The average velocity of flow of fluid through a turbine is normally high. Potential energy is generally small enough to be neglected.1 Turbine The steady flow energy equation gives C 2 C12 Q W m h2 h1 2 2 gZ 2 gZ1 Points to note : i.
W = 0. ii.e. 1 2 SYSTEM BOUNDARY FLUID OUT FLUID IN 2 1 Figure 7. hence the fluid spends only a short time in the nozzle. .2 Nozzle A nozzle utilises a pressure drop to produce an increase in the kinetic energy of the fluid.0. no work energy will be transferred to or from the fluid as it passes through the nozzle.2 Nozzle The steady flow energy equation gives C 2 C12 Q W m h2 h1 2 2 gZ 2 gZ1 Points to note : i.1) 7.e. Since a nozzle has no moving parts. For this reason. i.W mh2 h1 or W mh1 h2 (7. Q = 0. The average velocity of flow through a nozzle is high. it may be assumed that there is insufficient time for heat energy to flow into or out of the fluid during its passage through the nozzle.FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/4 The steady flow energy equation becomes . i.0.
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/5 iii.2) . In this case the equation becomes C2 0 m h2 h1 2 2 2 C2 h1 h2 2 or or C2 2h1 h2 (7. Hence the equation becomes C 2 C12 0 m h2 h1 2 2 Often C1 is negligible compared with C2. Potential energy is generally small enough to be neglected.
h1 = 580 kJ/kg C1& C2 = neglected Z1& Z2 = neglected Therefore the steady flow energy equation becomes 2100 kJ/min – W = 45 kg/min (580 kJ/kg) W = (26100 – 2100) kJ/min = 24000 kJ/min = 400 kJ/s = 400 kW . Solution to Example 7.FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/6 Example 7.1 The steady flow energy equation gives C 2 C12 h2 h1 2 Q W m 2 gZ 2 gZ1 Q = heat energy flow into system = 2100 kJ/min W = work energy flow from system kJ/min m = fluid flow rate = 45 kg/min h2 . Determine the power produced by the turbine.1 A fluid flows through a turbine at the rate of 45 kg/min. Across the turbine the specific enthalpy drop of the fluid is 580 kJ/kg and the turbine loss 2100 kJ/min in the form of heat energy. assuming that changes in kinetic and potential energy may be neglected.
25 m3/kg respectively. At the outlet from the nozzle the specific enthalpy and specific volume of the fluid are 2250 kJ/kg and 1. this may be written as 2 C2 2h1 h2 = √ [2(2800 – 22500] = 1050 m/s Applying the equation of continuity at outlet gives m A2C2 v2 14 kg/s = A2 x 1050 m/s 1. determine the required outlet area of the nozzle. Solution to Example 7.2 Fluid with a specific enthalpy of 2800 kJ/kg enters a horizontal nozzle with negligible velocity at the rate of 14 kg/s.25 m 3 /kg A2 = 0.FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/7 Example 7.01668 m2 . Assuming an adiabatic flow. this becomes C 2 C12 0 m h2 h1 2 2 Since the inlet C1 is negligible.2 The steady flow energy equation gives C 2 C12 Q W m h2 h1 2 2 gZ 2 gZ1 When applied to the nozzle.
7. determine the velocity of the gas jet at exit from the nozzle. Determine the work output from the turbine in kilowatts. The enthalpy of the gas at exit is 900 kJ/kg.1 Steam enters a turbine with a velocity of 16 m/s and specific enthalpy 2990 kJ/kg. In a turbo jet engine the momentum of the gases leaving the nozzle produces the propulsive force. The steam leaves the turbine with a velocity of 37 m/s and specific enthalpy 2530 kJ/kg. The enthalpy and velocity of the gases at the nozzle entrance are 1200 kJ/kg and 200 m/s respectively. The heat lost to the surroundings as the steam passes through the turbine is 25 kJ/kg. If the heat loss from the nozzle is negligible. The steam flow rate is 324000 kg/h.FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/8 Activity 7A TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 7.2 .
the steady flow energy equation is C 2 C12 Q W h2 h1 2 2 Q is negative since heat is lost from the steam to the surroundings 2 C 2 C2 Q specific W = h1 h2 1 2 = (29992530) + (16 2 37 2 ) 25 2 x10 3 = 434.97 kJ/s or kW 39100 kW 39.1 Neglecting the changes in potential energy.1 MW .443 kJ/kg The steam flow rate = 324000/3600 = 90 kg/s W = 434.FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/9 Feedback to Activity 7A 7.443 x 90 = 39099.
2 The steady energy flow equation for nozzle gives C 2 C12 0 m h2 h1 2 2 On simplification. C2 2h1 h2 C12 = 2(1200x 103.FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/10 7.900x 103) + 2002 = 800 m/s .
3 THROTTLE A throttling process is one in which the fluid is made to flow through a restriction . the available area through which heat energy can flow is very small. causing a considerable drop in the pressure of the fluid. Q = 0.3 Throttling process The steady flow energy equation gives 2 C 2 C12 Q W m h2 h1 2 gZ 2 gZ1 Points to note: i.FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/11 INPUT 7. a partially opened valve or orifice. 2 1 Figure 7. e. no energy can be transferred in the form of work energy. i. iii. The difference between C1 and C2 will not be great and consequently the term representing the change in kinetic energy is normally neglected. Since there are no moving parts. . W = 0.g. i.0. The potential energy is generally small enough to be neglected.0. Since throttling takes place over a very small distance.e. ii.e. and it is normally assumed that no energy is lost by heat transfer. iv.
i. 7.e.0.FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/12 The steady flow energy equation becomes or 0 = m (h2 .4) SYSTEM W BOUNDARY 1 INLET Figure 7.4 Pump . In applying the steady flow energy equation to a pump.W mh2 h1 Since h2 > h1.e. it uses external work energy to produce a pressure rise.h1) h2 = h1 (7. during a throttling process the enthalpy remains constant.3) i.4 Pump The action of a pump is the reverse of that of a turbine. exactly the same arguments are used as for turbine and the equation becomes . OUTLET 2 Q (7. W will be found to be negative.0.
Let C1 and C2 represent the velocities in m/s.5) . then the mass of fluid passing any section during a specified time must be constant.5. It is based on the fact that if a system is in a steady state.1 Equation of Continuity This is an equation which is often used in conjunction with the steady flow energy equation. Let v1 and v2 represent the specific volumes in m3/kg at the inlet and outlet respectively.7.1 Mass flowing through a system Let A1 and A2 represent the flow areas in m2 at the inlet and outlet respectively. at the inlet and outlet respectively. Then mass flowing per sec = volume flowing per sec m3/s volume per kg m3/kg A C kg = 1 1 at inlet v1 s = A2 C 2 kg at outlet v2 s i.e.FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/13 7. Consider a mass of m kg/s flowing through a system in which all conditions are steady as illustrated in Fig. 1 2 C1 C2 AREA A2 2 AREA A1 1 Figure 7. m A1C1 A2 C 2 = v1 v2 (7.
Solution to Example 7.h1 ) – ( P2v2 .P2v2 ) .3 m3/kg and after throttling is 1. the steady flow energy equation becomes or But and 0 = m (h2 .( h1 – P1v1) = ( h2 . Solution to Example 7.75 kg/s The steady flow energy is C 2 C12 Q W m h2 h1 2 2 gZ 2 gZ1 .3 For a throttling process. Before throttling.h1) h2 = h1 h2 = u2 + P2v2 h1= u1 + P1v1 Therefore the change in specific internal energy = u2 – u1 = ( h2 . and at the outlet from the pump the specific enthalpy of the fluid is 175 kJ/kg.4 The flow rate of fluid = 45 kg/min = 0.8 – 10 x 0. determine the power required to drive the pump if the efficiency of the drive is 85 %.FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/14 Example 7. Determine the change in specific internal energy during the throttling process. At the inlet to the pump the specific enthalpy of the fluid is 46 kJ/kg.3 A fluid flowing along a pipeline undergoes a throttling process from 10 bar to 1 bar in passing through a partially open valve.P1v1 ) = 0 – ( 1 x 1.8 m3/kg.4 A pump delivers fluid at the rate of 45 kg/min.3 ) bar m3/kg = 120 x 10 Nm/kg = 120 kJ/kg Example 7. If 105 kJ/min of heat energy are lost to the surroundings by the pump. the specific volume of the fluid is 0.
5 x = 114.W mh2 h1 Turbine & Pump .98.5 kJ/s = .FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/15 Q = .1.75 x 129) = .1.98.75 – (0.105 kJ/min = .75 (175 – 46) W = 1.75 kg/s The kinetic and potential energy may be neglected Substituting the data above with the steady flow energy equation gives .27 kJ/kg m = 0.B.5 kW (N.8 kW 100 85 W mh1 h2 .75 kJ/s W = work energy flow (kJ/s) h1 = 46 kJ/kg h2 = 1. The negative sign indicates work energy required by the pump) Since the efficiency of the drive is 85 % Power required by the compressor = 98.75 – W = 0.
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/16 Activity 7B TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 7. The rate of heat loss from the pump is 2500 W.39 kg/m3 respectively. Determine the power required to drive the pump.4 . if the diameter of the nozzle at exit is 500 mm.81 kg/m3 and 0. The enthalpy at the inlet and exit of the pump are 300 kJ/kg and 500 kJ/kg respectively. The air velocity at the entrance and exit are 10 m/s and 15 m/s respectively. find the mass flow rate of gas. for question No.3 A rotary air pump is required to deliver 900 kg of air per hour. Also determine the diameter of the nozzle at the inlet. The gas density at the nozzle inlet and exit are 0. In activity 7A. 7.2. 7.
FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/17 Feedback to Activity 7B 7.300) + ( W = 52.5 kW W=? The steady flow energy equation gives C 2 C12 gZ 2 gZ1 Q W m h2 h1 2 2 Neglecting the change in Potential energy since it is negligible C 2 C12 Q W m h2 h1 2 2 W = 0.5 kW 15 2 10 2 )] + 2.5 2 x10 3 .3 Data : m 900 = 0.25 kg/s 3600 h1 = 300 kJ/kg h2 = 500 kJ/kg C1= 10 m/s C2= 15 m/s Q = 2500 W = 2.25 [( 500.
Mass entering the nozzle = mass leaving the nozzle = m m = A1 C1 1 = A2 C2 2 On substitution A1 x 200 x 0.196 m2 4 1 = 0.2 On simplification A1 = 0.378 m2 or d1 = 0. m = A2 C2 2 = 61.4 Data : A2 = 0.5 2 = 0.39 kg/m3 m =? d =? Mass flow rate at exit.694 m = 694 mm .81 kg/m3 2 = 0.FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/18 7.81 = 61.2 kg/s From the mass balance.
The specific enthalpy of air at the pump inlet is 300 kJ/kg and that at the exit is 509 kJ/kg. Good luck. Fluid at 10. The heat lost from the pump casing is 5000 W. The steam velocities at inlet and outlet are 15 m/s and 180 m/s respectively. Neglecting the changes in kinetic and potential energy. calculate the change in specific internal energy during the process. Assuming that the inlet velocity of the steam is negligible and that the process is adiabatic.35 bar having a specific volume of 0. If the specific enthalpy of the steam decreases by 420 kJ/kg in passing through the turbine stage.1 kg/min. Try all the questions in this selfassessment section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to SelfAssessment on the next page. 1 Steam flows through a turbine stage at the rate of 4500 kJ/h. At outlet from the nozzle the velocity of the steam is 1070 m/s. The rate of heat energy flow from the turbine casing to the surroundings is 23 kJ/kg of steam flowing. A nozzle is supplied with steam having a specific enthalpy of 2780 kJ/kg at the rate of 9. 2 3 4 . determine: a) the specific enthalpy of the steam at the nozzle exit b) the outlet area required if the final specific volume of the steam is 18. calculate the power developed. discuss it with your lecturer.75 m3/kg. If the specific volume of the fluid after throttling is 0. A rotary pump draws 600 kg/hour of atmospheric air and delivers it at a higher pressure.FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/19 SELFASSESSMENT You are approaching success. If you face any problem. determine the power required to drive the pump.107 m3/kg.18 m3/kg is throttled to a pressure of 1 bar.
. 4.FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/20 Feedback to SelfAssessment Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”. check your answers now.7 kJ/kg CONGRATULATIONS!!!!…. 476 kW 353 kW 2208 kJ/kg. You can continue with the next unit… . 1. 2. 3. 2660 mm2 175.
Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to: define the word phase and distinguish the solid. liquid and steam phases understand and use the fact that the vaporization process is carried out at constant pressure define and explain the following terms: saturation temperature.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/1 UNIT 8 PROPERTIES OF STEAM OBJECTIVES General Objective : To define the properties of wet steam. wet steam. including interpolation between saturation tables and superheated tables where necessary . . saturated steam. dry saturated steam and superheated steam using information from the steam tables. dry saturated steam. saturated liquid. dryness fraction and superheated steam determine the properties of steam using the Pv diagram understand and use the nomenclature as in the Steam Tables apply single and double interpolation using the steam tables locate the correct steam tables for interpolation.
Ne. steam or gaseous phase. liquid and steam. one does not need to be concerned with the molecular structure and behavior of the different phases. N2. homogenous aggregate of matter.0 Introduction In thermodynamic systems. In this unit. whereas in steams they are separated by great distances. A phase of substance can be defined as that part of a pure substance that consists of a single. Pure chemicals (H2O. Ar. A substance that has a fixed composition throughout is called a pure substance. Molecular bonds are strongest in solids and weakest in steams. The three common phases for H2O that are usually used are solid. When studying phases or phase changes in thermodynamics. One reason is that molecules in solids are closely packed together. O2. it is very helpful to have some understanding of the molecular phenomena involved in each phase. However. the working fluid can be in the liquid. . We all know from experience that substances exist in different phases.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/2 INPUT 8. Xe) are always pure substances. the properties of liquid and steam are investigated in some details as the state of a system can be described in terms of its properties.
The following are discovered: (a) the positions of the molecules are relatively fixed in a solid phase. There is neither a fixed volume nor a fixed shape for steam. Steam Phase In the steam phase. (a) virtually do not attract each other. therefore relatively dense. and (b) arranged in a rigid threedimensional pattern so that they do not easily deform.0 The arrangement of atoms in different phases . but (b) they are no longer rigidly structured so much so that they are free to move within a fixed volume. An example is a pure liquid state. The distance between the molecules are not as close as those in the solid and liquid phases. (a) (b) rd (c) Source: Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach. and (c) the molecules move about at random in the steam phase. the molecules are. Liquid Phase In the liquid phase. the molecules are. (a) closely bound. (b) chunks of molecules float about each other in the liquid phase. The three phases described above are illustrated in Fig. (a) closely bound.0 below. 3 Ed by Cengel and Boles Figure 8.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/3 The three phases of pure substances are: Solid Phase In the solid phase. therefore also relatively dense and unable to expand to fill a space. the molecules. (b) are not arranged in a fixed pattern. An example of a pure solid state is ice. 8.
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/4 8.1 Heating water and steam at constant pressure At this point. as shown in Fig. 8.1. As heat is added to the system. and both the liquid and steam are saturated. frictionless piston is placed on the container at State 1. The twophase mixture of steam and liquid at State 2 has only one degree of freedom. only steam is present at State 3. The continued addition of heat will cause the temperature of the system to increase until the pressure of the steam generated exactly balances the pressure of the atmosphere plus the pressure due to the weight of the piston. Steam on the other hand will always fill its container.1 PhaseChange Process The distinction between steam and liquid is usually made (in an elementary manner) by stating that both will take up the shape of their containers. vaporization will continue at constant temperature. As more heat is added. the liquid that was at saturation will start to vaporize until State 2. and as long as liquid is present. the temperature of the system will increase. the mixture is said to be wet steam. With these information. the steam and liquid are said to be saturated. As long as liquid is present. Note that the pressure on the system is being kept constant by the weight of the piston. After all the liquid is vaporized. However liquid will present a free surface if it does not completely fill its container. let us consider the following system: A container is filled with water. and a moveable. and the further addition of heat will cause the temperature of steam to increase at . STATE 1 STATE 2 STATE 3 STATE 4 W W W W Liquid Steam Superheated Steam Figure 8.
