UNIT 1.......Introduction to origin n function of clothing
Origin of Clothes... Clothing and textiles have been enormously important throughout human history²so have their materials, production tools and techniques, cultural influences, and social significance. In ancient times, there were no textile industries or clothing stores. Fur, leather, grass or leaves were believed to be some of the earliest materials that made up clothes. These materials were tied around the body, dr aped or wrapped . Evidently, this first fashion trend had a lot of success, since it is trendy still to this day, with some obvious differences of course. The first actual textile, as opposed to skins sewn together, was probably felt. Surviving examples of Nålebinding, another early textile method, date from 6500 BC. Textiles, defined as felt or spun fibres made into yarn and subsequently netted, looped, knit or woven to make fabrics, appeared in the Middle East during the late stone age. From ancient times to the present day, methods of textile production have continually evolved, and the choices of textiles available have influenced how people carried their possessions, clothed themselves, and decorated their surroundings. Sources available for the study of the history of clothing and textiles include material remains discovered via archaeology; representation of textiles and their manufacture in art; and documents concerning the manufacture, acquisition, use, and trade of fabrics, tools, and finished garments . Archeologists and anthropologists debate on the exact date of the origins of clothing since clothes made from fur, leather, leaves and grass deteriorate rapidly compared to other materials. In Kostensi, Russia, prehistoric sewing needles made of bones and ivory were identified as from 30,000 BC. There was also a discovery of dyed flax fibers in a prehistoric cave in the R epublic of Georgia that is believed to be 36,000 years old. The inhabitants of the Indus Valley Civilization used cotton for clothing as early as the 5th millennium BC ± 4th millennium BC. Cotton has been spun, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times. It clothed the people of ancient India, Egypt, and China. Hundreds of years before the Christian era cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, and their use spread to the Mediterranean countries.

Looms appeared seven thousand years ago, and knitted fabric began to be produced during the Middle Ages. Natural elements such as silk, wool and cotton were very important until the 19th century. Synthetic fibers appeared in the last decades. With the coming of the great industrial production, clothes, in a high percentage, were no longer hand-made products.Since the end of the 20th century, there was a massive interest towards clothes made with artificial fibers, and this was mostly due to the fact that women started working outdoors, and no longer had time to home tailoring or to devote time to garments that needed special care. At this point we can mention the birth of different garments that are current in use to this day: 1. The shirt was created by the Greeks in the 5th century and it was, for a long time, today it is associated with elegance and respectability. 2. The blouse dates from the 15th century, when women started using a type of tight blouse with a belt. For centuries, it was the garment of peasant women, and then it was replaced by a lighter one that matched feminine suits. In 1913, low-cut blouses appeared, and were known as "pneumonia shirts. 3. The skirt was at first made of fur, 600,000 years ago. Since then, and until now, women never abandoned it. In 1915, skirts began to expose the ankles, and the great revolution took place in 1965 with the miniskirt. 4. Trousers (pantalones in Spanish). Four thousand years ago, men from nomad tribes of Central Europe wore a type of loos e trousers tied up to the waist. But it was in 1830 when trousers developed as we know them nowadays. In 1860, jeans were created by Levi Strauss, a German that immigrated to San Francisco during the gold fever. 5. Rompers appeared by the mid 20th century, This garment allowed changing diapers without undressing the baby. It had great acceptance, later becoming a very popular clothing item. 6. Unisex clothing appeared in the forties and enjoyed great popularity among young people. Every garment we or others wear has a history of its own, and that the effort and creativity of others allow us, through their work, to enjoy all those things that make our lives better and more comfortable. Functions of clothing 1. The primary function of clothing is the covering of the body as protection against the elements. In cold regions, it is to keep the body warm. In warm regions, clothes serve as protection from sunburn or wind damage. Early humans may have saved the skins of the animals they hunted and used them as clothes to keep warm or gathered leaves and grass to cover their bodies.

2. The social aspect of the wearing of clothes is another function. Clothing is used to serve as class distinction. In American Indian tribes, their chief or leader wore elaborate headgear. In Ancien t Rome, the wearing garments dyed with Syrian Purple were limited to senators. 3. Another function of clothing is the maintenance of decency. In the Bible, Adam and Eve covered their bodies when they realized that they were naked after eating the fruit from the forbidden tree. In some Islamic countries, women were required to cover the whole of their bodies except the face. In most societies, it is indecent for men and women to mingle with others without wearing clothes. With more relaxed standards in modern times, this function is being undermined as some clothes tend to be provocative that the distinction of decency is becoming blurred. 4. Another use for clothing is for uniforms for occupations, affiliations, etc. Judges and magistrate wear robes in courts. The members of team sports wear identical jerseys to distinguish themselves from other teams. Even in the military, each unit (army, navy, air force) have their distinct uniforms. 5. Self-expression is another function of clothes. In general, wearing clothes with the color of black is a sign of mourning. Also, modern times have seen the influence of fashion to pop culture. Elaborate and artistic pieces of clothing for every occasions and moods are almost always available to most. 6. Decoration seems to satisfy a fundamental human need. Other animals groom themselves, but only human beings have ornamented themselves. Although in some societies people have worn little or no clothing, so far as we know, people have decorated their bodies in some way in all societies throughout history. 7. Modern scholars believe that clothing provides a mark of identity and a means of nonverbal communication. In traditional societies, clothing functions almost as a language that can indicate a person's age, gender, marital status, place of origin, religion, social status, or occupation.clothing can still provide considerable information about the wearer, including individual personality, economic standing, even the nature of events attended by the wearer. 8. A society's economic structure and its culture, or traditions and way of life, also influence the clothing that its people wear. In many societies, religious laws regulated personal behavior and permitted only members of an elite class to wear certain prestigious items of clothing 9. Clothing with a designer label tends to be relatively expensive, so it may function as an outward sign of a person's economic standing. 10. Clothing also derives meaning from the environment in which it is worn. In most cultures brides and grooms as well as wedding guests wear special clothes to celebrate the occasion of a marriage. The clothing

worn for rituals such as weddings, graduations, and funerals tends to be formal and governed by unwritten rules that members of the society agree upon. Clothing may also signal participation in leisure activities. Certain types of recreation, especially active sports, may require specialized clothing. For example, football, soccer, and hockey players wear matching jerseys and pants designed to accommodate such accessories as protective pads. Most modern societies comprise different social groups, and each group has its own beliefs and behaviors. As a result, different clothing subcultures exist. Within a single high school, for example, teenagers known as jocks are likely to wear different styles of clothing than teens called nerds. This difference can indicate to which group a teen belongs Indus valley civilization... Costumes of this Civilization have been considered as the basis for Indian clothes. The inhabitants of the Indus Valley Civilization used cotton for clothing as early as the 5th millennium BC ± 4th millennium BC. Cotton has been spun, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times. It clothed the people of ancient India, Egypt, and China. This civilization also grew cotton and was probably the first people to make clothes from cotton. The costumes have been revealed from unearthed figurines. The dress on the clay figurine can be considered as the normal attire of the female of the time. The waist is bare and a very scanty skirt is worn. The skirt is held by a girdle that is made of beads or of bands of woven material secured by a pin or fastening of some kind. One figure wears a cloak which is wrapped around the upper part of the body. Head-dresses are used which are made of stiffened cotton cloth. A tight collar that gives an appearance of greater length to the neck is worn by a few of the figurines. The male figures are generally seen to be nude. Probably a rob with or without embroidery was worn over the left shoulder and under the right arm. The figure of a man at Harappa might be wearing a close-clinging dhoti. Footwear as such was not found. People seem to have been fond of jewellery and hair -dressing. Jewellery made of stones; gold and silver have been unearthed. Men had varied styles of hair dressing. For instance, one wears his hair parted in the middle and the short locks at the back of the head are which are kept tidy by a woven fillet. Some show the hair woven into a bun after the hair being plaited. Some other figurines show the hair coiled in a ring on the top of the head and in similar rings concealing the ears. Beards were trimmed in various styles.

Metal ornaments were made of gold, electrum, silver, copperand bronze. Stones like lapis lazuli, turquoise, jadeite, carnelian, agate, onyx, Amazon stone, heliotrope, plasma, tachylite, chalcedony, nepheline -sodalite, shell, pottery, faience, vitreous paste; quartz, serpentine and haematite were used . The ornaments used are girdles, necklace, bracelets, pectorals, beads, cones, ear rings, nose-rings, finger-rings,anklets, bangles and hair-pins. Vedic Civilisation in India... Vedic Civilisation in India has been one of the most primitive forms of civilisation .Vedic civilisation followed the Indus Valley civilisation. The popularly known urban civilisation of Indus Valley collapsed due to several features including various foreign invasions. Historians view that with the coming of the Aryans, the Indus and Harappan culture ruined. The age of the Aryans are termed as the Vedic Period. Women in Vedic society wore a variety of garments. The first being a skirt type garment (dhoti), with a blouse (choli) and scarf. Second is a sari, which is a length of fabric wound around the body with the loose end (pallu) thrown over the shoulder. Sometimes a choli would be worn with this. The last garment was worn mainly by tribal women. The Adivasi is a length of fabric tied around the waist with no upper garment worn. Men also had a choice in their clothing though not as varied as the women. Men usually wore a Dhoti, which is a length of fabric wrapped around the waist. This could be left as a skirt or brought through the legs and made into a pants type garment. Men of the south rarely wore shirts, but men of the north wore a fitted upper garment. Male headdress was also a lengt h of fabric, wrapped around the head, called a Turban. Women sometimes wore the turban also. Due to the large area of India many differences in clothing emerged, mainly due to climate differences. The southern Indians wore much less than in the colder north. Women in the south rarely wore a upper garment. Northern women adopted a fitted upper garment to be worn under the loose fitting one. Clothing was made from resources found in each region. Cotton and wool were the most abundant. People also enjoyed lavi sh embroidery and embellishments. Gold being the preferred, though there was also an abundance of silver and precious gems Clothing was for the most part, similar for both men and women. The basic costume of ancient society was a length of cloth wrapped ar ound the lower part of the body, and a loose fitting garment for the upper body, which was usually another length of fabric. A headdress was also worn, mainly by the men.

UNIT 2...Costumes of world
Clothing materials... The Egyptian climate with its hot summers and mild winters favoured light clothing made from plant fibers, predominantly linen and in Roman times occasionally cotton, an import from India . Wool was used to a lesser extent], and seldom by Egyptians proper. Small amounts of silk were traded to the eastern Mediterranean and traces of silk have been found in Egyptian tombs , Animal skins, above all leopard skins, were sometimes worn by priests and by pharaohs in their role as first servants of the god. Such outfits were found in Tutankhamen's tomb and were depicted quite frequently on the walls of tombs. At times kings and queens wore decorative ceremonial clothing adorned with feathers. Production... All clothes were almost always made of linen which is made from flax Flax: a plant having small leaves, blue flowers and stems about two feet tall.Flax was pulled out of the ground, not cut.This backbreaking work was done mostly by men.Half-ripe flax stems made the best thread.If the stems were too ripe, they were used for mats and rope.Flax stems were soaked for several days.The fibers were separated.Then the fibers were beaten until soft.The spinner attached the fibers to the spindle.The fibers were twisted into strong thread.The weaving was done on a loom.A loom is a frame made of two beams held by four pegs in the ground.White linen needed constant washing. It was washed in the river or canal, rinsed, then pounded on a stone, and, bleached in the sun.Linen clothes needed to be repleated every time they were washed.To do so they pressed the linen into grooves on a wooden board and let it dry. The manufacture of clothes was apparently mostly women's work. It was generally done at home, but there were workshops run by noblemen or other men of means. The most important textile was linen, the quality ranging from the finest woven linen, the byssus for royalty, to the coarse cloth peasants wore. People who were buried in mastabas or pyramids would not be satisfied with anything less than the best quality linen As the sewing of clothes was very labour intensive and the art of tailoring to fit in its infancy±the tightly fitting dresses which the without exception incredibly shapely women are displayed in notwithstanding±many garments consisted simply of a rectangular pieces of cloth draped around the body and held together by a belt. But the cloth was often hemmed to prevent fraying, with either simple, or rolled and whipped hems. At times garments had parts, which had to be stitched on such as sleeves or shoulder straps. The seams used were generally simple or lap-over, though run-and-fell and overcast seams were also known. The number of different stitch types was also limited: running stitch, overcast stitch, and twisted chain stitch Articles of dress... They wear tunics made of linen with fringes hanging about the legs, called "calasiris", and loose white woollen cloaks over these. Tutankhamen's tomb yielded many pieces of clothing: tunics, shirts, kilts, aprons and sashes, socks, head-dresses, caps, scarves, gauntlets and gloves, some of them with fine linen linings, others with

separate index and middle fingers and a hole for the thumb. Underwear in the form of a triangular loincloth was also found. If royals had a garment for every body part and for any occasion the so-called kilt, and a crown±most of their subjects had to make do with much less. Clothes were expensive and in the hot Egyptian climate people often wore as little as possible. If we are to believe the depictions, at parties servants and slave girls wore little more than skimpy panties and jewellery, though one may assume that the reason for this undress was not a lack of funds. Working women mostly dressed in a short kind of kalasiris. Men doing physical labour wore a loin cloth, wide galabiyeh-like robes or, if they were working in the water, nothing at all. Children usually ran around nude during the summer months, and wore wraps and cloaks in winter when temperatures might fall below 10°C. The gods had to be dressed as well. This was the duty of a small number of priests allowed to enter the holiest of holies, where the god's statue was. Nesuhor, commander of the fortress at Elephantine under Apries, took care that the tem ple of Khnum had all the servants necessary to serve the needs of the god: Fashion... The clothes were generally made of linen and kept simple: a short loincloth resembling a kilt for men, a dress with straps for women. These basic garments with minor variations accounting for fashion, Very little sewing was done. The cloth was wrapped round the body and held in place by a belt. Its colour was generally whitish, in contrast to the colourful clothes foreigners wore in Egyptian depictions, although dyed cloth was not unknown. Men or women wore long see-through robes that were pleated.Better-off people wore wide clothes of white cloth.Wealthy people did not wear more jewelry or fancier clothes to show wealth. They did wear gold jewelry and the most transparent clothes. Women did not dress without washing (rich people had a tiled area for washing). After washing, they rubbed themselves with scented oil then they placed a large rectangle of linen over their heads, gathered the loose corners up and tied them in a knot below the chest.The usual toilet articles were tweezers, razor and comb. The length of the the kilts varied, being short during the the Old Kingdom and reaching the calf in the Middle Kingdom, when it was often supplemented with a sleeveless shirt or a long robe.The robes worn by both sexes in Egypt were called kalasiris by Herodotus. Material and cut varied over the centuries, though the cloth of choice was always linen. The kalasiris women wore might cover one or both shoulders or be worn with shoulder straps. While the top could reach anywhere from below the breast up to the neck, the bottom hem generally touched the calves or even the ankles. Some had short sleeves, others were sleeveless. The fit might be very tight or quite loose. They were often worn with a belt which held together the folds of cloth. They were sewn from a rectangular piece of cloth twice the desired garment length. An opening for the head was cut at the centre of the cloth, which was then folded in half. The lower parts of the sides were stitched together leaving openings for the arms.

Women's dresses were at times ornamented with beads. They covered the breasts most of the time, though there were periods when fashion left them bare. Whether you were rich or poor you wore jewelry.They wore rings, necklaces and ear studs.Ear studs: earrings.The jewelry was made of gold or colorful beads.Necklaces were made with turquoise and lapis lazuli stones. Make up... Both men and women made up their eyes and lips.Eyes were rimmed, eyebrows were painted and lashes were darkened with a black powder called kohl.The red cheek powder was called ochre.They used a dye called henna to redden their nails and hair.They mixed powdered minerals with oil to get colors.At parties women wore a cone of scented fat on their heads that slowly melted making their heads smell nice Headdresses... If depictions are anything to go by, then ordinary Egyptians did not wear any headdress as a rule, They wore a new wig each day (both men and women wore wigs).Wigs were made from human hair or wool.They wore curled wigs for special occasions.The pharaohs are always represented wearing crowns, but whether this is a pictorial convention or whether they did so in every day life can not be decided. Footwear... People usually went barefoot and carried their sandals, wearing them only when needed.The sandals were made of palm fiber or braided papyrus.Papyrus: tall water plant that grows in the Nile Valley. The kings wore at times very elaborately decorated sandals, and sometimes decorative gloves as well, but generally they were depicted barefoot, as were the gods Sandals made of gold have been found which cannot have been very comfortable to their wearers if they were worn at all. There were sandals made of wood with depictions of enemies on their soles, on which the king would tread with every step and another pair which was fastened with buttons. Sandals seem to have had an importance which mostly escapes us nowadays, symbolizing prosperity and authority. Sandals were very closely and beautifully stitched up of rush, and usually soled with leather. A small bundle of rush was wound round by a rush thread, which at every turn pierced through the edge of a previous bundle. Thus these successive bundles were bound together edge to edge, and a flat surface built up. This was edged round in the same way. In basket making exactly the same principle was followed, with great neatness. The rush sandals soled with leather, leather sandals alone, and leather shoes, were all used. The shoes seem to have been just originating at that period; two orthree examples are known, but all of them have the leather sandal strap between the toes, and joining to the sides of the heel, to retain the sole on the foot ; the upper leather being stitched on merely as a covering without its being intended to hold the shoe on the foot. These soles are compound, of three or four thicknesses


Roman clothing owed much to that of ancient Greece, but it had distinct forms of its own.In all the ancient world, first and foremost clothes needed to be simple. As for possible materials there was only really one. Wool, although to some extent linen was also available.The needles of the day were coarse and unwieldy by modern standards. Hence any stitching or sewing was kept to a minimum. The Tunic... The most basic garment in Roman clothing was the tunic (tunica). It was the standard dress of Rome. For most Romans and slaves the tunic would be the entire clothing they dressed in before setting foot outdoors. The male tunic would generally reach roughly to the knees, whereas women¶s tunics would generally be longer, some reaching to the ground. Female tunics often also had long sleeves. However, it took until the second or third century AD for long sleeves to become acceptable for men. Until then it was perceived as highly effeminate to be wearing one. Cold weather would likely see Romans wear two or three tunics to keep warm. In that case the tunics nearest the body, functioning as a vest, would be the subucula. The next layer would be the intusium orsupparus. Emperor Augustus, who was of a rather frail constitution, was known to wear as many as four tunics in winter.There was some formal differences in tunics which denoted social rank. A purple stripe worn on the tunic was called a clavus and indicated membership to a particular order:- the latus clavus (or laticlavium) denoted senators. - the angustus clavus was the mark of the equestrian order So a senator could wear a tunic featuring a vertical broad purple stripe down the centre. An equestrian could wear a tunic featuring two vertical narrow purple stripes on either side of the tunic. The richest form of the long-sleeved tunic, the dalmatica, in many cases replaced the toga altogether in the later years of empire. In the very same age, due to the influence of Germanic soldiers dominating the ranks of the army, long, close-fitting trousers were widely worn The toga... The toga was allowed to be worn only by free Roman citizens. Foreigners, or even exiled citizens, could not appear in public wearing a toga. If in the early days the toga was worn directly on the naked body, then later a simple tunic was added, tied at the waist with a belt.There were some old families with ancient ancestry who insisted on continuing the tradition of dressing without a tunic, but their fellow Romans understood them somewhat eccentric. Basically the toga was a large blanket, draped over the body, leaving one arm free.Through experiments historians have concluded that the vast blanket took the form of a semi circle. It was along the straight edge the purple stripe of a senator's toga praetexta ran.

Usually the toga spanned between 2 ½ and 3 meters long (though apparently up to 5 ½ metres long in some cases) and at its widest point it will have been up to 2 metres wide.In some cases lead weights were sewn into the hem to help keep the garment in place. In order to help the toga drape more gracefully, slaves were known to place pieces of wood in the folds the previous evening. The toga was made of wool. The rich ha d the luxury of choice of what kind of wool they sought to wear. Boys of reasonably wealthy families already would be expected to wear the toga. In their case, the garment oddly shared its name with that of the senators, the toga praetexta. On formally becoming a man, usually around his 16th birthday, the young Roman would then dispense with the toga praetexta and instead wear the simple, white toga of the Roman citizen, known as the toga virilis, toga pura or toga libera. It is worth mentioning that the white colour of the toga was prescribed by law.

How to dress in a toga Women¶s dress... Fewer restrictions by laws, customs and traditions existed on the dress of women. If initially is believed to have been largely white, li ke the dress of men, then didn¶t appear to stay so for long. Female clothes instead being of almost any colour.The basic female garment was the stola. It was essentially a long tunic reaching to the ground. If could have long or short sleeves, or be entirely sleeveless. The stola was generally worn over another long tunic, the tunica interior It was often the case that the stola therefore was shorter than the under tunic in order to show the layers of garment (which invariably was a display of wealth and status).Another display of wealth could be a wide ornamental border (instita) on the lower hem of either the under tunic or the stola. It is perhaps easiest to describe the palla as a draped cloak similar to the toga, albeit smaller and much less unwieldy.There seems to have been no specific size or shape that specified a palla.So it could range from a large garment which draped around the body to something no more significant than a scarf.

Silk clothing was available to the rich, but was solely used for female vestments, as for men it was deemed utterly effeminate until the late empire, when the courtiers of the 4th century dressed in elaborately embroidered silk robes. Childrens... It is fair to assume that children, especially those not borne to rich families spent their time in simple, belted tunics.Children wore an amulet called the bulla. Boys would wear it until reaching their manhood, usually around the age of sixteen. Girls would wear it until they married. Cloaks... Cloaks and other over garments were used to protect against bad weather. A variety are known, at times worn over the toga itself, but more often replacing it If various kinds of cloaks are known by name, it is today quite hard to discern where the precise differences between these garments are to be found as little more than their name is known. The pallium was worn over the tunic or the toga. This seems possibly to have been quite a colourful decorated item, hence possibly an outdoor vestment of the wealthy. Footwear... Roman footwear showed little distinction between male and female. One usually wore sandals tied round the ankle with thin strips of leatherThere were three main types of footwear:The calcei were the standard outdoor footwear for a Roman and formed part of the national dress with thetoga. It was a soft leather shoe, generally speaking a cross between a shoe and a sandal Sandals (soleae, crepidae or sandalia) were generally regarded as indoor footwear. It was as improper to be seen in public wearing sandals outdoors as it was to visit your host's banquet in anything other. Hence a wealthy Roman would have a slave accompany him to a banquet, to carry his sandals, where he would change into them.The third general type of footwear was a pair of slippers (socci), which were also meant for indoor use There were of course other types of footwear. The pero was a simple piece of leather wrapped around the foot, the caliga was the hob-nailed military boot/sandal and the sculponea was a wooden clog, worn only by poor peasants and slaves. Beards and Hairstyles... The tradition of intricately groomed beards was quite common among the Romans. The Romans though until 300 BC remained pretty much ungroomed. It was only with the introduction of the fashion of shaving during the age of Alexander..It finally took a firm hold in Rome in about the third century BC.. During the third century BC many barbers from the Greek parts of Sicily moved to Rome and opened shops.

Of course Rome was not completely immune to the whims of fashion. Especially in the late republic it was seen as very fashionable for young men to keep a small, well-groomed beard (barbula). The general tradition of clean shaven Romans remained As for Roman men's hairstyles, they tended all to keep their hair cut short. Some very vain ones might have had their hair curled with curling irons, whilst being pampered for hours at the barbers.Under Marcus Aurelius the fashion for shaving one's head clean was introduced, whilst early Christians tended to have their hair and beards cut short. Young women simply gathered their hair into a bun at the back of the neck, or coiled it into a knot a the top of the head.Married women's hairstyles were more complicated. At first, the women of early Rome wore their hair in Etruscan fashion, keeping all of it tied up tightly with ribbons on the very crown of the head (tutulus). Though this strange arrangement disappeared very soon, though some priestesses still retained its use. Already as early as the second century BC caustic soap made of tallow and ashes was imported from Gaul to dye ladies hair a reddish-yellow colour. One of the styles used largely at court had the hair arranged in several layers, falling to the face in an abundance of ringlets.Such fashion in hairstyle required the services of an expert female hairdresser who also doubled as make up artist (ornatrix), as well as additional hair pieces to be added to create such a mass of hair.Hair pieces, wigs, hair lotions and dyes were all known to the Romans.

Although we think of Greece today as a relatively small country in the east of Europe, it was at one time the 'it' place of its day. It was a country of eminent thinkers and put Greece at the forefront of civilized thought and argument. Manners and costume also helped create a Greek culture that gave additional structure to one of the greatest civilisations the earth has seen.Consequently Greece has influenced every other nation that has risen to power since. The ideas, philosophies and writings left behind by the Greeks and the resultant archaeological finds from old ruins have created a good source of Greek era material and especially of costume. Grecian Clothing... Pictorial evidence has enabled us to have a very clear idea of Ancient Greek dress. The fashion history of ancient Greece has been carefully illustrated on vases, pots and in statue form.These two images above are representations of ancient Greek dresses. One common factor of the styles of all early clothes is that they are made from uncomplicated basic shapes which rely on girdles, belts and brooches, clasp or pins to create shape and form around the human body.Grecian clothes were little more than artfully arranged pieces of cloth, pinned and tucked into position as shown here.

Their elegance is derived from the careful arrangement of folds and complex arrangements of girdles, strapping or belts. Simple borders fall into interesting patterns when arranged as a long chiton robe.Embroidered patterns such as checks and floral forms were used to embellish the fabric edges to create border effects. The most famous Greek pattern is the Greek key/fret pattern shown here. A Greek Chiton... Both men and women wore the tunic or Greek chiton and it was simply an arrangement of folded and wrapped fabric as shown above and left. Women wore a floor length dress called a Greek chiton. In early times the Doric chiton was made from fabric which was the height of the wearer, plus 12 inches. The width was that of the full open arm span. The fabric was folded as shown in the chiton pattern picture shown right. A is pinned to A and B is pinned to B. The open sides are wrapped around each other and a girdle tied at the waistline with the loose fabric of C at the same level. The gap between B and the side fold will drape when in fabric and become the second armhole. Men mostly for everyday clothing, wore a short knee length Greek chiton although there were times when they wore it long .Men frequently pinned their chiton on the left shoulder leaving a bare right shoulder. Or, they wore it in much the same two shoulder pinned manner as the woman show right. Doric Chiton... The Doric chiton was made from wool .Cloth was so valuable it was not cut in earlier eras, but in later times the chiton was constructed from two pieces of cloth. The earlier Greek Doric Chiton above was made of wool and simply folded around the body. In time they evolved into the Ionic chiton, which was made of linen and even silk.

Ionic Chiton... The Ionic chiton was made from linen or silk.The advantage of using linen to make the Ionic chiton was that it was much more flexible, the result was that it hung in fine pleats of diaphanous crepon. Delicate muslin was also used.With better materials came more sophistication, and more scope for the Greek fashion elite of the day, for example to create sleeves. As a result, Ionic chitons used more material and were fitted with fibulae on the shoulders. The Ionic Chiton attracted more accessories from the Greek fashion forward of those days, in particular they added brooches to confer wealth and status.From a costume history concept of fashion repeating itself, the fine pleated look of the Ionic chiton. Colours for Ancient Greek clothing were not just white or natural as was first thought. While paint had worn away from statue evidence, further investigation showed the women of ancient Greece wearing several colours such as yellow, red, purple, blue or green.Men wore white or beige. Some fabrics were patterned.The different arrangements of fabric created a variety of styles like these two shown above. Rustic Greek Dresses... Rustic dress was a more relaxed shorter version like these Grecian folk shown left. The loose, relaxed, short Greek chiton was better suited to working in the fields and tendering to the livestock. The Ancient Greek Cloak, Chlamys or Himation... The Ancient Greek cloak was a simple rectangle or square of cloth thrown around the shoulders and fastened mostly with a bronze pin. The name for this particular short cloak mostly worn as a short military cloak by young men or horsemen was a Greekchlamys. In colder weather the larger cloak was worn, this was called a GreekHimation.The female cloak is called a Greek peplos and was worn over their chiton. Initially Greeks used wool and linen fabrics, but as the society became more sophisticated they traded for silk goods and it was not so much fashion styles that set individuals apart as the differentiation by the luxury that silk fabrics offered.

Hairstyles for Women.. . Over the centuries hair dressing was important to create various complex updo hairstyles. Women used gold, silver hair pins, cone headdress and tiaras. Young girls used fresh flowers and ribbons. Only boys and women had long hair and men cut their hair once they became youths.Plaiting, crimping and waving of female hair as well as decoration with pins, tiaras and bands is well illustrated in Greek imagery and is shown left. Popular styles involved tying the hair up with a fabric scarf, adding ribbons or garlands when a young woman or wearing a 'Stephanie' metal head dress . When making costumes for fancy dress parties always remember the golden rule of getting the hair and feet as near as the style worn to match a costume. Ancient Greeks mostly went barefoot although some wealthy people did wear sandals. Courtesans wore gilded sandals.

Greek Battle Dress... Greek warriors of battle wore tunics of leather
with metal plaque reinforcements. Helmets and leg protection called greaves added more skin coverage The metal battle dress itself was valuable since it had to be crafted by skilled metalworkers. The higher the rank the better the dress armour and shield was crafted, and possibly, the more protective it became. Some of the decorative metal elements paid homage to favourite Gods the Greeks thought would take care of them in battle and in the after life. One characteristic of the Greek helmet was that it almost totally enclosed the head and sometime had moveable sides, (but no visor) enabling the soldier to push back the face cover when at ease. Horsehair crests made the helmet an impressive sight.Greek light infantrymen wore double felt or leather tunics and leather greaves. All wore the Chlamys in battle (see above) as a cloak or as a left arm wrap for battle blows protection.Greek male battle dress shares a similarity with Roman battle dress.

Ancient Japanese clothes, culture and footwear are slowly regaining their popularity with the western world.Japanese ancient clothing was majorly influenced by China. Weaving is still unknown and the ancient Japanese clothing from fur.. "First of all, ancient Japanese clothing consisted of a piece of clothing. Ancient Japanese clothing was mostly unisex, with differences in color, length and sleeves. China influenced clothing in Japan while it was developing from a collection of loose clans to an Empire. All robes in Japan were to be worn from left to right just like the Chinese. Right to left was considered barbaric in China and the µleft over right¶ became the conventional rule of wearing a Kimono ever since. Colors, combinations and fabric textures changed and separated themselves from Chinese influence. Since the Japanese people don¶t wear footwear inside their homes, tabi is still worn. These are split ±toe socks woven out of non-stretch materials with thick soles. Clogs have been worn for centuries in ancient Japan and were known as Geta. These were made of wood with two straps and were unisexual. Zori was footwear made of softer materials like straw and fabric with a flat sole. Ancient Japan readily adopted other cultures and practices and most of its own culture is lost among these adaptations. The Japanese traditional clothing can be seen in many forms and interesting patterns which have evolved over the years. Here¶s a look at some of the various forms of Japanese traditional clothing.Japanese fashion trends have evolved over the years. The bizarre to the really creative designs can be found out here. Clothing in Japan now is very much as per the seasons as is the case all over the world. Bright colors can be seen in the spring season and fall colors can be witnessed in the autumn season. Japanese traditional clothing can be seen in many varieties. Some of these are worn even today. The Japanese kimono and the yukata remain to be the most popular kinds. Formal Japanese clothing can be very elaborate in their design or simple and elegant as well. Kimono... The word Kimono actually referred to all types of clothing. It also remains to be the national costume of Japan. Some of the earliest designs of the kimono were hugely influenced by the Hanfu, which is a part of Chinese clothing. During the 8th century, Chinese fashion trends gained popularity amongst the Japanese. The kimono turned into a stylish version during Japan¶s Heian period. Over the years, one could see visible changes in the

designs of the kimono.This form of Japanese traditional clothing is always worn by women and particularly for special occasions. As per the Japanese tradition, unmarried women wear a specific style of the kimono, which is called the furisodei Hakama... This type of Japanese traditional clothing consists of a wide pleated skirt. Today, men as well as women wear the hakama but in the earlier days, the hakama was worn only by men. In the ancient times, the hakama was worn by the samurai so that the opponent would not be able to see the footwork. A hakama has around 7 pleats, which are a representation of certain virtues. These are known to hold a lot of importance for the samurai. The men and women¶s hakama are also found in many varieties today. Yukata... The yukata is also a part of Japanese traditional clothing and can be considered to be a casual version of the kimono. People generally wear the yukata after bathing and this is a common sight to see in traditional Japanese inns. These being garments that are meant to cool the body are made in fabrics like cotton. J nihitoe... worn only the court ladies in Japan. This traditional clothing came onto the scene around the 10th century. This is an elegant garment that is considered to be a prized possession today. The j nihitoe can also be considered as one of the most expensive. Uwangi... The uwangi consists of a jacket that is almost on similar lines as the kimono. This is worn with the hakama. One can witness the uwangi as a part of the martial arts uniform. An obi belt is used to tie the uwangi . Footwear and socks Tabi... The tabi are actually traditional Japanese socks. These are worn by men as well as women. The tabi is generally ankle high and has a separation between the toe areas. (Between the big toe and the rest of the toes) The jika-tabi are often worn by workmen because they are made of a stronger material. Zori... The zori formed a major part of Japanese traditional clothing. These were often worn with the

kimono. The zori are open sandals that can be described as slip ons. Today, one can see many styles of the zori being used with modern fashion. Geta...The geta can be described as our regular flip-flops. These have a high wooden base and are worn with Japanese traditional clothing such as the Kimono or even the yukata. Waragi...A waragi is also a kind of footwear that is worn in different ways by different people. As per tradition, when the Japanese wore the waragi, the toes would extend over the front edge of the sandal. The waragi was worn by all the common people in Japan in the olden days; today it is only the Buddhist monks who prefer to wear the waragi. Sash Obi... The obi was worn with many types of Japanese traditional clothing such as the kimono. The obi is a kind of as sash that is used by men as well as women. Obi also remains to be the outermost sash worn by the Japanese; it can conceal several other sashes that are worn beneath this sash. One can see the obi also worn with martial arts uniform. The colors of the obi denote the rank of the individual.

Costumes and fashion of different eras
Early Victorian Costume and Fashion History 1837-1860
Early Victorian Fashion Overview...This is an overview of fashion history of the early Victorian era and can be read in line with other related topics. Much fuller details of petticoats styles are given in Crinolines and Bustles. Victorians - Where to Look for Fashion Details...Movements like the Rational Dress Reform Society and the Aesthetic Dress Movement highlight positive and negative reactions to industrial and technical applications happening in Victorian society. In terms of Victorian fashion history this also brought changes in women's position and dress. Dating Victorian Costume...Queen Victoria reigned from 1837 to 1901 and was succeeded by her 60 year old son Edward the Prince of Wales. At the start of the Victorian era most fashions lasted about a decade, but mass communications and mass production both improved so much that by 1901 the history of fashion was moving in a yearly cycle. Illustrations of Victorian clothes of the last 20 years of the C19 th can be dated to within a year or two. Looking at the section on Crinolines, Bustles and S Bends Corsets would help those new to costume to understand the subtle changes in dress and hairstyles and how to spot the changes from a fashion history point of view. For theatrical and re-enactment work there are clear distinctions in dress in every Victorian decade. The Early Victorian Silhouette 1837-56...The look of demure prim gentility was emphasized by the loss of the great hats in 1835 for bonnets. Great hats had given a flirtatious air to clothes and their replacement by bonnets changed the whole character of day

dresses. Lavishly trimmed bonnets stayed in fashion for half a century and weren't worn much after 1890. In 1836 Gigot sleeves collapsed abruptly and so costume began to develop the sentimental 'early Victorian look' we associate with Queen Victoria's early rule. Prim sentimentality was emphasized by the popular ringlet hairstyle. Left - The early sentimental Victorian look often used to depict ladies of the era, c1838 By 1840 the collapsed sleeve was much narrower, but still retained a restrictive seam line on the dropped shoulder. The early Victorian tight fitting pointed bodice was much longer and had a very small tight fitting waist. All the boned bodice seam lines and trims were directional to emphasize the small waists. The boning also helped stop the bodice from horizontal creasing.Right - Slimmer fitting sleeves of plainer, more streamlined early Victorian dresses of 1838. By 1845 the boned bodice was even more elongated into a V shape and the shoulder sleeve seam line drooped even more. This meant that an early Victorian woman's arm movements were restricted. The limited range of arm movements increased the appearance of demure vulnerability and helplessness we so often associate with Victorian femme fatales. Softer more demure plain colours and small delicate dimity patterns helped to add a neat ladylike quality to gowns. A Victorian woman could also emphasize modesty by wearing freshly laundered detachable white collars and false undersleeves called engageantes. Both were often made of delicate whitework and gave an air of refinement and daintiness. After being absent for a decade the cashmere shawl was brought back into fashion about 1840. Because the new version was larger it acted as an outer wrap and when folded in half and draped over the shoulders would reach almost to ground level in some cases. Cartridge pleats were used at first to draw up the skirt fabric in 1841, but after 1846 flat pleating the fabric gave more overall hemline width. To make the skirts appear wider, extra flounces were added in the early 1840s to evening dresses and by 1845, flounces and short overskirts were a regular feature of day dresses. As bell shaped skirts of the 1830s became wider and they began to also look dome shaped. By 1842 they needed a great deal of support from extra petticoats. The wider skirts were supported by stiffened fabrics like linen which used horsehair in the weave. 'Crin' is French for horsehair so the word crinoline suggesting a crin lining was used for any garment area that was stiffened to give shaped foundation. Strip hem linings and a sleeve head are just two examples where crin was used. Later by 1850 the word crinoline began to mean the whole of the beehive shaped skirt. It was then only another step to call the later artificial or cage hooped support frame petticoats after 1856, crinolines. The cut of the low shoulder line filled in to the neckline by day followed through to evening dresses. Evening dresses totally exposed a woman's shoulders in a style called the 'bertha'. Sometimes the bertha neckline was trimmed over with a 3 to 6 inch deep lace flounce or the bodice neckline was draped with several horizontal bands of fabric pleats.Right - Typical

domed appearance of petticoat supported Victorian crinoline dress and child's confirmation dress of 1851. Lace bertha neckline 1856 very usual on early Victorian evening dress. All this exposure was restricted to the upper and middle classes. Victorian working class women would never have revealed so much flesh. The décolleté style meant that the shawl became an essential feature of dresses. In the early Victorian years time corsets also lost their shoulder straps and a fashion for producing two bodices, with a closed décolletage for day and a décolleté one for evening. Using a separate bodice to skirts meant that a tighter waist could be achieved. This fashion for two piece costumes, but known as a dress lasted until about 1908. Crinoline Cage Frame of 1856 Patented by W. S. Thompson... Six petticoats at least were needed to hold the wide skirts out. The cotton, flannel or wool petticoats used under one skirt could weigh as much as 14 pounds, so clothes were uncomfortably hot and heavy in summer. The American Mrs. Amelia Bloomer denounced the style that needed so many petticoats, suggesting a bifurcated garment as a solution. Another American W .S Thompson took out a patent on a cage frame in 1856 and then marketed a steel frame cage crinoline throughout Europe. It freed women from excessive petticoat weight, although a top petticoat give a softer foundation for the dress skirt. It let women's legs move freely beneath, but it could be unstable in gusts of wind, so it was fortunate that women had universally adopted the wearing of drawers some years before. Petticoats were always cut following the line of the top garment. Skirts among all classes began to look rounded, like gigantic domed beehives and soon they reached maximum size. Freed from excess petticoat weight women began to gain a jaunty spring in their step. Within a few years the crinoline was improved when it became articulated and various modifications such as subtle flattening of the front created a less domed more pyramid effect by 1860. Engageantes...To balance the effect of the cage crinoline, sleeves were like large bells too and sometimes had open splits allowing for lavish decorative sleeve hemlines and detachable false undersleeves called engageantes. Engageantes were often made from fine lace, linen, lawn, cambric or Broderie Anglaise and were easy to remove, launder and re-stitch into position.Right - Engageantes - false detachable undersleeves. It is these distinctively styled sleeves that help date the first softer polonaise bustle when looking at illustrations. Charles Worth was responsible for many interesting sleeve styles of the mid-Victorian era.

