CHAPTER

1

Flat Slabs
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Common practice of design and construction is to support the slabs by beams and support the beams by columns. This may be called as beam-slab construction. The beams reduce the available net clear ceiling height. Hence in warehouses, offices and public halls some times beams are avoided and slabs are directly supported by columns. This types of construction is aesthetically appealing also. These slabs which are directly supported by columns are called Flat Slabs. Fig. 1.1 shows a typical flat slab.

d 2

Critical section for shear

Fig. 1.1

A typical flat slab (without drop and column head)

The column head is some times widened so as to reduce the punching shear in the slab. The widened portions are called column heads. The column heads may be provided with any angle from the consideration of architecture but for the design, concrete in the portion at 45º on either side of vertical only is considered as effective for the design [Ref. Fig. 1.2].
Critical section for shear d 2

90° Concrete in this area is neglected for calculation

Fig. 1.2 Slab without drop and column with column head

2

Advanced R.C.C. Design

Moments in the slabs are more near the column. Hence the slab is thickened near the columns by providing the drops as shown in Fig. 1.3. Sometimes the drops are called as capital of the column. Thus we have the following types of flat slabs:
d 2 d 2 Critical section for shear

Critical section for shear

Fig. 1.3 Slab with drop and column without column head

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Slabs Slabs Slabs Slabs

without drop and column head (Fig. 1.1). without drop and column with column head (Fig. 1.2). with drop and column without column head (Fig. 1.3). with drop and column head as shown in Fig. 1.4.
d 2

Critical section for shear 45° 45°

Fig. 1.4

Slab with drop and column with column head

The portion of flat slab that is bound on each of its four sides by centre lines of adjacent columns is called a panel. The panel shown in Fig. 1.5 has size L1 ´ L2. A panel may be divided into column strips and middle strips. Column Strip means a design strip having a width of 0.25L1 or 0.25L2, whichever is less. The remaining middle portion which is bound by the column strips is called middle strip. Fig. 1.5 shows the division of flat slab panel into column and middle strips in the direction y.

if Fe 415 or Fe 500 steel is used If drops are not provided or size of drops do not satisfy the specification 1. 1. The drops when provided shall be rectangular in plan.3 Thickness of Flat Slab From the consideration of deflection control IS 456-2000 specifies minimum thickness in terms of span to effective depth ratio.5 Panels. if HYSD bars are used It is also specified that in no case. if mild steel is used.e. 1. then the ratio shall not exceed 0. = 32 ´ 0. .8. For exterior panels.2 and 1. and have a length in each direction not less than one third of the panel in that direction.2.1 PROPORTIONING OF FLAT SLABS Drops IS 456-2000 [Clause 31..9 = 28.2. shall be considered for design purpose as shown in Figs. then the maximum value of ratio of larger span to thickness shall be = 40. 1. that portion of the column head which lies within the largest right circular cone or pyramid entirely within the outlines of the column and the column head.2. if mild steel is used = 32.9 = 36.2. = 40 ´ 0. If drop as specified in 1. the width of drops at right angles to the non continuous edge and measured from the centre-line of the columns shall be equal to one half of the width of drop for interior panels.1.2] gives the following guidelines for proportioning.9 times the value specified above i.1 is provided.2 Column Heads Where column heads are provided. 1. the thickness of flat slab shall be less than 125 mm. column strips and middle strips is y-direction 1.Flat Slabs L2a C of panel A L2b C of panel B 3 L1 y o Column strip x Middle strip Column strip Middle strip Column strip L2a 4 L but < 1 4 L2b 4 but < L1 4 Fig.2 1. For this purpose larger span is to be considered.2.4.

