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Lecture 3|Views: 122|Likes: 2

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04/21/2013

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- Mechanical Sensors
- Displacement, location, position
- sensors
- Potentiometer sensors
- Capacitive and Inductive
- Sensors
- Variable Reluctance Sensor
- LVDT
- Level Sensors
- Strain Sensors
- Strain
- Stress-Strain Curve
- Modulus of Elasticity
- Strain Gauge Principles
- Measurement Principles
- Metal Strain Gauges
- Construction
- Signal Conditioning
- Motion Sensors
- Principle of Accelerometer
- Natural Frequency
- Damping
- Assignment # 2
- Type of Accelerometers
- Potentiometer
- Variable Reluctance
- Piezoelectric
- Pressure Sensor
- Pressure Principles
- Pressure Sensors (p > 1 atm)
- Diaphragm
- Bourdon Tube
- Electronic conversions
- Solid State Pressure Sensor
- Pressure Sensors (p < 1 atm)

Mechanical Sensors

Class of sensors to measure mechanical phenomena For example

± Displacement, location, position sensors ± Strain sensors ± Motion sensors ± Pressure sensors ± Flow sensors

**Displacement, location, position sensors
**

In industrial process, it is sometimes required to measure position

± location of object on conveyor system ± orientation of steel plates in a rolling mill ± liquid or solid level

Potentiometer sensors Potentiometer consists of wire wound around a rod with fixed resistor R Movement of wiper change the resistance of the potentiometer .

V output . Develop signal conditioning to provide a linear..Example A potentiometric displacement sensor is to be used to measure work-piece motion from 0 to 10 cm. The resistance changes linearly over this range from 0 to 1 k. 0.to 10.

Capacitive: A C ! KI 0 d K ! the dielectric constant I 0 ! permittivity A ! plate area d ! plate separation .Capacitive and Inductive Sensors The displacement measurement due to the change in capacitance or inductance.

There are 3 ways to change capacity ± variation of plate separation ± variation of plate area ± variation of dielectric constant .

Inductive ± a motion of permeable core changes the inductance ± An active electronic circuit sensitive to inductance can be used to detect the change in inductance .

. Most common configuration is called linear variable differential transformer (LVDT). Used to measure translation and rotational motion. rather than changing an individual inductance.Variable Reluctance Sensor A motion of core varies the magnetic flux coupling between the two coils.

eind dJ !N dt .

LVDT LVDT consists of 3 coils: ± The primary is connected to AC source. ± when core is moved to one side. Coil 2 and 3 are connected in series with opposition direction: ± when core is in middle. thus inducing ac voltage in coils 2 and 3. . zero voltage output. the net voltage will increase.

The circuit for LVDT is shown below .

± Electrical e.g.g. Example: ± Mechanical e. ± Ultrasonic . float riding up and down.Level Sensors Level sensors measure the level of solid and liquid. concentric cylinders in liquid tank.

.

K = 1) cylinder separation: d = 0. .Example The level of ethyl alcohol is to be measured from 0 to 5 m using a capacitive system.75 cm = average radius L = distance along cylinder axis Find the range of capacity variation as the alcohol level varies from 0 to 5 m. The following specifications define the system: for ethyl alcohol: K = 26 (for air.5 cm plate area: A = 2TRL where R = 5.

Strain Sensors The sensor to measure the deformation of solid object due to stress Stress can be categorized in 3 types ± Tensile stress ± Compressional stress ± Shear stress .

F tensile stress ! A

F compressional stress ! A

F shear stress ! A

Strain

Strain is defined as the fractional change in length of the sample due to stress

(l tensile strain ! l (l compressional strain ! l

(x shear strain ! l

**Stress-Strain Curve
**

In linear region, the slope is constant which is called modulus of elasticity, Young¶s Modulus

stress F / A E! ! strain (l / l

89x1010 11.Modulus of Elasticity Material Aluminum Copper Steel Polyethylene Modulus (N/m2) 6.70x1010 3.45x108 .73x1010 20.