Charles Worth Redefines Haute Couture in 1858...In 1857 the Englishman Charles Worth set up a Paris fashion house at 7 Rue de la Paix a then unfashionable Paris district. In 1858 he made a collection of clothes that were unsolicited designs. He showed the clothes on live models and when people bought his original designs he became a leading fashion design couturier of the Victorian era. Until that time fashion details and changes were suggested by the customers. The House of Worth became a leader of ideas for the next 30 years. Haute Couture during the Victorian period was an ideal foil for conspicuous consumption. Fragile gauze dresses decorated with flowers and ribbons that were made for wealthy young women were only intended to be worn for one or two evenings and then cast aside as they soiled and crushed so easily. Silk flowers, froths of tulle and pleated gauze trims would have emphasised the innocence of virginal girls whilst signalling their availability on the marriage market. Such conspicuous waste and conspicuous consumption were hallmarks of Victorian high living. Older, married more senior women wore statelier fabrics like heavy satins, crisp silks and plush velvet. It was thought good etiquette to dress according to one's position in society and that also meant not wearing clothes more suited to a younger woman. When researching fashion history it is important to remember that ordinary women were dressed in a much more subdued manner. Many would mainly wear occupational dress or household serving uniform.

Mid-Late Victorian Fashion and Costume History 1860-1901 The Mid Victorian Silhouette 1860-1880
Factors Affecting the Fashion Silhouette after 1860...We arrive at 1860 with four significant facts that were to seriously affect fashion of the future. Firstly the sewing machine had been invented, secondly clothes would in future become couture design led, thirdly synthetic dyes would make available intense colours.Fourthly in 1860 the crinoline domed skirt silhouette had a flattened front and began to show a dramatic leaning toward the garment back. Charles Worth thought the crinoline skirt unattractive. However, he is associated with it, as he did manipulate the style, as a result the shape soon changed to a new trained, softer bustled version, which only the really rich found practical.Right - Dress designed by Charles F. Worth In 1864 Worth designed an overskirt which could be lifted and buttoned up by tabs. This top skirt gave a lot of scope for added ornamentation and by 1868 it was being drawn and looped right up at the back creating drapery and fullness. The New Princess Line 1866...In 1866 the new Princess gown also changed the line of fashionable dress. The Princess gown was cut in one piece and consisted of a number of joined panels fitted and gored from shoulder to hem that gave the figure shape through seaming.

The Gabriel Princess gown with a small neat white collar was mainly made in grey silk and followed the fuller skirt lines of the era. This is the dress style often used to depict the constrained buttoned up repressed governess character of Jane Eyre in films. Later Princess styles were slimmer and much more form fitting. Sleeves in day dresses were often of a banana shape. The Soft Bustle Fashion Silhouette 1867-1875...By 1867 with the fullness bunched up to the back of the skirt creating a polonaise style, crinolines and cages suddenly disappeared evolving into tournures or bustles. The bustles supported accentuated drapes on the hips. Left - Women in the Garden .After 1868 Worth's overskirt really caught on in England and contrasting underskirts and gown linings were all revealed as the over top skirt was divided or turned back. Other top skirts were called aprons and they were also draped making the wearer look like a piece of elaborate upholstery. Rounder waistlines were fashionable and waistlines even began to rise very slightly On the left a tiered soft bustle ball gown of 1872.Right - Apron style tablier top layer half skirt over bustle. From 1870, ball gowns always had a train. Soon by 1873 the train was seen in day dress. By 1875 soft polonaise bustle styles were becoming so extreme that the soft fullness began to drop down the back of the garment and form itself into a tiered, draped and frilled train.Trains were very heavily ornamented with frills, pleats, ruffles, braids and fringing. The sewing machine instead of simplifying sewing, just became a tool to add more ostentation. The other main feature of the style change was the introduction of the cuirasse bodice which dipped front and back extending a little over the hips. By 1880 the soft bustle styles of the 1870s had totally disappeared. The Late Victorian Silhouette 1878-1901...By 1878, women of the late Victorian era have a very different look about them compared to earlier Victorian women. The Princess Line and the Cuirasse Bodice...The soft polonaise style bustle styles were replaced by Princess sheath garments without a waist seam with bodice and skirt cut in one. The Princess line sheath had a bodice line similar to the very tight fitting cuirasse bodices which had been getting longer and longer.Right - Slim fitting trained dress with cuirasse bodice 1876. By 1878 the cuirasse bodice reached the thighs. By 1878 the cuirasse bodices had reached the thighs. The cuirasse bodice was corset like and dipped even deeper both front and back extending well down the hips creating the look of a body encased in armour. By 1880 the two ideas merged and the whole of the dress was in Princess line style with shoulder to hem panels. The silhouette was slim and elongated even more by the train. No bustle was needed for the cuirasse bodice or Princess sheath dress, but a small pad would have helped any trained fabric to fall well. Left - The cuirasse

bodice of 1880 reached the hem actually becoming the princess panel dress. It made an exceptionally form fitting draped sheath dress which was elongated even further by the train. The slimline style needed good dressmaking skills to get a flattering fit. When done well it was attractive, but all too often swathes of fabric were wrapped and arranged across the garment in an effort to disguise poor dressmaking skills. It was not a very practical garment and only really suited to the very slim and those who did not have to work. As a fashion it barely lasted 3 years. The New Hard Bustle of 1883...Suddenly out of nowhere in 1883 a new jutting out shelf like style of bustle appeared. It had been shown in Paris in 1880, but as a fashion took off later outside of Paris. It reappeared even larger than ever as a hard shape that gave women a silhouette like the hind legs of a horse as shown in the page heading. Right - The second hard bustle style 1883. The new bustle dress had a different look. It had minimal drapery compared to the former and a slimmer more fitted severely tailored princess bodice, with a much flatter front. What drapery there was, was tidily arranged at the front of the dress as a small apron. Soon even that disappeared. For support the spring pivoted metal band Langtry bustle gave the correct foundation for the wider skirts. This later bustle fashion was very moulded to the body and the heavy corsetry gave an armour like rigidity to the silhouette. The pointed bodice began to look quite tailored. Tailored garments had been introduced in 1874 and their influence on design was subtle, but led eventually to the tailor made suit so fashionable in the 1890s. In 1887 the sleeves were still slimmer, plain and close fitting. The sleeves look like quite a different style than on the bustle dress of the 1870s which had sleeves that would not have looked out of place on dresses of 1860.By 1889 silhouette changes now couturier led were changing more rapidly and the sleeve developed a very slight leg of mutton outline which soon needed support. Right Dress of 1889 showing signs of elevation at the sleeve head. Victorian Fashion History - Power Dressing...It's interesting to note how late Victorian women embraced the sharper tailored jacket fashion which gave them a difference with a more confident air reflecting the ideals of early female emancipation. Some dresses also had a more severe air about them.Left - Tailor made suit of 1895. There are similarities in the period 1885 with 1985 when women also showed their strength in the corporate workplace with Power Dressingthrough more masculine tailored, shoulder padded clothes. A similar broad shoulder trend occurred in the Utility Clothing era of the 1940s when women did work usually thought of as men's work. Bright Aniline Dyed Colour...sThe gowns of the 1880s were almost always made in two colours of material. Vivid colours such as deep red, peacock blue, bright apple green, royal blue, purple, mandarin, sea green were used alone, in combination, or in tartan fabrics.

Some colour combinations were very strange. At night ladies evening dresses were in softer hues and although they were extravagantl y trimmed in contrast fabrics and very décolleté, they followed the general line of fashion. 1890s...Gradually the skirt widened and flared as the fullness of the bustle began to fall into pleats down the garment back eventually disappearing to nothing. As before the bustle foundation softened until only a small pad was left by 1893. The armour like hour glass figure soon developed into the S-Bend shape corset which set the Edwardian Corsetry silhouette until 1907-8. Left - Evening gown with train 1890. Leg of Mutton Sleeves...The leg of mutton sleeves continued to develop and sprouted high above the shoulders, By 1895 the sleeves swelled into enormous puffs similar to those of 1833. As happened in 1830 to balance the huge shoulders the skirt widened and flared, whilst keeping the waist tight and handspan narrow. Queen Victoria's influence over fashion was long gone. people who were in mourning still followed court guidelines on mourning dress. The real royal influence in fashion was the wife of the Prince of Wales, Princess Alexandra. Together they set the tone for society and fashion in the last decade of the century in the 1890s and into their own reign of the Edwardian era from 1901 to 1910.

La Belle Époque 1895-1914 Edwardian Fashion History
What is La Belle Époque?Aspects of Edwardian fashion history are examined in the sections on the Society Hostess, The Edwardian Seamstress and Edwardian Corsetry. Here we give a general overview of the main popular styles in the period 18901914 by which time fashion moved in a yearly cycle.The French called the era from 1895 to 1914 La Belle Époque. It was an epoch of beautiful clothes and the peak of luxury living for a select few - the very rich and the very privileged through birth. In retrospect we can see it is an era very separate from the 20th century despite belonging at its start. The attitudes and lifestyles of two decades were swept away by war and because the war was so atrocious a new socialism and sense of personal identity was born. The masses started to reject the concept of privilege as the reason for a better life. Clothes worn after 1915 could probably be worn today in certain circumstances, but clothes before then are more in tune with the elaborate clothes of 1770 and would only be seen today at a costumed event or as bridal wear. The Silhouette after 1890The bustle disappeared from day dresses and the new day skirt style was flared smoothly over the hips from a handspan waist and then gradually widened at the hemline.By 1895 the leg of mutton sleeves swelled to gigantic proportions and were also used on décolleté evening dresses. The size of the sleeves was highlighted by the comparison of the tiny sashed or belted waist against the simple gored skirt that flared out all round to balance the massive sleeve heads.Hostess beauties of the

1890s. Left - Mary Moore, right - Grace Palotta Tailor Made Ready to Wear Costumes...The tailor made was called a costume or a suit and made of wool or serge. Middle and upper class women wore them with shirtwaist blouses. Looser less fitted versions of a simple suit had been available for informal wear since 1850. But the tailored suit as we know it was first introduced in the 1880s by the Houses of Redfern and Creed. Initially only the jacket was tailored and it was worn with a draped bustle skirt. By the 1890s and until 1910 the gored skirt also looked more tailored and matched the jacket style which followed the changing silhouette of the time. In the 1890s the tailored suit was thought both masculine and unladylike, a description usually used for a fairly plain garment. Describing female clothes as masculine was intended to be derogatory. Edwardian tailored suits ideal for travel....The pink tailor made shown left here has a short bolero effect jacket. The second green jacket is a longer line jacket that continued in popularity, but became straighter and less waisted toward the end of the Edwardian era. Tailor mades were always described as ideal for travelling. Within a decade they became much more versatile with a distinction being made between the cloths used. Lighter cloths were used in tailor made outfits suitable for weddings and heavier tweeds and rougher serge used for everyday or country wear suits.Fashion history clearly shows that by 1900 tailored suits were firmly established. Women entering a changing, more commercial workplace found it a useful all purpose outfit. Men objected to the tailor made female suit as they saw it representing a challenge to their authority. Women seemed to be making a clear statement that they deserved and wanted more independence in the future. The Gibson Girl...This particular image was a cartoon character drawn by the American artist Charles Dana Gibson. For twenty years between 1890 and 1910 he satirised society with his image of 'The New Woman' who was competitive, sporty and emancipated as well as beautiful...Right - The Gibson Girl.Her clothes were fashionable in both America and Britain and set a fashion for skirts worn with embroidered blouses. Another Gibson look was a shirt collar worn with either a tie, floppy artist bow, tie neck cravat with stick pin bar brooch or crosscut ruffle jabot.Beautiful embellished ornate blouses took on a new importance and were worn by every class. Home dressmakers did their best to emulate the fussy couture blouses and they used fine pin tucks, fine embroidery, appliqué, insertions of lace, faggoting, pleats and lace trim to get good effects. Blouses are detailed in the section on the Edwardian Seamstress. The Edwardian Silhouette 1900-1907...The fashionable hour glass silhouette belonged to the mature woman of ample curves and full bosom. The S-bend health corset described fully in the section on Edwardian Corsetry set the line for fashion conscious women until 1905. The corset was too tightly laced at the waist and so forced the hips back and the

drooping monobosom was thrust forward in a pouter pigeon effect creating an S shape. The S-Bend corset and pouter pigeon effect....If you were wealthy like an Edwardian society hostess, cascades of lace and ultra feminine clothes were available as labour was plentiful and sweated.During this time it was still usual to make dresses in two pieces. The bodice was heavily boned and was almost like a mini corset itself worn over the S-bend corset. A top bodice was usually mounted onto a lightly boned under bodice lining which fastened up with hooks and eyes very snugly. It acted as a stay garment giving extra stability, contour and directional shape beneath the delicate top fabric.By 1905 press fasteners were used in Britain to hold the bodice or blouse to a skirt, but America had dress fasteners as early as 1901 .Above Left - Bodice pouched Edwardian day dresses At the front of the bodice, pouches of cascading lace or gathered fabric gave emphasis to the low bust line. The straight sleeves of the late 1890s developed into bloused effects gathered into wrist bands. Very deep high lace fabric collars that reached right under the chin elongated the neck. Theywere often kept in place with wire covered in silk that was twisted into a series of hooks and eyes from one piece of wire. Little wire or boning supports covered with buttonhole silk were sometimes dispersed every few inches of the collar to maintain the rigid effect. Right - High neck blouse 1906. High necks were usual by day, but by night exceptionally low sweetheart, square and round décolleté necklines allowed women to wear quantities of fine jewellery. No cleavage was visible as the bust was suppressed into a monobosom.The skirts were often gored and created an elongated trumpet bell shape like the gently opening head of a longiflorum lily. Modified versions were less extreme over the hips, simply flowing to more width at the hemline.Right - The S-Bend Silhouette.

The high collar, S bend corset, trained skirt and lavish hat all had an effect on the posture of an Edwardian lady and it gave her a certain swaying grandeur. Between 1906 an 1909 the silhouette began to show gradual changes and skirts lost fullness and the silhouette straightened. Feet showed again.
The Edwardian Silhouette 1908-1913...The waistline was raised until it was a column like empire line orDirectoire after the styles designed by fashion designer Paul Poiret. So after 1907 fashion history looked toward a new fresh direction when a longer line corset became fashionable. The corset almost reaching the knees was intended to make the figure look slimmer. Poiret's ideas were controversial and were directed at younger women.

Paletots, Casaques and Mantelets...Women wore the shawl for many years, but gradually it was replaced by other outdoor items such as capes, wraps and jackets. The Casaque was a deep close fitting basque jacket that buttoned to the neck. A Paletot was a short jacket with set in sleeves and the Mantelet was a kind of half shawl. All the items had allowed for the cut of the bustles and pads of the era and the garments ranged from high hip to three quarter length. Edwardian Small Accessories... Incredible Edwardian Hats...After the slimmer silhouette arrived, hats developed much wider brims. Lavish trims such as feathers often stuck out well beyond the brim. The hats were named Merry Widow hats after the popular operetta of the era. Feathers...Feathers were used excessively as decoration on hats and as boas. The fur skin of whole animals such as foxes and even two foxes were used as wraps about the shoulders. Aesthetes objected to the use of animal products. Right - Martial and Armand Creation depicting the perfectly groomed directoire styled woman of 1912. Note the incredible feather hat and lavish gold metal embroidery, velvet and fur trim on the oversized muff. Gloves...Washable kid gloves were always worn with outdoor garments both winter and summer. Fancy gloves were also made in suede and silk and covered with fine embroidery. Parasols...Parasols were still used as decorative accessories and in summer they dripped with lace and added to the overall fussy prettiness. Bags...Handbags were not fashionable in the era, but small decorative delicate bags with a dainty strap that hung from the wrist were sometimes used. Ladies carried little money as goods were charged to accounts and only minimal make up was usual so none was carried. Sketches of Edwardian Hair and Hat Fashions in Fashion History from 1899 1912...Hairstyles like dress fashions, often change gradually, moving slowly from one line to another. These are some drawings of hair styles circa 1900-1914. Each row shows how hats and hairstyles evolve during the Edwardian era

The S-Bend Figure...The Edwardian era was the last period when the mature female figure was every man's ideal. Buxom ladies tortured their flesh to achieve the hour glass figure Edward VII favoured. They distorted their figures into the exaggerated S bend shape associated with the fashions of the era. To carry the 'S' figure well a woman needed a good carriage and height; advantages many a hostess possessed, being better fed and ladylike in deportment. The effect when she moved was very stately mainly because the sheer weight of many under-garments over the corsets restricted her movements. The Cut of Edwardian Skirt Styles...The hostess achieved this stately movement as much by the restrictive nature of her clothes as by years of deportment and dancing lessons. Skirts were confining, being tight waisted and 'bell' shaped, with every aspect of the skirt presenting a concave curve. They followed the same sinuous lines of art nouveau. The period 1897-1907 was the time of the 'flared skirt'. The skirt had never before presented concave surfaces other than in the train section. However from 1897 onwards the yoked skirt developed, the yoke being achieved by joining together two widths of fabric which reached the knee. Then a hole was cut in the centre to fit the required waist measurement. Circular extensions cut from a circle or deep, bias cut flounces were attached to the yoke and these additions tended to flow outwards from the body. During the next three years the 'eel skirt' and 'umbrella skirt', both cut on the cross and having an element of flare became fashionable. Improved versions appeared during the 1900s and the flare became more and more effective with gored skirts having as many as fifteen gores. The Edwardian Carriage Class...The grace-fullness of the elliptical curve which passed from hips to hem depended on the skirt length and the height of the wearer. This fashion favoured the taller woman. It also favoured the wealthier woman. Many skirts had trains which swept the ground, indicating that their owners belonged to the carriage class and could afford to employ servants to valet them. Medical Criticism of Unhygienic Trained Skirts...Trailing her obvious wealth behind her the hostess soon found herself the centre of criticism from medical men. Long trains were denounced as being unhygienic by the medical profession. It is more than likely however,

that they gradually disappeared because women found them uncomfortable to wear. Right - A sweeping dress of the early Edwardian era. Glamorous Edwardian Rustling Petticoats and Underwear...Under their skirts leisured hostesses wore foundation underskirts, made of beautiful taffetas or organdies, that rustled as they walked. No decent lady ever wore less than six petticoats, and it was generally believed that a mass of under -wear was hygienic. Petticoats made of silk, satin, moiré and other luxury fabrics were advertised. A wealthy lady might have chosen one costing as much as fifty guineas, although the less fortunate paid as little as five shillings and sixpence for a popular make that could swish equally loudly with movement.They wore many petticoats, fringed with lace which formed an enchanting foam around their ankles.' Sexual Titillation through Edwardian Lace... High fashion was the sartorial art of high living, providing the visual symbolism that enabled others to place the hostess on a scale of status. With varying degrees of subtlety the hostess used dress to titillate the male imagination. Lace, chiffon and frills were used as an instrument of sex appeal. Fashions favoured the mature woman and exploited the curves of an elaborately corseted figure amid the allure of tempestuous petticoats.Right - Edwardian bodices blouses dripping with lace, and other decorative embellishment as worn by society hostesses. Edwardian Tea Gowns...Between three p.m. and six p.m. husbands were expected to go out to tea whilst their wives played hostess to visitors both male and female. During this period there was a good chance of romance and sexual intrigue. Attired in her tea-gown, a soft flowing robe of filmy chiffon or fine silk, trimmed with an abundance of lace and often free of corsetry, the hostess must have been a tempting prospect for many men. Such loose gowns afforded women great comfort, ease of access and a tremendous sense of femininity. Little wonder then that whilst hemlines rose and fell the tea-gown, which had appeared in England as early as 1875 lingered on until the 1920s.
Towards Dress Reform - 1914-1920

Dress Reform 1905-1915...In fashion history terms time never stands still. In the Edwardian era, new influences and a changing society in a young century began to challenge the stiff formality that prevailed. In the years between 1905 and 1918 clothing styles emerged that were evolutionary in bridging the gap between the rigid formality of the Edwardian styles and the ultimate changes that led to the knee high dresses of 1926.Oriental influences have been shown in fashion history in women's dress in other eras such as in the 1800s, the mid 1920s and later in the 1970s and 1990s. It was in total contrast to the prevailing mood of dreamy pastels favoured by high society when hot tropical colours and a new silhouette was introduced. In 1920s fashion history, the initial break with the traditional styles stemmed from the inspiration drawn from the Aesthetic and Rational Dress Reform Movements of the late 19th century. Exciting theatrical costume designs which broke the rules also paved the way for more relaxed dressing. This was all fast forwarded during the

war years and led to the major changes in construction of clothes and undergarments for the remainder of the century. This era from 1905 to 1915 was particularly important in eroding attitudes to dress which had been stuck in the rigidity of the Victorian era for too long. Barriers broken in this period laid the foundations for the more relaxed clothes of the 1920s. 1914 Underwear and the First Patented Bra....The fashions of the era needed a new approach to under foundations. The first bra was patented in 1914 by Mary Jacobs an American. It is not thought to be the first bra ever, but it is the patented record that gives her the credit. Cretan women had the idea long before and various BBs or Bust Bodices or improvers had been around in Britain and France since the Edwardian era and exist today in costume collections. Several designers including Paul Poiret, Lucille and Vionnet all say they invented the bra as correct underwear for their new dress innovations and admonished clients to abandon their corsets. We will never truly know. What is certain is that a bodice designed separately from the corset had become usual wear by 1905 and Mary Jacobs had the intelligence to patent a design for a bra. Hair...Many women had begun to cut their hair when doing war work f or practical reasons. A compromise between long and short tresses was 'Curtain' hair and was favoured by the genteel. Worn with a band it could be dressed more prettily with a feather at night. Colouring the hair with Henna was popular as it was less risky than using the unreliable chemical dyes of the time, and it looked well with the oriental fashions. Clothes Styles During the First World War 1914-1918...All the changes that were forced on a rigid society were a direct result of the war. Women stopped wearing jewellery and lavish clothes. Dress rules for both sexes were relaxed in theatres and other venues. Women began to take part in voluntary philanthropic work which ultimately broadened their horizons and changed their outlook forever. As women mixed with other classes social barriers were eroded and the relaxed dress rules meant that they all began to look similar. The effect of war on fashion styles was that military braiding, belts with buckles and shorter skirts were seen everywhere. Fashion history shows that clothes got shorter during the First World War out of practical necessity.Right - Sketches of a restrictive hobble dress and the slightly later more liberating double skirted mid calf dress of 1916. In 1915 the hemline rose dramatically to mid calf, a height never before reached. Waistlines were still quite high following the Directoire style. But the double layered skirts as if to compensate for the length had a fuller top skirt often like a mini crinoline, worn over a slimmer under skirt also made of the top skirt fabric. Such garments were often fur trimmed.Bright colours faded from sight and only sober colours were worn as the war dragged on. Everyone was affected by the death of a loved one and so subdued dresses were simply a matter of good taste showing patriotism. By 1918 the fuller top skirt had gone and the calf length long skirt remained.

Women and War WorkMany women gave up domestic service work and worked. They drove trams and collected the fares, did administrative tasks, lamp lighting, postal work, worked as chimney sweeps and nursed. Women did farm work working as Land Girls. They also served in the WAAC, the Navy, the Red Cross and the Police began admitting women. Left - War poster. By 1917 over 700,000 women were employed to make munitions, wearing a working uniform of blouse and peg top trousers accessorised by scarves and fashion items. As a recognition of their efforts it was later replaced by a uniform of khaki overalls and caps. When the war ended the same women simply did not want to return to being maids for other people. They had gained a new freedom working outside of homes with set hours and a comradeship and respect that they relished. Amazingly after all their efforts only the jobs of bus conductresses remained open to them, but the barriers were broken and soon a wider choice of options became usual. National Standard Dress...In 1918 an attempt was made to introduce a utility garment as a National Standard Dress. It had no hooks and eyes but metal buckles and was supposed to be an all purpose garment that could be a dinner gown, day gown or nightdress. It never took off! Lessons learned from this were used in the 1939-45 war when women were given ration coupons, but had an element of choice in what they wore.

Flapper Fashion 1920s... C20th Fashion History .
1914 -18 Changes for Women...Socio economic changes that occurred during the First World War 1914-18 and became accepted, changed the role of women in a way that no amount of campaigning by a few liberated ladies could have achieved. The Flapper History...The costume history image in our minds of a woman of the 'Roaring Twenties' is actually likely to be the image of a flapper. Flappers did not truly emerge until 1926. Flapper fashion embraced all things and styles modern. A fashionable flapper had short sleek hair, a shorter than average shapeless shift dress, a chest as flat as a board, wore make up and applied it in public, smoked with a long cigarette holder, exposed her limbs and epitomised the spirit of a reckless rebel who danced the nights away in the Jazz Age. The French called the flapper fashion style the 'garçonne'. Attainable Fashion for All...High fashion until the twenties had been for the richer women of society. But because construction of the flapper's dress was less complicated than earlier fashions, women were much more successful at home dressmaking a flapper dress which was a straight shift. It was easier to produce up to date plain flapper fashions quickly using flapper fashion Butterick dress patterns. Recorded fashion history images after the twenties do reflect what ordinary women really wore rather than just the clothing of the rich.The flapper fashion style flourished amid the middle classes negating differences between themselves and the truly rich, but continuing to highlight some differences with the really poor. The really rich still continued to wear beautifully embellished silk garments

for evening, but the masses revelled in their new found sophistication of very fashionable flapper clothes. The Short Skirt Misconception of the Twenties... New students of costume history often mistakenly assume that all dresses day and evening were short in every year of the twenties and that flappers were the only fashion style of the twenties. Dress and coat lengths were actually calf length and quite long for most of the decade. Shortness is a popular misconception reinforced by the availability of moving film of the Charleston dance which shows very visible knees and legs on the dancing flappers. Skirts only revealed the knee briefly between 1926 and 1928, and this was the only period when evening dresses were short in line with day dress lengths. This was the flapper fashion era. Dating the Twenties HemlineFrom 1913 the hemline had begun to show a little ankle.Between 1916 and 1929 hemlines rose steadily, faltered then rose again.In 1918 skirt lengths were just below calf length.Calf length loose dresses circa 1918 compared with those of 1920 where the waist has shown a definite drop, but the length remains steady around the calf area.In 1919 skirt lengths were calf length.Between 1920 and 1924 skirts remained calf length with fluctuations of an inch or two according to garment style. Skirts were actually still rather long, but were designed to confuse. The Elusive Hemline of the 1920s....Gradually by degrees the skirt lengths on dresses gave the illusion of being first long and then shorter with dipping, scalloped and handkerchief hemlines in floating fabrics. It was only in 1925 that skirts rose 14 to 16 inches (45 to 50 cm) from the ground making the shorter hemline we associate with the era. Here we can see examples of the most elusive hemline in fashion history in the 1920s. By 1926 skirts were at their shortest in the Twenties decade and showed the knee until 1928. The whole leg as far as the kneecap was revealed this was the height of flapper fashion.By 1929 uneven hems and asymmetric skirt hemlines again helped the transition to longer skirts. Longer sheer overskirts and semi sheer top skirts were worn over shorter linings. By 1930 the hemline was several inches below the knee. The Masculine Silhouette of 1920's Females...After the first world war (1914-18) when women's dress became more mannish, each year seemed to get more severe in line which almost emphasised the feminine woman beneath. Female clothes became looser and more shapeless in fit. The bust was suppressed, the waist disappeared, the shoulders became broader and hair shorter and shorter. Narrow boyish hips were preferred. The silhouette emphasised a flattened chest and womanly curves were eliminated as the line became more simplified.

The Flat Chest of the Twenties...The slender flat-chested tanned body and face of a 15 year old became the desired silhouette of the bright young things of the 1920s. Health and beauty clubs helped women refine their silhouettes whilst getting fitter and healthier. It was a difficult time for the former matrons of Edwardian society, the previous leaders of fashion whose style of dressing became as passé as their rounded figures and older faces. More youthful women who could party all night and carry the boyish fashions well were all the rage. The 1920's Bra ...The bras of the early 20s include home made ones in white cotton and which were little more than bust bodices with extra separation. Some purchased bras were like camisoles and they offered no support.Big busted girls turned to bandaging their breasts flat, but many adopted the Symington Side Lacer, a bra that could be laced at both sides and pulled and pulled in to flatten the chest.For young ladies with youthful figures a satisfactory bra was the four sectioned lace bandeau bra, lined in net. None of the bras gave much shape, but few ladies were seeking anything more than stopping the bust from wobbling. As long as they looked boyish they looked fashionable.By the 1930s Triumph, Maidenform, Gossard, Warner Brothers, Spirella, Twilfit and Symingtons were all making bras that did the job of separating the breasts. At the same time it was finally acknowledged that women had differing cup sizes and bra sales doubled with the new designs. Girdles and Underwear...Between 1920 and 1928 corset sales declined by two thirds, but it adapted to changing needs. Fast flappers refused to wear corsets and rolled their stockings to the knee to enable them to dance easily. Long Corsets produced the boyish figure, but instead of thick boned corsets many women preferred thin elastic webbing Lastex girdles that flattened the abdomen. Suspenders were attached to the girdles.Underwear was minimal, sheer and lightweight. Women wore cami-bockers (directoire knickers and chemise) or cami-knickers or knickers and a petticoat.Right 1920's modern underwear An Air of Nudity in Stockings and Bare Arms...Although the 1950s are thought of as the first time of the teenager and the 1960s as the era when the young first led fashion, there is no doubt that the possession of a youthful body was a prerequisite of twenties flapper fashion. The arms were bared not only for evening, but also for day and the legs were covered in beige stockings visible to the knee which gave an overall more naked look than ever before. Just as young women of today, a hundred years later go bare legged in Gladiator sandals or encase their feet in cosy Ugg Boots, the young and fashionable woman of the 1920s also paid attention to her legs and footwear. Until the end of World War I she always wore black wool stockings. Feet, ankles and calves formerly hidden and encased in black stocking were suddenly on show. The fashion for wearing black stockings continued until 1918. By the 1920s stockings with patterns were hot fashion items. Embroidery snaked around the ankles and up to the knees. Flesh and soft pastel colours were popular and they were made in either silk or artificial silk known as art silk later called rayon. The rayon stockings were very shiny so girls powdered their legs to dull them before venturing out. Names of

stocking colours were Honey Beige, Teatime, Rose Morn, Boulevard and Spanish Brown. Lastex, a rubber based thread was used in knee highs in bright colours. Gabrielle 'Coco' Chanel...The great fashion designer Gabrielle Chanel 1883-1971 self styled herself to be known as Coco Chanel. By 1920 the silhouette of her clothing designs have come to be the epitome of 20's style. The work of other famous designers beside hers seemed old fashioned and outmoded belonging as they did to the pre World War One era. She promoted the styles we associate with flappers. She worked in neutral tones of beige, sand, cream, navy and black in soft fluid jersey fabrics cut with simple shapes that did not require corsetry or waist definition. They were clothes made for comfort and ease in wear making them revolutionary and quite modern. She was the Jean Muir or Donna Karan of her day and the originator of the LBD that little black dress. Left - Coco Chanel sporting short hair wearing one of her simple jersey outfits and revealing bare arms and flesh toned stockings. Short Hair...The 1920s saw a universal fashion for short hair a more radical move beyond the curtain styles of the war era. Hair was first bobbed, then shingled, then Eton cropped in 1926-7. An Eton crop was considered daring and shocked some older citizens, since hair had always been thought a woman's crowning glory. Only maiden aunts and elderly dowagers avoided the severe shorter styles, but by the 1930s softer waved hairstyles were a refreshing change. Cloche Hats...Women wore cloche hats throughout the twenties. A cloche hat told everyone that you had short hair. It was only possible to get a close fitting cloche on the skull if the hair was cropped short and flat. The cloche hat affected body posture as it was pulled well over the eyes which meant young women held their heads at a specific angle in order to see where they were going. Foreheads were unfashionable in the 1920s . Make Up Rites...During the era there was an increased use of make up and it was fashionable to perform the rites of make up in public. Instead of disappearing to the powder room women got out their engraved compact and applied lipstick and powder in sight of a whole restaurant or nightclub or tearoom. Ox blood lipstick was used lavishly, but rouge was still used sparingly. Today compacts from the 1920s are sought after by collectors. Fashionable Twenties Coats and Outerwear...Coats of the 1920s were mostly long until 1926. They all seemed to have one thing in common in that almost all illustrations of them show them as wrap-over whatever the length. Right - 1920's Wrapover coats.

The 1920s coats often wrapped to just one side fastening which was a feature of the garment. The coat fastening was either a huge button or some complex tab and buckle.Many coats had shawl fur collars. A fashion for coordinating coat linings with dress fabrics started at this time. 1920-1930 Shoes...T bar shoes with buckles and bows and straps featured in the 1920s.The Mary Jane ankle strap button shoe was the style of the twenties. Footwear was visible beneath short dresses and was selected with more care as a fashion accessory.Once shoes began to be mass manufactured in the 1920s footwear becam e an essential fashion accessory. Now it was truly visible beneath shorter dresses it needed to be selected with more care. Heels were over 2 inches high and waisted until the 1930s when they were lower straighter Cuban shapes. Strapped shoes were called Mary Janes. T bar shoes or others with buckles and bows made interesting fashion statements. Sequin or diamante trims were quite usual. In the 1930s shoes began to look heavier, but the toes were less pointed and more rounded, often of peep style. In 1936 Ferragamo the Italian shoe designer made wedge heel designs and by the 1940s, chunkier wedged platform shoes with thicker soles made the wearers feel they could walk for miles if needed. Unisex Styles...Chanel had introduced the world to the jumper and i t was worn by both men and women. Knitted garments for men really took off in the twenties and women eagerly wore the same knits too. Fair Isle patterns became very popular for both sexes.Free from corsetry and wearing simplified clothing modern women were able to indulge in sports. Soon swimming, golf and tennis along with keep fit were the passions of young ladies. Shorts became acceptable wear for cycling and for skating normal dresses were roomy enough for movement. The fashionable modern women of the twenties unlike their Edwardian laced and boned mothers truly belong to the twentieth century.

1930s Fashion History Stylish Thirties
The Female Form Returns to 1930s Fashion...In the 1930s there was a return to a more genteel, ladylike appearance. Budding rounded busts and waistline curves were seen and hair became softer and prettier as hair perms improved. Foreheads which had been hidden by cloche hats were revealed and adorned with small plate shaped hats. Clothes were feminine, sweet and tidy by day with a return to real glamour at night. Right - Fashionable sleek day dress of 1936. Daywear Versus Evening Glamour...Until the 1930s wealthy women had not really needed to wear practical day clothes. Although styles had been designated day styles if they were impractical it had not really mattered as long as maids took care of chores. Now women had more productive and busier lives and simpler pared down clothes gave a freedom of movement women relished in daily life. More luxurious gowns were kept for evening. New fabrics like metallic lame were very popular at night and were made to shimmer even more richly by adding plastic sequins and glass beads. Madeleine Vionnet and the Cross Cut Bias Method...The French designer Madeleine Vionnet opened her own fashion house in 1912. She devised

methods of bias cross cutting during the 1920s using a miniature model. She made popular the halter neck and the cowl neck. The bias method has often been used to add a flirtatious and elegant quality to clothes. To make a piece of fabric hang and drape in sinuous folds and stretch over the round contours of the body, fabric pattern pieces can be cut not on the straight grain, but at an angle of 45 degrees. It is sometimes said that Vionnet invented bias cutting, but historical evidence suggests that close fitting gowns and veils of the medieval period were made with cross cut fabrics. The Edwardians also made skirts that swayed to the back by joining a bias edge to a straight grain edge and the result was a pull to the back that formed the trained skirt. She did really popularise it and the resulting clothes are styles we forever associate with movie goddesses and dancers like Ginger Rogers. Using her technique designers were able to produce magnificent gowns in satins, crepe-dechines, silks, crepes and chiffons by cross cutting the fabric, creating a flare and fluidity of drapery that other methods could not achieve. Many of the gowns could be slipped over the head and came alive when put on the human form. Some evening garments made women look like Grecian goddesses whilst others made them look like half naked sexy vamps. Certain of her gowns still look quite contemporary. There was a passion for sunbathing. Women tried to get tans and then show them off under full length backless evening dresses cut on the true cross or bias and which moulded to the body. To show off the styles a slim figure was essential and that was getting easier for women who were educated and aware as many now used contraception and did not have to bear baby after baby unless desired. Right - Sketch of backless 1930's halter neck evening gown. 1930s Fashion ± Skirts...Skirts were frequently longer at the back than the front. Below the knee pleats and godets fell from panels so gave fullness at the hemline. The hemlines reached the bottom of the calf within a year. Some of the clothes were so stylish that they could be worn today. Part of their appeal was the draping fabric that was further enhanced by cutting fabrics on the true cross or the bias grain also quite fashionable at the start of the new millennium New Ways With Fabrics - 1930s Fashion...The new improved fabrics like rayon had several finishes and gave various effects exploited by designers eager to work with new materials. Cotton was also used by Chanel and suddenly it was considered more than a cheap fabric for work clothes. But nothing cut and looked like pure silk and it was still the best fabric to capture the folds and drapes of thirties couture. Fine wool crepes also moulded to the body and fell into beautiful godets and pleats. Left - 1930s Fashion. Sketch of a crepe day dress of 1938. Rayon dyed well and looked similar to and felt like silk. Often it was used to make lingerie for the cheaper end of the market.

The Zip...In 1933 promoted the fastener we call the zip or zipper. The metal zip had been invented in 1893 and by 1917 it was somewhat timidly used for shoes, tobacco pouches and U.S. Navy windcheater jackets. Her use of the new plastic coloured zip in fashion clothes was both decorative, functional and highly novel. They soon became universally used and are now a very reliable form of fastening. At the jewellery auction after her death, the pieces were evidence of great style. She continued to wear designer garments by Mainbocher and other famous designers. She was thought an icon of style in her younger days. She is also famed for saying 'a woman can never be too rich or too thin'. Unusual Male Fashion of the 1930s Beach Fashion 1930s...Health and fitness was an important aspect of thirties lifestyle. As sun worshipping became a common leisure pursuit fashion answered the needs of sun seekers by making chic outfits for the beach and its surrounds. Beach wraps, hold alls, soft hats and knitted bathing suits were all given the designer touch. Swimwear was getting briefer and the back was scooped out so that women could develop tanned backs to show off at night in the backless and low backed dresses. The colours of the beach holiday were navy, white, cream, grey, black and buff with touches of red. Pyjamas introduced as informal dinner dress or nightwear for sleeping died quickly as fashions. However the third use of them as a practical beach outfit caught on and every woman made them an essential garment to pack. They were soon regarded as correct seaside wear. The trousers were sailor style, widely flared and flat fronted with buttons. They were made up in draping heavy crepe-de-chine. Blue and white tops or short jackets finished the holiday look. These are illustrated in Sportswear Before 1960. The Rumble of War...The era had begun with an economic depression which had lifted by1936 for many. At the same time the rumble of warmongering in Europe became more evident. Designers began to adjust the mood of their collections to more military inspired square shouldered clothing teamed with low heels as if sensing a need for more functional wear. By the time war arrived in 1939 European designers had shown simple clothes, trousers and sweaters and classic shirt waisters designed to stay in fashion. One interesting facet to fashion was the brief emergence of a wasp waist in the 1939 Paris collections. Both Chanel and Mainbocher played with a full skirt and a waist, but the escapist fashion was not to be. It would be 1947 before Dior introduced his wasp waist Corollecollection that got dubbed the New Look. This was a pivotal time for the fashion industry and lessons learnt developing methods of mass producing uniforms carried over into the ready to wear industry. In the future it enabled manufacturers to produce quality goods speedily, moderately priced, and within acceptable profit margins.

