FEASIBILITY & DESIGN OF WIND TURBINE FOR

COASTAL REGION OF PAKISTAN





Group No 18 Batch: 2005-2006

Name Seat No.

Rashid Kareem ME-05125
Farhad Saeed ME-05304
Danish Khan ME-05124
Ghufran Ahmed Bala ME-05080


Internal Advisor: Asst. Prof. Umair Najeeb Mughal


External Advisor: Mr. Arshad Lal Junejo





DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
NED UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
ii

CERTIFICATE


Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of degree of Bachelor of
Engineering (Mechanical Engineering)


FEASIBILITY & DESIGN OF WIND TURBINE FOR
COASTAL REGION OF PAKISTAN

Group No 18 Batch: 2005-06

Name Seat No.

Rashid Kareem ME-05125
Farhad Saeed ME-05304
Danish Khan ME-05124
Ghufran Ahmed Bala ME-05080





___________________ __________________
Internal Advisor External Advisor



___________________ __________________
Examiner-1 Examiner-2




DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
NED UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
iii











iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT




There are so many names to thank to begin with the acknowledgement but first of all we
would like to thank the Almighty Allah, who grant us the ability & opportunity to do this
project.

This project would have never been accomplished without the reference to the work of
others. We are thankful to our Internal Advisor Assistant Professor Umair Najeeb
Mughal for his support and guidance which he provided us. As this project involves
industrial visits and outdoor exposure, we are also thankful to all personnel from firms
and consultants who helped us.
We are also thankful to Mr. Arshad Lal Junejo, CEO, WindRose Consultancy, for his
guidance and information which helped us in our project.
v
ABSTRACT


The aim is to work in energy sector particularly in renewable and sustainable energy
sector. In a country with a great wind corridor, wind energy is the best renewable
source.

The project is about Feasibility Study of Wind Turbine and its Design Suitable for the
coastal region of Pakistan including wind data, best potential sites, available
resources & economical Analysis.

The project can give an idea about procedure to be followed for an Investor interested
in Wind Harvesting in Pakistan.
It also includes the application and designing of a system with suitable size and
capacity according to the conditions available in Pakistan
It includes the problem definition and analysis stage followed by designing stage.

vi
TABLE OF CONTENT

Chapter No. Page No.

Feasibility Section
1. Introduction 2
1.1 Energy Crisis in Pakistan 2
1.2 Drawbacks of other Alternatives 3
1.3 Study of Wind 3-4
1.4 Study of Wind turbines 5-6
1.5 Important Consideration 7-16
2. Study of Wind of Coastal Belt
2.1 Wind profiles 17-20
2.2 Existing Companies 21-23
2.3 Visits to Consultants/ Firms 24-28
2.4 Resources/Facilities Available 29
2.5 Different Configurations of Wind Farm 30-31
2.6 Government Policies 32-34
2.7 Analysis of feasibility 35





vii
Design Section
3.0 Design Approach 35
3. Blade Design 36
3.1 Introduction 37
3.2 Tip Speed Ratio 37
3.3 Selection of TSR 38
3.4 Selection of Airfoil 39
3.5 Calculation of blade diameter 43
3.6 RPM 46
3.7 Thrust 48
3.8 Torque 48
3.9 Power Transmitted 48
3.10 Structural Design Calculation 49
3.11 Stress Due to Aerodynamic Loading of Blade 52
4. Hub Design 55
4.1 Tangential Stress 56
4.2 Radial Stress 56
4.3 Material of Hub 56
4.4 Radius of Hub 57
4.5 Hub Thickness 57
4.6 Volume of Hub 58
4.7 Mass of Hub 58

viii

5. Design of Bolt 60
5.1 Forces acting of Bolts 60
5.2 Centrifugal Force 60
5.3 Force on each Bolt 60
5.4 Diameter of Bolt 61
6. Gear Design 62
6.1 Helical Gear 63
6.2 Design Consideration 63
6.3 Design Criteria 63
6.4 Step-up Ratio 64
6.5 Pitch Circle Dia 64
6.6 Pitch Line Velocity 64
6.7 Tangential Load 64
6.8 Geometric Factor 65
6.9 Inducing Stresses 65
7. Shaft Design 67
8. Coupling Design 72
9. Generator Selection 74
9.1 Asynchronous Induction Generator 75
9.2 Synchronous – Unsynchronized 76
9.3 Synchronous – Synchronized 76
9.4 Option No. 1 77
ix
9.5 Option No. 2 78

10. Yaw Mechanism 79
11. Braking and Shutdown System 80
11.1 Brake 80
11.2 Shutdown System 80
12. Conclusion 81
13. Economical Analysis 82
14. References 83















x























Table Page No.

Table 1: Cyclone Data 20
Table 2: Companies and Size of Lands
Allocated
21
Table 3: Activity flow chart 32
Table 4 : Coordinates of RAF 6 From
MATLAB
40
Table 5 : TSR and No. of Blades 43
Table 6: Velocity and Power (MATLAB) 45
Table 7: Coordinates and Area MATLAB
code
47
Table 8: Gear Characteristics 66

xi

Figures Page NO.

Fig. 1 : Comparative Payback Time of Micro Wind
Turbine
3
Fig. 2 : wind current 4
Fig 3: Components of Wind Turbine 5
Fig 4: How Wind Turbines Works 6
Fig 5: Connection Layout 16
Fig 6: Graph b/w Speed & Month 18
Fig 7: Diurnal Wind Speed 18
Fig 8: Frequency Distribution 19
Fig 9: Zorlu Wind Turbine 25
Fig 10: Prime Mover Transportation 29
Fig 11: Crane, Lifting large Rotor 29
Fig 12: Cp Vs TSR 39
Fig 13 : RAF 6 Profile Characteristics from Profili2 41
Fig 14 : Cross Section of RAF 6 42
Fig 15 : Rated Power Vs Velocity 45
Fig 16: Asynchronous- Induction Generator 75
Fig 17 : Yaw Mechanism 79









1
1. INTRODUCTION


1.1 ENERGY CRISIS IN PAKISTAN

Pakistan’s total energy requirement would increase by about 48 per cent to 80 million
tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) in 2010 from about 54 MTOE currently, but major
initiatives of meeting this gap are far from turning into reality, said a former petroleum
minister on condition of anonymity for the simple reason that he had also served the
government.

Major shortfall is expected in the natural gas supplies, he said. According to official
energy demand forecast, he added, the demand for natural gas, having about 50 per cent
share in the country’s energy consumption, would increase by 44 per cent to39 MTOE.

Partly contributed by gas shortfalls, the power shortage is expected to be little over
5,250MW by 2010, he said, adding that the oil demand would also increase by over 23
per cent to about 21 million tons in 2010 from the current demand of 16.8 million tons.

This would leave a total deficit of about nine million tons of diesel and furnace oil
imports, he said. Since the gas shortfalls were expected to be much higher, the country
would need to enhance its dependence on imported oil, thus increasing pressure .

Last year’s oil import bill amounted to about $6.5 billion compared with about $3.5
billion in 2004-05, mainly because of higher international oil prices - a burden expected
to be even higher in future as a result of growing Middle East crisis.

Current year’s oil import bill has again been projected by the government at about $6.5
billion on last year’s average prices, which have started to rise in the recent days.












2
1.2 DRAWBACKS OF OTHER ALTERNATIVES


1.2.1 Solar

Though we have the great solar energy throughout the year but still solar energy is very
costly particularly in Pakistan because we are not manufacturing solar panels on a great
extent. Besides this solar is not a bulk source of energy.

1.2.2 Thermal

Since the fossil fuel prices are going to be high and we are lacking in further exploration
of natural gas reservoir .On the other it causes the pollution due to the emission of CO
2
and other green house gases like

SO
2 .
To construct a thermal power plant we require
greater area, water reservoir for condenser, water treatment plant etc. Since these type of
plants need more time to be install and our electrical crises do not allow us to wait for a
couple of year .


1.3 STUDY OF WIND


1.3.1 Why Wind Energy?

Wind energy is the fastest growing renewable energy source today. A continued interest
in wind energy development worldwide has produced steady improvements in technology
and performance of wind power plants. New wind power projects have proven that wind
energy not only is cost competitive but also offers additional benefits to the economy and
the environment. A steady supply of reasonably strong wind is necessary requirement for
utilizing the power in the wind. Development of wind energy depends upon a clear
understanding of wind resources. Site location, turbine performance and physical effects
of turbulence and energy extraction represent a few of the issues that must be addressed
by anyone interested in developing wind energy As such any plan to develop wind energy
must begin by understanding the wind resource. Where are the best potential wind sites
located? How much energy could be extracted from the wind at those sites? Wind energy,
the fastest growing renewable energy source today.










3
Comparative Payback Period of Micro Wind Turbine















[1] Fig. 1 : Comparative Payback Time of Micro Wind Turbine
4

1.3.2 Characteristics of Wind

The global winds are caused by pressure
differential across the earth’s surface. The
amount of solar radiation absorbed at the
earth’s surface is greater at the equator
than at the poles. This variation in
incoming heat sets up convective cells in
the lowest layer of the atmosphere. In the
simplest form air rises at the equator and
sinks at the poles. The rotation of the
earth complicates this simple heat
transfer.



A series of circulations are set up in both northern and southern hemispheres. The areas
of the globe where air is descending are zones of high pressure and where the air is
ascending, low-pressure zones are formed.
The pressure gradient drives the flow of air from high to low pressure, thus causing the
wind. The wind is then acted on the corriolis force due to the earth’s rotation. The
resultant wind is turned easterly or westerly. On a smaller scale, Wind is created because
of temperature difference between land and sea and mountains and valleys. The local
topographical features and roughness of the terrain also cause air movements.


[2] Fig: 2: Wind Current

5
1.4 STUDY OF WIND TURBINE

1.4.1 Basic Definition
A wind turbine is a rotating machine which converts the kinetic energy in wind into
mechanical energy. If the mechanical energy is used directly by machinery, such as a
pump or grinding stones, the machine is usually called a windmill. If the mechanical
energy is then converted to electricity, the machine is called a wind generator, wind
turbine, wind power unit (WPU), wind energy converter (WEC), or aero generator.





Wind turbines can be separated into two types based by the axis in which the turbine
rotates. Turbines that rotate around a horizontal axis are more common. Vertical-axis
turbines are less frequently used.



[3] Fig 3: Components of Wind Turbine
6




1.4.2 Power Density in the Wind

Amount of energy transported across a unit area in unit time
P
W
= ½ ρ v
3

1.4.3 Available Power Density

Max amount of power that can be extracted from the wind

P
A
= 16/27 . ½ ρv
3

Power Delivered
P
D
= 16/27 . ½ ρv
3

Efficiency of Wind Turbine
η = P
D
/ P
A













[4] Fig 4: How Wind Turbines Works
7
1.5 IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS FOR WIND TURBINE

There is really only one important measure of windmill size, the swept area. That's how
many square feet (or meters, if you are into that sort of thing) of area the windmill's
blades cover during a rotation. The formula for swept area is Pi r^2, where Pi is 3.1415
and r is the radius of your prop. The available power from the wind increases
dramatically with the swept area...but so do the stresses on your blades, tower, bearings,
tail. More stress means stronger engineering and materials are required, and a much
larger, more complicated and expensive project. Following are important consideration
which we observed during our study.

1.5.1 Site Location

First, figure out the direction from which the prevailing winds in your area usually come.
You can determine this by observation during wind storms, and by looking at the trees
near your site. Trees that are all leaning the same direction and that have branches mostly
on one side of the trunk are a good indication of prevailing wind speed and direction.
Local airports and weather stations can sometimes provide you with this information. The
National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, CO publishes an excellent Wind
Energy Resource Atlas of the United States on the internet, for free. A Logging
anemometer that also records wind direction can be useful here too, though expensive.

1.5.2 Height

Flying a wind generator close to the ground is like mounting solar panels in the shade!
Your wind generator should be located at least 30 feet above any obstruction within 300
feet in any direction-- many sources recommend even more. Short towers in turbulent
locations cause drastically reduced power output, and extreme physical stresses on the
turbine and tower.

1.5.3 Distance

The distance between your wind generator and your batteries can also be a problem--the
closer the better, to avoid losses in long wires and to keep the wire size required down to
a reasonable thickness and cost. 12 volt systems are the worst for power transmission
losses--you end up needing very thick wire. A 24v or 48v battery bank can save you big
money on wire!









8

1.5.4 Tower

Your tower must be extremely sturdy, well-anchored, and tall enough to get above
obstructions. We've seen 1.5 inch steel pipe bend like a pipe cleaner in 50 mph winds,
underneath a wind machine with only an 8-foot rotor. Some wind energy guidelines tell
you to plan on spending at LEAST as much on your tower and power wiring as on the
wind generator itself!
Do you like to climb? The two basic kinds of tower are the Tilt-Up and Stationary. A
stationary tower is the most sturdy and trouble-free, but you have to climb it to install,
maintain or remove the wind machine. A crane is often used for installation, an expensive
proposition--though you can do it yourself by climbing the tower and moving a gin pole
up it as you add each new section. If climbing towers disagrees with you, go for a tilt-up.
Then all maintenance can be performed while standing safely on solid ground.
Roof mount? We strongly recommend against mounting a wind generator on your roof.
The winds near rooftop level are very slow and turbulent, and power output will be
drastically reduced. This goes for ALL types of wind turbine, not just ours. Again, your
turbine needs to be mounted at least 30 feet above anything within 300 feet in any
direction. Vibration is also an issue. Though the manufacturer of the AIR 403 says it
works, we have observed first-hand the vibration and noise during a windstorm in two
different roof installations...it is VERY noticeable and irritating. And keep in mind that
the AIR 403 is a very small unit (only a 1.3 meter prop) that makes very little power...a
larger mill would be unbearable, and possibly dangerous to your house itself. Most
commercial and homemade wind generators don't make much physical noise, but some
vibration is unavoidable due to the nature of permanent magnet alternators. Listen to the
vibration of Ward's 7 foot diameter windmill (12 second .WAV file, 140K) and hear why
we don't recommend roof mounts! Ward's mill is actually very quiet; this audio clip was
taken with the microphone pressed against the steel mast to give an idea of the vibration
that would be transmitted into your house with a roof mount. The buzzing sound is the
vibration of magnets spinning past coils; the clanking is from the sectional tower itself.
The windmill rotor itself makes very little noise.

1.5.5 Anemometers

It is essential to know the real windspeed in any wind generator installation, commercial
or homemade. This allows you to see if the machine is performing correctly, and
extremely high windspeeds might be a clue that you should shut the mill down for the
duration of the storm. If you plan on investing significant money in wind power, a
logging anemometer might help you decide if your local wind resource is worth the
investment.






9

1.5.6 Generator or Alternator

We try to use the term Generator to describe a machine that produces Direct Current
(DC), and use the term Alternator to describe a machine that produces Alternating
Current (AC). However, the term Generator is also used generically to describe any
machine that produces electricity when the shaft is spun.
Options--The alternator or generator is the heart of your wind machine, and it must be
both properly sized to match your swept area, and produce the right type and voltage of
power to match your application. Unfortunately, there are no commercial or surplus
products than can be easily matched to a set of blades for building a wind turbine. It's
MUCH more practical to build your own alternator than to try and adapt a commercial
unit that was designed for a completely different purpose. If you try that anyway, PM
converted induction motors, DC generators, DC brushless PM motors, vehicle alternators,
and induction motors are options...but are marginal performers at best.
Application--Wind-generated electricity can be used for battery charging and for
connection with the power grid. All of our designs and information are about battery
charging at this time, since we all live 12 miles from the nearest power line.
Single Phase vs. Three Phase--3 phase offers some advantages over single phase in most
alternators. Most small commercial wind turbines use 3 phase alternators, and then rectify
the output to DC (direct current) for charging batteries. When building an alternator from
scratch, single phase seems attractive because it is simple and easy to understand. 3 phase
is not really any more difficult. Going 3 phase allows for squeezing more power from a
smaller alternator. It significantly reduces line loss, and it runs with less vibration. Older
single phase alternators we made vibrate much more (and make more noise) than 3 phase
machines.
Speed: The shaft speed is a very crucial factor in all types of alternator and generator.
The unit needs to make higher voltages at lower rpms, otherwise it is not suited for wind
power use. This goes for all power units...even motors used as generators and alternators
should be rated for low rpms. This is also why vehicle alternators are not suited for wind
power use.
Start-Up Speed: This is the windspeed at which the rotor starts turning. It should spin
smoothly and easily when you turn it by hand, and keep spinning for a few seconds.
Designs that 'cog' from magnetic force or that use gears or pulleys to increase shaft speed
will be poor at start up. A good design can start spinning in 5 mph winds and cut in at 7
mph.
Cut-In Speed: A wind generator does not start pushing power into the battery bank until
the generator or alternator voltage gets higher than the battery bank voltage. Higher shaft
speed means higher voltage in all generators and alternators, and you want to try and get
the highest shaft speed possible in low winds--without sacrificing high-wind
performance. Most commercial wind generators cut in at 8-12 mph. The generator's low-
speed voltage performance, the design of the rotor (the blades and hub), and the wind
behavior all factor into where cut-in will occur.


10
Voltage Regulation: With battery-charging windmills, voltage control is not generally
needed--until the batteries fill up. Even if your alternator is producing an open-circuit
voltage of 90 volts, the battery bank will hold the system voltage down to its own level.
Once the batteries are full, you'll need to send the windmill's output to a 'dump load' such
as a heating element. This regulation can be done manually by simple turning on an
electric heater, stereo, or lights. Automatic systems can be built or purchased too.
Battery Bank Voltage--In addition to having less line loss, 24v and 48v power systems
give other significant advantages in wind alternator systems. The primary consideration
for the wind turbine builder or buyer, however, is that the alternator must be wound
differently for different system voltages.
Inefficiency--Every generator has a certain speed at which it runs most efficiently. But
since the wind is not constant, we must try to design to a happy medium. As the wind
speed rises, the raw power coming into the generator from the wind becomes more than
the generator can effectively use, and it gets more and more inefficient. This power is
wasted as heat in the stator coils. Alternators with wound fields can adjust the magnetic
flux inside to run most efficiently, but PM alternators cannot. An alternator that uses
many windings of thin wire will have better low-speed performance than one that uses
fewer windings of thicker wire, but higher internal resistance. This means it will become
inefficient more quickly when producing higher amperage as wind speeds and power
output rise. The formula used to calculate power wasted from inefficiency is AMPS^2 *
RESISTANCE = Power wasted as heat in the alternator windings (in watts).

1.5.7 Alternator Design

Factors: Making PM alternators from scratch is sort of a "black art"--there are many
factors that enter in to it, we try to discuss some of them below. And then, you must add
in another important factor, the design of the blades. We discuss that below also. We
didn't start building windmills and alternators by doing a bunch of math...we just jumped
right in, made lots of mistakes, and eventually wound up with a satisfactory design by
observing performance and changing one variable at a time. The difficult part is getting
the best match between the blades and the alternator.
Bearings: The operative word here is STRONG. Besides having to withstand vibration
and high rotation speed, there is a significant amount of thrust back on the bearings from
the wind, and it increases geometrically as the prop size increases. That's why we've
moved to using standard trailer wheel bearings in our designs, they are tapered and
designed to take the thrust loads. The front bearings in our converted AC induction
motors have so far held up well, but they are not designed for that kind of load. DC tape
drive motors are especially vulnerable--the front bearing will eventually fail dramatically
in high winds if extra bearings are not added.
Air Gap: This is the distance between the magnets and the laminates in a single magnet
rotor design, or between two magnets in a dual magnet rotor design. The smaller the
distance, the better the alternator performs. This means it's important to keep the coils as
flat as possible, and to make the armature fit very precisely near the stator...if it is not
perfectly square, the air gap will be larger on one side of the alternator than the other, and
performance will be compromised. Halving the air gap gives 4 times as much magnetic
flux.
11
Number of Poles: A 'pole' is either the North or South pole of a magnet. Generally when
building an alternator we need a separate magnet for each pole. The faster that alternating
north and south magnets poles pass the coils, the more voltage and current are produced.
But surface area is important as well. If we have a very narrow magnet (required for
using many poles), the field strength would be much weaker over a distance than a wider
magnet. So like all things with making wind turbines, there is a compromise to be made.
We choose a number of poles that allows for reasonably sized coils and a good strong
magnetic field through whatever air gap we wind up with. It must always be an even
number. For a 3 phase machine we like 4 poles for every 3 coils, although there are
certainly other very feasible options. In most cases, for a 3 phase machine we'd have
somewhere between 8 and 16 poles (magnets) unless perhaps the machine were to be
very large.
Series or Parallel? Star or Delta? When coils are connected in series, the voltage
increases and so does resistance. When connected in parallel, voltage stays the same but
amperage increases and resistance decreases. Also, parallel connections in an alternator
can cause current to flow where you don't want it to, called 'parasitic losses.' The correct
configuration for your project depends on many factors.
Magnets: The stronger, the better. The larger and stronger your magnets are, the more
power you can produce in a smaller alternator. Neodymium-Iron-Boron ("rare earth",
NdFeB) are by far the strongest permanent magnets known to man, and are ideal for
building permanent magnet alternators. Many older designs call for strong ceramic
magnets, this was mainly because of price.
Wire: Enameled magnet wire is always used for winding the stator, because the insulation
is very thin and heat-resistant. This allows for more turns of wire per coil. It is very
difficult to strip, use a razor knife or sandpaper, and be sure to strip each lead thoroughly!
Choosing the gauge of wire is yet another trade off--thinner gauge wire allows for more
turns per coil and thus better voltage for low-speed cut-in, but using longer, thinner wire
gives higher resistance and therefore the unit becomes inefficient faster at high speeds.
Magnetic Circuit: Picture a magnet to be almost like a battery. The lines of force from a
magnet are said to originate at one pole and return to the other, just like a battery. Air is a
poor conductor, both for electricity and for magnetic lines of force. In order to make best
use of a magnet (and our copper wire) in an alternator, we need to have the strongest
possible magnetic field. Just like copper is a good conductor of electricity, steel is a good
conductor of magnetic fields. A good magnetic circuit involves steel between the poles
with a gap (the airgap) where we need to utilize the field. In an alternator, our wires
should occupy the airgap, it should be no wider than necessary, and every other part of
the magnetic circuit should be of steel. We can either use steel laminates (laminated steel
reduces eddy currents) or we can have magnets on each side of the coil(s) moving
together with steel behind them. Again, look at our various wind turbine experiments to
see. It should be said that some of them, like the wooden alternator and the all wooden
windmill have very poor magnetic circuits.