Example Find the strain that results from a tensile force of 1000 N applied to a 10 m aluminum beam having a 4x10-4 m2 crosssectional area .

Strain Gauge Principles The resistance of sample material is l0 R0 ! V A0 After the application of stress l0 (l R!V A0 (A The change in resistance due to stress is (l (R . 2 R0 l0 .

that results from a strain of 1000 Qm/m .Example Find the approximate change in a metal wire of resistance 120 .

Measurement Principles The strain gauge (SG) is glued to the element whose strain is to be measured When stress is applied. the element and the SG is deformed at the same manner .

Metal Strain Gauges The device used to measured strain Gauge factor is defined as (R / R GF ! strain Indicates how easy the strain can be measured Large GF means large change in resistance for a given strain .

240.Construction Wire or foil Design to make it long in order to give large resistance change Sufficiently fine. 350. 500 and 1000 . 120. not to resist the deformation Unidirectional Nominal value is 60. .

Signal Conditioning The bridge circuit is used to detect the change in resistance of the SG .

The resistor value is set equal to nominal resistance of unstrained SG R1 ! R2 ! RD ! R The resistance of active SG is ¨ (R ¸ RA ! R ©1 ¹ R º ª The offset voltage is then « RD RA » (V ! Vs ¬ ¼ RD R1 RA R2 ½ .

Finally. Vs (R (V } 4 R or Vs (l (V ! GF 4 l .

Find the relation between bridge off-null voltage and strain..Example A strain gauge with GF = 2. find the bridge offset voltage if Vs = 10. If a tensile strain of 1450 Qm/m is applied.03 and R = 350 .0 V. How much voltage results from a strain of 1 micro . and the dummy gauge has R = 350 . is used in the bridge. The bridge resistors are R1 = R2 = 350 .

and position can be found from integration t v(t ) ! v(0) ´ a(t ) dt 0 t x(t ) ! x(0) ´ v(t ) dt 0 . location.Motion Sensors Motion sensors are designed to measure the rate of change of position. or displacement The primary form of motion sensor is the accelerometer The speed.

Principle of Accelerometer In industrial application. the design of accelerometer is based on Newton¶s Law and Hooke¶s Law of Spring k ! spring constant in N/m ma ! k (x (x ! spring extension in m m ! mass in kg a ! acceleration in m/s2 .

Natural Frequency A spring and attached mass always exhibits oscillations at some characteristic natural frequency. This natural frequency is given by 1 fN ! 2T k m f N ! natural frequency in Hz k ! spring constant in /m m ! seismic mass in kg .

initially E ! damping coefficient f N ! natural frequency . which has the units of s-1 X T (t ) ! X o e-E t sin(2T f t ) T (t ) ! transient mass position o ! peak position.Damping The friction that eventually brings the mass to rest is defined by a damping coefficient .

0x103 N/m.02 m. Maximum mass displacement is 0. Calculate (a) the maximum measurable acceleration in g. and (b) the natural frequency .05 kg and a spring constant of 3. then the resultant acceleration of the base is given by a (t ) ! [ 2 x0 sin [t Example An accelerometer has a seismic mass of 0. If the spring-mass system is exposed to a vibration.

5.13 Describe the working principle and technical specifications of Position and Azimuth Determination System (PADS). 5.1.10. Important Note: Assignment must be hand written and is due on 11th August 2011.6.Assignment # 2 Problems 5. 5. Also name two other compatible systems. .3.12. 5. 5.

Type of Accelerometers Potentiometer LVDT Variable Reluctance Piezoelectric .

Potentiometer Attaching the spring mass to the wiper arm of a potentiometer The displacement is converted to resistance .

Displacements of the core are converted directly into a linearly proportional ac voltage. the LVDT core itself is the seismic mass.LVDT In these instruments. .