8. oC 300 4 Superheated steam 2 Compressed liquid Saturated mixture 3 100 20 1 v. In addition. If we proceed to heat the water. This state is called the superheated state. figures provide us with a clearer understanding of trends and patterns. m3/kg Figure 8. we start with a mass of water at 1 atm pressure and room temperature. We may plot the locus of such points along the line from State 1 to State 2.2 Saturated and Superheated Steam While tables provide a convenient way of presenting precise numerical presentations of data. water expands slightly as it is heated which makes the specific volume increase slightly. In this experiment. and the steam is said to be superheated steam as shown in State 4.21 Tv diagram for the heating process of water at constant pressure Imagine that we are to run an experiment.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/5 constant system pressure. We plot this state at point 1 on the diagram. 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles . Consider the following diagram in which the specific volume of H2O is presented as a function of temperature and pressure1: T. At this temperature and pressure we may measure the specific volume (1/ = 1/1000 kg/m3). the temperature will rise. 1 Figures from Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach. We speak of liquid in one of these conditions as being compressed or subcooled liquid.
which means that all of the water is in still liquid form. However. but ready to boil. At State 3. Summary of nomenclature: Compressed or subcooled liquid (Between States 1 & 2) A liquid state in which the fluid remains entirely within the liquid state. We speak of State 2 as being the saturated liquid state. . As we continue to heat past the boiling point 2.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/6 State 2 is selected to correspond to the boiling point (100 oC). but even the slightest loss of energy from the system would result in the formation of some liquid. Saturated liquid (State 2) All fluid is in the liquid state. The superheated steam temperature is greater than the saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure. Saturated LiquidSteam or Wet Steam Region (Between States 2 & 3) Liquid and steam exist together in a mixture. Superheated steam (The right of State 3) All fluid is in the steam state and above the saturation state. Saturated steam (State 3) All fluid is in the steam state. The temperature of the water no longer continues to rise. even the slightest addition of energy would result in the formation of some vapour. we speak of the water as being a saturated mixture (liquid + steam). the temperature of the steam again rises as we add energy. In this part of the process. This is the saturated steam state. a fundamental change occurs in the process. all liquid will have been vaporised. liquid progressively changes to steam phase at a constant temperature but with an increasing specific volume. and below the saturation state. States to the right of State 3 are said to be superheated steam. As we continue to heat the steam beyond State 3. as we continue to add energy. This is also known as the quality region. Instead.
Both liquid and steam will have the same specific volume. At a pressure of 221. This occurs at a temperature of 374.2 bar. the specific volume increase in the liquid to steam transition will decrease.01325 bar Saturated liquid Saturated steam v. 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles .00317 Figure 8. We see that as pressure increases.22 Tv diagram of constant pressure phase change processes of a pure substance at various pressures for water.00317 m3/kg. the specific volume change which is associated to a phase increase will disappear. m3/kg 0.15 P = 10 bar P = 5 bar P = 1. 0.2 bar P = 150 bar P = 80 bar 374. the temperature at which boiling occurs also increases. 2 Figures from Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach.2 T.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/7 The same experiment can be conducted at several different pressures. This state represents an important transition in fluids and is termed the critical point.15 oC. oC Critical point P = 221. It can be seen that as pressure increases.
P Critical point SUPERHEATED STEAM REGION COMPRESS LIQUID REGION WET STEAM REGION Saturated liquid line Dry saturated steam line T2 = const. T1 = const. 8. SUPERHEATED STEAM REGION WET STEAM REGION v Figure 8.24. we will obtain a diagram which allows easy identification of the distinct regions3: Saturated liquid line Dry saturated steam line Critical point COMPRESS LIQUID REGION T P2 = const.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/8 If we connect the locus of points corresponding to the saturation condition.24 Pv diagram of a pure substance 3 Figures from Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach. P2 > P1 P1 = const. 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles . but the T = constant lines on this diagram have a downward trend. as shown in Fig. T2 > T1 v Figure 8.23 Tv diagram of a pure substance The general shape of the Pv diagram of a pure substance is very much like the Tv diagram.
_____________ ii. they are relatively dense and arranged in a rigid threedimensional patterns so that they do not easily deform.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/9 Activity 8A TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 8.____________ Write the suitable names of the phases for the H2O in the Pv diagram below. ( iii) T2 > T1 T1 = const. 8. ( ii ) P ( iv ) ( vi ) (v) (i) T2 = const. Statement The molecules are closely bound. The distance between the molecules are not as close as those in the solid and liquid phases. they are also relatively dense and unable to expand to fill a space.____________ iii.1 Each line in the table below gives information about phases of pure substances. However they are no longer rigidly structured so that they are free to move within a fixed volume.2 Phase i. There is neither a fixed volume nor a fixed shape for steam. Fill in the phase column in the table with the correct answer. v . The molecules virtually do not attract each other. They are not arranged in a fixed pattern. The molecules are closely bound.
2 i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Compress liquid region Saturated liquid line Wet steam region Dry saturated steam line Superheated steam region Critical point .1 i) ii) iii) Liquid Phase Solid Phase Steam Phase 8.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/10 Feedback To Activity 8A 8.
To denote the state of a liquidsteam mixture. x kg of steam total mass = 1 kg (1 . there must be x kg of saturated steam plus (1 – x) kg of saturated liquid. in 1 kg of wet mixture. Thus. This is called the dryness fraction (symbol x). there exist a mixture of steam plus liquid (wet steam region).x ) kg of liquid Figure 8.3 Properties of a Wet Mixture Between the saturated liquid and the saturated steam. it is necessary to introduce a term describing the relative quantities of liquid and steam in the mixture.31 Liquidsteam mixture The dryness fraction is defined as follows.1) where mtotal = mliquid + msteam . dryness fraction mass of dry saturated steam total mass x msteam mtotal (8.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/11 INPUT 8.
0 Note that for a saturated liquid.8 At point A. there are (1 – x) kg of liquid and x kg of dry steam. steam Sat. the total volume of the mixture is given by the volume of liquid present plus the volume of dry steam present.1 Specific volume For a wet steam. x = 1. 0 x 1. steam Sat. liquid Sat. vf = specific volume of saturated liquid (m3/kg) vg = specific volume of saturated steam (m3/kg) x = dryness fraction (8. liquid P x = 0. A B ts vf vg v Figure 8. Therefore. v = vf(1 – x) + vgx The volume of the liquid is usually negligibly small as compared to the volume of dry saturated steam. and that for dry saturated steam. Hence. x = 1 Between point A and B.32 Pv diagram showing the location point of the dryness fraction 8. x = 0 At point B. the specific volume is given by. v volume of a liquid volume of dry steam total mass of wet steam Now for 1 kg of wet steam. where x is the dryness fraction as defined earlier. v = xvg Where.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/12 Sat.3. x = 0. Hence.2 x = 0.2) . for most practical problems.
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/13 8. the specific internal energy of a wet steam is given by the internal energy of the liquid plus the internal energy of the dry steam.4. i. .5 is more convenient since ug and uf are tabulated. equation 8.e.4) hf = specific enthalpy of saturated liquid (kJ/kg) hg = specific enthalpy of saturated steam (kJ/kg) hfg = difference between hg and hf (that is. i. particularly in power generation and refrigeration.5) Where.2 Specific enthalpy In the analysis of certain types of processes.3 Specific Internal Energy Similarly.5 can be expressed in a form similar to equation 8. and given the symbol H. u = uf(1 – x) + xug u = uf + x(ug – uf ) (8. we frequently encounter the combination of properties U + PV. h = hf(1 – x) + xhg h = hf + x(hg – hf ) h = hf + xhfg Where. uf = specific enthalpy of saturated liquid (kJ/kg) ug = specific enthalpy of saturated steam (kJ/kg) ug – uf = difference between ug and uf Equation 8. However. per unit mass h = u + Pv (kJ/kg) (8.3) The enthalpy of wet steam is given by the sum of the enthalpy of the liquid plus the enthalpy of the dry steam. hfg = hg .3. this combination is defined as a new property.e. The difference is that.hf ) 8.3. H = U + PV (kJ) or. enthalpy. ufg is not tabulated. For the sake of simplicity and convenience. (8.
s = sf(1 – x) + xsg s = sf + x(sg – sf ) s = sf + xsfg (8.e. we will properly define it in Unit 9 .e. therefore. However.3. enthalpy h and entropy s.sf ) REMEMBER! These equations are used very often and are.4) Where. i. and actually. Entropy is a property associated with the Second Law of Thermodynamics.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/14 8. it is appropriate to introduce entropy at this point.4 Specific Entropy A person looking at the steam tables carefully will notice two new properties i. important to remember! v = xvg h = hf + xhfg u = uf + x(ug – uf ) s = sf + xsfg . The entropy of wet steam is given by the sum of the entropy of the liquid plus the entropy of the dry steam. sfg = sg . sf = specific enthalpy of saturated liquid (kJ/kg K) sg = specific enthalpy of saturated steam (kJ/kg K) sfg = difference between sg and sf (that is.
etc.4 Symbols p ts vf vg uf ug hf hg hfg sf sg sfg Units bar o The property of steam tables Description Absolute pressure of the fluid Saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure p bar Specific volume of saturated liquid Specific volume of saturated steam Specific internal energy of saturated liquid Specific internal energy of saturated steam Specific enthalpy of saturated liquid Specific enthalpy of saturated steam Change of specific enthalpy during evaporation Specific entropy of saturated liquid Specific entropy of saturated steam Change of specific entropy during evaporation C m3/kg m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg K kJ/kg K kJ/kg K These steam tables are divided into two types: Type 1: Saturated Water and Steam (Page 2 to 5 of steam tables) Type 2: Superheated Steam (Page 6 to 8 of steam tables) .g. The steam tables which will be used in this unit are those arranged by Mayhew and Rogers. freon. with the symbols used being those recommended by British Standard Specifications.).4 The Use of Steam Tables The steam tables are available for a wide variety of substances which normally exist in the vapour phase (e. ammonia. steam. but some properties of ammonia and freon12 are also given. which are suitable for student use. The steam tables of Mayhew and Rogers are mainly concerned with steam. Below is a list of the properties normally tabulated. Table 8.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/15 8.
01oC to 100oC.666 7.048 sg 9.370 6.666 Solution to Example 8.02337 1.2 sf 0.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/16 8. we can directly read: t o Ps bar 0.6 57. followed by values that are suitable for the temperatures stated in the table.1 hf hfg kJ/kg hg sf sfg kJ/kg K sg C 0.1 Complete the following table for Saturated Water and Steam: t o Ps bar 0.900 10 Example 8.296 1.1 hfg kJ/kg 2498.11 is an example showing an extract from the temperature of 10oC.128 8.6 2675. Part 1 Part 1 refers to the values of temperature from 0.006566 0.1 From page 2 of the steam tables.151 sfg kJ/kg K 8.84 1.4.1 Saturated Water and Steam Tables The table of the saturation condition is divided into two parts.0 ps C bar 0.4.11 t 0 Saturated water and steam at a temperature of 10 oC hf 42.2 hg 2519. Table 8.01227 vg m3/kg 106.7 hg 2502.113 8.01 100 8.015 0.307 sfg kJ/kg K 9.8 sf 0. Table 8.3 2453.4 hfg kJ/kg 2477.4.673 3 hf 4.02337 1.01325 vg m /kg 192.01325 vg m3/kg 206.7 2256.749 sg 8.5 2537.355 C 1 20 100 .9 419.2 83.
303 sfg kJ/kg K sg 1.14 0.4.255 sg 8.0 ts o vg m3/kg uf ug hf hfg kJ/kg hg 2558 sf sfg kJ/kg K sg C kJ/kg 31.2 From page 3 to page 5 of the steam tables.0 0.1944 5.056 7.586 5. Table 8.4.694 3 uf ug kJ/kg hf hfg kJ/kg hg sf 1.0 179.01802 1393 2545 1408 1317 2725 .045 10 311.0 99.615 Solution to Example 8. we can directly read: p bar 0.12 Saturated water and steam at a pressure of 1.2 Complete the missing properties in the following table for Saturated Water and Steam: p bar 0.0 bar.6 417 2506 417 2258 2675 6.615 C kJ/kg 130 2418 762 2584 31.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/17 Part 2 Part 2 (Page 3 to 5 of steam tables) is values of pressure from 0.006112 bar to 221.9 2428 2558 2015 2778 311.360 sfg kJ/kg K 7.431 6.0 0.138 3.2 bar followed by values that are suitable for the pressures stated in the table.0 bar p bar o ts C vg m /kg 1.12 is an example showing an extract from the pressure of 1.451 2.980 4.1944 uf ug hf 130 763 hfg kJ/kg hg sf 0.448 2.359 Note the following subscripts: f = property of the saturated liquid g = property of the saturated steam fg = change of the properties during evaporations Example 8. Table 8.045 10 100 ts o vg m3/kg 31.
3 An extract from the steam tables p 20 ts vg uf ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg 212.893 6.7 kJ/kg P bar b) c) x = 0.9(0.9 20 ts = 212.9.0896 m3/kg Specific enthalpy (h).PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/18 Example 8.09957) = 0.4 0. h = hf + xhfg = 909 + 0.340 a) Specific volume (v). v = xvg = 0.9(2600 .907) = 2430.447 3. u = uf + x( ug uf ) = 907 + 0.4 oC v m3/kg uf hf sf v u h s vg ug hg sg .9(1890) = 2610 kJ/kg Specific internal energy (u).09957 907 2600 909 1890 2799 2.3 For a steam at 20 bar with a dryness fraction of 0. calculate the a) specific volume b) specific enthalpy c) specific internal energy Solution to Example 8.
663 At 8 bar.4.932 (0.046 4.4 An extract from the steam tables.617 6.2403) = 0.5.720) x = 0.4 vg uf ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg 0. Solution to Example 8. u = uf + x(ug uf) 2450 = 720 + x(2577 .2240 m3/kg From equation 8.932 8 ts = 170.7 kJ/kg P bar x = 0.932 (2048) = 2629. From equation 8.932 From equation 8.4 Find the dryness fraction. ug = 2577 kJ/kg. specific volume and specific enthalpy of steam at 8 bar and specific internal energy 2450 kJ/kg. p 8 ts 170. v = xvg = 0.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/19 Example 8. h = hf + xhfg = 721 + 0.4 oC v vg v m3/kg .2. since the actual specific internal energy is given as 2450 kJ/kg.2403 720 2577 721 2048 2769 2. the steam must be in the wet steam state ( u < ug).
Find the dryness fraction. 8. specific enthalpy and specific internal energy of wet steam at 32 bar if the dryness fraction is 0. If the pressure is 42 bar.5 .3 The internal energy of wet steam is 2000 kJ/kg. specific volume and specific internal energy of steam at 105 bar and specific enthalpy 2100 kJ/kg.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/20 Activity 8B 8.4 8.92. what is the value of dryness fraction? Determine the specific volume.
5 Dryness fraction (x). h = hf + xhfg = 1025 + 0. u = uf + x( ug uf ) = 1414 + 0.6 Specific volume (v).92(2603 . u = uf + x( ug uf ) = 1021 + 0.92(0.4 8.00882 m3/kg Specific internal energy (u). v = xvg = 0.3 Dryness fraction (x).1097) x = 0.52 Specific volume (v).06246) = 0.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/21 Feedback To Activity 8B 8. u = uf + x(ug uf) 2000 = 1097 + x(2601 .05746 m3/kg Specific enthalpy (h).1021) = 2476 kJ/kg 8.52(0. v = xvg = 0.92(1778) = 2661 kJ/kg Specific internal energy (u).52(2537 – 1414) = 1998 kJ/kg .01696) = 0. h = hf + x hfg 2100 = 1429 + x(1286) x = 0.
hg and sg are also given.5.9 oC. At each pressure.9 oC = 20. there is a range of temperature up to high degrees of superheat. the specific volume is 0.4. enthalpy and entropy are tabulated. A specimen row of values is shown in Table 8.2 bar. For example.2061 m3/kg and the specific enthalpy is 2829 kJ/kg. ug. the saturation temperature is inserted in brackets under each pressure in the superheat tables and values of vg. When the pressure and temperature are given for the superheated steam then the state is defined and all the other properties can be found.6) For reference. The equation of degree of superheat is: Degree of superheat = tsuperheat – tsaturation (8.2 Superheated Steam Tables The second part of the table is the superheated steam tables. A steam is called superheated when its temperature is greater than the saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure. The specific internal energy is calculated using the equation: u = h – pv (8. internal energy.5) The tables of properties of superheated steam range in pressure from 0. For the pressure above 70 bar. .2. For example. and the values of specific volume.1 oC. The steam at this state has a degree of superheat of 200 oC – 179.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/22 INPUT 8. The values of the specific properties of a superheated steam are normally listed in separate tables for the selected values of pressure and temperature. the specific internal energy is not tabulated.006112 bar to the critical pressure of 221. from the superheated table at 10 bar and 200 oC. steam at 10 bar and 200 o C is superheated since the saturation temperature at 10 bar is 179.