12
1.5.8 Rotor

A wind generator gets its power from slowing down the wind. The blades slow it down,
and the alternator collects the power. BOTH must be correctly designed to work together
and do this efficiently.

Blade Material: Wood is really an ideal material for blades. It is very strong for its
weight, easy to carve, inexpensive, and is resistant to fatigue cracking. Choose the best,
straightest, most knot-free lumber you can find; pine and spruce are excellent.
Hardwoods are generally too heavy. Steel and aluminum blades are much too heavy and
prone to fatigue cracking; sheet metal would be a poor choice, and extremely dangerous
Diameter: Blades that are too short attached to a large alternator will not be able to get it
moving fast enough to make good power. Blades that are too large for a small alternator
will overpower and burn it up, or overspend to the point of destruction in high winds--
there's not enough of an alternator available to collect the energy coming in from the
wind.
Number of Blades: The ideal wind generator has an infinite number of infinitely thin
blades. In the real world, more blades give more torque, but slower speed, and most
alternators need fairly good speed to cut in. 2 bladed designs are very fast (and therefore
perform very well) and easy to build, but can suffer from a chattering phenomenon while
yawing due to imbalanced forces on the blades. 3 bladed designs are very common and
are usually a very good choice, but are harder to build than 2-bladed designs. Going to
more than 3 blades results in many complications, such as material strength problems
with very thin blades, even one-bladed designs with a counterweight are possible.
Tip Speed Ratio (TSR): This number defines how much faster than the wind speed the
tips of your blades are designed to travel. Your blades will perform best at this speed, but
will actually work well over a range of speeds. The ideal tip speed ratio depends on rotor
diameter, blade width, blade pitch, RPM needed by the alternator, and wind speed.
Higher TSRs are better for alternators and generators that require high rpms--but the
wind speed characteristics at your particular site will make a big difference also. If in
doubt, start in the middle and change your blade design depending on measured
performance.
Taper: Generally, wind generator blades are wider at the base and narrower at the tips,
since the area swept by the inner portion of blades is relatively small. The taper also adds
strength to the blade root where stress is highest, gives an added boost in startup from the
wider root, and is slightly more efficient. The ideal taper can be calculated, and it varies
depending on the number of blades and the tip speed ratio desired. Hugh Piggott's 



1.5.9 Airfoil

There are great lengths that you can go to for designing an airfoil...NASA has some great
information and calculations out there on the net. But all an airfoil needs to do is
maximize lift and minimize drag. You will do fine if you do like we did--find a likely
looking airfoil cross section from a working wind generator blade, and copy it. A power
13
planer makes quick work of carving it, and a drawknife is great for carving too,
especially with the deep cuts near the blade root.

Balancing: The blades must be very well balanced to prevent vibration. This is more
easily accomplished with a 2-blade rotor than a 3 bladed one. But generally, we simply
use a homemade spring scale to make sure that each blade weighs exactly the same, and
that each has the same center of balance. A simple balancing jig for any rotor
configuration can be made with an upright spike that sticks into a dimple punched at the
exact center of the hub. Excess material from the heavy areas can be removed quickly
with a power planer. You'll also need to balance the blade in place on the alternator. It's
weight distribution can be adjusted by attaching lead strips to the blade root.

1.5.10 Furling and Shutdown Systems

Furling Systems: We use the term "furling system" to describe a mechanism that turns the
wind generator rotor at an angle out of the wind, either horizontally or vertically, to
protect the machine from damage during high winds. Ideally it will keep power output
levels near the maximum even when fully furled. Our early wind turbine designs didn't
use furling systems, and we feel fortunate that some of them are still flying. A wind
turbine that furls is also much more gentle on your tower and guy wires--the force on an
overspeeding wind turbine increases as the wind gets stringer..

There is a variety of furling system designs:

Variable Pitch: An ideal but extremely complicated solution is to use blades which
change pitch depending on the wind speed....these also have the advantage of keeping
power output at the most efficient point for the current windspeed. During low winds, the
blades are pitched for best startup. In higher winds, they rotate and adjust shaft speed to
the ideal RPMs for the generator. In extreme winds, they turn the blades even further to
protect the unit from damage. The problem is the complexity of making a system work
reliably...but it can be done! Large commercial wind generators use this system
exclusively, as do antique and modern Jacobs turbines, and some old WindChargers.

Tilt-Back: In these designs, the generator body is hinged just behind the nacelle. When
wind speed gets too high, the entire nacelle, hub and blade assembly tilts back out of the
wind to nearly vertical. As the wind slows down, it returns to normal horizontal operating
position by either springs, wind action on a tilted tail, or a counterweight. Commercial
wind generators that use this method are the old Whisper models (from before the
buyout), the Windstream, and many homemade designs.
Furling Tail: The generator is mounted off-center horizontally from the yaw bearing. The
tail is also angled in this axis. The tail is also angled in the vertical axis, and hinged.
When the wind force back on the rotor is strong enough to overcome the off-axis
generator making it want to yaw and the angled tail trying to keep it from yawing, the tail
folds up and turns the alternator away from the wind direction, forcing the wind turbine
to yaw out of the wind. When wind speeds drops, the tail is returned to normal operating
14
position by gravity, or springs. Many commercial and homemade designs (including
ours) use this system, and it has proven to be very reliable.

Folding Vane: Similar to the furling tail, but the tail boom is fixed, with a hinged vane
underneath. Used on some older Wind chargers and homemade designs, the disadvantage
is that tail and vane are more highly stressed from wind force during furling, as they still
are sticking out there in the gale.

Flexible Blades: The theory is that the blades flex both back toward the tower and around
their main axis, and therefore protect themselves from overspeeding. It does work if the
materials and details are correct...for example, the blades must not flex back far enough
to hit the pole, and they must withstand flexing during cold weather too.

Air Brakes: Noisy and full of vibration, but they do work. Older WindChargers used this
system. Metal cups extend from the hub from centripetal force during high winds, and
noisily slow the machine down; they retract back into the hub when the wind slows.

Shutdown Systems: This is a manual control that completely shuts the wind generator
down. It is not allowed to spin at all, and should be able to survive extremely violent
winds in this condition. It can be electrical or mechanical.

Electrical Shutdown: With permanent magnet alternator machines, simply shorting the
main AC power output leads together should effectively shut down the wind turbine. The
problem is that when the machine is spinning at high RPMs during a windstorm, the
shutdown may be either impossible electrically (the turbine is performing too
inefficiently for shorting the output to have any effect), or too damaging to the alternator
(the heat produced in the stator coils by shutdown at high speeds turns the coils into
molten slag.) Our normal method is to simply wait for a space between high wind gusts
to short the mill with a switch. We have successfully shut down Ward's turbine while it
was putting 30 amps into 12vdc...numerous shutdowns at 10-20 amps of output have
caused no vibration or problems. You can use a manual switch, or simply a shorting plug
to do this.


Mechanical Shutdown: These systems physically break the wind generator, or force it out
of the wind by turning the tail parallel to the blades. Even the mighty Bergey Excel 10kW
wind turbine has a mechanical crank for emergency shutdown. Generally, a cable is
attached to a hinged tail, with a small hand winch located at the bottom of the tower for
the operator.







15
1.5.11 Regulation

With battery-charging wind generators, regulation of the incoming voltage is
accomplished by the battery bank itself, until it is fully charged. Though a PM alternator
or DC generator's open-circuit voltage might be 100 volts, the battery bank keeps the
wind generator circuit voltage at its own level. Once the battery bank fills, system voltage
will rise rapidly and something must be done with the uneeded incoming power. Simply
disconnecting the windmill is not an option--a windmill allowed to 'freewheel' will
quickly blow itself up from overspeed. The power must be diverted into some sort of
load.

Shunt Regulation: These systems simply sense the battery voltage and divert power
directly from the batteries into heating elements (known as a 'dump load'), thus keeping a
load on the windmill while avoiding overcharging of the batteries. The very simplest
solution is a manually thrown switch that disconnects the incoming power from the
batteries and connects it to some heating elements...just keep in mind the voltage
requirements of the heaters must be a good match to the alternator for braking to occur.
Simple systems that divert all the incoming power at once can be built using Trace C-
series charge controllers or relays and voltage sensors. More complicated systems use
power transistors or pulse width modulation to divert only part of the incoming power, or
the entire amount, as charging needs require. Some commercial solar charge controllers
can be set to function as dump load controllers, like the Trace C40. A controller intended
only for solar power will NOT function with a wind turbine, nor will an automotive
voltage regulator.
Diodes: A permanent magnet DC generator (such as a surplus tape drive motor) does
need a diode in the line--otherwise, the battery bank will simply spin it as a motor. The
diode should be rated for higher amperage than the maximum output of the motor, and
must be well heat-sinked.
Bridge Rectifiers: Since alternators make AC power and batteries need to charge with DC
power, conversion is needed. This is accomplished with bridge rectifiers, which are
simply an array of diodes. For single-phase alternators, standard bridges with 4 diodes are
used. The biggest bridge that's commonly available at a reasonable cost is 35 amps--for
larger wind generators multiple 35 amp bridges can be hooked in parallel to give greater
power handling capacity. The bridges must be well heat-sinked to a large piece of finned
aluminum or steel.


1.5.12 Slip Rings

The power produced by the generator must be transferred down the tower to your power
system. Since the actual wind generator must yaw to keep pointed into the wind, the main
power wires must be able to handle this.




16
1.5.13 Pendant Cable

Our personal experience up here in Colorado is that it is much easier to simply use a
length of flexible cable and a steel safety cable instead of slip rings. Use the highest
quality stranded, flexible cable you can find and attach it in a loose loop from the wind
generator power terminals to where your feed wire comes up the pole. Use a length of
wire that allows about 3 or 4 wraps around the pole. Or, run the wire down the center of
the tower pipe and let it twist inside. Our experience is that while the cord can eventually
wind itself around the pole, it will also eventually unwind itself. Some of our models
have flown for years with this kind of system and required no maintenance. With a
properly designed wind turbine and furling system, you should hardly ever see the mill
make a 360 degree yaw. We simple use a power plug and socket at the bottom of the
tower and unplug it once or twice a year to untwist the wire. We've seen commercial
turbines on 120 foot towers that successfully use the pendant cable system.

1.5.14 Connection with Batteries
Wind Turbine can be connected to grid station a well as isolated. Batteries are mean of
storing electric energy and they can be used with few electronic accessories.
We prefer use of deep cycle dry batteries as compared to locomotive batteries as the
former are suitable for wind turbine fluctuating output.
[5] Fig 5: Connection Layout
17
2. FEASIBILITY

The tasks included in the feasibility were getting the data of wind profiles in coastal wind
corridor and analyze it. It also included analysis of availability of logistics and official
procedure to be followed for wind farming in Pakistan and using the results, objective is
to suggest suitable configuration and size for this region. This feasibility will further help
in designing the wind turbine the later part of project.

2.1 WIND PROFILES

Wind profiles help in understanding the wind resources. It tells us that where are the
best potential wind sites located? How much energy could be extracted from the wind
at those sites? Will the wind turbine performance be affected by the turbulence or
other wind resource characteristics? It gives wind resource database for different
sites.
Phase I covers the coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan Provinces. 1100 kilometers
along Sindh and Balochistan Coast spreading over latitude 25°N approximately and
up to 100 kilometers deep northward over land from the coast.
The list of stations located along Sindh is given below.
Badin, Baghan, Chuhar Jamali, DHA Karachi, Gharo, Golarchi, HawksBay,
Hyderabad, Jamshoro, Jati, Karachi, Kati Bandar, Matli, MirPurSakro, Nooriabad,
Sajawal, Shah Bandar, Talhar, Thano Bula Khan, Thatta

 30-meter high towers
 Anemometers at the height of 10 m and 30 m
 Wind vane at 30 m height.
 Temperature sensors at 10 m height.
 Wind speed average at 10 & 30 m at every minute
 Max speeds during 10 minutes at 10 & 30 m
 Min speeds during 10 minutes at 10 & 30 m
 Wind direction One minutes average at 30 m
 Temperature 5 minutes average in °C at 10 m











18

2.1.1 Average Wind Speed:




2.1.2 Diurnal Wind speed Variation:







Source : Pakistan Meteorological Department

[6] Fig 6: Graph b/w Speed & Month
[7] Fig 7: Diurnal Wind Speed
19
2.1.3 Anuual Frequency Distribution






It shows frequency distribution over speed of wind throughout the year.

Source : Pakistan Meteorological Department


[8] Fig 8: Frequency Distribution
20


2.1.4 Cyclone Data








Source : Pakistan Meteorological Department





[9] Table 1: Cyclone Data
21


2.2 EXISTING COMPANIES
2.3

S. No. COMPANY CONTACT PERSON
Location
of Land
Size of
Land
(Acres)
1
NEW PARK Energy Ltd H#.12,
St#.33, F-8/1 Islamabad
Mr. Saeed Akhtar,
CEO, Brig Khaliq, Mr.
Sohail Akhtar,
Director
Gharo 842
2
Tenaga Generasi Ltd. 19, E-
Street, Khayaban-e-Tauhid, DHA,
Karachi
Syed Javed Hussain
Director, Abdul Basit
Kuttikun 4881
3
Green Power (Pvt) Ltd, Ameejee
Chambers, Campbell, Street,
Karachi
Mr. Mustafa Tapal,
Director Mr. Adnan
Tapal, Director
Kuttikun 1656
4
Ismail Power, Candy Land, 17
Banglore Town, Shara-e-Faisal,
Karachi
Mr. Miftah Ismail,
Director, Mr.
Munsarin saif,
Director
Bhanbore 1420
5
NYM Power (Pvt.) Ltd. (Gatelene
Industries Pvt Ltd.) D-14/A,
BadaBoard Site Karachi
Mr. Altaf Bilwani,
Director, Mr. Rizwan
Diwan, Director
Bhanbore 1210
6
WIN Power Ltd. 1500-A Saima
Trade Tower, II Chundrigar, Road
Karachi 74000
Mr. Rafique Dawood,
Chairman, Mr. A.V.M.
Raza
Bhanbore 1720
7
Al-Karam Textile Mills (Ltd), Third
Floor, Karachi Dock Labour Board
Building, 58 West Warf Road,
Karachi 74000.
Mr. Umer Haji Karim,
CEO, Ahmed Ibrahim
Director, Arshad Chief
Engineer
Bhanbore 1330
8
NYM Power (Pvt.) Ltd. [Hilton
Pharma Pvt. Ltd.], Progressive
Plaza, Beaumont Road Karachi
Mr. M. Yasin Malik,
Chairman, Mr. Shahid
Malik, Director
Bhanbore 1448
9
Master Wind Energy Ltd, 82-C/1,
Gulberg III, Lahore, Pakistan
Mr. Naveed Malik,
Chairman, Brig soorti
Jhimpir 1408
[10] Table 2: Companies and Size of Lands Allocated
22
10
ZEPHYR POWER LTD (OMEGA
LTD) 68-B, SMCHS, Behind
Roomi Masjid, Karachi 74400
Mr. Zia Khaleeli,
CEO, Mr. Hussain
Akbar, Manager
Bhanbore 2540
11
Beacon Energy Ltd., 10-11,
Gurumangat Road, Gulberg III,
Lahore
Mr. Nassir Kasuri,
Director
Kuttikun 1460
12
HOM Energy (Private) Ltd, St#.
42-S, Dr. Mehmood Hussain
Road, Block#. 6, PECHS, Karachi
Mr. Ejaz Hussain
Malik, Executive
Director, Mr. Danyal
Rashid, Company
Secretary
Jhimpir 1000
13
Sachal Energy Development Pvt
Ltd, 59 E, Street No. 7, I-10/3
Islamabad
Mr. Abdul Karim
Khadim
Jhimpir 680
14
Fauji Fertilizer Company Ltd. 93,
Harley Street, Rawalpindi
Mr. S. Iqtadar Ahmed,
General Manager
(Technology &
Operations)
Jhimpir 1283
15
Midroc Tussonia (Pvt.) Ltd. (Z-
Tech Inc/IIG ), P.O Box 36843,
Raas Salimiya 24759, Kuwait,
Pakistan, 62/1 D, Model Town,
Lahore
Mr. Zafar Ali, Chief
Coordinator
Lakha 2550
16
Lucky Energy (Pvt) Ltd (Gadoon
Textile Mills Ltd), L-A, 2/B, Block
#. 21, Federal B Area , Rashid
Minhas Road Karachi
Mr. Sohail Tabba,
Chief Executive
Jhimpir 696
17
Metro Power Co. (Pvt) Ltd, 36-F,
Block-6, P.E.C.H.S, Karachi-
75400
Mr, Iqbal
Alimohamed, Chief
Executive
Jhimpir 1553
18
Gul Ahmed Energy Ltd, 35-B,
Block-6, P.E.C.H.S, Karachi-
75400
Mr. Danish Iqbal,
General Manager
Jhimpir 648
19
Zorlu Enerji, Zorlu Plaza 34310
Avcilar, Istanbul, Turkey
Mr. Mehmet Erdogan
Gunes, General
Manager, Mr. Osman
Ipek
Jhimpir 1148
20
Wind Eagle Ltd. (Technology Plc
Ltd), House No. 1m Peach Street,
PO, NIH, Islamabad
Mr. David Heffernan,
Director, Mr. Amer
Raza, Director,
Business
Development
Jhimpir 1382


23
List of Consultants working in wind power projects in Pakistan

WindRose Consultancy
O2-C Clifton garden II
Blk 3, Clifton Khi.
Mr. Arshad Lal Junejo, CEO
9221-5292614
info@windroseone.com
AEDB, FFC, Zorlu
Cube Engineering GmbH
Tannenweg 11, 25813
Husum, Germany
Jorg Beland
General Magager & Director
planning and Project Dept.
Ph: +49(0) 48419677-0 Fax:-15
j.beland@cube-engineering.com
Beacon Energy
Pvt. Ltd.
Garrad Hassan & Partners
Ltd.
St Vincent’s Works,
silverthrone Lane, Bristol
BS2 0QD, England
www.garradhassan.com
Richard Whiting
MEng
Team Leader Asia
Wind Farm project Group
Ph: +44(0)117 972 9900
Fax: +44(0)117 972 9901
Direct: +44(0) 117 9729716
Email:richard.whiting@garradhas
san.com
Green Power Pvt.
Ltd.
Ipek Energy GmbH
Marktplatz 4
48431 Rheine- Germany
www.ipek-energy.com
Osman Ipek
Managing Director
Ph: +49-5971-914619-11
Fax: +49-5971-914619-20
Mobile: +49-176-23527465
Email:oi@ipek-energy.com
Zorlu Enerji
Pakistan ltd.
Lahmeyer International
GmbH
Friedberger Str.173
61118 Bad Vilbel
Germany.
www.lahmeyer.de/e/index.
html
Phone: +49 6101 55-0
Fax: +49 6101 55-2222
E-Mail: info@lahmeyer.de
Fauji Fertilizer
Company
Ipek Energy GmbH
Marktplatz 4
48431 Rheine- Germany
www.ipek-energy.com
Osman Ipek
Managing Director
Ph: +49-5971-914619-11
Fax: +49-5971-914619-20
Mobile: +49-176-23527465
Email:oi@ipek-energy.com
New park Pvt. Ltd.
Global Energy Concepts
(GEC)
1809 7
th
Avenue, Suite
900, Seattle, Washington
98101 USA

Ph: +1(206) 387-4200
Fax: +1(206) 387-4201
www.globalenergyconcepts.com

Zepyhr Power Ltd.