1940s Rationing - Utility Clothing Fashion

Uniforms and Patriotic Fashion Looks...During the Second World War Paris produced restrained clothing to match the economic atmosphere. The general wartime scene was one of drabness and uniformity, continuing well after the war finished in 1945. There was an austere atmosphere and people were encouraged to 'make do and mend.' Uniforms were seen at all civilian social occasions from cinemas, weddings, restaurants to gala events. It was impossible to go anywhere without being aware of war as uniformed men and women in auxiliary services were an everyday fact. Clothing, Cloth and Footwear Rationing...This meant that women were forced to wear clothes that they had in their wardrobes before the announcement , adding items only as if essential. Non Rationed Items...In addition to the items listed there were goods that could be bought without coupons such as small items for babies under 4 months old. Boiler suits, workmen's bib, brace and overalls, hats and caps, sewing thread, mending wool, mending silk, boot and shoe laces, tapes, braids, ribbons and other fabrics less than 3 inches in width, elastic, lace, lace net, sanitary towels, braces, suspenders, garters, hard haberdashery, clogs and black out dyed cloth were all ration free. Coupons were not needed for second hand articles. Utility designs followed the square shouldered and short skirted fashions of the war era whilst sticking to the strict regulations for minimal cloth usage. Buttons were limited to three and turn back cuffs were eliminated. Skirts some 19 inches from the ground were usual. Right Standard utility suit designed by the Incorporated Society Of London Fashion Designers. Even within the Utility scheme there were couture garments for those who could afford them, but they still used coupons. The wealthy also had their uniforms tailored at the best tailors rather than wear standard issue. Clothes of War...Fashion items that became popular were the wedge sole shoe, the turban, the siren suit and the kangaroo cloak. The turban equalised people of all sorts. It began as a simple safety device to prevent the wearer's hair entangling in factory machinery. It doubled as a disguise for unkempt hair which women had less time to attend to being so busy running homes, jobs and giving extra help wherever they could.A woman's essentials sketches of the turban, the tied headscarf, a basic sensible military style suit and the sturdy wedge shoe of wartime Britain. Siren Suit...Siren suits were the original jumpsuit and the all enveloping sometimes tartan cloth garment was a huge hit especially at night when sirens called citizens to the air raid shelter for cover. With its quick zippered front individuals could wear the suit over pyjamas making it ideal for children. The princesses Elizabeth and Margaret both owned siren suits as did Winston Churchill and others. The siren suit was practical and warm in

draughty situations. Later in the 1960s it was developed into evening wear in slinky Pucci prints. Over the siren suit some would have donned a Kangaroo cloak coat so called because of its huge roomy kangaroo pockets. The oversized pockets were ideal to stack with essential items as they ran through the house to an air raid shelter. The severe shortage of leather meant that other thick sole materials such as cork was used. The wedge sole was clumpy, but sturdy and wearers could walk for miles as the wedge stopped the hard road from making feet sore. They also lasted a long time and needed minimal repair as did clogs which were ration free, but noisy in wear. Pillowcases would be turned into white shorts for summer. Wedding dresses would be worn several times, borrowed by sisters and friends, until the original 1939 bride in desperation for new items, remade the dress up into underwear, French Knickers or nightgowns. The only way to have feminine underwear was to sew it yourself. Skirts were made from men's old plus fours or trousers. Cast offs would be made into children's clothes. Collars would be added and trims applied all to eke out a limited wardrobe. Women who could sew dresses had trouble getting hold of fabrics so they used everything from industrial blackout cloth to parachute silk or the harsher new parachute nylon. Blankets were used to make coats and old voluminous swagger coats cut into smaller garments. Pillowcases were trimmed with lace and made into blouses. Nothing was wasted and even milk top discs were covered in raffia and made into handbags or accessories. Knitting in the War...Everyone hand knitted and knitted mitts and scarves and socks made up in open lacy patterns stretched yarns even further. The finer the yarn the more knitwear a person could produce, but it was mainly expert knitters that used very fine silky Mercerised cotton yarns. Wool socks were unravelled to have the yarn intermixed with random colours in fair isle designs often to make short waist cardigans or V neck sleeveless waistcoats for either sex. Stockings...Stockings of all types were scarce. Not even rayon stockings were readily available. Women were encouraged to wear ankle socks. Stockings might be found on the black market and later in the war many befriended an American G. I. in the hope of a pair of the new nylon stockings. Otherwise it was make do and mend again and in the case of stockings, make do with leg make up or gravy browning and get a friend to draw a straight line down the back of the leg. Make Up 1940s...Face make up was in short supply and news of a fresh stock of well known branded lipsticks at the local chemist meant that the shop sold out within an hour. Munitions workers were encouraged to wear make up as a protective barrier to the grit and chemicals they worked amidst. Women working in dangerous conditions were helped to keep up their morale and Max Factor officials from America visited munitions factories handing out the new pancake make up and lipstick. Ponds cold cream, Vaseline and Vitapointe conditioning cream for

hair were the few items usually available. Munitions workers often had skin that turned canary yellow if they handled lots of explosive materials. Hair 1940sThere was never enough stock of anything, but women still did their best to look good and their hair was important to them. By day it was kept out of sight in a turban or knitted snood which stopped it getting caught in machinery. Generally hair still had some length as women could wash and dress their hair in ways which made them feel more feminine.Left - Veronica Lake and her glamorous hairstyle. The Veronica Lake hairstyle was very popular as was peroxide bleached hair. Glamorous styles with curls were preferred to the short styles of the twenties. Some factories even installed hair salons to improve women's long term attendance. During this era Princess Elizabeth popularised the wearing of a headscarf tied under the chin. After the War the New look of 1947...After the war the public became resentful and impatient when rationing was not relaxed on clothes. People were bitter because clothes were being made, but were exported in an effort to rebuild the British textile and wool economy. Paris continued to produce exotic fashions, but America was developing a look of its own which was mainly found in Claire McCardell's designs. The American look was simple and classic and continues to have followers today. New Times, New Look...Christian Dior's New Look of 1947 was frowned upon by both the UK and USA governments and people were discouraged from wearing clothes that 'wasted' so much fabric. The advice was ignored particularly by Princess Elizabeth and Princess Margaret who were soon wearing it because it had influenced their own designers. Manufacturers read the public's need and their craving desire for newness and innovative change. They continued to manufacture replicas of the line and soon boxy uniform Forties fashions were consigned to the history books

UNIT 3«.Middle ages Mauryans
Style«Forceful sculptures carved during the Mauryan-Sunga period in the first century BC in the north at Bharut and Sanchi give us a feeling of superhuman power. The drapery hangs heavy folds and the jewellery is massive and somewhat coarse. Turbans coil and twist with the hair to form protuberances , with serpentine armlets and anklets closing in on strong limbs. The head veils of the woven are voluminous; long-beaded aprons and crossed scarves at he chest suggest fruitful abundance, and necklaces and strings with amulet boxes suspended on the breasts indicate a fear of evil and dark forces around. With the coming of the Sunga dynasty there is greater emphasis on detail in the elaborate jewellery of the women, which is more elegant and finer and adorns the figures seen in soft relaxed postures Costume«Men and women continued to wear three unstitched garments, as in Vedic times. The main garment was the antariya of white cotton, linen or flowered muslin, sometimes embroidered in gold and precious stones. For men, it was an unstitched length of cloth draped around the hips and between the legs in the kachcha style, extending from the waist to the calf or ankles or worn even shorter by peasants and commoners. Theantariya was secured at the waist by a sash or kayabandh, often tied in a looped knot at the center front of the waist. The kayabandh could be simple sash, vethaka; one with drum-headed knot at the ends, muraja; a very elaborate band of embroidery, flat and ribbon shaped, pattika; or a many-stringed one, kalabuka. The third item of clothing called uttariya was another length of material, usually fine cotton, very rarely silk, which was utilized as a long scarf to drape the top half of the body. The uttariya was worn in several ways to suit the comforts of the wearer: very elegantly by those at court, who drape it on both shoulders or one shoulder, or diagonally across the chest and casually knotted at the waist, or it could even be worn loosely across the back and supported by the elbows or wrist, and in many other ways according to the whims of t he weather. But for the labourer and the craftsman, it was more a practical garment to be tied around the head as protection from sun, or tightly around the waist leaving the hands free for work, or again as a towel to mop the face when sweating. Its uses were endless for the poor sections of the society and for them it would be made of coarse cotton. Women tied their antariya in different ways. Originally opaque, it later became more and more transparent. A simple small antariya or strip of cloth, langoti was attached to the kayabandh at the center front, and then

passed between the legs and tucked in at the back. A longer version of the antariya was the knee-length one, being first wrapped around and secured at the waist, the longer end then pleated and t ucked in at the front, and the shorter end finally drawn between the legs, Kachcha style, and tucked in at the waist at the back. Another version, the lehngastyle, was a length of cloth wrapped around the hips tightly to form a tabular type of skirt. This was not drawn between the legs in the kachchastyle. The uttariyas of upper-class women were generally of thin material decorated with elaborated borders and quite often worn as a head covering. Their kayabandhs were very similar to those of the men. In addition, they sometimes wore a patka, a decorative piece of cloth attached to the kayabandh in front by tucking in one end at the waist. The patka was made from plaited wool or cotton, twisted yarn or leather, and at times it was also woven. Although, footwear is often mentioned in Vedic literature there is no sculptural evidence for this period, except in the case of soldiers who wear the Persian boot. It may be because shoes could not be taken inside a stupa or Buddhist temple, that they were not depicted on the sculptures on stupas. In the more remote villages and jungles, shepherds, hunters and people of similar occupations were mostly aboriginal or belonged to the lowest caste. They generally wore simple unbleached coarse varieties of the cotton antariya and turbans, much the same as we find today, and the practice of tattooing was fairly common. The more primitive tribes who lived in the forest wore garments made from grass (Kusa), skin, and fur. Headgear and Hairstyles«Women generally covered their he ads with the uttariya, worn straight or crosswise, often resplendent with beautiful borders. The hair, centrally parted, was made into one or two plaits or in a large knot at the back. The uttariya could be worn simply hanging down at the back or secured to the head with a headband, or with one end arranged in a fan at the top of the head. Skullcaps were sometimes worn under or over theuttariya to keep it in place, or at times it could be decorated with a fringe or pendants. Helmets too are seen as headgea r for phrygian women who probably wore long-sleeved tunic with tight fitting trousers and a phrygian cap which was conical and had ear flaps. In India, the Amazons wore in addition, the crossed-at-chest belt vaikaksha, with metal buckles, shield, and sword. Women sometimes used turbans of decorated cloth. As regards male headgear, in the early Maureen period there is no trace of the turban mauli, but in the Sunga period we find great emphasis on this form of

male head dress. These were remarkable headdresses in which the hair itself was often twisted into a braid along with the turban cloth. This twisted braid was then arranged to form a protuberance at the front or the side of the head but never at the center top, as only priests could use this style. Over the turban a band was sometimes used to hold it in place. In addition, decorative elements like a jewelled brooch or a jhalar (fringe) could be attached to the turban, or one end folded in pleats and tucked in like a fan. Jewellery«From the sculptures we find there was a richness and profusion in the jewellery worn by both men and women. Earlier, it had a massive quality to it and the workmanship was coarse. A little later, with the Sungas, the jewellery became somewhat refined. In the Arthashastra attributed to Kautilya, and in the sculptures of the period we find references which show us that the material used most frequently were gold and precious stones like corals, rubies, sapphires, agates, and crystals. Pearls too were used and beads of all kinds we re plentiful including those made of glass. Certain ornaments were common to both sexes, like earrings, necklaces, armlets, bracelets and embroidered belts. Earring or karnikawere of three types-a simple ring or circle called Kundala, a circular disc earring known as dehri and earrings with a flower-like shape known asKarnaphul. Necklaces of two kinds were worn. A short one called Kantha which was broad and flat, usually gold, inlaid with precious stones, and a long one, the lambanam. These chain or bead necklaces were sometimes three-to-seven stringed and were named after the number of strings of which they were composed. At the centre of each string of beads was an amulet for warding off evil forces. Baju band or armlets of gold and silver beads were worn on the upper arm, and were occasionally studded with precious stones. Bracelets called Kangan, very often made of square or round beads of gold, and richly embroidered cloth belts completed the male ensemble. Women, in addition, wore girdle calledmekhala, a hip belt of multi-stringed beads, originally made from the red seed kaksha but now made of gold and silver beads, with shapes ranging from round to square and oval. Dancing girls added on to these, chains of gold and silver to which bells were attached. All women wore anklets and thumb and finger rings. The rings were plain and crowded together on the middle joints of the fingers. Anklets were often of gold in this period, though silver was more common. They could be in the form of a simple ring, Kara, a thick chain, sankla, oran ornamental circle with small bells called ghungru. There is no evidence of nose -rings in the period. Forehead ornaments for women were quite common and worn below the parting of the hair and at the center of the fore-head. These consisted of thin plate of gold or silver stamped in various patterns, as well as a star-shaped sitaraand bina. And a tiny

ornament called bindi. The only material evidence we have of a piece of Mauryan jewellery is a single earring found at Taxila dated second century BC which similar to GraecoRoman and Etruscan Jewellery. Military Costume«Sewn garments which had been used by the Persian soldiers were sometimes utilized for military dress by the Mauryans. This consisted of a sleeved tunic with cross straps across the chest to carry the quiver, and a leather belt with sword. The lower garment was more often the Indian antariya rather than the Persian trousers. The headgear was usually the turban or headband, whereas the Persians had worn the pointed cap. The mixture of foreign and indigenous garments is interesting as it shows one of the early phases of evolution in the costumes of Indians. This came about in the colder north, where the Persian garments were more suitable, climatically and functionally, in case of soldiers. Although, coats of mail are mentioned in the Arthshastra there is no visual evidence of it in this period. Textiles and Dyes«Weaving of fine and coarse varieties of cloth was well established. Cotton, silk, wool, linen and jute fabrics were readily available. Furs and the better varieties of wool and silk like tussar, called kausheya like Eri or Muga silk of Assam, yellowish in its natural color but when bleached calledpatrona, were used. Kaseyyaka (High quality cotton or silk) and the bright red woolen blankets of Gandhara were worth a small fortune each. A rain proof woolen cloth was available in Nepal. Resist dyeing and hand printing in a pattern on cloth has been mentioned by Greek visitors to the court . Material similar to the khinkhwab(which is the interweaving of silk and gold or silver wires beautiful floral pattern) was in great demand and even exported to Babylon long before the Mauryas. Cotton, wool and a fabric called karpasa were available in the north in both coarse and fine varieties. There were also fine muslins often embroidered in purple and gold and transparent like later -day material which came to be called shabnam (morning dew). The coarse varieties were used by the populace. Woolen cloth, avika, from the sheep¶s wool was either pure white (bleached) or dyed pure red, rose, or black. Blankets or kambala were either made by completing the edges with borders or braids, or woven wool strips were joined together. The process of felting (pressing the fibers together, i nstead of weaving) was also making known. All varieties of wool were available, coarse for making head-dresses, trappings and blankets for richer class.

DONOR FIGURE«Antariya: Lower cloth, calf length, of fine cotton with fluted ends in front, worn in kachcha style, that is between the legs. Uttariya: Upper cloth of printed cotton worn crosswise on the head.Kayabandh: Embroidered flat cloth band, pattika style, worn in a looped knot with fringed ends. Mekhala: Six-stringed hip belt of gold or silver beads.Lambanam: long necklace made of chains held at intervals by flat bands, phalakahara style.Kantha: Short necklace of five strings of beads in gold or silver.Karnika: Trumpet-shaped earrings.Kangan: Ten bracelets adorning each hand. Baju Band: Decorative armlets worn on upper arms.Kara: Anklets of twisted wire worn on both ankles.Sitara: Star shaped forehead ornament of gold or silver with a stamped pattern YAKSHI«Antariya: langoti style small strips of cloth drawn between the legs and attached to a cord at the waist.Uttariya: There are two: one has an embroidered border and is worn crosswise over the head with a jhalar (networking fringe) at the forehead; the other is draped across the back and over both arms.Kayabandh: Flat cloth band, pattika style, worn in a looped knot.Mekhala: Four stringed beads hip belt.Patka: A strip of woven beads tucked in at the front of the waist reaching the ankles.Atkan: bead necklace worn aslanr over the left shoulder and under the right arm.Kangan: five bead bracelets on each wrist.Baju Band: three row of beads on the upper arms Karnika: trumpet shaped earring Lambanam: long necklace of beads Kantha: Short necklace of beads Sankla: anklets made of thick chains KUVERA YAKSHI«Antariya: Kachcha style, both equal ends being taken between the legs after knotting the front; these ends are then held diagonally, fluted and tucked into the waist at the back to hang between the legs up to the ground.Uttariya: upavita fashion, worn across the chest and over the left shoulder.Kayalbandh: muraja style, drum-headed knobs at the ends, tied in a looped knot .Baju Band: armlets with elaborate incised pattern.Kangan: several bracelets on each wrist.Karnika: trumpet-shaped earring or karnaphul.Mauli: turban of printed cloth held by decorative bands wound over the top knot of hair and at the side of head

DONOR FIGURE«Antariya: worn in same style as in the Kuvera Yaksha except that only one long end is tucked in at the back, the other is a finely pleated apron tucked into the centre front of the antariya.Uttariya: looped at the chest and thrown back over both shoulders.Kayabandh: embroidered flat cloth band, Pattikastyle.Lambanam: phalakahara style necklace.Baju Band: simple leaf-patterned armlet.Kangan: three bracelets of beads on each wrist.Karnika: trumpetshaped earrings, Karnaphul.Mauli: turban in which the long hair and cloth are twisted together, wound around the head and made into a top knot in front, WARRIOR...Antariya: knee-length, worn in kachcha style with fluted end tucked in at centre front.Tunic : one of the earliest depictions of the cut and sewn garment; it has short sleeves and a round neck, full front opening with ties at the neck and waist, and is hip length.Boots : fitting to the knees.Head band: tied at the back over short hair.A broad flat sword with cross straps on the sheath is suspended from the left shoulder. DONOR FIGURE«Uttariya: printed or woven in a lozenge design in stripes, with a border; it is worn crosswise on the head and thrown back hanging to the waist like pouch.Kantha: short necklace with granulated design.lambanam: in phalakahara style.Hair ornament: jewelled and worn below centre parting of the hair COURTIER «turban is wound around the long hair tied in a top knot; to fix the turban in place a decorative band has been used; large disc-type earrings and two strings of beads adorn the neck NECKLACE«Kantha: short neckalce called tilari (3-stringed); each string consists of graduated pearls and a central gem.4-stringed: chaulari.5-stringed: paklari.7-stringed: satlari

COURTIER «long hair is twisted into a top knot at the left around which the turban is wound so as to completely cover it, an ornament heart shaped brooch is fixed on the right front and a decorative band visible at the forehead is tied under the turban ARMLETS«serpentine armlets are of the Achaemenid type and depict the Iranian influence on Indian jewellery of this period; he wears an antariya in the lehnga style, anuttariya and a thick many-stringed kayabandh with knotted ends-kalabuka GIRDLE«Mekhala: elaborate seven-stringed saptaki, the two outer strands are square, interspersed with rows of beads across and aslant the hips in gold or hard stone, and are early imitations of the strings of red rati seeds that were originally worn; the pattika, a flat ribbon-shaped embroidered gridle of cloth of gold is also worn EARINGS«Karnika: this style of earring in the form of a triratna or triple gem of Buddhist triad, was peculiar to the Buddhist; this symbol was used on necklaces and to decorate soldiers, scabbards and the top of standards

Style«In the highly civilized Gupta empire, we find jewelled head -dresses, and striped muslin lehngas adding to the sensuous fullness of the body and lending it a free-flowing movement. The mood is relaxed, somnolent and languorous, with sheer floating scarves and shinning radiant eyes accentuating the aura of dream-like delicacy. Pearl strands decorating the archways, and looped on diadems and around necks, further enhance the undulating mov ements of the graceful figures. Costume Men«In this period there was a marked preference for the stitched garment, as compared to any previous age, and clearly defined garments for north India and the Deccan began to emerge, which later crystallized into t he garment preference we see in India today. The Gupta Kings realized the value of adopting a dress that had traditionally become identified with royalty. They are shown on Gupta coins in full Kushan dress, that is, the coat, trousers and

boots. They continued, however, to wear the indigenous antaryia, uttariya and kayabandh for normal occasions. Many forms of cut-and-sewn garments became fashionable, especially at court. These garments were not totally foreign to the Indians. Changes had been occurring gradually and the indigenous kancuka, associated with guardians and attendants of the harem in earlier times, probably inspired the brocaded tunic with long or short sleeves worn by ministers, guards, door -keepers, and court attendants. Just as often is seen a simpler version, the white calf-length tunic which the chamberlain wore, a chaddar adding dignity to his attire. The lower garment was usually the antariya and with it was sometimes worn kancuka, which could be tucked in like a shirt. The kayabandh was used to hold the garments in place. The ushnisa (turban) was slowly becoming obsolete, and was now associated mainly with certain dignitaries, ministers and other officials. Foreigners at court were a common sight as trade and commercial intercourse between India and Persia in this period was at its height. Persia¶s influence on Indian art is most clearly seen in the rich floating ribbon decoration, which was in fashion at the Persian court of Khusrau II (AD 600). In northern India where climatic conditions were more suitable there was greater emphasis on the stitched garments, but in the south, as is apparent even today, the indigenous antariya, uttariya and kayabandh held their own. Strangely enough, although royalty on the Gupta coins is shown wearing t he sewn garment of the Kushan Kings, in the Ajanta paintings the king and other members of the nobility are still seen in their fine silk or muslin antariyas. The king¶s costume was most often of striped blue closely woven silk with a floating uttariya. Both these garments invariably had woven borders. Instead of kayabandh a plain cord or belt became more popular, wound once or twice around and then buckled or knotted in a variety of ways to secure the antariya. Sometimes the uttariya itself was twisted thickly and worn aslant the waist with a large knot at the left shoulder. It was the elaborate mukuta (crown) and exquisite jewellery that really set apart kings and high dignitaries from other members of royal entourage. Some scholars believe that these elaborate mukuta were never actually used, but were merely signs of divinity or royalty. Costume Women«In the case of male costume it is easier to trace the influence, which came mainly from the invaders and traders. In female costume, however, the variety is much greater and hence it is more difficult to pin-point the exact sources.

The antariya, which was 18-36 inch wide and 4-8 yards long, was worn in several different ways. The short or long antariya was worn in thekachcha style or as a lehnga, in which case it was first wrapped around the right hip then around the body and tucked in at the left hip. It was drawn very tight across in the hips accentuating their curve most seductively, and was normally calf length. Another form of the antariya was worn in the Kachcha and lehnga style together. This was usually a very short antariya only up to mid-thigh called calanika. It was drawn first inkachcha style, the longer end of the three yard long material was then wrapped around like a short lehnga. A common form was a skimpyantariya made of cheap linen worn mainly by lower classes. Normally the nobility wore the ankle-length antariya and women of high rank, attendant usually wore the shorter form. But in all cases it was tied under the navel and supported by the hip bones. The antariya was occasionally worn like the Indonesian sarong- a wide garment reaching from under the armpits to mid-thigh in a simple wraparound fashion. The main difference in the Gupta period, as distinct from the previous periods, is that the kachcha style became less popular with women, being replaced gradually by the more feminine lehnga or lungi was we call it today, although the queen and other ladies of the royal family remained conservative. This conservative kachcha style is still adopted by the women of Maharashtra and South India. The skirt, bhairnivasani, evolved from the antariya which when stitched on one side became tabular and was worn gathered together at the waist, and held by a girdle. This was one of the earliest forms of a clumsily stitched skirt and used as early as the Early Bronze period by the Germanic race. From the bhairnivasani evolved the skirt with the drawstring or nada, called ghagri. The ghagri was a narrow skirt six feet long- the same length as original antariya. It was worn mainly by village women, and was very attractive since the border of the cloth was used vertically in the centre to decorate it. A heavily gathered skirt, an elaboration on the ghagri probably introduced by foreigners, is also seen. It seems to be mainly used by dancers, so that the swirling effect is enhanced by its many folds, which may have been gored. The skirt is still worn by mainly rural peoples, including theLambadi and Banjara gypsies of India. Women wore langoti type drawers, the ardhoruka, which had evolved from the needs of modesty. This was a short strip of cloth worn around the waist with an attached piece from the centre of the waist, which was drawn up between the legs and tucked in behind. Like the bhairnivasani this too was an early garment

originally used by women ascetics. Jain nuns wore four of these ardhorukas one on top of another, something like the medieval µchastity belt¶. It would be interesting to find a satisfactory answer as to why, at this particular juncture, Indian women frequently began to clothe the top half their bodies. For many centuries before, they had moved around self consciously nude above waist. There were probably two reasons. One was that the female attendants in the King¶s court thrown into the company of beautiful foreigners who wore upper garments, must have realized that covering the bosom could even be more attractive than exposing it, and accordingly emulated the dress style of the foreigners. Also, with the impact of Buddhism, Jainsm, and Christianity the belief that the body was sinful and must be concealed to avoid temptation was percolating through India, In medieval Europe, around this time, similar changes were occurring in female clothing, and women began covering themselves from head to foot. The breast-band had been used since Vedic times, as with Greeks, mainly as a support for breasts rather than covers them. There was in addition to the breast-band, an indigenous stitched garment known as cholaka, chola, choli, cholika and kancholika, which is mentioned in early Sanskrit literature. The primitive choli was cut very simply from a square piece of cloth, with a slit for the neck. This was also the early form used as protection by the women of the Germanic or Teutonic races in the Early Bronze age. This evolution from the unstitched to the stitched garments had an inescapable logic as it evolved for purely functional purposes. In the case of the Germanic races it was protection from the cold, and in India it served the purpose of m odesty. A further development of the choli was the fold back at the bottom edge and the introduction of string, attached to make it back less, very like the garments worn today by women in Rajasthan and elsewhere. The apron -like attachment at the front of the choli, visible in some of the frescoes, could have evolved from the need for protection against the cold for the front part of the body, as the back was normally covered by the head -veil, or as a modesty covering over the stomach which was exposed, the skirt or lehnga being worn below the navel. Here again the back was covered by the head -veil. Another choli, which ends just above the waist, is made of diaphanous material and seen particularly in the dress of princesses and other royal ladies. This choli appears to be fastened in front, probably knotted, as in the case with certain cholis in use today. This would cover the back completely, but expose most of the midriff in front. The Persian shirt or kurta, with its side-opening at the neck, slit sides and four-poted hemline had become thoroughly Indianised and was commonly used even by women. Another style of the kurta was with

crossover flaps and side-opening in the angarkha style. Ankle-length fitted tunics in brocade still appear foreign and may hav e been a Turanian Tartar (a nomadic race of Mongolian stock from Central Asia) contribution to the fashions at court. The uttariya remained, but was worn very sheer and more as flattering accessory, rather than as the substantial article of clothing it ha d once been. It is normally seen in Ajanta, delicately wafting behind, like the floating ribbon decoration, which was also in fashion at the Persian court at this time. Headgear and Hairstyles«Simple plaits were no longer visible, and hair was so elaborately dressed at times, that the help of maid-servant who were expert hair-dressers was obviously essential. There were seemed to be broadly two styles of foreign origin, while the complicated ways of dressing long hair were mainly derived from South Indian and Deccani styles. The latter became extremely popular in the Gupta age. The use of missi to darken gums and lips, and henna to redden the palm and soles of the feet was fairly prevalent. Of foreign origin was the short hair, which was sometimes frizzed in front with luxuriant ringlets quite unlike anything seen today, or just left hanging loose to the shoulders or lower, held by a fillet or a chaplet of flowers. The indigenous style showed itself in long hair worn in a bun either high or low on the neck or knotted at the side of the head, or with the coil wound on the left on top of the head. The bun itself was something a simple tight knot, at other times in the shape of the figure eight, or large and loosely wound, but almost always surrounded by flowers or had large lotus blossoms tucked into it. In addition, there could be a, ratnajali, jewelled net or a net of pearls called muktajala, worn over the bun. Tiaras were often used with short or long hair, and pearl string could define the parting of the hair, as could be jewelled band. Fillets both simple and elaborate were commonly used to hold back short hair. Turbans too had not disappeared completely and women wore them very effectively, sometimes made of brocade or striped material, and completely covering the hair. The profuse use of flowers cannot be overemphasized in this period. Besides surrounding the bun they were used as tiaras, and in as many ways to dress the hair as could conceivably be imagined by the women wearing them. In the Deccan, hair styles of the lower classes (even those belonging to the menial orders) or the peasant women could be as elaborate as those of the higher -class women.

For men, a tiara or crown with a band inset with pearls and something festooned with garlands replaced the turban. This slowly became more common for the king when informally dressed in indigenous garments; attendants wore this as well with shoulder-length hair. On the Gupta coins, however, the king is shown in Parthian-Kushan dress and wears a skull cap or helmet as headgear. The king probably used this latter costume on formal occasions, which required military regalia, or at sports like hunting. In royal entourage, the turban continued to be worn by high officials, like the chamberlain, ministers, military officers, civic officials and so on, where it had become a distinctive symbol of their respective ranks. It could be of fine muslin tied over a large knot of hair at the centre of the forehead or a striped turban worn flat and twisted giving a rope-like effect to the cloth when wound. The ministers were often Brahmins with all their hair shorn keeping only the ritual top knot. Generally, hair was worn loose by men, shoulder-length and curled, in the gurnakuntala style, sometimes with a head band to hold it in place, or adorned with a strand of pearls. Very short hair was also fairly common and looked much like the hair worn today except that clear parting in the hair was seldom visible. There were, however, fashions in the dressing of men¶s hair, which was sometimes cut unevenly at the edges, giving the appearance of a wig; at other times the earlier form of a top knot was employed, but in a more decorative manner, using only a portion of the hair, the rest hanging in curls to the shoulder. Jewellery«Gold or hirana was more commonly used than ever before, especially in the Deccan where there were gold mines. Gold ornaments for both men and women were exquisitely made, acquiring a new delicacy as beaten work, filigree work and twisted wire was skillfully combined with jewelsparticularly pearls. Kundala was the general term for earrings, which were mainly for two types, both of which were circular. One was a large ring type and other was a button type, karnaphul, with a plain or decorated surface. The bali, a small gold wire circlet worn on the upper part of the ear with pearls strung on it, or two pearls and one emerald,is still popular. Large ring -type earring later developed pendants that shook with the movements of the head and were called kancuka-kundala or µtremulous earring¶. The sutra was a chain for the neck. When made of gold with precious stones in the centre, it was called hemasutra. But this was the era of the pearls necklaces or muktavali a single strand of small pearls was the haravsti, one of big pearls,

the tarahara, and one with gem in the centre of the pearl was known as sudha ekavali. However, it was the glorious vijayantika, a necklace made from a successive series of pearls, rubies, emeralds, blue stones and diamonds, that was most sought after. The nishka or coin necklace also continued to be popular. Upper arm ornaments were known as the angada and keyura, the former like a coiled snake, and the latter, a cylinder made of filigree work or inset with pearls. Bracelets, valaya were generally simple or inset with pearls. Bangles of conch shell or ivory were worn in set graded sizes, like those used by primitive and folk people today. Finger rings, anguliya were of gold or studded with precious stones, ratnanguliya. Tiaras-kiritaand crown-mukuta were worn by men and women of the nobility and were particularly splendid, often having pearls suspended from them so as to delicately surround the face. All the above ornaments were common to both men and women. These were jewelled girdles, anklets, and an attractive ornament of two strings of pearls or flowers, worn crosswise on the chest and back, in the vaikaksha style. It was sometimes held by a clasp at the centre. A very provocative garter -like ornament, the padapatra, was sometimes worn by women on the upper part of the thigh. This ornament could be quite decorative with festoons of pearls and other ornamentation. The mekhala or girdle was worn by women quite low on the hips and suspended from the katisutra. The latter was probably a string tied at the waist and hidden under the upper edge of the antariya, in which it was rolled. The mekhala hung in a seductive clasp at the centre from this string, over or under which hung a small pleated frill of cloth. This is still seen in the Bharata Natyam dancer¶s costume of today. Men to hold the antariya used a simple straight belt or sometimes above it, which could have a buckle either square, round, rosette shaped, or rectangular. On the women¶s ankles the kinkini, with its small bells, tinkled as they moved, or there nupura (anklet) could be made from jewelled beads,maninupura. Although women of all classes wore anklets, they are not seen on the feet of goddesses in sculpture. Flowers in the form of necklaces, mala, were worn on the head, entwined in the hair, and looped around the neck or waist or worn crosswise in garlands on the chest. The mala was usually made of fragrant kadamba flowers. Kings wore chaplets of white flowers even on military expeditions and officials of state tucked a bunch of flowers into their top knots. Women loved to decorate themselves with flowers as well, and wreaths of scented flowers hung from their ears. Their brows were also adorned with wreaths and heavy garlands

of amarnath hung on their hips. Military Costume«In previous centuries, except occasionally in the Satavahana age, there was no fixed uniform for the indigenous army. It was the Kushan army, well clad and equipped, that became the prototype on which the new military uniform of the Guptas was based. The king himself adopted the Kushan royal costume in formal occasions as status symbol. In early period the Gupta soldier had worn the antariya with his bare chest inadequately covered by the six jewel-striped channavira. This evolved into the more efficient foreigninfluenced kancuka with trousers or short drawers, jhangia, and high boots, with a helmet or cap, and sometimes a fillet to tie back the hair. Later the soldier¶s uniform was either a short-or-long-sleeved knee-length tunic, kancuka, which had a centre front opening with V-shaped or round neck. The tunics were sometimes spotted with black aloe wood paste, which could be a type of tie-dye, or bandhni as it is known today. This may have been their version of the camouflage on military uniforms. It is possible that these tunics were worn over a brief antariyas, as the foot soldiers seldom wore trousers to cover their bare legs. Instead of knee -length kancuka a short tight-fitting blouse, cholaka, was sometimes worn with the short antariya. Around the waist, the kayabandh could be wound once or twice, holding a short dagger or curved sword. Shields were curved or rectangular, the former sometimes decorated with a dragon¶s head. Some soldiers continued to wear only the short antariya, which was often striped, and with this indigenous garment the wheel -type disc earring were still worn. Head-dresses were normally a simple skull cap or just a scarf or cloth wound around the head like a turban. The cavalry wore a more elaborate dress, closer in style to th e original Parthian-Kushan dress being a mid-calf length quilted coat with long ruched sleeves. With this was worn a fillet or head band, or sometimes a white turban. Others in the cavalry wore more colorful and diverse garments. Mid -thigh length tunics of brocade or printed cloth (for example, yellow with blue dots, green with checks in which a flowered motif was set in each compartment, or yellow with a pattern of birds, rosettes, lozenge shapes mainly in blue, yellow ochre or white), trousers and an uttariya-a bossed flowers, completed their very colorful uniforms. The elephant drivers were picturesque in their short -sleeved tightfitting cholaka with decorative bands at the neck, hem, and sleeves. With this were worn short drawers of plain or gold-striped cloth and a skull cap or scarf on the head. The king himself, when attired for battle wore a short, tight ± sleeved kancuka and an elaborate turban with serpent. His bodyguard carried curved swords like the Nepalese khukri and shields of rhinoceros hide in

checked designs. His sword-bearer wore a patterned tight tunic with pointed ends reaching to the knees, and the kayabandh wound twice around the waist. The leaders or chieftains of the various contingents in the army were decked in pearl-embroidered tunics made from the famous stavarkha cloth of Sassanian origin and chaddars of many colors, or in the complete Central Asian outfit consisting of a dark blue quilted tunics with a V-shaped neck and long full sleeves with soft dark trousers and a saffron turban of Indian origin instead of Central Asian conical cap. Armour was worn as further protection. It was known as the cinacola, probably of Chinese origin. It was sleeveless covering the front and back, and was made of metal. A helmet for soldiers was known as sirastrajala. Bows were of two kinds: the simple one-piece bow and the classic double -curved bow probably made of three pieces. Textiles and Dyes«In the Gupta age the finest textiles were available, printed, painted, dyed, and richly patterned in wea ves or embroidery. the art of calico printing improved considerably and many of the traditional prints of today originated in this period. There were checks, stripes, and bird and animal motifs, for example geese, swans, deer, elephants, and so on. Delicat e embroidery on muslins, consisting of hundreds on. Delicate embroidery on muslins, consisting of hundreds of different varieties of flowers and birds, was skillfully executed, along with intricately woven brocades, which continued to be in vogue. These brocades with floral designs from the Deccan and Paithan were like the Jamiwar and Himrufabrics of today. The former is a silk floral design on a wool background and the latter has cotton for its main wrap. Gauze from Decca was noted for its transparency and was said to be so fine that the only evidence of its presence was the delicate gold edging of cloth. This had led to the further sophistication of wearing a transparent garment over a brightly colored one. Before this, the transparency of the cloth had on ly accentuated the nudity below. Gold and silver woven brocades of Benares, which had a very ancient tradition, were still used, and in the north and the north-west the art of embroidery reached the highest peak of development. Silk was woven in black and white check patterns especially for cushions, which had handsome covers of, gold, silver or dark-colored cloth embroidered or patterned in silver stars or four petalled flowers, or of striped materials with chess-patterned bands. Special bedcovers known as nicola and pracchadapata, and rugs or floor carpets known as rallaka and kambala were made. Dyeing too was very sophisticated and the diagonal stripes, which were

popular, merged in each other in places as soft and dark tones. This beautiful effect was created by the resist dye technique. Tie dying of Gujarat and Rajasthan, in many different patterns, was called pulakabandha and was used a great deal in the upper garments of women. The process of bleaching was perfected, and all thin brocades, which had been the prerogative of rich now, percolated to form the festive and bridal attire of the poorer classes, for which a special cheaper variety known, as rasimal was available.Special costly silken fabric known as stavaraka was originally manufactured in Persia and is known to have been imported into India. This was a cloth studded with clusters of bright pearls and worn by royalty. MAID SERVANT«Antariya: worn very short in kachcha style; after knotting at the centre both ends are passed between the legs, fluted and tucked in at back centre to fall to the ankles; one end has been tucked in under the mekhala and the other over it.Mukatavali: necklace of one strand of small pearls (haravsti).Keyura: worn on the upper arms-baju, cylinderical, inset with pearls and tied on with ribbons.Valaya: bracelet of filigree work.Mekhala: girdle at the hips is decorated with discs; a small frill of cloth hangs at the side which could be part of the end of the antariya pulled around from the back after tucking in, and tucked in again at the front.Kundala: simple ring-type earrings.Nupura: anklets are simple and cylindrical.Hairstyle: hair has been drawn back into one plait, with a few curls at the forehead; a fillet is worn and also a chaplet of flowers to which a semi -circular ornament has been attached on eit her side of the centre parting.It is possible that she wears a short choli of very light material. She holds a fly-whisk (chauri). PRINCESS«Lehnga: the antariya has now become thelehnga; it is held first at the right hip then taken once around the body and tucked in tightly at the left hip in pleats or simply as in this figure.Uttariya: of sheer material, thrown over the breasts.Muktavali: several pearl necklaces of small and large pearls including one long strand which hangs between the breasts.Valaya: one simple and one ornamental bracelet is worn on each wrist.Keyura: armlet of filigree work festooned with pearls on upper arms.Bali: ring-type earrings with pearls strung; a samller simple ring is worn on the upper part of the ear.Anguliya: ring worn on the little finger of the right hand.Nupura: very simple anklet.Kirita: a decorative tiara.Hairstyle: elaborate, adorned with flowers and jewels, the hair being worn in a

large bun at the nape.The stool or short-backed chair (piddha) has turned wooden legs very similar to those available in most parts of Inida today. Covering it is a pearl studded or tie-dyed cross-shaped cloth. The large cushion at the back is covered with printed cloth and the cushion used as footrest has a pearl edge. OLD WOMAN«Sari: an elaongated form of the antariya, the left end is passed between the legs and tucked in at the back; the right and longer end is taken around the body and thrown over the left shoulder from the front and is visible in folds at the left.Muktavali: two strings of pearls at the neck.Valaya: simple bracelets, two at each wrist.Kundala: ring-type earrings.Hairstyle: drawn back and knotted.She is carrying a flower garland. VOTARY FIGURE«Ardhoruka: langoti type of patterned striped drawers- a short strip of cloth worn around the waist with an attached strip from the centre of the waist which is drawn up between the legs and tucked in at the back .Choli: short blouse of diaphanous material.Vaikaksha: two long strings of pearls crossed at the chest.Muktavali: string of pearls at the neck.Kundala: large disc-type earrings.Uttariya: worn over the left shoulder.Keyura: flat simple armbands.Valaya: bracelet, one on each wrist.Nupura: anklets of simple design Headgear: a striped scarf tied around the head and knotted at the back, tassels are visible behind the right shoulder; further back on the head is a decoration of leaves with a central motif probably tied around a chignon-type hairstyle.She carries an offering and could be of foreign origin as the scarf on the head suggests. COURT LADY«Ghagri: the early form of a skirt to the knees in which there is a draw-string (nada); the border of the woven silk material can be seen vertically down the centre.Valaya: graded ivory or conch-shell bangles.Hara: bead necklace.Hairstyle: centre parting with chignon on nape decorated with ribbons; a wreath of leaves is worn around the head.

