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Lecture 3

Lecture 3

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Published by Waqar Ahmad

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Published by: Waqar Ahmad on Aug 17, 2011
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  • Mechanical Sensors
  • Displacement, location, position
  • sensors
  • Potentiometer sensors
  • Capacitive and Inductive
  • Sensors
  • Variable Reluctance Sensor
  • LVDT
  • Level Sensors
  • Strain Sensors
  • Strain
  • Stress-Strain Curve
  • Modulus of Elasticity
  • Strain Gauge Principles
  • Measurement Principles
  • Metal Strain Gauges
  • Construction
  • Signal Conditioning
  • Motion Sensors
  • Principle of Accelerometer
  • Natural Frequency
  • Damping
  • Assignment # 2
  • Type of Accelerometers
  • Potentiometer
  • Variable Reluctance
  • Piezoelectric
  • Pressure Sensor
  • Pressure Principles
  • Pressure Sensors (p > 1 atm)
  • Diaphragm
  • Bourdon Tube
  • Electronic conversions
  • Solid State Pressure Sensor
  • Pressure Sensors (p < 1 atm)

Mechanical Sensors

Mechanical Sensors
‡ Class of sensors to measure mechanical phenomena ‡ For example
± Displacement, location, position sensors ± Strain sensors ± Motion sensors ± Pressure sensors ± Flow sensors

Displacement, location, position sensors
‡ In industrial process, it is sometimes required to measure position
± location of object on conveyor system ± orientation of steel plates in a rolling mill ± liquid or solid level

Potentiometer sensors ‡ Potentiometer consists of wire wound around a rod with fixed resistor R ‡ Movement of wiper change the resistance of the potentiometer .

V output . Develop signal conditioning to provide a linear..Example A potentiometric displacement sensor is to be used to measure work-piece motion from 0 to 10 cm. The resistance changes linearly over this range from 0 to 1 k. 0.to 10.

‡ Capacitive: A C ! KI 0 d K ! the dielectric constant I 0 ! permittivity A ! plate area d ! plate separation .Capacitive and Inductive Sensors ‡ The displacement measurement due to the change in capacitance or inductance.

‡ There are 3 ways to change capacity ± variation of plate separation ± variation of plate area ± variation of dielectric constant .

‡ Inductive ± a motion of permeable core changes the inductance ± An active electronic circuit sensitive to inductance can be used to detect the change in inductance .

. ‡ Most common configuration is called linear variable differential transformer (LVDT). ‡ Used to measure translation and rotational motion. rather than changing an individual inductance.Variable Reluctance Sensor ‡ A motion of core varies the magnetic flux coupling between the two coils.

eind dJ !N dt .

LVDT ‡ LVDT consists of 3 coils: ± The primary is connected to AC source. ± when core is moved to one side. ‡ Coil 2 and 3 are connected in series with opposition direction: ± when core is in middle. thus inducing ac voltage in coils 2 and 3. . zero voltage output. the net voltage will increase.

‡ The circuit for LVDT is shown below .

± Electrical e.g.g. ‡ Example: ± Mechanical e. ± Ultrasonic . float riding up and down.Level Sensors ‡ Level sensors measure the level of solid and liquid. concentric cylinders in liquid tank.


K = 1) cylinder separation: d = 0. .Example The level of ethyl alcohol is to be measured from 0 to 5 m using a capacitive system.75 cm = average radius L = distance along cylinder axis Find the range of capacity variation as the alcohol level varies from 0 to 5 m. The following specifications define the system: for ethyl alcohol: K = 26 (for air.5 cm plate area: A = 2TRL where R = 5.

Strain Sensors ‡ The sensor to measure the deformation of solid object due to stress ‡ Stress can be categorized in 3 types ± Tensile stress ± Compressional stress ± Shear stress .

F tensile stress ! A

F compressional stress ! A

F shear stress ! A

‡ Strain is defined as the fractional change in length of the sample due to stress
(l tensile strain ! l (l compressional strain ! l

(x shear strain ! l

Stress-Strain Curve
‡ In linear region, the slope is constant which is called modulus of elasticity, Young¶s Modulus
stress F / A E! ! strain (l / l

89x1010 11.Modulus of Elasticity Material Aluminum Copper Steel Polyethylene Modulus (N/m2) 6.70x1010 3.45x108 .73x1010 20.