24
2.3 VISITS

1 Maxco (Pvt) Ltd. ( Textile base Firm interested in Wind Power)

2 WindRose Consultancy (Pvt) Ltd. ( Experts in Installations of Wind Turbines)

3 Fabricon (Pvt) Ltd. ( Manufacturar having Expertise in Manufacturing of Wind
Turbines)

4 Alternative Energy & Power Asia Exhibition ( Opportunity to meet and have an
exposure of Different Consultants and professionals in Renewable energy sector)

5 Technical Presentation on ― Wind Energy Harnessing‖ at IEP ( Institute of
Engineers Pakistan )


2.3.1 Zorlu Energy Wind Farm - Jhampir

2.3.1.1 About the Visit:

The Visit was arranged on date April 14, 2009 by the approval of Mr Javed Shah
(ZORLU) and authorized by the Chairman Office, Mechanical Engineering Department,
NED University.

Before visiting the site, we had the following motives in our mind:

o Extract the necessary technical information regarding the project.
o Practically sense the operations that are being carried out in the Wind Farm.
o What other help can ZORLU provide us regarding our project.

2.3.1.2 About Zorlu Energi

Zorlu Energi is a Turkish based group of Companies that have pioneered in the field of
Energy, Operation and Maintenance, Industrial management, Petrogas, Electricity, Oil &
Gas Distribution as well as Exploration.
Zorlu energy Group also attaches a great deal of importance in the fields of Renewable
Energy.

2.3.1.3 Zorlu Energi in Pakistan:

Zorlu Energy Group signed a 20-year-long electric power generation agreement with the
Pakistan Alternate Energy Development Board (AEDB) in 2007. Acting upon the
agreement, in the initial phase, it has installed a 6MegaWatt capacity wind farm, with a
total number of 5 Turbines in which 4 are in working condition. The setup will reach up
to 50MegaWatt incoming couple of years.
25


2.3.1.3 Site Specification at Jhampir

Zorlu Wind Farm site is situated few km away
from Jhampir Railway Station. It has a total land
area of 4500Acres.

2.3.1.4 Landscape:

Land of Jhampir and near by districts is plain
and dry. The soil of the site comes in the
category of hard Soil that is preferable for the
installation of long towers without digging too
deep.

2.3.1.5 Wind Potential:

Pakistan is blessed up with high potential wind resources. The Jhampir district rests on
the high potential wind corridor that have a wind velocity range upto 3m/s to 7.7m/s. This
Wind corridor passes from rural areas of Sindh and Balochistan and includes cities like
Jamshoro, Gharo, and Nooriabad.

2.3.1.6 Wind Farm utilities:

Since the Wind Farm is situated some kms away from the city of Jhampir , it is not yet
provided by water and natural gas. The power needs of Wind Farm are completely
fulfilled by using a Diesel Generators.
Despite standing concrete walls, all offices, rooms, kitchen and dining halls are laid down
in Porta Cabins.

2.3.1.7 Grid Connectivity:

This Wind project is connected to the nearby HESCO Substation (132 KVA Electric
Grid), which is located about half a kilometer away from Wind farm.

2.3.1.8 Turbine Specification

All Turbines belong to the German, World Wide distributor and manufacturer of Wind
Turbine VENSYS Group. Each Turbine has a maximum capacity of producing 1200KW
electricity and an average capacity of 500KW.





[11] Fig 9: Zorlu Wind Turbine
26

2.3.1.9 Various Dimensions:

- Tower length = 62m.

- Vane length = 29m.

- Total Height of Turbine ~ 92m

2.3.1.10 Various Tonnages:

- Generator = 40 Ton

- Propeller Hub =12.5 Ton

- Singe Blade (Vane) = 4 Ton

- Nacelle = 13 Ton


2.3.1.11 Mechanical Power Transmission Mechanism:

The Wind Turbine comprises of a single shaft connected along the Propeller and
Generator causing the absence of Gear Box, which eventually leads to minimize
aggregate tonnage of Wind Turbine.

2.3.1.12 Wave Form Stabilization:

Since Wind Turbine operation is not a uniform one. The Generator shaft’s rotation varies
with the Wind velocity that leads to a Variation in frequency. To accommodate this
undesired phenomena a bunch of Capacitor Bags are installed, that cuts out the Non-
uniformity and hence allow constant frequency Voltage.





27
2.3.2 WindRose Consultancy

WindRose Consultancy has expertise in alternative energy in Pakistan. They are pioner in
installation of Wind turbines and solar panels in Pakistan. WindRose is also authorized
distributor of wind profiling equiment from WILMERS (Germany) in Pakistan.

The services provided by WindRose are:

2.3.2.1 Land Right Aspects:

a. Government/private/other options
b. Soil Testing

2.3.2.2 Digital Mapping

a. Satellite Imagery
b. Identification/Demarcation of boundaries
c. Calculation of Total Areas
d. Scaled Maps
e. GPS Survey & Physical Identification of Boundaries.

2.3.2.3 Wind Resource Monitoring

Apart from having a good wind turbine, the most critical aspects for the success of
investment in the wind energy sector are (i) having a good site and (ii) an accurate
assessment of the wind resource at the site

Wind Resource Monitoring which consists of following activities:

Siting
Wind Monitoring
Wind Resource Mapping
Optimization and Micrositing













28
Siting:

Identification of good windy sites is the first and most important aspect in this business.
The combination of field experience and knowledge of the wind flow pattern, terrain, and
grid etc., backed by the latest GIS, GPS Survey techniques and use of latest satellite
images enable the successful identification of the good windy sites.

Wind Monitoring:

The Wind monitoring masts are installed with required sensors for recording accurate
data, related to wind and weather. The mast is equipped with Automatic Data Logging
System. The measurements are carried out at different levels for assessing the vertical
wind profile.

Wind Resource Mapping:

Wind Rose Consultancy has the latest software tools for wind flow modeling and
resource mapping. Wind Resource Mapping is critical for a given site to decide the
optimized placement of turbines resulting in maximum wind farm output.

Optimization in Micro-Siting:
Even if we have a good site and a good wind turbine it is important to see that the
turbines are put at the right places to extract maximum generation out of the wind farm.
Wind Rose Consultancy takes great pride to provide best services to our clients in this
regard.

Pre-Feasibility of the project.

Assist for Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) including negotiation with concern
departments.

Final installation and production output

29
2.4 AVAILABLE RESOURCES AND FACILITIES

2.4.1 Basic Infrastructure For Development Of Wind Industry

Areas with Wind Potential are facing Logistic Problems like the roads are not wide
enough for transportation of large parts of turbines. Railway track is not that wide and
accessible to remote areas.




Ports Facility is good as we have Bin Qasim port and Karachi port capable of handling
shipments of parts. Gawadar is a deep sea port but it is too far away from cities like
Karachi as the Prime Mover will have to travel long rough distance to Site of installation.
Heavy Lifting Cranes are not available. Easily available cranes can lift 10 tons to 120
feet.



[12] Fig 10: Prime Mover Transportation
[13] Fig 11: Crane, Lifting large Rotor
30
2.5 DIFFERENT CONFIGURATIONS OF WIND FARM


2.5.1 According To Consumer





2.5.2 According To Electricity Distribution




2.5.3 According To Size Of The Turbine


High End User

- More Revenue
- More Requirements
- Steady Supply
- Sophisticated Appliances like
Computers & Machines
- Urban Cities
Low End User

- Less Revenue
- Less Requirements Individually
- Not Much Effected by
Fluctuations
- Timely Demand
- Rural Cities & Remote Area
Grid Connected

- Grid Standard ( 50 Hz)
- Load Distribution
- More Transmission & Theft
Loss
- More Cost (Transmission,
Maintenance)
- Favorable for High End User
Stand Alone System

- Fluctuations Acceptable
- Preferable if Load is on DC.
- Less Transmission & Theft Loss
- Social Benefits for Remote
Areas
- Favorable for Low End User
Large Wind turbines

- More Electricity
- Per Unit Fixed Cost Reduce
- Preferable for Off Shore
- Preferable if there is Area
Shortage
- Being Used in Europe
Micro Wind turbines

- Less Electricity
- More Per Unit Fixed Cost
- Low Cost of Transportation &
Installation
- Preferable for Weak grid.
- Preferable for Pakistan
31
2.5.4 Reasons for Choosing Large Turbines

- There are economies of scale in wind turbines, i.e. larger machines are usually
able to deliver electricity at a lower cost than smaller machines. The reason is that
the cost of foundations, road building, electrical grid connection, plus a number of
components in the turbine (the electronic control system etc.), are somewhat
independent of the size of the machine.
- Larger machines are particularly well suited for offshore wind power. The cost of
foundations does not rise in proportion to the size of the machine, and
maintenance costs are largely independent of the size of the machine.
- In areas where it is difficult to find sites for more than a single turbine, a large
turbine with a tall tower uses the existing wind resource more efficiently.
- You may take a look at some megawatt-sized wind turbines in the picture gallery.

2.5.5 Reasons for Choosing Smaller Turbines

- 1 The local electrical grid may be too weak to handle the electricity output from a
large machine. This may be the case in remote parts of the electrical grid with low
population density and little electricity consumption in the area.
- There is less fluctuation in the electricity output from a wind park consisting of a
number of smaller machines, since wind fluctuations occur randomly, and
therefore tend to cancel out. Again, smaller machines may be an advantage in a
weak electrical grid.
- The cost of using large cranes, and building a road strong enough to carry the
turbine components may make smaller machines more economic in some areas.
- Several smaller machines spread the risk in case of temporary machine failure,
e.g. due to lightning strikes. Aesthetical landscape considerations may sometimes
dictate the use of smaller machines. Large machines, however, will usually have a
much lower rotational speed, which means that one large machine really does not
attract as much attention as many small, fast moving rotors. (See the section on
wind turbines in the landscape).
32
2.6 GOVERNMENT POLICIES

United Nation Development Program (UNDP) has initiated project "Sustainable
Development of Utility Scale Wind Power Generation Project" referred to as Wind
Energy Project (WEP). The project is being funded by Global Environment Facility
(GEF) and implemented through Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) &
Government of Pakistan. As a part of its institutional strengthening program of relevant
government institutions, WEP is intending to conduct baseline capacity assessment of
PMD, NEPRA, and AEDB through consultants.
The Consultant Firm working on Baseline Capacity Assessment Study will develop
implementation plan - capacity building strategy for a comprehensive, coordinated, and
sustained activities. Wind tariff determination, performance standards, relevant grid
codes, as well as issuance of licenses to wind power investors on part of NEPRA, and
Alternative Energy Development Board acting as one-window facility for Wind Energy
Investors, taking into account existing activities, capacities, and building on existing
infrastructure, systems and initiatives.

Source : Policy for Development of Renewable Energy for Power Generation,
2006
Government of Pakistan






[14] Table 3: Activity flow chart

33


34
2.6.1. Capacity Assessment Of NEPRA

The capacity assessment study of NEPRA will focus on their capacity and understanding
of Wind Power with reference to tariff determination, and issuance of licenses to wind
power investors;
• Based on the desired objective, determine the technical assistance required by NEPRA
for smooth and efficient running of matters pertaining to abovementioned task.
• Identify minimum qualified staff requirements along with requisite qualification and
experience for carrying out above-mentioned task for Wind Power IPP’s.
• Identify and recommend relevant software/hardware requirements.
• Based on current capacity and capabilities of staff dealing in wind energy matters,
identify and recommend specific training/s programs. 3. Capacity Assessment of AEDB:
Capacity assessment of AEDB will look into their capabilities to act as one window
facility for wind power investors.
• Based on the desired objective, determine the technical assistance required by AEDB
specifically with reference to wind power for providing comprehensive and up-to-date
information for prospective wind investors.
• Identify minimum qualified staff requirements along with requisite qualification and
experience.
• Identify and recommend software/hardware requirements,
• Based on current capacity and capabilities of wind section in AEDB, identify and
recommend specific training/s programs for this section.
In order to avoid duplication of activities, and effective resource utilization, specific
recommendations shall be made for PMD, NEPRA, and AEDB for their roles and
responsibilities in promoting Wind Energy (WE), keeping in consideration their assigned
task. This will ensure clear understanding of roles and responsibilities of each institution
in performing their duties and avoid confusion of prospective Wind Power Investors to
get required information. Study will be carried out in close consultations with all
stakeholders, and input from Wind Energy Project (WEP) team. The consultant/s will
organize a conference/workshop of all the stakeholders to reach consensus on the
findings/recommendations of study before finalization of assignment

Source: Policy for Development of Renewable Energy for Power Generation,
2006
Government of Pakistan
35
2.7 ANALYSIS OF FEASIBILITY

From the collected data, Wind profiles, Available logistics, other miscellaneous factors
and after consulting from a number of related bodies working in Wind energy in Pakistan
we concluded the following result of our analysis:


- There is a lot of Potential for Wind Energy in Pakistan as we have studied the
profile of wind data in the coastal belt which is situated in the Great Wind
Corridor.


- Wind Farming is Feasible in Coastal Belt Wind Corridor as we have a large area
on shore. We can import turbines as we have Sea ports as well, but due to lack of
transportation facilities, larger turbine (e.g. > 500 KW) is an issue.


- Though we have Lack of Infrastructure, yet alternatives are available that is we
can move toward clusters of turbines having moderate capacities and moderate
sizes that is (< 500 KW).


- For Remote Areas, Stand Alone Systems are suitable as they don’t have to follow
Grid Code as well as can bear fluctuation due to changing wind speed. They will
reduce load on National Grid thus, saving up country’s energy.

- Much Larger Wind Turbines are not preferable due to lack of Logistics. We can
import Second hand turbines since Europe is upgrading itself to Larger Turbines;
we can get smaller ones in low cost. Smaller turbines are easy to handle, install
and maintain.


- Utilization of Used Wind Turbine for experimental Study purpose is preferred.


- Rotor Blade designing should be given Preference. Since, we are not designing
Rotor Blade according to our required conditions in Pakistan. This can lead us to
new era of Cheaper, Greener and efficient Wind turbines.


DESIGN SECTION

3.0 DESIGN APPROACH

After the completion of feasibility section, we now proceed toward design
section. On the basis of local metrological conditions available in Karachi we
have collected data for DHA and established Wind Rose which will help us in
designing an appropriate wind turbine. We have adopted average velocity 7
m/s. Data is available in feasibility section.




Fig 15: Windrose plotted by the data at 30 m height at DHA Karachi by
Pakistan Meteorological Department
.
36




BLADE DESIGN






















37

3. BLADE DESIGN

3.1 INTRODUCTION:

The object of blade is to convert the straightforward pull or push of the wind into turning
effect. The blade design f a horizontal axis wind turbine is approached by blade element
theory discussed previously.

The method of blade design consists of the following steps.


o The selection of suitable airfoil.
o The selection of design tip ratio.
o Selection of number of blades.
o Determination of power coefficients corresponding to design tip speed ratio.
o Determination of diameter
o Determination of R.P.M of rotor
o Determination of geometrical shapes of the blade at various sections
o Determination of torque and thrust coefficient
o Calculation of power
o Determination f blade loads and stresses (structural analysis)

As we have already discussed the selection of airfoil in previous section, we now proceed
our design from step two of the above mentioned steps.


3.2 TIP SPEED RATIO:

The selection of tip speed ratio is largely depended upon ratio. It is because C
d
/C
L
ratio
increases, the drag effects the expected power coefficient and this influences the size and
even more speed ratio of the design.

From C
p

r
variation curve it is clear that for a range of design speed 1>ì
o
<10 the
maximum theoretically attainable power coefficient lies between 0.35< C
pmax
<0.5. Due
to deviation, however, of the ideal geometry and hub losses for example these maximum
will be between 0.3 and 0.4.

This result shows that the choice of the design tip speed ratio. One is the character of the
load. If it is a piston puma scoop wheel or some other slow running loads, the design
speed of the rotor is usually chosen slow. This allows the designer to use simple airfoils.

If the load is running fast like a generator or a centrifugal pump then a high speed ratio is
selected and airfoil with a low C
d
ratio will be preferred.

38
The second C
L
factor is that the locally available technologies will often restrict the
possibilities of manufacturing bladders with airfoil having a low C
d
/C
L
ratio.

Also the tip speed ratio directly depends upon the solidity ratio. This is the ratio of blade
area to swept area of wind turbine rotor.

2
ncR nc
T
R R t t
= =



Where
c
= Average Chord

A high solidity ratio rotor similar to the old praise wind mill, will have a high starting
torque and turn relatively slow, thus small tip speed ratio. Increasing the number of
blocks compensates the decrease in power coefficient. However, with modern wind
turbine designed for electric power generation, high rotational speeds are desirable in
order to minimize gearing.

Since the first order rotational speeds are inversely proportional to solidity, a low solidity
would be indicated for this application and obviously a high tip speed ratio.

From above discussion, it is concluded that, the design of tip speed is usually taken
between 1&10. A small value of tip speed is selected for slow running turbine ( usually
1<ì
o
<4 ). A large tip speed is selected for fast running turbine ( usually 5<ì
o
<10 ).















39



3.3 SELECTION OF TIP SPEED RATIO:







The RAF 6 airfoil
( )
d L
min
1
C / C 0.009637
103.77
= =
( )
d L
min
1
C / C 0.009637
103.77
= =


It is clear from ì
r
and C
pmax
curve that highest value of C
p
is 0.54 at ì
r
=5.25

However from ì
r
=5.25 to ì
r
=8.5, the change in C
p
is small and only 1.6%. For designing
purpose we take ì
o
=8





3.4 SELECTION OF TURBINE BLADES:

The Number of blades for fast running turbine used for the generation of electricity is
usually 2 or 3. Here another selection criterion is established to choose the number of
blades.

Most performance theories in common use neglect the number of blades because of
difficulties in analyzing the complex three-dimensional and inter blade effect and use the
[15] Fig 12: Cp Vs TSR
40
assumption of infinite number of blades. This assumption result in remarkable simple
solution, using either the momentum or vortex theory for the rotor. With 3 blades the
assumption results in only a few percent error.

Clear argument has not yet been settled between two blades and three blades partition.
While two blades improve the economy of rotor, difficulties due to vibration etc. by and
large appear during orientation. Thee difficulties disappear completely for three blades,
so that three blades rotor operate more reliably and allow a more primitive design for the
rest of the machine.

We are selecting RAF 6 instead of NACA series. The reason behind it is the ease of
manufacturing of RAF 6 as it is Flat bottom as compared to NACA 0012. For micro wind
turbine RAF 6 can give good result because of it light weight. For larger WT, we move
towards NACA which is more complex.

Airfoil coordinates for: RAF 6





Upper X Upper Y

0.00000 0.00000
2.48700 3.59900
4.98100 5.40800
9.97300 7.42600
19.96700 9.06200
29.96600 9.57800
39.96600 9.53400
49.96700 9.17000
59.97000 8.40600
69.97400 7.14200
79.98100 5.37800
89.98800 3.31400
100.00000 0.15000

Lower X Lower Y

0.00000 0.00000
2.50200 -0.50100
5.00200 -0.49200
10.00200 -0.47400
20.00200 -0.43800
30.00100 -0.40200
40.00100 -0.36600
50.00100 -0.33000
60.00100 -0.29400
70.00100 -0.25800
80.00100 -0.22200
90.00100 -0.18600
100.00000 -0.15000

[16] Table 4 : Coordinates of RAF 6 From MATLAB
41







Max Thickness 9.98% at 30.0% of the chord
Max camber 4.59% at 30% of the chord (modified to 0% camber flat
bottom)
Leading edge radius 1.6744 %
Trailing edge thickness 0.30%
13 coordinate on upper side
13 coordinate on lower side
0 precomputed polar in Db










[17] Fig 13 : RAF 6 Profile Characteristics from Profili2
42




[18] Fig 14 : Cross Section of RAF 6
43
A three blade rotor is suitable for medium high tip speed ratio i.e. 7.2< λ <9.2, and four
blade rotor is suitable for a small value of λ < 7.2. Jensen and Smolders prefer more
comprehensive result for the selection of number of blades ―B‖ with respect to design tip
speed ratio λ. The ranges of ì
o
and corresponding ranges of ―B‖ are shown in Table:





λ
B
1 6—20
2 4—12
3 3—6
4 2—4
5—8 2—3
8—5 1—2


In our case ì
o
= 8,

Therefore 3 blades rotor is suitable.



3.5 CALCULATION OF BLADE DIAMETER:


Power extracted from the wind is given by the formula:


3
P
1
P C AV
2
p = ×

where:

P = Power extracted

C
P
= Coefficient of Power

ρ= Density of air

V = Speed of wind



[19] Table 5 : TSR and No. of Blades
44

We have to design for 500Watts ( 0.5 kW ) output, assuming overall efficiency as 60%.