MAID SERVANT«Ghagri: a simple skirt with drawstring (nada).Pratidhi: breast-band tied at the back.Girdle: ornamented, worn over the skirt for additional support.Vijayantika: necklace of strings of looped pearls with precious stones.Keyura: armlets with incised design.Valaya: bangles and pearls bracelets.Kundala: large ring-type earrings Hairstyle: worn shoulderlength and loose She carries a large palmleaf fan. MAID SERVANT«Cholaka: choli-type blouse with an apron front and V-neck made of pulakabandha-tie and dye cloth.Anatriya: lehnga style, of striped cloth.Kundala: ring-type earrings.Valaya: simple bangles.Hairstyle: simple bun with flower wreath (mala) DANCING GIRL«Cholaka: fitted choli-type blouse with an appron front; the long sleeves are of dark red brocade, while the middle is of white silk, probably tied at the back with ribbons that are visible.Antariya: lehnga style, is of silk with purple, green and yellow stripes with lozenge patterns in white.Mukatavali: three-stringed pearl beads.Valaya: two simple and one ornamental bangle on each wrist .Kancala Kundala: elaborate earrings with pendants Mukuta: tiara of gold.Hairstyle: large bun at the nape with wreaths of flowers and sevral strings of pearls or gols chain (sarasari) wound around and held by brooches YASODA «Angarkha: mid-thigh length tunic with left opening and bordered edge all around; it has l ong sleeves and a four-pointed hem in Persian style.Ghagri: heavily gathered skirt tied at the hips with a nada.Kantha: flat heavy short necklace. Valaya: bangle on left wrist.Mukuta: tiara-like ornament at the forehead.Uttariya: worn over the head and left hanging behind the shoulders; it has a decorative border.Hairstyle: probably a thick twisted roll of padding is fixed at the centre parting and held in place by

tiny plaits of hair; this is till used to hold high the head -covering by some women of north India and gives an extremely regal effect to head veil.The covering of the head with the veil is possibly of parthian/scythian origin and is seldom seen at Ajanta. MAID SERVANT...Cholaka: double jacket of bandhni (tie-dye cloth) the upper one with shorter sleeves in the angarkhastyle; the lower one is green in color with longer sleeves .Hara: two necklaces, both of beads with the central bead of differnt shape.Hairstyle: curly hair held back by a fillet.Appears to be foreigner as is evident from the simple hairstyle and lack of ornate jewellery. The angarkha is shown open, the left edge of the neckline fastening is curved to fit the inside right edge probably with ties as in the modren angarkha. MAID «Angarkha: long-sleeved tunic with probably a left side-opening running down to the pointed hem .Hara: a simple chain.Kundala: large ring-type earrings.Uttariya: worn over the head and left hanging behind the shoulders in Parthian or scythian style.Hairstyle: probably a thick twisted roll of padding is fixed at the centre parting and held in place by tiny plaits of hair; this is till used to hold high the head -covering by some women of north India and gives an extremely regal effect to head veil ATTENDANT «Robe: ankle-length in white material with a pale blue frill at the hem; it has tight sleeves and a collar; the hem of the sleeves and the edge of the collar are embroidered; there is a tiraz band trimming at the upper arm and floating ribbons at the back opening.Headgear: a round cap of red material (broad-cloth or velvet) with a white border of fur or wool and white plume at the centre.This is often reffered to as the Persian Embassy scene, but the figure appears to be a Turanian Tartar from Central Asia. Turanian Tartars were influenced in their dress by the persians, as seen in the tiraz band, floating ribbons and round cap. MINISTER«Kancuka: indigenous simple round-neck tunic with long sleeves and a front opening; probably calf length.Uttariya: wrapped around the waist and thrown over

the left shoulder in upavita fashion with the final end resting on the left arm.Bali: simple ring-type earrings with pearl suspended.Haravsti: large pearl necklace.Torque: simple necklet.Hairstyle: long hair combed back smoothly. KING «Anatriya: short and striped worn in the lehngastyle with a long end visible on the cushion .Necklace: of gems with loops.Suddha Ekavali: neckalce of pearls with a central gem Keyura: elaborate armlets with loops suspended from a cylinder of filigree work.Valaya: Ornamnetal bracelet, one on each wrist Anguliya: ring on little finger.Kundala: elaborate earrings Kirita: tiara of metal with ornamental discs and motifs.Silk ties on necklace are visible at the right shoulder . CHAMBERLAIN «Kancuka: indigenous striped white tunic with long sleeves and front opening; probably calflength.Chaddar: cloth decorated with a fish-scale pattern; worn over the left shoulder and under the right arm in upvita fashion.Torque: necklet of twisted wire with beads Headgear: flat turban of twisted cloth held by ribbon bands at intervals, worn as a mark of office by the chamberlain GUARD«Kancuka: mid-calf length tunic with four pointed ends, V-neck and long sleeves; the cloth is star-patterned.Trousers: gathered in churidar style.Headgear: skull cap.Kayabandh: sash tied at the waist,This Kancuka has the four-pointed hem of the Kushan-Parthian under tunic, Which was common to all scythian races including the kshatrapas. The indigenous influences is in the choice of thinner and more decorative cloth used to suit the climate conditions of India, and the rich way of life at court. The alck of jewellery would also denote a foreigner. KING AND QUEEN «.Chugha: close-fitting coat of the Kushans with a row of decorative buttons with fastenings at the centre; the opening in front is held together and the waist

edge ends in a point at the centre.Trousers: do not appear to have creases at the knee.Headgear: closefitting cap.Earrings: Button style.The queen is dressed in indigenous costume as seen in her antariya and uttariya, her hair is worn in a bun at the top of the head. From the Licchavi tribe, she wears nupura on the ankles. HORSE MAN «Quaba: calf-length striped coat with pointed collar and tiraz band braid on upper arms; floating ribbon ties are visible at the back.Headgear: dome cap with band.Belt: worn at the waist.Probably a Turanian Tartar of Mongolian stock. Their costume is very similar to that of the persians, from whom the tiraz band trimming, pointed collar and floating ribbon ties originated. baggy trousers tucked into boots are probably worn. FOOT SOLDIER «Cholaka: short jacket covering the chest with half-sleeves and a decorative braid at the hem and sleeve-edge.Antariya: short and striped material with a border.Kangan: one bracelet on each wrist.Hairstyle: shoulder length hair; wears no headgear.Equipment: spear and rectangular, curved shield of rhinoceros hide.Elephant riders and foot soldiers in the Gupta army wore a similar uniform. The were sometimes nore resplendent in gold-striped antariya and skull caps or fillets on their heads. GUARD «Quaba: of foreign origin, this calf-length tunic has the Persian-type pointed collar and tiraz band braid trimming on upper arms.Girdle: worn at the waist.Kundala: disc-type earrings.Hairstyle: drawn up in a large top knot.Equipment: oval shield and curved sword.Although, the costume is foreign the hairstyle, sword and earrings are indigenous. This was probably a foreign uniform adopted by the Gupta army.

COURT LADY«Hairstyle: hair is worn with a centre parting which is covered by a decorative ornament attached to the mukuta (tiara) at the forehead and the jewelled braid at the left side of the nape; the braid then continues like a fillet around the crown of the head.Mukuta: highly decorative in embossed gold or silver, has little pendants suspended from it at the forehead.Kundala: large wheel-like earrings.Haravsti: one strand of large pearls.Torque: twisted wire necklace of celtic origin. BHIKKU «Antaravasa: this lower garment was normally 36" wide and 2½ yards long and worn around the waist where it was secured by a girdle or tucked into the nada(drawstring).Uttarasanga: the upper garment is thrown over the shoulder in a loop. FEMALE VOTARY «Hairstyle: hair is worn in a large pompadour style on the crown of the head with t iny curls along the forehead.Ratnajali: from the elaborate tiara-like ornament around the head, strands of pearls form a net over the hair style; there is a central ornament at the forehead from which are suspended strands of pearls.Mala: large flowers above the ears are used as further ornamentation to the hairstyle.Kundala: very large ring-type earrings.Bali: small earrings with suspended pearls; worn higher up on the ear.Suddha Ekavali: pearl neckalce with a gem at the centre; has ribbon ties KING «Hairstyle: short hair.Mukuta: tiara of floral motif from which pearls are looped and suspended.Bali: earrings from which separate drops of pearls and sapphires are suspended.Valaya: bracelets of different kinds at the wrists.Sutra: simple chain at the neck.He wears a brown striped silk garment.He is making an offering of lotus

flowers to the Buddha on a tray which appears to be covered or painted in a design. PRINCE «Hairstyle: appears to be shoulder length and loosely knotted at the nape; bound with ribbo ns with stylized curls at the forehead.Headgear: twisted turban in stripes or bound at intervals with braid; there are large gem-encrusted brooches at the sides and a central ornament on the top Kundala: simple ring-type earrings.Muktavali: one-string pearl necklace. YOUNG MAN «Hairstyle: simple, shoulder length, drawn back without a parting and left loose; a shorter strand is seen over the ear.

Style«The late Satavahanas style expressed more directly the full impact of the Dravidians-Andhra ethos. With the crowded compositions of lean and strong bodies and the ferocious figures looming over terrified crowds, we feel a sense of frenzied activity and turbulence. The kayabandhs make complex arabesques, but there is less differentiation between t he court and the people as they throng together. The Royal Way of Life«From as early as the Mauryan-Sunga period there was six emblems to denote a royal personage. These were the ushnisa or turban, a pair of flywhisks, umbrella, sword, sandals, and the royal standard. Of these, the two most important and almost always used on all formal occasions were the umbrella and the flywhisks. The umbrella was white and gold for kings and nobles, and was carried by the chattradhara or umbrella carrier. The flywhsiks orChauri were made of yak tails with gold handles, usually two, which were waved alternately by the chauri bearers. In addition to this a fan of palm leaves gaily chequered and made of bark, usira grass, or peacock feathers was waved by another attendant. The sword or khadga, a symbol of power, was carried by a female attendant, the khadgavahini, on her shoulder. She normally stood close behind the king or prince. Thonged sandals originally of boarskin were the king¶s prerogative. Both sword and sandals were said to rule the kingdom in the absence of the king.

Early Satavahana [200-100 B.C.] Costume«The people of the Deccan were a hybrid race, a mixture of the aboriginal Dravidians and foreign invaders. In the first century BC their costumes too were an interesting mixture of foreign and indigenous garments. All these clothes are represented in Caves IX and X in Ajanta. In the first Century BC we find tunics, Kancuka in the stripes or beehive design worn by attendants or hunters. The kancuka are of mid-thigh length with short or long sleeves; in some the opening is on the left side, and in others it is at the front. The tunic worn by a king in hunting dress has no discernible opening at the neck, so it is probably at the back. Necklines too differed in tha t some were V-shaped and others were round in shape. With the tunic a thick Kayabandh was wound once or twice around the waist. An elaborate turban ushnisa, intertwined with the long black hair of the aborigine wearers was also worn. In addition to these, hunters wore two-bar type sandals with a strap for buckling, which is still seen in the Deccan. As influences from the north and from foreign invaders percolated, the Dravidians aboriginal village women too changed their costume using short antariyas, large uttariyas with elaborate board borders covering the head and back, tikkas on the forehead and a series of conch or ivory bangles on the arms. Except for the skirt, they looked very much like the Lambadis who are a gypsy tribe of Deccan today. In the royal court dress of the Mauryan-Sunga people the female attendant wore transparent long antariyas with loose kayabandhs tied in a knot at the centre having beautiful ornamental tips. Their many ±stringed girdles or mekhala were made of beads. Shoulder-length hair held by fillets or top knots tied at the centre of the head seems to denote that these attendants were foreigners, although nothing in the garments worn seems foreign. The king and most of his courtiers wore indigenous antariya, short and informal at home, with the longer style worn in a variety of ways on ceremonial occasions. With this the decorative kayabandh was tied in different styles and knots. The kayabandh could be tied like a thick cord or be worn looped in a semi circle at the front with conspicuous side tassels, or be made of thick twisted silk. The ushnisa was always worn and a crown or tiara was used when necessary. Headgear and Hairstyles«The aboriginal jungle women wore rolls and headbands with peacock feathers attached. Village women and commoners wore their hair in a simple knot at the nape covered by a large uttariya, which, at times, had elaborate broad borders. Court attendants and women of the richer classes wore their hair more fashionably, either in a topknot on the right side with a loop of flowers suspended or in a plait. A fillet, simple or gold

embroidered could be worn to hold it in place. Most often, the long hair of men was worn intertwined with lengths of cloth to form an ushnisa in a variety of ways. Frequently it had a knot - the original top knot of the aboriginal-covered with the cloth of the turban. This knot could be at centre front or protrude over the forehead in a conch -shell shape, or the tuft of hair could be visible on top of the turban. Jewellery«Jewellery in this period had a massive primitive character in strong contrast to that worn in the later Satavahana period. When indigenous garments are shown on men, whether at court or in villages, all wear some form of jewellery. But when the foreign dress, the kancuka or tunic, is worn by hunters, attendants and soldiers, very little or no jewellery is seen. Most often it consists of just earrings of the wheel pattern type. Indigenous jewellery however, consisted of Lambanam, earrings, and a pair of kangan and bajuband for the males. Women did not wear thebaju band but wore a large number of bangles made of conch or ivory, disc -type earrings, the lambanam, and tikka on the forehead. Women attendants at court wore, in addition, the mekhala. Military Costume«Soldiers wore short-sleeved tunics or jackets, with elaborate headgear consisting of either a turban with a topknot, chin band and earflaps or two topknots with a turban. They were equipped with axes, and bows and arrows, or carried sickles. Palace guards however wore the antariyawith a heavy cloak draped over the left shoulder. Late Satavahana [100 B.C - A.D. 250] Costume«Clothing was generally spares and made of thin cotton. The three articles of clothing, the antariya, uttariya and kayabandh were widely used, but interesting mixtures of foreign and indigenous garments were fairly prevalent. The uttariya for both men and women was usually white and of cotton or silk. It was however, at times, of beautiful colors and embroidered. Men could wear it across the back and over both shoulders are merely thrown over the chest, and they seldom wore it as a head covering. The antariya was still worn by both sexes in the kachcha fashion, which meant that one end was passed between the legs and tucked in behind, but this wa y of draping had its own fanciful fashions. For men it was normally to the knees or even shorter. Generally, the antariya appeared to have been made of almost transparent cloth and was worn very tight and clinging in the case of women. It is almost invisib le in the early Andhra sculptures with only double incised lines to show the drape.

The nivi bandha or preliminary knot to tie the antariya at the waist is often alluded to in the literature of ancient India. The kayabandh tied in a bow-shaped knot was worn by both sexes to give further support to the uttariya at the waist. This item was worn in a variety of ways. The kayabandh in the form of a simple sash was called the vethaka. The women also wore the pattika, which was made of flat ribbon-shaped pieces of cloth, usually silk. A heavy-looking thick jewelled roll with hanging tassels kakshyabandha-was worn by men. Thekalabuka was a girdle made of many strips plaited together, and the muraja had drum-headed knots at the ends instead of tassels. It is in the distinctive ways of wearing these three simple garments the antariya, uttariya and kayabandh and in the headgear and jewellery, that we can trace the evaluation of costumes and the fashion of the times in areas of India where they were in use. The true yajnopavita or sacred thread is found on the sculptures of this period. Before this, it existed more in the form of the uttariya worn draped over the left shoulder and under the right arm in the upavita fashion from which the term yajnopavita consisted of three cotton threads each of nine twisted strands, but of hemp for the kshatriya and of wool for the vaisya. At a later stage this sacred thread continued to be used in a limited way by other castes but was retained most strongly by the Brahmins. A stitched skirt-like foreign garment called the kancuka was frequently used by attendants, grooms, guards and so on in the king¶s court, and an indigenous long tunic was worn by eunuchs and other attendants in the women¶s apartments in the palace. Women too wore t he shortkancuka with an indigenous antariya, or when calf-length it was worn with a kayabandh and uttariya, and in many other ways. Headgear and Hairstyles«The ushnisa of the men was generally wrapped around three or four times after covering the topknot of hair with one end. It was normally white but could also be of dyed cloth, and simple turbans were held in position by ornamental gold strips or pattabandha. Gold turbans were worn on special occasions. Kirta or crowns were also in use, of which one type was a short cylindrical cap studded with gems and ornamented with designs. The maulibandha was an elaborated turban wound with the hair which itself was decorated with strings of pearls or flowers wreaths. The turban normally covered the hair, which was arranged in a large topknot at centre front, and could have jewelled clasp or maulimani at the centre to hold in place the folds of the turban. This topknot could also be pear -shaped or elliptical to give it variety. Without the turban, the hair could be wor n in one or two topknots, or one loop and one topknot. Short hair parted in the middle and reaching the neck

was fairly prevalent, especially among the common people. Women wore their hair in several ways. One was in the form of a plait, praveni, at the back, decorated with jewelled strips and tassels, asBharat Natyam dancers do today. Another common style was the coil with five delicate plaits dangling from it, a favourite with all classes of women. In the kesapasa style the hair was looped close to the head in an elongated knot at the back of the head or lower downs at the nape. This could have veni, a small fillet of flowers, around it or a short garland of flowers dangling from it. If the hair was made in a simple knot it was known as kabaribandha. The dhammilia was elaborate dressing of the hair with flowers, pearls, and jewels that often completely covered the hair like a close cap or turban. This style was greatly admired in the Satavahana kingdom. Women no longer wore the turban of earlier periods. Special ornaments were designed to be worn in the hair. The chudamani was lotus -shaped, its petals composed of pearls and precious stones. It was worn normally in the centre of the knotted hair. The makarika was shaped like fish -crocodile and worn at the front parting of the hair, very like gold ornament worn by the uriya women in the northern circars. There were also small crown like fillets through which the hair was drawn and then plaited or hung loose. Jewellery«Strands of pearls were the main motif in all forms of jewellery particularly in the late period of the Satavahana empire. Both men and women wore earring, bracelets, armlets and necklaces as in previous periods, particularly the indigenous people. The more common design in earring was the kundala shaped like a coil, which could be simple or decorative. The talapatra originated from a small strip of palm leaf rolled and inserted into the lobe. This shape was later made from ivory or gold and could be gem studded. A full-blown lotus design the kanaka- kamalaset in rubies is still popular in South India, and a couple of generations ago the karnika or jimiki continued to be in use. This was in the shape of lotus seed pod fixed upside down like a tassel. Necklaces or hara were mainly strung with pearls, sometimes consisting of only a single string called ekavali. A necklace of gems and gold beads was called yashti, the central bead being often larger than the others. Several of these necklaces could be worn together. Sometimes three or five slab-like gems, phalaka, were inserted at regular intervals. These held together the several strings of which a necklace was composed, and whole was called a phalakahara. A simple perfumed cotton-thread necklace was known to have been in use, and tiger claws were strung around the necks of children probably to ward off the evil eye. The yajnopavita, or a sacred thread made of pearls called

the muktayajnopavita, were prevalent. Kantha, the shorter form of necklace, continued to be in use and was often of gold set with rubies and emeralds. Also, the gold - coins necklace nishka strung on silk thread or plaited gold cord was worn in almost the same design as the modern putalya of Maharashtra and the malai of Tamil Nadu. These gold coins were sometimes replaced by mango shaped pieces of gold or gold set with gems, like the contemporary mangamalai of South India. Men and women wore bracelets valaya of solid gold set with precious stones. The more delicate ones were made of filigree, and elegant rope -shaped ones of fine gold wire were worn generally by women. They also used bangles of ivory and rhinoceros horn. Slab-like gems when set into bracelets, like the phalakahara necklace, were called phalakavalaya. Armlets or keyura for both sexes were close-fitting and could be engraved or set with jewels, or be in the shape of a snake; also they could be straight -edged or have an angular top edge. Jewelled girdles of one or many strings, mekhala, were worn only by women. These were made in several varieties from the tinkling kanci with bells to the rasana style made of a linked chain or strung with pearls, beads or precious stones. These girdles, besides being very attractive, held up the lower garment or antariya. In addition, cloth girdles or kayabandh like those of the men descri bed earlier in this chapter, were also used for the same purpose. Anklets, worn again only by women, had an astonishing variety. The manjira was hollow and light, coiling several times around the ankles loosely, and tinkling when in motion as it had gems inserted in the hollow. This type is still worn in Manwar. The nupura was plain while thekinkini had small bells suspended. A heavier looking one was the tulakotiI whose two ends were enlarged at their meeting point. This form is still worn in Andhra. Tinkling anklets of any kind were not worn by the wife in the absence of her husband. The finger ring or anguliyaka is visible on some of the Satavahana sculptures but only after A.D.150 The hemavaikasha was an ornament worn by women, seen more frequently in the Kushan period. It consisted of two long wreaths of flowers of pearls crossed at the breasts. Military Costume«Andhra soldiers wore an antariya which was shortened by lifting it at the hemline and tucking it into the waist to facilitate marching, a nd the style is still used in Tamil Nadu. A cloth sash or kayabandh was wound tightly many times around the waist for support and was sometimes crossed at the chest for protection. This developed in later times into the Channavira, which was similar in function to the early Babylonian and Assyrian sword belts

crossed at the chest with a metal buckle in the centre. In addition, the military personnel of this period occasionally wore earring and simple jewellery. Saka foreign soldiers were employed by some of the Andhra kings in the royal bodyguard. They wore a heavy tunic with ruched sleeves which reached to the knees or mid-thigh. With it was worn a form of churidar or ruched trousers, and their helmet or sirastra had earflaps. A wide sash was worn at the waist. Sometimes a short quilted tunic was worn with a heavy drape over the left shoulder along with a turban-a mixture of the foreign and indigenous garment. Footwear was not incumbent for soldiers and was probably worn by foreign rather than indigenous troops. The equipment of a trained fighter was mainly his sword, shield, bow, axe and spear; sometimes the mace, club, and javelin were used. Swords were either curved or straight and could have sharp edge on one or both sides. There were 30 inches long and beautiful crafted. Handles of Ivory or horn and hilts of precious metals encrusted with jewels were carried by those in command, and simpler ones of bamboo or wood were used by the common soldier. These swords in their sheaths, kosha, of fine-tooled leather were normally fastened on the left side of the waist. Smaller and more ornamental swords and draggers were fastened by gold chains. Shields, mainly rectangular in shape, were purely functional and large enough to protect the body. The club or gada could be short or long but was immensely heavy and was used for striking the enemy forcefully. The bow or dhanush made of wood or horn was painted red and gaily decorated, but the bamboo bow was more common. The bowstring was made of sinew or hemp. The heads o f arrows were of iron, bone, and wood and were carved into animal and other shapes, and had shafts of feathers affixed with sinews. Sometimes the arrow tips were dipped in poison. Textiles and Dyes«From Mauryan times and even earlier, the manufacture of textile in India had flourished and there are constant references to its variety in Brahmanical, Buddhist and Jain works. Coarse and fine varieties of cotton were in great demand. Silk formed an important part of rich person¶s wardrobe. A very cheap material made of hemp was worn by the weavers and by labourers of all kinds. Wool was not need much in the part of India ruled by Satavahanas, which had a warm climate, but it was used in the form of chaddars or blankets in winter. There was a variety of Dyes available from Vedic times, indigo, yellow, crimson, magenta, black and turmeric. Since washermen were also dyers, these colors were known to them and the knowledge of the dyeing processes was

probably handed down to each successive generation. Varieties and mixtures of colors known to those countries with which the Satavahanas did a great deal of trade, like China, Persia and Rome, must also have been incorporated to extend their range of colored textiles. Printed and woven designs on textile were plentiful and embroidery in gold was also common among the richer classes. The uttariya, in particular, was very often of silk and embroidered with flowers all over, or had a pattern of birds along with flowers. Precious stones were often used in the borders of th ese uttariyas or they were dyed blue or red, but a spotless white remained the favourite with men. VILLAGE WOMAN«Antariya: Lower cloth, calf length, of fine cotton with fluted ends in front, worn inkachcha style, that is between the legs.Uttariya: Upper cloth of printed cotton worn crosswise on the head. Kayabandh: Embroidered flat cloth band,pattika style, worn in a looped knot with fringed ends.Mekhala: Six-stringed hip belt of gold or silver beads.Lambanam: long necklace made of chains held at intervals by flat bands,phalakahara style.Kantha: Short necklace of five strings of beads in gold or silver.Karnika: Trumpet-shaped earrings.Kangan: Ten bracelets adorning each hand. Baju Band: Decorative armlets worn on upper arms.Kara: Anklets of twisted wire worn on both ankles.Sitara: Star shaped forehead ornament of gold or silv er with a stamped pattern. COURT ATTENDANT «Antariya: of sheer cotton.Kayabandh: narrow pattika tied in a bow at the front of the waist.kantha: phalakahara style necklace.Karnika: simple disc-type earring called dehri.Kangan: both granulated and plain seen on the left arm .Hairstyle :centre parting, hair hanging loose to the shoulders and decorated with ornamental chains..Sitara: large disc at the forehead, either painted or affixed.she carries a fan typical of the times. NAGA KING «Kantha: broad and flat short necklace with four pendant pieces (base-metal).Karnika: large cylindrical earring with a decorative design (base metal)

Kangan: heavy and cylindrical bracelets (base metal).Baju Band: thick cylindrical armlets with pendant pieces (base metal).Head-dress: turban is twisted around the head and held with a decorative band; hair is long, as worn by aboriginal, and is arranged in a topknot and five crests with ribbons like serpents' hoods. KING AS HUNTER «Kancuka: mid-thigh length with round neck and short magyar-type sleeves.Kayabandh: wide, worn wrapped around the waist a couple of times and tucked in.Ushinsa: turban cloth wound with hair and twisted into a top knot; the rest of the cloth is then wound around the head.Karnika: ring-like earrings, kundalatype.Although not visible, a short langotitype antariya is worn. ATTENDANTS«attendant on the left wears her hair parted at the left and hanging loosely to the shoulders, her earrings are of the pendant type; the one on the right is the umbrella brearer or chhatradhar, she wears her hair held back by a fillet and made into a top knot.The umbrella carrier was usually a woman. the umbrella was normally a colored one with a handle of gold workmanship, a white one being the emblem of the king alone. PRINCE«Antariya: worn in kachcha style to below the knees; the stripes indicate the folds of the drape.Kayabandh : kakshyabandha style, a thick roll worn aslant at the hips with beautiful ornamental tips and tied in large loop-knot.Belt : with granulated pattern worn higher thanantariya.

COURTIER «hair is brought forward in a 'conch-shell' knot and decorated; the fillet is probably used to keep it in place; earrings are disc-type and necklace is of thephalakahara style with chains held at intervals by flat pieces. SOLDIERS «Kancuka : mid-thigh length tunic with short sleeves.Uttariya: tied around the neck to free the arms Karnika: disc-type earrings called dehri.ushnisa: turban twisted around and through double topknot of hair.They are carring a kind of spear in their hands. NAGA PRINCE «hair is arranged in a large top knot at the centre with the turban wound around the head after twisted it around the knot, a brooch decorates the centre of the top knot; earrings are of the double disc-type; necklace, bracelets are made of base metal, and are probably hollow. SOLDIERS«Kancuka: both have shortsleeved tunics with round necks, the neck opening is obviously at the back.Karnika: Kundala or ring-type earrings.Hairstyle: simple top knot at the centre of the head very like that worn by the hiimen of South Manipur and Burma called the Chins.They carry battle axes.

WOMAN «Ghagri: gathered calf-length skirt probably with a drawstring at the waist.kayabandh: simple vethaka style, but longed and wound several times around the waist.Uttariya: wrapped loosely around the hips and draped over the left arm.valaya: several bangles of ivory or rhinoceros horn.Kundala: ring-type earrings.Manjira: hollow light anklets, coiling twice around and probably making a tinkling sound in movement Hairstyle: drawn back into a simple knot at the nape. PRINCE «Antariya: falling to the ankles, worn in kachchastyle with pleats tucked in at the back and visible in the front between the legs.Kayabandh: twisted rope-like around the waist, then twisted twice to form a knot at the right hip; the other end suspended in front ends in two ornamental tips.Belt: ornamental belt.Kantha: three of different sizes worn together to form a collar.Keyura: flat and decorative armlets.Kundala: ring-type earring.Valaya: three bracelets on each hand of some heavy metal or bone and incised with patterns.Kundala: ring-type earrings with tassels suspended.Headgear: an ornamental disc worn in front ofjatta or knot of hair. KING «Antariya: falling to the ankles, worn in kachchastyle with pleats tucked in at the back and visible in the front between the legs.Kayabandh: elaborately rolled and twisted at the waist, falling in graceful loops at the sides with one rope-like loop in front.Belt: ornamental belt.Kantha: short necklace.Keyura: straight-edged armlets with pressed or filigree decoration.Kundala: ring-type earring.Valaya: simple bangles at the wrists.Hairstyle: loose to the shoulders with a small fringe at the forehead.Headgear: an ornamental disc attached to a head band or top knot . ATTENDANT «Kancuka: probably calf-length, it has a gathered neckline with a band and long sleeves decorated with a braid in stripes.Uttariya: heavy and long, draped formally across the chest and around the left shoulder .Kayabandh: heavy, wound twice around the waist .headgear: turban with a

fan-shaped frill.Probably a master of ceremonies, he carries a staff. PRINCE«Antariya: worn in kachcha style and spread out after tucking in at the back, in double fish -tail style; the little frills in the front could be just a puff of the antariya pulled out at the waist over the nada.Kayabandh: rolled twice at the waist, then looped in the front so that the two ends are worn loosely spread out as a frill at each side.Kantha: collar-like necklace.Hairstyle: in top knot. MALE«Ushnisa: turban tied casually in a knot with one end going down the other up.Kundala: suspended disc-type earrings. FEMALE«Kirita: a crown-like headgear with semi-circular motifs in front and larger lotus petal designs at the back.Kundala: large ringtype earrings. CHATTRADHARA «Antariya: ends a little above the ankles; kachchastyle, with the pleated ends passed between the legs and tucked in at the back centre.Kancuka: fork-length tunic with long sleeves and round neckline .Kayabandh: simple sash vethaka style, tied at the back with hanging ends.Umbrella: white with gold work on the handle.Hairstyle: simple, worn hanging loose at the back. BUDDHA «Antariya: worn in lehnga style almost up o ankle length.Uttariya: wide upper cloth draped across the body to form folds and resting on the left arm.Hairstyle: in top knot.This depiction of the Buddha on his way to Yashodara, his wife. The Uttariya could be the large chaddar used when travelling. PRINCE«long hair is drawn up into several twisted loops held by two twisted coils, the shorter hair being allowed to hang loose around the face.

BUDDHA «Antariya: worn in lehnga style.Uttariya: the upper cloth has a border and is worn in an interesting drape on the left shoulder and hangs at the back loosely to fork length.Hairstyle: in top knot.This depiction of the Buddha as preacher gives an idea of the type of clothes worn by those Buddhist monks who travelled and preached both in India and abroad. The color of their garments was reddish-yello and no jewellery was worn. DVARPALA: DOOR-KEEPER«Kancuka: knee-length tunic of heavy cloth with long ruched sleeves and gathered neckline.Churidar: narrow ruched trousers.Kayabandh: wound several times around the waist.Headgear: helmet with peaked top called sirastra, some times with ear flaps.Torque: necklace of twisted wire.

Style«The Kushan influence was felt in what developed into the Gandhara art and the art of Mathura which, while retaining the massive scale of Bharut and Sanchi, had carvings more sophisticated and images more flamboyant and sensuous than had been seen before. It is an if in the provocative display of courtesans with their sinuous bodies in the tribhanga pose and the delicate flower-like gesture of the hands, the foreigners had found aspects of the Indian experience that fired their imagination. In the same period, however there are the wall paintings at Kizil in Afghanistan, where the wiry line of the drawing with its flat brilliant colors dominated by lapis-lazuli gives a heraldic appearance, static and frozen, like the group of portrait statues found at Mathura. The latter have the still, formal depiction of the Kushan Kings, showing in complete detail the kind of heavy garments they wore. The Kushans were not originally an artistic people. Of Scythian origin, their only expression had been the metal work displayed in their horse trappings, hunting gear, and in the ornamental plaques, which they stitched on their garments. But they had lived for many years in Bactria before entering India and this prepared them for the role they were to play as great patrons of the arts, as seen in the development of the Gandhara art and the evolution of the indigenous art of Mathura. Later, both these styles fused to create the Renaissance of Gupta Art.

Costume«Kushan costumes may be divided into five types: the costume worn by (I) indigenous people-the antariya, uttariya, and kayabandh, (ii) guardians and attendants of the harem-usually the indigenous and sewn kancuka, redbrown in color, (iii) foreign Kushan rulers and their entourage, and (iv) other foreigners such as grooms, traders, etc. There are fifth category - a mixture of foreign and indigenous garments. This last category is of great interest as it shows how clothes changed and evolved, how some of the purely draped garments of the Indians were replaced by cut -and ±sewn garments, especially in north and north-west where influences were felt more keenly, and where climatically sewn garments were more suitable. The Kushan (Indo-scythian) dress had evolved from a nomad culture based on the use of the horse. It is seen at Mathura, Taxila, Begram, and Surkh Kotal in Afghanistan. The dress was worn by most of Scythian and Iranian races and resembled particularly that of the Parthians. It consisted of a ruched long sleeves tunic with a slit for the neck opening, simple or elaborately decorated. The close-fitting knee-length tunic was sometimes made of leather, and with it could be worn a short cloak or a calf -length woolen coat or caftan, worn loose or crossed over from right to left and secured by a belt of leather or metal. Besides these two upper garments, occasionally a third garment t he chugha was used. The chugha was coat-like and decorated with a border down the chest and hemline, and had slits to facilitate movement. The trousers could be of linen, silk or muslin in summer but were woolen or quilted in winter. These loose or close-fitting trousers, chalana, were tucked into soft padded boots with leather trappings, khapusa. Along with this was worn the scythian pointed cap of felt, bashylk, or peaked helmet or head band with two long ends tied at the back. Although, the clothes were simple, they were often adorned with stamped gold or metal plates, square, rectangular, circular, or triangular sewn in lines or at the central seams of the tunic. Their purpose was not only decorative but functional as well, as they helped lift the tunic in the middle for riding, by gathering the cloth along the seams. This helped to give the distinctive draped effect with four sharp pointed ends at the hemline. The drape of trousers too was held in place by means of these gold or metal plates stitched do wn the centre front. It is interesting to note that elaborate embroidered panels later replaced these gold or metal plates. An earlier version was used by the Saka warriors, where the tunic was simply picked up and tucked into the belt on two sides at centre front, to free the spread of knees when riding a horse. Clothes for women were varied. At Gandhara there are figures wearing a sari like garment which seems to have evolved from palmyrene (Graeco -Roman) or pure Roman dress. This is the palla (draped ± over garment worn over a long

gown with ruched sleeves, which was typical of the Roman matron) pinned at the left shoulder. The difference in some of the Gandhara female figures is that they wear, in addition, anantariya, which is extended in length. This long antariya is worn in the kachcha style but one end continues over the left shoulder and is broached there like the palla. The total ensemble looks very much like the Deccani sari of today. The long ruched sleeves are visible underneath and could be sh ortened version of Roman long gown (stola) worn as covering for the breasts. In addition, the typical Indian uttariya is worn across the back and over both arms, and Indian jewellery completes the ensemble. The wearing of an uttariya with the sari is still seen in the fisher-folk of Maharashtra. These Gandhara figures are some of the most intriguing sculptures of the Kushan period, and may well show the beginning of the sari and one of the earlier attempts to create a garment to cover the breasts. This wou ld fall under the category of a mixture of foreign and indigenous garments. In yet another female figure we find a Persian-influenced knee or mid-thigh length tunic, stanamsuka, worn with the antariya. The latter is not passed between the legs as the kachcha style, but is worn crossed-over in the lehnga style. Simple stitched skirts, ghagri, with a side seam and nada or string to hold them up at the waist are also seen. They are gathered in folds from lengths about 6 -8 feet, and have a decorative border at the hem and at the centre front seam. The tunic, stanamsuka, is form-fitting with long sleeves, a simple round neckline, and flaring at the hemline. Besides the above mentioned, the lehnga style antariya and uttariya is sometimes worn. But very little in the way of elaborate jewellery is used. There are also some figures of women wearing close fitting ruched trousers with a long-sleeved jacket and an uttariya. In the earlier period, trousers were worn by Greek and Persian women. It is said the Amazons wearing trousers formed the royal guards of the king. These females guards adapted their own phygian costume to a tight mid-thigh length jacket with crossover at the neck and a gathered or pleated skirt worn with the antariya, along with a crossed vaikaksha with metal buckle shield and sword. Servants and dancers from many parts of the world were brought into the country from a very early period in Indian history. The pravara or chaddar, a large shawl, continued to be worn by both sexes as protection against th e cold and it was known to have been perfumed with bakul, jasmine and other scents. The purely indigenous antariya,uttariys and kayabandh continued to be the main costumes of Indians with slight modifications. The kayabandh became a more loosely worn informal piece of attire, and was a wide twisted sash used mainly by women in many delightful ways to enhance the suppleness of the waist.

Headgear and Hairstyles : Women«The wearing of the uttariya on the head seems to have almost disappeared in this period and most of the women in indigenous costume are seen bare-headed. They wear their hair in a tuft at the forehead, which covers the line of parting. This tuft is in the form of a ball or disc; the rest of the hair is drawn back, folded in and held with a br ooch at the nape or worn in chignon which protrudes at right angle to the neck or almost vertically upwards. Sometimes a bow of cloth is placed saucily on top of the head, and sometimes a µrelic¶ or box containing scented sandal or some other perfume paste is secured to the bun by a ribbon. At other times, a band of diadem, or twisted cord or scarf is tied around the head and over the bun. Ratnavali, a jewelled net, and brooches and decorative hairpins continued to be worn. Turbans wound around the foreign pointed scythic cap made of striped fabrics and decorated with rows of pearls or a diadem were frequently used. A sprig of the mimosa tree tucked into the turban was said to give protection against the evil eye. If one from the asoka tree was worn, it was said to symbolize love. There is little evidence of long hair being worn loose, but when arranged it was usually in one or two plaits, sometimes joined at the tips at the back, or hanging to one side. The commoner would probably wear hers in a simple knot at the nape as is worn today. Flowers were used to decorate the hair and chaplets of leaves are frequently seen around the high topknot of hair, especially in northwestern India. The chaplet of leaves, made of nard leaves on fabric, or else of silk of many colors and steeped in unguents, was even exported to Rome. But srajas or flower garlands were the most popular and could be of many kinds, worn at the waist, neck, or in the hair. They were sometimes supported by munja grass, reeds or cotton-plant stalks. Apart from flowers, peacock feathers, horn and bone ornaments, shells, leaves, and fruit and berries were woven together to form decorative ornaments. Headgear and Hairstyles : Men«Men continued to wear the turban, now called mauli, as in the Mauryan-Sunga period. However, a simpler line of twisted rolls of the fabric itself is more in evidence with hardly any of the complications of intertwining the hair with the turban cloth. The knob at the centre or side of the head, around which the turban was woun d to form a large protuberance, slowly disappeared. When bareheaded, the hair was worn in a topknot or in the shape of a bow, often softened by curls on the forehead or at the nape especially in the northwest. Fillets or bands tied on the forehead were common. Young men had begun to cut their hair short and adopted a short skirted tunic with their antariya. The Scythian pointed cap was frequently used as was the crown or mukuta. The common man moved around bare-headed or

used his kayabandh or uttariyato form a casual turban on the head against the sun in almost the same way as is seen today in India. Jewellery«In relation to the Mauryan-Sunga period, we noticed a tendency towards greater refinement and simplicity in this period. Gold was much in use and was called hiranya and suvarana, silver was known as rupya, and copper as tamra, and these continued to be for making jewellery. Gold and silver were often encrusted with ratna or jewels. These included carnelians¶s, agates, lapis lazuli, amethysts, garnets, coral, and pearls. Sapphires, topaz, diamonds and cat¶s - eyes were embedded or sometimes strung in various ways and worn as ornaments. Besides this, the art of enameling was known, as well as inlay work in shell and mother-of-pearl. Gold beads were beautifully filigreed or filled with lac, while others had cores of jasper and turquoise paste and were strung on thread or wire to be worn as necklaces called kantha, or long ones worn between the breasts known as hara. Stringing coins to be worn as necklaces, called nishka, was in vogue. Foreigners wore the torque, a simple necklace of gold wire. It was a characteristic ornament of the Scythian and Celtic people and was worn as a mark of distinction by the Persian and parthians, all of whom were of the same stock, as were the Sakas and Kushans. Shell and terra -cotta beads continued to be strung and worn by the poorer classes. The earrings, kundala, were of three types and most often of gold though there is evidence of ivory ones as well. The pendant type often had decorative rosettes and granulation. The ring type, scythian in origin, could be simple with a gold wire wound around or mixture of both types, that is, a ring elaborately decorated with beads as well as bud-like pendants. Of these, the simpler kind was used by men, except for foreigners who are depicted as wearing none. Armlets were known as keyura and bracelets as valaya. Both men and women wore these. Those for women were often made thick or thin sheets of gold with hinged clasps, and elaborately or namented and inlaid. Simple bangles of glass, shell, or ivory were also used. Head ornaments were varied. As the turban and head veils of women went out of fashion they were replaced by a bejewelled diadem or crown called mukuta, or a simple fillet or headband called opasa. These were used in addition to the garlands of flowers, sraja, which remained popular. Gold or silver hairpins with attractively ornamented heads held up hair. Men continued to wear the mauli(turban). The mekhala or girdle was mainly of beads and along with nupura or anklet, was worn only by women. This was simpler and lighter than that in the previous period. There is an absence of forehead ornaments like the sitara and bindi of the Mauryan-Sunga period.