Total Design Moment The absolute sum of the positive and negative moment in each direction is given by M0 = Where. the following clauses are to be carefully noted: (a) Circular supports shall be treated as square supports having the same area i. squares of size 0. L1 and L2. (c) The successive span length in each direction shall not differ by more than one-third of longer span. (b) The panels shall be rectangular and the ratio of the longer span to the shorter span within a panel shall not be greater than 2.e.C. L2 shall + L2b . 1.886D. M0 = Total moment W = Design load on the area L2 ´ Ln Ln = Clear span extending from face to face of columns.4 THE DIRECT DESIGN METHOD This method has the limitation that it can be used only if the following conditions are fulfilled: (a) There shall be minimum of three continuous spans in each directions. capitals. and L2 = Length of span transverse to L1 In taking the values of Ln. (e) The end span must be shorter but not greater than the interior span. (d) The design live load shall not exceed three times the design dead load. brackets or walls but not less than 0.65 L1 L1 = Length of span in the direction of M0. (f) It shall be permissible to offset columns a maximum of 10 percent of the span in the direction of the offset not withstanding the provision in (b).4 Advanced R. In Fig. Design 1..C. 2 (c) When the span adjacent and parallel to an edge is being considered. WL n 8 be taken as the average of the transverse spans.3 DETERMINATION OF BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE For this IS 456-2000 permits use of any one of the following two methods: (a) The Direct Design Method (b) The Equivalent Frame Method 1. the distance from the edge to the centre-line of the panel shall be substituted for L2.5 it is given by bL 2a g Distribution of Bending Moment in to –ve and +ve Moments The total design moment M0 in a panel is to be distributed into –ve moment and +ve moment as specified below: . (b) When the transverse span of the panel on either side of the centre line of support varies.

35 M0 = 0. The moment in the middle strip shall be the difference between panel and the column strip moments. Distribution of Bending Moments Across the Panel Width The +ve and –ve moments found are to be distributed across the column strip in a panel as shown in Table 1. Table 1.65 OPM MN1 + a1 PQ c 0 ∑K ∑K c s Kc = Sum of the flexural stiffness of the columns meeting at the joint.65 M0 0.Flat Slabs 5 In an interior span Negative Design Moment Positive Design Moment In an end span Interior negative design moment 0. LM 0.1 S. expressed as moment per unit rotation. a b c Distribution of Moments Across the Panel Width in a Column Strip Distributed Moment Per cent of Total Moment 100 75 60 Negative BM at the exterior support Negative BM at the interior support Positive bending moment .75 - Positive design moment LM MN LM MN .28 M0 1 1+ ac OP PQ OP PQ = 0.1. 010 M0 1 1+ ac 0.63 - Exterior negative design moment = where ac is the ratio of flexural stiffness at the exterior columns to the flexural stiffness of the slab at a joint taken in the direction moments are being determined and is given by ac = Where. and Ks = Flexural stiffness of the slab. No.

1.4. The critical section for shear shall be at a distance Critical section d/2 Support section column / column head (a ) Support section d/2 d/2 Critical section (b) Fig. Critical section Support section d/2 Support section d/2 Critical section d/2 d/2 d/2 (a) (b) Fig. 1.C.7 In case of columns near the free edge of a slab.C. The shape of the critical section in plan is similar to the support immediately below the slab as shown in Fig. Free edge Critical section Free corner d/2 d/2 (a) Corner column (b) Critical section Fig. These critical sections are shown in Figs. 31. 1. Shear Force d from the periphery of the column/capital drop 2 panel. 1. the critical section shall be taken as shown in Fig. 1.6 Advanced R. 1. the critical section shall be taken as indicated in Fig. Hence if drops are provided there are two critical sections near columns.4.7. Design Moments in Columns In this type of constructions column moments are to be modified as suggested in IS 456–2000 [Clause No.8.1 to 1. 1.6 For columns sections with re-entrant angles.5].8 .6.

where ks = 0. The stiffening effect of flared columns heads may be ignored.25 fck If shear stress tv < tc – no shear reinforcement are required. 1. In the case of recessed or coffered slab which is made solid in the region of the columns.Flat Slabs 7 The nominal shear stress may be calculated as V tv = b0 d where V – is shear force due to design b0 – is the periphery of the critical section d – is the effective depth The permissible shear stress in concrete may be calculated as ks tc. In frames adjacent and parallel to an edge beam portion shall be equal to flat slab bounded by the edge and the centre line of the adjacent panel. Loading Pattern When the live load does not exceed ¾th of dead load. If tc < tv < 1. the maximum moments may be assumed to occur at all sections when full design live load is on the entire slab.5 + bc but not greater than 1. (c) Variation of moment of inertia along the axis of the slab on account of provision of drops shall be taken into account. (d) Analysis of frame may be carried out with substitute frame method or any other accepted method like moment distribution or matrix method. where bc is the ratio of short side to long side of the column/capital.5 tc. The moments determined in the beam of frame (flat slab) may be reduced in such proportion that the numerical sum of positive and average negative moments is not less than the value of total design .15 lef into the span measured from the centre line of the columns. shear reinforcement shall be provided. If live load exceeds ¾th dead load analysis is to be carried out for the following pattern of loading also: (i) To get maximum moment near mid span – ¾th of live load on the panel and full live load on alternate panel (ii) To get maximum moment in the slab near the support – ¾th of live load is on the adjacent panel only It is to be carefully noted that in no case design moment shall be taken to be less than those occurring with full design live load on all panels. and tc = 0. If shear stress exceeds 1. (b) Moment of inertia of the members of the frame may be taken as that of the gross section of the concrete alone. the stiffening effect may be ignored provided the solid part of the slab does not extend more than 0.5 EQUIVALENT FRAME METHOD IS 456–2000 recommends the analysis of flat slab and column structure as a rigid frame to get design moment and shear forces with the following assumptions: (a) Beam portion of frame is taken as equivalent to the moment of inertia of flat slab bounded laterally by centre line of the panel on each side of the centre line of the column.5 tc flat slab shall be redesigned.