500
P 833.33watts
0.6
= =


at ì
o
= 8

,

C
p
= 0.53



Due to deviation from ideal geometry, the C
p
is reduced by 10 – 20%, for conservation
design we take:

C
P actual
= 0.8× C
P
= 0.8×0.53 = 0.4

V ~ 7 m/s

ρ = 1.225 kg/m
3


2
2
2 3
p
2
3
A D
4
A R
1
P C ( R )V
2
2 833.33
R
0.4 1.225 7
R 1.77m
D 3.55m
t
t
p t
t
=
=
= · ·
×
=
× × ×
=
=












45
Rated Power Vs Velocity
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
0 5 10 15 20 25
Velocity (m/s)
P
o
w
e
r

(
W
a
t
t
s
)
Rated Power Vs
Velocity


Velocity Power
0 0
1 0.724608
2 5.796864
3 19.56442
4 46.37491
5 90.576
6 156.5153
7 248.5405
8 370.9993
9 528.2392
10 724.608
11 964.4532
12 1252.123
13 1591.964
14 1988.324
15 2445.552
16 2967.994
17 3559.999
18 4225.914
19 4970.086
20 5796.864
Fig 15 : Rated Power Vs Velocity for r= 1.7
[20] Table 6: Velocity and Power (MATLAB) r= 1.7
46

3.6 R.P.M:

The R.P.M (ω) corresponding to a wind velocity (V) and maximum power is chosen to
suit the type of load the wind turbine will require to drive but it must be chosen that the
peripheral velocity of the blade tip is between 1 & 8 times the wind velocity. If the ratio
is 8, the wind turbine would be a high-speed type suitable for driving an electric
generator and the number of blades required will be either two or three. If the ratio is one,
the wind turbine would be a lower speed type requiring 12 blades.





V 2 60
D 2
8 7 120
2 3.55
301rpm
5rad / sec
ì× × ×
e=
× ×t
× ×
=

e=
e=
























47

The coordinate points of RAF6 airfoil section are plotted and given in a number of
stations as:


X


Y



A

0.347479 0.181751 1.026482 9.69×10
-4

0.657521 0.245835 0.694449 0.001232
0.986812 0.254921 0.480078 7.29×10
-4

1.317146 0.256175 0.361829 4.55×10
-4

1.647423 0.255079 0.288225 3.05×10
-4

1.977565 0.25304 0.288225 2.18×10
-4

2.307597 0.250552 0.202221 1.63×10
-4

2.637548 0.247823 0.175016 1.26×10
-4

2.967439 0.244953 0.153768 1×10
-4

3.297287 0.241996 0.136721 8.15×10
-5



Area under X-Curve is calculated by Simpson’s Rule:

1 1 [( ) 4( odd ordinate) 2( even ordinate)] [ ]
3 2
n n n
h h
A y y y y o ÷ ÷ = + + + + +
¯ ¯



here, h = interval between ordinates

b a
h
n
÷
=


where,

1.77
0.8 7
31.64
0.1769
hub
tip
hub V
b r m
a r
a
ì ×
= =
×
= = =
O
=




[21] Table 7: Coordinates and Area MATLAB code
48



n = number of intervals = 9

1.77 0.1769
0.177
9
h
÷
= =


0.495358
3.865275
0.792573
0.000682
A ydr
A xdr
y dr
V
= =
= =
' =
=
í
í
í



3.7 THRUST:

The total thrust applied on the 3 blades can be calculate by the formula:

2
2
1
2
1
(3)(1.225)(7 )(3.865275)
2
348.02
116 /
p =
=
=
=
í
T B V xdr
T N
T N Blade




3.8 TORQUE:

Torque can be calculated by the formula:

2
2
1
Q B V ydr
2
1
3 1.225 7 0.495358
2
Q 44.6N.m
= × ×
= × × × ×
=
í
p



49



3.9 POWER TRANSMITTED:

The Power transmitted is given by:

Q 2
P
60
44.6 2 300
P
60
P 1400Watt
×
=
× ×
=
=
te
t


0r P = 1.4kW


1.4kW > 500W

i.e. the Blade Power is sufficient for our design.




3.10 STRUCTURAL DESIGN CALCULATION

The design calculation for wind turbine is done on the rated speed of wind. So as the
wind turbine could with stand the extreme conditions.


3.10.1 Thrust:

The thrust on each blade at a wind speed of 10.5m/s is given as

tip
hub
r
2 xdr
r
2
1
T V
2
1
(1.225)(10.5) (3.865275)
2
T 261N/ Blade
T 783N
í
=
=
=
=
p






50
3.10.2 Tangential / Centrifugal Force:

The Tangential Force ―F
C
‖ (which is along the chord of the blade) on the blade of wind
turbine at a wind speed of 10.5m/s is given by

tip
hub
r
2
C
r
2
C
C
C
1
F V y dr
2
1
F 1.225 10.5 0.792573
2
F 53.52N/ Blade
F 160.56N
' =
= × × ×
=
=
í
p



3.10.3 Mass of the Blade:

The Volume of the blade is determined by the trapezoidal rule, which is given as:

n 1 2 a 1
h
V [(a a ) 2(a a .... a )]
2
o ÷ = + + + + +

where,

a
o
,a
1
,a
2
,…,a
n
are the cross-section areas at station 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ….., n along
the length of the blades.

h = Interval between two sections

The General cross-section area of blade ate different chord length is given as:

9 2 2 2
B
t
A 81.4 10 [c (c ) ]
0.06
÷
= × ÷ ÷


where,

t = thickness at different station
c = chord length at different stations.





Here,
V = 2000m
3

51
Mass of Blade is given as

blade M V =p×


where,

ρ = density of fiber glass = 0.000682


blade
blade
blades
M 0.000682 2000
M 1.364kg / blade
M 4.1kg
Total Weight=4.1 9.81=40.14N
= ×
=
=
×




























52
3.11 STRESSES DUE TO AERODYNAMIC LOADING OF THE BLADE:


3.11.1 Stress due to Aerodynamic Force (Bending Sress)

















a
a
ba
a a
2
a
6
3 2 2
5
a
3
ba
5
2
ba
M y
M
J z
z a b
4
I
M
y
B.M z
69 10
1.25 10 ( )[ a (0.1a )]
2 4
a 0.0773m
z 3.62 10
1.25 10
3.62 10
34.5MN/ m
÷
÷
o = =
t
=
o
=
= o
× t
× = ×
=
= ×
×
o =
×
o =
53


3.11.2 Stresses Due to Centrifugal Force (Tensile Stress)



2
C
tc
2 2
2 2
tc
2 2
2
tc
mV
F R
A A
( AR) V V V
RA RA
R
2000 (1.77) (31.64)
6.27MN/ m
o = =
p× × p× ×
= =
o = p e
= × ×
o =



54



DESIGN OF
MECHANICAL
COMPONENTS


























55


HUB DESIGNING



















56
Design of Mechanical Components


4. DESIGN OF HUB


4.1 TANGENTIAL STRESSES:

2 3
t ba S 34.5MN/ m 5 10 psi o = = = ×



4.2 RADIAL STRESSES:



4.3 MATERIAL OF HUB:

AISI – 1006, Mild steel:

ρ = 7850 kg/m
3
= 0.283 lb/in
3

σ
t
= Tensile Strength = 330 MPa = 48 Kpsi

σ
y
= Yeild Strength = 280 MPa = 41 Kpsi

υ = Poisons Ratio = 0.3











2 3
r tc S 6.27MN/ m 0.91 psi o = = = ×
57

4.4 CALCULATION FOR RADIUS OF HUB

4.4.1 On the Basis of Radial (Centrifugal) Stresses

2 2 2
r S cwN [(3 )(R r )] v = + ÷


c = 0.00000355

r = shaft radius = 0.4in

N = 300rpm



4.4.2 On the Basis of Axial (Tangential) Stress

2 2 2
t S cwN [(3 )R (1 3 )r ] v v = + ÷ ÷


St = 5× 10
3
psi
R = 0.4in

R = 6.61in = 0.168m


4.5 CALCULATION FOR HUB THICKNESS

t N C
r
t
r
F F F
S
A 2(R r)t
(F 100)
t
2 S (R r)
+
= =
÷
×
=
× ÷

Where,

58
F
T
= 800N

S
r
= 0.91
×
10
3
psi
= 6.27MN/m2

r = 0.01016

t = 0.02m

t = 21.95mm


4.6 CALCULATION OF VOLUME OF HUB

2
2
4 3
Volume of Hub A t
V R t
(0.168) (0.02195)
V 8.86 10 m
t
t
÷
= ×
= ×
= ×
= ×




4.7 MASS OF HUB

4
Mass of Hub Volume of Hub
7850 8086 10
Mass of Hub=7kg
p
÷
= ×
= × ×



59

DESIGN OF BOLTS


















60
5. DESIGN OF BOLTS

5.1 FORCES ACTING ON BOLTS
Using Cast Iron Bolts having UTS = 180Mpa

Total force acting on the bolt = F
T
= F
N
+ F
C


F
N
= 800N/m

F
T
= 800
×
1.77

F
T
= 1.416kN


5.2 FOR CENTRIFUGAL FORCE

2
2
C
2
2
C
m(R )
m
F
R R
mR
4.1 1.77 31.64
F 7.264kN
v
O
= =
= O
= × ×
=



5.3 FORCE ON EACH BOLT
Number of Bolts = 12





5.4 DIAMETER OF BOLT:

Since we are using Cast Iron Bolts

T
one bolt
one bolt
8.68 F
F
Number of Bolts 12
F 723.4N
= =
=
61
i.e. UTS = 180Mpa

all
T
all
6
5
2
5
3
180
15Mpa
12
F
A
724
A
15 10
A 4.83 10
d
4.83 10
4
d 7.84 10 m
d 7.84mm 8mm
o
o
t
÷
÷
÷
= =
=
=
×
= ×
= ×
= ×
= ~








62

GEAR DESIGN



















63
6. GEAR DESIGN

6.1 REASON FOR USING HELICAL GEARS
In designing of gear box for our project we are using helical gear because of the
following reasons

o The twisted teeth of the helical allow more teeth in contact at one time, thus
distributing the load more widely.
o Helical gears are well suitable at high speed whereas spur gear cannot withstand
high speed.
o They pick of the load gradually.
o Helical teeth have a greater breaking strength.
o Gradual transfer of load in the helical gear results in quieter running, lower
dynamic load, and higher permissible speeds.
Because of these advantages helical gear are always used.

6.2 DESIGN CONSIDERATION
The design consideration usually includes

1. The horse power
2. The speed of driving gear and the driven gear or the velocity ratio.
3. The center distance between the shafts.

In the design of the gear drive, there are several requirements that must be followed. The
following are the important ones.
a. The gear teeth should have sufficient strength to withstand static load such
as that high starting torque or under the dynamic loading during the
running conditions.
b. The teeth should have good wear characteristics so that their life will be
satisfactory.
c. The material used should be economical.
d. Lubrication agreement.

6.3 DESIGN CRITERIA

The turbine is to be coupled to a generator producing electricity. As the rotational speed
of turbine shaft is very low, a step up must be before the coupling of the generator,
keeping in view the unavailable of metric standards, we are designing gear box according
to AGMA standards.

64
6.4 STEP UP RATIO:

Rpm of low speed shaft = 300

Rpm of high speed shaft = 1500

Step up ratio = 1500/300 = 5

Assume,

m = o.25‖ or 6.35mm
N
p
= 29 tooth
Pd = = 4 teeth/in


6.5 PITCH CIRCLE DIAMETER






6.6 PITCH LINE VELOCITY












6.7 TANGENTIAL LOAD





65
6.8 GEOMETRY FACTOR


For Pinion

J
p
= 0.38

For Gear

J
g
= 0.46




6.9 INDUCING STRESSES

For Pinion











Where,
V is in m/s











66












Gear#1 Gear#2 Gear#3 Gear#4
Pressure Angle 20 20 20 20
RPM 1500 670 670 300
Teeth Number 18 40 27 60
Diameteral Pitch 8.467 8.467 8.467 8.467
Bore Diameter 1.839 4.45 2.915 6.812
Module 3 3 3 3
Addendum 0.118 0.118 0.118 0.118
Dedendum 0.137 0.137 0.137 0.137
Whole Depth 0.255 0.255 0.255 0.255
Working Depth 0.236 0.236 0.236 0.236
Tooth Thickness 0.186 0.186 0.186 0.186
Clearance 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019
Pitch Diameter 2.126 4.724 3.189 7.086
Outside Diameter 2.362 4.96 3.425 7.323
Base Diameter 1.998 4.439 2.997 6.659
Root Diameter 1.853 4.451 2.916 6.813
Circular Pitch 0.371 0.371 0.371 0.371
Bore Diameter 1.834 2.319 2.397 2.397
Size(m3) 0.154 0.66 1.25 733
Weight(gm) 538 2.5 1.11 5400
Max. Length 2.352‖ 4.948‖ 3.422‖ 185.7mm
Max. Width 2.329‖ 4.948‖ 3.416‖ 185.7mm
Max. height 0.197‖ 0.375‖ 0.375‖ 29.36mm
Table 8: Gear Characteristics
67


SHAFT DESIGN


























68
7. SHAFT DESIGNING



7.1 SHAFT CONNECTED TO ROTOR (HUB):


7.1.1 Material selected:

AISI 4340 (alloy steel)

7.1.2 Force on Hub

Force on Hub = 3(weight of blade) + weight of Hub (including bolt)

7.1.3 Bending Moment:

B.M = M = 1.25×10
3
Nm

7.1.4 Torque:









7.1.5 Tangential Force:








7.1.6 Radial Force:




69




7.1.7 Thrust Force:









7.1.8 Horizontal Bending Moment:

Bending Moment at R
1
:










Bending Moment at A:







7.1.9 Vertical Bending Moment:


Net Vertical Bending moment:





70

Bending Moment at R
1:











Bending Moment at A:





7.1.10 Resultant Bending Moment:





Hence, by the above calculations, we get:

M = 690.5lb-in
T = 386.8lb-in
F
a
= 189.11 lb
K
b
= 1.5
K
t
= 1











71






Here,
Kt = combined shock and fatigue (torsion)
Km = combined shock and fatigue (bending)
α = column acting factor




And




Hence,



d = 10 mm





72

Design of Coupling













73
8. COUPLING DESIGN

8.1 FLEXIBLE COUPLING

We have selected Flexible Coupling of the company ASN 125 Duetche .
The reason behind this is to allow vibrations and certain small misalignments, ASN 125
Deutche comes with built in Dampinf system. That absorbs shock efficiently.




Diameter of shaft = d = 20.3 inches
taking number of bolts = n = 4


Diameter of bolts =



Since, thickness of bush = 5mm

d
1
= 10.075+2.5mm(threading)
=12.5mm
d
2
=12.5+(2×2.5)+(2×5)
=27mm
D=2d
1
+d
2
=67.6mm

74





Generator Selection








75
9. GENERATOR SELECTION

As mentioned earlier in the theory section, the alternator or generator must be both
properly sized to match your swept area, and produce the right type and voltage of power
to match your application. Unfortunately, there are no commercial or surplus products
than can be easily matched to a set of blades for building a wind turbine. It's more
practical to build your own alternator than to try and adapt a commercial unit that was
designed for a completely different purpose. PM converted induction motors, DC
generators, DC brushless PM motors, vehicle alternators, and induction motors are
options but are marginal performers at best.

9.1 ASYNCHRONOUS - INDUCTION GENERATOR
This is the oldest employed technology and uses a standard "squirrel cage" induction
motor directly connected to the grid. The generator is connected to the turbine through a
gearbox. The machines cannot supply their own excitation current, which needs to be
supplied from the grid, or supplied separately through capacitors. Induction generators
are usually only used with fixed speed, stall regulated turbines. The induction generator
cannot provide fault ride-through, reactive power or voltage control, frequency regulation
or power control, but it does contribute to the power system inertia in the same manner as
a standard industrial induction motor.







[22] Fig 16: Asynchronous- Induction Generator
76
9.2 SYNCHRONOUS - UNSYNCHRONIZED
With this option the generator uses either permanent magnets or a standard excitation
system. The generator is direct connected to the turbine and allows variable speed
operation over a wide range, thereby optimising energy extraction. As the generator
frequency will not necessarily be the same as the grid frequency, a four quadrant power
converter is used to interface the generator to the grid. This system can provide reactive
power, voltage and frequency regulation and, with recent developments, fault ride-
through. Power ramp regulation is also being provided with machines of this type.


9.3 SYNCHRONOUS - SYNCHRONIZED
There is a fourth generator option currently available, although very few in-service units
exist. The generator is connected to the turbine by means of a variable speed gearbox. In
theory this arrangement will overcome the reactive power, voltage, frequency regulation,
fault ride-through and inertia concerns that accompany the three main system types.
However at this time the ability of the variable gearbox to provide robust speed
regulation under all operating and grid conditions has not been totally proven.


77


Now we have multiple options, i.e.

1. Asynchronous - Induction Generator
2. Synchronous – Unsynchronized
3. Synchronous – Synchronized

The third option Synchronous – Synchronized requires complex gearing mechanism so
we are not using it.

9.4 OPTION NO. 1

For Asynchronous Induction Generator, Gear Box is required to provide necessary
constant rpm for the generator. Gear box is designed as mentioned in previous section
and with respect to our condition we can select:



Type Asynchronous Induction PMG
Power 500 watts
Speed 1500 rpm
Frequency 50 Hz
No. of pole

4
Phase 3
Casing Squirrel cage Water Proof
Available
Vendors
Vestas, WTG Technologies etc

78
9.5 OPTION NO. 2


We prefer the 2
nd
type i.e. Synchronous – Unsynchronized. The reason behind this
selection consists on a number of advantages.
- Suitable for Wind turbine as allows variable speed input
- Reduce overall weight of Nacelle
- Gear Box not required reducing weight, vibration and noise
- Do no require excitation from grid.
- Fluctuation can be regulated by electronic circuit



Type Synchronous PMG
Power 500 watts
Speed Variable
Frequency 50 Hz
No. of pole

4
Phase 3
Casing Squirrel cage Water Proof
Available
Vendors
Vestas, WTG Technologies etc



79

10. YAW MECHANISM


10.1 YAW MECHANISM

The wind turbine is said to have a yaw error, if the rotor is not perpendicular to the wind.
A yaw error implies that a lower share of the energy in the wind will be running through
the rotor area. (The share will drop to the cosine of the yaw error, for those of you who
know math).
If this were the only thing that happened, then yaw control would be an excellent way of
controlling the power input to the wind turbine rotor. That part of the rotor which is
closest to the source direction of the wind, however, will be subject to a larger force
(bending torque) than the rest of the rotor. On the one hand, this means that the rotor will
have a tendency to yaw against the wind automatically, regardless of whether we are
dealing with an upwind or a downwind turbine. On the other hand, it means that the
blades will be bending back and forth in a flap wise direction for each turn of the rotor.
Tower selected is high strength steel with 30 meter height.
[23] Fig 17 : Yaw Mechanism
80
11. BREAKING AND SHUTDOWN SYSTEM


11.1 BRAKE:

Micro wind turbines are often employed with disc brakes system with a capacity of
slowing down moving components from a range of ( )rpm to (rpm) without damaging the
system. We have installed disc brake system for ensuring sufficient braking force in cases
of vigorous wind speed situations, primarily used asbestos lined brake shoes along cast
iron drum.

We have selected the following configuration for the braking system:

Material Advance Polymer, Asbestos
lining, Aluminum Alloy
Type Drum brake
Performance rating High
Preferable usage Micro wind turbines
Available companies/vendors Sunnec, DK Inc


11.2 SHUTDOWN SYSTEMS:

This is a manual control that completely shuts the wind generator down. It is not allowed
to spin at all, and should be able to survive extremely violent winds in this condition. It
can be electrical or mechanical.

Electrical Shutdown: With permanent magnet alternator machines, simply shorting the
main AC power output leads together should effectively shut down the wind turbine. The
problem is that when the machine is spinning at high RPMs during a windstorm, the
shutdown may be either impossible electrically (the turbine is performing too
inefficiently for shorting the output to have any effect), or too damaging to the alternator
(the heat produced in the stator coils by shutdown at high speeds turns the coils into
molten slag.) Our normal method is to simply wait for a space between high wind gusts
to short the mill with a switch.

Mechanical Shutdown: These systems physically break the wind generator, or force it out
of the wind by turning the tail parallel to the blades. Generally, a cable is attached to a
hinged tail, with a small hand winch located at the bottom of the tower for the operator.