Finger rings were of solid god, some plain, others incised with tiny fingers. Ivory was used extensively to make combs, brooches, hairpins, boxes and other objects. Military Costume«It is in the military dress of the Mauryan-Sunga period we find the earliest traces of foreign influence on indigenous garments. At the Ghandhara site of Kushans is a soldier of Mara¶s (Apollo¶s) army wearing the Indian antariya and turban with a Graeco-Roman style of breastplate or coat of mail. Coats of mail are said to have been, made indigenously of metal lic wires, probably iron, woven into a gauze known as jalaka. But the soldier¶s coat of mail appears to be made of metal scales, attached to a backing, rather than woven wire. This could be a foreign-influenced improvement on the indigenous equipment for soldiers. Another soldier is seen wearing full foreign garments in the same army. His coat of mail is worn over a short tunic, which is visible at the hem and sleeves, and his bare legs are encased in greaves. On his head is a three-cornered helmet, which suggests the well-known whitish grey felt cap of the Tibetans and Khorezmians. Khorez, Bactria, and Sogdiania in Central Asia, had at one time been some of the most important cultural centres of the ancient world. They were later taken over by the Persians, Greeks and then the Kushans. The third soldier in this army of Mara wears the purely Indian antariya and has his uttariya wound around his waist. All three soldiers carried shields and equipment¶s of various kinds. Foot soldiers are said to have used six-foot bows with very long arrows, tall shields made of undresses ox hide, and board swords three men carried smaller shields and were equipped with two lances each, but rode without saddles. Textiles and Dyes«For the first time trade with China was directly established through the ancient silk route. Indian traders settled down in Chinese Turkestan, which was annexed by Kanishka, the Kushan King. This included Kashgar, Khotan, and Yarkhand. Buddhists missions too were sent to china. In Rome, Augustus encouraged trade with India and exports increased resulting in a flourishing merchant class. In the northwestern is coarse cotton and wool were used for making tunics and trousers for horsemen, hunters, foreigners, and doorkeepers. In central India textiles wer e of lightweight cotton, tulapansi. Both indigenous and foreign skills were plentiful but still very expensive. Antariya were very rarely decorated and when they were, they appear to have been either embroidered, woven, or printed in diagonal check design s enclosing small circles. Turban cloth for rich women were often diagonally striped with every third line made of pearls. This bejewelled material was also used to cover beds and seats. Many other geometric patterns of checks, stripes and triangles

were also printed and woven. It is only from literary sources that we know of the textiles and dyes available in the earlier period. There is no evidence of actual fabrics being made in India before the twelfth or thirteenth century. But a large variety of fabrics were recovered from the burial grounds along the silk route, which can be dated to between the first century BC and the second century AD (Han Period in China). Based on this evidence we may presume that the dyes and textiles of Chinese origin available along this route would surely have found their way into India. Hence, it is possible to maintain that many of the patterns and colors would be similar, or had influenced indigenous fabrics. We know for a fact that the beautiful ultra -marine and lapis lazuli blue were sent along the trade route from the famous mines at Badakshan in Central Asia. There is, in addition, much literary evidence of sophistication of Indian textiles from the earliest times. In a list compiled of fabrics recovered from the ancien t silk route, fabrics in the following color were found: bright blue, light blue, dark blue -copper, dull gold buff, bronze-brown, dark bronze-green, crimson, pink, crimson brown, rich red, yellow, yellow-brown, yellow-green, rich dark yellow-brown. These are all variants and mixtures of the colors in dyes that were available in India in this period. COURT LADY «Antariya : worn extremely short in kaccha style; the end that is passed between the legs has been tucked in at the back; the other piece is looped to mid-thigh in front and the end tucked in a small looped frill at the centre.Kayabandh : there are two : one is a wide sash tied in a loop on both sides to the knees with steamers at each side of the hips hanging to floor length; the other is kakshyabandha, a thick jewelled roll worn aslant which has a large clasp at the left hip.Mekhala : five-stringed pearl or jewelled hip belt, it holds the antariya and cloth kayabandh in place.Hara : necklace of pearls, probably strung on thread or wire and worn between the breasts.Kantha : Short necklace of beads with central pendant and looped chains.Keyura : simple armlets, of looped design in gold or silver.Valaya : bracelets of two kinds : the central one consists of a series of rings like a wrist band; on both sides are larger rigid bracelets.Kundala : square earrings decorated with a flower motif and with pearls suspended.Nupura : anklets-wide rings with an elaborate design.Anguliya : finger rings of solid gold.Mukuta : bejewelled crown on the head and a head band.Hairstyle : small symmetrical curls at the forehead, hair tied in a looped knot projecting vertically at the back.

MILK MAID«Ghagri : simple narrow calf-length skirt stitched at the centre-front border, it has either a drawstring through it to is rolled over a string; this is an example of the earliest form of a stitched lower garment for women.kantha : short flat necklace with decorative design .Keyura : armlets of same decorative design as forkantha.Valaya : simple ring-type bangles.Kundala :simple ring-type earrings.She rests her pitcher on a head-rest probably of cane, like an inverted basket. FEMALE GUARD«Tunic : Kushan type with long ruched sleeves.Antariya : could be chalana-Kushan loose trousers.Kayabandh : twisted sash.Hara : long necklet worn between the breasts.Valaya : three bangles are visible on the right hand.Nupura : heavy ring-type anklets.Hairstyle : hair at the front is divided into three portions, the central one is made into roll, the two at the side are combed do wnwards with tassels suspended.She carries a long spear and round embossed shield. A mixture of foreign and indigenous costume. YAKSHI: FEMALE DOOR ± KEEPER«Antariya : worn in lehnga style, simply wrapped around and tucked in at the left.Uttariya : thrown casually over the shoulders.Tunic : with front opening, held at the neck by button; long ruched sleeves have ruching held by jewelled bands or buttons; tunic is form-fitting.Mekhala : four-stringed girdle with clasp and decorative leaf at the centre.Hara : one long pearl necklace worn between the breasts and one short one with a pendant.Kundala : large ring-type earrings.Head-dress : chaplet of leaves or turban with a central flower worn around the top knot of hair .Sitara : round ornament on the forehead.Mixture of foreign and indigenous costume. FEMALE«Anatriya : sari-like, worn in the kachcha style, the other end being taken across the body and over the left shoulder.Kayabandh : simple sash, twisted in parts.Uttariya : worn across the back and over both shoulders, the left end is loosely tucked in at the waist.Valaya : four bangles on left

wrist.Hara : pearl necklace worn between the breasts.Kundala : simple disc-like earrings.Nupura : heavy double rings on the ankles.Hairstyle : chaplet of leaves.Mixture of foreign and indigenous costume. DONOR FIGURE «Antariya : sari-like, tied in front, while one end is passed between the legs, pleated and tucked in at the back, the other end is partly pleated and tucked in at the front, then wound around and worn over the left shoulder .Tunic : Kushan style.Belt : with granulated pattern worn higher thanantariya or worn short to waist.Valaya : one bangle on each wrist.Nupura : simple ring-type anklets.Kundala : twisted or suspended disc earrings.Hairstyle : centre parting with long hair looped on one side.Mixture of foreign and indigenous costume. This early form of kachchastyle sari is still used in Maharashtra and parts of South India. KING KANISHKA«Tunic : calf-length and heavy quilted, with braid at the bottom edge.Chugha : a coat which is longer than the tunic, worn open at centre front; it has a decorative braid at the centre front and hem with probably long gathered-up sleeves.Belt : of metallic decorative plaques.Boots : padded, with straps around ankle and under the boot held together by a decorative clasp; either the boots are calf length or baggy trousers (chalana) have been inserted into short boots.This is the dress of Kushan for foreigner of Saka-Parthian origin. He holds two swords in decorative scabbards. DONOR FIGURE «Antariya : kachcha style, only the pleated end hanging at the back has been shortened .Uttariya : worn over the left shoulder across the back and under the right arm, then across the chest and taken again over the left shoulder .Kantha : short necklace.Hairstyle : in a double knot at the centre of the head.Purely indigenous style.

KUSHAN KING«Chugha : calf-length with a wide richly embroidered border down the centre -front opening, hem and edge of long sleeves (probably ruched); the material of the coat has small rosettes and a V-neck and there is a round motif on the right sleeve.Tunic : Kurta-like undergarment visible at the neck.Chalana : baggy trousers tucked into calflength padded boots; there is a wide band of vine pattern at the centre from toe to top (not visible in drawing); straps around the ankle and instep.Kantha : short necklace with pendant.Purely foreign costume of Scythic origin. SOLDIER«Antariya : worn in kachcha style.Armour : chain armour made of scale or rhombus-patterned plaques, fastened together with strings (like a Japanese or Tibetan armour); the end of the sleeves, waist and hem are strengthened with cording; the skirt portion is made of parallel rows of rectangular plaques.Mauli : turban made of twisted roll of cloth.Equipment : round shield and spear.This is a mixture of foreign and indigenous costume. The armour is Graeco Roman. SOLDIER«Antariya : transparent calf-length and worn in thelehnga style.Armour : scale armour with V-neck and short sleeves; the skirt portion is of square-linked design and of mid-thigh length.Tunic : Visible at the hem and sleeves.Equipment : sword belt with flat, short sword; strap across the chest, probably for quiver; round shield with patterned design,Mauli : turban wound several times and tied at the right side.Mixture of foreign and indigenous costume. GUARD«Antariya : worn in kachcha style up to the ankles.Tunic : knee-length, a fully quilted garment with thick cording at the waist, neck and hem..Quilted upper garments are still worn in north India in winter. Mixture of foreign and indigenous costume.

FEMALE COURT ATTENDANT«this simple hairstyle is made by parting the hair at the centre, drawing it to the right side and allowing it to hang in a loop at the right shoulder COURT LADY«hair is worn in a tuft at the centre as in the figure of Court Lady (Mathura), curls frame the face; rest of the hair is drawn into a knot which is vertically placed at back centre; a turban has been twisted and wound casually around the hair. COURT LADY«a tuft of hair covers the line of parting; it has been to form a ball; rest of the hair is drawn back, looped and held in position by a clip or brooch . COURTIER«Mauli : turban worn simpler than in the previous period: no intertwining of the hair with the cloth; decorated with some clasps in front;there is also a decorative ring at the top through which a string of pearls is passed and attached to the sides . DONOR FIGURE«Mauli : turban of rich material is surmounted by twisted rolls of cloth from the centre of which the pleated end is visible in a decorative fan shape; a band is used crosswise to give shape to the turban. EARRING«Kundala : of gold 'leech and pendant' type; the ring or leech attaches itself to ear and the pendant bud is suspended by a movable ring with granulation's. NECKLACE«Kantha : short necklace of gold in the spearhead and drop' design

UNIT 4.............Mughal influence
The Mughals established one of the greatest empires inunited India. Their leisurely and relaxed lifestyle provided the artisans of the time with an atmosphere of creativity and experimentation with contemporary ideas and philosophies. Some contemporary trends appeared in the miniature painting as local artists were introduced to new trends, which the Mughals had brought with them from the Safavid Court., Islamic inscriptions, symmetry in motifs and overall design, and a tendency towards uniformity in shapes. Mughal emperors paid special attention to textiles ² patterning, cuts and delicate hand work on their garments. The trends and styles that they developed were modern and contemporary to the Subcontinent and are still replicated by architects, artists, film directors and the fashion designers, around the world.Textiles flourished remarkably under the Mughals. Various techniques of crinkling, dying, patterning and embroidery were explored. Lahore received special attention and grew into a leading centre of textile production. Twenty varieties of woollen cloth alone were exported from Lahore to different parts of the Subcontinent and abroad.For weaving shawls there were one thousand karkhanas in the city. Silk weaving also received special encouragement and silk cloth produced in Punjab gained fame throughout the world.Because of its finesse, Indian cotton became very popular in Europe as it was not only colourfast but also far cheaper than the linen available there. This remarkable influence in European markets resulted in many Indian clothing and textile terms entering English and other European languages e.g. bandana, calico (plain-weave cotton fabric with simple block printed design), cashmere (wool from Kashmiri goats), cummer band (a waist band or girdle), dangree (coarse cloth woven with two or more threads per weave), khaki (dust coloured cloth used for military uniforms), muslin (thin cotton fabric), pajama, shawl etc.The priceless legacy of miniature paintings and chronicles from the Mughal era provide an insight into the dress code of the nobility at the time. By examining them one can easily determine that µcostume designing¶ was a major art form that received special encouragement by all the Mughal emperors.Interestingly, each emperor maintained his own contemporary style of dressing in court and otherwise. Babar who was brought up in the cooler climate of Turkistan, retained the costumes of his homeland; the most popular garments in his period were µchafan¶ (long coat) and µpostin¶ (sheep skin coat). It can be said that he must have worn them for traditional rather than practical reasons. Humayun introduced Persian elements in the costumes. He was notorious for seeking the help of planetary movements (every day) in choosing what to wear. He also maintained a special treasure house in his palace to accommodate textiles and garments.Akbar¶s long reign was largely a peaceful one. In this period there was a combination of Indian and imported skills and techniques, which lead to the flowering of classical forms and shapes and later became an integral part of Indian dress design. Akbar took the initiative of introducing local textiles, which were best suited to the hot climate of the region. He himself took interest in the fashioning of court dresses and introduced the µChakdar jama¶ to his court, which is a cross over tunic, with slits around the skirt and an asymmetrical hemline. Although it was in fashion in India since medieval times, Akbar restyled the garment and developed it into a formal gown by removing slits, rounding the hemline and increasing the fullness of the skirt.The emperor was smart enough in maintaining the freedom and religious identity as the Hindu Chakdar Jama was fastened on the left side of the body and Muslims fastened it on the right side.Akbar also developed a vocabulary of clothing and textile. Some new terms were introduced; jama was renamed µsarbgati¶ meaning, that which covers the entire body, µizar¶ (drawers) was renamed µyar pirahan¶ meaning µcompanion of the coat¶, µburqa¶ and µhijab¶ (over garment covering the body and face) were named µhitragupta¶ (Sanskrit word) meaning µthat which hides the face¶ and µshawl¶ took the name µparamnarm¶ meaning µextremely soft¶

.During his reign, emperor Jahangir initiated the printing, weaving and embroidering of Kashmiri flora on textiles. He introduced a garment called µnadiri¶ (literally mean rarity) which was a type of overcoat worn over the jama. The garment was designed exclusively for him. In the museums one finds only two surviving garments from his period; a µBikandar coat¶ and a µriding coat¶.Shah Jahan¶s reign marked the height of aristocratic elegance and opulence in all the forms of art. Mughal ornamentation, especially those for the garments, received fresh impetus. The royal garments became more decorated and lavish with heavy embellishments of floral designs. Motifs were outlined with gold thread coupled with µpietra-dura¶ effect of the precious stones. The intrusions and wars of course left no marks of those garments.Aurangzeb also promoted the same lavish style on clothing, and paintings dating back to this reign reveal the evidence of Indianisation of Persian fashions in the royal court.The Mughal rule is considered a µgolden age¶ of textile crafts in the Sub-continent. By the seventeenth century, jamas, choghas and angrakhas remained the height of fashion along with accessories for men such as the atamsukh (a long, loose garment worn like an over coat in winters), turban (the style of tying the turban varied according to social status), patka, jutis (shoes) and farji (kind of a coat) etc. The intricate patterning of clothing and the delicate embellishments done by hand marked the finesse, luxury and exuberance of the garments.

Mughal influence on textiles

1. [INDIA] The Veil as Ghunghat & Purdah - Ghoonghat or Ghunghat is a Hindi word which describes a type of veil or headscarf worn by Indian women to cover their head. Traditionally, in some parts of India, women are supposed to have a Ghoonghat in front of the family elders and men, except husbands and close family members
Purdah is practiced to protect the dignity of woman.Although the behavioral rules of purdah are complex and depend upon the particular context and region, purdah is generally a cultural practice that confines women within the four walls of their homes. If they must leave the house, they are required to observe purdah by wearing µburqua¶ ± a dress that covers Islamic women from head to toe. Muslims practice this particular form of purdah, while Hindu women do not. ³In the mythic past of Hindu culture, all women figures as exemplified by different goddess statues are bare-headed and their faces are never veiled´ However, with the Muslim invasions came the purdah system for Hindu women to practice.Unlike Muslim and Christian traditions veil has very recent history in Hindu culture and society. Indian literature is one of the oldest literatures in the world but the Vedic or pre-Vedic period has no record of veil or ³ghunghat. The veil appears for the first time in 16th century literature written in Hindi language, veil in Indian subcontinent was introduced only after Muslim invasions. the women in Rajasthan started to cover their face to avoid attracting specifically the Muslim invaders. Strong evidence in favor can be seen by the absence of veil among women in Southern India where there is no insistence on head cover or other such practices neither in public nor in private places. In contrast, in most northern states, the women are forced to cover their faces both in public and in privacy of their houses.

2. [INDIA] Shalwar Kameez is a traditional garment worn by both men and women due to its modesty with Muslim values, comfort and freedom of movement.
The Shalwar Kameez has a very significant place in the History of the Textiles and traces its roots back to the Evidence of Persian influence on Textiles and Clothing in India can be traced to the Kushan dynasty .Coinage and stone palettes found show and Persian influences in clothing . The palettes depict people dressed in caps or head-bands, ruched long sleeved Tunics, calf-length Coats worn loose crossed-over from right to left and secured with leather or metal belt and baggy trousers.

Textiles flourished remarkably under the Mughals. Various techniques of weaving, crinkling, dying, patterning and embroidery were developed and encouraged. Interestingly, each emperor maintained his own contemporary style of dressing in court and otherwise. Babar who laid the foundation for the empire retained the costumes of his homeland. The most popular Garments in his period were a long Coat called Chafan and a sheep-skin Overcoat called Postin worn with Pajama-like trousers. His son, Humayun introduced Persian elements in the court costumes. Humayun's successor Akbar led the empire to its classic and most flourishing period in history.. His reign encouraged a synthesis of Persian and Indian styles in everything from architecture to clothing. This led to the flowering of classical forms, styles and shapes that later became an integral part of Indian Dress Design. Akbar took the initiative of introducing local textiles, which were best suited to the hot climate of the region. He himself took interest in the fashioning of Court Dresses and introduced the Chakdar Jamah to his court, which is a cross over Tunic, with slits around the skirt and an asymmetrical hemline. The men dressed in a Tunic called Jamah and was worn with close fitting Pajama trousers called Izar and later known as Shalwar. Although it was in fashion in India since medieval times, Akbar restyled the garment and developed it into a formal gown by removing slits, rounding the hemline and increasing the fullness of the Skirt. The Tunic was tightened at the waist by a belt of fabric with tassels called Patka. The Jamah which was knee long in the beginning, reached up to the ankles (referred to as Sarbgati meaning that which covers the entire body) in the later Mughal days. The women's Dress of the empire consisted of close fitting trousers paired with a bodice (a variation of Jamah called Angharakha or Qameez) that came down to the end of the Shalwar and worn with a half-sleeved embroidered open Jacket with a delicate transparent Shawl (called Paramnarm meaning extremely soft) draped like a sari. During subsequent reigns of Shah Jahan and Aurangazeb the royal garments became more decorated with heavy embellishments of floral designs. Motifs were outlined with gold thread coupled with µPietra-dura¶ effect of the precious stones. Block printing and the art of Kalamkari (meaning pen work) were rejuvenated with Persian influences of Persian flower motifs and designs by the 17th century. The Mughal rule is considered a µgolden age¶ of textile crafts in the Sub-continent. By the seventeenth century, Jamah, Chogha(cape) and Anghrakha remained the height of fashion along with accessories for men such as the Atamsukh (a long, loose garment worn like an overcoat in winters), Turban (the style of tying the turban varied according to social status), Patka, Jutis (shoes) and Farji (kind of a coat) etc.The precursor of the current Cummerband was another popular piece of clothing (called Kamarbandh meaning waistband) worn as girdle or waistcoat by both men and women to enhance the bust-line. The court Garments of era were marked by intricate patterning of clothing and delicate handmade embellishments.The present day Shalwar Kameez in its various styles is an adaptation of the clothing of Mughal era.

UNIT 5.....Influence of change in costumes
Dress from WWI to WWII....The First World War (1914-1918) had a pronounced effect on

women's fashion in the Western world. Several trends that had roots in the decades prior to the war, were rapidly accelerated by wartime conditions. The most lasting change happened to women's hemlines. Hems which had risen from floor length to ankle length prior to the war, rose to mid calf length by 1916, and have stayed that high, or higher, ever since. Hobble skirts were instantly jettisoned in favor of slightly wider more practical skirts. Several avant-garde fashions, like women's trousers, and short hair, decried before the war as sinful and ugly, were promoted as practical fashions for war work. Short hair was considered a safety measure for certain factory workers, and practical for women working near the front lines. The few women who were soldiers (mostly in Russia and Serbia) were featured in pictoral magazines internationally with close cropped hair and tales of heroism. Most women did not suddenly cut their hair, but once it became acceptable to do so, gradually more and more women did in the following decades.Women's Suits, c.1915-16. The tendency for female office workers to wear feminized versions of men's suits and shirts (common since 1900) became virtually standard by this time. Soft V-necklines, considered racy in 1912-14, during a time of high boned necklines, became normal daywear after 1915.Large numbers of women were recruited into military organizations on all sides, and put into a variety of uniforms, which also influenced the shape of fashionable dress. During the war, a dye shortage, and fabric shortages encouraged a cert ain utilitarian drabness in dress, but the most noticeable change engendered by the war was a relaxation of the formal rules of attire which had bound men and women's dress since early in the Victorian era. Not only did women's hemlines rise to mid-calf length, but more exciting yet, ladies wore these shorter styles with sexy heeled shoes and flesh toned silk stockings, not high button boots. Young men wore the more casual "Tuxedo" jacket to formal evening occasions, not just to men's only club functions. Young and daring women dumped the corset in favor of brasseries. Army officers wore Wristwatches instead of pocket watches, and soft "lingerie" shirts with soft collars attached to them. Tail coats and frock coats began only to be worn on highly formal occasions, to be almost fully replaced by the modern sack suit. This is why clothing after the 1914-1918 War period is instantly recognizable as "Modern" to our eyes. Orientalist fashions continued to be popular, and were eventually stylized into a form which came to be know as Art Deco, the dominant style for fabric decoration and interior design until WWII. Notable European designers like Erte, Poiret, Chanel,Barbier, Vionnet, Zamora and Delaunay all worked in this style through the succeeding decades. 1918-1929...After the War in 1918 the Suffragettes finally won the vote in the UK, and in America voting for women was won in 1920. Fashion trends towards a more casual look continued in the 1920's. In the aftermath of the war, people questioned the values of the older generation that had led to the conflict. To a great extent people believed that those values were discredited, along with the generation that spawned it. American culture in particular became very youth oriented, and fashion began to look towards teen and collegeage kids for it's inspiration. The "College Man" and "The Flapper" became the new icons of all that was young and fashionable. Women in particular began dieting to mold their bodies into a slimmer, flatter teenage shape and dress waistlines dipped to hip length to minimize the appearance of adult curves. The Brassiere, in breast flattening styles, replaced corsets

almost completely.Sex too, became a non-taboo subject. During the war the government & military had set on campaigns to deter soldiers from contracting venereal disease. Rubber condoms (previously hard to find and illegal in most places) were sporadically issued to soldiers along with primitive sex education lessons. In 1920, Trojan brand condoms, began to be made and sold to the civilian population. Advances in the treatment of Syphilis also made extramarital sex less lethal than before. The result was that returning soldiers and nurses were better informed, and better armed, for sex without consequences than before the war. Many married couples now regularly limited family size through birth control, and young unmarried people were more likely to engage in sex before marriage. Art - Gout - Beaute 1926. Women's hemlines got shorter until 1925-6 when they peaked at just below the knee. The influence of Hollywood Silent Pictures made makeup, particularly lipstick, increasingly fashionable. Early versions of "permanent wave" hair curling also spawned a new industry of "Beauty Shops" where women could meet in groups while having hair cut and curled. Western women began growing their nails long, and even painting them with colored enamels, an idea that would have seemed indescribably foreign, decadent and erotic to the previous generation. Rayon (acetate) invented by Briton Charles Frederick Cross in 1895 (and first manufactured in the US in 1910) began to be commonly available in the 1920's, and was a staple fabric for stockings and women's dresses by the end of the decade. Shorter hair styles necessitated hat shapes that held to the head without benefit of hatpins, so the head hugging cloche was popular. 1928 Cloche hats.Short skirts and college fashions reigned in a booming US economy that kept wildly spending and expanding on credit until the Great Stock market Crash of 1929 put a halt to the prosperity and the fun. 1929-1939....As soon as the great Stock Market Crash of 1929 hit the US economy, fashion took a more conservative turn. Women's hemlines dipped back down to mid calf length for day wear, and full length for evening wear. Waistlines moved back to the waist and adult female curves again became fashionable. "White tie" full dress with a tailcoat popped back into men's evening fashion. It is as if the world felt that the Great Depression was a judgment on the fast times and youth culture of the 1920's, and prepared to grow up and do penance in the 1930's . Men's suits became sharper edged, with more shoulder padding, looking less youthful and more masculine, a style trend that continued through the 1940's. African American tailors in Harlem even revived the long frock coat, re-cut and re-invented as the "Zoot suit". This modernized version had a colorful spin, and was popularly made of brighter suitings, and light cottons in summer. This style swept jazz and swing clubs in major cities, was worn out in California by Hispanics, and eventually by disaffected and musically daring teens of all races in the US and Europe. Women's Hairstyles got longer, and fuller, due to the increased popularity and availabil ity of permanent Marcel Waves. Women's hats grew less substantial and more feminine and

impractical throughout the 1930's. Ruffles, banished from female fashion in the mid 1920's, returned with a vengeance, and were combined with Bias cut gowns (first made popular in the late 1920's by Madeleine Vionnet) to make clinging ultra feminine frocks. 1939-1945 (WWII)....War broke out in Europe in 1939, the same year the first true artificial fiber, Nylon, was introduced at the World's Fair in New York. For the duration (1939-1945), fashion veered between exiting innovations like this, and the shortages, price controls and rationing created by war. Often, shortages directly created the innovations: Men's suits bought before the war typically came with jacket, vest and two pairs of matching trousers. During the war this dropped to just a jacket and one pair of trousers, where it has stayed ever since. Leather and rubber shortages caused shoe makers to experiment with wood and cork soled, stylishly elevated, Platform shoes. Women's clothing went through the greatest changes in this era, both due to shortages, and due to large numbers of women engaging in work outside the home during the war. Bias cutting was promptly dropped as a waste of fabric, and "Make Do And Mend", wartime advice centered on sewing old clothes in to new ones. Men's suits were re-cut into women's suits, complete with the tailored details and shoulder padding previously found in the garments. Shoulder pads quickly became stylish in all women's garments, not only suits, and stayed in fashion until 1949. "The suit that bought a bond": Woman's suit made from an old man's suit. 1942.Most governments issued either construction guidelines, or rationing to curtail fabric use, yet even in Europe men and women managed ways to stay fashionable during the conflict. "The Little Black Dress" was a popular method suggested by style magazines: Having a simple, short (knee length) black dress, which one varied each day and evening with sets of color-matched accessories. Fashion that was not rationed, like hats, and hairstyles, grew creatively elaborate. Women and girls were actively encouraged to wear pants, both for war work and warmth. Men's clothing, when out of uniform, was increasingly casual. In addition to dropping vests from suits, ties became wildly festive in pattern, color and style. Aloha Shirts for casual wear came to the mainland with servicemen returning from the Pacific theatre. Suit wearing increasingly was confined to work in offices, going to church, and formal occasions
Fashion in the years following World War II...... 1945±1960 in fashion... is characterized by the

resurgence of haute couture after the austerity of the war years. Square shoulders and short skirts were replaced by the soft femininity of Christian Dior's "New Look" silhouette, with its sweeping longer skirts, fitted waist, and rounded shoulders, which in turn gave way to an unfitted, structural look in the later 1950s.Innovations in textile technology following the war resulted in new synthetic fabrics and easy-care fabric finishes that fitted the suburban lifestyle of the 1950s with its emphasis on casual sportswear for both men and women. For the first time, teenagers became a force in fashion. The return of fashion....By 1947, the Paris fashion houses had reopened, and once again Paris resumed its position as the arbiter of high fashion. The "orderly, rhythmic evolution of fashion change" had been disrupted by the war, and a new direction was long overdue. A succession of style trends led by Christian Dior and Cristóbal Balenciaga defined the

changing silhouette of women's clothes through the 1950s. Television joined fashion magazines and movies in disseminating clothing styles. Casual clothing and teenage style....One result of the Post-World War II economic expansion was a flood of synthetic fabrics and easy-care processes. "Dripdry" nylon, orlon and dacron, which could retain heat-set pleats after washing, became immensely popular. [3] Acrylic, polyester, triacetate and spandex were all introduced in the 1950s. Social changes went hand -in-hand with new economic realities, and one result was that many young people who would have become wage -earners early in their teens before the war now remained at home and dependent upon their parents through high school and beyond, establishing the notion of the teenage years as a separate stage of development. Teens and college co-eds adopted skirts and sweaters as a virtual uniform, and the American fashion industry began to target teenagers as a specialized market segment in the 1940s. In the United Kingdom, the Teddy boys of the post-war period created the "first truly independent fashions for young people",favouring an exaggerated version of the Edwardian-flavoured British fashion with skinny ties and narrow, tight trousers worn short enough to show off garish socks. In North America,greasers had a similar social position. Previously, teenagers dressed similarly to their parents, but now a rebellious and different youth style was being developed. Young adults returning to college under the G.I. Bill adopted an unpretentious, functional wardrobe, and continued to wear blue jeans with shirts and pullovers for general informal wear after leaving school. Jack Kerouac introduced the phrase "Beat Generation" in 1948, generalizing from his social circle to characterize the underground, anti-conformist youth gathering in New York at that time. The term "beatnik" was coined by Herb Caen of the San Francisco Chronicle in 1958, and the stereotypical "beat" look of sunglasses, berets, black turtlenecks, and unadorned dark clothing provided another fashion alternative for youths of both sexes, encouraged by the marketing specialists of Madison Avenue. Womenswear....The New Look....Tailored suit features a long pencil skirt and a fitted jacket with peplum. Photograph for Harper's Bazaar, London, 1951 Evening gown by Dior, silk taffeta, 1954. Indianapolis Museum of Art. On February 12, 1947, Christian Dior launched the first collection of the House of Dior. The new collection went down in fashion history as the "New Look". The signature shape was characterized by a below-mid-calf length, full-skirt, pointed bust, small waist, and rounded shoulder line Resisted at first, especially in America, where fashion magazines showed padded shoulders until 1950, the radical new silhouette soon became immensely popular, influencing fashion and other designers for many years to come. The "softness" of the New Look was deceptive; the curved jacket peplum shaped over a high, rounded, curved shoulders, and full skirt of Dior's clothes relied

on an inner construction of new interlining materials to shape the silhouette. Throughout the post-war period, a tailored, feminine look was prized and accessories such as gloves and pearls were popular. Tailored suits had fitted jackets with peplums, usually worn with a long, narrow pencil skirt. Day dresses had fitted bodices and full skirts, with jewel or low-cut necklines or Peter Pan collars. Shirtdresses, with a shirt-like bodice, were popular, as were halter-top sundresses. Skirts were narrow or very full, held out with petticoats;poodle skirts were a brief fad. Evening gowns were often the same length as day dresses (called "ballerina length"), with full, frothy skirts. Cocktail dresses, "smarter than a day dress but not as formal as a dinner or evening dress"were worn for early-evening parties. Short shrugs and bolero jackets, often made to match low-cut dresses, were worn. Clothes for the space age...From the mid-1950s, a new unfitted style of clothing appeared as an alternative to the tight waist and full skirt associated with the New Look. Spanish designer Balenciaga had shown unfitted suits in Paris as early as 1951 and unfitted dresses from 1954, and Dior showed an A-line dress in 1955, but these styles only slowly gained acceptance by the wider public. Coco Chanel made a comeback in 1954 and an important look of the latter 1950s was the Chanel suit, with a braid-trimmed cardigan-style jacket and A-line skirt. By 1957, most suits featured lightly fitted jackets reaching just below the waist and shorter, narrower skirts. Balenciaga's clothes featured few seams and plain necklines, and following his lead chemise dresses without waist seams, either straight and unfitted or in a princess style with a slight A-line, became popular. The sleeveless, princess-line dress was called a skimmer. A more fitted version was called a sheath dress. Sportswear....New York had become an American design center during the war, and remained so, especially for sportswear, in the post-war period. Women who had worn trousers on war service refused to abandon these practical garments which suited the informal aspects of the post-war lifestyle. Casual sportswear was an increasingly large component of women's wardrobes. Casual skirts were narrow or very full. In the 1950s, pants became very narrow, and were worn ankle-length. Pants cropped to mid-calf were houseboy pants; shorter pants, to below the knee, were called pedal-pushers. Shorts were very short in the early '50s, and mid-thigh length Bermuda shorts appeared around 1954 and remained fashionable through the remainder of the decade. Loose printed or knit tops were fashionable with pants or shorts. Swimsuits were one- or two-piece; some had loose bottoms like shorts with short skirts. Bikinis appeared in Europe but were not worn in America in the 1950s. Hats and hairstyles....Hair was worn short and curled with the New Look, and hats were essential for all but the most casual occasions. Wide-brimmed saucer hats were shown with the earliest New Look suits, but smaller hats soon predominated. Very short cropped hairstyles were fashionable in the early '50s. By mid-decade hats were worn less frequently, especially as fuller hairstyles like the short, curly poodle cut and later bouffant and beehive became fashionable. "Beat" girls wore their hair long and straight, and teenagers adopted the ponytail, short or long. Maternity wear....In the 1950s.Most of the maternity dresses were two pieces with loose tops and narrow skirts. Stretch panels accommodated for the woman's growing figure. The baby boom of the 1940s to the 1950s also caused focus on maternity wear. Even international designers such as Givenchy and Norman Hartnell created maternity wear clothing lines. Despite the new emphasis on maternity wear in the 1950s maternity wear fashions were still being photographed on non-pregnant women for advertisements.

On September 29, 1959, the maternity panty was patented which provided expansion in the vertical direction of the abdomen. The front panel of this maternity undergarment was composed of a high degree of elasticity so in extreme stretched conditions, the woman could still feel comfortable. Menswear....Elvis Presley's look ± especially his pompadour hairstyle ± was very influential in the mid-1950s. Jailhouse Rock, 1957. Suits....Immediately after the war, men's suits were broad-shouldered and often doublebreasted. As wartime restrictions on fabric eased, trousers became fuller, and were usually style with cuffs (turn-ups). In America, Esquire introduced the "Bold Look", with wide shoulders, broad lapels, and an emphasis on bold, coordinated accessories. In Britain, clothing rationing remained in place until 1949. Demobilised soldiers were provided with a suit by the government, usually in blue or grey chalkstripes. Savile Row, the traditional home of bespoke or custom tailoring, had been heavily damaged in the Blitz and was slow to recover. In 1950, Harper's Bazaar proclaimed the "Return of the Beau". Savile Row introduced the "New Edwardian Look", featuring a slightly flared jacket, natural shoulders, and an overall narrower cut, worn with a curly-brimmed bowler hat and a long slender overcoat with velvet collar and cuffs. This was the style commandeered by the Teddy Boys, who added bright socks and a bootlace necktie, achieving a "dizzy combination of Edwardian dandy and American gangster." The horrified tailors of Savile Row dropped the overtly Edwardian touches, but the style of business suits continued to move away from the broad English drape cut, and single-breasted two-piece suits with narrower lines and less padding in the shoulders became fashionable everywhere. Dark charcoal gray was the usual color, and the era of the gray flannel suit was born. By the later 1950s, a new Continental style of suit appeared from the fashion houses of Italy, with sharper shoulders, lighter fabrics, shorter, fitted jackets and narrower lapels. Sportswear...Sport coats generally followed the lines of suit coats. Tartan plaids were fashionable in the early 1950s, and later plaids and checks of all types were worn, as were corduroy jackets with leather buttons. Khaki-colored pants, called chinos, were worn for casual occasions. Bermuda shorts, often in madras plaid, appeared in mid-decade and were worn with knee socks. Knit shirts and sweaters of various kinds were popular throughout the period. Some young men wore tight trousers or jeans, leather jackets, and white tee shirts. Hats and hairstyles...Men's hair fashion favored the wet look, achieved by the use of products such as Brylcreem. Young men often grew their hair out and, with pomade or other hair treatments, coiffed their hair into pompadours. Children's wear....Due to the baby boom, there was a high demand for clothing for children. Children's clothing began to be made to a higher quality, and some even adopted trends popular with teenagers; many boys started wearing jeans to Elementary school. Many girls' and young women's dresses were styled after those of the older women.

Pre-War And Post-War 1940s Fashion Trends.....A shift in dress happened from during WWII to after the war ended. The styles of this time signified the darkness of this particular time in history.One of the most significant examples of wartime fashion are the uniforms worn by military members and their brides. The groom would usually wear his service uniform and the bride would wear something that today¶s time would consider a simple office skirt suit.