. The measurement is made from the voltage induced in a surrounding coil as the magnetic mass moves under the influence of an acceleration.Variable Reluctance The test mass is usually a permanent magnet.

.Piezoelectric The piezoelectric accelerometer is based on a property exhibited by certain crystals where a voltage is generated across the crystal when stressed.

.Pressure Sensor Pressure sensor is used to measure the pressure of fluid (liquid and gas) in industrial application.

Pressure Principles Pressure is force per area that fluid exerts on its surroundings Static Pressure ± The fluid is not moving Dynamic Pressure ± The fluid is moving .

compared to atmospheric pressure pg ! pabs pat . Units for Pressure ± SI unit: N/m2 (Pa) ± English unit: lb/in2 (psi) ± Atmosphere unit (1 atm = 14.325 kPa ) Gauge pressure ± Describe a pressure in a relative sense.7 psi = 101.

Head Pressure ± Used to describe pressure for liquid in tank or pipe ± The pressure that is produced by the weight of liquid above that measured point p ! V gh .

Example A tank holds water with a depth of 7. What is the pressure at the tank bottom in psi and Pa (density = 103 kg/m3) .0 ft.

convert pressure into physical displacement which is then converted to electrical signal .Pressure Sensors (p > 1 atm) A device measures pressure more than 1 atm Normally.

Diaphragm A thin. the net force is then F ! . p2 on the other side. flexible piece of metal as shown in the picture If a pressure p1 exists on one side.

p2 p1 A .

the air escapes through the outlet. A bellows typically has a separate inlet. .Bellows A bellows is a device for delivering pressurized air in a controlled quantity to a controlled location. and valves or flaps to ensure that air enters only through the inlet and exits only through the outlet. Basically. When the volume of the bellows is decreased. a bellows is a deformable container which has an outlet nozzle.

Bellows Convert pressure into physical displacement The displacement is converted to voltage using LVDT .

Bourdon Tube A hard metal tube is flattened and one end is closed The other end is attached to header by which pressure is introduced .

.

Electronic conversions Convert mechanical displacement to electrical signal by mechanical linkage ± Connect to potentiometer ± Connect to strain gauge ± Connect to LVDT .

Solid State Pressure Sensor Integrated circuit sensor Range from 0 to 100 kPa (0 to 14.7 psi) The silicon wafer acts like a diaphragm that deflects in response to a pressure difference .

.

Pressure Sensors (p < 1 atm) Measurement of pressure less than 1 atm are done using purely electronic method The device is based on the rate at which heat is conducted and radiated away from the heated filament Heat loss is proportional to number of gas molecule per unit volume (Pressure) .

resulting in cooling of the filament . Pirani Gauge ± Determine the filament temperature thought a measurement of filament resistance ± Pirani gauge is used with bridge High pressure causes gas molecules to collide with filament and gas molecule absorb energy from the filament.

This current is amplified and displayed by a high gain differential amplifier . Ionization Gauge ± Use to measure a very low pressures about 10-3 to 10-13 atm ± A regulated electron current (typically 10 mA) is emitted from a heated filament. The electrons are attracted to the helical grid by a dc +150 V potential of about +150 volts ± Some electrons collide with gas -30 V molecules in the gauge envelope causing a fraction of them to be ionized ± The gas ions are attracted to the central ion collector wire by the negative voltage on the collector (typically a minus 30 volts). Ion currents are on the order of 1 mA/Pa.

as temperature changes from 20r to 120rC. .Quiz # 1 Q1. A sensor resistance changes linearly from 100 to 180 . Find a linear equation relating resistance and temperature.

A level sensor inputs a range from 4 to 9 ft and outputs a pressure range from 3 to 15 psi. What is the difference between material and recipe standards? Give one example of each. Find a linear equation between level and pressure.Quiz # 1 Q1. (4) . What pressure relates to the level of 8 ft? (6) Q2.

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35879267 Distributed Computing Assignment 2

Lecture 2 Daq

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