1. 16 in IS 456– 2000). shall not exceed 2 times the slab thickness. The minimum length of different reinforcement in flat slabs should be as shown in Fig.9 (Fig. the extension of the –ve reinforcement beyond each face shall be based on the longer span. if mild steel is used. The rest may be bent up.6 SLAB REINFORCEMENT Spacing The spacing of bars in a flat slab.C.C. and (b) Thickness of slab plus one quarter the distance between edge of drop and edge of capital.8 Advanced R. All slab reinforcement should be anchored property at discontinuous edges.9 × 32 28. The distribution of slab moments into column strips and middle strips is to be 8 made in the same manner as specified in direct design method.8 d = 175 mm and D = 200 mm = Let Loads Self weight of slab Finishing load Live load \ Total working load = 0.6 mm = 28.8 28. Area of Reinforcement When the drop panels are used.12 percent if HYSD bars used and 0.8 \ Minimum thickness required Span 5000 = 173.5 ´ 10 = 15 kN/m2 Factored load . Minimum Length of Reinforcement At least 50 percent of bottom bars should be from support to support. Solution: Thickness Since drop is not provided and HYSD bars are used span to thickness ratio shall not exceed 1 1 = 0.. Size of columns is 500 ´ 500 mm and live load on the panel is 4 kN/m2.1: Design an interior panel of a flat slab of size 5 m ´ 5 m without providing drop and column head. 1.15 percent. 0. Design moment M0 = WL n . Take floor finishing load as 1 kN/m2. the thickness of drop panel for determining area of reinforcement shall be the lesser of the following: (a) Thickness of drop. Use M20 concrete and Fe 415 steel. The minimum percentage of the reinforcement is same as that in solid slab i. Example 1.20 ´ 25 = 5 kN/m2 = 1 kN/m2 = 4 kN/m2 = 10 kN/m2 = 1.e. If adjacent spans are not equal.

c 0. EDGE OF DROP e b 150 mm 24BAR DIA OR 300 mm min. Clear span .15 l max 75 mm max.20 ln c 0.22 ln * Bent bars at exterior supports may be used if a general analysis is made.Flat Slabs 9 Minimum percentage of steel at section 50 Remainder 50 Remainder 50 Type of bars Strip WITHOUT DROP PANEL WITH DROP PANEL Straight bars d b 75 mm max d b e b e b Column strip 24 BAR DIA OR 300 mm min. EDGE OF DROP c 75 mm max. 150 mm c c Straight bars 100 Middle Strip 50 Remainder 50 150 mm c (ALL BARS) Bent bars* Remainder 50 Remainder 150 mm f f 150 mm 75 mm max.30 ln e 0.ln Face of support interior support D C 75 mm max. Note.125lmax d b Bent bars* Remainder 50 Remainder d b b e g g o.14 ln b 0. D C Clear span .33 ln f 0.15 l max 150 mm c a a c C (ALL BARS) 150 mm 0.20 ln g 0.ln D Face of support C interior support [NO SLAB CONTINUITY] [CONTINUITY PROVED] [NO SLAB CONTINUITY] Bar Length From Face of Support Minimum Length Maximum Length d 0. 1. ALL BARS 150 mm min.9 Minimum bend joint locations and extensions for reinforcement in flat slabs . Fig.24 ln Exterior support Mark Length a 0. D is the diameter of the column and the dimension of the rectangular column in the direction under consideration.