81
12. COMPLETE DESIGN

Complete Description of Turbine Design

Radius of Blade 1.77 m
Airfoil RAF - 6
Number of Blade 3
Cut in speed 3 m/s
Cut out speed 13 m/s
Tower Height 30 m
Transmission Gear Box / Direct Shaft
Generator Asynchronous Induction/Synchronous PMG
Rated Power 500W

82
12. ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS

It is necessary to know the Life Cycle Cost of project before analyzing Economics.
Economic advantage of clean energy and renewable sources come after certain payback
time.
For Wind Turbine, initial cost is definitely higher but after certain time it gives
continuous profit as annual maintenance cost is negligible and there is no fuel cost in it.
We have taken a case study of a home with consumption of 500 watts with a grid
connection of local transmission versus wind turbine. The break even is as follows:



Month
Domestic
Grid
Connection
Wind
Energy

0 17000 45000
1 18500 45200
2 20000 45400
3 21500 45600
4 23000 45800
5 24500 46000
6 26000 46200
7 27500 46400
8 29000 46600
9 30500 46800
10 32000 47000
11 33500 47200
12 35000 47400
13 36500 47600
14 38000 47800
15 39500 48000
16 41000 48200
17 42500 48400
18 44000 48600
19 45500 48800
20 47000 49000
21 48500 49200
22 50000 49400
23 51500 49600
24 53000 49800
25 54500 50000
26 56000 50200
27 57500 50400
28 59000 50600
29 60500 50800
30 62000 51000
Table 9: Case Study Comparison of Domestic Grid Connection Vs Wind Energy
83

From above data of case study Break Even was calculated.



21.1 RESULT:

The graph shows the payback time is in 22
nd
month i.e. we will get continuous profit after
22 months. Within two years, all of our investment will be regain in terms of saving
monthly bill expenses as wind turbine has very low annual cost. Wind turbine needs a
little maintenance which is very low as compared to bill of local power producer
Thus we can say that its break even is 22 month which is less than 2 years and it totally
profitable decision to utilize this economical and ecological technology.
Domestic Vs Wind Cost
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
70000
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031
Months
C
o
s
t
Local Grid
Transmission
Charges
Wind Energy
Charges

Fig 18: Comparison of Domestic Grid Connection Vs Wind Energy
84
13. REFERENCES

1 [1] Danish wind Association. (www.windpower.org)
2 [2] RM Dutch & Co.
3 [3], [4], [5] HSW Website.
4 [ 6 ], [7] & [8] PMD (Pakistan Meteorological department)
5 [ 9 ] UNDP/GEF Wind Energy Project (WEP)
6 [ 10] AEDB Reports & Pakistan Meteorological Department
7 [11] Courtesy Zorlu Wind Farm Jhimpir
8 [12] Ford Logistics & Co.
9 [13] ISUZU Heavy Machinery
10 [14] AEDB (Alternate Energy Development Board)
11 [15] NACA Journals
12 [16], [19] Royal Airforce RAF Airfoil Journals
13 [17], [18] Profili 2
14 [20], [21] MATLAB CODE
15 [22] WTG technologies website
16 [23] E Machine Shop Journals
17 WindRose Consultancy www.windroseone.com
18 Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Processes By A. V da Rosa Stanford.
19 Mayura Botejue BSc(Hons) C.Eng Consultant - Wind Power
20 IEP Conference on Wind Energy Harnessing
21 Zorlu Energi Wind Farm Jhimpir Pakistan

CERTIFICATE
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of degree of Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical Engineering)

FEASIBILITY & DESIGN OF WIND TURBINE FOR COASTAL REGION OF PAKISTAN Group No 18 Name Rashid Kareem Farhad Saeed Danish Khan Ghufran Ahmed Bala Batch: 2005-06 Seat No. ME-05125 ME-05304 ME-05124 ME-05080

___________________ Internal Advisor

__________________ External Advisor

___________________ Examiner-1

__________________ Examiner-2

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING NED UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

ii

iii

WindRose Consultancy. iv . As this project involves industrial visits and outdoor exposure. who grant us the ability & opportunity to do this project. We are thankful to our Internal Advisor Assistant Professor Umair Najeeb Mughal for his support and guidance which he provided us. we are also thankful to all personnel from firms and consultants who helped us. for his guidance and information which helped us in our project. Arshad Lal Junejo. CEO. We are also thankful to Mr.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT There are so many names to thank to begin with the acknowledgement but first of all we would like to thank the Almighty Allah. This project would have never been accomplished without the reference to the work of others.

wind energy is the best renewable source. available resources & economical Analysis.ABSTRACT The aim is to work in energy sector particularly in renewable and sustainable energy sector. v . In a country with a great wind corridor. The project can give an idea about procedure to be followed for an Investor interested in Wind Harvesting in Pakistan. best potential sites. It also includes the application and designing of a system with suitable size and capacity according to the conditions available in Pakistan It includes the problem definition and analysis stage followed by designing stage. The project is about Feasibility Study of Wind Turbine and its Design Suitable for the coastal region of Pakistan including wind data.

Feasibility Section 1.2 Existing Companies 2.5 Different Configurations of Wind Farm 2.1 Wind profiles 2.2 Drawbacks of other Alternatives 1.3 Study of Wind 1.4 Study of Wind turbines 1.1 Energy Crisis in Pakistan 1. Study of Wind of Coastal Belt 2.7 Analysis of feasibility 17-20 21-23 24-28 29 30-31 32-34 35 2 2 3 3-4 5-6 7-16 Page No.3 Visits to Consultants/ Firms 2.5 Important Consideration 2.TABLE OF CONTENT Chapter No. Introduction 1. vi .6 Government Policies 2.4 Resources/Facilities Available 2.

7 Thrust 3. Hub Design 4.3 Selection of TSR 3.6 Volume of Hub 4.1 Tangential Stress 4.9 Power Transmitted 3.8 Torque 3.3 Material of Hub 4.Design Section 3.10 Structural Design Calculation 3.4 Radius of Hub 4.2 Tip Speed Ratio 3.7 Mass of Hub 35 36 37 37 38 39 43 46 48 48 48 49 52 55 56 56 56 57 57 58 58 vii .6 RPM 3.5 Hub Thickness 4.5 Calculation of blade diameter 3.4 Selection of Airfoil 3. Blade Design 3.2 Radial Stress 4.11 Stress Due to Aerodynamic Loading of Blade 4.1 Introduction 3.0 Design Approach 3.

4 Diameter of Bolt 6.5 Pitch Circle Dia 6.4 Option No.9 Inducing Stresses 7.8 Geometric Factor 6.6 Pitch Line Velocity 6.3 Synchronous – Synchronized 9. 1 60 60 60 60 61 62 63 63 63 64 64 64 64 65 65 67 72 74 75 76 76 77 viii .2 Synchronous – Unsynchronized 9.1 Asynchronous Induction Generator 9. Design of Bolt 5.4 Step-up Ratio 6.1 Forces acting of Bolts 5.7 Tangential Load 6. Generator Selection 9. Gear Design 6.3 Force on each Bolt 5.2 Centrifugal Force 5. Shaft Design 8.3 Design Criteria 6.2 Design Consideration 6. Coupling Design 9.5.1 Helical Gear 6.

9. References 79 80 80 80 81 82 83 ix .5 Option No. Yaw Mechanism 11. Braking and Shutdown System 11.1 Brake 11. Conclusion 13. 2 78 10.2 Shutdown System 12. Economical Analysis 14.

Table 1: Cyclone Data Table 2: Companies and Size of Lands Allocated Table 3: Activity flow chart Table 4 : Coordinates of RAF 6 From MATLAB Table 5 : TSR and No. of Blades Table 6: Velocity and Power (MATLAB) Table 7: Coordinates and Area MATLAB code Table 8: Gear Characteristics 20 21 32 40 43 45 47 66 x .Table Page No.

Induction Generator Fig 17 : Yaw Mechanism Page NO.Figures Fig. 1 : Comparative Payback Time of Micro Wind Turbine Fig. 3 4 5 6 16 18 18 19 25 29 29 39 41 42 45 75 79 xi . 2 : wind current Fig 3: Components of Wind Turbine Fig 4: How Wind Turbines Works Fig 5: Connection Layout Fig 6: Graph b/w Speed & Month Fig 7: Diurnal Wind Speed Fig 8: Frequency Distribution Fig 9: Zorlu Wind Turbine Fig 10: Prime Mover Transportation Fig 11: Crane. Lifting large Rotor Fig 12: Cp Vs TSR Fig 13 : RAF 6 Profile Characteristics from Profili2 Fig 14 : Cross Section of RAF 6 Fig 15 : Rated Power Vs Velocity Fig 16: Asynchronous.

adding that the oil demand would also increase by over 23 per cent to about 21 million tons in 2010 from the current demand of 16. Current year’s oil import bill has again been projected by the government at about $6. said a former petroleum minister on condition of anonymity for the simple reason that he had also served the government.1 ENERGY CRISIS IN PAKISTAN Pakistan’s total energy requirement would increase by about 48 per cent to 80 million tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) in 2010 from about 54 MTOE currently. the power shortage is expected to be little over 5. he said. 1 . would increase by 44 per cent to39 MTOE. which have started to rise in the recent days. Major shortfall is expected in the natural gas supplies. he said.a burden expected to be even higher in future as a result of growing Middle East crisis. According to official energy demand forecast. he said.1. the country would need to enhance its dependence on imported oil. mainly because of higher international oil prices . but major initiatives of meeting this gap are far from turning into reality. thus increasing pressure . Partly contributed by gas shortfalls. the demand for natural gas.5 billion compared with about $3. he added. This would leave a total deficit of about nine million tons of diesel and furnace oil imports.250MW by 2010. INTRODUCTION 1. Since the gas shortfalls were expected to be much higher.5 billion in 2004-05.5 billion on last year’s average prices. having about 50 per cent share in the country’s energy consumption. Last year’s oil import bill amounted to about $6.8 million tons.

Besides this solar is not a bulk source of energy.3.1. water treatment plant etc. Site location.2 Thermal Since the fossil fuel prices are going to be high and we are lacking in further exploration of natural gas reservoir . Since these type of plants need more time to be install and our electrical crises do not allow us to wait for a couple of year . turbine performance and physical effects of turbulence and energy extraction represent a few of the issues that must be addressed by anyone interested in developing wind energy As such any plan to develop wind energy must begin by understanding the wind resource. A steady supply of reasonably strong wind is necessary requirement for utilizing the power in the wind. To construct a thermal power plant we require greater area. A continued interest in wind energy development worldwide has produced steady improvements in technology and performance of wind power plants. Development of wind energy depends upon a clear understanding of wind resources. the fastest growing renewable energy source today.1 Why Wind Energy? Wind energy is the fastest growing renewable energy source today.2. water reservoir for condenser.1 Solar Though we have the great solar energy throughout the year but still solar energy is very costly particularly in Pakistan because we are not manufacturing solar panels on a great extent. 1.2 DRAWBACKS OF OTHER ALTERNATIVES 1.2. New wind power projects have proven that wind energy not only is cost competitive but also offers additional benefits to the economy and the environment. 1. 2 .3 STUDY OF WIND 1.On the other it causes the pollution due to the emission of CO2 and other green house gases like SO2 . Where are the best potential wind sites located? How much energy could be extracted from the wind at those sites? Wind energy.

1 : Comparative Payback Time of Micro Wind Turbine 3 .Comparative Payback Period of Micro Wind Turbine [1] Fig.

3. low-pressure zones are formed. The resultant wind is turned easterly or westerly. Wind is created because of temperature difference between land and sea and mountains and valleys. This variation in incoming heat sets up convective cells in the lowest layer of the atmosphere. thus causing the wind. [2] Fig: 2: Wind Current A series of circulations are set up in both northern and southern hemispheres. On a smaller scale. The wind is then acted on the corriolis force due to the earth’s rotation. 4 . The areas of the globe where air is descending are zones of high pressure and where the air is ascending. The amount of solar radiation absorbed at the earth’s surface is greater at the equator than at the poles.1.2 Characteristics of Wind The global winds are caused by pressure differential across the earth’s surface. In the simplest form air rises at the equator and sinks at the poles. The rotation of the earth complicates this simple heat transfer. The local topographical features and roughness of the terrain also cause air movements. The pressure gradient drives the flow of air from high to low pressure.

the machine is usually called a windmill.1. 5 .4. Turbines that rotate around a horizontal axis are more common. such as a pump or grinding stones. wind turbine. [3] Fig 3: Components of Wind Turbine Wind turbines can be separated into two types based by the axis in which the turbine rotates. or aero generator. the machine is called a wind generator. If the mechanical energy is then converted to electricity. wind power unit (WPU). Vertical-axis turbines are less frequently used.4 STUDY OF WIND TURBINE 1. If the mechanical energy is used directly by machinery.1 Basic Definition A wind turbine is a rotating machine which converts the kinetic energy in wind into mechanical energy. wind energy converter (WEC).

½ ρv3 Aη Efficiency of Wind Turbine η=PD/PA 6 .3 Available Power Density Max amount of power that can be extracted from the wind P A = 16/27 .[4] Fig 4: How Wind Turbines Works 1.2 Power Density in the Wind Amount of energy transported across a unit area in unit time PW = ½ ρ v3 1.4.4. ½ ρv3 Power Delivered P D = 16/27 .

You can determine this by observation during wind storms.2 Height Flying a wind generator close to the ground is like mounting solar panels in the shade! Your wind generator should be located at least 30 feet above any obstruction within 300 feet in any direction-. and extreme physical stresses on the turbine and tower. and a much larger. More stress means stronger engineering and materials are required. to avoid losses in long wires and to keep the wire size required down to a reasonable thickness and cost. Trees that are all leaning the same direction and that have branches mostly on one side of the trunk are a good indication of prevailing wind speed and direction. for free. That's how many square feet (or meters. 1. more complicated and expensive project. Short towers in turbulent locations cause drastically reduced power output... tower. bearings. tail. Following are important consideration which we observed during our study. Local airports and weather stations can sometimes provide you with this information. 1.5 IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS FOR WIND TURBINE There is really only one important measure of windmill size.3 Distance The distance between your wind generator and your batteries can also be a problem--the closer the better.5. the swept area. 12 volt systems are the worst for power transmission losses--you end up needing very thick wire. if you are into that sort of thing) of area the windmill's blades cover during a rotation.many sources recommend even more. The formula for swept area is Pi r^2.5. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden. The available power from the wind increases dramatically with the swept area. and by looking at the trees near your site. A 24v or 48v battery bank can save you big money on wire! 7 . where Pi is 3.1.1415 and r is the radius of your prop. 1. CO publishes an excellent Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the United States on the internet.1 Site Location First. though expensive. A Logging anemometer that also records wind direction can be useful here too. figure out the direction from which the prevailing winds in your area usually come.5.but so do the stresses on your blades.

The buzzing sound is the vibration of magnets spinning past coils.it is VERY noticeable and irritating. your turbine needs to be mounted at least 30 feet above anything within 300 feet in any direction. 140K) and hear why we don't recommend roof mounts! Ward's mill is actually very quiet. well-anchored. not just ours. Though the manufacturer of the AIR 403 says it works. The winds near rooftop level are very slow and turbulent. Vibration is also an issue..5.. A crane is often used for installation. Some wind energy guidelines tell you to plan on spending at LEAST as much on your tower and power wiring as on the wind generator itself! Do you like to climb? The two basic kinds of tower are the Tilt-Up and Stationary. the clanking is from the sectional tower itself. The windmill rotor itself makes very little noise.5.3 meter prop) that makes very little power. a logging anemometer might help you decide if your local wind resource is worth the investment. but you have to climb it to install. and tall enough to get above obstructions.4 Tower Your tower must be extremely sturdy. This goes for ALL types of wind turbine. and power output will be drastically reduced.1. an expensive proposition--though you can do it yourself by climbing the tower and moving a gin pole up it as you add each new section. maintain or remove the wind machine. 1.. We've seen 1. we have observed first-hand the vibration and noise during a windstorm in two different roof installations. Again. commercial or homemade. A stationary tower is the most sturdy and trouble-free. this audio clip was taken with the microphone pressed against the steel mast to give an idea of the vibration that would be transmitted into your house with a roof mount. And keep in mind that the AIR 403 is a very small unit (only a 1.WAV file. 8 . Then all maintenance can be performed while standing safely on solid ground. Most commercial and homemade wind generators don't make much physical noise. If you plan on investing significant money in wind power.a larger mill would be unbearable. Listen to the vibration of Ward's 7 foot diameter windmill (12 second . If climbing towers disagrees with you. Roof mount? We strongly recommend against mounting a wind generator on your roof. and extremely high windspeeds might be a clue that you should shut the mill down for the duration of the storm.5 inch steel pipe bend like a pipe cleaner in 50 mph winds. underneath a wind machine with only an 8-foot rotor. and possibly dangerous to your house itself.5 Anemometers It is essential to know the real windspeed in any wind generator installation. This allows you to see if the machine is performing correctly.. go for a tilt-up. but some vibration is unavoidable due to the nature of permanent magnet alternators.

DC generators. single phase seems attractive because it is simple and easy to understand. It's MUCH more practical to build your own alternator than to try and adapt a commercial unit that was designed for a completely different purpose. 3 phase is not really any more difficult. It should spin smoothly and easily when you turn it by hand.even motors used as generators and alternators should be rated for low rpms. This is also why vehicle alternators are not suited for wind power use. and produce the right type and voltage of power to match your application. Designs that 'cog' from magnetic force or that use gears or pulleys to increase shaft speed will be poor at start up.. there are no commercial or surplus products than can be easily matched to a set of blades for building a wind turbine. Most small commercial wind turbines use 3 phase alternators. Most commercial wind generators cut in at 8-12 mph. and keep spinning for a few seconds. This goes for all power units. Cut-In Speed: A wind generator does not start pushing power into the battery bank until the generator or alternator voltage gets higher than the battery bank voltage. and you want to try and get the highest shaft speed possible in low winds--without sacrificing high-wind performance. since we all live 12 miles from the nearest power line. and induction motors are options. A good design can start spinning in 5 mph winds and cut in at 7 mph. 9 .. However. Application--Wind-generated electricity can be used for battery charging and for connection with the power grid. the term Generator is also used generically to describe any machine that produces electricity when the shaft is spun. The unit needs to make higher voltages at lower rpms. Higher shaft speed means higher voltage in all generators and alternators. otherwise it is not suited for wind power use. DC brushless PM motors. and it must be both properly sized to match your swept area. Single Phase vs. All of our designs and information are about battery charging at this time. If you try that anyway. and it runs with less vibration. Speed: The shaft speed is a very crucial factor in all types of alternator and generator. Going 3 phase allows for squeezing more power from a smaller alternator. The generator's lowspeed voltage performance. Unfortunately.but are marginal performers at best.1. Older single phase alternators we made vibrate much more (and make more noise) than 3 phase machines.6 Generator or Alternator We try to use the term Generator to describe a machine that produces Direct Current (DC). Options--The alternator or generator is the heart of your wind machine. vehicle alternators.5. When building an alternator from scratch. and the wind behavior all factor into where cut-in will occur. Start-Up Speed: This is the windspeed at which the rotor starts turning. and use the term Alternator to describe a machine that produces Alternating Current (AC).. It significantly reduces line loss. and then rectify the output to DC (direct current) for charging batteries. PM converted induction motors. the design of the rotor (the blades and hub).. Three Phase--3 phase offers some advantages over single phase in most alternators.

Air Gap: This is the distance between the magnets and the laminates in a single magnet rotor design. Alternators with wound fields can adjust the magnetic flux inside to run most efficiently.5.7 Alternator Design Factors: Making PM alternators from scratch is sort of a "black art"--there are many factors that enter in to it. the design of the blades. the better the alternator performs. you'll need to send the windmill's output to a 'dump load' such as a heating element.. The front bearings in our converted AC induction motors have so far held up well. We discuss that below also. or between two magnets in a dual magnet rotor design. An alternator that uses many windings of thin wire will have better low-speed performance than one that uses fewer windings of thicker wire. 1. This means it's important to keep the coils as flat as possible. As the wind speed rises. but they are not designed for that kind of load. This regulation can be done manually by simple turning on an electric heater. voltage control is not generally needed--until the batteries fill up. the raw power coming into the generator from the wind becomes more than the generator can effectively use. That's why we've moved to using standard trailer wheel bearings in our designs. you must add in another important factor. is that the alternator must be wound differently for different system voltages. The difficult part is getting the best match between the blades and the alternator. The primary consideration for the wind turbine builder or buyer. Bearings: The operative word here is STRONG. 10 . made lots of mistakes. and eventually wound up with a satisfactory design by observing performance and changing one variable at a time.. Inefficiency--Every generator has a certain speed at which it runs most efficiently. stereo. we try to discuss some of them below. We didn't start building windmills and alternators by doing a bunch of math. however. Battery Bank Voltage--In addition to having less line loss. they are tapered and designed to take the thrust loads. This power is wasted as heat in the stator coils. DC tape drive motors are especially vulnerable--the front bearing will eventually fail dramatically in high winds if extra bearings are not added. The smaller the distance. there is a significant amount of thrust back on the bearings from the wind. Once the batteries are full. Even if your alternator is producing an open-circuit voltage of 90 volts. we must try to design to a happy medium.if it is not perfectly square. and it gets more and more inefficient.Voltage Regulation: With battery-charging windmills. or lights. and performance will be compromised.we just jumped right in. the battery bank will hold the system voltage down to its own level. This means it will become inefficient more quickly when producing higher amperage as wind speeds and power output rise. but PM alternators cannot. The formula used to calculate power wasted from inefficiency is AMPS^2 * RESISTANCE = Power wasted as heat in the alternator windings (in watts). 24v and 48v power systems give other significant advantages in wind alternator systems. and it increases geometrically as the prop size increases. Halving the air gap gives 4 times as much magnetic flux. Automatic systems can be built or purchased too.. and to make the armature fit very precisely near the stator. But since the wind is not constant. but higher internal resistance. Besides having to withstand vibration and high rotation speed. the air gap will be larger on one side of the alternator than the other.. And then.