Example Find the strain that results from a tensile force of 1000 N applied to a 10 m aluminum beam having a 4x10-4 m2 crosssectional area .

Strain Gauge Principles ‡ The resistance of sample material is l0 R0 ! V A0 ‡ After the application of stress l0  (l R!V A0  (A ‡ The change in resistance due to stress is (l (R . 2 R0 l0 .

that results from a strain of 1000 Qm/m .Example Find the approximate change in a metal wire of resistance 120 .

Measurement Principles ‡ The strain gauge (SG) is glued to the element whose strain is to be measured ‡ When stress is applied. the element and the SG is deformed at the same manner .

Metal Strain Gauges ‡ The device used to measured strain ‡ Gauge factor is defined as (R / R GF ! strain Indicates how easy the strain can be measured Large GF means large change in resistance for a given strain .

240.Construction ‡ Wire or foil ‡ Design to make it long in order to give large resistance change ‡ Sufficiently fine. 350. 500 and 1000 . 120. not to resist the deformation ‡ Unidirectional ‡ Nominal value is 60. .

Signal Conditioning ‡ The bridge circuit is used to detect the change in resistance of the SG .

‡ The resistor value is set equal to nominal resistance of unstrained SG R1 ! R2 ! RD ! R ‡ The resistance of active SG is ¨ (R ¸ RA ! R ©1  ¹ R º ª ‡ The offset voltage is then « RD RA » (V ! Vs ¬  ¼ RD  R1 RA  R2 ½ ­ .

‡ Finally. Vs (R (V }  4 R ‡ or Vs (l (V !  GF 4 l .

Find the relation between bridge off-null voltage and strain..Example A strain gauge with GF = 2. find the bridge offset voltage if Vs = 10. If a tensile strain of 1450 Qm/m is applied.03 and R = 350 .0 V. How much voltage results from a strain of 1 micro . and the dummy gauge has R = 350 . is used in the bridge. The bridge resistors are R1 = R2 = 350 .

and position can be found from integration t v(t ) ! v(0)  ´ a(t ) dt 0 t x(t ) ! x(0)  ´ v(t ) dt 0 . location.Motion Sensors ‡ Motion sensors are designed to measure the rate of change of position. or displacement ‡ The primary form of motion sensor is the accelerometer ‡ The speed.

Principle of Accelerometer ‡ In industrial application. the design of accelerometer is based on Newton¶s Law and Hooke¶s Law of Spring k ! spring constant in N/m ma ! k (x (x ! spring extension in m m ! mass in kg a ! acceleration in m/s2 .

Natural Frequency ‡ A spring and attached mass always exhibits oscillations at some characteristic natural frequency. ‡ This natural frequency is given by 1 fN ! 2T k m f N ! natural frequency in Hz k ! spring constant in /m m ! seismic mass in kg .

initially E ! damping coefficient f N ! natural frequency . which has the units of s-1 X T (t ) ! X o e-E t sin(2T f t ) T (t ) ! transient mass position o ! peak position.Damping ‡ The friction that eventually brings the mass to rest is defined by a damping coefficient .

0x103 N/m.02 m. Maximum mass displacement is 0. Calculate (a) the maximum measurable acceleration in g. and (b) the natural frequency .05 kg and a spring constant of 3. then the resultant acceleration of the base is given by a (t ) ! [ 2 x0 sin [t Example An accelerometer has a seismic mass of 0.‡ If the spring-mass system is exposed to a vibration.

5.13 ‡ Describe the working principle and technical specifications of Position and Azimuth Determination System (PADS). 5.1.10. ‡ Important Note: Assignment must be hand written and is due on 11th August 2011.6.Assignment # 2 ‡ Problems 5. 5. Also name two other compatible systems. .3.12. 5. 5.

Type of Accelerometers ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Potentiometer LVDT Variable Reluctance Piezoelectric .

Potentiometer ‡ Attaching the spring mass to the wiper arm of a potentiometer ‡ The displacement is converted to resistance .

‡ Displacements of the core are converted directly into a linearly proportional ac voltage. the LVDT core itself is the seismic mass.LVDT ‡ In these instruments. .