166 kN \ tv = 675 500 368166 × 1000 .58 Checking the thickness selected: Since Fe 415 steel is used.40 = 92.675 ´ 0.3125 ´ 106 Nmm = 211.85 26.25 fck = 0.5 = 4.44 kNm Distribution of moment into column strips and middle strip: Column Strip in kNm –ve moment +ve moment 0.65 ´ 189.35 ´ 189.44 = 39. Check for Shear d from the column face. Mu lim = 0.675 = 368.5 m \ Total design load in a panel W = 15 L2 Ln = 15 ´ 5 ´ 4.5 ´ = 189.118 N/mm2 .75 ´ 123. Design Ln = 5 – 0.25 20 = 1. Hence periphery of critical 2 section around a column is square of a size = 500 + d = 500 + 175 = 675 mm The critical section for shear is at a distance Shear to be resisted by the critical section V = 15 ´ 5 ´ 5 – 15 ´ 0.138 ´ 20 ´ 2500 ´ 1752 = 211.86 Middle Strip in kNm 30.35 ´ 189.84 kNm 8 8 = 0.5 = 337.5 = 337. = 0.C.5 kN Moments Panel Moment Panel –ve moment M0 = WL n 4.779 N/mm2 4 × 675 × 175 500 675 ks = 1 + bc subject to maximum of 1.84 = 66.3125 kNm Hence singly reinforced section can be designed i.10 Advanced R.55 0..5 ´ 5000 = 2500 mm \ Mu lim = 0.84 = 123.40 kNm Panel +ve moment = 0. thickness provided is satisfactory from the consideration of bending moment.e.138 fck b d2 Width of column strip = 0. bc = \ safe in shear since tv < tc L1 5 = =1 L2 5 ks = 1 tc = 0.60 ´ 66.C.84 = 0.

spacing required is s= p 4 ´ 102 ´ 2500 = 301. i.87 ´ 415 ´ Ast ´ 175 1 − i. For +ve moment in column strip: Mu = 39.3 OP Q LM N OP Q 415 Ast × 2500 × 175 20 OP Q A st 2 – 21084.55 ´ 106 = 0.3 = 0 Ast = 1583.3 = 0 Ast = 651 mm2 Using 10 mm bars.74 Provide 12 mm bars at 175 mm c/c.86 kNm \ 39.6 mm < 2 ´ thickness of slab 651 Hence provide 10 mm bars at 300 mm c/c.87 f y A st d 1 − LM N A st f y bd fck = 0.3Ast + 1464. .86 ´ 21084. provide similar reinforcement in other direction also.86 ´ 106 = 0. 1464. Hence using 12 mm bars..74 mm2 This is to be provided in a column strip of width 2500 mm.e.78 = Ast 1 − LM N A st 21084.3 OP Q LM N 415 A st × 2500 × 175 20 OP Q Ast2 – 21084.86 = Ast 1 − or \ LM N A st 21084. Since span is same in both directions.. spacing required is given by s= p 4 ´ 12 2 ´ 2500 = 178 mm 1583.87 ´ 415 ´ Ast ´ 175 1 − 630.55 kNm 92. Provide 10 mm diameter bars at 300 mm c/c in the middle strip to take up –ve and +ve moments.3 Ast + 630.e.Flat Slabs 11 Reinforcement For –ve moment in column strip: Mu = 92.78 ´ 21084.

1.5 mm 32 Provide 190 mm thickness.C. Solution : Thickness : Since Fe 415 steel is used and drop is provided.300 c\c Cover -25 500 500 Section through column strip 3000 10 . Let the cover be 30 mm \ Thickness of flat slab = \ Overall thickness D = 220 mm Let the drop be 50 mm.C. Provide suitable drop. 1.10 Reinforcement details [all dimension in mm units] Example 1.300 c/c 3000 500 section through middle strip 500 Fig.12 Advanced R. Design Reinforcement Details It is as shown in Fig.2: Design an interior panel of a flat slab with panel size 6 ´ 6 m supported by columns of size 500 ´ 500 mm. Take live load as 4 kN/m2.10 Column Strip 12-175 c/c Middle Strip Column strip Column strip 12-175 c/c 10-300 c/c 10-300 c/c 5000 Sign convention Top reinforcement Bottom reinforcement Column Strip Middle Strip 5000 5000 5000 12-175 c/c 5000 5000 200 10 . Hence at column head. Use M20 concrete and Fe 415 steel. maximum span to thickness ratio permitted is 32 6000 = 187. d = 240 mm and D = 270 mm .