For a 3 phase machine we like 4 poles for every 3 coils. It is very difficult to strip. When connected in parallel. we need to have the strongest possible magnetic field. just like a battery. We choose a number of poles that allows for reasonably sized coils and a good strong magnetic field through whatever air gap we wind up with. for a 3 phase machine we'd have somewhere between 8 and 16 poles (magnets) unless perhaps the machine were to be very large. Wire: Enameled magnet wire is always used for winding the stator. 11 . the field strength would be much weaker over a distance than a wider magnet. steel is a good conductor of magnetic fields. In most cases. thinner wire gives higher resistance and therefore the unit becomes inefficient faster at high speeds. In order to make best use of a magnet (and our copper wire) in an alternator. our wires should occupy the airgap. the voltage increases and so does resistance. both for electricity and for magnetic lines of force. If we have a very narrow magnet (required for using many poles). The lines of force from a magnet are said to originate at one pole and return to the other. Series or Parallel? Star or Delta? When coils are connected in series.Number of Poles: A 'pole' is either the North or South pole of a magnet. The faster that alternating north and south magnets poles pass the coils. parallel connections in an alternator can cause current to flow where you don't want it to. the more power you can produce in a smaller alternator. Again. although there are certainly other very feasible options. So like all things with making wind turbines. Neodymium-Iron-Boron ("rare earth". called 'parasitic losses. But surface area is important as well. In an alternator. it should be no wider than necessary. the better. Air is a poor conductor. Just like copper is a good conductor of electricity. voltage stays the same but amperage increases and resistance decreases. because the insulation is very thin and heat-resistant. there is a compromise to be made. The larger and stronger your magnets are. this was mainly because of price. It must always be an even number. Magnetic Circuit: Picture a magnet to be almost like a battery. This allows for more turns of wire per coil. like the wooden alternator and the all wooden windmill have very poor magnetic circuits. Generally when building an alternator we need a separate magnet for each pole. and are ideal for building permanent magnet alternators. look at our various wind turbine experiments to see. use a razor knife or sandpaper. Magnets: The stronger. and be sure to strip each lead thoroughly! Choosing the gauge of wire is yet another trade off--thinner gauge wire allows for more turns per coil and thus better voltage for low-speed cut-in. Also. NdFeB) are by far the strongest permanent magnets known to man. It should be said that some of them. the more voltage and current are produced. Many older designs call for strong ceramic magnets. and every other part of the magnetic circuit should be of steel.' The correct configuration for your project depends on many factors. We can either use steel laminates (laminated steel reduces eddy currents) or we can have magnets on each side of the coil(s) moving together with steel behind them. A good magnetic circuit involves steel between the poles with a gap (the airgap) where we need to utilize the field. but using longer.

but can suffer from a chattering phenomenon while yawing due to imbalanced forces on the blades. In the real world. start in the middle and change your blade design depending on measured performance.9 Airfoil There are great lengths that you can go to for designing an airfoil. The ideal tip speed ratio depends on rotor diameter.5. It is very strong for its weight. and is slightly more efficient. A power 12 .5.8 Rotor A wind generator gets its power from slowing down the wind. If in doubt. Number of Blades: The ideal wind generator has an infinite number of infinitely thin blades. blade width. The ideal taper can be calculated. BOTH must be correctly designed to work together and do this efficiently. and is resistant to fatigue cracking. 3 bladed designs are very common and are usually a very good choice. sheet metal would be a poor choice. 2 bladed designs are very fast (and therefore perform very well) and easy to build. Choose the best. Hardwoods are generally too heavy. pine and spruce are excellent. and it varies depending on the number of blades and the tip speed ratio desired. Blade Material: Wood is really an ideal material for blades. The taper also adds strength to the blade root where stress is highest. but slower speed. and wind speed. Going to more than 3 blades results in many complications.. wind generator blades are wider at the base and narrower at the tips. since the area swept by the inner portion of blades is relatively small. most knot-free lumber you can find. But all an airfoil needs to do is maximize lift and minimize drag. blade pitch. such as material strength problems with very thin blades. Your blades will perform best at this speed. or overspend to the point of destruction in high winds-there's not enough of an alternator available to collect the energy coming in from the wind. Hugh Piggott's  1. Blades that are too large for a small alternator will overpower and burn it up. and most alternators need fairly good speed to cut in.NASA has some great information and calculations out there on the net. more blades give more torque. The blades slow it down. You will do fine if you do like we did--find a likely looking airfoil cross section from a working wind generator blade. straightest. even one-bladed designs with a counterweight are possible. and extremely dangerous Diameter: Blades that are too short attached to a large alternator will not be able to get it moving fast enough to make good power. gives an added boost in startup from the wider root. and copy it.1. but will actually work well over a range of speeds. and the alternator collects the power. easy to carve. Higher TSRs are better for alternators and generators that require high rpms--but the wind speed characteristics at your particular site will make a big difference also.. inexpensive. Steel and aluminum blades are much too heavy and prone to fatigue cracking. RPM needed by the alternator. but are harder to build than 2-bladed designs. Taper: Generally. Tip Speed Ratio (TSR): This number defines how much faster than the wind speed the tips of your blades are designed to travel.

but it can be done! Large commercial wind generators use this system exclusively. we simply use a homemade spring scale to make sure that each blade weighs exactly the same.these also have the advantage of keeping power output at the most efficient point for the current windspeed. Our early wind turbine designs didn't use furling systems. You'll also need to balance the blade in place on the alternator.. The tail is also angled in this axis. either horizontally or vertically. In extreme winds... As the wind slows down. as do antique and modern Jacobs turbines. The tail is also angled in the vertical axis. This is more easily accomplished with a 2-blade rotor than a 3 bladed one. A simple balancing jig for any rotor configuration can be made with an upright spike that sticks into a dimple punched at the exact center of the hub. Commercial wind generators that use this method are the old Whisper models (from before the buyout). and many homemade designs. and a drawknife is great for carving too. to protect the machine from damage during high winds. Excess material from the heavy areas can be removed quickly with a power planer. Tilt-Back: In these designs. they turn the blades even further to protect the unit from damage. It's weight distribution can be adjusted by attaching lead strips to the blade root. and some old WindChargers.. it returns to normal horizontal operating position by either springs. especially with the deep cuts near the blade root. A wind turbine that furls is also much more gentle on your tower and guy wires--the force on an overspeeding wind turbine increases as the wind gets stringer. forcing the wind turbine to yaw out of the wind. When wind speeds drops. But generally. the tail folds up and turns the alternator away from the wind direction.. There is a variety of furling system designs: Variable Pitch: An ideal but extremely complicated solution is to use blades which change pitch depending on the wind speed. and that each has the same center of balance. and we feel fortunate that some of them are still flying. the blades are pitched for best startup. hub and blade assembly tilts back out of the wind to nearly vertical. During low winds.planer makes quick work of carving it.10 Furling and Shutdown Systems Furling Systems: We use the term "furling system" to describe a mechanism that turns the wind generator rotor at an angle out of the wind. When wind speed gets too high. they rotate and adjust shaft speed to the ideal RPMs for the generator. the tail is returned to normal operating 13 . and hinged. When the wind force back on the rotor is strong enough to overcome the off-axis generator making it want to yaw and the angled tail trying to keep it from yawing. Ideally it will keep power output levels near the maximum even when fully furled. the generator body is hinged just behind the nacelle. or a counterweight. the Windstream. Balancing: The blades must be very well balanced to prevent vibration. the entire nacelle. 1. The problem is the complexity of making a system work reliably. In higher winds. Furling Tail: The generator is mounted off-center horizontally from the yaw bearing.. wind action on a tilted tail.5.

position by gravity. and noisily slow the machine down. and should be able to survive extremely violent winds in this condition. The problem is that when the machine is spinning at high RPMs during a windstorm. as they still are sticking out there in the gale. Folding Vane: Similar to the furling tail. 14 . It is not allowed to spin at all.) Our normal method is to simply wait for a space between high wind gusts to short the mill with a switch. Flexible Blades: The theory is that the blades flex both back toward the tower and around their main axis. but the tail boom is fixed. You can use a manual switch. and they must withstand flexing during cold weather too.. Many commercial and homemade designs (including ours) use this system. simply shorting the main AC power output leads together should effectively shut down the wind turbine. or simply a shorting plug to do this. Older WindChargers used this system. It can be electrical or mechanical.. We have successfully shut down Ward's turbine while it was putting 30 amps into 12vdc. Used on some older Wind chargers and homemade designs. or springs. but they do work. and therefore protect themselves from overspeeding. It does work if the materials and details are correct. with a small hand winch located at the bottom of the tower for the operator. or too damaging to the alternator (the heat produced in the stator coils by shutdown at high speeds turns the coils into molten slag. Electrical Shutdown: With permanent magnet alternator machines.. Even the mighty Bergey Excel 10kW wind turbine has a mechanical crank for emergency shutdown. they retract back into the hub when the wind slows. the shutdown may be either impossible electrically (the turbine is performing too inefficiently for shorting the output to have any effect). the blades must not flex back far enough to hit the pole. or force it out of the wind by turning the tail parallel to the blades. and it has proven to be very reliable. the disadvantage is that tail and vane are more highly stressed from wind force during furling.for example. with a hinged vane underneath. Metal cups extend from the hub from centripetal force during high winds.numerous shutdowns at 10-20 amps of output have caused no vibration or problems. Mechanical Shutdown: These systems physically break the wind generator. Shutdown Systems: This is a manual control that completely shuts the wind generator down. a cable is attached to a hinged tail.. Air Brakes: Noisy and full of vibration. Generally.

11 Regulation With battery-charging wind generators. The diode should be rated for higher amperage than the maximum output of the motor. Diodes: A permanent magnet DC generator (such as a surplus tape drive motor) does need a diode in the line--otherwise. More complicated systems use power transistors or pulse width modulation to divert only part of the incoming power. Bridge Rectifiers: Since alternators make AC power and batteries need to charge with DC power.5. and must be well heat-sinked. The bridges must be well heat-sinked to a large piece of finned aluminum or steel. For single-phase alternators. the battery bank will simply spin it as a motor. A controller intended only for solar power will NOT function with a wind turbine. Simply disconnecting the windmill is not an option--a windmill allowed to 'freewheel' will quickly blow itself up from overspeed. The biggest bridge that's commonly available at a reasonable cost is 35 amps--for larger wind generators multiple 35 amp bridges can be hooked in parallel to give greater power handling capacity. nor will an automotive voltage regulator. The very simplest solution is a manually thrown switch that disconnects the incoming power from the batteries and connects it to some heating elements. The power must be diverted into some sort of load.1.12 Slip Rings The power produced by the generator must be transferred down the tower to your power system. standard bridges with 4 diodes are used. like the Trace C40.. regulation of the incoming voltage is accomplished by the battery bank itself. until it is fully charged. Some commercial solar charge controllers can be set to function as dump load controllers. Simple systems that divert all the incoming power at once can be built using Trace Cseries charge controllers or relays and voltage sensors. the main power wires must be able to handle this. the battery bank keeps the wind generator circuit voltage at its own level.5. This is accomplished with bridge rectifiers. or the entire amount. Once the battery bank fills. Since the actual wind generator must yaw to keep pointed into the wind.just keep in mind the voltage requirements of the heaters must be a good match to the alternator for braking to occur.. conversion is needed. 1. 15 . Though a PM alternator or DC generator's open-circuit voltage might be 100 volts. thus keeping a load on the windmill while avoiding overcharging of the batteries. as charging needs require. which are simply an array of diodes. system voltage will rise rapidly and something must be done with the uneeded incoming power. Shunt Regulation: These systems simply sense the battery voltage and divert power directly from the batteries into heating elements (known as a 'dump load').

it will also eventually unwind itself. run the wire down the center of the tower pipe and let it twist inside. 1. We prefer use of deep cycle dry batteries as compared to locomotive batteries as the former are suitable for wind turbine fluctuating output.5. Use the highest quality stranded. [5] Fig 5: Connection Layout 16 .13 Pendant Cable Our personal experience up here in Colorado is that it is much easier to simply use a length of flexible cable and a steel safety cable instead of slip rings. Some of our models have flown for years with this kind of system and required no maintenance. Or. Our experience is that while the cord can eventually wind itself around the pole. Batteries are mean of storing electric energy and they can be used with few electronic accessories. Use a length of wire that allows about 3 or 4 wraps around the pole. you should hardly ever see the mill make a 360 degree yaw.1. With a properly designed wind turbine and furling system. flexible cable you can find and attach it in a loose loop from the wind generator power terminals to where your feed wire comes up the pole.14 Connection with Batteries Wind Turbine can be connected to grid station a well as isolated. We've seen commercial turbines on 120 foot towers that successfully use the pendant cable system. We simple use a power plug and socket at the bottom of the tower and unplug it once or twice a year to untwist the wire.5.

Kati Bandar. Gharo. Thano Bula Khan. MirPurSakro. FEASIBILITY The tasks included in the feasibility were getting the data of wind profiles in coastal wind corridor and analyze it. Hyderabad. Karachi. Golarchi. It also included analysis of availability of logistics and official procedure to be followed for wind farming in Pakistan and using the results. Wind speed average at 10 & 30 m at every minute Max speeds during 10 minutes at 10 & 30 m Min speeds during 10 minutes at 10 & 30 m Wind direction One minutes average at 30 m Temperature 5 minutes average in °C at 10 m 17 . Sajawal. Baghan. This feasibility will further help in designing the wind turbine the later part of project. Matli. 1100 kilometers along Sindh and Balochistan Coast spreading over latitude 25°N approximately and up to 100 kilometers deep northward over land from the coast. objective is to suggest suitable configuration and size for this region. 2.1 WIND PROFILES Wind profiles help in understanding the wind resources. Badin. HawksBay.2. Thatta          30-meter high towers Anemometers at the height of 10 m and 30 m Wind vane at 30 m height. Temperature sensors at 10 m height. Nooriabad. It tells us that where are the best potential wind sites located? How much energy could be extracted from the wind at those sites? Will the wind turbine performance be affected by the turbulence or other wind resource characteristics? It gives wind resource database for different sites. Talhar. DHA Karachi. Jati. Jamshoro. Shah Bandar. The list of stations located along Sindh is given below. Chuhar Jamali. Phase I covers the coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan Provinces.

2 Diurnal Wind speed Variation: [7] Fig 7: Diurnal Wind Speed Source : Pakistan Meteorological Department 18 .1.1 Average Wind Speed: [6] Fig 6: Graph b/w Speed & Month 2.1.2.

2.3 Anuual Frequency Distribution [8] Fig 8: Frequency Distribution It shows frequency distribution over speed of wind throughout the year. Source : Pakistan Meteorological Department 19 .1.

4 Cyclone Data [9] Table 1: Cyclone Data Source : Pakistan Meteorological Department 20 .1.2.

Yasin Malik. saif.V.12. CEO. 19. Brig soorti Jhimpir 1408 21 . Karachi Dock Labour Board Building. Rizwan Diwan.3 [10] Table 2: Companies and Size of Lands Allocated S. Ahmed Ibrahim Director. Abdul Basit Location of Land Size of Land (Acres) 1 NEW PARK Energy Ltd H#. Mr.].33. Karachi 74000. II Chundrigar. Saeed Akhtar. 17 Banglore Town. Mr. Shara-e-Faisal. Beaumont Road Karachi Mr. Director Bhanbore 1448 9 Master Wind Energy Ltd. CEO. Umer Haji Karim. Shahid Malik. Arshad Chief Engineer Bhanbore 1330 8 NYM Power (Pvt. 1500-A Saima Trade Tower. 58 West Warf Road. Rafique Dawood. No. Khayaban-e-Tauhid. EStreet. Mustafa Tapal. Munsarin Director Ismail. Mr. BadaBoard Site Karachi Mr. Campbell. Chairman.2 EXISTING COMPANIES 2. Progressive Plaza. Pakistan Mr. Sohail Akhtar.) D-14/A. Director Mr.) Ltd. Mr.2.) Ltd. Chairman. Brig Khaliq. Karachi Kuttikun 4881 3 Mr. Chairman. Mr. Karachi Green Power (Pvt) Ltd. COMPANY CONTACT PERSON Mr.M. 82-C/1. Director Mr. Director Bhanbore 1210 6 WIN Power Ltd. A. Naveed Malik. [Hilton Pharma Pvt. Mr. Director Syed Javed Hussain Director. Street. Director. F-8/1 Islamabad Gharo 842 2 Tenaga Generasi Ltd. Karachi Ismail Power. Ltd. Gulberg III. Candy Land. Lahore. Kuttikun 1656 4 Bhanbore 1420 5 NYM Power (Pvt. Third Floor. Altaf Bilwani. DHA. M. Adnan Tapal. Miftah Director. St#. (Gatelene Industries Pvt Ltd. Road Karachi 74000 Mr. Raza Bhanbore 1720 7 Al-Karam Textile Mills (Ltd). Ameejee Chambers.

21. Executive Iqbal Chief Jhimpir 1553 18 Mr. Lahore Lucky Energy (Pvt) Ltd (Gadoon Textile Mills Ltd). Mr. P. Ejaz Hussain Malik. (Technology Plc Ltd). Rashid Minhas Road Karachi Metro Power Co.H. Street No. Company Secretary Mr. Block#. Nassir Director Kasuri.. 62/1 D.10 ZEPHYR POWER LTD (OMEGA LTD) 68-B. Istanbul. (ZTech Inc/IIG ).C.E. Pakistan. L-A. Islamabad Jhimpir 1382 22 . Director. General Manager Mr.E. 59 E. Lahore HOM Energy (Private) Ltd. House No. 36-F. P. PECHS. Kuttikun 1460 12 Mr. Rawalpindi Midroc Tussonia (Pvt. Raas Salimiya 24759. Turkey Mr. 35-B. 6. 93. PO. Mr. Mr. Karachi75400 Zorlu Enerji. Alimohamed. Sohail Tabba. Zorlu Plaza 34310 Avcilar. Executive Director. Mr. Mehmood Hussain Road. Model Town. CEO. Behind Roomi Masjid. Block-6. Hussain Akbar. Kuwait.H. Gurumangat Road. General Manager (Technology & Operations) Mr. St#. Block-6. Chief Executive Jhimpir 696 17 Mr. David Heffernan. S. Danyal Rashid. Block #. Abdul Khadim Karim Jhimpir 1000 13 Sachal Energy Development Pvt Ltd. Gulberg III. Director. 10-11. NIH. 1m Peach Street.S. 42-S. Zia Khaleeli. I-10/3 Islamabad Jhimpir 680 14 Fauji Fertilizer Company Ltd. Dr.C. 2/B. 7. Business Development Jhimpir 648 19 Jhimpir 1148 20 Wind Eagle Ltd. Iqtadar Ahmed. Federal B Area . SMCHS. Karachi Mr. Mehmet Erdogan Gunes.O Box 36843. (Pvt) Ltd. P. Harley Street. Zafar Ali. Danish Iqbal. Amer Raza. General Manager.) Ltd. Karachi75400 Gul Ahmed Energy Ltd.S. Manager Bhanbore 2540 11 Mr. Osman Ipek Mr. Karachi 74400 Beacon Energy Ltd. Chief Coordinator Jhimpir 1283 15 Lakha 2550 16 Mr.