PROPERTIES OF STEAM
J2006/8/23
Table 8.4.2
p (ts)
vg 0.1944 10 u 2584 (179.9) g hg 2778 sg 6.586
Superheated steam at a pressure of 10 bar
200
0.2061 2623 2829 6.695
t
v u h s
250
300
350
0.2825 2875 3158 7.301
400
450
500
0.3540 3124 3478 7.761
600
0.4010 3297 3698 8.028
0.2328 0.2580 2711 2944 6.926 2794 3052 7.124
0.3065 0.3303 2957 3264 7.464 3040 3370 7.617
Example 8.5 Complete the missing properties in the following table for Superheated Steam: p t 300 350 400 450 (ts) vg 0.0498 v 0.0800 40 ug 2602 u 2921 (250.3) hg 2801 h 3094 sg 6.070 s 6.364
Solution to Example 8.5 From page 7 of the steam tables, we can directly read p t 300 350 (ts) vg 0.0498 v 0.0588 0.0664 40 ug 2602 u 2728 2828 (250.3) hg 2801 h 2963 3094 sg 6.070 s 6.364 6.584
400
450
0.0733 0.0800 2921 3010 3214 3330 6.769 6.935
PROPERTIES OF STEAM
J2006/8/24
Example 8.6 Steam at 100 bar has a specific volume of 0.02812 m3/kg. Find the temperature, degree of superheat, specific enthalpy and specific internal energy.
Solution to Example 8.6 First, it is necessary to decide whether the steam is wet, dry saturated or superheated. At 100 bar, vg = 0.01802 m3/kg. This is less than the actual specific volume of 0.02812 m3/kg. Hence, the steam is superheated. The state of the steam is at point A in the diagram below.
P bar
100
A 425 oC ts = 311.0 oC v m3/kg
vg= 0.01802 v = 0.02812
An extract from the superheated table, p t (ts) 100 vg 0.01802 hg 2725 v x 102 h s
425 2.812 3172 6.321
(311.0) sg 5.615
From the superheated table at 100 bar, the specific volume is 0.02812 m3/kg at a temperature of 425 oC. Hence, this is the isothermal line, which passes through point A as shown in the Pv diagram above.
PROPERTIES OF STEAM
J2006/8/25
Degree of superheat = 425 oC – 311 oC = 114 oC So, at 100 bar and 425 oC, we have v = 2.812 x 102 m3/kg h = 3172 kJ/kg From equation 8.6, u = h – Pv = 3172 kJ/kg – (100 x 102 kN/m2)(2.812 x 102 m3/kg) = 2890.8 kJ/kg
Note that equation 8.6 must be used to find the specific internal energy for pressure above 70 bar as the specific internal energy is not tabulated.
PROPERTIES OF STEAM
J2006/8/26
Activity 8C
8.6
Steam at 120 bar is at 500 oC. Find the degree of superheat, specific volume, specific enthalpy and specific internal energy. Steam at 160 bar has a specific enthalpy of 3139 kJ/kg. Find the temperature, degree of superheat, specific enthalpy and specific internal energy.
8.7
PROPERTIES OF STEAM
J2006/8/27
Feedback to Activity 8C
8.6
From the superheated table at 120 bar, the saturation temperature is 324.6 oC. Therefore, the steam is superheated. Degree of superheat = 500 oC – 324.6 oC = 175.4 oC So, at 120 bar and 500 oC, we have v = 2.677 x 102 m3/kg h = 3348 kJ/kg From equation 8.6, u = h – Pv = 3348 kJ/kg – (120 x 102 kN/m2)(2.677 x 102 m3/kg) = 3026.76 kJ/kg
8.7
At 160 bar, hg = 2582 kJ/kg. This is less than the actual specific enthalpy of 3139 kJ/kg. Hence, the steam is superheated. From the superheated table at 160 bar, the specific enthalpy of 3139 kJ/kg is located at a temperature of 450 oC. The degree of superheat = 450 oC – 347.3 oC = 102.7 oC At 160 bar and 450 oC, we have v = 1.702 x 102 m3/kg From equation 8.6, u = h – Pv = 3139 kJ/kg – (160 x 102 kN/m2)(1.702 x 102 m3/kg) = 2866.68 kJ/kg
2.52. y y2 y y1 (x1 . y2) From Fig.52 Linear interpolation . It is common to use linear interpolation as shown in Fig.5 Interpolation The first interpolation problem that an engineer usually meets is that of “reading between the lines” of a published table. y1) x x1 x x2 (x .5. y) (x2 .51 Interpolation The values in the tables are given in regular increments of temperature and pressure. In this process it is customary to use a straight line that passes through two adjacent table points. the value of x can be determined by: x x1 x x1 2 y y1 y 2 y1 x y y1 x2 x1 x1 y 2 y1 Figure 8. f(x) Interpolation x Figure 8. it is necessary to interpolate between the values tabulated as shown in Fig. Often we wish to know the value of thermodynamic properties at intermediate values. 8. For properties which are not tabulated exactly in the tables. 8. If we use the straight line then it is called “interpolation”. 8.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/28 INPUT 8. like the Steam Tables. denoted by and .51 below.
3 oC . For example. internal energy and enthalpy of dry saturated steam at 77 bar.5 2 5 ts 24. to find the saturation temperature. Example 8. So.1 Single interpolation Single interpolation is used to find the values in the table when one of the values is not tabulated. it is necessary to interpolate between the values given in the table.5 5 290.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/29 There are two methods of interpolation: i.6 The values of saturation temperature at a pressure of 77 bars are not tabulated in the Steam Tables.5. we need to interpolate between the two nearest values that are tabulated in the Steam Tables. specific volume.5 295 290.5 295 290.5 ts ts = 292.5 290. P 80 77 75 ts 295 t s 290.6 Determine the saturation temperature at 77 bar. double interpolation 8. single interpolation ii. Solution to Example 8.5 77 75 80 75 t s 290.
2610 v 0.4 oC. The steam is at superheated condition as the temperature of the steam is 220oC > ts.2933 220 v 250 0.2933 0. Solution to Example 8.2610 220 200 250 200 v 0.8 Determine the specific volume of steam at 8 bar and 220oC. Solution to Example 8.27392 m3/kg . the saturated temperature (ts) is 170.7 P 105 103 100 hg 2715 hg 2725 103 100 2715 2725 105 100 hg 3 10 2725 5 hg 2719 kJ/kg 2725 hg Example 8.2610 (170.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/30 Example 8. p / (bar) t 200 (ts / oC) (oC) 8 v 0.7 Determine the specific enthalpy of dry saturated steam at 103 bar.2610 0.4) P 250 220 200 v 0.2933 v 0.8 From the Steam Tables at 8 bar. An extract from the Steam Tables.
An interpolation between 300oC and 350oC is also necessary. Solution to Example 8. For example. At 20 bar.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/31 8. an interpolation between 20 bar and 30 bar is necessary (as shown in example 8.2 Double Interpolation In some cases a double interpolation is necessary. and it’s usually used in the Superheated Steam Table. find the specific enthalpy (h1) at 20 bar and 320 oC. Double interpolation must be used when two of the properties (eg.8 Determine the specific enthalpy of superheated steam at 25 bar and 320oC.9). T 350 320 300 h 3025 h1 3138 h1 3025 3138 3025 320 300 350 300 h1 3070.8 An extract from the Superheated Steam Tables: t(oC) p(bar) 20 25 30 2995 300 3025 320 h1 h h2 3117 350 3138 Firstly. to find the enthalpy of superheated steam at 25 bar and 320oC.5. Example 8.2 kJ/kg . temperature and pressure) are not tabulated in the Steam Tables.
and h2 at 30 bar. 320oC in order to find h at 25 bar and 320oC. At 30 bar. . If it is cooled at constant volume process until the pressure drops to180 kN/m2. determine the following: a) mass of steam in the cylinder b) dryness fraction at the final state Sketch the process in the form of a Pv diagram.2 .8 kJ/kg Now interpolate between h1 at 20 bar. 320oC.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/32 Secondly. T 350 320 300 h 2995 h2 3117 h2 2995 3117 2995 320 300 350 300 h2 3043.9 0.2 30438 3070. h h1 h h2 Example 8. 25 20 30 20 h 3057 kJ/kg. At 320oC.9 m3 of dry saturated steam at 225 kN/m2 is contained in a rigid cylinder. P 30 25 20 h h1 h h1 2 25 20 30 20 h 3070. find the specific enthalpy (h2) at 30 bar and 320 oC.
v g1 0.9774) 1(0.25 bar.25 bar is not tabulated in the steam tables and it is necessary to use the interpolation method.9774 = 0.25 bar.8100 0. P1 = 225 kN/m2 = 2.134 kg b) At constant volume process.9 Data: V1 = 0.8100 m3/kg vg at 2.7935 m3/kg Mass of steam in cylinder.30 2.25 1.25 bar = x2vg2 at 1.8100 2.3 bar = 0.80 bar a) Firstly.9 0. find the specific volume of dry saturated steam at 2.7770 m3/kg vg1 at 2. vg at 2. Note that the pressure 2.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/33 Solution to Example 8. Initial specific volume = final specific volume v1 = v2 x1vg1 at 2.7770 0.80 1 v1 = v2 2 v m3/kg 0.25 bar.7935 0.7935) x2 0.7935) = x2 (0. From the Steam Tables.25 2.9 m3 .2 bar = 0.9774 . P2 = 180 kN/m2 = 1.20 2.7935 = 1.20 vg1 0. m V1 (m3 x kg/m3) vg1 0.8 bar 1(0.81 P bar 2.
8 8. .11 Determine the specific enthalpy of steam at 15 bar and 275oC. A superheated steam at 12.10 8. Determine its specific volume.5 MN/m2 is at 650oC. Determine the degree of superheat and entropy of steam at 10 bar and 380oC. Calculate the changes in the internal energy of steam.9 8.9. Sketch the process in the form of a Pv diagram.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/34 Activity 8D 8. A superheated steam at 24 bar and 500oC expands at constant volume until the pressure becomes 6 bar and the dryness fraction is 0.
318 x 102 700 3.159 x 102 650 v1 v v2 3.464 7.301 s 7.3988 kJ/kg K 8.8 T 300 275 250 h 2925 h 3039 h 2925 3039 2925 275 250 300 250 h 2982 kJ/kg 8.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/35 Feedback to Activity 8D 8.301 7.901 x 102 600 3.10 An extract from the superheated steam table: t(oC) p(bar) 120 125 130 2.9 Degree of superheat = 380oC – 179.464 s 7.1oC T 400 380 350 s 7.9oC = 200.301 380 350 400 350 s 7.605 x 102 .
and v2 at 130 bar.318 x 102 Now interpolate between v1 at 120 bar.901 x 102 v2 3.159 x 10 2 3. At 130 bar. 650oC. At 650oC. T 700 650 600 v1 3.901 x 10 2 3. find the specific volume (v1) at 120 bar and 650 oC.1095 x 102 m3/kg v 2.382 x 10 2 3.605 x 102 v Secondly.318 x 10 2 2. At 120 bar.1095 x 10 2 3.159 x 102 v1 3.159 x 10 2 650 600 700 600 v1 3.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/36 Firstly. find the specific volume (v2) at 130 bar and 650 oC.382 x 10 2 m3/kg 3.246 x 102 m3/kg v1 v v2 v . 650oC in order to find v at 125 bar and 650oC. T 700 650 600 v2 2.901 x 10 2 650 600 700 600 v2 = 3.605 x 10 2 3. P 130 125 120 v v1 v v 2 1 125 120 130 120 v 3.382 x 10 2 125 120 130 120 v = 3.
8oC 24 221.8oC 158.8oC 2 v1 = v2 v m3/kg . P 30 24 20 u 3108 u1 3116 3108 3116 24 20 30 20 u1 3112. (u2 – u1) = 2378.9.9(2568 .1 – 3112.669) = 2378.11 Data: P1 = 24 bar T1 = 500oC P2 = 6 bar x2 = 0.8oC 6 158.7 kJ/kg P bar 500oC v1 = v 2 1 500oC 221. Note that the pressure 24 bar is not tabulated in the Superheated Steam Tables and it is necessary to use the interpolation method to find the changes in the internal energy of steam. 500oC.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/37 8.734. find the final internal energy at 6 bar where x = 0. At 500oC. u2 = uf2 + x2( ug2 uf2 ) = 669 + 0.8 kJ/kg 3116 u1 Secondly.1 kJ/kg The changes in the internal energy of steam is.9 Firstly.8 = . find the initial internal energy at 24 bar.
PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/38 SELFASSESSMENT You are approaching success. ii.9 bar and specific enthalpy 2020 kJ/kg. iii.4 Phase description 354. determine the enthalpy change for a process involving a dry saturated steam at 3. 1. specific volume and specific internal energy of steam at 80 bar and enthalpy 2990 kJ/kg.6 425 1 0. ii. iii.0 MN/m2 which is superheated to 600 oC and carried out at constant pressure. . determine the degree of superheat and internal energy of superheated steam at 33 bar and 313oC.0 12. With reference to the Steam Tables. discuss it with your lecturer. i. Try all the questions in this selfassessment section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to SelfAssessment on the next page.2 o x v m /kg 3 u kJ/kg h kJ/kg 2784 s kJ/kg K 6.9 2. specific enthalpy and specific internal energy of wet steam at 15 bar with a dryness fraction of 0.0 175 200 t C 120. If you face any problem. find the dryness fraction and specific entropy of steam at 2.9. determine the specific volume. Good luck. P bar 2. determine the degree of superheat. With reference to the Steam Tables. complete the missing properties and a phase description in the following table for water. i.
. 1.0 12.6 h kJ/kg 2421 2784 2448.2939 kJ/kg K Degree of superheat = 73. iii.007146 0.753 354.48 kJ/kg ii.2 188 o x 0.001147 u kJ/kg 2267 2588 2319. iii. v = 0.7705 0.523 5.4 6.11853 m3/kg h = 2600 kJ/kg u = 2419. x = 0.9  v m3/kg 0.PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/39 Feedback to SelfAssessment Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”.0 175 t C 120.8 kJ/kg degree of superheat = 55 oC v = 2.68 s = 5.85oC u = 2769 kJ/kg h2 – h1 = 879 kJ/kg ii.1 2955 s kJ/kg K 6.994 x 102 m3/kg u = 2750.1632 0. check your answers now. i. P bar 2. steam Wet steam Superheated steam 2.6 200 425 Phase description Wet steam Dry sat. i.0135 5.87 1 0.8 2725.
adiabatic (or isentropic) process v. Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to: state the definition of the Second Law of Thermodynamics explain the Second Law of Thermodynamics estimate the efficiency of heat engine explain entropy and entropy change sketch processes on a temperatureentropy diagram understand that Q = h2 – h1 and apply the formula in calculations calculate the change of entropy. work and heat transfer of steam in reversible processes at: i. constant temperature (or isothermal) process iv. constant pressure process ii. polytropic process .THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/1 UNIT 9 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS OBJECTIVES General Objective : To define and explain the Second Law of Thermodynamics and perform calculations involving the expansion and compression of steam and gases. constant volume process iii.
the gross heat supplied must be greater than the work done. …The Second Law of Thermodynamics In symbols. . then the net heat supplied is equal to the net work done. the heat engine must be discussed. some heat must always be rejected by the system. indicates that. which follows from the observation on natural events. when a system undergoes a complete cycle. Although the net heat supplied in a cycle is equal to the net work done. which is also a natural law. Q1 – Q2 = W (9.1) To enable the second law to be considered more fully. The Second Law of Thermodynamics.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/2 INPUT 9. dQ = dW This is based on the conservation of energy principle.0 Introduction to The Second Law of Thermodynamics According to the First Law of Thermodynamics as stated in Unit 2.
Q2 ENGINE Note: Q1 = The heat supplied from the source. A heat engine is a system operating in a complete cycle and developing net work from a supply of heat.) They reject the remaining waste heat to a lowtemperature sink (for example the atmosphere. condenser. W = The net work done. etc. but converting heat to work requires the use of some special devices. Hightemperature HOT RESERVOIR Q1 HEAT WORK OUTPUT W = Q1 . steam turbine. for example gas turbine. nuclear reactor. oil furnace. steam boiler. Heat engines differ considerably from one another. etc. since some heat must always be rejected by the system.11. . Figure 9. Q2 Lowtemperature COLD RESERVOIR Q2 = The heat rejected. These devices are called heat engines.1 The heat engine and heat pump We know from experience that work can be converted to heat directly and completely.) They operate on a cycle. The second law implies that a source of heat supply (or hot reservoir) and a sink (or cold reservoir) for the rejection of heat are both necessary. rivers. but all can be characterised by the following: They receive heat from a hightemperature source (for example solar energy. etc. while the rest is rejected to cold reservoir.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/3 9. A diagrammatic representation of a heat engine is shown in Fig. 9.) They convert part of this heat to work (usually in the form of a rotating shaft.11 Part of the heat received by the heat engine is converted to work.
in a complete cycle. Q 1 Q2 Q1 Q2 1 Q1 (9. Referring to Fig. This fluid is called the working fluid. we have. 9. It is usually expressed as a percentage. from equation dQ = dW. 9. i.e.11. . the gross heat supplied must be greater than the net work done.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/4 Heat engines and other cyclic devices usually involve a fluid that moves to and fro from which heat is transferred while undergoing a cycle. W Q1 (9. The workproducing device that best fits into the definition of a heat engine are: The steam power plant The close cycle gas turbine By the first law.11. Q1 > W The thermal efficiency of a heat engine is defined as the ratio of the net work done in the cycle to the gross heat supplied in the cycle.3) It can be seen that the second law implies that the thermal efficiency of a heat engine must always be less than 100% (Q1 > W ). Q1 – Q2 = W By the second law.2) Substituting equation 9. Thermal efficiency.1. Net heat supplied = Net work done Referring to Fig.