= = 400 kNm 8 8 \ Total negative moment = 0.928 ´ 106 Nmm Thus Mu lim > Mu.4 ´ 140 = 56 kNm Width of column strip 2 = width of middle strip = 3000 mm = 476.6 ´ 140 = 84 kNm Middle Strip 0.35 ´ 400 = 140 kNm The above moments are to be distributed into column strip and middle strip M0 = Column Strip –ve moment +ve moment 0.25 ´ 260 = 65 kNm 0.75 kN/m2 = 1.5 = 581.27 ´ 1 ´ 1 ´ 25 = 6. . Hence thickness selected is sufficient.928 kNm Mu lim = 0.00 kN/m2 = 11.00 kN/m2 = 4.625 kN Design Total Moment Total moment Width of column strip = width of middle strip = 3000 mm.625 ´ 6 ´ 5.75 kN/m2 Finishing load Live load Total load \ Design (factored) load Clear span \ Design load = 1.625 kN/m2 Ln = 6 – 0.75 ´ 260 = 195 kNm 0. W0 Ln 581625 ´ 55 .5 = 5. \ Loads For the purpose of design let us take self-weight as that due to thickness at column strip \ Self-weight = 0.138 ´ 20 ´ 3000 ´ 2402 = 476.5 ´ 11. Check for Shear The critical section is at a distance .Flat Slabs 13 Size of Drop It should not be less than 1 ´6m = 2 m 3 Let us provide 3 m ´ 3 m drop so that the width of drop is equal to that of column head.75 = 17.5 m W0 = Wu ´ L2 ´ Ln = 17.138 fck b d = 0.65 ´ 400 = 260 kNm Total positive moment = 0.

118 N/mm2 Design shear stress permitted = 1.87 ´ 415 ´ Ast ´ 240 1 − 2250. Design d 240 = = 120 mm from the face of column 2 2 \ It is a square of size = 500 + 240 = 740 mm V = Total load – load on 0.38 = Ast 1 − LM N A st 34698.8 = 0 Ast = 2419 mm2 in 3000 mm width .880 N/mm2 4 × 740 × 240 740 k s = 1 + bc subject to maximum of 1 bc = 500 L1 =1 L2 ks = 1 500 740 tc = 0.38 ´ 34698. Shear strength may be checked at distance Reinforcement (a) For –ve moment in column strip Mu = 195 kNm Thickness \ d = 240 mm Mu = 0. 2 LM N fy A st × b × d fck 195 ´ 106 = 0. It is quite safe since drop size is large.740 ´ 0.87 fy Ast d 1 − 120 500 120 d from drop.C.118 N/mm2 > tv Hence the slab is safe in shear without shear reinforcement also.625 ´ 6 ´ 6 – 17.740 = 624.25 20 = 1.625 ´ 0.740 area = 17.C.740 ´ 0.14 Advanced R.8 OP Q LM N OP Q 415 A st × 3000 × 240 20 OP Q A st 2 – 34698.849 kN \ Nominal shear Shear strength where where \ = tv = = ks tc 624.489 × 1000 = 0.8 Ast + 2250.

. Thickness = 190 mm Provide 10 mm bars at 230 mm c/c in this portion also. spacing required is s= p 4 ´ 12 2 ´ 3000 = 140. 1.9 OP Q LM N 415 A st × 3000 × 190 20 OP Q 2 Ast – 27469.26 mm 2419 Provide 12 mm bars at 140 mm c/c (b) For +ve moment in column strip Mu = 84 kNm = 84 ´ 106 Nmm.9 OP Q LM N 415 A st × 3000 × 240 20 OP Q Ast = 1285 mm2 Provide 10 mm bars at 180 mm c/c (c) For –ve moment in middle strip: Mu = 65 kNm. Thickness d = 190 mm 84 ´ 106 = 0.11.9 = 0 Ast = 983 mm2 in 3000 mm width Using 10 mm bars s= p 4 ´ 102 ´ 3000 = 239.Flat Slabs 15 Using 12 mm bars. Thickness = 190 mm 65 ´ 106 = 0. provide similar reinforcement in both directions.87 ´ 415 ´ Ast ´ 190 1 − 947. The details of reinforcement are shown in Fig.5 = Ast 1 − \ Using 10 mm bars s= p 4 ´ 102 ´ 3000 = 183 mm 1285 LM N A st 27469.7 mm 983 Provide 10 mm bars at 230 mm c/c (d) For +ve moment in middle strip Mu = 56 kNm.9 Ast + 947. Since span is same in both direction.5 ´ 27469.5 = Ast 1 − LM N Ast 27469.87 ´ 415 ´ Ast ´ 190 1 − 1224.