Fashion Attitudes During Wartime...Before the war, frivolous and glamorous style was out. Additionally, clothing rations limited the types of materials available for making and/or obtaining clothes. For instance, there was only a limited supply of wool during this time, starting in 1942. Instead, artificial fibers such as viscose and rayon were used. These materials were derived from wood pulp. The colors of clothing during this time were of plain and solemn colors. Most outfits were of a solid color such as ivory (for women¶s wedding suits), black, navy, or other dark colors. Ladies fur coats were available and included Ladies Fur Coats they were made from Coney ( Rabbit ) and dyed to look like Mink, Sable, Seal or Beaver Quite a bit of mending was happening during the war to make clothes last as long as they could. Additionally, the British government had made it unlawful to participate in the practice of using excess buttons, decorative trimmings, and extra stitching (i.e. what would be used for folds, pleats, gathers, etc.) on clothing Most of the jewelry available in World War II was Costume Jewelry example of ladies costume jewelry from 1945 Practicality was of great essence during this time. Clothing was meant just to cover the body, and it was designed for the busy men and women involved in fighting or working during this time. Perhaps one could liken World War II fashion to that of a perpetual funeral. Even wedding clothing was quite drab during this decade. The only difference was that women¶s wedding suits were usually white or ivory-colored. Influence Of Wartime London Fashion Designers...In the year 1942, a group known as the Incorporated Society of Fashion Designers created over 30 different new utility clothing designs. This particular group most likely was the one that made the most out of the simplistic clothing style trend of this time. For the women, the suits that this company made were not as broad -shoulders as others (but were still squared). The jackets and skirts of these suits were more contoured to the shape of a woman¶s body, and looked more feminine than other box -cut patterned women¶s suits of the time. The London clothing fashion design group made the most of the wartime limitations. For instance, they learned how to make a woman¶s suit blazer (suit jacket) look eloquent event with three buttons. These suits were more affordable by those who were more affluent. A very popular suit that women wore during the war was named the ³siren suit´, after the act of civilians hiding in an air raid shelter to protect themselves. These suits were made from a tartan cloth. World War II Accessories...Women during World War II typically wore head scarves, turbans, wedged-heal shoes (versus high heels), and the kangaroo cloak. Safety for women while working in the factory was just as important as style during this time. The kangaroo cloak was a very signature piece of wartime clothing/accessory. It had huge

pockets for stuffing household items into while running for shelter after the siren would go off. The shoes that women wore during these times contained cork. This was largely in part as a result of the shortage of leather. Clogs were worn quite a bit during these times as well. Both of these types of shoes were very comfortable to walk in, especially the cork-soled ones. Hand knitted winter gloves and scarves were also very popular during these times. Additionally, the ³Make Do and Mend´ motto of these times included created shorts out of sheets (or pillow cases), coats out of warm blankets, and wedding dresses out of nightgowns. Industrial cloth, parachute silk, and parachute nylon were some of the household materials that clothing was made of. Furthermore, handbags were made from milk tops. Ankle socks were worn more often than pantyhose, which were rare. Wartime Men¶s Clothing Fashions...Men wore suits for special occasions made from rationed materials as well-sometimes until they had been worn out. They sometimes wore Vnecked sweater vests or knitted waist coats for these occasions as well, over a shirt and tie (under a suit jacket). The military outfits of this time were very simply made, however. They did not come with pocket flaps or vests, and the trousers were neither made with pleats nor cuffs. An illicit item during the war was called the ³zoot suit´. This was an item that was usually worn in night clubs. It consisted of an oversized jacket, wide lapels, broad shoulders, and low crotches. The pant legs of these suits narrowed towards the ankles. Post War Fashions: 1947-1949...People anxiously awaited the day when newer types of clothing would be allowed to be distributed. It took quite some time before the U.S. was able to access the same kinds of fashions that were made available in Paris, France or London, England. American created its own new look during this time. One of the major influences of U.S. fashion after the war was Clair Mc Cardell. One of her signature pieces is a cotton dress that is grey with brown and red stripes, and each of the narrow stripes has tiny hearts imprinted in them. This Clair Mc Cardell dress has a V-necked bodice. Moreover, the sleeves are flared and the skirt is of and eight-gore style with soft folds. The most memorable attribute of this historical dress is the way the stripes on either side of the dress meet and create a ³W´ shape around the waist as well as the bodice. A large amount of casual evening and sports wear was made after the war as well. This was fitting for people of an active lifestyle. Men¶s fashion in the U.S. after the war had changed as well. One of the most dramatic new additions to male fashion introduced after 1947 was the Hawaiian and Carisa shirts. These were first worn on California and Florida beaches, and were made with fabric imprinted with patterns of ocean flora, women, island flowers, or flames. In the last year of the 1940s decade another new fashion item had emerged. The Esquire jacket had came out. It had broad shoulders and was very loose-fitting. Double-breasted suit jackets designed with center vents and peaked lapels also became more popular after the war. Sportswear also became the American clothing icon after World War II was over. In fact, Europe turned to the U.S. after awhile for new ideas pertaining to sports fashion
Dress And Costume During The French Revolution .....With the rise of the people against the house of Bourbon, we find many changes in France, and their influence was felt through

many countries. On 14th of July , 1789, the Parisians made open display of their demands in the streets oftheir city and gave the signal for the fall of a whole social system by their attack on the Bastile. Extravagance in architecture, furniture,costume and mode of living at its height, all this was to be done away with, and a period ofthe strictest simplicity was to follow. Titles were dropped by all of the upper class who survived the guillotine, and men and woman were addressedas citizen and citizeness.One of the first acts of the General Assembly was the abolition by solemn decree of all distinction in dresses of the classes. Materials.²The manner of living was also simplified, but this unfortunately lasted but a short time. Simplicity was the key-note in costume, and dark colors and cheaper materials, especially cotton, were taking the place of the silks, velvets, ribbons, and laces of the former reigns. Fashion still mirrored the events of the times, both in the names of materials and the articles of apparel; the whole theory of it was based on the assumption of equality in dress; "all classes were mingling, willingly or unwillingly, through love or fear; and many wealthy persons rigidly adopted the simple attire." ' The tricolor, or the national cockade, appeared on every costume, as it was exceedingly dangerous to be seen without it in the days when one government succeeded another in such rapid succession. Women's Dress.²Women were too busy or too poor to take the trouble to change fashions as often as had been the case in former years, so we find little or no change taking place between 1789 and 1793. Straight lines had taken the place of panniers a few years before, and a masculine type of dress, borrowed from the English, had been the result. Now women were looking for comfort as well as simplicity, and had given up the stiff stays that were necessary when wearing the pointed waist and the pannier. Gowns were made with bodices cut short in the waist and with sleeves to the elbow ; the neck was low and still finished with the fichu; the skirt hung plain and straight from the high waistline, the hoop or vertugadine having gone the way of the pannier. Little or no trimming was used, except an occasional ruffle at the edge of the skirt. The cotton materials were printed with the national trophies and revolutionary symbols, or with red, white, and blue stripes, and a bunch of tricol ored flowers placed at the left side above the heart showed the wearer's patriotism. In 1791 shops were established in Paris where ready-to-wear clothing might be purchased. The best known of these were run by Quenin, who supplied the men, and Mme. Teillard, who catered to the wants of the women. Printed lists of prices were sent out by both of these shops. Head-dresses.²The style of hair-dressing also under went a change, and instead of the huge piles that had been in vogue a short time before, the hair was worn low in front and hung in clusters of curls behind. Powder had gone with Costume of the period of the French Revolution, 1790. The other symbols of aristocracy, and for the first time in years the hair showed its natural color. Straw bonnets with high crowns and large flaring brims were used for a while; they were remnants of the huge, overtrimmed hats of the time of Louis XVI, and soon disappeared, to be followed by lace and muslin caps, the most popular of these being the mob-cap, with a deep lace ruffle around the face and neck, now known as the "Charlotte Corday " ; this was ornamented with the tricolored cockade or rosette. Men's Dress.²The Revolution brought about the greatest change in the costume of the men. Dark colors, generally black, were in evidence, and cloth and leather took the place of silk and velvet. All furbelows, ruffles, laces, and ribbons had disappeared, they being considered aristocratic and not suitable to the dress of a democratic citizen. The breeches lengthened until they reached the ankle, a style borrowed from the English sailors, or, as Calthrop declares, invented by Beau Brummel for common wear. This, of course, is not the first time

that long trousers, or pantaloons, as they were called, were worn. They were considered a mark of the barbarian by the Romans, and were worn by the early Asiatics and the Persians, but they now became the forerunner of the modern plain dress for men ; for while the kneebreeches returned for formal dress and are still worn in England for court dress, the long trouser was used for informal dress and went through many changes until it finally reached its present style. The name pantaloon was first used as a term of derision or ridicule; it came from the character of Pantaloon, a clown, familiar t o the readers of Italian comedies of the seventeenth century. For many years after the introduction of pantaloons they fitted very snugly to the figure, and were generally buttoned above the ankle. The style of coats had not changed except in the material and color. They were cut away in front at a rather high waistline, and had a narrow tail at the back with the plaits pressed flat from the waist; they closed in front with four or five large buttons. The collar was high, and turned over squarely where it met the large revers. A waistcoat of fancy material, also buttoned and a trifle longer than the coat in front, was open at the neck, where it showed the white stock collar and small cravat of lace. The cuff had gone and several small buttons closed the sleeve at the wrist. Head-dresses.²In England the powdered wig was still worn, but France seems to have discarded it with the rest of her aristocratic paraphernalia, and hair in the natural color prevailed, sometimes short, and sometimes long and tied behind in a queue. Black felt hats, turned up in the front, and ornamented with the tricolor cockade, were worn by all men, young and old, of high and low estate. Foot-gear.²High leather boots with close turn-over tops, generally made of a different colored leather, came up over the long, tight pantaloons, the heels were rather low, and the toes square. The Directory.²As a protest against the simple life that had been forced upon them during the first horrible years of the Revolution, the Parisians started a whirl of gaiety and pleasure as soon as the government became a trifle more stable. They danced and danced, and open air pavilions were much in evidence. At the Elysee National, once the Elysee Bourbon, the music was led by a negro, Julien. One of the most aristocratic of these dance-halls was called the "Bal des Victimes"; it was held at the Hotel Richelieu, and could be attended only by those who had lost a relation by the guillotine. A new style of hair-dressing originated here, when the men cut their hair short, to simulate the fashion that had been designed by Sampson, to distinguish the victims of the Revolution. Even the women took this up, and shaved the back of their hair, and this style was soon known as "coiffure a la Titus." It was a time of great license; women set aside all edicts for the regulation of "virtue and morality," and as a result very little politeness or consideration was shown them by the men. Women's Dress.²Women began to dress to charm; there had been a return to nature, and this showed in the adoption of classic dress. This style might well be called undress, as they vied with each other in discarding garments and reducing the weight of those retained. "In the beginning these garments left the body free, followed its outlines, and were well-nigh transparent in texture, they drew their inspiration from nature and pagan mythology; they

aimed at concealing nothing, and followed the harmonious lines of Grecian beauty." The skirt was scant and hung from a high waistline trailing at the back; the neck was low and round and the sleeves were small, short puffs, or long and tight, reaching to the wrist; with the short sleeves were worn long gloves of kid. The materials used were sheer embroidered India muslin, painted gauze, lace, and lightweight cottons. The under-clothing consisted in most cases of flesh-colored silk tights. Often the skirt was slit to the waist on one side and showed the lower limb. Jewels were much sought after, and women spent ruinous sums on diamonds, jewelry, and flowers. T hey even went so far as to wear rings on their bare toes and bracelets on their ankles. Some of the gowns had no sleeves and were caught together at the shoulders with cameo brooches, like the Corinthian chiton of the Greeks, and when not split were draped on the left side to show the limb to the knee. The weight of a woman's costume, including shoes and ornaments, was often as low as eight ounces, and several women appeared in public with nothing but a chemise in order to win a wager. Trains became so exaggerated "six yards for ordinary wear" and "fourteen yards for dress occasions" that they had to be wound around the figure several times and then held by the end; or they were thrown over the shoulder of the man when dancing. Heelless slippers, or Grecian sandals, were worn with white stockings, or soles were strapped to the foot by crossed ribbons. The cost of these costumes was enormous; "gowns of Indian calico cost 2,000 francs, or 6,000 to 8,000 if embroidered and with a train." The trousseau of Marie Louise included a gown embroidered in silver and gold tinsel which cost 7,400 francs, one of pink tulle at 4,500 francs, and one of blonde lace at 6,000 francs. Laces were highly prized, and those belonging to Marie Antoinette were owned by Mlle. Lange, the mistress of the Deputy Mandrin. The most valuable of these laces finally came into the possession of the Empress Josephine, and were valued at from 40,000 to 60,000 francs.' Part of this expense was due to the low state of the currency, as paper money had taken the place of gold and was much lower in value. Head-dresses.²Hair was being powdered, and a craze for wigs of all sorts and colors had developed. Mme. Tallien had "thirty, of every shade of light hair." The hair was curled and banded with ribbons or jewels, a la Grec, a diamond crescent being a favorite ornament. This style was finally supplanted by the "Titus" described before. Felt hats, like those of the men, were trimmed with flame-colored ribbons, and toques made of light-colored silks and satins were ornamented with white aigrettes. Close straw bonnets with high square crowns were decorated with flowers and ribbons and tied under the chin. A little later caps of all descriptions replaced the hats and bonnets. The most popular of these fitted close to the head like an infant's first cap, and was made of lawn and trimmed with lace, or of Small bonnets similar to an infant's cap. from a velvet in green, violet, black, or cerise, with the seams covered with a flat galloon. For outer garments over these very thin gowns a scarf of cashmere, silk, or other light-weight material was used, similar to the Greek himation. Huge muffs, like great barrels, nearly a yard long, were carried. Needless to say that the women of that time had very delicate constitutions, and many died of pneumonia and other lung troubles. The physicians were loud in their demands for more clothing. Delsarte declared that he had seen more young girls die

of nakedness and gauze during the reign of this style of dress than during the forty years before.' It was the fashion for women to eat very little while in public, although Uzanne asserts that they had very healthy appetites in private, and ate heartily, which was necessary in order to prevent the chest attacks which were so prevalent. He describes the women as being "buxom, healthy, loud-voiced beings, masculine in their ways, broad in their talk, and opulent of charm." Men's Dress.²Very little change took place in the costume of the men during the years of the Directory, except in the size and style of the neck-cloth and the color and materials used in their clothing; this is especially true of the vest or waistcoat. The dandies, or "Incroyables," of France, often had three layers at the lower edge of the vest, each of a different color, and one below the other; "in 1791, green, yellow, and mother -of-pearl was considered very chic." These vests had high turn-over collars, which showed inside the neck of the coat. The stocks were built out about the neck ; a padded silk cushion was first adjusted; this was concealed by a huge muslin cravat, and that in turn was covered by a figured silk handkerchief which came up over the chin, giving a goitre-like appearance to the neck. A jabot of lace filled in the opening of the vest. The Incroyables exaggerated the size of the revers and the collars of their coats, and sometimes their coat-tails were so long that they had to pick them up as the lady did her train. The coats fitted very snug at the waistline, and corsets were often worn to make their waists smaller. England was still the criterion for men's fashions, and the styles for top-boots and even top-hats were borrowed from there. The Empire.²If all that was Greek dominated dress during the Directory, Rome had the same influence during the Empire. The little Corsican general was making order out of chaos, and, as Uzanne says, "he brought the licentious freedom in which the population had run riot under control, and endowed the nation with its civil rights, more precious an hundredfold than any rights political." Fashion became less frivolous as the everyday life became more stable. Napoleon was as fond of pomp and show as Louis XIV had been, and dress assumed much of the gorgeousness that had been discarded a few years before. Velvets, silks, laces, and embroideries came into their own, and the silk industry in France, which had been practically ruined during the Reign of Terror, was resumed, and many other industries were started. Artificial flowers, then much in demand, were made by a clever chemist and botanist, Sequin, and silver flowers made by him took a prize at the Industrial Exposition of 1802. Cashmere shawls were the rage; many of these were brought into France from Egypt in 1792-1802. This industry was introduced into France by Louis Ter naux, who imported goats from Thibet. The government, realizing that there was much revenue from the manufacture of cot-ton, set up factories at Rouen, St. Quentin, and Tarare, which flourished under the First Empire, and clothed nearly all the women of France. Women's Dress.²The day of the diaphanous gown was over, and while the style of dress had not changed to any great extent, the materials had. Women began to tire of the plain skirt, and the first noticeable change came when they added a short tunic to the Greek dress; gradually this was lengthened until it formed an overskirt which was open in the front. Color and heavier texture were introduced through this means, white being the favorite for the

under-dress. The waist was still very short, and the skirt had grown shorter, showing the feet. The neck was cut very low or very high, the latter finished with a ruff made of lace and called a "Betsy," after Queen Elizabeth. Sleeves were short puffs for ceremonial costumes, and long and tight for the street or at home. Often more than one gown was worn at a time, one over the other. Mme. Recamier attended a ball in a very splendid velvet dress, which she removed when the dancing began, and appeared in a ball-gown of embroidered white silk. The cost of these gowns was still very great ; the coronation robes of Napoleon and Josephine, made by Leroy and Mme. Raimbaud, cost 650,000 francs. The red velvet court train of Josephine and the cape-like robe of Napoleon were lined with ermine and embroidered all over with gold bees. Each of the ladies in attendance received 1,000 francs to be spent on her costume. Napoleon was a dictator in fashion, as in everything else, and no lady dared to appear in his presence wearing a gown more than once. For outer covering shawls were in great demand, and much art was shown in the way these were draped ; ladies even went so far as to take lessons in the art of draping and posing; large sums of money were paid for these shawls. For outer wear, besides shawls, the spencer, a short jacket, with sleeves reaching to the wrist and made of colored silk or cashmere, was much liked. The longer pelisse was also made in color and of heavier material, and either lined and trimmed with fur, or simply lined with lighter-colored material. The sleeves were wide and turned back at the hand, and the coats had round, cape -like collars. As Napoleon returned from his different campaigns, styles felt the influence of the countries where he had been, and Oriental fashions, Spanish, Italian, Turkish, and English followed in rather quick succession. The Empire style is so familiar to all that it is unnecessary to go into many particulars. Head-gear and Accessories.²By 1806 the style of dressing the hair had become very conservative; it was held close to the head in flat curls, and these were kept in place by a net; braids of hair were also used, but kept flat to show the contour of the head. Classic coiffures, banded with fillets or broad ribbons, are shown in many of the portraits of the day, such as Mme. Vigee Lebrun, Mme. Recamier, and the Empress Josephine. These were painted by the celebrated painters, David, Gerard, Sir Thomas Lawrence, and Mme. Vigee Lebrun. Hats had given place almost entirely to bonnets of the coal-scuttle type, the brims rather straight and very deep, almost hiding the face; these were trimmed with high-standing feathers or flowers, and covered with a veil; a few straw hats and turban-like toques were worn when Turkish fashions prevailed. The use of powder and rouge had almost disapp eared. Napoleon and Josephine had started a crusade for cleanliness. Before this time the bath seems to have been considered as superfluous. It is reported that Louis XIV never washed himself, and Queen Margaret only once a week, and then only her hands. By 1800 soap had become an article in general use in Paris, although even then the French were not as clean as the English. Another form of cleanliness for which France is indebted to Napoleon was the frequent changing of underlinen. Josephine made three changes a day, while Napoleon made one. This necessitated a much more bountiful supply than had been needed before, and the trousseau of Mlle. Tacher de la Pajerie, a niece of Josephine, contained underclothing worth 25,000 francs, a gift of the empress.

Valuable jewels, such as cameos of ancient design, were chosen to wear with the classical dress, and many from famous Italian collections found their way to France to grace the fair ladies of the Empire. Rings on the hands and feet, bracelets and anklets, cha ins so long that they might be wound around the neck five or six times and still almost reach the floor, girdles and jewelled combs and earrings with three pendants all these and many more were worn. The value of these collections was almost unbelievable, as the gems were mostly diamonds. At one ball in Paris the value of the jewels worn was estimated at about 20,000,000 francs. Pearls were not considered fashionable, but amethysts were held in high favor. This craze for jewels was at its height from 1806 t o 1809, when a reaction set in, and very few jewels appeared at the court functions. The ladies, having no pockets in their dresses, adopted the fashion of carrying bags, called reticules, in order to have their small personal belongings with them. These were supposed to be a revival of the bag carried by the Greek women, and they were made of cardboard or lacquered tin in the shape of Etruscan vases.' Men's Costume.²Although Napoleon made an effort to bring back the elaborate dress for men that had been given up at the time of the Revolution, he made little headway except in the matter of ceremonial dress and military uniforms. Men had found that plain dress was much more comfortable and more suited to the affairs of everyday life than the elaborate velvets, silks, and embroideries, and they refused to go back to .them. The dandies and exquisites, of course, followed the lead of the emperor. Perhaps the greatest change took place in the way of wearing the hair; in 1806 it was cut short in the back, and had long curled locks in front, which hung over the forehead and eyes; this was called "au coup de vent"; in 1809 it was curled and called "en cherube"; finally these gave place to the short hair-cut; that, gave the wearer the least trouble and was not disarranged by the hat.' A change was also seen in the stock; the pad and the silk handkerchief had gone, and a plain black silk stock wrapped twice about a standing linen collar, and tied in a small bow in the front, had taken their place; the lace cravat had become a frill attached to the front of the linen shirt. Colors were used for the coats; dark-green, dark-blue, brown, and wine-colored broadcloth were favorites. Breeches were long and tight, and high boots were still worn. Over-coats of fur or cloth had long, full skirts, and were buttoned with two rows of buttons; they were short in the waist, and had two or three capes. England had adopted the top -hat; it had developed from the sailor-hat, the crown had grown much higher and broader at the top, bell -shaped, and the brim had become narrower and turned up at the side. Frenchmen were still using the cocked hat made familiar by the pictures of Napoleon. Fashions were changing rapidly in minute details; Uzanne states that between 1805 and 1814 Paris fashions were never the same for more than a week. Perhaps this was due to the fact the Empress Josephine spent most of her time with her dressmakers trying different effects, and of course her word was law for a time at least. Fashion papers were published every five days to keep pace with the changing styles. Dress was still showing the influence of political upheavals, as during the one hundred days after Napoleon's return from Elba no Imperialist lady appeared without her bunch of violets. The skirts of the ladies of the royalist party were decorated with eighteen tucks, to show their loyalty to Louis XVIII.' They also wore small bonnets made of white silk striped with straw, and a small cashmere shawl with a vermilion border; with this costume were worn dark prunella boots.

UNIT 6...Costumes of different regions of India.....
Costumes of Andhra Pradesh.... are Saree and Blouse for women, and Dhoti and Kurta for men. The women of all communities together with Muslims wear Sarees and blouses. The skill of draping the saree is in itself an expression of a woman`s creativity. Some Muslim women also put on Salwar Kameez Dupatta. Among the Hindus and Christians men usually wear a Dhoti and Kurta. The Muslims in general wear pyjamas instead of dhotis and kurta and the Fez cap, which though is not so common now. Andhra Pradesh is the insignia of the cultural convergence of South India. This fourth largest state of India, displays the wide spectrum of varied population, residing in this land, with their diverse cultural heritage. Costume of a place reflects upon the cultural traditions, the lifestyle, the tastes and preferences and finally the impact of present modernity on the mindsets of its inhabitants. The myriad costumes of Andhra Pradesh, attest the place to be a potpourri of the ancient and the modern. The folk, rural element is a component of Andhra Pradesh`s society. The half nomadic tribes, hailing from Lambadi or Banjara or Sugalis, are an agricultural sector of the social fabric of Andhra Pradesh. They earn their livelihood through harvesting, sowing, reaping and so on. It is evident that the costumes they would cater to would represent their life-pattern, class, and likings, in addition to their use of dresses that suit their climatic and geographical conditions, and social context. Sarees of the original handlooms of Andhra Pradesh are complete with ethnicity and richness of texture. Dharmavaram in Andhra Pradesh has world wide repute for the production and distribution of gorgeous silk sarees. These Dharmavaram sarees make for ornate costumes, appropriate for bridal wear, ceremonies, like wedding party, or festivals. The hallmark of these splendid sarees is that their borders are generally brocaded with gold plating. The Gadwal sarees, manufactured in Gadwal of Andhra Pradesh, are one of the most exclusive linen, available in the world. What is unique is the saree`s cotton body, with pure silk borders and pallu (the tail-end of the saree). The Ikkat saree was first woven in the Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh. Now its chief production-sites are Puttapaka, Pochampalli and Chautuppal villages of Andhra Pradesh. A proper know-how is indispensable in their creation. It requires a weaving -pattern, wherein the yarn is arbitrarily dyed in zigzag or geometric structures. The last category of sarees and not the least is the Mangalgiri saree, prepared from fine cotton, in Mangalgiri. All these sarees are the most happening costumes of Andhra Pradesh, not only, but in India and other parts of the globe also. The Kalamkari fabric contains the paintings of mythological figures and events with vegetable colours. Kalamkari sarees, kurti (tops), salwar-kameez, have become the order of the day and have become the popular costumes of Andhra Pradesh. This particular art form is prevalent in Machilipatnam of Andhra Pradesh. Urbanity in its refined form rules in the epicenter of sophistication, Hyderabad. Here it is normal to come across burqha-clad, veiled Muslim woman, working at the same company with today`s cosmopolitan girls, attired in salwar-kameez and jeans-shirts. The crowning glory of the costumes of Andhra Pradesh is the awesome Hyderabad`s pearls. The enthusiastic Nizams of Hyderabad inaugurated pearl trade. The pearl small-industries, craftsmen and jewelers are situated near the wellknown Charminar. The cost of pearls varies according to radiance, shape and size. Lambadies are a familiar tribal group in Andhra Pradesh and are well-known for their

colourful costumes. The Lambada men have taken on the regional dress but the women folk have to this day preserved their gorgeous colourful and heavy garments, with lot of mirrors and beads studded on them. They dress in wide skirts in many gay and loud shades of red, orange and blue. The magnificent finesse of the costumes of Andhra Pradesh definitely highlights the deft craftsmanship of the different handlooms and textile-industries. Furthermore, pearls have always been a woman`s pride. Therefore, the costumes of Andhra Pradesh cast such an enigmatic spell, that not only the denizens of the state, are spellbound with their aura, but also the tourists who flock there, to appease their appetite for exotic garments and pearl-jewellery. Costumes of Andaman & Nicobar Islands ...Grown amidst the remote surroundings and forests of the islands of Andaman and Nicobar islands, the aboriginal tribes of this virgin land, un-invaded by civilization, go naked. The Sentinelese tribe till today, wears nothing. However, the predominant community of the Jarwas, flaunt themselves in necklaces, crafted from shells and barks of trees, waistband, armband etc. Major changes has entered the lifestyle and culture of the Car Nicobar islanders, who no longer restrict themselves to the traditional costumes of coconut -leaf petticoats and other similar costumes. They now have adopted modern clothes. Same about the Onges, who after years of no-dress culture, now drape themselves in the costume of the land. The Shompen people cover themselves only from their waist. However, the Hindus, Sikhs and Christians, living on the islands, exhibit themselves in their traditional costumes of sari, salwars , skirt-blouse, Dhoti, Kurtas, Pajamas, pants, trousers, shirts and so on. Costume-patterns of Andaman &Nicobar islands are on the tide of change . It is interesting to see the sea-shell ornaments and natural products like leaves of trees, forming the costume of a place. Costumes of Andaman & Nicobar Islands are in harmony with the blue romance of the sea and the sylvan ambience. Costumes of Arunachal Pradesh..... reflect the cultural and ethnic way of life of the tribal people residing there. Indian ethnicity and tribal life finds its fullest expression in the serene hills and the sylvan surroundings of the picturesque Arunachal Pradesh. This eastern-most state on India`s northeast frontier is crowded with twenty six native tribes and several subtribes, residing in 3649 dispersed villages. In general, the Arunachal people have a Mongoloid descent, though one tribe is diverse from the other in terms of distinct vernacular, dress and costumes. Costumes of the different tribes of Arunachal Pradesh are endowed with fascinating vibrant colours and myriad patterns, characteristic of tribe culture. It signifies their aesthetic taste and zeal for embellishment. The Monpas who live north of the Bomdila range, adhere to Buddhism, observed in the venerated Tawangmonastery. Thus the traditional costume of the Monpas of Arunachal Pradesh is shaped by Tibetan culture. Besides, they also cover themselves with woolen coats and trousers, to shield themselves from the cold. It is typical of tribe lifestyle, to use animal body-parts in their daily life, be it as their food, or in the making of their dresses or in other regular articles used by them. The Monpas also are no exception. They wear a skullcap made of felt with laces or tassels as adornments. The Monpas women wear a jacket, above a sleeveless chemise. They bind this chemise round their waists with a lengthy and narrow strip of cloth. Accessories are a must for any woman, be she a tribal or a city-girl. The Monpa females

beautify them with silver rings, earrings cut from bamboo-bits and appended with red beads or lovely turquoises. Another popular dressitem is a cap, endowed with a fascinating peacock-feather. The Hill Miris inhabiting the lower Kamla valley look attractive in their costume. They tie the hair in a knot just above the forehead. Their women wear attractive "crinoline of cane rings" which serves the purpose of a blouse but now it is not seen in the urban areas. The Sherdukpen, inhabiting south of Bomdila in the Tengapanai valleys, bear striking resemblance with their fellow- Buddhist community, the Monpas. The usual apparel of Sherdukpen men folk is a sleeveless silk material, with its two edges, pinned at the shoulder region. The costume is normally kneelong. The hallmark of their dress-code is the gurdam skull-caps smeared with yak`s hair. The tassels protruding from the gurdam over the face form a slope to glide away rain-water, as their residential-zone is subject to torrential rain, often. The women sect of Sherdukpen, dress themselves in a collarless and sleeveless garment, stretching from the shoulders to the knees. Added to this, a full-sleeved jacket with nice embroidery and waist cloth, called mushaiks, is worn above the patent robe. The hairstyle is also interesting. The women often tie their hair into a bun at the back. It is curious to note that Sherdukpen women are adept in weaving clothes with praiseworthy finesse. The Tangsa tribe, also, dwelling in the Tirap district and Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh, is a Naga tribe. These robust, middle-length people cater to the Burmese costumestyle. The Tangsa men wear green lungi, proficiently seamed in with matching yellow, red and white yarns. A sleeveless shirt, acts as the upper garment. Tangsa women put in a very attractive looking woven petticoat, along with a linen blouse to top it. Miji women, living in the West Kameng and East Kameng districts, exhibt simplicity as well as refinement in their costume. The ankle-long white cloak gives the Miji women an immaculate look. And the final touch is given by an ornate red jacket. Big-sized silver earrings and resplendent necklaces, commonly decked with jade, perfectly augments the beauty. A strip of silver chains is occasionally, worn around the head by the wealthier Miji women. One will be awe -struck to learn that these tribal women know the art to extract bio-chemical cosmetics from pineresin. The intricate design and colour-abundance of the costume of the Apatanis is indeed captivating. Tattoo-drawing and the attaching of conspicuously big nose plugs called Yaping hullo are the major highlights of this group. It is said, that this peculiar costume-pattern evolved from the strategy of safeguarding, devised by the beautiful Aptani women. They were, since old times, keen, to appear unimpressive to the men of other tribes, to ensure safety. The tattoo done by the women involve broad blue stripes painted from the forehead down to the tip of the nose, and five vertical lines, drawn under the lower lip in the chin. The women arrange their tresses into a ball, called Dilling on the head-top. A brass skewer, known as Ading Akh, is often passed through the Dilling, in a horizontal direction. By custom, the

Aptani men, make a knot of their hair just above the forehead. The local name of this hairstyle is as Piiding and the bras rod used in the creation of this knot is known as Piiding Khotu. The men also like to apply tattoo or Tiippe on their chin. The tattoo-sketch resembles the shape of a `T` under the lower lip. So, going for make -up in their own unique manner was included in the heritage-laws of the Aptanis. The Adi tribe is a chief tribal community, staying in the Himalayan hills of Arunachal Pradesh, i.e., in the temperate and sub-tropical regions within the districts of West Siang, East Siang, Upper Siang, Upper Subansiri, and Di bang Valley. The topic of the costume of the Adi, instantly gives glimpses of the galae, a poly-utility garment, used by both the genders. A galae, which is tied around the loins, comes down in loose hanging down in narrow form. In accordance with the geographical circumstances of the region, men secure themselves with helmets made from cane, bear and deer skin. Senior women, already married, embellish themselves with yellow necklaces and coiled earrings. But, the presence of beyop, an ornament compiled of five to six brass plates, stuck under their petticoats, signify the unmarried status of a young girl. Tattooing is a common feature among the older women. Therefore the costume of the plethora of tribes, thriving for ages in the hills and forests of Arunachal Pradesh are enchanting. The costume of each of the tribes, namely, Monpa>, Sherdukpen, Tangsa, Adi, Aptani, and so on, illuminate the mind with their ever -glorious aesthetic appeal. In fact it is the rare tribal artistry and indigenous caliber that makes Arunachal Pradesh, stand on the high pedestals of fame and reputation. Costumes of Assam......Muga or the golden silk fiber of Assam constitutes the lion`s share of the costumes of Assam. The characteristic of the durable Muga silk is that it lasts for years and adds radiance to itself, after every wash. It is interesting watching the silk-cultivation in Assam. One can watch the silkworm in its cocoon stage, till the unfolding into worm`s generated silk-thread, and finally the conversion of the threads into the gorgeous saris at the handloom. Almost twenty eight thousand families are engaged in silk -rearing in Assam. The delicate designs, finely woven, on the saris cater to patterns in nature, for example the flora and the fauna. Embroideries also incorporate, acquainted and culture-related things, such as architecture and stone-sculptures on the Madan Kamdev Temple in Assam. Now-a-days, Muga artisans, indulge in experimentation. They offer contrast creations of pinkish red or greenish blue and other innovative as well as traditional colors of red, blue, yellow, green, against the inherent golden color of the fabric. Assam silk saris Bridal wears are decked with gold and silver threads, to make the bride catch a marvelous get-up on her special occasion. The Assam silk saris are perfectly suitable for parties, wedding ceremonies and mirthful festivals. It endows on any woman, who wears it, an aura of elegance. This high quality textile of Assam, Muga silk, serves as the material-base, even

for the traditional costume of Assam, called Mekhla Chadar. The Mekhla is an awesome ensemble, which resembles a sari, and is yet not a sari. The distinction lies in the fact that a Mekhla is composed of two or three pieces of cloth, whereas a sari is a single piece of cloth. One half of the Mekhla is worn as the skirt or petticoat or Lungi, while the other half, Chaddar, is akin to the sari`s Anchal, used as the upper-garment for the skirt. Added to the Chaddar, blouses are worn, below Chadar, to complete the dress. The Mekhla skirt bears a broad border and is thicker in texture, but the Anchal is lightweight for easier handling. A Mekhla is hence a mix and match of Aanchal and Lungi. However, the Chadar, is adorned with spell-bound weavings, integral to the weaving-ace Assamese. The Chadar is worn in a special criss-cross pleated-form, down the front side. Assamese women look marvelous in these fascinating costumes of Assam. Bodo tribe of Assam resides amidst the lush greenery of Assam. The Bodo tribal womenfolk acknowledge Mekhla as their prevalent costume. Along with the Chaddar, an upper -wrap called Riha. In fact, this happens to be the usual costume of the rustic people of Assam. The men of the Bodo tribe, dresses themselves in Dhoti (an Indian loin cloth) and Chaddar, made from Endi (a material made from conglomeration of silk and cotton). Very similar to the costume of the Bodo tribe, is the dressing style of another, tribal community, the Mech tribe, and silk-weavers in profession. TheDimasa tribes are renowned for their expertise in silkculture and weaving-prowess. They are indeed the producers of Endi. A Dimasa woman covers herself in a skirt-like attire, known as the as Rigu, topped by an embellished vest-like cloth, called Rijamphai. Ceremonies and merry occasions see the women, decorating themselves in more ornate Rijamphai, locally named as Rikhaosa. Again, like the Bodo men, Dimasa men, wears, a Risha, this is a loin cloth of deep green colour. He puts in a vest, called Rimsao. He also attaches on his head, a turban woven from pure cotton or Endi. The costume of the Thai Phake tribe stands illuminat ed with respect to its attractive charm. A Thai Phake woman uses a striped girdle, called Chin which stretches from the waist down to the ankles. There exists a cloth belt encircling her waist. It is called Chairchin. It has a width of about 6 cm and a length of 1.5 m. Young girls resort same upper-cloth structure, with the only difference being in size. It is called Fafek. The Thai Phake women are inclined towards beautification of themselves. They enhance their prettiness, by wearing multicolored blouse, called Chekhamchum. While attending invitation or paying visit to far-flung places, they flaunt themselves in dignified white shawl-like cloth called Chaddar. At times of wedding, this Chaddar acts as the customary veil to the bride. The costume of the Thai Phake man is to some extent same. He wears a chequered green loin cloth, invested with black stripes and red, yellow or white lining, called Fatong. Upwards, he matches his Fatong, with a shirt called Sho. He also bears a white turban called Fa ho ho. While venturing out, the Thai Phake men, adorns himself in a white shirt with long sleeves, enriched with a plain bordered white shawl called Fa fek mai, to make himself presentable at the place of his visit. Jewellery is a fundamental aspect of costume of any place. The

remarkable feature of Assamese jewellery is Khopo Phool, an earring which appears like an orchid. The outlook is like two small shoes paired together and crowned by a floral construct, which is again connected to a chain. Gaam Kharu is a large-sized silver bangle with shimmering gold polish. Another fashionable earring is Lokaporo, wherein two gold or ruby or mina or enamel -plated, bird figures are conjoined together, back to back. Assamese costume has cast an enchanting spell on not only India, but on foreign nations also, because of their mind-blowing perfection. Costume of Bihar..... the land that has inculcated traditional old values to the core, is noted for its hand woven textiles in the field of costume. Particularly, the rustic crowd of Bihar adheres to the traditional pattern of dresses and jewellery. Though most of the populati on of the state still remains in rural areas the costumes worn by them are still traditional. The clothes for the people of different religions are a bit divergent. The senior male citizens of Bihar, irrespective of Hindu or Muslim, favour tradition, when it comes to costumes. If a Hindu elderly person prefers Dhoti (an Indian loin cloth), a Muslim person might dress himself in Lungi (a type of petticoat for men) or Pyjama (loose trousers). As an upper garment, men usually go for Kurta (loose, normally cotton, Indian, T-shirts), and shirts. However, the men resort to attractive apparels for ceremonies, festivals and social gatherings. Kurtas, Churidar, Pyjamas and Sherwani are the ideal costumes, chosen for such special occasions, where accurate attitude owes a lot to an impressive dressing style. The Muslims, Sikhs, and Christian males are habituated in luxuriating in the fragrance of perfumes and "attar" on an every day basis. It is interesting to note that men of Bihar inhabit a penchant for ornaments. They decorate themselves with bala or bali (bangles) in Shahabads, Kanausi in Patna and Gaya. Again Gowalas (the milkmen) flaunt themselves in Kundals (earrings). However, malas or bead necklaces are on the rise these days, than, the other ornaments. The costume of the women folk of Bihar is chosen carefully in keeping with tradition. As per tradition, married women, smear the hair- parting zone with powder of Sindoor or vermillion. Tikli, a forehead-adorning little ornament is added to the hair-partitioning area. On the forehead, a Bihari married woman, be she an urban or a rural one, usually applies bindi. A lot of Bihari women, love applying Kajal i.e. eye-pencil, or antimony eye-make-up called Surma, to improve the appeal of their eyes. They also indulge in flattering their senses with soothing aromatic oils that leave them perfumed, and refreshed, in the mind and body. Tattoo-paintings are broadly prevalent among Bihari women. They give detailed attention to their hands, and beautify them with Mehendi-designs (a kind of tattooing, done with colors fetched from herbal product like, amla or shikakai). Ornaments with elaborate designs and extravagant look, such as Chandrahar, Tilri, Panchlari, Satlari, and Sikri are the common accessories, accompanying a woman in Bihar. Indeed, the plethora of accessories, replicate upon the craze for jewellery and ornaments. Women`s passions for

jewellery are not restricted to necklaces only. They buy and wear myriad ornaments for arms, wrists and fingers. The most popular are bangles, rings, for hands and the anklets (worn around ankles). Beauty-consciousness is an inherent characteristic of feminine nature. And in this respect, even the tribal women of Bihar, are not lagging behind. Even the men participate in these regular grooming-sessions. Tribal people, inclusive of both men and women, wrap a thin strip of cloth round the waist. By rule, they maintain two pieces, of cloth, one for home-use and the other for going out. Their men are accustomed to wearing Dhotis, whereas women attire themselves in sarees. Drawing tattoo on the forehead, arms and legs is very much in vogue among tribal population. This is especially in harmony with their belief in magic. To sum up, simplicity is the mantra which provides an aura of elegance to the costume of this tribal elegance of Bihar. The costumes of Bihar, thus exhibit the richness, refinement and immeasurable worth of a heritage that remains ever-glorious, even in the face of changing times. Costumes of Chandihgarh.... the capital city of both Punjab and Haryana , has ranked as one of the highest income-generating state-economy of India. This superb city, forging ahead on the advancing wave of improvement is bound to flourish in all possible aspects of life. The city populated with Hindus, including the Punjab is, Sikhs, Muslims and Christianity, certainly projects forth a potpourri culture respecting traditional norms but welcoming innovations as well. This amalgamation of tradition with modern newness is reflected in the costume-types of Chandigarh in India. The urban ambience of Chandigarh, requires men to go for formal office costumes. The longsleeved shirt, with tie, coat and formal trousers make up a total office-suit for men, is very much in vogue. At times formal trousers are topped off by sober T-shirts, that contributes to the dignified appearance of Multi-national executives, servicemen, businessmen, during office-work, conferences, meetings and important deals. In the winter months, men assume a stylish look with handsome jackets, or woolen garments, which wards off the biting cold of North India as well. As casuals, jeans and other branded or quality cotton fabric , rule the list of men`s favourite costumes. The traditional bridergroom`s costume of Chandigarh, is the resplendent and sophisticat ed Sherwani, an attire suiting the inherent attribute of manliness. Sherwanis , invested with Western-eastern fusion, has the best outlook, and is in keeping with the contemporary air and traditional choices. A Sherwani is a body-fitting, long coat-like garment, with ornate buttons, installed in the front side, which are buttoned up , while wearing. A Sherwani has a Nehru collar (collars worn by the first Indian Prime Minister, Jahawarlal Nehru, the trendsetter). This coatlike knee-length upper garment is perfectly matched with a bodyhugging Churidar-trousers. The tall and sturdy Chandigarh grooms look regal in Sherwanis. Sherwanis usually, come in light shades like, off-white, or beige. The grooms` Sherwanis are decorated with mind-blowing Zardozi (a kind of gorgeous Persian embroidery, decked with stones, gold and

silver thread, and present with copper wire,with gold sheen, or gold coloured thread) and embroidery designs. They can be fashioned in different forms, for example the Peshawri or the Baloochi. Indian embellished shoes, for instance, Nagra, Khussa, Mojri in general , gives a finishing touch to this elegant groom costume, Sherwani. The urbanized women of Chandigarh have laid their hands on both Indian and Western outfit. Their costume ranges from salwar-kameez, sari, kurtis, jeans, shirts, T-shirts, formal trousers, chic capris, to be very precise all the popular variety. The casual versions of these entire can serve as workplace costume, and costume for daily wear and tear. Salwar-kameez, which glorifies the innate beauty of the Indian woman, is the forever priority for the Chandigarh women. The plethora of diversity in salwar-kameez involves, suit with mirror and Kundan embroidery, Persian embroidery, Aari and Resham work , Cut-work salwarkameez, golden filigree salwars-suits, vegetable dye kurta churidar, Phirozi salwars, handloom jacquard salwar suit, camric cotton salwar suit, chikan suit (cotton fabric with self-design) . Added to these, Zardozi salwar-kameez, Phulkari -work kameez and other ornamented salwar-suits. Sleeves of kameez can be of short, bell and umbrella shaped . The textile-manufacturers of salwar-Kameez play with different hues, starting from the bright shades like red, maroon, mustard, yellow, green , navy blue, black to the pastel and light colours, like baby pink, pink, sky-blue, saffron, peach, crème, beige, white and so on. The traditional bridal costume for the beautiful maidens of Chandigarh is the marvelous Lehenga-cholidupatta. Traditional wedding Lehenga-choli or Ghagra-choli and designer wedding Lehenga-cholis created out of a splendid synthesis of traditional costume-pattern and modern designs, cut, mix and shot colour shades , etc., happen to be the bridal love. A today`s Lehenga can be a mantle of vibrant marron, finely toned with beige contrast, and golden Zardozi, harmonised with butawork. The colours may vary from maroon, red, to the sunet yellow, to the pink, blues and pesta. The beautiful , long -flowing get-up of Lehengas, with a flare towards the bottom, make the bride appear like a pretty princess.The bride endowed with lustrous make-up and luminous Lehenga , also dons an equally adorned blouse , called Choli. The dazzling Dupatta, the decorated and matching piece of cloth , either covers the upper front portion of the bride, as it passes round her neck , to the back of the head or is suspended from the back of her head, being pinned into her braided hair. The brilliance of accessories is a must for bridal costume. Kundan and gold jewelry wonder , studded with ruby,emeralds, turquoise, coral , entails elaborate necklaces, chokers, malas (necklaces as garlands), haars or kanthas (a kind of necklace); bajubandhs (armbands) for brides, payals (anklets) and mangtikas (headdress-ornament) and finally the Zaridar, threadembroidered sandals furnish the bride with an awedsome splendor. Now a days, the semiprecious jewelry, of breathtaking beauty, are simultaneously present with gold ornaments, in the bridal costume, of some brides. They augment the shimmer on the whole.