Analysis: The given quantities can be expressed in rate form as.2. W = Q1 – Q2 = (80 – 45) MW = 35 MW Then from equation 9. . The furnace serves as the hightemperature reservoir for this heat engine and the river as the lowtemperature reservoir. Solution to Example 9. the thermal efficiency is easily determined to be W 35 MW 0.1. the net work done for this heat engine is.1 Heat is transferred to a heat engine from a furnace at a rate of 80 MW.75%) Q1 80 MW That is.75 percent of the heat it receives to work. If the rate of waste heat rejection to a nearby river is 45 MW.4375 (or 43. determine the net work done and the thermal efficiency for this heat engine.1 FURNACE Q1 = 80 MW HEAT W=? ENGINE Q2 = 45 MW RIVER A schematic of the heat engine is given in the diagram above.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/5 Example 9. the heat engine converts 43. Q1 = 80 MW Q2 = 45 MW From equation 9. Assumption: Heat lost through the pipes and other components are negligible.
i. Q1. heat only flows from a hightemperature source to a lowtemperature sink. a reversed heat engine can be utilized to pump the heat from a lowtemperature region to a hightemperature region. and that the possibility or otherwise of a process can be determined through a property of the working fluid called entropy. The equivalent diagram of the heat pump (or refrigerator) is shown in Fig. Such cycles occur in heat pumps and refrigerators. that a limit is imposed by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. In the case of a reversed cycle. Q1 = W + Q2 (9. is rejected to the hot reservoir. Hightemperature HOT RESERVOIR Q1 HEAT WORK INPUT W Q1 = W + Q2 PUMP Q2 Lowtemperature COLD RESERVOIR Figure 9. Q2. we can say that work input is essential for heat to be transferred from the cold to the hot reservoir.12 Reverse heat engine In the heat pump (or refrigerator) cycle. an amount of heat. 9.4) In the second law. The reversed heat engine is called heat pump. Nor does it indicate whether the energy conversion process is physically possible or impossible.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/6 The first and second laws apply equally well to cycles working in the reverse direction to those of heat engine. and an amount of heat.12. the net work done on the system is equal to the net heat rejected by the system. . W>0 The first law sets no limit on the percentage of heat supplied. is supplied from the cold reservoir. However. We shall see. In general.e. though. which can be converted into work.
and the zero of entropy can be chosen quite arbitrarily. . internal energy which is an important property. the units of entropy are given by kJ/kg divided by K. Another important property. the first law does not indicate the possibility or impossibility of the process. For all working substances. in the Steam Tables the specific entropy at saturated liquid is put equal to zero at 0. Considering 1 kg of fluid.e.2 Entropy The first law applied to a heat engine or energy conversion process is merely an energy balance.21 and 9. However. is kJ/kg K. s. These diagrams are the Pv and the Ts diagrams respectively. and we know from our everyday experience that some energy conversions are never observed. S = ms kJ/K The change of entropy is more important than its absolute value. as shown in Figs.7 below is analogous to equation 9. of a fluid. the change of entropy is given by dQ ds T Rewriting equation 9. In Unit 2.7) Thus. in tables of refrigerants the specific entropy at saturated liquid is put equal to zero at – 40oC.6) The equation 9.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/7 9. as there is a diagram on areas that represent work done in a reversible process. follows from the second law. The the unit of specific entropy.6 for any reversible process W P dv 1 2 (9.22. i. m. arised as a result of the First Law of Thermodynamics.5) Q T ds 1 2 (9. entropy. For example. there is also a diagram on areas that represent heat flow in a reversible process.01oC. The symbol S will be used for the entropy of mass. 9.5 we have dQ = T ds or for any reversible process (9.
represents work done. 1 2 T 1 T 2 dv v ds s Figure 9. In the next input.2 Heat flow Therefore.2. the shaded area in Fig.2.1 Work done Figure 9.2. 9. represents heat flow. .THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/8 For a reversible process from point 1 to point 2: in Fig. 9. the Ts diagram will be considered for a steam. and T ds . one great use of property entropy is that it enables a diagram to be drawn showing the area that represents heat flow in a reversible process.21.2. the shaded area P 1 P 2 2 1 P dv .
hence the pressure lines are horizontal in the wet region (i. portions BC.e.3 The Ts diagram for a steam As mentioned earlier. The pressure remains constant with temperature when the latent heat is added.e.31. The lines of constant volume are concaved down in the wet region and slope up more steeply than pressure lines in the superheat region. 9. The pressure lines curve upwards in the superheat region (i. The Ts diagram for steam in Fig.e. ABCD. GH and LM).01oC for steam and – 40oC for refrigerants only. EFGH and JKLM). P2 and P3 ( i. the zero specific entropy is taken as 0.e.31 Temperatureentropy diagram for liquid and steam . and the difference is usually neglected. shows: Three lines of constant pressure P1. The diagram for a refrigerant is exactly similar to the Ts diagram for steam. portions CD. EF and JK). Thus the temperature rises as heating continues at constant pressure. the zero specific entropy is different. 9.31. The Ts diagram for steam is considered here.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/9 9. However. T P3 M P2 K J E A 273 K F B L G C v2 v1 H P1 D P3 > P2 > P1 v1 > v2 s Figure 9. The pressure lines in the liquid region are practically coincident with the saturated liquid line (i. Two constant volume lines (v1 and v2 shown as chaindotted) are also drawn in Fig. FG and KL). AB.
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/10 In steam tables. x1 distance F1 s1 s f1 distance FG s fg1 The area under the line FG on Fig. In unit 8. for state 1 on Fig. The area under line F1 is given by x1hfg.8) (9. the enthalpy of wet steam was shown to be given by equation 8.32 Temperatureentropy chart for steam . h= hf + xhfg T (K) s1 = sf1 + x1sfg1 P1 F 1 G P1 sf s1 sg s kJ/kg K Figure 9. For wet steam with dryness fraction.e. The specific entropy of wet steam is given by the specific entropy of water in the mixture plus the specific entropy of the dry steam in the mixture. The difference. 9. 9. the dryness fraction.4. s = sf + xsfg Then the dryness fraction is given by s sf x s fg (9. we have s = sf(1 – x) + xsg or s = sf + x(sg – sf ) i. For example.9) It can be seen from equation 9. sg .32.32 represents the latent heat hfg.sf = sfg is also tabulated. x. the specific entropy of the saturated liquid and the dry saturated steam are represented by sf and sg respectively.9 that the dryness fraction is proportional to the distance of the state point from the liquid line on a Ts diagram.
01oC is approximately zero) Therefore.hB At point C. T (K) P D B E C A 0 F G H J s kJ/kg K Figure 9.4: o When water at any pressure P.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/11 9. Assuming that the pressure line in the liquid region coincides with the saturated liquid line. if heating continues. 9.4 Ts diagram showing Q = h2 – h1 Referring to Fig. while areas on the diagram represent heat flow. then the enthalpy can be represented on the diagram. Thus we have area BCHFB = latent heat = hfg at pressure P = hC .hA = hB (since hA at 0. the point B is at the saturation temperature T at which the water boils at the pressure P. at 0. is heated at constant pressure. water will change gradually into steam until point C and the steam becomes dry saturated. the enthalpy is given by hC = area ABFOA + area BCHFB = hg at pressure P .4 To show that Q = h2 – h1 The Ts diagram will enable equation Q = h2 – h1 to be expressed graphically. At constant pressure from A to B Q = hB . it follows the line AB approximately.01 C. we have area ABFOA = hB = hf at pressure P At point B.
e hE = hB + xEhfg hE = area ABEGOA When dry saturated steam is further heated. it becomes superheated.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/12 For wet steam at point E. The heat added from C to D at constant pressure P. is given by Q = hD – hC = area CDJHC Then the enthalpy at D is hD = hC + area CDJHC = area ABCDJOA . i.
i. vii. In heat engines. iv. If the rate of heat that enters into the hot reservoir is 3000 kJ/min. The workproducing device of a heat engine are the steam power plant and a close cycle gas turbine. TRUE or FALSE i. 9. determine the thermal efficiency and the rate of heat rejection to the cold reservoir. vi.e W > Q1 . v. . The heat engine convert part of the heat to internal energy. The heat engine receives heat from a hightemperature source. ii. A reversed heat engine is called a heat pump. iii.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/13 Activity 9A TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT 9. STATEMENTS The Second Law of Thermodynamics is represented by the equation Q1 – Q2 = W. the net work done must be greater than the gross heat supplied.2 The work done by heat engine is 20 kW.1 Study the statements in table below and decide if the statements are TRUE (T) or FALSE (F). The work producing device for a heat pump is the refrigerator.
CONGRATULATIONS. v. vii.e. Thermal efficiency of heat engine is 40 %. W = 20 kW Q1 = 3000 kJ/min = 50 kJ/s or kW From equation 9. From equation 9.1 i. iv.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/14 Feedback To Activity 9A 9.e. iii. vi.2 The given quantities can be expressed as.1 W = Q1 – Q2 Q2 = Q1 – W = 50 – 20 = 30 kW i. ii. IF YOUR ANSWERS ARE CORRECT YOU CAN PROCEED TO THE NEXT INPUT… . The rate of heat rejection to the cold reservoir is 30 kW. True True False True True True False 9.2 W 20 x 100 % 40 % Q1 50 i.
The combustion of fuel in a boiler.1 Constant pressure process . T P1 = P 2 T2 T1 1 2 Q s1 s2 s Figure 9.5 Reversible processes on the Ts diagram for steam In the following sections of this unit. 9. Fig. constant pressure process ii. constant temperature (or isothermal) process iv. For example. when the boundary of the system is inflexible. the boundary must move against an external resistance as heat is supplied. These processes include the: i. the flow of fluids. the flow of air in ducts and other processes can be used to illustrate constant pressure. It can be seen that.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/15 INPUT 9.5. constant volume process iii. five reversible processes on the Ts diagram for steam are analysed in detail.5.1 shows a reversible constant pressure process from a wet steam into the superheat region. For a constant pressure process.5. polytropic process 9. the pressure rises when heat is supplied. adiabatic (or isentropic) process v.1 Constant pressure process The constant pressure process is a good approximation to many of the common physical processes which we are familiar with.
h1 kJ/kg or for mass. the steam is wet. m = 4 kg P2 = P1 = 7 bar s1 = 6.H1 kJ (9.2 The given quantities can be expressed as. Q = (u2 – u1) + W Hence for a reversible constant pressure process Q = (u2 – u1) + P(v2 – v1) = (u2 + Pv2) –( u1 + Pv1) Now from equation h = u + Pv. since the actual entropy.709 kJ/kg K. s1. is heated reversibly at constant pressure until the temperature is 250 oC. is less than sg1 (i. Q = h2 .THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/16 During the constant pressure process. Q = m(h2 . sg1 = 6.5 kJ/kg K T2 = 250oC At state 1 At 7 bar.11) (9. Calculate the heat supplied and show on a Ts diagram the area which represents the heat flow.2 4 kg of steam at 7 bar and entropy 6. m (kg).10) (Note that this equation was derived and used in Unit 5) From the nonflow energy equation.5 kJ/kg K.h1) Q = H2 . Solution to Example 9. W P dv Pv2 v1 2 1 (9.12) Example 9. of a fluid.e. s1< sg1). since P is constant. .
956(2067) = 2673 kJ/kg At state 2 The steam is at 250 oC at 7 bar. Q = 4 kg x 282 kJ/kg = 1128 kJ i.5 1.709 s2 s (kJ/kg K) .2673 = 282 kJ/kg Hence for 4 kg of steam. the heat supplied is 1128 kJ. T (K) P1 = P2 = 7 bar T2 = 250 oC = 523 K 2 1 Q s1 6.992 x1 0.h1 = 2955 . From the The Ts diagram of the process is given below.9 s1 s f1 6. and therefore superheated.956 s fg1 4. from equation 9.e. The shaded area represents the heat flow.4 h1 = hf1 + x1hfg1 = 697 + 0. h2 = 2955 kJ/kg At constant pressure. For 4 kg of steam.717 Then from equation 8.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/17 From equation 9.11 Q = h2 . superheated tables.
From the nonflow energy equation. Q = (u2 – u1) + W Since no work is done. T P2 T2 2 P1 T1 1 Q s1 s2 s Figure 9.2 Constant volume process .5.5. It will be assumed that ‘constant volume’ implies zero work unless stated otherwise. m (kg). the working substance is contained in a rigid vessel (or closed tank) from which heat is either added or removed. of the working substance Q = m(u2 – u1) Q = (U2 – U1) kJ (9.2.5. In this process. the boundaries of the system are immovable and no work can be done on or by the system. all the heat supplied in a constant volume process goes to increasing the internal energy.13) Note that. 9. In Fig. we therefore have Q = u2 – u1 kJ/kg or for mass.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/18 9.2 Constant volume process In a constant volume process. the indicated path is one in which heat is being added in a constant volume process.14) (9.
v1 = x1 vg1 v1 01115 .2 kJ/kg . we have specific volume. x1 0.1115m3/kg vg1 = 0.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/19 Example 9. Q = u2 – u1 = 2681 – 1807. u1 = uf1 + x1(ug1 – uf1) = 762 + 0. we have v1 = v2 = 0.574 v g1 01944 .574 (2584 . v2 = 0. From equation 8. u2 = 2681 kJ/kg At state 1 At 10 bar.3 A wet steam at 10 bar is heated reversibly at constant volume to a pressure of 20 bar and 250 oC. Solution to Example 9.8 kJ/kg At constant volume from equation 9. indicating the area that represents the heat flow.1944 Steam at state 1 is wet as v1< vg1.5.3 At state 2 Steam at 20 bar and 250 oC is superheated.8 = 873. From the superheated steam tables.762) = 1807.13.1115 m3/kg specific internal energy. and the dryness fraction is given by equation 8.2. Calculate the heat supply (in kJ/kg) and show the process on a Ts diagram.
The shaded area represents the heat flow.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/20 The Ts diagram showing of constant volume process is given below. T P2 = 20 bar 250 oC 2 P1 = 10 bar 1 Q s1 s2 s .
From the nonflow energy equation. and care must be taken to convert this into T Kelvin. Similarly in an isothermal compression. Figure 9.16) Q s1 s2 s Figure 9.5. This steam is subsequently condensed in a unit appropriately known as a condenser. Q = T(s2 . this process is carried out essentially at constant temperature (isothermally). the steam is usually wet. For example. and the area under the line must represent the heat flow during the process.15) Note that the absolute temperature must be used.5.3 shows a reversible isothermal expansion of wet steam into the superheat region. at the exhaust of a steam turbine. heat must be removed from the fluid continuously during the process.2.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/21 9. In an isothermal expansion. work can be expressed by W = Q . The shaded area represents the heat supplied during the process.3 Constant temperature (or isothermal) process A process that takes place at constant temperature is called an isothermal process. As the steam is initially wet.3 Isothermal process . heat must be added continuously in order to keep the temperature at the initial value. A reversible isothermal process will appear as a straight line on a Ts diagram.(u2 – u1) T P1 P2 T1 = T2 1 2 (9. The temperature tabulated in the o steam tables is t C.s1) … T in Kelvin (or K) (9.
P1 = 80 bar h1 = 2650 kJ/kg P2 = 10 bar At state 1 At 80 bar. the saturated temperature of wet steam is 295 oC.537) = 5.5 u1 = uf1 + x1( ug1 . Calculate the entropy change. since the given enthalpy. Solution to Example 9.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/22 Example 9.uf1 ) = 1306 + 0.4 The given quantities can be expressed as.1306) = 2475. heat supplied and the work done per kg steam during the process.925 From equation 9. is less than hg (i.e. the steam is wet. From the steam tables. h1 = 2650 kJ/kg. indicating the area that represents the heat flow.207 + 0. 2758 kJ/kg).925(2570 . Show the process on a Ts diagram.925(2.554 kJ/kg K From equation 8.2 kJ/kg .8 s1 = sf1 + x1sfg1 = 3.4 h1 = hf1 + x1hfg1 2650 = 1317 + x1(1441) x1 = 0.4 Steam at 80 bar and enthalpy 2650 kJ/kg expands isothermally and reversibly to a pressure of 10 bar. From equation 8. h1.