. ‡ The measurement is made from the voltage induced in a surrounding coil as the magnetic mass moves under the influence of an acceleration.Variable Reluctance ‡ The test mass is usually a permanent magnet.

.Piezoelectric ‡ The piezoelectric accelerometer is based on a property exhibited by certain crystals where a voltage is generated across the crystal when stressed.

.Pressure Sensor ‡ Pressure sensor is used to measure the pressure of fluid (liquid and gas) in industrial application.

Pressure Principles ‡ Pressure is force per area that fluid exerts on its surroundings ‡ Static Pressure ± The fluid is not moving ‡ Dynamic Pressure ± The fluid is moving .

compared to atmospheric pressure pg ! pabs  pat .‡ Units for Pressure ± SI unit: N/m2 (Pa) ± English unit: lb/in2 (psi) ± Atmosphere unit (1 atm = 14.325 kPa ) ‡ Gauge pressure ± Describe a pressure in a relative sense.7 psi = 101.

‡ Head Pressure ± Used to describe pressure for liquid in tank or pipe ± The pressure that is produced by the weight of liquid above that measured point p ! V gh .

Example A tank holds water with a depth of 7. What is the pressure at the tank bottom in psi and Pa (density = 103 kg/m3) .0 ft.

convert pressure into physical displacement which is then converted to electrical signal .Pressure Sensors (p > 1 atm) ‡ A device measures pressure more than 1 atm ‡ Normally.

Diaphragm ‡ A thin. the net force is then F ! . p2 on the other side. flexible piece of metal as shown in the picture ‡ If a pressure p1 exists on one side.

p2  p1 A .

the air escapes through the outlet. A bellows typically has a separate inlet. .Bellows A bellows is a device for delivering pressurized air in a controlled quantity to a controlled location. and valves or flaps to ensure that air enters only through the inlet and exits only through the outlet. Basically. When the volume of the bellows is decreased. a bellows is a deformable container which has an outlet nozzle.

Bellows ‡ Convert pressure into physical displacement ‡ The displacement is converted to voltage using LVDT .

Bourdon Tube ‡ A hard metal tube is flattened and one end is closed ‡ The other end is attached to header by which pressure is introduced .


Electronic conversions ‡ Convert mechanical displacement to electrical signal by mechanical linkage ± Connect to potentiometer ± Connect to strain gauge ± Connect to LVDT .

Solid State Pressure Sensor ‡ Integrated circuit sensor ‡ Range from 0 to 100 kPa (0 to 14.7 psi) ‡ The silicon wafer acts like a diaphragm that deflects in response to a pressure difference .


Pressure Sensors (p < 1 atm) ‡ Measurement of pressure less than 1 atm are done using purely electronic method ‡ The device is based on the rate at which heat is conducted and radiated away from the heated filament ‡ Heat loss is proportional to number of gas molecule per unit volume (Pressure) .

resulting in cooling of the filament .‡ Pirani Gauge ± Determine the filament temperature thought a measurement of filament resistance ± Pirani gauge is used with bridge ‡ High pressure causes gas molecules to collide with filament and gas molecule absorb energy from the filament.

This current is amplified and displayed by a high gain differential amplifier .‡ Ionization Gauge ± Use to measure a very low pressures about 10-3 to 10-13 atm ± A regulated electron current (typically 10 mA) is emitted from a heated filament. The electrons are attracted to the helical grid by a dc +150 V potential of about +150 volts ± Some electrons collide with gas -30 V molecules in the gauge envelope causing a fraction of them to be ionized ± The gas ions are attracted to the central ion collector wire by the negative voltage on the collector (typically a minus 30 volts). Ion currents are on the order of 1 mA/Pa.

as temperature changes from 20r to 120rC. .Quiz # 1 Q1. A sensor resistance changes linearly from 100 to 180 . Find a linear equation relating resistance and temperature.

A level sensor inputs a range from 4 to 9 ft and outputs a pressure range from 3 to 15 psi. What is the difference between material and recipe standards? Give one example of each. Find a linear equation between level and pressure.Quiz # 1 Q1. (4) . What pressure relates to the level of 8 ft? (6) Q2.

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