625 ´ 6 ´ 4.67 = 493.C.33 = 4.67 m W0 = 17.C. 1.67 = 288. if columns are of 500 mm diameter.33 m Ln = 6 – 1.52 = a2 4 a = 1. Design Column strip =Dorp width Column strip =Dorp width Middle strip 12–140 c/c Column strip =Dorp width 10–180c/c 10–230 c/c 6000 =Dorp width Middle strip 12–230c/c 6000 Column strip 10–180c/c 6000 6000 12 @ 140 6000 6000 10 @ 180 c/c 190 240 500 10 @ 230 Cover .3: Design the interior panel of the flat slab in example 1.85 kN M0 = Wo Ln 493.85 × 4.25L = 0.3 kNm = 8 8 .5 m It’s equivalent square has side ‘a’ where \ π × 1.11 Reinforcement details Example 1. providing a suitable column head.25 ´ 6 = 1.16 Advanced R.30 500 Section through column strip 10 @ 230 c/c 190 240 500 500 Fig. Solution: Let the diameter of column head be = 0.2.

87 ´ 415 ´ Ast ´ 240 1 − 1622 = Ast 1 − LM N A st 34698.928 ´ 106 Nmm > Mu Hence thickness selected is sufficient.85 kNm 0.3 = 100.138 ´ 20 ´ 3000 ´ 2402 = 476. \ d = 240 mm 140.55 kNm. 4 OP Q Maximum shear permitted = ks × 0.740 p Shear on this section 1500 120 V = 17.625 6 ´ 6 \ tv = 592. Check for Shear The critical section is at a distance d 240 = = 120 mm from the face of column head 2 2 Diameter of critical section = 1500 + 240 =1740 mm = 1.55 kNm 0.8 OP Q LM N 415 Ast × 3000 × 240 20 OP Q .4 ´ 100.55 ´ 106 = 0.9 kNm The distribution of above moment into column strip and middle strips are as given below: Column Strip –ve moment +ve moment 0. there is no need to provide shear reinforcement Design of Reinforcement (a) For –ve moment in column strip Mu = 140.45 N/mm2 π × 1740 × 240 LM N p ´ 174 2 = 592.3 = 187.59 × 1000 = 0.60 ´ 100.4 = 46.36 kNm Width of column strip = width of middle strip = 3000 mm \ Mu lim = 0.65 ´ 288.9 = 60.75 ´ 187.59 kN .4 = 140.4 kNm Total +ve moment = 0.138 fck bd2 = 0.54 kNm Middle Strip 0.740 m Perimeter of critical section = p D = 1.118 N/mm2 Since ks works out to be 1 Since maximum shear permitted in concrete is more than nominal shear tv.Flat Slabs 17 \ Total –ve moment = 0.35 ´ 288.25 ´ 187.9 = 40.25 20 = 1.

The size of the columns supporting the system is 500 ´ 500 mm and floor to floor height is 4. Calculate design moments in interior and exterior panels at column and middle strips in both directions.C. s= (b) For the +ve moment in column strip Mu = 60.18 Advanced R.87 ´ 415 ´ Ast ´ 190 1 − 882.54 kNm. It is to be designed using M20 grade concrete and Fe 415 steel.9 = 0 Ast = 913 mm2 LM N OP Q LM N 415 A st × 3000 × 190 20 OP Q Using 10 mm bars π 4 × 10 2 × 3000 = 258 mm 913 Provide 10 mm bars at 250 mm c/c.5 m. π 4 × 12 2 × 3000 = 199 mm 1705 Provide 12 mm bars at 190 mm c/c.9 Ast + 882.9Ast + 683 ´ 27469. π 4 × 10 2 × 3000 = 336 mm 701 Provide 10 mm bars at 300 mm c/c. It has to carry a live load of 4 kN/m2 and a finishing load of 1 kN/m2.9 2 Ast – 27469.85 kNm.9 2 Ast – 27469.8 Ast + 1622 ´ 34698. d = 190 mm 46.51 = Ast 1 − A st 27469. Example 1. provide similar reinforcement in both directions.87 ´ 415 ´ Ast ´ 190 1 − 683 = Ast 1 − A st 27469. d = 190 mm 60. As span is same in both directions.4: A flat slab system consists of 5 m ´ 6 m panels and is without drop and column head.85 ´ 106 = 0.9 = 0 Ast = 701 mm2 LM N OP Q LM N 415 A st × 3000 × 190 20 OP Q Using 10 mm bars. Reinforcement detail may be shown as was done in previous problem. s= (c) For –ve moment in middle strip: Mu = 46.51 ´ 27469.54 ´ 106 = 0.8 = 0 Ast = 1705 mm2 Using 12 mm bars.C. . s= (d) Provide 10 mm bars at 300 mm c/c for +ve moment in middle strip also. Design Ast2 – 34698.