5502 kJ/kg K Then from equation 9. Heat supplied = shaded area Q = T(s2 .124 6.926 T 300 295 250 s2 7.554 kJ/kg K = 1.7 .1042 kJ/kg K u2 2711 2794 2711 295 250 300 250 u2 = 2785.2) = 570 kJ/kg .15 we have.(2785.16.5 .926 295 250 300 250 s2 = 7.2475.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/23 At state 2 At 10 bar and 295 oC the steam is superheated. hence interpolating T 300 295 250 s 6.s1) = 568(1.(u2 – u1) = 880.926 7.5 kJ/kg (where T = 295 + 273 = 568 K) From equation 9.7 kJ/kg u 2711 u2 2794 Change of entropy. W = Q . (s2 – s1) = 7.1042 .5502) = 880.5.124 s2 6.
The shaded area represents the heat flow. T (K) P1 = 80 bar P2 = 10 bar T1 = T2 295OC @ 568 K 1 2 Q s1 s2 s (kJ/kg K) .THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/24 The Ts diagram of the isothermal process is given below.
Dry saturated steam at 100 bar expands isothermally and reversibly to a pressure of 10 bar. Calculate the heat supplied.4 9. Calculate the heat supplied and the work done per kg of steam during the process. Steam at 8 bar.211 kJ/kg K is heated reversibly at constant pressure until the temperature is 350 oC. entropy 6.3 A rigid cylinder (constant volume) contains steam at 90 bar and 400 oC. Sketch the process on a Ts diagram indicating the area. 9. Show the process on a Ts diagram.5 . and show on a Ts diagram the area which represents the heat flow.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/25 Activity 9B TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 9. The cylinder is cooled until the pressure is 50 bar. which represents the heat flow. Calculate the amount of heat rejected per kg of steam.
758(2597 – 1149) = 2246.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/26 Feedback To Activity 9B 9.758 v g 2 0. P1 = 90 bar T1 = 400 oC P2 = 50 bar At state 1 Steam at 90 bar and 400 oC is superheated. For superheated steam above 70 bar.6 that.02991 m3/kg. u1 = h1 – p1v1 = 3118 – (90 x 102 x 2.991 x 102) = 2848.2 as: v2 = x2vg2 x2 v2 0. v1 = 0. and the specific volume from the Steam Tables is.8 kJ/kg At state 2 At P2 = 50 bar and v2 = 0.6 kJ/kg .03944 From equation 8. and the dryness fraction is given by equation 8.5 u2 = uf2 + x2(ug2 . the internal energy is not tabulated in the superheated steam tables and it is found from equation 8.uf2) = 1149 + 0.02991 m3/kg.3 The given quantities can be expressed as. the steam is wet.02991 0.
sg1 = 6.8 = .2 kJ/kg .9(2048) = 2564. T 400 oC 1 P1 = 90 bar P2 = 50 bar 2 Q s2 s1 s 9. s1< sg1).e. the steam is wet. The amount of heat rejected per kg of steam is 602.9 s1 s f1 6. s1.2 kJ/kg.6 . since the actual entropy.4 h1 = hf1 + x1hfg1 = 721 + 0.2 kJ/kg i.663 kJ/kg K.602.046 x1 0.9 s fg1 4. From equation 9.211 2.e.211 kJ/kg K T2 = 350 oC At state 1 At 8 bar. P1 = P2 = 8 bar s1 = 6. is less than sg1 (i.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/27 At constant volume from equation 9.617 Then from equation 8.4 The given quantities can be expressed as.2848.13 Q = u2 – u1 = 2246.
2 = 597.2564.8 kJ/kg The Ts diagram of the process is given below.h1 = 3162 . T (K) P1 = P2 = 8 bar T2 = 350 oC = 523 K 1 2 Q s1 6. from equation 9.11 Q = h2 . The heat supplied is 597.e.211 s2 s (kJ/kg K) . h2 = 3162 kJ/kg At constant pressure.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/28 At state 2 The steam is at 350 oC at 8 bar. From the superheated tables. and therefore superheated.8 kJ/kg i. The shaded area represents the heat flow.
steam is dry saturated.615) = 584 x 1.615 kJ/kg K and t1 = 311oC At 10 bar and 311oC the steam is superheated.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/29 9.301 Then we have.124 7.548 = 904 kJ/kg (where T = 311 + 273 = 584 K) T (K) P1 = 100 bar P2 = 10 bar T 1 = T2 (311 + 273) =584 K 1 2 Q s1 s2 s (kJ/kg K) .163 – 5.163 kJ/kg K s 7.301 7.5 From the Steam Tables at 100 bar. Q = T(s2 – s1) = 584 (7. hence interpolating T 350 311 300 s 2 7.e. s1 = sg1 = 5.124 311 3000 350 300 s2 = 7.124 s2 7. Heat supplied = shaded area i.
2 kJ/kg i.(u2 – u1) From the Steam Tables.2 kJ/kg Work done by the steam = 637. IF YOUR ANSWERS ARE CORRECT YOU CAN PROCEED TO THE NEXT INPUT… .e.(u2 – u1) = 904 – (2811.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/30 To find the work done it is necessary to apply the equation. W = Q . interpolating becomes T 350 311 300 u 2794 u2 2875 u 2 2794 2875 2794 311 300 350 300 u2 = 2811.8 kJ/kg Then. W = Q . CONGRATULATIONS. at 100 bar. steam is dry saturated u1 = ug = 2545 kJ/kg At 10 bar and 311oC.8 – 2545) = 637.
17 by evaluating u1 and u2 from the Steam Tables. all the work done to the fluid can be found in equation 9. no heat is transferred to or from the fluid and this process will always appear as a vertical line on a Ts diagram.5. and hence the process is called an isentropic process.W = (u2 – u1) and for an isentropic process Q=0 Therefore.5.4 Reversible adiabatic (or isentropic) process For a reversible adiabatic process. During this process.17) In an isentropic process.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/31 INPUT 9. s1 = s2 From the nonflow equation. Q . we have W = u1 u2 kJ/kg (9. T P1 P2 1 2 s1 = s2 s Figure 9.4. 9. the entropy remains constant. For an isentropic process.5.4 Adiabatic (or isentropic) process . An isentropic process for superheated steam expanding into the wet region is shown in Fig.
289 kJ/kg K At 10 bar and s2 = 6.289 kJ/kg K u1 = 2646 kJ/kg At state 2 For an isentropic process s1 = s2.1 kJ/kg i. Then from equation 9.2461. therefore we have s1 = s2 = 6. 250 oC.9 s 2 s f 2 6. T P1 = 30 bar 250 C o 1 P2 = 10 bar 2 s1 = s2 s . Solution to Example 9.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/32 Example 9.e.933 s fg 2 4. 250 oC expands isentropically in a cylinder behind a piston to a pressure 10 bar. Work done by the steam is 184. sg2 = 6.289 kJ/kg K. since s2 is less than sg2 (i.9 kJ/kg For an adiabatic process.5 At state 1 From the superheat tables.933 (2584 .5 u2 = uf2 + x2(ug2 – uf2) = 762 + 0.762) = 2461.9 = 184. Show the process on a Ts diagram. from equation 9.1 kJ/kg. Calculate the work done per kg of steam during the process.448 From equation 8.586 kJ/kg K). the steam is wet.289 2. at 30 bar.17 W = u1 u2 = 2646 .e.5 Steam at 30 bar.138 x2 0. we have s1 = 6.
5.5. the equations below are considered Work done.5. the entropy values at the end states can be read straight from the tables. n 1 n v 2 p1 n v1 p 2 1 . Such processes are internally reversible.18 is true for any working substance undergoing a reversible polytropic process. T2 v1 T1 v 2 n 1 A polytropic process for wet steam expanding from a high pressure to a low pressure is shown in Fig.19) Heat transfer. Q = (u2 .u1) + W Equation 9.5 Polytropic process It is found that many processes in practice follows the reversible law in the form pvn = constant. W p1v1 p2 v2 n 1 (9.5. To find the change of entropy in a polytropic process for a steam when the end states have been fixed using p1v1n = p2v2n.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/33 9. we can write p1v1n = p2v2n = C p1 v 2 p2 v1 T2 p2 T1 p1 n .5 Polytropic process . where n is constant. It follows also that for any polytropic process. T P1 1 P2 Q 2 s2 s s1 Figure 9.18) (9. Both steam and perfect gases obey this type of law closely in many processes. 9. For a polytropic process.
175 3. Calculate the change of entropy and work done per kg of steam during the process.1 v Then from equation 2 1 . since vg2 = 3.175 m3/kg p 1.992 m3/kg . from equation 9.4 1 At 0. vg1 = 0.4 bar.9 (0.138 + 0.265 m3/kg.992 .265 x2 0.82 v g 2 3.6 In a steam engine. The expansion follows the law pv1.1 = constant.8 s1 = sf1 + x1sfg1 = 2.2 v2 = x2 ( vg2 ) v2 3.1944 m3/kg.9 (4. then from equation 8.1944) = 0. Show the process on a Ts diagram.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/34 Example 9.1 3 0. the steam at the beginning of the expansion process is at 10 bar and dryness fraction 0.1412 kJ/kg K At 10 bar. we have v1 p 2 p v2 v1 1 p 2 1 1.9. Solution to Example 9. and v2 = 3.1 1 10 1. the steam is wet.448) = 6.6 At 10 bar. down to a pressure of 0.2 v1 = x1 (vg1) = 0. From equation 8.4 bar.265 m /kg 0.
175) (0. T P1 = 10 bar 1 P2 = 0.3321 kJ/kg K i. Increase in entropy.4 x 10 2 x 3.4 bar pv1.3321 kJ/kg K. (s2 – s1) = 6.026 + 0.e. (s2 – s1) is 0.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/35 Then from equation 9. 175 130.8 s2 = sf2 + x2sfg2 = 1.1 = 444 kJ/kg Work done by the steam is 444 kJ/kg.265) 1. Hence work done by the steam.6 0.18 p v p2 v 2 W 1 1 n 1 (10 x10 2 x 0.4733 kJ/kg K Change of entropy.1 = C 2 s s1 s2 .1 1 i.82 (6.e.1442 = 0.4733 . from equation 9.6.643) = 6.
7 Show the process on a Ts diagram.02 = C. If the work output during the expansion process is 165.87 to 0. ii.5 bar according to a law pv1.5 kJ/kg. iii. change of entropy work done heat flow to or from the cylinder walls 9.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/36 Activity 9C 9. . steam at 110 bar. In the cylinder of a steam engine. wet steam expands from 8 bar. 400oC expands isentropically in a cylinder behind a piston until the pressure is 3 bar. dryness fraction 0. Determine the per kg of steam for the following: i. determine the final temperature of the steam.6 In a steam engine. Show the process on a Ts diagram.
2.u2 u2 = u1 .THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/37 Feedback To Activity 9C 9. from equation 9.350 x 102 m3/kg Hence. P1 = 110 bar t1 = 400 oC P2 = 3 bar W = 165. u2 = 2651 kJ/kg when the temperature is 200 oC.17 W = u1 . at 110 bar and 400 oC h1 = 3075 kJ/kg v1 = 2. The property tables for this condition do not list down the specific internal energy (u) and therefore it must be calculated from u1 = h1 – p1v1 From the Superheated Steam Tables. ug at 3 bar is 2544 kJ/kg and hence the steam at state 2 must still be at superheat region. t2 = 200 oC .5 kJ/kg For an adiabatic process.5 – 165.5 kJ/kg Steam at 110 bar and 400 oC is at superheated region. u1 = 3075 – (110 x 102 . From the property tables for superheated steam.5 = 2651 kJ/kg From the property tables for steam.W = 2816.350 x 102) = 2816.6 The given quantities can be expressed as. Hence.
the pressure. . although there is no heat transfer in an adiabatic process. volume and temperature of the working fluid are changed. The work transfer during an adiabatic process is equal to the change in the internal energy of the fluid.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/38 T P1 = 110 bar 400 oC 1 P2 = 3 bar t2 = 200 oC 2 s1 = s2 s Note : In this activity.
2 v1 = x1 (vg1) = 0.720) = 2335. we have s1 = sf1 + x1sfg1 = 2.502) = 7.02 0.046 + 0.169 m3/kg.978 (6. From equation 8.978 v g 2 3. the steam is wet.239 m3/kg .9 kJ/kg .2 v2 = x2 ( vg2 ) v 3.5 1 At 0.617) = 6.87 (0.239 Then at 0.2403) = 0.2403 m3/kg.169 x2 2 0.169 m 3 /kg 0.5 bar.4499 kJ/kg K u2 = uf2 + x2(ug2 – uf2) = 340 + 0. we have v1 p 2 p v2 v1 1 p 2 1 1. vg1 = 0.02 1 8 1.2091 3.063 kJ/kg K u1 = uf1 + x1(ug1 – uf1) = 720 + 0. we have s2 = sf2 + x2sfg2 = 1.2091 m3/kg p 1.7 At 8 bar.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/39 9.87 (2577.87 (4. since vg2 = 3. then from equation 8.6 kJ/kg At 8 bar.340) = 2435.978 (2483.4 bar.091 + 0. and v2 = 3.02 v Then from equation 2 1 .
Heat flow.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/40 i. (s2 – s1) = 7.5) = 541. ii.6.28 158. Change of entropy.02 1 i.8 kJ/kg. Q = (u2 – u1) + W = (2435.063 = 1. p v p2 v 2 W 1 1 n 1 (8 x10 2 x 0.5 bar pv1. iii.4499 .e.2091) (0.169) 1. 167.02 = C 2 s s1 s2 . Increase in entropy.5 kJ/kg Work done by the steam is 441. T P1 = 8 bar 1 P2 = 0.5 kJ/kg.5 x 10 2 x 3. (s2 – s1) is 1. Work done by the steam.9 – 2335.6) + (441.45 0.02 = 441.8 kJ/kg i.3869 kJ/kg K i.3869 kJ/kg K.e. Heat flow from the cylinder walls is 541.e.
determine the: i.5 kJ/kg K is heated reversibly at constant pressure until the temperature is 250 oC. Sketch the process on a Ts diagram.8 is expanded according to the law pv1. which represents the heat supplied on a Ts diagram. dryness fraction at final state ii. discuss it with your lecturer. which represents the heat flow. During the process. Calculate the: i. Calculate the change of entropy per kg of steam during the expansion. Heat is transferred to a heat engine from a hot reservoir at a rate of 120 MW. work done per kg of steam Show the process on a Ts diagram. A steam engine which receives steam at 4 bar and dryness fraction 0. initial and final specific internal energy iii. 4. entropy 6. 250 OC undergoes a reversible isothermal process to a pressure of 30 bar. Steam at 7 bar. If you face any problem.84 is heated reversibly in a rigid vessel until the pressure is 20 bar. Calculate the heat supplied per kg of steam and show on a Ts diagram the area.05 = constant to a condenser pressure of 1 bar. 1. .THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/41 SELFASSESSMENT You are approaching success. 3. Sketch the process on a Ts diagram. Steam at 20 bar. If the net work done is 45 MW. Steam at 70 bar. 2. Try all the questions in this selfassessment section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to SelfAssessment on the next page. heat supplied Show the area. 6. Calculate the heat flow per kg of steam and state whether it is supplied or rejected. change of entropy and ii. Good luck.05 kg of steam at 10 bar with dryness fraction 0. 5. determine the rate of waste heat rejection to a cold reservoir and the thermal efficiency of this heat engine. 300 oC expands isentropically in a cylinder behind a piston to a pressure 20 bar. 0.
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/42 7. . Steam at 30 bar. ii.05= constant. 300oC expands isothermally and reversibly to a pressure of 0. Calculate per kg of steam the: i.75 bar. total change of entropy net heat flow net work done Sketch the processes on a Ts diagram. iii. until the pressure is 10 bar. The steam is then compressed according to the law pv1.