Arshad Lal Junejo.List of Consultants working in wind power projects in Pakistan WindRose Consultancy O2-C Clifton garden II Blk 3.com Osman Ipek Managing Director Ph: +49-5971-914619-11 Fax: +49-5971-914619-20 Mobile: +49-176-23527465 Email:oi@ipek-energy.173 61118 Bad Vilbel Germany. Cube Engineering GmbH Tannenweg 11. Energy Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd. FFC. html Ipek Energy GmbH Marktplatz 4 48431 Rheine. Seattle. Ltd. 23 .beland@cube-engineering.com Fauji Fertilizer Company Osman Ipek Managing Director Ph: +49-5971-914619-11 Fax: +49-5971-914619-20 Mobile: +49-176-23527465 Email:oi@ipek-energy.com Zorlu Enerji Pakistan ltd.lahmeyer.com Phone: +49 6101 55-0 Fax: +49 6101 55-2222 E-Mail: info@lahmeyer.globalenergyconcepts.Germany www. 25813 Husum. Germany Mr. England www.com 900. silverthrone Lane. Ltd. CEO 9221-5292614 info@windroseone.whiting@garradhas san. Ph: +49(0) 48419677-0 Fax:-15 j.de/e/index. Suite www.com Green Power Pvt. Bristol BS2 0QD. www.de AEDB.com Jorg Beland General Magager & Director planning and Project Dept. Zorlu Beacon Pvt.com Richard Whiting MEng Team Leader Asia Wind Farm project Group Ph: +44(0)117 972 9900 Fax: +44(0)117 972 9901 Direct: +44(0) 117 9729716 Email:richard. Ltd.com Global Energy Concepts Ph: +1(206) 387-4200 (GEC) Fax: +1(206) 387-4201 1809 7th Avenue.ipek-energy.garradhassan. Clifton Khi. Lahmeyer International GmbH Friedberger Str. Ipek Energy GmbH Marktplatz 4 48431 Rheine. Washington 98101 USA New park Pvt. St Vincent’s Works.ipek-energy. Zepyhr Power Ltd.Germany www.

it has installed a 6MegaWatt capacity wind farm. o What other help can ZORLU provide us regarding our project.1. NED University. 24 . with a total number of 5 Turbines in which 4 are in working condition. Electricity. Acting upon the agreement. we had the following motives in our mind: o Extract the necessary technical information regarding the project. Oil & Gas Distribution as well as Exploration.3. The setup will reach up to 50MegaWatt incoming couple of years. Zorlu energy Group also attaches a great deal of importance in the fields of Renewable Energy. in the initial phase.2 About Zorlu Energi Zorlu Energi is a Turkish based group of Companies that have pioneered in the field of Energy.1.3. ( Manufacturar having Expertise in Manufacturing of Wind Turbines) Alternative Energy & Power Asia Exhibition ( Opportunity to meet and have an exposure of Different Consultants and professionals in Renewable energy sector) Technical Presentation on ― Wind Energy Harnessing‖ at IEP ( Institute of Engineers Pakistan ) 4 5 2.3.3. 2. 2.2. Before visiting the site.1.1 Zorlu Energy Wind Farm . Mechanical Engineering Department. ( Textile base Firm interested in Wind Power) WindRose Consultancy (Pvt) Ltd.Jhampir 2.3 Zorlu Energi in Pakistan: Zorlu Energy Group signed a 20-year-long electric power generation agreement with the Pakistan Alternate Energy Development Board (AEDB) in 2007. Industrial management. Operation and Maintenance. ( Experts in Installations of Wind Turbines) Fabricon (Pvt) Ltd. 2009 by the approval of Mr Javed Shah (ZORLU) and authorized by the Chairman Office.1 About the Visit: The Visit was arranged on date April 14. o Practically sense the operations that are being carried out in the Wind Farm.3 VISITS 1 2 3 Maxco (Pvt) Ltd. Petrogas.

2. The soil of the site comes in the category of hard Soil that is preferable for the installation of long towers without digging too deep. This Wind corridor passes from rural areas of Sindh and Balochistan and includes cities like Jamshoro. it is not yet provided by water and natural gas. 2. 2.3.3.6 Wind Farm utilities: Since the Wind Farm is situated some kms away from the city of Jhampir .3.3 Site Specification at Jhampir Zorlu Wind Farm site is situated few km away from Jhampir Railway Station. 2. Despite standing concrete walls.1.1. [11] Fig 9: Zorlu Wind Turbine 25 . all offices. The power needs of Wind Farm are completely fulfilled by using a Diesel Generators. kitchen and dining halls are laid down in Porta Cabins. Each Turbine has a maximum capacity of producing 1200KW electricity and an average capacity of 500KW.3. The Jhampir district rests on the high potential wind corridor that have a wind velocity range upto 3m/s to 7.4 Landscape: Land of Jhampir and near by districts is plain and dry. It has a total land area of 4500Acres.5 Wind Potential: Pakistan is blessed up with high potential wind resources. rooms.3. and Nooriabad.1.3.7m/s. World Wide distributor and manufacturer of Wind Turbine VENSYS Group.1. 2.8 Turbine Specification All Turbines belong to the German.1. Gharo. which is located about half a kilometer away from Wind farm.1.2.7 Grid Connectivity: This Wind project is connected to the nearby HESCO Substation (132 KVA Electric Grid).

3.11 Mechanical Power Transmission Mechanism: The Wind Turbine comprises of a single shaft connected along the Propeller and Generator causing the absence of Gear Box. 26 .1.2. = 29m. 2. that cuts out the Nonuniformity and hence allow constant frequency Voltage. To accommodate this undesired phenomena a bunch of Capacitor Bags are installed.12 Wave Form Stabilization: Since Wind Turbine operation is not a uniform one.1.5 Ton Singe Blade (Vane) = 4 Ton Nacelle = 13 Ton 2. which eventually leads to minimize aggregate tonnage of Wind Turbine.9 Various Dimensions:    Tower length Vane length = 62m.1.1. Total Height of Turbine ~ 92m 2. The Generator shaft’s rotation varies with the Wind velocity that leads to a Variation in frequency.3.10 Various Tonnages:     Generator Propeller Hub = 40 Ton =12.3.3.

Scaled Maps e.1 Land Right Aspects: a. The services provided by WindRose are: 2.3. GPS Survey & Physical Identification of Boundaries.3. Identification/Demarcation of boundaries c.2. Calculation of Total Areas d. the most critical aspects for the success of investment in the wind energy sector are (i) having a good site and (ii) an accurate assessment of the wind resource at the site Wind Resource Monitoring which consists of following activities: Siting Wind Monitoring Wind Resource Mapping Optimization and Micrositing 27 . 2. Satellite Imagery b.2 Digital Mapping a. They are pioner in installation of Wind turbines and solar panels in Pakistan.2.2. WindRose is also authorized distributor of wind profiling equiment from WILMERS (Germany) in Pakistan.3 Wind Resource Monitoring Apart from having a good wind turbine.2. Soil Testing 2.2 WindRose Consultancy WindRose Consultancy has expertise in alternative energy in Pakistan.3. Government/private/other options b.3.

Wind Resource Mapping is critical for a given site to decide the optimized placement of turbines resulting in maximum wind farm output. and grid etc. Assist for Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) including negotiation with concern departments. The combination of field experience and knowledge of the wind flow pattern. Final installation and production output 28 . backed by the latest GIS. GPS Survey techniques and use of latest satellite images enable the successful identification of the good windy sites. Optimization in Micro-Siting: Even if we have a good site and a good wind turbine it is important to see that the turbines are put at the right places to extract maximum generation out of the wind farm. related to wind and weather. terrain. The measurements are carried out at different levels for assessing the vertical wind profile.. Wind Rose Consultancy takes great pride to provide best services to our clients in this regard. The mast is equipped with Automatic Data Logging System. Wind Resource Mapping: Wind Rose Consultancy has the latest software tools for wind flow modeling and resource mapping.Siting: Identification of good windy sites is the first and most important aspect in this business. Pre-Feasibility of the project. Wind Monitoring: The Wind monitoring masts are installed with required sensors for recording accurate data.

Easily available cranes can lift 10 tons to 120 feet. Railway track is not that wide and accessible to remote areas. [13] Fig 11: Crane.2. Lifting large Rotor 29 .4 AVAILABLE RESOURCES AND FACILITIES 2. Gawadar is a deep sea port but it is too far away from cities like Karachi as the Prime Mover will have to travel long rough distance to Site of installation.1 Basic Infrastructure For Development Of Wind Industry Areas with Wind Potential are facing Logistic Problems like the roads are not wide enough for transportation of large parts of turbines.4. [12] Fig 10: Prime Mover Transportation Ports Facility is good as we have Bin Qasim port and Karachi port capable of handling shipments of parts. Heavy Lifting Cranes are not available.

1 According To Consumer High End User      More Revenue More Requirements Steady Supply Sophisticated Appliances like Computers & Machines Urban Cities Low End User     Less Revenue Less Requirements Individually Not Much Effected by Fluctuations Timely Demand Rural Cities & Remote  Area 2.3 According To Size Of The Turbine Large Wind turbines      More Electricity Per Unit Fixed Cost Reduce Preferable for Off Shore Preferable if there is Area Shortage Being Used in Europe Micro Wind turbines     Less Electricity More Per Unit Fixed Cost Low Cost of Transportation & Installation Preferable for Weak grid.2 According To Electricity Distribution Grid Connected      Grid Standard ( 50 Hz) Load Distribution More Transmission & Theft Loss More Cost (Transmission.5. Preferable for Pakistan  30 . Maintenance) Favorable for High End User Stand Alone System     Fluctuations Acceptable Preferable if Load is on DC.2.5.5 DIFFERENT CONFIGURATIONS OF WIND FARM 2. Less Transmission & Theft Loss Social Benefits for Remote Areas Favorable for Low End User  2.5.

2.5.4 Reasons for Choosing Large Turbines  There are economies of scale in wind turbines, i.e. larger machines are usually able to deliver electricity at a lower cost than smaller machines. The reason is that the cost of foundations, road building, electrical grid connection, plus a number of components in the turbine (the electronic control system etc.), are somewhat independent of the size of the machine. Larger machines are particularly well suited for offshore wind power. The cost of foundations does not rise in proportion to the size of the machine, and maintenance costs are largely independent of the size of the machine. In areas where it is difficult to find sites for more than a single turbine, a large turbine with a tall tower uses the existing wind resource more efficiently. You may take a look at some megawatt-sized wind turbines in the picture gallery.

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2.5.5 Reasons for Choosing Smaller Turbines   1 The local electrical grid may be too weak to handle the electricity output from a large machine. This may be the case in remote parts of the electrical grid with low population density and little electricity consumption in the area. There is less fluctuation in the electricity output from a wind park consisting of a number of smaller machines, since wind fluctuations occur randomly, and therefore tend to cancel out. Again, smaller machines may be an advantage in a weak electrical grid. The cost of using large cranes, and building a road strong enough to carry the turbine components may make smaller machines more economic in some areas. Several smaller machines spread the risk in case of temporary machine failure, e.g. due to lightning strikes. Aesthetical landscape considerations may sometimes dictate the use of smaller machines. Large machines, however, will usually have a much lower rotational speed, which means that one large machine really does not attract as much attention as many small, fast moving rotors. (See the section on wind turbines in the landscape).

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2.6 GOVERNMENT POLICIES United Nation Development Program (UNDP) has initiated project "Sustainable Development of Utility Scale Wind Power Generation Project" referred to as Wind Energy Project (WEP). The project is being funded by Global Environment Facility (GEF) and implemented through Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) & Government of Pakistan. As a part of its institutional strengthening program of relevant government institutions, WEP is intending to conduct baseline capacity assessment of PMD, NEPRA, and AEDB through consultants. The Consultant Firm working on Baseline Capacity Assessment Study will develop implementation plan - capacity building strategy for a comprehensive, coordinated, and sustained activities. Wind tariff determination, performance standards, relevant grid codes, as well as issuance of licenses to wind power investors on part of NEPRA, and Alternative Energy Development Board acting as one-window facility for Wind Energy Investors, taking into account existing activities, capacities, and building on existing infrastructure, systems and initiatives. Source : Policy for Development of Renewable Energy for Power Generation, 2006 Government of Pakistan

[14] Table 3: Activity flow chart

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33

2. determine the technical assistance required by NEPRA for smooth and efficient running of matters pertaining to abovementioned task. Capacity Assessment of AEDB: Capacity assessment of AEDB will look into their capabilities to act as one window facility for wind power investors. This will ensure clear understanding of roles and responsibilities of each institution in performing their duties and avoid confusion of prospective Wind Power Investors to get required information. • Based on the desired objective. • Identify and recommend software/hardware requirements. and effective resource utilization. • Identify minimum qualified staff requirements along with requisite qualification and experience. Study will be carried out in close consultations with all stakeholders. • Identify and recommend relevant software/hardware requirements. and issuance of licenses to wind power investors. and input from Wind Energy Project (WEP) team. Capacity Assessment Of NEPRA The capacity assessment study of NEPRA will focus on their capacity and understanding of Wind Power with reference to tariff determination. In order to avoid duplication of activities. keeping in consideration their assigned task. • Identify minimum qualified staff requirements along with requisite qualification and experience for carrying out above-mentioned task for Wind Power IPP’s. and AEDB for their roles and responsibilities in promoting Wind Energy (WE). NEPRA.6. 2006 Government of Pakistan 34 . • Based on current capacity and capabilities of staff dealing in wind energy matters. • Based on the desired objective. identify and recommend specific training/s programs for this section.1. specific recommendations shall be made for PMD. identify and recommend specific training/s programs. • Based on current capacity and capabilities of wind section in AEDB. 3. The consultant/s will organize a conference/workshop of all the stakeholders to reach consensus on the findings/recommendations of study before finalization of assignment Source: Policy for Development of Renewable Energy for Power Generation. determine the technical assistance required by AEDB specifically with reference to wind power for providing comprehensive and up-to-date information for prospective wind investors.

g. install and maintain. We can import turbines as we have Sea ports as well. Greener and efficient Wind turbines. saving up country’s energy. Available logistics.  Wind Farming is Feasible in Coastal Belt Wind Corridor as we have a large area on shore. Since. This can lead us to new era of Cheaper. yet alternatives are available that is we can move toward clusters of turbines having moderate capacities and moderate sizes that is (< 500 KW).7 ANALYSIS OF FEASIBILITY From the collected data. Smaller turbines are easy to handle.2.  Though we have Lack of Infrastructure. We can import Second hand turbines since Europe is upgrading itself to Larger Turbines. but due to lack of transportation facilities. we can get smaller ones in low cost. Much Larger Wind Turbines are not preferable due to lack of Logistics. we are not designing Rotor Blade according to our required conditions in Pakistan. Wind profiles. Rotor Blade designing should be given Preference. larger turbine (e. > 500 KW) is an issue. They will reduce load on National Grid thus. Stand Alone Systems are suitable as they don’t have to follow Grid Code as well as can bear fluctuation due to changing wind speed. other miscellaneous factors and after consulting from a number of related bodies working in Wind energy in Pakistan we concluded the following result of our analysis:  There is a lot of Potential for Wind Energy in Pakistan as we have studied the profile of wind data in the coastal belt which is situated in the Great Wind Corridor. For Remote Areas.     Utilization of Used Wind Turbine for experimental Study purpose is preferred. 35 .

Fig 15: Windrose plotted by the data at 30 m height at DHA Karachi by Pakistan Meteorological Department .0 DESIGN APPROACH After the completion of feasibility section. We have adopted average velocity 7 m/s. . On the basis of local metrological conditions available in Karachi we have collected data for DHA and established Wind Rose which will help us in designing an appropriate wind turbine. we now proceed toward design section. Data is available in feasibility section.DESIGN SECTION 3.

BLADE DESIGN 36 .

5. From Cp-r variation curve it is clear that for a range of design speed 110 the maximum theoretically attainable power coefficient lies between 0. however. BLADE DESIGN 3.2 TIP SPEED RATIO: The selection of tip speed ratio is largely depended upon ratio. Selection of number of blades. 3.1 INTRODUCTION: The object of blade is to convert the straightforward pull or push of the wind into turning effect. Determination of diameter Determination of R. If it is a piston puma scoop wheel or some other slow running loads. o o o o o o o o o o The selection of suitable airfoil. Due to deviation.35< Cpmax <0. The blade design f a horizontal axis wind turbine is approached by blade element theory discussed previously. The method of blade design consists of the following steps. of the ideal geometry and hub losses for example these maximum will be between 0.4.3 and 0. we now proceed our design from step two of the above mentioned steps. It is because C d/CL ratio increases. The selection of design tip ratio.3. This result shows that the choice of the design tip speed ratio. the design speed of the rotor is usually chosen slow.M of rotor Determination of geometrical shapes of the blade at various sections Determination of torque and thrust coefficient Calculation of power Determination f blade loads and stresses (structural analysis) As we have already discussed the selection of airfoil in previous section. 37 . This allows the designer to use simple airfoils. One is the character of the load. Determination of power coefficients corresponding to design tip speed ratio.P. the drag effects the expected power coefficient and this influences the size and even more speed ratio of the design. If the load is running fast like a generator or a centrifugal pump then a high speed ratio is selected and airfoil with a low Cd ratio will be preferred.

A large tip speed is selected for fast running turbine ( usually 5<<10 ). This is the ratio of blade area to swept area of wind turbine rotor. will have a high starting torque and turn relatively slow. T ncR nc   R2  R Where c = Average Chord A high solidity ratio rotor similar to the old praise wind mill. the design of tip speed is usually taken between 1&10. with modern wind turbine designed for electric power generation. a low solidity would be indicated for this application and obviously a high tip speed ratio. Also the tip speed ratio directly depends upon the solidity ratio. However. it is concluded that. thus small tip speed ratio. From above discussion. 38 .The second CL factor is that the locally available technologies will often restrict the possibilities of manufacturing bladders with airfoil having a low C d/CL ratio. A small value of tip speed is selected for slow running turbine ( usually 1<<4 ). Since the first order rotational speeds are inversely proportional to solidity. high rotational speeds are desirable in order to minimize gearing. Increasing the number of blocks compensates the decrease in power coefficient.

009637  Cd / CL min  103.009637  0. For designing purpose we take =8 3.4 SELECTION OF TURBINE BLADES: The Number of blades for fast running turbine used for the generation of electricity is usually 2 or 3.6%.77 103.25 to r =8. Here another selection criterion is established to choose the number of blades.54 at r =5.5.3 SELECTION OF TIP SPEED RATIO: [15] Fig 12: Cp Vs TSR The RAF 6 airfoil  Cd / CL min  1 1  0.25 However from r =5.3.77 It is clear from r and Cpmax curve that highest value of Cp is 0. Most performance theories in common use neglect the number of blades because of difficulties in analyzing the complex three-dimensional and inter blade effect and use the 39 . the change in Cp is small and only 1.

18600 -0.98100 89.50200 5. Airfoil coordinates for: RAF 6 [16] Table 4 : Coordinates of RAF 6 From MATLAB Upper X 0. The reason behind it is the ease of manufacturing of RAF 6 as it is Flat bottom as compared to NACA 0012.49200 -0.15000 Lower X 0. using either the momentum or vortex theory for the rotor.96600 39. With 3 blades the assumption results in only a few percent error. Thee difficulties disappear completely for three blades.50100 -0.97400 79.00100 50.43800 -0.53400 9.00100 60.42600 9.00000 3. For larger WT.00000 Lower Y 0.57800 9.06200 9.00100 40.97300 19. by and large appear during orientation.00100 100. This assumption result in remarkable simple solution.59900 5.00100 80.00200 30.98100 9. We are selecting RAF 6 instead of NACA series.96700 29. so that three blades rotor operate more reliably and allow a more primitive design for the rest of the machine.00000 2.00100 90.00100 70. For micro wind turbine RAF 6 can give good result because of it light weight.25800 -0. While two blades improve the economy of rotor.17000 8.29400 -0.00000 2.00000 -0.40800 7.00200 20.00000 Upper Y 0. we move towards NACA which is more complex.22200 -0.assumption of infinite number of blades.14200 5.97000 69.48700 4.37800 3. difficulties due to vibration etc.96700 59.40200 -0.40600 7.47400 -0.33000 -0.31400 0.98800 100.00200 10. Clear argument has not yet been settled between two blades and three blades partition.96600 49.36600 -0.15000 40 .

[17] Fig 13 : RAF 6 Profile Characteristics from Profili2 Max Thickness 9.0% of the chord Max camber 4.98% at 30.59% at 30% of the chord (modified to 0% camber flat bottom) Leading edge radius 1.30% 13 coordinate on upper side 13 coordinate on lower side 0 precomputed polar in Db 41 .6744 % Trailing edge thickness 0.

[18] Fig 14 : Cross Section of RAF 6 42 .

e. Jensen and Smolders prefer more comprehensive result for the selection of number of blades ―B‖ with respect to design tip speed ratio λ.2. Therefore 3 blades rotor is suitable.5 CALCULATION OF BLADE DIAMETER: Power extracted from the wind is given by the formula: P  CP  1  AV3 2 where: P = Power extracted CP= Coefficient of Power ρ= Density of air V = Speed of wind 43 . 7. and four blade rotor is suitable for a small value of λ < 7. The ranges of  and corresponding ranges of ―B‖ are shown in Table: [19] Table 5 : TSR and No.2. B 6—20 4—12 3—6 2—4 2—3 1—2 3. of Blades λ 1 2 3 4 5—8 8—5 In our case  = 8.A three blade rotor is suitable for medium high tip speed ratio i.2< λ <9.

53 Due to deviation from ideal geometry.55m 44 .4 V  7 m/s ρ = 1.5 kW ) output.We have to design for 500Watts ( 0.33watts 0.8  0.77m D  3. assuming overall efficiency as 60%.225 kg/m3 A  4 A   R2 D2 1  P  Cp    ( R 2 )V 3 2 2  833.33 R2  0.225    7 3 R  1. Cp = 0.53 = 0.4  1. for conservation design we take: CP actual = 0.8  CP = 0. the C p is reduced by 10 – 20%.6 at  = 8 . P 500  833.