5 ´ L2Ln = 16. width of middle strip = 6 – 2.5 m Hence.5 m Width of middle strip = 5 – 2.5 = 2.5 = 453.25 m on either side INTERIOR PANELS Moments Along Longer Size L1 = 6 m \ Load on panel L2 = 5 m Ln = 6 – 0.25 m on either side of column centre line \Total width of column strip = 1.9 m Ln = 5.5 = 5.9 = 28.25 ´ 2 = 2.5 m subject to minimum of 0.5 m Along Width L1 = 5 m \Total width of column strip = 2.5 m W0 = 16.25 L1 or L2 whichever is less.25 ´ 5 = 1.5 = 3.5 kN/m2 Panel Dimensions Along length L1 = 6 m Width of column strip and L2 = 5 m = 0.24 ´ 1 ´ 1 ´ 25 = 6 kN/m2 Finishing weight = 1 kN/m2 Live load = 4 kN/m2 Total = 11 kN/m2 Wu = 1.Flat Slabs 19 Solution: Thickness: Since Fe 415 steel is used and no drops are provided. longer span to depth ratio is not more than 32 ´ 0. 6000 = 208 28.8 d= Let us select Loads Self weight 0.5 ´ 11 = 16.25 ´ 5 = 1.65 ´ L1 = 3.8 d = 210 mm and D = 240 mm = 0.75 kN .5 m L2 = 6 m Width of column strip = 0.5 ´ 5 ´ 5.

5 m.59 kN-m 8 8 Appropriation of Moment: Total –ve moment = 0.51 kNm Middle Strip 202.95 = 202.88 kN-m Total +ve moment = 250.18 = 65.77 = 109.59 – 162. Design M0 = Appropriation of Moment .65 ´ 250.71 kN-m \ Moments in column strip and middle strip are as shown below: Column Strip –ve moment +ve moment 0. effective length of column = 1.75 ´ 162.112 m Size of column = 500 ´ 500 mm 1 × 500 4 mm 4 12 Moment of inertia of column = .65 ´ 311.77 kNm \ Total +ve moment = 311.75 – 152.06 kNm 0.88 = 87. Hence as per Table 28 in IS 456-2000.16 kNm 0.60 ´ 87.51 = 43.60 ´ 109.2 ´ length = 1. W0 Ln 45375 ´ 55 = = 311. = = 250.24 = 4.5 .26 = 5.5 kN M0 = W0 Ln 4455 ´ 4.18 kNm Hence moment in column strip and middle strip along longer direction in interior panels are as given below: Column Strip –ve moment +ve moment 0.88 = 40.40 ´ 87.26 m The building is not restrained from lateral sway.95 kNm 8 8 Total –ve moment = 0.5 ´ 6 ´ 4.5 – 0.72 kNm 0.5 = 4.C.95 – 202.67 kNm Along Width L1 = 5 m Panel load Panel moment L2 = 6 m and Ln = 5 – 0. = W0 = 16. .25 ´ 162.2 ´ 4.59 = 162.20 Advanced R.08 kNm EXTERIOR PANELS Length of column = 4.18 – 65.75 = 152.69 kNm 109.88 = 122.63 kNm Middle Strip 0.75 ´ 202.C.5 = 445.71 = 52.06 = 50.71 = 35.