704 kJ/kg K 36. ii. 6.83 kJ/kg ∑ W = W12 + W23 = (975.48 kJ/kg . check your answers now.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/43 Feedback to SelfAssessment Have you tried the questions? If “YES”. ii. x2 = 0.98) + (692.9 kJ/kg W = 210.85 kJ 2.5 % Q = 274 kJ/kg i. 1. 7.15) = 462. Q2 = 75 MW = 37. 5. Q = 135 kJ/kg (s2 – s1) = 0.381 kJ/kg K ∑ ∆s = (s2 – s1) + (s3 – s2) = (1.5) = 283. iii.98) + (573.896 u1 = 2634 kJ/kg and u2 = 2423. i.808) + (0. 4.938) = 0. 3.1 kJ/kg 0.87 kJ/kg K ∑ Q = Q12 + Q23 = (1035.
constant volume process iii. polytropic process . constant pressure process ii. constant temperature (or isothermal) process iv. Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to: sketch the processes on a temperatureentropy diagram calculate the change of entropy. work and heat transfer of perfect gases in reversible processes at: i. adiabatic (or isentropic) process v.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/1 UNIT 10 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS OBJECTIVES General Objective : To define and explain the Second Law of Thermodynamics and perform calculations involving the expansion and compression of perfect gases.
it may be used as a coordinate. In the second law analysis. It is useful to plot lines of constant pressure and constant volume on a Ts diagram for a perfect gas. it is very helpful to plot the processes on diagrams which coordinate the entropy. The constant temperature lines. P Constant temperature lines T3 > T2 > T1 T3 T2 T1 V Figure 10. T3 > T2 > T1 are shown.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/2 INPUT 10. The two diagrams commonly used in the second law analysis are the pressurevolume and temperatureentropy. the zero of entropy can be chosen at any arbitrary reference temperature and pressure.01 The constant temperature lines on a PV diagram for a perfect gas Since entropy is a property of a system. in order to represent various cycles graphically. 10. .0 The PV and Ts diagram for a perfect gas Property diagrams serve as great visual aids in the thermodynamic analysis of processes. Fig. Since changes of entropy are of more direct application than the absolute value.01 shows a series of constant temperature lines on a PV diagram. with temperature as the other ordinate. We have used PV and Ts diagrams extensively in the previous unit showing steam as a working fluid.
conversely as the pressure and temperature fall.10. temperature also rises but volume decreases. 10.03 shows a series of constant volume lines on a Ts diagram.02 shows a series of constant pressure lines on a Ts diagram and Fig. It can be seen that the lines of constant pressure slope more steeply than the lines of constant volume.03 Constant volume lines on a Ts diagram Note: Fig.03.02. v1 > v2 > v3. P3 > P2 > P1. 10. T T P3 P2 P1 v3 v2 v1 s s Figure 10. As pressure rises.02 Constant pressure lines on a Ts diagram Figure 10. Fig. shows the constant volume lines. shows the constant pressure lines. .THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/3 Fig. 10. the volume increases.
4) . since PV = mRT .THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/4 10. polytropic process.1 Reversible constant pressure process It can be seen from Fig. T v2 P1= P2 v1 2 1 Q s s1 s2 Figure 10. Q = mCp(T2 – T1) The change of entropy is. then T2 S2 – S1 = mCp ln T1 kJ kJ kJ (10.3) kJ/K (10. constant temperature (or isothermal) process.1. five reversible processes on the Ts diagram for perfect gases are analysed in detail.1) (10. In the following sections of this unit. ii. 10.1.2) (10. iii.1 Reversible processes on the Ts diagram for a perfect gas The various reversible processes dealt with in Units 4 and 5 will now be considered in relation to the Ts diagram. and v.1 Constant pressure process on a Ts diagram During the reversible constant pressure process for a perfect gas. adiabatic (or isentropic) process. we have The work done as W = P(V2 – V1) or. These processes include the: i. the boundary must move against an external resistance as heat is supplied. for instance a fluid in a cylinder behind a piston can be made to undergo a constant pressure process.1 that in a constant pressure process.T1) The heat flow is. iv. constant pressure process.1. 10. constant volume process. we have W = mR(T2 .
T s2 – s1 = Cp ln 2 T1 kJ/kg K (10.05 x 10 2 x 0.045 kJ/kg K. It then rises to 500oC. per kg of gas we have.05 bar.297 kJ/kg K M 28 Then since PV = mRT .THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/5 or.0471 kg RT1 0.K a) From equation 3.045 kJ/kg.5) Example 10. the initial volume is 0.04 m3 T2 = 500 + 273 = 773 K M = 28 kg/kmol Cp = 1. The temperature is initially at 27oC.297 x 300 . calculate the: g) mass of nitrogen h) work done by nitrogen i) heat flow to or from the cylinder walls during the expansion j) change of entropy Sketch the process on a Ts diagram and shade the area which represents the heat flow.05 bar (constant pressure process) V1 = 0.04 m3. Solution to Example 10. we have R 8. Assuming nitrogen to be a perfect gas and take Cp = 1.10. we have m P1V1 1.3144 R o 0.1 Nitrogen (molecular weight 28) expands reversibly in a cylinder behind a piston at a constant pressure of 1.1 The given quantities can be expressed as.04 0. T1 = 27 + 273 K = 300 K P1 = P2 = 1.
0471 x 1.4.04) c) d) 6.103 m3 P1 = P2 = 1.28 kJ From equation 10.300) = 6. heat flow Q = mCp(T2 .T1) = 0.s1 = mCp ln 2 T1 773 0.615 kJ From equation 10.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/6 b) the work done by nitrogen can be calculated by two methods. T v2 = 0.04 0.0471 x 1.0.300) = 23.617 kJ Method II: For a perfect gas at constant pressure. V1 V2 T1 T2 T V2 V1 2 T 1 773 3 0. change of entropy T s2 . work done W = mR(T2 .045 ln 300 0.T1) = 0.04 m3 1 T1 = 300 K 2 Q s s1 s2 . Hence. we have Method I: From equation 10.297 (773 .2.0466 kJ / K The Ts diagram below shows the constant pressure process.05 x 10 2 (0.05 bar T2 = 773 K v1 = 0.1.3. work done W P(V2 V1 ) 1.103 .045 (773 .103 m 300 From equation 10. The shaded area represents the heat flow.0471 x 0.
the boundaries of the system are immovable and no work can be done on or by the system.2 that in a constant volume process. It will be assumed that ‘constant volume’ implies zero work unless stated otherwise.7) kJ/ kg K (10.1. T 2 v1 = v 2 P2 P1 1 Q s1 s2 s Figure 10. The heat flow Q = mCv(T2 – T1) kJ (10.2 Reversible constant volume process In a constant volume process. per kg of gas we have. we have The work done.8) .1. W = 0 since V2 = V1.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/7 10. 10.2 Constant volume process on a Ts diagram During the reversible constant volume process for a perfect gas.6) The change of entropy is therefore T S2 – S1 = mCv ln 2 T1 or. It can be seen from Fig.1. T2 s2 – s1 = Cv ln T1 kJ/K (10. the working substance is contained in a rigid vessel (or closed tank) from which heat is either added or removed.
Cv = 0. at constant volume Q12 = mCv(T2 – T1) = 0.0254 kg RT1 0.718 kJ/kg K and Cp = 1.287 kJ/kg K.2 (constant volume process): V1 = V2 = 0.287 x 288 b) For a perfect gas at constant volume.2 Air at 15oC and 1.05 bar occupies a volume of 0.05 kJ Net heat flow = Q12 + Q23 = (15.05) = 6. and then it is cooled at constant pressure back to the original temperature.05 x 10 2 x 0.0254 x 1. Given: R = 0.3.05 bar Process 1 . at constant pressure Q23 = mCp(T3 – T2) = 0.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/8 Example 10.2 The given quantities can be expressed as.2 T2 T1 2 288 1152 K P 1.2 bar.0254 x 0.75) + ( 22.75 kJ From equation 10.05 bar T3 = T1 = 288 K a) From equation 3. T1 = 15 + 273 K = 288 K P1 = 1.6.02 m 0. Assuming air to be a perfect gas.02 m3 Process 2 .005 (288 – 1152) = 22.718 (1152 – 288) = 15. for a perfect gas.3 (constant pressure process) : P2 = P3 = 1.05 1 From equation 10.6.02 m3. hence T1 T2 P 4. The air is heated at constant volume until the pressure is at 4.005 kJ/kg K.3 kJ . Solution to Example 10. P1 P2 . calculate the: a) mass of air b) net heat flow c) net entropy change Sketch the processes on a Ts diagram. P1V1 1.
02 m3 P2 = P3 = 4.0354 kJ/K Net entropy change. The isothermal process on the Ts diagram will be considered in the next input.05 bar T1 = T3 = 288 K 3 1 s3 s1 s2 s Note that since entropy is a property.0253 kJ/K From equation 10.7.e.0101 kJ/K.4.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/9 c) From equation 10.0254 x 1.005 ln 1152 0. at constant pressure T S3 – S2 = mCp ln 3 T 2 288 0.0253) + (0. T v1 = v2 = 0. is independent of the processes undergone between states 1 and 3.0.718 ln 288 0.0101 kJ/K i.2. at constant volume T S2 – S1 = mCv ln 2 T1 1152 0. decrease in entropy of air is 0. the decrease of entropy in example 10. The change (S3S1) can also be found by imagining a reversible isothermal process taking place between 1 and 3.0354) = .2 bar T2 = 1152 K v3 2 P1 = 1. . given by (S3 – S1) = (S2 – S1) + (S3 – S2).0254 x 0. (S3 – S1) = (S2 – S1) + (S3 – S2) = (0.
9) T v1 P1 v2 P2 T1 = T2 1 2 Q s1 s2 s Figure 10.e. for a reversible process. From the nonflow equation. i. Q = T(s2 . dT = 0.e. we have dv dQ RT v . 10. The shaded area represents the heat supplied during the process. we have dQ = du + P dv Also for a perfect gas from Joule’s Law. dQ = Cv dT + P dv For an isothermal process. du = Cv dT.3 Reversible constant temperature (or isothermal) process A reversible isothermal process for a perfect gas is shown on a Ts diagram in Fig.1.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/10 10.3.1. (s2 – s1).1. it is possible to evaluate the entropy changes. i.3 Constant temperature (or isothermal) process on a Ts diagram For a perfect gas undergoing an isothermal process. hence dQ = P dv Then.s1) (10. since Pv = RT.
W=Q 0 (10.W = (U2 – U1).12) . v p S 2 S1 mR ln 2 mR ln 1 kJ/K v p 1 2 (10. (U2 – U1) = mCv (T2 . m (kg).e since T1 = T2) From equation Q . for mass.e.5 2 dQ v2 RT dv v2 dv s 2 s1 R 1 T v1 v1 v Tv i.10) or. m (kg). v p Q T s 2 s1 RT ln 2 RT ln 1 v p 1 2 or.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/11 Now from equation 9.e. of a gas v p Q T S 2 S1 mRT ln 2 mRT ln 1 v p 1 2 In an isothermal process.11) Therefore. for mass. of a gas S2 – S1 = m(s2 – s1) i. the heat supplied is given by. v p s 2 s1 R ln 2 R ln 1 v p 1 2 kJ/kg K (10.T1) = 0 ( i.
V1 = 0.85 m3 of carbon dioxide (molecular weight 44) contained in a cylinder behind a piston is initially at 1.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/12 Example 10. Solution to Example 10.3 0. since PV = mRT.05 bar Isothermal process: T1 = T2 = 17 + 273 K = 290 K P2 = 4.3144 R o 0.8 bar a) From equation 3. we have PV 1. p 1.05 S 2 S1 mR ln 1 1.628 kg RT 0.189 ln 0. The gas is compressed isothermally and reversibly until the pressure is at 4.8 bar.4676 kJ/K p 4.11.05 bar and 17 oC. for m kg.189 kJ/kgK M 44 Then.85 m 1.05 x 10 2 x 0.628 x 0.189 x 290 b) From equation 10.85 m3 M = 44 kg/kmol P1 = 1. Assuming carbon dioxide to act as a perfect gas.8 2 .3 The given quantities can be expressed as. calculate the: c) mass of carbon dioxide d) change of entropy e) heat flow f) work done Sketch the process on a PV and Ts diagram and shade the area which represents the heat flow. we have R 8.10.
6 kJ (ve sign shows work is transferred into the system) d) T P2 = 4.6 kJ (ve sign shows heat rejected from the system to the surroundings) For an isothermal process for a perfect gas. from equation 10.05 bar T1 = T2 = 290 K 2 1 Q s2 s1 s .8 bar P1 = 1.12 W=Q = 135.4676 kJ/K) = 135.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/13 c) Heat rejected = shaded area on Ts diagram = T (S2 – S1) = 290 K(0.
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
J2006/10/14
Activity 10A
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 10.1 0.1 m3 of air at 1 bar and temperature 15oC is heated reversibly at constant pressure to a temperature of 1100oC and volume 0.48 m3. During the process, calculate the: a) mass of air b) change of entropy c) heat supplied d) work done Show the process on a Ts diagram, indicating the area that represents the heat flow. Given, R = 0.287 kJ/kg K and Cp = 1.005 kJ/kg K. 0.05 kg of nitrogen (M = 28) contained in a cylinder behind a piston is initially at 3.8 bar and 140 oC. The gas expands isothermally and reversibly to a pressure of 1.01 bar. Assuming nitrogen to act as a perfect gas, determine the: a) change of entropy b) heat flow c) work done Show the process on a Ts diagram, indicating the area which represents the heat flow.
10.2
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
J2006/10/15
Feedback To Activity 10A
10.1
The given quantities can be expressed as; P1 = P2 = 1 bar (constant pressure process) T1 = 15 + 273 K = 288 K V1 = 0.1 m3 T2 = (1100 + 273) = 1373K V2 = 0.48 m3 R = 0.287 kJ/kg.K Cp = 1.005 kJ/kg.K a) From equation PV =mRT, we have
m
b)
P1V1 1 x 10 2 x 0.1 0.121 kg RT1 0.287 x 288
From equation 10.4, change of entropy T s2  s1 = mCp ln 2 T1 1373 0.121 x 1.005 ln 288
0.1899 kJ/K
c) From equation 10.3, heat flow Q = mCp(T2  T1) = 0.121 x 1.005 (1373  288) = 131.9 kJ
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
J2006/10/16
d)
The work done by air can be calculated by using two methods which give the same results. Method I: From equation 10.2, the work done W = mR(T2  T1) = 0.121 x 0.287 (1373  288) = 38 kJ Method II: From equation 10.1, the work done
W P(V2 V1 ) 1.x 10 2 (0.48  0.1) 38 kJ
The Ts diagram below shows the constant pressure process. The shaded area represents the heat flow.
T v2 = 0.48 m3 P1 = P2 = 1bar T2 = 1373 K v1 = 0.1 m3 1 T1 = 288 K 2
Q
s
s1
s2
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
J2006/10/17
10.2
The given quantities can be expressed as; m = 0.05 kg M = 28 kg/kmol P1 = 3.8 bar Isothermal process: T1 = T2 = (140 + 273 K) = 413 K P2 = 1.01 bar a) From equation 3.10, we have R 8.3144 R o 0.297 kJ/kgK M 28 From equation 10.11, for m kg of gas,
p S 2 S1 mR ln 1 p 2 3.8 0.05 x 0.297 ln 1.01 0.01968 kJ/K
b) Heat flow = shaded area on Ts diagram = T (S2 – S1) = 413 (0.01968) = 8.1278 kJ For an isothermal process for a perfect gas, from equation 10.12 W=Q = 8.1278 kJ
T P1 = 3.8 bar P2 = 1.01 bar
c)
T1 = T2 = 413 K
1
2
Q
s1
s2
s
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
J2006/10/18
INPUT
10.1.4 Reversible adiabatic (or isentropic) process In the special case of a reversible process where no heat energy is transferred to or from the gas, the process will be a reversible adiabatic process. These special processes are also called isentropic process. During a reversible isentropic process, the entropy remains constant and the process will always appear as a vertical line on a Ts diagram. For a perfect gas, an isentropic process on a Ts diagram is shown in Fig. 10.1.4. In Unit 4 it was shown that for a reversible adiabatic process for a perfect gas, the process follows the law pv = constant. Since a reversible adiabatic process occurs at constant entropy, and is known as an isentropic process, the index is known as the isentropic index of the gas.
T v1
P1
T1
1
v2 P2
T2
2
s1 = s2
s
Figure 10.1.4 Reversible adiabatic (or isentropic) process on a Ts diagram
14) mR(T1 T2 ) 1 or.dW = dU dW = dU = mCv dT = mCv(T2 . Change of entropy. since PV = mRT.13) R . Q = 0 From the nonflow equation.T1) W = mCv(T1 T2) or. 10.15 can be used to find the work done depending on the properties of gases given. dQ .16) .s1 = 0 Heat flow.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/19 For an isentropic process. we have 1 (10. pressure and volume of the perfect gases.15) Note that the equations 10. we also have P V P2V2 W 1 1 1 (10. s2 . Each equation used gives the same result for a work done. equation 10. since C v W (10. Similarly. T2 P2 T1 P1 1 V1 V2 1 (10.14 and 10.16 can also be used to determine the temperature.13.
P1= 10 bar V1 = 1 m3 T1 = (450 + 273) = 723K P2 = 2 bar Cv = 0.287 kJ/kg K = 1.718 kJ/kg K. for a perfect gas m P1V1 10 x 10 2 x 1 4. Solution to Example 10.4 Isentropic process. 450 oC and 1 m3 to a pressure of 2 bar.16 P T2 T1 x 2 P 1 1 2 723 x 10 456.4 In an air turbine unit.4.287 kJ/kg K and = 1.718 kJ/kg K R = 0.5 K 1.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/20 Example 10.82 kg RT1 0. s2 = s1 a) From equation PV = mRT. Given that Cv = 0.4 . calculate the: a) mass of air b) final temperature c) work energy transferred Sketch the process on a Ts diagram. the air expands adiabatically and reversibly from 10 bar. Air is assumed to act as a perfect gas.4 The given quantities can be expressed as. R = 0.287 x 723 b) The final temperature can be found using equation 10.4 1 1.