994 3559.7 Velocity 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Power 0 0.5405 370.576 156.964 1988.Rated Power Vs Velocity 7000 6000 Power (Watts) 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Rated Power Vs Velocity Velocity (m/s) Fig 15 : Rated Power Vs Velocity for r= 1.864 45 .086 5796.4532 1252.7 [20] Table 6: Velocity and Power (MATLAB) r= 1.724608 5.5153 248.552 2967.914 4970.324 2445.999 4225.56442 46.9993 528.796864 19.608 964.2392 724.123 1591.37491 90.

the wind turbine would be a high-speed type suitable for driving an electric generator and the number of blades required will be either two or three.     V  2  60 D 2   8  7 120 2 3.55   301rpm   5rad / sec 46 .M: The R.6 R.P. If the ratio is one.3.P.M (ω) corresponding to a wind velocity (V) and maximum power is chosen to suit the type of load the wind turbine will require to drive but it must be chosen that the peripheral velocity of the blade tip is between 1 & 8 times the wind velocity. If the ratio is 8. the wind turbine would be a lower speed type requiring 12 blades.

657521 0.247823 0.307597 2.8  7  31.001232 7.297287 Y 0.317146 1.69  10-4 0.153768 0.55  10-4 3.202221 0.77m a  rhub   hub  V  0.29  10-4 4.026482 0.986812 1.967439 3.18  10-4 1.480078 0.64 a  0.15  10-5 Area under X-Curve is calculated by Simpson’s Rule: A  h [( y  yn  1)  4( odd ordinate)  2( even ordinate)]  h [ yn  1  yn] 3 2 here.25304 0.1769 47 .241996 Y΄ 1.136721 A 9. b  rtip  1.245835 0.977565 2.255079 0.256175 0.647423 1.244953 0.The coordinate points of RAF6 airfoil section are plotted and given in a number of stations as: [21] Table 7: Coordinates and Area MATLAB code X 0.361829 0. h = interval between ordinates h ba n where.63  10-4 1.288225 0.175016 0.26  10-4 1  10-4 8.637548 2.181751 0.694449 0.05  10-4 2.288225 0.250552 0.254921 0.347479 0.

177 9 A   ydr  0.02 N T  116 N / Blade 3.77  0.1769  0.m 48 .865275  y dr  0.6N.225)(7 2 )(3.865275) 2 T  348.495358 2 Q  44.792573 V  0.7 THRUST: The total thrust applied on the 3 blades can be calculate by the formula: T  1 B V 2  xdr 2  1 (3)(1.000682 3.n = number of intervals = 9 h  1.495358 A   xdr  3.225  7 2  0.8 TORQUE: Torque can be calculated by the formula: Q  B  1   V 2  ydr 2  3  1 1.

So as the wind turbine could with stand the extreme conditions.1 Thrust: The thrust on each blade at a wind speed of 10.5) 2 (3.4kW > 500W i.10 STRUCTURAL DESIGN CALCULATION The design calculation for wind turbine is done on the rated speed of wind.225)(10.e.3. 3. 3.5m/s is given as 2 xdr T  1  V rhub 2 1 (1.6  2  300 60 P P  1400Watt 0r P = 1.9 POWER TRANSMITTED: The Power transmitted is given by: Q  2 60 P  44.865275)  2 T  261N / Blade rtip T  783N 49 .4kW 1.10. the Blade Power is sufficient for our design.

56N 3. V = 2000m3 50 .  aa  1)] 2 where. which is given as: V  h [(a  an)  2(a1  a 2  ... 1.06 where.10.3.3 Mass of the Blade: The Volume of the blade is determined by the trapezoidal rule. …. 3.792573 FC  2 FC  53.10.5m/s is given by FC  1  V 2 rhub ydr 2 1  1.an are the cross-section areas at station 0.4 109 [c2  (c2  t )2 ] 0. Here.52N / Blade rtip FC  160..225  10. 4.….a2.2 Tangential / Centrifugal Force: The Tangential Force ―FC‖ (which is along the chord of the blade) on the blade of wind turbine at a wind speed of 10.a1.. t = thickness at different station c = chord length at different stations. ao. h = Interval between two sections The General cross-section area of blade ate different chord length is given as: AB  81..52  0. 2. n along the length of the blades.

000682 Mblade  0.Mass of Blade is given as Mblade   V where.000682  2000 Mblade  1.14N 51 .1 9.1kg Total Weight=4.364kg / blade Mblades  4.81=40. ρ = density of fiber glass = 0.

0773m  za  3.62  105 3 ba  1.11 STRESSES DUE TO AERODYNAMIC LOADING OF THE BLADE: 3.11.1a 2 )] 2 4 a  0.3.1 Stress due to Aerodynamic Force (Bending Sress) ba  May Ma  Ja za  za   a 2 b 4  M  I y B.M  z 6 1.25  105 3.5MN / m 2 52 .25  103  ( 69  10 )[   a 2 (0.62  10 ba  34.

64) 2 tc  6.11.2 Stresses Due to Centrifugal Force (Tensile Stress) tc  FC  A mV 2 A R   V  V 2   ( AR )  V 2   RA RA tc  R 2 2  2000  (1.77) 2  (31.27MN / m 2 53 .3.

DESIGN OF MECHANICAL COMPONENTS 54 .

HUB DESIGNING 55 .

1 TANGENTIAL STRESSES: St   ba  34.3 56 .913 psi 4.27MN / m2  0.5MN / m2  5 103 psi 4. DESIGN OF HUB 4.283 lb/in3 σt = Tensile Strength = 330 MPa = 48 Kpsi σy = Yeild Strength = 280 MPa = 41 Kpsi υ = Poisons Ratio = 0.Design of Mechanical Components 4. Mild steel: ρ = 7850 kg/m3 = 0.2 RADIAL STRESSES: Sr   tc  6.3 MATERIAL OF HUB: AISI – 1006.

4in R = 6.4.4in N = 300rpm 4.5 CALCULATION FOR HUB THICKNESS Sr  Ft  FN  FC A 2(R  r)t t Where.4 CALCULATION FOR RADIUS OF HUB 4.00000355 r = shaft radius = 0.2 On the Basis of Axial (Tangential) Stress St  cwN2[(3  )R 2  (1  3 )r 2 ]  St = 5  103psi R = 0.168m 4.1 On the Basis of Radial (Centrifugal) Stresses Sr  cwN2[(3  )(R 2  r 2 )] c = 0.61in = 0.4. (Ft  100) 2  Sr (R  r) 57 .4.

02195) V  8.27MN/m2 r = 0.02m t = 21.6 CALCULATION OF VOLUME OF HUB Volume of Hub  A  t V   R2  t   (0.168) 2  (0.FT = 800N Sr = 0.7 MASS OF HUB Mass of Hub    Volume of Hub  7850  8086  10 4 Mass of Hub=7kg 58 .01016 t = 0.95mm 4.86  104 m 3 4.91  103psi = 6.

DESIGN OF BOLTS 59 .

1 FORCES ACTING ON BOLTS Using Cast Iron Bolts having UTS = 180Mpa Total force acting on the bolt = FT = FN + FC  FN = 800N/m FT = 800  1.4 DIAMETER OF BOLT: Since we are using Cast Iron Bolts 60 .68 Number of Bolts 12 Fone bolt  723.264kN 5.3 FORCE ON EACH BOLT Number of Bolts = 12 Fone bolt  FT  8.5. DESIGN OF BOLTS 5.77  31.2 FOR CENTRIFUGAL FORCE FC  m  R 2 m(R) 2 R  mR 2  4.416kN 5.77 FT = 1.1 1.4N 5.642 FC  7.

UTS = 180Mpa  all  180  15Mpa 12   all  FT A A 724 15  106 A  4.83  105   d  4.83  10 5 4 2 d  7.i.e.84mm  8mm 61 .84  10 3 m d  7.

GEAR DESIGN 62 .

The material used should be economical. 63 . o Gradual transfer of load in the helical gear results in quieter running. c. there are several requirements that must be followed. In the design of the gear drive. d. 3. Because of these advantages helical gear are always used. a step up must be before the coupling of the generator. we are designing gear box according to AGMA standards. 6. Lubrication agreement. The speed of driving gear and the driven gear or the velocity ratio. As the rotational speed of turbine shaft is very low. o Helical gears are well suitable at high speed whereas spur gear cannot withstand high speed. The teeth should have good wear characteristics so that their life will be satisfactory. The gear teeth should have sufficient strength to withstand static load such as that high starting torque or under the dynamic loading during the running conditions.1 REASON FOR USING HELICAL GEARS In designing of gear box for our project we are using helical gear because of the following reasons o The twisted teeth of the helical allow more teeth in contact at one time. lower dynamic load. o They pick of the load gradually. thus distributing the load more widely.3 DESIGN CRITERIA The turbine is to be coupled to a generator producing electricity. o Helical teeth have a greater breaking strength. and higher permissible speeds. b. keeping in view the unavailable of metric standards.2 DESIGN CONSIDERATION The design consideration usually includes 1. 6. The center distance between the shafts. GEAR DESIGN 6.6. The following are the important ones. The horse power 2. a.

5 PITCH CIRCLE DIAMETER 6.4 STEP UP RATIO: Rpm of low speed shaft = 300 Rpm of high speed shaft = 1500 Step up ratio = 1500/300 = 5 Assume.7 TANGENTIAL LOAD 64 . m = o.6 PITCH LINE VELOCITY 6.6.35mm Np = 29 tooth Pd = = 4 teeth/in 6.25‖ or 6.

V is in m/s 65 .46 6.8 GEOMETRY FACTOR For Pinion Jp = 0.9 INDUCING STRESSES For Pinion Where.38 For Gear Jg = 0.6.

118 0.255 0.154 538 2.137 0.397 733 5400 185.019 2.186 0.422‖ 3.186 0.36mm 66 .834 0.118 0. height 20 1500 18 8.839 3 0.189 3.118 0.96 4.352‖ 2.467 1.236 0.853 0.371 2.375‖ Gear#4 20 300 60 8.7mm 29.255 0.019 7. Width Max.371 2.916 0.Table 8: Gear Characteristics Gear#1 Pressure Angle RPM Teeth Number Diameteral Pitch Bore Diameter Module Addendum Dedendum Whole Depth Working Depth Tooth Thickness Clearance Pitch Diameter Outside Diameter Base Diameter Root Diameter Circular Pitch Bore Diameter Size(m3) Weight(gm) Max.086 7.416‖ 0.467 6.948‖ 0.319 0.915 3 0.813 0.25 1.997 2.371 2.255 0.137 0.197‖ Gear#2 20 670 40 8.137 0.439 4.019 4.467 4.45 3 0.362 1.812 3 0.397 1.467 2.186 0.137 0. Length Max.126 2.375‖ Gear#3 20 670 27 8.998 1.66 2.329‖ 0.118 0.236 0.236 0.948‖ 4.11 3.186 0.371 1.659 6.5 4.724 4.019 3.451 0.323 6.236 0.7mm 185.255 0.425 2.

SHAFT DESIGN 67 .

3 Bending Moment: B.1.4 Torque: 7.1 SHAFT CONNECTED TO ROTOR (HUB): 7.M = M = 1.1.1.7.1.1 Material selected: AISI 4340 (alloy steel) 7.1. SHAFT DESIGNING 7.1.2 Force on Hub Force on Hub = 3(weight of blade) + weight of Hub (including bolt) 7.6 Radial Force: 68 .5 Tangential Force: 7.25×103 Nm 7.

9 Vertical Bending Moment: Net Vertical Bending moment: 69 .7.8 Horizontal Bending Moment: Bending Moment at R1: Bending Moment at A: 7.1.1.1.7 Thrust Force: 7.

5 Kt = 1 70 .8lb-in Fa = 189.1.5lb-in T = 386. we get: M = 690. by the above calculations.Bending Moment at R1: Bending Moment at A: 7.10 Resultant Bending Moment: Hence.11 lb Kb = 1.

Here. Kt = combined shock and fatigue (torsion) Km = combined shock and fatigue (bending) α = column acting factor And Hence. d = 10 mm 71 .

Design of Coupling 72 .

COUPLING DESIGN 8.3 inches taking number of bolts = n = 4 Diameter of bolts = Since. thickness of bush = 5mm d1 = 10. The reason behind this is to allow vibrations and certain small misalignments.5mm(threading) =12.075+2.5)+(2×5) =27mm D=2d1+d2=67.5mm d2=12. That absorbs shock efficiently.8.1 FLEXIBLE COUPLING We have selected Flexible Coupling of the company ASN 125 Duetche .6mm 73 .5+(2×2. Diameter of shaft = d = 20. ASN 125 Deutche comes with built in Dampinf system.

Generator Selection 74 .

and induction motors are options but are marginal performers at best.Induction Generator 75 . PM converted induction motors. stall regulated turbines. vehicle alternators.9. It's more practical to build your own alternator than to try and adapt a commercial unit that was designed for a completely different purpose. The induction generator cannot provide fault ride-through. GENERATOR SELECTION As mentioned earlier in the theory section. [22] Fig 16: Asynchronous. The machines cannot supply their own excitation current. frequency regulation or power control. reactive power or voltage control. which needs to be supplied from the grid. the alternator or generator must be both properly sized to match your swept area. or supplied separately through capacitors. The generator is connected to the turbine through a gearbox. but it does contribute to the power system inertia in the same manner as a standard industrial induction motor. Unfortunately.INDUCTION GENERATOR This is the oldest employed technology and uses a standard "squirrel cage" induction motor directly connected to the grid. Induction generators are usually only used with fixed speed. DC brushless PM motors. DC generators. there are no commercial or surplus products than can be easily matched to a set of blades for building a wind turbine. and produce the right type and voltage of power to match your application. 9.1 ASYNCHRONOUS .

9.2 SYNCHRONOUS - UNSYNCHRONIZED With this option the generator uses either permanent magnets or a standard excitation system. The generator is direct connected to the turbine and allows variable speed operation over a wide range, thereby optimising energy extraction. As the generator frequency will not necessarily be the same as the grid frequency, a four quadrant power converter is used to interface the generator to the grid. This system can provide reactive power, voltage and frequency regulation and, with recent developments, fault ridethrough. Power ramp regulation is also being provided with machines of this type.

9.3 SYNCHRONOUS - SYNCHRONIZED There is a fourth generator option currently available, although very few in-service units exist. The generator is connected to the turbine by means of a variable speed gearbox. In theory this arrangement will overcome the reactive power, voltage, frequency regulation, fault ride-through and inertia concerns that accompany the three main system types. However at this time the ability of the variable gearbox to provide robust speed regulation under all operating and grid conditions has not been totally proven.

76

Now we have multiple options, i.e. 1. Asynchronous - Induction Generator 2. Synchronous – Unsynchronized 3. Synchronous – Synchronized The third option Synchronous – Synchronized requires complex gearing mechanism so we are not using it. 9.4 OPTION NO. 1 For Asynchronous Induction Generator, Gear Box is required to provide necessary constant rpm for the generator. Gear box is designed as mentioned in previous section and with respect to our condition we can select:

Type

Asynchronous Induction PMG

Power Speed Frequency No. of pole Phase Casing Available Vendors

500 watts 1500 rpm 50 Hz 4 3 Squirrel cage Water Proof Vestas, WTG Technologies etc

77

9.5 OPTION NO. 2 We prefer the 2 nd type i.e. Synchronous – Unsynchronized. The reason behind this selection consists on a number of advantages.  Suitable for Wind turbine as allows variable speed input  Reduce overall weight of Nacelle  Gear Box not required reducing weight, vibration and noise  Do no require excitation from grid.  Fluctuation can be regulated by electronic circuit

Type

Synchronous PMG

Power Speed Frequency No. of pole Phase Casing Available Vendors

500 watts Variable 50 Hz 4 3 Squirrel cage Water Proof Vestas, WTG Technologies etc

78

will be subject to a larger force (bending torque) than the rest of the rotor. it means that the blades will be bending back and forth in a flap wise direction for each turn of the rotor. if the rotor is not perpendicular to the wind. On the one hand.1 YAW MECHANISM The wind turbine is said to have a yaw error. then yaw control would be an excellent way of controlling the power input to the wind turbine rotor. this means that the rotor will have a tendency to yaw against the wind automatically. for those of you who know math). (The share will drop to the cosine of the yaw error. If this were the only thing that happened. Tower selected is high strength steel with 30 meter height. regardless of whether we are dealing with an upwind or a downwind turbine. On the other hand. however. [23] Fig 17 : Yaw Mechanism 79 . That part of the rotor which is closest to the source direction of the wind.10. YAW MECHANISM 10. A yaw error implies that a lower share of the energy in the wind will be running through the rotor area.

Generally. or force it out of the wind by turning the tail parallel to the blades. Mechanical Shutdown: These systems physically break the wind generator. Electrical Shutdown: With permanent magnet alternator machines. We have installed disc brake system for ensuring sufficient braking force in cases of vigorous wind speed situations. It can be electrical or mechanical.) Our normal method is to simply wait for a space between high wind gusts to short the mill with a switch. We have selected the following configuration for the braking system: Material Type Performance rating Preferable usage Available companies/vendors Advance Polymer. a cable is attached to a hinged tail.2 SHUTDOWN SYSTEMS: This is a manual control that completely shuts the wind generator down. simply shorting the main AC power output leads together should effectively shut down the wind turbine. Asbestos lining. the shutdown may be either impossible electrically (the turbine is performing too inefficiently for shorting the output to have any effect). with a small hand winch located at the bottom of the tower for the operator. 80 . Aluminum Alloy Drum brake High Micro wind turbines Sunnec. and should be able to survive extremely violent winds in this condition. DK Inc 11.11. BREAKING AND SHUTDOWN SYSTEM 11. The problem is that when the machine is spinning at high RPMs during a windstorm. or too damaging to the alternator (the heat produced in the stator coils by shutdown at high speeds turns the coils into molten slag.1 BRAKE: Micro wind turbines are often employed with disc brakes system with a capacity of slowing down moving components from a range of ( )rpm to (rpm) without damaging the system. primarily used asbestos lined brake shoes along cast iron drum. It is not allowed to spin at all.

COMPLETE DESIGN Complete Description of Turbine Design Radius of Blade 1.12.77 m Airfoil RAF .6 Number of Blade 3 Cut in speed 3 m/s Cut out speed 13 m/s Tower Height 30 m Transmission Gear Box / Direct Shaft Generator Asynchronous Induction/Synchronous PMG Rated Power 500W 81 .

Economic advantage of clean energy and renewable sources come after certain payback time. ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS It is necessary to know the Life Cycle Cost of project before analyzing Economics. The break even is as follows: Table 9: Case Study Comparison of Domestic Grid Connection Vs Wind Energy Domestic Grid Connection 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 17000 18500 20000 21500 23000 24500 26000 27500 29000 30500 32000 33500 35000 36500 38000 39500 41000 42500 44000 45500 47000 48500 50000 51500 53000 54500 56000 57500 59000 60500 62000 Wind Energy 45000 45200 45400 45600 45800 46000 46200 46400 46600 46800 47000 47200 47400 47600 47800 48000 48200 48400 48600 48800 49000 49200 49400 49600 49800 50000 50200 50400 50600 50800 51000 Month 82 .12. initial cost is definitely higher but after certain time it gives continuous profit as annual maintenance cost is negligible and there is no fuel cost in it. We have taken a case study of a home with consumption of 500 watts with a grid connection of local transmission versus wind turbine. For Wind Turbine.

Cost 83 . Domestic Vs Wind Cost 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 Local Grid Transmission Charges Wind Energy Charges 20000 10000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031 Months Fig 18: Comparison of Domestic Grid Connection Vs Wind Energy 21.e. Within two years. all of our investment will be regain in terms of saving monthly bill expenses as wind turbine has very low annual cost. Wind turbine needs a little maintenance which is very low as compared to bill of local power producer Thus we can say that its break even is 22 month which is less than 2 years and it totally profitable decision to utilize this economical and ecological technology.1 RESULT: The graph shows the payback time is in 22 nd month i.From above data of case study Break Even was calculated. we will get continuous profit after 22 months.

[13] ISUZU Heavy Machinery 10 [14] AEDB (Alternate Energy Development Board) 11 [15] NACA Journals 12 [16]. (www. [5] HSW Website.windroseone. REFERENCES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 [1] Danish wind Association. V da Rosa Stanford. 19 Mayura Botejue BSc(Hons) C. [19] Royal Airforce RAF Airfoil Journals 13 [17]. [18] Profili 2 14 [20]. [3].org) [2] RM Dutch & Co. [ 6 ]. [4].com 18 Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Processes By A.Eng Consultant .Wind Power 20 IEP Conference on Wind Energy Harnessing 21 Zorlu Energi Wind Farm Jhimpir Pakistan 84 . [21] MATLAB CODE 15 [22] WTG technologies website 16 [23] E Machine Shop Journals 17 WindRose Consultancy www.13.windpower. [7] & [8] PMD (Pakistan Meteorological department) [ 9 ] UNDP/GEF Wind Energy Project (WEP) [ 10] AEDB Reports & Pakistan Meteorological Department [11] Courtesy Zorlu Wind Farm Jhimpir [12] Ford Logistics & Co.

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