It is evident, that the costumes of Chandigarh, bear the signature of tradition and modern designs at the same time, to arrive at the best. Costumes of Dadra and Nagar Haveli..... situated on the west of the western Ghats,is replete with the ethnic culture of tribes. The main tribes include Dodhia, Kokna and Varli. Above 62%of the population in Dadra and Nagar Haveli is tribal. The costume of the men of Varlis origin , the largest tribal community, comprises of a loincloth , a waist-long coat, and a headgear i.e., a turban . The Varli women, wrap themselves round the waist in Lugden (a one yard sari), reaching down till the knee and another piece of cloth called Padar. Women love to deck themselves in silver and white ornaments. Dhodia men, cover themselves in a white knee-length Dhoti , topped off by a shirt or a waistcoat. They, like the Varli to act as the headdress, a cap of white or coloured shades . The Dhodia men are inclined towards wearing ornaments, such as earrings and silver chains, encircling the waist. The traditional costume of the Dodhia women, on the other hand, is a dark blue saree, stretching upto the knees, and with the aanchal , enveloping the front porti on of the body. Beads necklaces of resplendent hues, metal bangles on wrists and dainty metal Kadas (a kind of anklet) round the ankles, augment the natural beauty of the woman folk. The costume of the Koknas, is much akin to that of the other tribes. The sturdy Kokna men, don themselves in Dhoti, coming down till the knees, a waist coat or shirt. A turban furnishes a Kokna man with dignity. Kokna women flaunt themselves in sarees of myriad colours, either knee-long or toe-long. An additional adornment catered by the Kokna men and women is a tattoo-painting, on the forehead and on other parts of the body. It is wonderful to watch that the costumes of Dadar and Nagar Haveli , has a simple as well as aesthetic complexion. Costumes of Delhi..... have a unique pattern. The traditional costumes of Delhi are churidar orsalwar kameez dupatta for women, and kurtas and pyjamas for men. Delhi, the microcosmic India, and the national capital of the country, treasures a rich cultural heritage of splendid diversity and secular democracy that the country stands for. The air of Delhi is abuzz with the mantra of variety and ethnicity, founded on the truth of intermingling of cultures, tastes and preferences. People from diverse states have come and settled in Delhi for education, business, career, etc. and along with them; they have also brought their culture, languages, dressing style, etc. Delhi is a fashionable city and it is showcased in Delhi`s costumes; here youth and adolescents are very fashion conscious. The cosmopolitan Delhi denizens have reflected this tradition of an all-accommodative mindset, in the choice and setting of the costume-trends. A living example is the admired

female costume of Delhi, Salwar - Kameez, which refers to a dress of baggy trousers, narrowed down towards the bottom, topped off by a long shirt or tunic like dress, and a cl oth -piece called dupatta, covering the front upper portion. This costume of Salwar-Kameez, hugely popular among girls, is not inherent to India. The pattern of this Turko -Persian, or Turko-Mongol costume, was imported into the Indian horizon, with the adv ent of the TurkoIranian dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. Salwar-suits with sequined embroidery or semiprecious stones` embroidery, mirror-work, ari work, cut-work, or simple but elegant cut, prints, hand paints, all alluring on excellent fabric is the characteristic of salwar-kameez in Delhi these days. A very noteworthy attribute of today`s costumes of Delhi is that, modern innovations have started impressing their signatures on the traditional element of the costumes of Delhi. For instance, sari is the traditional Indian costume for women. But a modern-day Delhi sari, can very much be invested with design, shades and get-up. The same applies for Ghagra-choli and salwar-kameez. Ghagra is an oriental ankle-length skirt, and choli is the upper blouse. The distinct charm of today`s Ghagra Lehenga Choli of Delhi is the modern designs, colours, and cut of a traditional attire. In fact this conjunction of the old and the new is the mark of excellence of the costumes of Delhi. The dress-designers namely Ritu Kumar, Neeta Lulla and Sabyasachi Mukherjee are weaving magic with their embroidery splendour, including Zardozi, a Persian form of embroidery, done with gold or silver thread, and introduced by the Muslim rule in India. Exclusive silk materials, tissue cloth, crepe, georgette, chiffon and other types of fabric possessing a rich texture, work as the perfect base for shimmering Zardozi. Zardozi can be on sari, or salwar kameez, ghagra lehenga choli, or Kurta-pajamas, and sherwanis, worn by men, and even on skirts and blouses, to obtain a gorgeous appearance. Women of Delhi are well-aware of fashion-updates. Along with the ethnic costume of sari, or salwar-kameez or churidar-kameez (churidar is a body-hugging trouser), Western jeans tops, shirts, T-shirts, skirts, varying in sizes and shapes, blouses, and so on, crowd a fashionable and modern-day woman`s wardrobe. These costumes are not only wear -friendly in the course of daily busy schedule of modern-life, but also enrich a woman`s aura of style and smartness. Resplendent semi-precious jewelry, crafted by the deft craftsmen of the neighbouring Jaipur and Rajasthan, including fascinating Kundan work, at present compete with the original gold, silver, diamond or authentic gem-studded ornaments. They are increasingly becoming a woman`s passion in Delhi. When it comes to making themselves presentable in proper costume, the men of Delhi are not lagging behind. The senior and the venerated generation cater to the ethnic costume of India, namely, Dhoti, Kurta, Sherwani-salwar, Kurta-Salwar, kurta-pajama. They are not only keen to preserve the culture they belong to, but also assert the Indianness of their identity, as well as their values, which get well-communicated through this costume-type. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, exhibited himself in Sherwani with Nehru collars (collarstyle, popularised by him) and Nehru cap. His costume was helpful in emphasising his role as the national leader to the country. The young generation, however, usually dress themselves in formal shirts, trousers, jeans, Tshirts and the other modern-day chic male garment, happening to be the daily costume, even workplace dress for men. However, on ceremonial occasions, men try out ornate Sherwanichuridars, Dhoti-Kurtas, or Kurta-Pajamas, frequently turning out to be a designers or a

boutique`s collection. Men sometimes adorn themselves in ornaments like bangles, wristbands, to augment their manliness, along with stylish wrist-watches. Traditional shoes, like, Nagra shoes, is usually worn with Sherwanis, to effect a royal outlook, on special occasions. The expanding range and plethora of patterns, related to the costumes of Delhi, have made Delhi a dream-destination of the costume-lovers, allured by the availability of the recent inthings as well dignified traditional dress there. Costumes of Delhi make the style statement and are a yardstick for the clothing industry nationwide. Over all, the costumes of Delhi have manifold facets of cultural and ethnic identities despite its primarily global look. Costumes of Himachal Pradesh..... comprise an awesome diversity owing to the plethora of culture and religion. Again the costumes of each community are different, be it the Hindu Brahmins, the Rajputs, and the tribal people like Gaddis, Kinnars, Gujjars, Pangawals and Lahaulis. By heritage, theDhoti-clad Brahmin priests roam around in Kurta, coat, waistcoat, turban, i.e., Pagri, and with a hand towel, placed upon the shoulders and with a valuable copy of Panchang, an astrological yearbook, carried under the arm, for important consultation. His attire is thus in keeping with the cold atmosphere, and curiously enough with his priestly profession that involves astrological predictions too. The Rajputs wear body-hugging churidar pyjamas, a long coat, a starch-stiffened turban with a unique mould, and shoes with pointed edges. The boasted thick moustaches and a dignified frown in the forehead-region, is symbolic of manliness in Rajput society. Now a days, though not so much in vogue, but previously the Rajputs adhered to the Purdah or veil system for their women. Their wives and daughters used to venture out within the enclosed confines of curtained palanquins. The costume of the women hailing from the Brahmin and the Rajput clans are quite traditional. These women normally dress themselves in kurtas (shirt-like oriental blouse), salwars, ghaghri(Indian long skirts), choli (blouses or tops with intricate embroidery) and rahide (nice crimson headscarves decked with golden fringes).The farmers and worker classes required to toil, go for kurta, a loincloth and a cap. They cater to long pyjamas, for attending ceremonies, like marriage ceremonies or special occasions, such as festival. Nevertheless, Western influence is visible on the costumes of the younger generation of Himachal Pradesh these days. Hand-woven excellence is the hallmark of the costumes of Himachal Pradesh. The native women are famous in weaving headscarves. The utility shoes made from grass, are perfect for keeping the feet warm. The difference in style and the quality of Kurtas, saris and gowns woven by indigenous weavers, serve as the insignia of Himachal handlooms. Peculiarities in kinds of feminine ornaments are well demonstrated by the bangles and rings produced from horsehair. These weave-ace people are the dexterous creators of exclusive shawls. These shawls are famous for their elegance and smooth textures, as well as fascinating patterns, are assets for any costume-lover. The soothing suppleness of the

renowned Pashmina shawl is the specialty of the handlooms of Himachal Pradesh. Manufactured from the hair of Pashmina goat, these shawls find their demand worldwide. Among the favorite types of shawls, `Dhobroo` and `Pattu`, are th e leading. The fancy needlework available on these shawls has its source in the Kangra and Chamba schools of paintings. Thapada is also a broad shawl, embroidered with marvelous embroidery. Embroidered blouses and caps gives a glimpse of the commendable taste of the Himachal inhabitants. The embroidered caps of the Kulu, Sirmair, Kinnaur and Lahaul are all brands of skilled craft by themselves. The striking shawls originating from Kulu, Lahaul, celebrate the ages-old Pahadi designs. Exquisite patchwork, quilts, doll and elephant figures constructed of rags are all native productions, which serve as vital constituents of the gorgeous attire for the bride. The wool products are knitted from Byangi wool. Wool weaving acts as a major vocation in Himachal. The dwellers of Lahaul-Spiti and Kinnaur are deft in this task who weaves ornate draperies for special occasions. Dyeing and printing of fabrics makes for a traditional craft in the region. The Farahada and the Chhiba group people are the experts in this business. And the resultant is that we come across, abundance of resplendent dyed and printed fabrics and costumes in Himachal Pradesh. To be very precise, the splendid costumes of Himachal Pradesh owe a lot to the impressive craftsmanship of the prolific weaving-talents and the outstanding handlooms of the state. Costumes of Jammu and Kashmir..... reflect the richness of the culture and landscape of the region. It has been historically seen that the early Aryan descendants who lived in this region, interacted with various prosperous civilizations like the famous Greeks, the Romans and the Persians. Such influences of its cultural ethos and tradition coupled with the climatic factors find a reflection in the attires of its people. Most of the garments are made of wool, silk with intricate embroideries and cotton. In these mountainous regions, the traditional `pheran` is the most popular form of dressing among both men and women. The pheran has a lot of beautiful embroidery work done on it and is decorated with floral motifs and designs. Costumes worn by Kashmiri men The pheran is the most commonly worn garment among men. Hindu men usually wear churidars while the Muslim men are dressed in salwars beneath the formidable pherans. The pheran is a loosely fitted woollen garment which makes use of the `kangri`. The kangri is an earthen vessel which is filled with flaming coal. It is then placed within a container made of natural fibre. The kangri is usually placed in the front, skillfully shrouded by the pheran. It functions as an internal heating system in order to keep the wearer warm during the extreme cold winters. The `pathani` suit, also referred to as `Khan-dress`, is a popular garb among the men, especially in Srinagar. Turbans are common among Muslim men. Skull caps are extremely prevalent, especially among the peasants and the `karakuli` or fur skull caps along with the Pashmina shawls worn by men often symbolize royal lineage. ThePashmina shawls are made from traditional woollen textiles which are obtained from mountain goat. Intricate work is done on both sides of these shawls. The special Kashmiri embroidery work, Kasida, is done in such a manner that the patterns appear in a uniform manner on both sides of the fabric. The Pashmina belts and `kamarbands" are common too. The Muslim men wear lace -free shoes known as Gurgabis. Brocade, camel hair and cashmere are the main elements that are used in the making of coats and fleece for men.

Costumes worn by Kashmiri women The pheran is the prominent attire for Kashmiri women as well. Traditionally, there are the `poots` and the pheran, comprising two robes placed atop the other. The pheran worn by women usually has zari embroidery on the hem line, around pockets and mostly on the collar area. The pherans worn by the Muslim women are traditionally characterized by their broad sleeves and reach up to the knees. However, the Hindus of Jammu and Kashmir wear their pherans long, stretching up to their feet with narrowed down sleeves. Often, the pherans are wrapped tightly by a piece of creased cloth called `lhungi`. The Hindu women wear a headdress called the `taranga`, stitched to a suspended cap and it narrows down at the back, towards the heels. The taranga is an integral part of the wedding attire among Hindus. Elaborate zari embroideries or floral patterns around the neck and the pockets are a prominent feature of a Muslim woman`s pheran. Brocade patterns adorn their long sleeves. The pheran is accompanied by red headgears known as the `kasaba`. The kasaba is stitched in the form of a turban and is pinned together by ornaments and silver brooches. A pin-scarf suspended from the kasaba descends towards the shoulder. It is worn by the Muslim women as a part of their regular attire. The `abaya` is also commonly worn by them. For unmarried Muslim women, the costumes vary to some extent. The elaborate headgears are replaced by exquisitely ornate skull caps embellished with threads of gold, talismans and gems. Accessories worn by Kashmiri women The intricate patterns of a woman`s costumes in Jammu and Kashmir are further enhanced by the use of various accessories. Earrings, anklets and bangles are widely used apart from the use of ornamentation in clothing. Silver jewellery is popular among the Muslim women and they adorn themselves with neckpieces, bracelets and heavily bejeweled chains. `Dejharoos` or golden pendants are worn by the Hindu women. These dejharoos comprise two decorative gold pendants which are suspended through gold chains or silk threads. It is symbolic of a woman`s married status among the Kashmiri Pandits. Costumes worn by ethnic groups of Kashmir The Jammu and Kashmir landscape is dotted with various ethnic groups. The Dogras are tribes residing amidst the hilly topography of Jammu. The Dogra womenfolk are found attired in fitted pajamas and tunics accessorized with a suitable headdress. Similar fitted pajamas and kurtas of considerable length constitute the costume of the Dogra men. The use of kamarbands and turban are prominent among the Dogra elders.

The Gujjars, also residents of Jammu, are the second-largest group of ethnic tribes inhabiting in Kashmir. The members of this tribe are mostly shepherds. The Gujjar women are dressed in loose sleeved tunics coupled with baggy salwars. They cover their head by an elaborate headgear, akin to the ones worn by the women in Turkish villages. The costumes of the inhabitants of the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir deserve special mention because of their extraordinary variety. `Kuntops` are woolen gowns worn by women. It is accompanied by a `bok`, a brightly decorated shawl that can aid in carrying packages and even children. The men wear `Goucha`, a woollen robe made of sheep skin fixed at the neck. It is wound at the waist by a bright sash called `Skerag`. It extends to about 2 metres in length and 20 cm in breadth. The Skerag serves as an enclosure for the Ladakhi men to carry their bare essentials. Men in Ladakh wear velvet multihued caps while the women adorn turquoise colored hats named `Perak`. According to tradition, upon a woman`s demise, the perak is handed down to her eldest child. In Ladakh, footwear made of Yak skin and wool is known as `Papu`. It has been seen that over the years, the people of Jammu and Kashmir have adopted the dressing style and habits of the west as well as those of other regional Indian cultures. This is noticed primarily among the men have appropriated the western attire to a great extent. The sari is more popular among the Hindu women after the 1930 s Reform Movement. However, despite these influences, the traditional pheran continues to remain the symbol of the culture and couture of Jammu and Kashmir. Costumes of Jharkhand..... which got its political dimension as a state, only in November 2000, has been previously the southern portion of Bihar. This state, bearing the popular sobriquet, Vananchal , meaning land of woods, happens to be the habitat of ages -old tribal population . The major tribes of Santhal Pargana , for instance the Paharis and the Santhals follow a dress-code, unique in appearance . Tribal females traditional attire is the Panchi and Parhan . Parhan, the lower garment is topped off by the upper Parhan. Men however maintain their decency with only one piece of cloth , called Bhagwan. Side by side with the tribals, live the non-tribal people. These people envelop themselves in the traditional costume of Jharkhand, and almost the whole of India, dhoti, pajama, kurta & shirts . Men while featuring in ceremonies, adorn themselves in better quality and attractivelooking kurta, pajama and sherwani. Women cover themselves in sarees and blouses. Women, belonging to well-off families, or costume-crazy women, can hardly ignore the dazzle of the ethnic as well as awesome Tussar silk sarees, manufactured in Jharkhand. Tussar silk is cultivated in the Kharsawa district of Kuchai area of Jharkhand. The silk is produced by the mature silkworm, as natural protein fibres round its cocoon. The rearing of the source, silk-worms is the task of the deft tribal labourers, indispensable in the weaving of silk threads into wonderful Tussar silk sarees.

Indeed, the increasing demand for Tussar silk can be met, only due to the prowess of these silk-weavers and silk-farmers. The silk sarees, are endowed with a lustrous texture, and often with traditional paintings or print, demonstrating tribal dances, and tribal festivals, i.e. various nuances of tribal life. Recently, the newly launched Anjana and Swarnarekha silks of Jharkhand are ruling the market. Fashion-conscious women are flaunting themselves in this new innovation, respecting ethnicity. The tribe-centric culture of Jharkhand , has exhibited its preference for plain but elegant accessories. Gold, silver and beads ornaments are indeed aesthetic and hence, eyecaptivating. The local women, beautify themselves with the help of this ethnic and artistic costumes of Jharkhand. People of Jharkhand harbour a love for perfumes and their aromas. So they have the habit of applying perfumes, in general. People of higher status of the society use the modern European dresses. The people also use perfumes oil. It is a veritable truth, that if someone wants to view the sophistication and the magnificence of native -talents in India, then that individual must make a visit to the tribal heaven of India, Jharkhand and enjoy the lovely costumes, they can present forth. Costumes of Kutch...Exquisitely stylized and intricately embroidered, the kutchi attire is simply eye-catching. Dazzling with vibrant colours, flooded with striking mirror work and stunning jewellery it`s one of the most alluring customs in India. The mirror work and embroidery work forms an integral part of Kutchi Handicrafts irrespective of the community or ethnic group to which they belong, however the workmanship differs. In fact the various communities can be identified by the pattern of handicrafts and dress or costumes they were. For instance, the Garacia Jat women wear only red or black chunis while Rabari women wear black open blouses or cholis with odhnis to cover head. In the rural areas women wear Chaniya choli during the whole year, Chaniya choli`s are of many designs and fashion. Typical Kutchi costume is incomplete without `Abha` or `Kanjari`. `Abha` is the name of the typical choli worn by women folk and `Kanjari` is a long blouse beautifully embroidered and with mirror work. Most men in Kutch wear loose trousers, a long-sleeved under-jacket, and a short coat, a plain or silk-bordered cloth. Normally men prefer white clothes except the Muslims who prefer colored clothes. Abhas, the traditional costume of the region of Kutch, has entered the world of high fashion. Successfully adapted to modern styles by Anjali Mangaldas, this beautiful garment has become a rage with the fashion conscious women. In the village of Kutch, the women looked beautiful in their fabulous Abhas as they swayed to the music. The twinkling lights played mischievously over the gold and thread embroidery while the sequins and badla work sparkled continuously. A woman in an abha, the traditional costume of the Khatri, Memon and Korja Muslim communities of Kutch is a sight to behold. This garment from Kutch, a district in Gujarat, has a history that is as colourful and exciting as the garment. In ancient times the women wore the abha embellished with beautiful tie-dye designs, zari

thread embroidery that was very minute and intricate embroidery in coloured silk or cotton thread in a combination of a variety of stitches, integrating minuscule mirror discs into its elaborate and distinct pattern. The word abha-has been derived from aba a word commonly used in the Middle Eastern countries which means a top garment or a mantle. The abha based on an age-old traditional classical cut and style, is basically a kalidar kurta without a slit on the sides, with a lose flair and it hangs lower than a normal kurta. The abha has been a collectors item since the last four generations. The abha has been a collectors item since the last four generations. The best have even been part of collections auctioned in the west by Christys and Sothebys Research scholars have not yet been able to pinpoint the historical period or influence on these costumes. Unfortunately modernity has compelled these lovely costumes into museums or wooden boxes in far off villages. The genuine abhas could be date back nearly a century. Costumes of Lakshadweep.... The blue sea lashing against the beaches of Lakshadweep, shimmering in the golden radiance of sunlight makes Lakshadweep a dream-destination. The abundance of colours enriches the traditional costumes of Lakshadweep. The scenic landscape is hence in tune with the resplendent costumes, all of which are marvels to watch at. The plain , but colorful costumes of Lakshadweep, and the Amini cluster of islands, deserve praise, for their inherent sense of artistry. The tribal men, of this coastal land, other than Minicoy, don themselves in white or coloured lungi , coming as a rectangular piece of cloth, with its edges , stitched together. Not only men, but also women tie a silver thread round the waist. This acts as a girdle for a senior person, who pulls the lungi through the string to hold it firmly round his waist. Normally, for daily wear and tear, men do not covers themselves upwards the waist. However, in ceremonial participation, they flaunt themselves in cotton or silk drapery, invested with impressive embroidery. This cloth is passed around the shoulders. The younger generation, exhibit themselves in shirts. The traditional costume of women comprises of Kachi, a rectangular piece of cloth, but unstitched unlike that of men. Kachis are, often made of silk fabric. This Kachi, enveloping a woman from the waist, is tucked into the waistband of silver thread. The shades of Kachis are generally black or white with black borders. However, the silk Kachis , commonly come up in red body with contrasting black borders. The jacket, on the front side, contains fine embroidery, done with glass or gilt bits. It is topped off by a full-sleeves close-fitting jacket around the waist. The color-smeared scarf , known as Thattam, serves as a wonderful headdress. There is a discrete charm about the costume of the Minicoy population. The various stratas of this community namely, the Manikfans, the Thakrufans, the Thakrus and the Raveri project their own traditional dress. The Manikfan class has an air of elegance about them, reflected in their customes too. Manikfan men dress themselves in the customary lungis and shirts costume. However, the men of the remaining classes have embraced trousers, similar to the pattern of jeans, as their daily costume. . The trousers are available in black, white, blue, pink or green hues. The trousers are worn from the waist and are supported with a cord. A colored embroidered tapelines along the sides as and around the ankles.

The custom is a little different for the Thakrus and Thakrufans . None is entitled to wear such trousers, except those courageous males, who have undertaken sea-expeditions. The scenario is again different for the Raveri class. Raveri men achieve ownership of wearing these clothes, after becoming mature adults. Waistband associates the trousers. The waistband is a strip of white cloth. The upper part of the women`s body is left without clothes. The headgear emerges is a stripy red or black cloth. The number of protrusions, be it four or two, is maintained in accordance to the class-status of the various classes. The younger generation has exhibited a liking for trousers and shirts to their costumes. The costume of the Minicoy women is an under-garment, with blue or green colors, along with a long cloak, called libus, stretching from shoulder to ankle. The libus is usually seen as a brick-crimson cloth, marked with black stripes. This cloth has an opening only at the neck, with embroidery decorating that part. The costume for the ceremonial occasions, are decked with floral patterns. The practice of wearing a headdress prevails among these women. It is a strip of black cloth. At times, women use a veil-like covering, white in color and expanding from the face down to the chin. Ornaments are in vogue among the islander women, apart from the Minicoy women. A waistornament called aranchan, bangles called vala or kodakam, for the wrists, ear-rings, koodu and alikkath, and a necklace, urukku, are the popular jewelry items. The waist -belt could be of gold or of silver. The two types , classified , are the kannadi aracha, with an width of one inch , possessing a lock; and the adippu, worn around the chain. The vala is an ordinary bangle has a glamorous kodakam , functioning as a bracelet. The design of koodu , an eardrop is special. It has a pyramidal structure. Alikkath are small rings embellishing the ear. The Urukku is however, the necklace, is a remarkable item, is a string of black beads, interspersed with gold. The plenty of ornaments, beautifying a bride for the most special important occasion of her life, are bestowed with greater detail . The Minicoy women are economical about their ornaments choices. There exist some prohibitions regarding the use of jewelry. It is the privilege of the Manikka women , the female belonging to Manikfan class, that they can demonstrate themselves in the lustrous gold ornaments, because, women of other classes , can lay their hands on silver ornaments only. In general, all women wear a modram, a fingerring . The intricacy of design, and the good choice

of colours and quality of fabric of the costumes of Lakshadweep, call for recognition and praises of their taste and preferences. Costumes of Madhya Pradesh.... Description: Costumes of Madhya Pradesh show multiplicity in various aspects. Handicrafts and different textile techniques have given rise to a rich diversity of costumes of Madhya Pradesh. Costumes of Madhya Pradesh comprise handicrafts and diverse textile techniques which have given rise to a rich array of costumes of Madhya Pradesh. The majority of the people of Madhya Pradesh attest Dhoti as their traditional costume. Safa, a kind of turban, is the headgear, which is the common feature of Madhya Pradesh`s costume. Furthermore, a white or black jacket called Bandi or Mirzai, is a part of the men`s attire, specifically in Bundelkhandand Malwa. The myriad colours of this traditional costume of the men of Madhya Pradesh, gives the men a radiant and dignified appearance. The womenfolk of Madhya Pradesh dress themselves in Lehenga (long Indian skirt) and Choli (Indian blouse).Another additional strip of cloth called Orni or Lugra is draped around the head and shoulders, to retain a decent and sober look. Red and black, are the favourite shades for this feminine costume. Bandhani (locally called Bandhej) cloth is produced on a huge scale in Maundsar, Indore and Ujjain. The fabric is painted with molten wax and is dyed with cold dyes to create a cloth variety called Batik. Contrast patterns on Batik cloth are quite wellknown. The delicate Chanderi sarees and Maheshwari sarees produced in Madhya Pradesh are hand-woven, and they are quite renowned all over India. It is interesting to watch that the air of Western dress-pattern has already started blowing in the towns and Kasbas of Madhya Pradesh. Mill-manufactured clothes are in vogue in urban areas. In fact, modern dresses form an integral part of the daily costume in Madhya Pradesh. Ready-made dresses, with a medium coarse quality, rampant in weekly markets are the daily costume. Special occasions and delightful festivals witness people roaming around in utmost revelry. Their costumes in such wonderful moments are resplendent, colourful costumes, enriched with fascinating prints. Immaculate white garments are celebrated as the foremost priority. Tribal people, for presenting themselves in public wear short-sized Dhotis, but in the remote ambience of the forests they feel cozy in minimal garment, called langot. The children, or the school-going group of Madhya Pradesh, have uniforms, very similar to the student`s costume of other states. Boys visit school in short-pants and shirts; whereas, girls, cover themselves in ghaghri, a kind of Indian skirt, or in Western frock. It is definite that a costume is incomplete without shoes, which are a necessity and no more a luxury. The villagers of Madhya Pradesh wear raw-leather shoes, made by the village-cobbler. These shoes are tough and lasting in order to endure the immense toil of he primarily agricultural rustic people of Madhya Pradesh. Ornaments are a natural accompaniment to Indian costumes, and that of Madhya Pradesh, is no exception to this rule. The tribal women of this state augment their beauty in silver or Kathir ornaments. Their treasure-chest incorporates Kadas (bracelets) and Kangni (bangles) on hand and Hansli and Haar (necklace). Aluminium

or silver bracelets decorate the wrist and armbands, the upper-arm. Bali or little ear-studs, Zele on the forehead, silver Kandora on the waist-line, payal (anklet) and Bichhudi on the toes, gives the tribal woman a gorgeous look. The accessories of the refined and educated elite women have a different charm. They go for similar types of ornaments, but they have the affordability to indulge in the delight of gold. Young girls, hanker for silver or aluminum made Pyjeb to embellish their feet. Their necks are adorned with sleek silver or golden chain, bearing often, attractive pendant or locket. Semi-precious or today`s imitation jewelry are quite popular among the young generation of girls. Tattoo painting is an important constituent of the costume-pattern of Madhya Pradesh. In tribal-crowded zones like Bhil, Bhilala, Banjara, Meghwal, Charan, Kahar and Kumhar, the tribes, who are by profession potter, engage in a lot of captivating tattooing. Particularly, the women of these tribal sects prefer drawing on their arms tattoos of flower, self-name or picture of a god, an ox, i.e. subjects from the wide range of the flora and the fauna encircling them. To conclude, one must praise the intermingling of tribal as well as non-tribal cultures in Madhya Pradesh, which has given the costumes of this region, an element of ethnicity and discreteness, fundamental to the social system of Madhya Pradesh. Costume of Maharashtra.... comprises a nine yard sari as the traditional costume for the women, and dhoti and shirt as the traditional costume of the men folk. Maharashtra, one of the largest and most populous states of India, demonstrates an array of costumes, suiting the purpose of any occasion, as well as weather conditions. The traditional costume of women in Maharashtra is a nine-yard long saree, called Nauvari. This saree bears a resemblance to male trousers. This specific style of draping does not require a petticoat or a slip beneath it. The Nauvari saree has a historical background. During the Maratha rule, women were entrusted with the grave responsibility of helping their male partners, at emergency period of wars. To facilitate easy movement, the Maharashtrian women then introduced the Nauvari Saree. The fabric of Nauvari Saree is usually cotton, and for special occasions, sil k tops the priority list. Paithani sarees happen to be the treasured creation of Maharashtra`s textile-industry. The Paithani saree, invested with an 18 inch to 25 inch pallu, owes its origin to adept textile-designing. The Brahmin ladies of Maharashtra wear sarees in a particular pattern where the pleats are located at or near the back and these are tucked in waist and the decked part of the saree is left open on the shoulder part. They use choli with the sarees and often polkas and blouses. The Maharashtrian women prefer to deck themselves in beautiful jewelleries. Most of the designs of the jewelleries are of Peshwa and Maratha style. Among the most favoured jewelleries are the haar, nath or nose ring decorated with pearl or vibrant coloured stones. Some of the necklaces they wear include bangdya, Kolhapuri Saaj, tode and patlya. Silk is woven to constitute the body of the royal Paithani silks. And into this rich silk texture, pure Jari-

made of gold and silver threads, are interwoven, to give the Saree the ornamented get-up. The bright Paithani sarees are very popular as the bridal costume in Maharashtra. The Paithani sarees are thus essentially linked to the culture and society of Maharashtra. The sarees have received their name after the place of its origin, Paithan in Maharashtra. The other weaving-sites of this exclusive item are Yeola, Pune, Nasik and Malegaon in Maharashtra. The men of Maharashtra uphold Dhoti as their cultural heritage. It may be worn along with a shirt or kurta, and Dhoti is often substituted with trousers. They also wear `bandi` over the shirt and turban called `pheta` and `pagadi`. The festive occasions of the Maharashtrians allow themselves to indulge in the festive mood and during this time most of the men wear Churidar, Pyjama, Ackan or Survar. In the urban areas of Maharashtra, and especially in its cosmopolitan capital, Mumbai, costumes display themselves in their variety best. Women put in Kurta-Pajamas, salwarkameez, skirt-blouse, and jeans-trousers, exotic Sarees and so on. The urban Mumbai men on the other hand, flaunt themselves with the halo of grooming. They shift from wearing jeans, trousers, branded shirts, baggy trousers, T-shirts, all possible types of casual wears. On occasions, sherwanis, kurta-pajamas, ornate Dhotis, and other kinds of resplendent men`s attire, rank among their favorites. Indeed, Mumbai the glam-epicenter of India, and the abode of Bollywood, is the trendsetter for costumes, for the whole of India. Fashion experiences its high, in the posh cities of Maharashtra, with fashion-designing institutes and business units, establishing their sway. The state of Maharashtra, hence has achieved a splendid synthesis of the old and the new patterns in costume. Time and the effect of globalisation have brought a drastic change in the costumes of each and every state and Maharashtra as well. Though the modernisation has a great impact in the society, the tradition has not faded its glitter, thus the traditional dresses have not lost the glory of their past. It has also focused on the traditional and regional textile-accomplishments like Paithani as the `in-thing` now. Costumes in the state of Meghalaya show the ethnicity of the tribes namely the Garos,Khasi and the Jaintias. Nestled in the peaceful hills of the north-eastern part of India, the beautiful state of Meghalaya houses these three famous hill tribes of India. It is interesting to note that the Garos are the most skilled weavers of the region. Probably, every family earns their livelihood through weaving. Indeed, the traditional costume for women, called Jainsen, is an unstitched garment wrapped around to cover the body. It is woven from mulberry silk cultivated in the local region. The crowning glory of the costume of Meghalaya is the Endi silk shawl. Sonidan is the hub of Endi or Errandi silk-production in Meghalaya. The hill communities rear Philosamia ricini, the silkworm, feeding on castor leaves. These nature`s artists, the silkworms, produce rich protein fiber and accordingly spin round the open-ended cocoon. It is from this fibre that the coveted silk is generated. Endi silk is the product of the domesticated silkworm, Philosamia ricini that feeds mainly on castor leaves.

Sericulture is a popular small-scale industry of Meghalaya. The silk-weavers use the Endi silk threads to weave splendid shawls, that are not only warmth-retentive or supple, but assets to boast of. These shawls are invested with natural soothing shades of crÅ me, white, brown, beige and gold. They are favorites of not only the local tribal, but also of any fashionaddict of India. The weaver-ace Garos cater to different forms of costume, in keeping with the air of the ambience they are residing in. In the remote areas of Garo hill villages, the women drape eking, a short cloth round the waist, while the men put in a loincloth. But the Garo women go for a longer version of cotton attire in the crowded zones. A Garo woman dons a blouse, and wears a Lungi like mantle of unstitched cloth called Dakmanda, by fastening it round the waist. The Dakmanda is an example of hand-woven cotton fabric. Its specialty is the six to ten inch broad borders embellished with attractive motifs or floral patterns. The Khasi sect comprising fifty percent of the total population in India, emit a discrete aura, owing to the costume they wear. The traditional costume of the Khasi man in Megha laya is unstitched lower apparel, akin to Dhoti, completed by a jacket and headgear or turban. However, in the recent times, men display themselves in traditional garments only on social festivals and ceremonies, to keep the flame of tradition, glowing. Western concept of dressing has entered the realms of costume-design in Meghalaya. However, the element of tradition is much alive in the costume of the Khasi women. It entails a Jainsen, concealing till the ankles, which is topped off by a blouse. Above these garments, she ties the edges of tap-moh khlieh, a cotton shawl, round her neck or pins at the shoulders, to serve somewhat like an apron. During occasions, Ka Jainsem Dhara, a long piece of Assam Muga silk, is added to this attire, so as to assume a radiant appearance. But the base material for these costumes is mill-manufactured, as the Kashis are not so much attached with weaving today. Another strip of woolen cloth called Jainkup, is used by the senior women. Jainkup is not so much in vogue among the younger generation. Khasi women, have the affordability to deck themselves in ornaments of pure gold and silver, made by local jewelry-smiths. The costume of the male members of the Jaintia tribe bears similarities with that of the Khasi men. However, the costume of the Jaintia women in Meghalaya is a little different from the other groups. A Jaintia woman envelops her h ead with a cloth-piece with checks called "Kyrshah", at the times of harvest-work in the field. She covers herself from the shoulders to the ankles, with a velvet blouse, along with a sarong called Thoh Khyrwang wrapped round her waist. She also ties round her shoulders an Assam Muga silk cloth, flowing down to the ankles. There exists a practice among Jaintia men and women, to present themselves in gaudy, resplendent costumes, on festive and happy occasions. Dressing without the embellishments of ornaments, is lusterless for Jaintia women. They adorn themselves with earrings and other ornaments of gold and silver. It is a custom to dress in head ornaments, like, a silver circlet worn round the head as a forehead -decoration. Both the Khasis and the Jayantis, flaunt themselves in a pure gold pendant kown as Kynjri Ksiar. The elegance and grace inherent to the ethnic costumes of Meghalaya complements the scenic beauty of the picturesque landscape of Meghalaya.

Costumes of Mizoram..... bear conspicuous resemblance with that of the other hill-states of the Northeast. The fundamental patterns speak volumes for the prevalence of the ethnic heritage, typical of the costumes of the North East. The beautiful and serene Mizoram, situated on the Northeastern corner of India, is the home of the Mongoloid relatives, living for years in the Equality-championed hill societies The hot favorite costume of a Mizoram woman is Puan . The vibrant color and the outstanding designs are the reasons behind this marvelous costume. Puanchei , the gorgeous attire of Mizo girls is a must during weddings and festivals such as `Chapchar Kut` and `Pawl Kut`. Ngotekherh is a cotton and hand-woven festive-attire apt for kuts, i.e. festivals, namely `Chapchar Kut`, `Mim Kut` and `Pawl Kut`. The shades in the cloth are black and white. The black portion of the textile is constructed from some kind of synthetic fur. Kawrchei is akin to Ngotekherh , as it is the costume for revelry and merry-making. It is a fabulous blouse for Mizo girls. They too are hand-woven and cotton material. This are usually worn along with `Puanchei` and while performing the various dances of the Mizos In earlier times, these were all hand woven but nowadays these are mostly machine made. They are made from cotton and the colors are made by a thing called `Ting`. Along with this, a blouse, which is of the same pattern, is usually worn. The Lusei men believe in simplicity, when it comes to deciding their traditional costume. They drape themselves in an almost . 7 feet long and 5 wide cloth-piece. It reaches the left shoulder to the back and then passes under the right arm, to cov er the chest, with the remaining end concealing the left shoulder. In cold season, some additional attires are worn, one on top of the other, along with a white coat, comes down from the throat enveloping till the thighs. White and red bands, invested with designs adorn the sleeves of these coats. During the hot months, people tie these clothes around the waist to feel comfortable. Moreover, at times to avoid the blazing sun, a Lusei man contrives a piece of cloth as a turban or Pagri . The entire costume of the Lusei men is made of cotton , cultivated in the region itself. Usually, the costumes come in white colour, but sometimes men want to wear other shades, for example, blue colour bestowed with stripes. There is hardly any difference existing in the costumes of the ordinary Lusei and the head of the community. Only during festive occasions, the costume is different. The traditional costume of the Lusei women is the dark blue cotton petticoat, worn round the waist and tightly held by a girdle or belt of brass wire. This is uniform, worn by all women, stretches itself upto the knees. This petticoat is topped off by short white jacket and a cloth, wrapped in the same way as the men`s.