13 W = mCv(T1 T2) = 4.5) = 922 kJ Similarly.5 K 2 s1 = s2 s .287(723 456. the equation 10.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/21 c) The work energy transferred can be found using equation 10.82 x 0.14 gives us the same result for the value of work energy transferred as shown below. mR(T1 T2 ) W 1 4.718 (723 – 456.5) 1.4 1 922 kJ T v1 = 1 m3 P1 = 10 bar T1 = 723 K 1 v2 P2 = 2 bar T2 = 456.82 x 0.
5 Reversible polytropic process For a perfect gas.5 Reversible polytropic process on a Ts diagram For a reversible polytropic process. P V P2V2 W 1 1 n 1 or. In Unit 5 it was shown that for a reversible polytropic process for a perfect gas. 10.19) (10. a polytropic process on a Ts diagram is shown in Fig.5. the process follows the law pvn = constant. U2 U1 = mCv(T2 T1) The heat flow is.1.18) Change of internal energy is. since PV = mRT.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/22 10.1. Q = W + U2 U1 (10.1.17) (10. Work done by a perfect gas is. T v1 P1 v2 P2 T1 1 A B T2 2 s1 s2 sA sB s Figure 10. we have W mR T1 T2 n 1 (10.20) .
from 1 to A and then from A to 2. T2 dT v2 dv T v s 2 s1 Cv R Cv ln 2 R ln 2 T v T1 T v1 v 1 1 (10.e.10 v (sA . Since in the process in Fig. then it is more convenient to write the equation as v T s 2 s1 R ln 2 Cv ln 1 (10.1.s1) R ln 2 (see Fig. dQ = dU + P dv Also for unit mass of a perfect gas from Joule’s Law dU = CvdT .1.s1 = (sA .5 that s2 . 10. RT dv dQ Cv dT v Then from equation 9. dQ Cv dT R dv ds T T v Hence. i.(sA . From equation 10. 10.5. 10.5. and from equation Pv = RT .1.22 is the change of entropy in an isothermal process from v1 to v2.s2) The first part of the expression for s2 s1 in equation 10. They are: a) According to volume It can be seen that in calculating the entropy change in a polytropic process from state 1 to state 2 we have in effect replaced the process by two simpler processes.s1) .THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/23 It was shown in Unit 5 that the polytropic process is a general case for perfect gases.22) v T 1 2 There are two ways to find the change of entropy (s2 – s1).5.21) This can be illustrated on a Ts diagram as shown in Fig. 10.1. consider the nonflow energy equation for a reversible process as. between any two states 1 and 2. It is clear from Fig. To find the entropy change for a perfect gas in the general case.5) v1 . T2 < T1.
it can be seen that in calculating the entropy change in a polytropic process from state 1 to state 2 we have in effect replaced the process by two simpler processes.5.1.25) .s1 = (sB .s1 R ln 2 Cv ln 1 v1 T2 kJ/kg K (10.s2) C p ln 1 T2 Hence. i. 10.e.e. p (sB . referring to Fig.s1) R ln 1 p2 and at constant pressure (i. p T s2 .1.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/24 In addition.10. i. kg of gas we have v S2 .s1) .e.s2) Cv ln 1 T2 v T s2 .s1 R ln 1 C p ln 1 p2 T2 kJ/kg K (10. the second part of the expression for s2 s1 in equation 10. for mass m.5.e.22 is the change of entropy in a constant volume process from T1 to T2.23) or. using equation 10. T (sA . T1) between P1 and P2.s2) At constant temperature (i. 10. from 1 to B and then from B to 2 as in Fig. Hence.(sB .S1 mR ln 2 v 1 T mCv ln 1 T 2 kJ/K (10.24) b) According to pressure According to pressure. P2) between T1 and T2 we have T (sB . we have s2 .
as in Fig. there are obviously a large number of possible equations for the change of entropy in a polytropic process.27 can also be used to determine the temperature. pressure and volume of the perfect gases in polytropic process.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/25 or. the equation 10.S1 mR ln 1 mC p ln 1 p T 2 2 kJ/K (10.26) Similarly.5. T2 P2 T1 P1 n 1 n V 1 V 2 n 1 (10. and it is stressed that no attempt should be made to memorize all such expressions. kg of gas we have p T S2 .1. Each problem can be dealt with by sketching the Ts diagram and replacing the process by two other simpler reversible processes. .27) Note that. for mass m. 10.
calculate the: a) change of entropy b) work energy transferred Sketch the process on a Ts diagram. Given that Cv = 0.5 0.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/26 Example 10. m = 0.27.121 1. Solution to Example 10.12 519.10. Oxygen is assumed to act as a perfect gas.03 kg M = 32 kg/kmol P1= 5 bar T1 = (300 + 273) = 573K P2 = 2 bar Cv = 0. The index of expansion is 1.649 kJ/kg K = 649 J/kg K PV1.Cv .4 K . we have n 1 n T2 p2 T1 p1 P2 T2 T1 P1 n 1 n 2 573 5 1.5 The given quantities can be expressed as.03 kg of oxygen (M = 32) expands from 5 bar.12 = C a) From equation 3.649 kJ/kg K. we have Cp = R + C v = 260 + 649 = 909 J/kg K From equation 10.12. we have R Ro 8314 260 J/kg K M 32 Then from equation R = Cp . 300 oC to the pressure of 2 bar.
S1) .68) 4.18. S2 .26.47 J/K b) From equation 10. we have mR T1 T2 0.3 J n 1 n 1 T P1 = 5 bar P2 = 2 bar T1 = 573 K 1 B T2 = 519.5) W 417.S1 = (SB .15) (2.4 (7.S1 ) is.03 x 260 (573 519.S2) p T mRln 1 mC p ln 1 p T 2 2 5 573 0.03 x 909 x ln 2 519. the change of entropy (S2 .03 x 260 x ln 0.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/27 From equation 10.(SB .4 K 2 s1 s2 sB s .
Determine the a) final pressure b) final volume c) work energy transferred during the process Show the process on a Ts diagram.3 0.005 kJ/kg K and R = 0.005 kJ/kg K and R = 0.01 bar and 27 oC. until the pressure is 5 bar. Given that Cp = 1.3 = constant.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/28 Activity 10B TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU PROCEED TO THE SELFASSESSMENT…! 10. is compressed according to the law PV1.3 bar and 538 oC expands adiabatically and reversibly to a temperature of 149 oC. calculate the final temperature and change of entropy and then sketch the process on a Ts diagram.287 kJ/kg K.4 . take Cp = 1.287 kJ/kg K. 1 kg of air at 1. For air. 10.225 kg of air at 8.
we have C p 1.225 kg P1 = 8.17. m = 0.3 The given quantities can be expressed as. 4 .287 kJ/kg K Adiabatic / isentropic process : s2 = s1 a) From equation 3. from equation 3.16 P2 T2 1 P1 T1 422 1. we have Cv = Cp – R = 1.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/29 Feedback To Activity 10B 10.3 bar T1 = 538 + 273 K = 811 K T2 = 149 + 273 K = 422 K Cp = 1.287 = 0.41 P2 (8.16.005 1.005 kJ/kg K R = 0. From equation 10.844 bar 1.4 Cv 0. PV = constant.3) 811 0.718 For a reversible adiabatic process for a perfect gas.718 kJ/kg K Then.005 – 0.
4 The given quantities can be expressed as.13 W = mCv(T1 T2) = 0.287(811 422) 1.718 (811 – 422) = 62.225 x 0.225 x 0. hence. .287 x 422 V2 0.14 gives us the same result for the value of work energy transferred as shown below. mR(T1 T2 ) W 1 c) 0. we have at state 2 mRT2 0. the equation 10.3 bar T1 = 811 K 1 v2 P2 = 0.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/30 b) From the characteristic gas equation PV = mRT.844 bar T2 = 422 K 2 s1 = s2 s 10.225 x 0.8 kJ T v1 P1 = 8.844 x 10 The work energy transferred can be found from equation 10.323 m 3 2 P2 0.4 1 62.8 kJ Similarly.
3 = C From the quantities given. we have T2 p2 T1 p1 n 1 n P T2 T1 2 P 1 n 1 n 5 (300) 1.01 434 K 1. we can temporarily sketch the process as shown in the diagram below.27.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/31 m = 1 kg P1= 1. .005 kJ/kg K R = 0.25. the change of entropy (S1 – S2) is. T P2 = 5 bar P1 = 1.31 1.01 bar T2 = ? 2 B T1 = 300 K 1 s2 s1 sB s From equation 10. 3 From equation 10.287 kJ/kg K PV1.01 bar T1 = (27 + 273) = 300 K P2 = 5 bar Cp = 1.
0 x 1.0 x 0.01 (0.287 x ln 300 1.088 kJ/K. IF YOUR ANSWERS ARE CORRECT YOU CAN PROCEED TO THE SELFASSESSMENT….01 bar T2 = 434 K 2 B T1 = 300 K 1 s1 s2 sB s CONGRATULATIONS.005 x ln 1.0.(SB – S1) T mC p ln 2 T 1 p mR ln 2 p 1 434 5 1.088 kJ/K From the calculation.459) . This means that S2 is greater than S1 and the process should appear as in the Ts diagram below. P2 = 5 bar T P1 = 1. .371) (0.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/32 S1 – S2 = (SB – S2) .0. we have S1 – S2 = .
006 m3 of nitrogen (M = 28) at 1. For nitrogen. A rigid cylinder containing 0.04 bar and 15oC is heated reversibly until the temperature is 90oC.05 bar and 15 oC.005 kJ/kg K and R = 0. determine the: i. heat supplied Sketch the process on a Ts diagram. 25oC and 0. work done Show the process on a Ts diagram. indicating the area which represents the heat flow. Calculate the: i. heat flow iii. Assuming nitrogen to act as a perfect gas.287 kJ/kg K. Try all the questions in this selfassessment section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to SelfAssessment on the next page. . If you face any problem. 2.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/33 SELFASSESSMENT You are approaching success. A quantity of air at 2 bar. heat flow iv. If Cp = 1. 0. 1. work done Sketch the process on a Ts diagram and shade the area which represents the heat flow. take = 1. The gas expands isothermally and reversibly to a pressure of 4. mass of air ii. change of entropy ii.4 and assume it as a perfect gas. discuss it with your lecturer.03 kg of nitrogen (M = 28) contained in a cylinder behind a piston is initially at 1. 3. Good luck.1 m3 undergoes a reversible constant pressure process until the temperature and volume increase to 2155 oC and 0.2 bar. determine the: i. change of entropy iii. change of entropy ii.8 m3.
287 kJ/kg K and = 1. determine the: i. indicating the area which represents the heat flow.05= constant.75 bar.2 = constant. Assume air to be a perfect gas and take Cv = 0.05 kg of air at 30 bar and 300oC is allowed to expand reversibly in a cylinder behind a piston in such a way that the temperature remains constant to a pressure of 0. final temperature iii.5 kg of air is compressed in a pistoncylinder device from 100 kN/m2 and 17oC to 800 kN/m2 in a reversible. net work energy transfer Sketch the processes on a Ts diagram. until the pressure is 3 bar. b) 6. 0. a) 0.05 m3 of oxygen (M = 32) at 8 bar and 400oC expands according to the law pv1. net heat flow iii. Assuming oxygen to act as a perfect gas. determine the: i. isentropic process.718 kJ/kg K. work done Show the process on a Ts diagram. If the heat supplied during a process is 250 kJ. Given: R = 0. Based on the law pv1. net entropy change ii. 5. 0. calculate the final temperature and the change of entropy. 1 kg of air at 30oC is heated at a constant volume process.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/34 4. Assuming air to be a perfect gas. change of entropy iv.4. determine the final temperature and the work energy transfer during the process. the air is then compressed until the pressure is 10 bar. Assuming air to be a perfect gas. indicating the area. . which represents the heat flow. mass of oxygen ii.
4. 3. i.THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/35 Feedback to SelfAssessment Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”.23 kg T2 = 571. i.0152 kJ/K Q = .4 kJ T2 = 651 K.31) + (18. ii.0963 kJ/K Q = Q12 + Q23 = (30.3776 kJ S = (S2 – S1) + (S3 – S2) = 0. i.4.3 K. iii. ii. (S2 – S1) = 0.42 kJ W = W12 + W23 = (30.3776 kJ W = . check your answers now. iv. 6. iii.32) + (21.2338 kg S2 – S1 = 0.00125 kJ/K Q = 0. i.73 kJ T2 = 525.4929 kJ/K Q = 500.89) = 11.35 kJ 2.0245 kJ/K W = 30. ii. . W = . iii. 5.84. 4. iv.0434 = 0.5 K S2 – S1 = 0.59) = 8. a) b) i.48 kJ W = 140 kJ S2 – S1 = 0. 1. ii. iii. m = 0.407 kJ S2 – S1 = 0. ii.0529 + 0.5491 kJ/K m = 0.
calculate and differentiate the following heat engine cycle: Carnot cycle Rankine cycle . derive.THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/1 UNIT 11 THE STEAM POWER CYCLE OBJECTIVES General Objective : To understand and apply the concept of steam power cycle in thermodynamics Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to: define.
and to the deviations from the ideal cycle. which produce most of the electric power in the world today. this cycle is called the Carnot cycle.THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/2 INPUT 11. nuclear plants or natural gas plants. availability. This is due to the irreversibilities in the actual cycle. Other working fluids used include sodium. The highest thermal efficiency possible for a heat engine in practice is only about half that of the ideal theoretical Carnot cycle. But the steam goes through the same basic cycle in all of them. Steam power plants are commonly referred to as coal plants. potassium. such as low cost. Therefore. which are made for various practical reasons.0 INTRODUCTION What is the most common working fluid used in heat engine cycle? team is the most common working fluid used in heat engine cycles because of its many desirable characteristic. all can be analysed in the same manner. between the same temperature limits. depending on the type of fuel used to supply heat to the steam. and high enthalpy of vaporization. and mercury for hightemperature applications and some organic fluids such as benzene and the freons for lowtemperature applications. The majority of this chapter is devoted to the discussion of steam power plants. The choice of a power plant in practice is a compromise between thermal efficiency and various factors such as the size of the S . In this chapter it can be shown that there is an ideal theoretical cycle which is the most efficient conceivable.
THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/3 plant for a given power requirement.0 Model of a steam plant . operating cost and capital cost. mechanical complexity. Fig 11.
Clausius and others on the second law and its corollaries. and it laid the foundations for the work of Kelvin. then the adiabatic processes in the cycle are also isentropic. It is a remarkable piece of original thinking.1 The Carnot cycle 1 This paper. Carnot. The cycle is most conveniently represented on a Ts diagram as shown in Fig. . called „Reflection on the Motive Power of Heat‟ was written by Carnot before the enunciation of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. and all the heat rejected is rejected at a lower fixed temperature. The cycle therefore consists of two isothermal processes joined by two adiabatic processes. Q41 4 Boiler 1 Compressor 3 Q23 T Condenser W34 Turbine W12 2 T1 4 1 T2 3 2 A B s Fig 11.1 The Carnot cycle From the Second Law of Thermodynamics it can be derived that no heat engine can be more efficient than a reversible heat engine working between the same temperature limits. 11. has shown in a paper written in 18241 that the most efficient possible cycle is one in which all the heat supplied is supplied at one fixed temperature. a French engineer. Since all processes are reversible.1.THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/4 11.
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A brief summary of the essential features is as follows: 4 to 1: The heat energy is supplied to the boiler resulting in evaporation of the water, therefore the temperature remains constant. 1 to 2: Isentropic expansion takes place in the turbine or engine. 2 to 3: In the condenser, condensation takes place, therefore the temperature remains constant. 3 to 4: Isentropic compression of the wet steam in a compressor returns the steam to its initial state. The plant required and the numbers referring to the state points for the Carnot cycle is shown in Fig. 11.1. The steam at the inlet to the turbine is dry saturated. The steam flows round the cycle and each process may be analysed using the steady flow energy equation where changes in kinetic energy and potential energy may be neglected. i.e. h1 + Q = h2 + W
In this statement of the equation the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the initial and final state points of the process; each process in the cycle can be considered in turn as follows: Boiler: h4 + Q41 = h1 + W41 Therefore, since W = 0, Q451 = h1 – h4 (11.1)
Turbine: The expansion is adiabatic (i.e. Q = 0), and isentropic (i.e. s1 = s2), and h2 can be calculated using this latter fact. Then h1 + Q12 = h2 + W12
W12 = ( h1 – h2)
(11.2)
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Condenser: h2 + Q23 = h3 + W23 Therefore, since W = 0 Q23 = h3 – h2 i.e. Q23 =  ( h2 – h3 ) Heat rejected in condenser = h2 – h3
(11.3)
Compressor: H3 + Q34 = h4 + W34 The compression is isentropic ( i.e. s3 = s4 ), and adiabatic ( i.e. Q = 0 ). W34 = ( h3 – h4 ) = ( h4 – h3 ) i.e. Work input to pump = ( h4 – h3 ) (11.4)
11.1.1 Thermal efficiency of Carnot cycle The thermal efficiency of a heat engine, defined in chapter 9, was shown to be given by the equation,
1
Q2 Q1
In the Carnot cycle, with reference to Fig. 11.1, it can be seen that the heat supplied is given by the area 41BA4, i.e. Q1 = area 41BA4 = T1(sB sA)
Similarly the heat rejected, Q2, is given by the area 23AB2, i.e. Q2 = area 23AB2 = T(sB – sA)
Hence we have Thermal efficiency of Carnot cycle, carnot 1
T2 ( s B s A ) T1 ( s B s A )
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i.e.
carnot 1
carnot
T2 T1
(11.5)
or
Net work output Heat supplied in the boiler
i.e.