43 = 53.75 7 Dead load \ Relative stiffness ratio is ac = kc1 + kc2 2 × 1018844 = 1.72 – 120.25 = 161.678 = 1+ .123 = 960000 ks .25 – 161.66 Middle Strip 215.463 Positive moment coefficient = 0.66 = 57.95 = 144.72 0.69 ´ 311.Flat Slabs 21 \ kc = I 1 500 4 = 101844 mm4 = × L 12 5112 LONGER SPAN DIRECTION Moment of inertia of beam Is = Moment of inertia of slab 1 = × 6000 × 240 3 12 = L2 = 5000 mm kc = Its length \ Is 1 6000 ´ 2403 = 1382400 mm4 = ´ 5000 12 5000 4 Live load = < 0.82 120.63 – α Total moment M0 = 311.75 – 0.690 α 0.25 0.72 = 120. 1474 ac Hence various moment coefficients are: a = 1+ Interior –ve moment coefficient = 0.77 Shorter Span Direction \ \ ks = 1 5000 × 2403 = 96000 × 12 6000 k + kc2 2 × 1018844 ac = c1 = 2.387 α 0.463 ´ 31.72 = 0 144.95 kNm \ Appropriation of moments in kNm is as given below: Exterior –ve moment coefficient = Total Interior –ve Exterior –ve + Moment 0.43 – 86.60 ´ 144.387 ´ 311.43 = 86.95 = 215.43 1.95 = 120.28 = 0.65 = 0.1 = 0.43 Column Strip 0.00 ´ 120.72 0.75 ´ 215.474 = 1382400 ks \ 1 1 = 1.

06 –122.43 –152.66 2 57.06 2 –122.76 2 –161. 1.25 2.76 – 110.5 m –122.72 120.471 0.76 = 128.65 Exterior –ve moment coefficient = = 0. Design 1 = 1.09 In the exterior panel in each column strips half the above values will act.59 = 110.72 Middle Strip –53.00 ´ 110.1 0.16 Middle Strip –50.16 86.90 – 128.5 2.471 αc 0.66 65.16 2 –128.1 Interior –ve moment coefficient = 0.25 – 66.67 44.5 2.5 Fig.18 86.67 35.82 52.43 –50.51 + 2 2 –50.5 m –42.440 = 0.442 ´ 250.682 ´ 250.5 m –40.44 ´ 250.72 44.43 –15.09 65.471 Total moment M0 = 250.63 Col Strip –161. 1.16 2 43. These moments are shown in Fig.63 − Positive moment coefficient = 0.16 Middle Strip 170.76 –42.5 2.82 2.63 – α 1.69 52.76 = 0 110.16 2 –128.28 0.51 3.06 –122.72 –152.76 0.25 m 120.12 .18 66.25 Column Strip 0.63 2 66.72 110.69 66.65 0.59 kNm \ Appropriation of moments in shorter span exterior panel in kNm is as given below: \ a1 = 1 + Total Interior –ve Exterior -ve + Moment 0.63 2 –152.471 0.76 1.18 = 42.90 0.06 2 –122.72 1.63 Col Strip –152.06 –110.16 –152.16 2.682 = 0.72 –40.16 –110.C.16 –128.77 52.25 = 66.77 35.08 86.75 a 1.09 –42.06 2 –110.51 + 2 2 43.18 1.82 –4 66.28 = 0.C.75 – = 0.72 –40.12 Col Strip –120.76 0.75 ´ 170.66 2 57.16 = 44.72 –53.59 = 110.16 2 –161.08 65.51 3.5 m –122.72 –53.442 = α 1.76 = 110.18 2 86.69 52.59 = 170.22 Advanced R.60 ´ 110.66 65.

Use M20 concrete and Fe 415 steel. Sketch the reinforcement details by showing cross sections (i) at column strip (ii) at middle strip. 3. Use M20 concrete and Fe 415 steel. Calculate the design moments at various strips in the interior and exterior panels. For the flat slab system of size 6 m ´ 6 m provide suitable drop and fix up overall dimensions. Floor to floor distance is 3. The floor system is supported by columns of size 500 mm ´ 500 mm. Design the typical interior panel of a flat slab floor of size 5 m ´ 5 m with suitable drop to support a live load of 4 kN/m2.6 m. Design the exterior panel of a flat slab of size 6 m ´ 6 m with suitable drop to support a live load of 5 kN/m2.6 m. The floor is supported by columns of size 450 mm ´ 450 mm.Flat Slabs 23 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. 2. Give the plan of the floor system showing these design moments. the floor height being 3. The floor system is supported by columns of size 500 mm ´ 500 mm. .

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