However, the resplendent item in the Lusei girl`s costume is the headgear, worn during dances. This headdress is composed of a coronal, built from brass and colored cane, endowed with porcupine quills, and upper edges of these quills are added green wing feathers of the common parrot, carrying at their tips tussocks of wing covers of green beetles. In the Lusei society, where men and women are considered equal, women indulge in smoking like men, through a hookah-type pipe ,which is 9 inches in height. The warrior`s costume in Lusei society entail a cloth passed round the waist, a knapsack, fortified with a bear or tiger hide over one shoulder, a gun in one hand an weapon called dao on the other. A valorous Lusei, who had been conferred upon the honorable title of the Thanhchhuah, wears a particular cloth to signify his status, while the one who has wiped off people in war have special headdress, known as "chhawndawl" and "arke -ziak". The Hmars tribes are weaving-experts , deft in creating multiple patterns . Among them, one must mention the Thangsuo Puon, meaning famous cloth in Hmars vocabulary. This the prized possession of the victorious and the destroyer of optimum number of foes in war. Those valiant Hmar warriors wear them, and even their wives, sometimes relish in the pride of their husband`s might, by wearing t hem. Puon Laisen is a red cloth with two black stripes at the middle. The cloth is gifted with several designs like Sakat Zang Zie, Disul, etc. The handwoven Hmaram , also called Kawkpui zikzial are very much in vogue among the children and girls. They are put in on the occasions such as `Chawn Day`, `Chhawnghnawh Day` and `Chapchar Kut`. Zakuolaisen this is a blouse piece with crimson stripes used mainly by the unmarried girls. The little but praiseworthy costumes of Paiteis are captivating. Thangou Puon, ranks as the most significant costume of Paiteis community. Only, a brave warrior who has slaughtered rivals in inter-tribal tussle or in war is allowed to claim ownership of this costume. Again, the producer of maximum quantity of crop can wear the Thangou Puon. Paite is project themselves in the Puon Dum, their national cloth to attend commiseration, formal meetings and observance of National Dayand so on. It matches with the gravity of the situation etc. It appears with black lines along with white, yellow, red or green stripes. Puon Pie, a quilt woven cloth, is a must for every girl, while coming down to settle in her husband`s abode, post marriage. The costume of the Riang group of Mizoram is similar to that of the other tribes. The use of colours, designs, cuttings and finally the style of dressing, associated with costumes, casts light on the artistic prowess of the people of Mizoram. Costumes of Nagaland mainly comprise shawls which are an extensively used item of the state. For instance, the ornate warrior-celebrating shawl, called Tsungkotepsu is a characteristic of the Aos clan. Against the dark base colour of this particular shawl, there is a central white band with two horizontal black, red and white bands, brightening the outlook. On the median band are painted black with a pattern in black mithun figures, signifying affluence of the owner, and the depictions of elephant and tiger speaks of the courage of the concerned man, while the human head attests accomplishment in head-hunting and other tasks like wielding spear and dao. Aomelep su made from dog`s hair, dyed red in colour, is the shawl flaunted by the rich men or the sons and daughters of affluent fathers. This shawl contains alternate red, yellow and black stripes to bring the striking effect of contrast. Rongsu shawl is wearable only by those

who have a glorious heritage of Mithun sacrifice, committed by the forefathers and also by the individual himself. The costume of the Ao women is a skirt, which is one and a quarter meter long and about two thirds of the meter, is draped round the waist and the surface outer edge is implanted for the grip. The skirts come up in an inexplicable variety. They differ from village to village and also from clan to clan. The popular types of the Ao skirts involve Azu jangnup su, endowed with red and yellow-black stripes, the Ngami su or fish tail skirt, and finally the Yongzujangau or cucumber seed skirt, woven in red on a black base. The Angamis, a major Naga tribe, demonstrate themselves in clothes with white, red and black bands called Loramhoushu and black background with red and yellow bands, and at present with green, called lohe. The western Angami villages have their unique style of costume-design. Shawls of Lothas are graded by the number of gennas or festivals arranged by the wearer. Thus a man who has given the first genna wears the phangrhup. With the performance of the second genna, the strip broadens accordingly. The third genna allows a man to put in the Ethasu. With the fulfillment of the mission, the successful man resorts to stone-dragging which permits him to wear Lungpensu. This latter one is a dark blue cloth with five stripes of light blue and with thin marginal stripes on either side. There is only one cloth in the wardrobe of the Angamis, which is indicative of social prestige. The phichu-pfe is the priest`s costume. A daily costume, meant for wear and tear, is the black shawl called ratapfe. Men wear black kilt, decorated with embroidered cowries in three or four lines. The cowries are bestowed with distinct importance. Women in general are clad in plain blue cloth and a white cloth with black marginal bands of changing breadth. Women often wear men`s garment. The casual costume of a dress of Angami women includes a petticoat called neikhro, a sleeveless top called vatchi, a white skirt called pfemhou. The Ze-liangs-rong, a mixed group of Zemis, Liangmais and Rongmei exhibit themselves in costumes, considerably same with that of the Angamis. The commonest costume is a white cloth, contrasted with six black bands of varying measurements at both ends. The costume of the Zemei women is restricted to white-coloured clothes and skirts with very narrow black and red border. The women of the remaining groups go for diversity. The cotton cultivated by them is the source for the material of the white or beige shawls and the skirts that they use. Black bands of different sizes on the border, alienated by red and pink borders also decorate the body of the shawl. This is a daily-purpose shawl. Multifarious patterns, lines and hues, of skirts and belts, and men`s girdles, required during dances characterise the occasion-costume of the Rongmei. The favourite dancing skirt is black with a broad, intricately embroidered red border and three white central bands, beautified with a narrow red line in the middle. There is a wide spectrum of shawls woven by the Yimchunger Nagas. Rongkhim is a fantastic shawl, wearable by a venerated warrior only. Kechinger Rongkhim is too a warrior-respecting shawl, though Rongkhim ranks first, with respect to mettle. The soldier who annexes the right

hand of the killed enemy is acknowledged to win the right to wear this particular shawl. It is a black cloth, possessing narrow grey bands at two margins. The exotic shawl tsungrem khim is an asset for the Yimchunger Naga women. The hallmark of the Konyaks is nye-myon the shawl worn by the senior villagers in important conferences and meetings. Nikola is a white shawl which functions as a woman`s attire. Resplendently coloured shawl, known as Shatni is a luxury item, affordable by the wealthy Konyak woman. It is the custom, that an affluent man`s daughter, during wedding is gifted with a Shatni shawl by her parents. This particular shawl is maintained with care, as there is the peculiar law among the Konyaks, that at the time of her death, her corpse would be enveloped in this specific shawl. A shawl, dedicated to the blue-blooded Konyak chiefs or Ang and the elderly women of the village is called meyni. It is an awesome fusion of wide black and red bands, woven alternately. Well-off Konyaks decorate themselves in a splendid cloth called nyauni. It appears as red bands and red lines. The plethora of designs, motifs, patterns and vibrant shades make the world of Naga costumes a rainbow world. Costumes of Rajasthan.... are extremely bright, colourful and elegant. The beautifully designed and vibrantly coloured clothes lend cheerfulness to the dull-coloured monotone of the sands and hills. Interesting costumes and jewellery of these desert people are not mere ornaments for them. Everything from head-to-toe including the turbans, clothes, jewellery and even the footwear establish the identity, religion, and the economic and social status of the population of Rajasthan. The clothes worn by the people of Rajasthani people have been designed keeping in mind the climate and conditions in which they live. Costume worn by Rajasthani Men The pagari (turban), angarkha, dhoti, pyjamas, Cummerbund or patka (waistband) form an integral part of a Rajasthani male`s attire. Pagari There is a proverb in Rajasthan which goes so, `a raga in music, taste in food and knots in a pagari are rare accomplishments.` The turban is significant of many important things. The style of the turban, its colour and the way in which it is wound is of special significance to the people of Rajasthan as it is symbolic of the caste and region to which a person belongs. Turbans of Rajasthan, also known as pagaris, come in many different shapes, sizes and colours. Moreover, there are specific turbans for specific occasions as well. The people of Udaipur are accustomed to wearing a flat pagari, while pagaris of the people of Jaipur are angular. The safa from worn by the men of Jodhpur has the distinction of having slightly curved bands. In Rajasthan about 1000 different types of pagaris can be found. A common pagari is usually 82 feet long and 8 inches wide. A `safa` is shorter and broader. Whereas the common man in Rajasthan wears a turban of one colour only, the men from rich families wear designs and colours which are suited to the occasion.

Angarkha Angarkha, which can be loosely translated as body protector, is a garment which is mostly made of cotton. When there occasions of celebration and festivities in the region, people can be seen wearing printed angarkhas or those which have been subject to the popular tie and dye method. The two principal kinds of angarkhas which are common to Rajasthan are kamari angarkha and the long angarkha. The former type styled like a frock and reaches till the waist. The latter is longer and goes beyond the knees. Dhotis or pyjamas Dhotis or pyjamas are used to cover the lower part of the body. The dhoti is a piece of cloth which measures 4m by 1m and requires quite a bit of practice to be worn properly. Ateh commonly worn dhotis are white in colour. However on special occasions people also wear silk dhotis with a border of zari. Patka Patka was a garment worn by people of upper classes and royal families. It is a cotton cloth which measures about 1.5 metres by 1 metre. It was traditionally kept on the shoulders or worn around the waist to tuck in the weapons during medieaval times. However it is no longer in use and has become out of date, though one can still see Brahmins who wear traditional dupattas on their shoulders. With changing times, the traditional style of dressing has also undergone a change. The Rajasthani man is often seen to dress in the urban garb of trousers and a shirt, or, sometimes, in an attractive combination of both urban and traditional garments teamed together. They provide comfort and utility, while preserving the cultural identity as well. Synthetic fabrics that are easily available, durable and require little maintenance, have been slowly replacing cotton as the favoured choice of the consumer. Also mechanisation in the manufacture of textiles, jewellery, dyes and sewing techniques have enhanced this transformation of Rajasthani costumes. Costume worn by Rajasthani Women The Rajasthani female`s attire includes Ghaghra (long skirt), kurti or choli (tops and blouses respectively) and odhna. Most of the Rajasthani women wear the ghagra which is a long skirt that reaches up to the ankle. It has a narrow waist which increases in width and flares towards the base. The skirt is usually not folded at the lower end like normal skirts but a broad, coloured fabric known as `sinjaf` is sewn below to make it stronger. The width and the number of pleats in the `Ghaghra`, are said to symbolise the wealth of a person. The ghagra comes in many colours and styles. The ghagras which are most popular among Rajasthani women are those which are cotton ones which are coloured or printed with mothra, chunari and laharia prints. Much like the pagaris of the men folk. The Odhni is a specialty of Rajasthani costume. It is a piece of cloth which is about10 feet long and 5 feet wide. One corner of the Odhni is tucked in the skirt whi le the other end is taken over the head and right shoulder. The colours and motifs which are found on the Odhnis are particular to caste, type of costume and occasion. Both Hindu and Muslims women wear `odhnis`. An `odhni` with a yellow background and a ce ntral lotus motif in red called a `pila` is a traditional gift of parent to their daughter on the birth of a son. Today, the traditional costume of the Rajasthani women is almost in a state of transition. The women are opting for new fabrics, designs and accessories. This transition of Rajasthani costumes now

becomes more apparent among the affluent, the educated and those who, through their work or otherwise, have gained exposure to a range of other external influences. Costumes of Royalty in Rajasthan Royal costumes in Rajasthan reflect the regal taste of the state. The rich and luxurious dresses that were created for the royalty were made under the careful attention of special departments that were in charge of royal costume. The `Ranghkhana` and the `Chhapakhana` were departments that took care of dyeing and printing the fabrics respectively. The `siwankhana` ensured faultless and clear tailoring. There were two special sections, namely the `toshakhanand` and the `kapaddwadra`, that took care of the da ily wear and formal costumes of the king. The Rajput kings were quite close to the Mughal court. Cosequently they dressed up in their most colourful and formal best. Richly brocaded material from Banaras and Gujarat, embroidered and woven Kashmiri shawls and delicate cottons from Chanderi and Dhaka were procured at great cost to make the various outfits of the Kings and nobility of Rajasthan. The changes ushered in by modernisation were felt even in the changing costumes of the Rajasthani people. The popular culture that prevails in Rajasthan, the influence of television, cinema, magazines, newspapers and most importantly migration and urbanization have contributed to the modifications in traditional costume. However, traditional garments are still extensively worn in Rajasthan even today and the change has merged harmoniously with tradition, maintaining the spirit of Rajasthani dress. Costumes of Sikkim..... reflect the social and cultural lifestyle of the major communities namely Lepchas, Bhutias and Nepalis. However, in the cities and urbanised sectors of the state, Marwaris, Biharis, Bengalis, South Indians and Punjabis, have settled to conduct business and serve in government services. The original inhabitants of Sikkim, the Lepchas, flaunt themselves in costumes, furnished with resplendent colours. The traditional costume of the Lepcha male is Thokro-Dum which involves a white pajama, stretching only to the calves, Yenthatse, a Lepcha shirt and Shambo, the cap. The texture of the male dress is rough, and long-lasting, suitable for the hardy toil in the field and forest. The hereditary costume of Lepcha women is Dumvum or Dumdyam, a kind of smooth and cosy ankle-long dress, draped like a saree, Tago a loose-fitting comfortable blouse, Nyamrek, a belt and Taro, a cap. The magnificent ornaments exhibited by the Lepcha women, entail, earrings, called Namchok, Lyak a necklace, Gyar, a bracelet, and so on. The Bhutia community, hailing from the adjacent country of Tibet, has over years become rooted in the culture and social norms of Sikkim. The traditional costume of Bhutia males comprises Kho, also known as Bakhu. It is a loose mantle which is tied at the neck on one side, and at the waist region with a silk or cotton belt. Added to this basic garment, a Bhutia man dons Jya Jya, a waist coat, the shirt, called, Yenthatse, shirt, Kera, a clothbelt and Shambo, the cap. A Bhutia woman`s general costume consists of Kho or

Bakhu, Hanju, a silky full-sleeve loose blouse, Kushen, a jacket, a different pattern of the cap, Shambo and Shabchu, the shoe. Pangden, the stripy apron, the signifier of marital status is a symbol of married Bhutia females. The ornaments enhancing the appearance of the Bhutia women are Yencho, the earring, Khao, the necklace, Phiru, the pearl ornament, Diu, the Gold bangle, and Joko, the ring. Bhutia people are obsessed with the pure form of gold, i.e., 24 carats, and have most of their ornaments crafted from pure gold. Nepali, another predominant group of Sikkim, has sustained the ethnicity of their own culture in their costume. The Nepalese men dress themselves in Shurval, a Churidar Pajama, topped off by a shirt, known as Daura. It is associated with Aaskot, wrist coat and their belt, called Patuki. The traditional costume of the Nepali women of Sikkim is endowed with fabulous hues. Pharia, the saree, gorgeous in vibrant shades, definitely augments the grace of the Nepali women. The dressing gets the right finish with a long loose blouse, is fastened from four sides and hence is called Chaubandi Cholo. Another variety in blouse is the Tharo Cholo. The upper portion of the body is daintily enveloped with a piece of cloth with wonderful prints. It is called Hembari. The dance costume of the Nepali women is amazing. Pachauri, a colourful piece of cloth, suspended from the head to the waist, is utilised as adornment during dance performances. The ornaments that give a gaudy appearance to the Nepalese women are Sir-Bandi or tiara, i.e., a jeweled head-ornament, Kantha, a necklace, Naugeri, a pearl-necklace, Charanihari, again a necklace, Tilhari, a green bead with an elongated gold pendant, attired mainly by married women, Bulaki, a nose-ring, Dungri, a nose-pin, Tik-mala, Chandrahar, Chepti son, an ear ring, Gadwari, an earring, a silver Chura, a bracelet, and Kalli, a thick, substantial, silver anklet . The other Marwari, Bihari, Bengali or Punjabi communities cater to their traditional costumes of salwar-kameez dupatta, saree, woolen textiles, and even to Western outfit, like jeans, T-shirts, trousers, anything which suits their taste and preferences. Costumes of Sikkim, reflects in the resplendence of the dress and ornaments of the people, their love for beauty and inventive finesse. Costumes of Tamil Nadu .....for the most part comprise the traditional wears. The women of this state are decked with these traditional sarees that mark them from rest of the communities. The ageless charm of these sarees is the identity of the people of Tamil Nadu. Being the abode of South Indian silk sarees with rich zari work, the costumes reflect the traditions of India and Tamil Nadu itself. India has always been looked at as a land of enigmatic resources and many have staked their lives just to acquire it and call those their own. The distinctness amongst the four corners within the country makes this very factor even more interesting when admired. The South Indian costumes possess a certain aura within

their dress materials, with zari work predominating amongst women and white dhoti amongst men. Costumes of Tamil Nadu absolutely falls within this genre, with women dressing up intricately for any festive occasion and men also are looking towards the similar direction. Costumes of Tamil Nadu dominate with traditionalism speaking out every time for both the sexes. In Tamil Nadu women don the ubiquitous Indian saree and blouse, whereas, men wear `lungi`together with a shirt and `Angavastra.` Saree, the sheer six yards of pure excellence is one such costume that ladies of all ages prefer to don for each special festivity. The traditional Tamil woman chooses to drape her heavy Kanchipuram saree around herself, the lower part of the calf exposed, the extra piece of pallu established thereby wrapped around her waist. What is remarkable about this draping fashion is that a woman wears the most dazzling of Kanchipuram saree in the most informal manner. Sarees have a special place in the costumes of Tamil Nadu, and are an indispensable part of the state`s heritage. Saree is the traditional dress of Indian women and Tamil Nadu women as well. In Tamil Nadu, sarees are available in a variety of materials like cotton, chiffon, crepe silk, organza, silk, georgette, Pattola silk, micro silk, etc. Till a few years ago, the half saree or Pavada besides serving as the traditional dress was also the most admired costume of young girls in Tamil Nadu. Full-length skirt, short blouses and a davani (shawl) successfully completed this dressing style. This traditional pleated dress however has been replaced by salwar kurtas, jeans and trousers. The style, colour and texture of a saree cloth vary and it might be manufactured from cotton, silk or one of the various man-made materials. A Saree from Tamil Nadu possesses an everlasting charm due to it not being cut or tailored for a particular size. Sarees are available in the state in a wide variety of fabrics, ranging from silks, cottons, chiffons to georgettes and crepes. Costumes of Tamil Nadu are although not just restricted to the fairer sex only; men also occupy a considerable position. Men are generally encountered dressed in lungi, together with a shirt and Angavastra. The traditional and tremendously popular lungi originated in the South and it is purely a short length of material worn around the thighs, resembling a sarong. A dhoti is a rather longer lungi, but with an additional length of material hauled up within the legs. The lungi is a rectangular cloth, normally manufactured from cotton, draped around the waist and pleated in front at the groin. The Angavastra is an elongated piece of cloth wrapped around the shoulders. In earlier times it was donned instead of an upper garment, but nowadays men wear an angavastra over a shirt. Costumes of Tripura... the frontier hilly state of the North-East, is the land of skilled weavers, gifted with proper know-how .The women of the local tribes, such as the Khakloo, the Halam, the Lushei and the Kuki-Chin tribe , excel in the art of weaving, as is attested in the diligent traditional costumes, which they diligently preserve. There is a striking resemblance in the traditional costume of the Khakloo and the other fellow tribes. The plain dressing style is apt for the hilly climate, and for regular work. The infants are hardly given clothes except when it becomes essential in the winter and rainy season. The children put on a loincloth. The daily work-costume of a full-grown male is a towel-like sheet of loin cloth, called Rikutu Gamcha , topped off by a self-woven shirt, called Kubai . To combat the blazing heat of the sun and to continue working in the open heat, the men resort to a pagri , i.e., a turban. Western influence is prominently visible on the young boys of today`s Manipur, because they

prefer wearing shirts and pants. The infants are normally kept undressed, although in winter and monsoon season, garments suitably shield them. Children, covers themselves in a loingarment. The Khakloo, and at large the Tripuri women, envelop themselves in a greater size of clothpiece , known as Rinai. This long as well as broad cloth is draped around the waist and reaches the knee. She dons herself in a shorter piece of cloth called Risa. This upper-attire passes under the arms , and conceals the entire chest-region of the body. Risas are often invested with beautiful embroideries. Now-a-days, the younger generation of girls prioritize blouses over Risa, as being more management-friendly. However, still among few clans, the wearing of Risa during wedding is mandatory. Women folk also are found to use some kind of headdresses while at work outside. The neck areas of women are adorned with plethora of beads and coin strands. The element of finery is dim in the costume of the women of the Lushei tribe. Every woman wear a dark blue cotton fabric , to serve as a skirt or petticoat. This cloth, wrapped around the waist, is held firmly by a corset of brass wire or string. The Rinai-like cloth, which falls down to the knees, is associated with an upper-attire; a short white jacket and a cloth to invest in their appearance the sobriety. In the mirthful times of revelry, the female costume, gets an extra item, a dignified headgear, specifically during dance-performance. This headdress is a coronal, made of brass and coloured cane, further embellished with porcupine quills . Moreover, the upper edges of these quills are studded with the green feathers of the parrot`s wings, decorated at their tips , with tussocks of contrasting red wool. The earlier costumes of the Kuki-Chin women had deigns, imitated from the patterns, seen on the hide of snakes . They bore several names, such as Thangang, Saipi -khup, Ponmongvom, and Khamtang. However, these clothes were previously the prerogative of the women of the aristocrat background, like those from the chief`s family and other noble-blood. Indeed, the simplicity yet attractiveness of the traditional costume of Tripura , is attributed to the artistic fervor and weaving-talent of the natives. Costumes of Uttarakhand..... reflect the culture and lifestyle of the ethnic communities, the Garhwalis and the Kumaoni. The graceful Uttarakhand is adjacent to the neighbouring states of Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh. Side by side, many Punjabis, Bengalis, and even Nepalis, from neighbouring Tibet, have settled in the state. The Garhwals residing in the Garhwal hills of Uttaranchal follow a costume-pattern suitable to the climatic conditions of the place they belong to. Wool fetched from goat or sheep is used to manufacture warm costumes, so as to ward off the biting cold in winter season. Ghagri, an oriental long skirt, topped off by a Choli, an Indian blouse and an Orni, a cloth covering the head and the front portion, usually fastened to the waist, happen to be the traditional costume of the ethnic groups, namely, the Garhwalis and the Kumaonis. The

traditional bridal costume of the Kumaoni is Ghaghra-Pichora, akin to Ghaghra LehengaCholi . Pichora is a Kumaoni veil or Rangwali, endowed with gold and silver tatting. But women also go for sarees. The hallmarks of Kumaoni woman are sindoor smeared on the forehead, and an enormous gold ring, called Nath. Further, Chareu, a black beaded necklace is worn by the married woman, is a holy accessory for Garhwali married woman. A luxury ornament item is Hansuli, a kind of necklace, preferred in gold by the rich, and in silver, by the less affluent, or poor. Some of the ethnic groups, drape themselves in mantle-like clothing, called Sarong, girdled by a waistband and completed with a top-blouse. Muslin textiles, specially muslin veils or Rangwalis are assets of Uttaranchal costume designing. They come in auspicious hues of yellow, signifying warmth and cordiality and red, symbolic of the holy bond of marriage. The traditional male costume of Uttaranchal is the loin-cloth Dhoti, or the Lungi, used as the lower-garment. The Uttaranchal man dons himself in Kurta, to serve as the upper-attire. The men love to present themselves with headgear, or turban, a part of their traditional costume. Kurta -Pajamas are another good alternative for men of Uttarakhand. Both women and men wear sweaters or woolen jackets in winter, mainly sleeveless in form. Ethnicity and tradition has very well been maneuvered to be at par with convenience, when it comes to considering the costumes of Uttarakhand.

Costumes of West Bengal.... mirror the state`s multi-ethnic way of life. From the use of traditional fabrics, designs and motifs to the assimilation of western attires and styles within the Bengalis` cultural domain, the apparels of West Bengal display fine works of creativity and sophistication. For the men in West Bengal, the traditional garment is the "dhoti" and the "panjabi". The graceful icon of elegance that symbolises the quintessential Bengali woman is the saree. Indian sarees can be draped in various ways. Dhotis are lengthy pieces of fabric spun in cotton or silk worn by the Hindus. Previously, dhotis were prevalent only in white though at present coloured dhotis are also in vogue. The dhoti is tied at the waist and wrapped around like a loin cloth passing in between the legs. It is suitably matched by a panjabi, worn atop, also made of silk or cotton. The panjabis are loosely fitted garments, reaching close to the knees and are available in a wide variety of colours. The "lungi" is another variation of the dhotis worn by men in West Bengal. It is also wound around the waist and is often plaid. Over the years, the traditional dhoti and panjabi have lost much of their appeal and the `pyajamas` are in vogue. While western attire has overtaken the dhoti`s popularity as regular wear, the combination of dhoti and panjabi is an irreplaceable ingredient during traditional festivals and occasions like the Durga Puja and wedding ceremonies. In the rural areas, though, the dhoti is worn by the men as regular attire. In Bengal, the saree is wrapped around the waist and the remaining portion is swathed over the shoulder. In the olden days, women had to cover their heads with the ends of their saree or "pallu" as a mark of respect for the family elders. However, such conventions have subsided slowly with the passage of time. They are worn with immense dignity and perfection particularly during Social occasions and festivals. Sarees are worn over petticoats or long skirts tied at the waist with cords which help in keeping the saree tightly fastened about the waist. The exquisite beauty of a saree is further enhanced when it is accessorised suitably with a blouse. At present, blouses are available in multitudes of fashionable patterns which when teamed with a saree does wonders to the attire. The salwar kameez dupatta is nowadays in the same way popular among the Bengali women as the sarees. "Salwars" are loosely fitted trousers worn with a "kameez" or long tunic. During wedding ceremonies however, the Bengali women usually resort to the traditional Banarasi sarees in shades of red coupled with a golden veil to cover their heads. Ornamented with glittering stones and detailed thread work, sarees are characteristic of the refined Bengali woman of today. In West Bengal, sarees are primarily woven in cotton and silk. These sarees have been named chiefly after their weaving techniques. The traditional weavers or "tantis" of West Bengal are reputed worldwide because of the quality of fabric spun and their elaborate thread work. In

the various districts of West Bengal like Murshidabad, Malda, Nadia, Birbhum, Bankura andHooghly, different varieties of sarees are woven with supreme efficiency and dedication. Bengal silk is famous for its sophisticated quality and texture. Earlier, the cultivation of mulberry was common in almost every corner of Bengal. However, at present it is concentrated mostly in the districts of Birbhum, Murshidabad and Malda. The town of Baluchar located in Murshidabad is famed for the incredible threadwork on silk called "Baluchari". The Baluchari sarees are noted for their elaborate designing in the pallu and borders with prominent motifs of a specific kind known as "kalka". These motifs are woven with silver zari and often display tales from the Indian Puranas. The kalka motif can be observed in the "Garad" and "Korial" sarees as well, which are variants of the Baluchari and are woven in silk. Jamdani sarees of West Bengal are extremely popular. They are available in a variety of colours and are favoured by the modern Bengali woman because of its light texture. In the district of Nadia, the rural community of Shantipur is well-known for the better quality of "Shantipuri Jamdani" sarees that display delicate thread work. The districts of West Bengal are also home to the very prevalent "Tangail" sarees. The Tangail sarees are characterised by their use of diverse colour patterns which produce a novel effect called "meenakari". Some of the most prevalent motifs used in these sarees are lamp and lotus imageries. Another variation of the Jamdani saree is the "Dhaniakhali Jamdani". It is available in brighter shades and is characterised by extended wide borders, often referred to as "maatha" or "beluaari paar". This variant of Jamdani is affordably priced and hence used commonly by the women in West Bengal. It is interesting to note that the Dhaniakhali Jamdani gained popularity due to their utilisation in dhotis for men. Apart from these traditional handlooms, West Bengal is well -known for its delicate and fine thread work known as "kantha". The kantha embroidery is a supreme work of art and requires utmost concentration and meticulousness. Initially, it referred to the needlework done on coloured patchwork coverlets put together from redundant apparels. These quilts were to serve as covers during the winter. However, now the kantha stitch has been incorporated for use on designing clothing garments like sarees and has gained immense popularity. West Bengal is also home to plenty of tribes who display enormous variety with reference to their costumes. The men of the Magh tribe, for instance, cover their heads with a special form of headgear commonly referred to as "goungpoung" during the festive season. This is accompanied by the "prakha angyi" which is a fitted coat wrapped over the shirt. Body art or tattoos are quite popular among them as well as the Mahli tribesmen of West Bengal. The costumes of West Bengal are suitably accessorised by delicately designed jewellery which is indigenous to its rich culture. Silver and gold along with alloys of zinc and precious stones are mostly used for jewellery production. While traditional designs are still in vogue,

recent trends dictate a preference towards lighter accessories. In weddings, mostly, women adorn their foreheads with a thin string of small gold chain often strewn with pearls and precious stones. This is the "tikli". Gold chokers decorated with gems and diamonds are commonly worn by the women of West Bengal in social ceremonies. The women also embellish themselves with a variety of bangles and bracelets like the "mantasha" and also the "ratanchur". The tribal jewellery of West Bengal has also achieved immense popularity because of its exclusivity. A supreme example here would be the "dokra" artworks. Over the years, different civilisations have left their mark upon the culture of West Bengal which finds its manifestation in the varied costumes and accessories of the people of the State. With the progress of the passage of time, a shift towards western trends has been noticed. Yet, such cross-cultural influences have by no means demeaned the worth of the traditional attires. Costumes of Karnataka.... consist of regal silk sarees, which happen to be the traditional costumes of this place. Karnataka is the silk hub of the country. Karnataka silk has a wide spectrum. It has abundant variety, namely, smooth silks, sleek chiffons, and gorgeous brocades. These saris not only decorate women in the state, but also establish its sway in other parts of the country and in foreign nations. Indeed, Bengaluru and Mysore are the epicenters of silk-industries in South India. The marvelous shine, the super quality thread and the interweaving of gold threads in exclusive creations, attribute to the profound popularity of the sari as the favorite costume. The Kanjeevaram or Kanchipurram silks, of Kanchipuram in Karnataka, dazzle the eye with the rich texture, mind-blowing colours, and fabulous designs. The Kanchipuram Silk Saree is a hand-woven creation. The silk yarn is dyed to bring the desired colour and afterwards Jari is interleaved into the yarn. Pure Jari is a silk thread, intertwined with a thin silver wire and then gilded with pure gold. The Jari adds the element of shimmer in the yarn. The technique of Kanchipuram-making calls for Sarees the conjunction of three threads to concertedly make the silk thread used for weaving. This gives the sari a durable quality. Hence, the outstanding Kanchipuram sarees usually turn out to be the bridal costume of Karnataka. Among the other popular items, Mysore silk, deserve mention. The magnificent mantle, the lustrous zari and the rich silk, make the saree assume an enchanting look. These sarees are less expensive than the queen of silks, Kanchipuram silks. Therefore, its reasonable costs make it more affordable for the ordinary people and, still give them the elegance, they are searching for. Arani Silks, Valkalams, Kora Silks, Patola Sarees, exclusive Designer Mysore Silk Sarees, Crepe Silk Sarees, Chiffon Sarees, and Raw Silk saris can satisfy the aesthetically aware population of Karnataka. Sarees with this impressive variety is thus the traditional costume of Karnataka. The Kornadu sarees are fascinating in their fusion-display of cotton and silk. The saris are woven in a blue cotton yarn together with a silk yarn in other multiple shades. The motifs in the sarees are varied and the body of the sari either bestowed with checks or stripes. These sarees are used as daily comfort wears. The Mysore crepe silk, is apt as costume for office or workplace,

more because of its light-weight, and easier maintenance. It is supple opaque crepe silk complemented with Jari margins. These saris are dyed in spectacular colours after the completion of the weaving. The Ilkal and the Mokalmuru sarees stand as the ethnic motif of Karnataka. It is used for regular wear and tear and also as traditional costume, by a fashionconscious Karnataka lady. Karnataka presents before the world its harmonisation of modernity and tradition. When Bangalore reigns as the Silicon Valley of India, it is evident that women and men will also adhere to the formal office wear, suitable for working environs. Today`s girls might wear Mysore crepe salwars, or Karnataka handloom`s cotton salwar or saree, or even Western jeans and trousers, while going to office. When it comes to considering the office costume of Karnataka men, they wear formal shirts, or T-shirts or trousers, without having the privilege of many options. However, on special occasions, men might dress themselves in ornate versions of their traditional costume, the Panche, which isDhoti-like apparel. In recent times, only the rustic men of Karnataka stick to Panche, as their everyday costume. Mysore Peta is the traditional headdress for Karnataka. The magic wand of technology has cast its spell on Karnataka. But surprisingly enough, the demand for the traditional costume of Karnataka, especially those of women, has not declined, but is on the rise with the passage of time. Recent technological improvement rather has set the textile industry of Karnataka on a boom. This state has established an ideal example of blending present priorities with tradition, to achieve the best of costumes. Costumes of Kerala..... evidence the innate simplicity of the lifestyle of the Malayali people. The people from `God`s own country`, both men and women, are mostly seen dressed in offwhite and white attires. The principal dress which the people of Kerala wear is largely traditional in nature. The traditional form of dress worn by the Keralites is Mundu and Neriyathu (a piece of white cloth having borders of golden zari symbolising royalty) for both men and women. The women also wear `sari` (a five to six meter long cloth which is embroidered with golden border) and jacket. Costume Worn By Women of Kerala The traditional garment worn by the women of Kerala is the `mundum neriyathum.` The conventional piece is the `mundu` which is the lower garment and it consists of two cloth pieces. The `mundu` is worn around the hips and beneath t he navel. This hand-woven cloth made of cotton, is very comfortable to wear in the summer season. The cloth is creamy or white in colour and possesses a coloured strip called border or `kara`. The women of Kerala wear mundu in this way except for the women of Christian origin. For them, the `mundu` is folded up in multiple folds and this part is hung at the back. Over the `mundu`, women take on a special type of blouse, covering the navel. The `neriyathu` is the name of the upper garment which is put over the blouse having one of its ends inserted in the mundu and the other long end worn over the front torso. This is worn in a diagonal way, from the right hips to the left shoulder looking like a sari. Both the `neriyathu` and `mundu` is stiffened and then worn with a blouse matching the border or Kara`s colour. This costume is worn every day and in the festive seasons people wear the same but with an ornamental `kara` or a border which is either copper coated, golden or artificial colored with temple or peacock design. The colour of the blouse is decided by the marital status and age of the women. Unmarried young Keralite girls take on green blouse whereas the married ones wear red blouse. At the time of the celebration of the famous festival of Onam, women belonging to different age groups wear it and participate in the folk

dance known as `Kaikotti Kali Dance`. The women belonging to the Muslim community in Kerala, more particularly in the northern and central regions of Kerala, take on a long dark black or blue garment along with purdah and also cover up their abundant and long hair with beautiful kerchief. The `mundum neriyathum` was the traditional costume of the people of Kerala. But today, it has become an old fashion and is mostly worn by the old women of the state. Nowadays, it is being taken over by the `set-sari` which has become the dress of the Keralite women as a quasi `mundum neriyathum` and today as the `Kerala sari`. Nowadays, they are mostly seen attired in sari and blouse. Costume Worn By Men of Kerala The men are more conservative than the women. In keeping with the old tradition of Kerala they wear white, which was once universal for both sexes. Their main garment is the long cloth called mundu, which is tucked at the waist and reaches to the ankle, giving its wearer a peculiar mincing walk, unless, to stride more freely, he kilts it to the knees. Many men wear no garment above the waist, but those who belong to the higher castes at least drape a towel like cloth over the shoulders, and if they consider themselves modern they wear shirts which, like the mundu, are always washed to a dazzling whiteness. This garb is worn by men of all religions and all classes, except for the small westernized minority who have gone over to bush shirt and cotton slacks. The poor people of Kerala live simply from necessity, but their wealthier compatriots make simplicity a cult, so that among Malayalis one rarely sees the ostentation which in northern India is almost regarded as a duty of the rich. The local traditions set a value on eating sparingly and doing without elaborate furniture; one may wear fine rather than coarse cotton, but one does not wear silk. The traditional wear of the Hindu men residing in the state of Kerala is Kasavu Mundu. This dress is very much popular in the rural or remote areas. This attire is a piece of cloth made of cotton, three to four meter long having a silk border. Lungy or Kaily acts as an informal dress for Keralite men. But while moving out of their house, these men take on a shirt and mundu as well as a neriyathu over their shoulder and apply a paste of sandal on their chest and brows which provides them a much dignified appearance and a royal look. The Keralite Muslims wear the same but they just wear an additional cap over their head. The Muslim style of wearing mundu is somewhat dissimilar to that of the Christian and Hindu Keralites. Daily wear of the people of Kerala The daily use garments for the people of Kerala are saris and churidar or salwar-kameez for women and for men, trousers and shirts. The western type of dressing is also well-known among the generation of the young. With continuous change in designing and fashion, the dress codes of the Keralites have changed considerably. The traditional form of dressing is reserved for special occassions and the women and men of today`s Kerala are seen wearing a range of dresses. The people of this state have accepted the northern mode of dressing with men wearing trousers and tea-shirts which is a comfortable item for travel and their female counterparts have accepted the churidhar of north Indian style.

Costumes of Punjab.... are indicative of the bright and vibrant culture and lifestyle of the people. The costumes are a mix of colour, comfort and beauty. It may be noted here that the state of Punjab is well known for the use of phulkari in its costumes. It is a kind of flower work embroidery done most often on shawls. These shawls are worn over a tight -fitting choli and ghagra. Phulkari forms the traditional costume of rural women of this region. In earlier days, Phulkaris were made for everyday wear. Usually the border and field of the shawl were not so densely embroidered, with much of the ground cloth exposed. For ceremonial purposes, a special kind of phulkari known as "bagh" (garden) was made in which the whole of the ground was covered with embroidery, so that the base cloth was not visible at all. Costume worn by Punjabi Women A popular, comfortable and convenient dress worn by the women of Punjab is the churidar kurta. This was traditionally the dress worn in Punjab, but is now worn almost everywhere, particularly among the younger generations. Punjabi girls and women also wear salwar kameez`s with bright colored duppattas. A salwar kameez has two pieces of clothes- the kameez, or shirt or top piece; and the salwar, (pants) or bottom piece. A duppatta is a piece of colorful cloth that women wear around their necks. Salwar kameez`s and duppattas come in a variety of colors and designs. Punjabi girls and women wear salwar kameez`s with bright colored duppattas. The women can also be seen wearing shawls adorned with the beautiful phulkari shawls. The shawl is completely covered in thick silk embroidery and folk motifs done in jewel-tones on an ochre background. Accessories worn by Punjabi Women Punjabi women can be seen bedecked in gold. They adorn themselves with necklaces, bangles, rings, nose-pins, earrings, toe-rings, anklets and ornaments to pin up the hair with. Sikh women and men are seen wearing the kada, a steel bangle, at all times.

After adolescence, and almost certainly after marriage, women are expected to wear traditional Indian clothing. However it may be mentioned here that this trend is rapidly changing and women can be seen wearing a variety of western wear. Jeans, Jackets, Trousers, Skirt and other form of western outfits are worn by the women of Punjab today. Costume worn by Punjabi Men The traditional costume of the men of Punjab comprises a kurta pyjama. The kurta is a kind of loose shirt which is long and straight-cut. The pyjamas are loose, baggy pants which are tied at the waist. Some men also wear the kurta with the loongi or tehmat, which is a kind of sarong. During winters they can be seen wearing bright colourful sweaters. Some of the boys and even the brown up men can be seen wearing loose pants or slacks with a collared shirt or t-shirt. The Sikhs among the Punjabis can be distinctly identified by their attire as they are obliged by religion to wear turbans known as `puggs`.

Traditional Punjabi shoes, called juttis are extremely popular with men in both the rural and urban areas. They are extremely comfortable and also look very elegant. The modern urban Punjabi men have also adopted the western style of dressing and are equally at ease in a pair of jeans and t-shirt as they are in the loongi and kurta. For the purposes of formal wear, Punjabi men can be seen wearing shirts and trousers. Thus the costumes of Punjab can be best seen in all their beauty and resplendent colours in the state of Punjab, especially in the rural areas.

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