Carnot
(h1 h2 ) (h4 h3 ) h1 h4
(11.6)
11.1.2 The work ratio for Carnot cycle The ratio of the net work output to the gross work output of the system is called the work ratio. The Carnot cycle, despite its high thermal efficiency, has a low work ratio. Work ratio
net work gross work
(h1 h2 ) (h4 h3 ) (h1 h2 )
(11.7)
i.e.
Work ratio =
(11.8)
The work output of the Carnot cycle also can be found very simply from the Ts diagram. From the first law,
Q W
therefore, the work output of the cycle is given by W = Q1 – Q2 Hence for the Carnot cycle, referring to Fig. 11.1, Wcarnot = area 12341 = (T1  T2)(sB – sa) (11.9)
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This cycle is never used in practice owing to: 1. 2. 3. 4. The difficulty in stopping the condensation at 3, so that subsequent compression would bring the state point to 4. A very large compressor would be required. Compression of wet steam in a rotary compressor is difficult as the water tends to separate out. Friction associated with the expansion and compression processes would cause the net work done to be very small as compared to the work done in the turbine itself.
The Carnot cycle is modified to overcome the above difficulties and this modified cycle, known as the Rankine cycle, is widely used in practice.
Thermal efficiency of Carnot cycle,
carnot 1
T2 ( s B s A ) T1 ( s B s A ) T carnot 1 2 T1
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Example 11.1 What is the highest possible theoretical efficiency of a Carnot cycle with a hot reservoir of steam at 200oC when the cooling water available from condenser is at 10oC?
Solution to Example 11.1 From equation 11.5,
carnot 1
= 1
T2 T1
10 273 200 273 283 473
= 1 i.e.
Highest possible efficiency = 1 – 0.598 = 0.402 or 40.2 %
Example 11.2 A steam power plant operates between a boiler pressure of 42 bar and a condenser pressure of 0.035 bar. Calculate for these limits the cycle efficiency and the work ratio for a Carnot cycle using wet steam.
Solution to Example 11.2 A Carnot cycle is shown in the figure given in the next page. T1 saturation temperature at 42 bar = 253.2 + 273 = 526.2 K T2 saturation temperature at 0.035 bar = 26.7 + 273 = 299.7 K
2 % Also. Heat supplied = h1h4 = hfg at 42 bar = 1698 kJ/kg Then. using the fact that s1 = s2. h1 = 2800 kJ/kg and s1 = s2 = 6.432 Q W = 0.13 6.432 x 1698 W = 734 kJ/kg To find the gross work of the expansion process it is necessary to calculate h2. From the Steam Tables.2 = = 0.049 kJ/kg K From the equation s2 = 6.696 x2 = 8.13 .2 299.THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/10 T 526.e.7 4 1 3 2 s Then from equation 11.432 or 43.391 0. W 0.049 = sf2 + x2sfg2 = 0.7 526.391 + x2 8. carnot i.049 0.5 carnot T1 T2 T1 526.2 299.
h2 = hf2 + x2hfg2 = 112 + 0. Work ratio net work gross work = 734 992 = 0.2. from equation 11. using equation 11.7.696 x 2438 = 1808 kJ/kg Hence.739 .THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/11 Then. W12 = (h1 – h2) = (2800 – 1808) = 992 kJ/kg Therefore.
Calculate for these limits the cycle efficiency and the work ratio for a Carnot cycle using wet steam.THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/12 Activity 11A TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 11.1 Describe the suitable components of a simple close cycle steam plant as illustrated in the figure below.045 bar. Q41 4 (a) 1 (d) 3 Q23 (c) W34 (b) W12 2 11. .2 A steam power plant operates between a boiler pressure of 40 bar and a condenser pressure of 0.
1 The components of a simple close cycle steam plant as illustrated in the figure are: a) The boiler.2 A Carnot cycle is shown in the figure below. c) The condenser.THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/13 Feedback To Activity 11A 11.3 K T2 saturation temperature at 0. b) The engine or turbine. 11. in which heat energy flows from the low pressure steam into the condenser cooling water. T1 saturation temperature at 40 bar = 250.0 + 273 = 304.0 K T 523.3 + 273 = 523.3 304. in which the steam expands to a low pressure causing work energy to be available. which returns the water into the boiler.045 bar = 31. resulting in the steam being condensed. where water is converted into steam at a constant pressure and temperature by the heat energy is received from the combustion of the fuel.0 4 1 2 3 s . d) The feed pump or the compressor.
3) = 961. From the tables. using equation 11.5 carnot T1 T2 T1 523.070 kJ/kg K From the equation s2 = 6.3 304 523. from equation 11.419 Q W = 0.419 x 1714 W = 718.704 x 2428 = 1839.3 = = 0.451 x2 = 0.704 7.9 % Also.070 = sf2 + x2sfg2 = 0.e.7 kJ/kg Therefore.7.98 Then. h1 = 2801 kJ/kg and s1 = s2 = 6. .070 0.419 or 41. W 0. W12 = (h1 – h2) = (2801 – 1839.2.3 kJ/kg Hence. carnot i. using the fact that s1 = s2.2 kJ/kg To find the gross work of the expansion process it is necessary to calculate h2.THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/14 Then from equation 11.451 + x2 7. h2 = hf2 + x2hfg2 = 130 + 0.98 6. Heat supplied = h1h4 = hfg at 42 bar = 1714 kJ/kg Then.
747 .THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/15 Work ratio net work gross work 718.2 961.7 = = 0.
The cycle that results is the Rankine cycle. the exhaust steam is completely condensed into water in the condenser.1 and Fig.THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/16 INPUT 11. The ideal Rankine cycle does not involve any internal irreversibility and consists of the following processes: 4. 11. as shown schematically on a Ts diagram in Fig. This water is then pumped into the boiler by a boiler feed pump.2. In the Rankine cycle. Many of the impracticalities associated with the Carnot cycle can be eliminated by condensing it completely in the condenser. is the ideal cycle for vapour power plants.5 to 1: 1 to 2: 2 to 3: 3 to 4: Constant pressure heat addition in a boiler Isentropic expansion taking place in the turbine or engine Constant pressure heat rejection in the condenser Isentropic compression of water in the feed pump From a comparison made between Fig. 11. since the water is not at the . the similarities between the Carnot and the Rankine cycles can be clearly seen.3. After the feed pump. the exhaust steam is completely condensed into water in the condenser.2 Rankine Cycle In the Rankine cycle. 11. It actually follows the isentropic expansion in the turbine.
some of the heat energy supplied in the boiler is taken up by the water as sensible heat before evaporation can begin. This results in the boiler process being no longer completely isothermal. the process is.2 The Rankine cycle . irreversible.THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/17 saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure. causing the Rankine cycle to be an irreversible cycle and to have a lower efficiency than the Carnot cycle. therefore. Q451 5 4 Boiler 1 Pump W34 Condenser 3 Q23 T p1 T1 4 T2 3 2 5 1 Turbine W12 2 p2 A B s Fig 11.
dry saturated. h1 + Q = h2 + W In this statement of the equation the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the initial and final state points of the process.THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/18 The plant required and the numbers referring to the state points for the Rankine cycle is shown in Fig. each process in the cycle can be considered in turn as follows: Boiler: h4 + Q451 = h1 + W Therefore.e.e. 11. since W = 0 Q23 = h3 – h2 i.( h2 – h3 ) Heat rejected in condenser = h2 – h3 (11. The steam at the inlet to the turbine may be wet. since W = 0. Then h1 + Q12 = h2 + W12 W12 = ( h1 – h2) (11.2. Q451 = h1 – h4 (11. s1 = s2 ).11) Condenser: h2 + Q23 = h3 + W23 Therefore.e. i. Q23 = . and isentropic (i. The steam flows round the cycle and each process may be analysed using the steady flow energy equation where changes in kinetic energy and potential energy may be neglected.12) .2.e. Q = 0). or superheated.10) Turbine: The expansion is adiabatic (i. and h2 can be calculated using this latter fact. but only the dry saturated condition is shown in Fig. 11.
(h4 – h3) is neglected.2. s3 = s4 ). The feed pump is usually neglected. equation (11. Work input to pump = ( h4 – h3 ) (11.e.e. R (h1 h2 ) (h4 h3 ) h1 h4 (h1 h2 ) (h4 h3 ) (h1 h3 ) (h4 h3 ) (11. W34 = ( h3 – h4 ) = ( h4 – h3 ) i.17) or R If the feed pump term.17) becomes R (h1 h2 ) (h1 h3 ) (11. The net work done in the cycle.14) Or. W12.THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/19 Pump: h3 + Q34 = h4 + W34 The compression is isentropic ( i.15) 11.e.1 Thermal efficiency of Rankine cycle Rankine efficiency. Net work output R Heat supplied in the boiler (11.13) This is the feed pump term.e.e.18) . W = W12 + W34 i. and adiabatic ( i. if the feed pump work is neglected. especially when the boiler pressures are low. W = ( h1 – h2) – ( h4 – h3 ) (11. and as the quantity is small as compared to the turbine work. Q = 0 ).16) i. W = ( h1 – h2 ) (11.
W x (specific steam consumption. It relates the power output to the steam flow necessary to produce steam. it is necessary to evaluate the quantity.20) 11.3 Specific steam consumption Another criterion of performance in steam plant is the specific steam consumption. i. Both efficiency and work ratio are criteria of performance.19) 11.e. but that the cycle has a low work ratio. W34. The specific steam consumption is the steam flow in kg/h required to develop kW. Work ratio = or Work ratio = (11.2.THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/20 When the feed pump term is included.) = 1 x 3600 kJ/h (where W is in kJ/kg). and the specific steam consumption is a means whereby the relative sizes of different plants can be compared. s.2 The work ratio for Rankine cycle It has been stated that the efficiency of the Carnot cycle is the maximum possible. From equation (11. The work ratio is defined by Work ratio net work gross work (h1 h2 ) (h4 h3 ) (h1 h2 ) (h1 h2 ) v f ( p 4 p3 ) (h1 h2 ) i.13) Pump work = W34 = f (p4 – p3) (11. 1 . The steam flow indicates the size of plant with its component part.e.c.s.
035 bar = 112 kJ/kg Using equation 11. s.3 The Rankine cycle is shown in the figure below.3 A steam power plant operates between a boiler pressure of 42 bar and a condenser pressure of 0.c.s.c.7 3 2 A B s As in example 11. and the specific steam consumption for a Rankine cycle with dry saturated steam at entry to the turbine. Calculate for these limits the cycle efficiency. = 3600 kg/kwh W 3600 kg/kwh (h1 h2 ) (h4 h 3 ) or.035 bar.18. Solution to Example 11. the work ratio. h3 = hf at 0.21) Example 11. = (11.s.e.035 bar .035 bar 299. T 42bar 5 4 1 526.THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/21 i.2 h1= 2800 kJ/kg and h2 = 1808 kJ/kg Also.2 0. with v = vf at 0. s.
2) (2800 112) (4.368 or 36.17 R (h1 h2 ) (h4 h3 ) (h1 h3 ) (h4 h3 ) (992) (4.035) x 102 = 4.2) = 3.2) = 0.11 W12 = h1 – h2 = 2800 – 1808 = 992 kJ/kg Then using equation 11.2 = 992 = 0.64 kg/kW h .s.THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/22 Pump work = W34 = f (p4 – p3) = 0.996 Using equation 11. = = 3600 (h1 h2 ) (h4 h 3 ) 3600 (992) (4.21 s.8 % = Using equation 11.7 Work ratio net work gross work 992 .2 kJ/kg Using equation 11.001 x ( 42 – 0.4.c.
the work ratio.045 bar. describe the fourstage processes that represent a steam plant operating on an ideal Rankine cycle.3 Based on the diagram below. Calculate for these limits the cycle efficiency. and the specific steam consumption for a Rankine cycle with dry saturated steam at entry to the turbine.4 Turbine W12 2 A steam power plant operates between a boiler pressure of 40 bar and a condenser pressure of 0.THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/23 Activity 11B TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 11. . Q451 5 4 Boiler 1 Pump W34 Condenser 3 Q23 11.
045 bar 3040. Stage 2. T 40bar 5 4 1 523.3 kJ/kg . Stage 4 3 to 4: Isentropic compression of water in the feed pump 11. 2 to 3: Constant pressure heat rejection in the condenser.4 The Rankine cycle is shown in the figure below. 1 to 2: Isentropic expansion that takes place in the turbine or engine. 4 to 1: Constant pressure heat addition in a boiler.3 The ideal Rankine cycle does not involve any internal irreversibility and consists of the following fourstage processes: Stage 1.3 0. 3 2 A B s As in activity 11.THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/24 Feedback To Activity 11B 11.2 h1= 2801 kJ/kg and h2 = 1839. Stage 3.
0) = 0.18.4.001 x ( 40 – 0.11 W12 = h1 – h2 = 2801 – 1839.s.0) (2801 130) (4.17 R (h1 h2 ) (h4 h3 ) (h1 h3 ) (h4 h3 ) (961.045 bar = 130 kJ/kg Using equation 11.0 kJ/kg Using equation 11.7) (4.0 = 961.045) x 102 = 4.7 = 0.996 Using equation 11.359 or 35. h3 = hf at 0.7 kJ/kg Then using equation 11.76 kg/kW h . = = 3600 (h1 h2 ) (h4 h 3 ) 3600 (961.3 = 961.9 % = Using equation 11.7) (4.0) = 3.045 bar Pump work = W34 = f (p4 – p3) = 0.THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/25 Also.21 s.7 . with v = vf at 0.c.7 Work ratio net work gross work 961.
If you face any problem. Try all the questions in this selfassessment section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to SelfAssessment on the next page. dry saturated steam enters the turbine at 47 bar and is expanded isentropically to the condenser pressure of 0. Explain why the Rankine cycle and not the Carnot cycle is taken as the ideal cycle for steam plant.THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/26 SELFASSESSMENT You are approaching success. discuss it with your lecturer. Determine the Rankine cycle efficiency when a) b) the feed pump work is neglected the feed pump work is taken into account 2. the work ratio and the specific steam consumption for a Carnot cycle using wet steam. . A steam power plant operates between a boiler pressure of 30 bar and a condenser pressure of 0. Sketch the Ts diagram for these cycles when using steam as the working fluid. A steam power plant operates between a boiler pressure of 30 bar and a condenser pressure of 0. the work ratio. What is the highest thermal efficiency possible for a Carnot cycle operating between 210o C and 15o C. 4. In a steam power plant.13 bar. Calculate for these limits the cycle efficiency. 3. 5. 1. Good luck. and the specific steam consumption for a Rankine cycle with dry saturated steam at entry to the turbine.04 bar. Calculate for these limits the cycle efficiency.04 bar.
known as the Rankine cycle. 3. 1. 2. A very large compressor would be required. The Carnot cycle is modified to overcome the above difficulties and this modified cycle. Carnot cycle is never used in practice owing to: 1. check your answers now. so that subsequent compression would bring the state point to 4. The difficulty in stopping the condensation at 3. Compression of wet steam in a rotary compressor is difficult as the water tends to separate out. T T 4 5 4 1 p1 T1 1 T1 T2 p2 T2 3 2 3 2 s Carnot cycle A B s Rankine cycle .THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/27 Feedback to SelfAssessment Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”. Friction associated with the expansion and compression processes would cause the net work done to be very small as compared to the work done in the turbine itself. is widely used in practice. 4.
88 kg/kW h 33. 0.37 % 40.4 %.771. 33.THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/28 2. 5.6 %. 3. 4.67 %. 4.97 kg/kW h 34. 40. 0.997. 3.55 % CONGRATULATIONS! !!!…May success be with you always… .
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